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Sample records for ampicillin-resistant enterococcus faecium

  1. Emergence of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Camilla H; Sandvang, Dorthe; Olsen, Stefan;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates are reported in increasing numbers in many European hospitals. The clonal complex 17 (CC17) characterized by ampicillin resistance has been associated with nosocomial E. faecium outbreaks and infections in five continents. The aim...... in the number of infections caused by enterococci was observed from 2002 through 2006. The increase was mainly caused by E. faecium isolates, which tripled, whereas the number of E. faecalis isolates increased by only 23% during the same period. There was also a significant increase in the number of ampicillin...

  2. Dogs are a reservoir of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium lineages associated with human infections

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    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Top, Janetta; Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.;

    2009-01-01

    complex 17 (CC17), including those of sequence types ST-78 and ST-192, which are widespread in European and Asian hospitals. Longitudinal screening of 18 healthy humans living in contact with 13 of the dogs under study resulted in the identification of a single, intermittent CC17 carrier. This person...... generally differed from those previously described for clinical human isolates. The results indicate that dogs are frequent carriers of CC17-related lineages and may play a role in the spread of this nosocomial pathogen. The distinctive virulence and antimicrobial resistance profiles observed among canine......Ampicillin resistance is a marker for hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium. Feces from 208 dogs were selectively screened for the occurrence of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREF). AREF was detected in 42 (23%) of 183 dogs screened in a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom and in 19...

  3. High-density fecal Enterococcus faecium colonization in hospitalized patients is associated with the presence of the polyclonal subcluster CC17

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, P.; de Regt, M.; Bonten, M.; Baquero, F.; Coque, T. M.; Canton, R.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium belonging to the polyclonal subcluster CC17, with a typical ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREfm) phenotype, have become prevalent among nosocomial infections around the world. High-density intestinal AREfm colonization could be one of the factors contributing to the successfu

  4. Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium Core Genomes and PBP5: Evidences of pbp5 Horizontal Transfer

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    Novais, Carla; Tedim, Ana P.; Lanza, Val F.; Freitas, Ana R.; Silveira, Eduarda; Escada, Ricardo; Roberts, Adam P.; Al-Haroni, Mohammed; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18, and ST78) in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works) with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E. faecium isolates of different phylogenomic groups as well as to assess the pbp5 transferability among isolates of disparate clonal lineages. The analyses of 78 selected E. faecium strains as well as published E. faecium genomes, suggested that the diversity of pbp5 mirrors the phylogenomic diversification of E. faecium. The presence of identical PBP5 C-types as well as similar pbp5 genetic environments in different E. faecium lineages and clones from quite different geographical and environmental origin was also documented and would indicate their horizontal gene transfer among E. faecium populations. This was supported by experimental assays showing transfer of large (≈180–280 kb) chromosomal genetic platforms containing pbp5 alleles, ponA (transglycosilase) and other metabolic and adaptive features, from E. faecium donor isolates to suitable E. faecium recipient strains. Mutation profile analysis of PBP5 from available genomes and strains from this study suggests that the spread of PBP5 C-types might have occurred even in the absence of a significant ampicillin resistance phenotype. In summary, genetic platforms containing pbp5 sequences were stably maintained in particular E. faecium lineages, but were also able to be transferred among E. faecium clones of different origins, emphasizing the growing risk of further spread of ampicillin resistance in this nosocomial pathogen. PMID

  5. Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 is widespread in healthy dogs: anthropozoonosis or zooanthroponosis?

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    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Williams, Nicola J; Willems, Rob;

    2008-01-01

    -locus variant ST192 are among the most common STs in European hospitals. ST78 was isolated from a dog and 10-year old boy living in the same household, suggesting possible transmission between dogs and humans living in close contact. Resistance to erythromycin (97%), ciprofloxacin (95%), tetracycline (83...... to the spread of this AREfm genetic lineage in the human population. The unexpected and widespread occurrence of hospital-adapted clones in dogs raises an important question concerning the evolution of this clonal complex: does CC17 originate from humans (anthropozoonosis) or from dogs (zooanthroponosis......). In this study, we investigated the occurrence of AREfm CC17 in faecal samples collected from healthy dogs in Denmark and in England. Methods: 210 healthy dogs were screened for the occurrence of AREfm using a selective isolation procedure, i.e. plating on Slanetz Bartley agar containing 32 µg/ml ampicillin...

  6. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from wild flowers.

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    Sánchez Valenzuela, Antonio; Benomar, Nabil; Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Martínez Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Wild flowers in the South of Spain were screened for Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Enterococci were frequently associated with prickypear and fieldpoppy flowers. Forty-six isolates, from 8 different flower species, were identified as E. faecalis (28 isolates) or E. faecium (18 isolates) and clustered in well-defined groups by ERIC-PCR fingerprinting. A high incidence of antibiotic resistance was detected among the E. faecalis isolates, especially to quinupristin/dalfopristin (75%), rifampicin (68%) and ciprofloxacin (57%), and to a lesser extent to levofloxacin (35.7%), erythromycin (28.5%), tetracycline (3.5%), chloramphenicol (3.5%) and streptomycin (3.5%). Similar results were observed for E. faecium isolates, except for a higher incidence of resistance to tetracycline (17%) and lower to erythromycin (11%) or quinupristin/dalfopristin (22%). Vancomycin or teicoplanin resistances were not detected. Most isolates (especially E. faecalis) were proteolytic and carried the gelatinase gene gelE. Genes encoding other potential virulence factors (ace, efaA (fs), ccf and cpd) were frequently detected. Cytolysin genes were mainly detected in a few haemolytic E. faecium isolates, three of which also carried the collagen adhesin acm gene. Hyaluronidase gene (hyl ( Efm )) was detected in two isolates. Many isolates produced bacteriocins and carried genes for enterocins A, B, and L50 mainly. The similarities found between enterococci from wild flowers and those from animal and food sources raise new questions about the puzzling lifestyle of these commensals and opportunistic pathogens. PMID:22183298

  7. Enterococcus faecium small colony variant endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient

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    S. Hernández Egido

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small colony variants (SCV are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. Enterococcus faecalis SCV have been seldom described, and only one case of Enterococcus faecium SCV has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. Here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by SCV E. faecium in an immunocompetent patient.

  8. Enterococcus faecium small colony variant endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient.

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    Egido, S Hernández; Ruiz, M Siller; Inés Revuelta, S; García, I García; Bellido, J L Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Small colony variants (SCV) are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. Enterococcus faecalis SCV have been seldom described, and only one case of Enterococcus faecium SCV has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. Here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by SCV E. faecium in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:26862434

  9. Draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecium strain LMG 8148.

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    Michiels, Joran E; Van den Bergh, Bram; Fauvart, Maarten; Michiels, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, traditionally considered a harmless gut commensal, is emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen showing increasing rates of multidrug resistance. We report the draft genome sequence of E. faecium strain LMG 8148, isolated in 1968 from a human in Gothenburg, Sweden. The draft genome has a total length of 2,697,490 bp, a GC-content of 38.3 %, and 2,402 predicted protein-coding sequences. The isolation of this strain predates the emergence of E. faecium as a nosocomial pathogen. Consequently, its genome can be useful in comparative genomic studies investigating the evolution of E. faecium as a pathogen. PMID:27610213

  10. SNP diversity of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in a South East Queensland waterway, Australia, and associated antibiotic resistance gene profiles

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    Huygens Flavia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are associated with faecal pollution of water, linked to swimmer-associated gastroenteritis and demonstrate a wide range of antibiotic resistance. The Coomera River is a main water source for the Pimpama-Coomera watershed and is located in South East Queensland, Australia, which is used intensively for agriculture and recreational purposes. This study investigated the diversity of E. faecalis and E. faecium using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and associated antibiotic resistance profiles. Results Total enterococcal counts (cfu/ml for three/six sampling sites were above the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA recommended level during rainfall periods and fall into categories B and C of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines (with a 1-10% gastrointestinal illness risk. E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were grouped into 29 and 23 SNP profiles (validated by MLST analysis respectively. This study showed the high diversity of E. faecalis and E. faecium over a period of two years and both human-related and human-specific SNP profiles were identified. 81.8% of E. faecalis and 70.21% of E. faecium SNP profiles were associated with genotypic and phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Gentamicin resistance was higher in E. faecalis (47% resistant and harboured the aac(6'-aph(2' gene. Ciprofloxacin resistance was more common in E. faecium (12.7% resistant and gyrA gene mutations were detected in these isolates. Tetracycline resistance was less common in both species while tet(L and tet(M genes were more prevalent. Ampicillin resistance was only found in E. faecium isolates with mutations in the pbp5 gene. Vancomycin resistance was not detected in any of the isolates. We found that antibiotic resistance profiles further sub-divided the SNP profiles of both E. faecalis and E. faecium. Conclusions The distribution of E. faecalis and

  11. Growth condition-dependent cell surface proteome analysis of Enterococcus faecium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnige, Jan C; de Been, Mark; Zhou, Miaomiao; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Top, Janetta

    2015-01-01

    The last 30 years Enterococcus faecium has become an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitals worldwide. The aim of this study was to obtain insight in the cell surface proteome of E. faecium when grown in laboratory and clinically relevant conditions. Enterococcus faecium E1162, a clinical blood

  12. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

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    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  13. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes offers adequate detection of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in clinical samples

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    Waar, K; Degener, JE; van Luyn, MJ; Harmsen, HJM

    2005-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are among the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. Reliable and quick identification of E faecalis and E faecium is important for accurate treatment and understanding their role in the pathogenesis of infections. Fluorescent in situ hybridiza

  14. Mature biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are highly resistant to antibiotics.

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    Holmberg, Anna; Rasmussen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are important nosocomial pathogens that form biofilms on implanted materials. We compare the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria in new (established during 24 hours) and mature (established during 120 hours) enterococcal biofilms. Mature biofilms contained more bacteria and were much more tolerant to antibiotics, including rifampicin-containing combinations, as judged by determination of minimal biofilm eradication concentrations and by time-kill experiments of bacteria in biofilms formed on beads of bone cement.

  15. Enterococcus faecium AND Enterococcus faecalis IN BLOOD OF NEWBORNS WITH SUSPECTED NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION

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    Isabela Furtado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci saprophyte of the human gastrointestinal tract, diners who act as opportunistic pathogens. They can cause infections in patients hospitalized for a long time or who have received multiple antibiotic therapy. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the most common species in human infections. To evaluate the possibility of rapid detection of these species and their occurrence in the blood of newborns with suspected nosocomial infection, blood samples were collected from 50 newborns with late infections, admitted to the Neonatal Care Unit of the University Hospital Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS-HU, from September 2010 to January 2011. The samples were subjected to conventional PCR and real time PCR (qPCR to search for Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. The PCR results were compared with respective blood cultures from 40 patients. No blood cultures were positive for Enterococci, however, eight blood samples were identified as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecium by qPCR and 22 blood samples were detected as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecalis by conventional PCR. These findings are important because of the clinical severity of the evaluated patients who were found positive by conventional PCR and not through routine microbiological methods.

  16. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in blood of newborns with suspected nosocomial infection.

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    Furtado, Isabela; Xavier, Paula Cristhina Niz; Tavares, Luciana Venhofen Martinelli; Alves, Fabiana; Martins, Sarah Fonseca; Martins, Almir de Sousa; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci saprophyte of the human gastrointestinal tract, diners who act as opportunistic pathogens. They can cause infections in patients hospitalized for a long time or who have received multiple antibiotic therapy. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the most common species in human infections. To evaluate the possibility of rapid detection of these species and their occurrence in the blood of newborns with suspected nosocomial infection, blood samples were collected from 50 newborns with late infections, admitted to the Neonatal Care Unit of the University Hospital Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS-HU), from September 2010 to January 2011. The samples were subjected to conventional PCR and real time PCR (qPCR) to search for Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. The PCR results were compared with respective blood cultures from 40 patients. No blood cultures were positive for Enterococci, however, eight blood samples were identified as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecium by qPCR and 22 blood samples were detected as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecalis by conventional PCR. These findings are important because of the clinical severity of the evaluated patients who were found positive by conventional PCR and not through routine microbiological methods.

  17. Antibiotic resistance of hospital strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium

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    Mirović Veljko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the resistance of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, gentamicin (high level, streptomycin (high level, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and nitrofurantoin from clinical specimens during 1999. The resistance of enterococci to antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion and dilution methods according to the American National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. The production of β-lactamase was determined by nitrocefin disks. In E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates (n=111 and n=48 the frequency of the resistance to both penicillins was 0.9% and 89.6%, respectively. All enterococci isolates were β-lactamase negative. Only one strain of E. faecium was vancomycin resistant (Van A fenotype. Among E. faecalis isolates (n=109 high level gentamicin resistance (HLGR, high level streptomycin resistance (HLSR, and resistance to both agents was 52.3%, 50.4%, and 43.7%, respectively. Among E. faecium isolates (n=48 HLGR, HLSR, and to both agents were 68.7%, 75%, and 62.5% respectively. The majority of E. faecium isolates were resistant to both penicillin and ampicillin. E. faecalis remained susceptible to penicillins. Moreover, there was a very high incidence of enterococci resistant to high level aminoglycosides.

  18. Enterococcus faecium strains characterization through polymorphism study of VNTR loci

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    Belteghi, C.,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are commensally bacteria of the gastrointestinal and female genital tract in humans and some mammals and birds, and one of the significant causes of hospital-acquired infections, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Genetic fingerprinting (DNA fingerprinting is a tool for identifying, marking and prevention of infectious agents dissemination. SSR (short sequence repeat are known to suffer frequent variations in the number of repetitive units.MLVA (multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis is a variant of genetic fingerprinting, in epidemiological studies on the pathogenetic Enterococcus faecium. Our study included laboratory Enterococcus faecium strains or isolated from clinical cases or from the environment (2003-2008. All analyzed strains of Enterococcus faecium were sensitive to vancomycin, except BM4147, and resistant to oxacilin. Strains isolated from the birds’ samples have shown a smaller resistance profile than those of human origin. 33 Enterococus faecium strains were analyzed by PCR amplification. 27 MT (VNTR profiles were obtained: six in the case of the strains isolated from birds, 15 in the case of the strains isolated form humans, 4 in the case of the collection strains and 2 in the case of the strains isolated from water samples. Among the strains isolated from humans and those isolated from animals, identical profiles were not recorded. Within the strains isolated from clinical cases, and those isolated from birds, circulating genotypes were noted, which can be considered as epidemical. The strains used as probiotics proved to be different from those circulating in birds. All MLVA profiles codes compared with those published on line in the UMC Utrecht database proved to be different. Results obtained in this study support the usefulness of the polymorphic VNTR analysis, as genetic marker, inepidemiological investigations.

  19. Presence of virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium susceptible and resistant to vancomycin

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    Carolina Baldisserotto Comerlato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing importance of Enterococcus as opportunistic pathogens, their virulence factors are still poorly understood. This study determines the frequency of virulence factors in clinical and commensal Enterococcus isolates from inpatients in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Fifty Enterococcus isolates were analysed and the presence of the gelE, asa1 and esp genes was determined. Gelatinase activity and biofilm formation were also tested. The clonal relationships among the isolates were evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The asa1, gelE and esp genes were identified in 38%, 60% and 76% of all isolates, respectively. The first two genes were more prevalent in Enterococcus faecalis than in Enterococcus faecium, as was biofilm formation, which was associated with gelE and asa1 genes, but not with the esp gene. The presence of gelE and the activity of gelatinase were not fully concordant. No relationship was observed among any virulence factors and specific subclones of E. faecalis or E. faecium resistant to vancomycin. In conclusion, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates showed significantly different patterns of virulence determinants. Neither the source of isolation nor the clonal relationship or vancomycin resistance influenced their distribution.

  20. Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization Dynamics by Different Enterococcus faecium Clades.

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    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-06-15

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) generally precedes infection with antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium We used a mouse GIT colonization model to test differences in the colonization levels by strains from different E. faecium lineages: clade B, part of the healthy human microbiota; subclade A1, associated with infections; and subclade A2, primarily associated with animals. After mono-inoculation, there was no significant difference in colonization (measured as the geometric mean number of colony-forming units per gram) by the E. faecium clades at any time point (P > .05). However, in competition assays, with 6 of the 7 pairs, clade B strains outcompeted clade A strains in their ability to persist in the GIT; this difference was significant in some pairs by day 2 and in all pairs by day 14 (P < .0008-.0283). This observation may explain the predominance of clade B in the community and why antibiotic-resistant hospital-associated E. faecium are often replaced by clade B strains once patients leave the hospital. PMID:26671890

  1. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: report of two cases.

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    Ahuja, S; Pandey, A; Asthana, A K; Chauhan, K; Madan, M

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), especially Enterococcus faecium has emerged as an important nososcomial pathogen and represents a serious threat to patients with impaired host defense. Early detection of patients colonised or infected with VRE is an essential component of any hospital program designed to prevent nosocomial transmission of this organism. The authors report two cases of VRE isolated from blood and surgical site pus of two neonates admitted in the same neonatal unit, highlighting that early detection, prompt and appropriate infection control measures were keys to successful containment of this dreaded pathogen.

  2. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: Report of two cases

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    S Ahuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE, especially Enterococcus faecium has emerged as an important nososcomial pathogen and represents a serious threat to patients with impaired host defense. Early detection of patients colonised or infected with VRE is an essential component of any hospital program designed to prevent nosocomial transmission of this organism. The authors report two cases of VRE isolated from blood and surgical site pus of two neonates admitted in the same neonatal unit, highlighting that early detection, prompt and appropriate infection control measures were keys to successful containment of this dreaded pathogen.

  3. Incidence of high-level evernimicin resistance in Enterococcus faecium among food animals and humans

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    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; McNicholas, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    Six high-level evernimicin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates were identified among 304 avilarnycin-resistant E. faecium isolates from animals and 404 stool samples from humans with diarrhea. All four animal isolates, and one of the human isolates, were able to transfer resistance to a susce......Six high-level evernimicin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates were identified among 304 avilarnycin-resistant E. faecium isolates from animals and 404 stool samples from humans with diarrhea. All four animal isolates, and one of the human isolates, were able to transfer resistance...

  4. Isolation of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium from food

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    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Madsen, Mogens; Nielsen, Niels;

    1997-01-01

    In a survey of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in Danish meat products, VREF could be detected in 16% of 160 samples of broilers collected at slaughterhouses and in 15% of 26 samples of pork collected from the retail trade. VREF were isolated by enrichment for 24 h in nutrient...... broth supplemented with vancomycin (50 mu g/ml) prior to plating on Slanetz and Bartley agar. Using direct plating on Slanetz and Bartley agar, VREF could be isolated from only 1.7% of 540 samples of broilers from slaughterhouses and 2.2% of 90 samples of broilers from retail outlets. VREF...... was not detected in 124 samples of pork and 128 samples of beef from retail outlets by the direct plating method. An additional enrichment step in nutrient broth supplemented with vancomycin enhanced the detection rate of VREF by approximately three times compared to the direct plating method when investigating...

  5. Linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolated in Ontario, Canada.

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    Patel, Samir N; Memari, Nader; Shahinas, Dea; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have described linezolid-resistant MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) occurring worldwide, including an outbreak of linezolid-resistant MRSA. The objective of this study was to determine if linezolid-resistant enterococci are present in clinical isolates in Ontario, Canada. From January 2010 to June 2012, all enterococcal isolates submitted to the Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for confirmation of VRE and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Of 2829 enterococcal isolates tested, 12 Enterococcus faecium were found to be resistant to linezolid. All linezolid-resistant isolates were also resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin. In addition, 33% of isolates were non-susceptible to daptomycin, whereas 41% were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Molecular characterization of these isolates showed that 8/12 isolates (66.7%) contained the mutation G2576T in 23S rRNA, which has been associated with linezolid resistance. Amplification and sequencing of L3- and L4-coding genes did not reveal mutations associated with linezolid resistance. One isolate contained the cfr gene, which is associated with linezolid resistance, and has been found in staphylococcal species and E. faecalis. These data show that occurrence of linezolid resistance is still rare among enterococcal isolates referred to PHOL though detection of cfr in E. faecium is concerning as it has the potential to disseminate among other enterococci.

  6. Linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolated in Ontario, Canada.

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    Patel, Samir N; Memari, Nader; Shahinas, Dea; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have described linezolid-resistant MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) occurring worldwide, including an outbreak of linezolid-resistant MRSA. The objective of this study was to determine if linezolid-resistant enterococci are present in clinical isolates in Ontario, Canada. From January 2010 to June 2012, all enterococcal isolates submitted to the Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for confirmation of VRE and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Of 2829 enterococcal isolates tested, 12 Enterococcus faecium were found to be resistant to linezolid. All linezolid-resistant isolates were also resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin. In addition, 33% of isolates were non-susceptible to daptomycin, whereas 41% were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Molecular characterization of these isolates showed that 8/12 isolates (66.7%) contained the mutation G2576T in 23S rRNA, which has been associated with linezolid resistance. Amplification and sequencing of L3- and L4-coding genes did not reveal mutations associated with linezolid resistance. One isolate contained the cfr gene, which is associated with linezolid resistance, and has been found in staphylococcal species and E. faecalis. These data show that occurrence of linezolid resistance is still rare among enterococcal isolates referred to PHOL though detection of cfr in E. faecium is concerning as it has the potential to disseminate among other enterococci. PMID:24095643

  7. Incidence of virulence determinants in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates collected in Bulgaria

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    Tanya Strateva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of some virulence genes among 510 clinical Enterococcus spp. isolates and to assess the association of those genes with the species, infection site, and patient group (inpatients/outpatients. Methods Adhesins genes (aggregation substances agg and asa1 of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively, enterococcal surface protein (esp, endocarditis-specific antigen A (efaA, collagen-binding proteins (ace/acm; invasins (hyaluronidase (hyl and gelatinase (gelE; cytotoxines (activation of cytolysin (cylA in E. faecalis; and modulators of the host immunity and inflammation (enhanced expression pheromone (eep in E. faecalis were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results The overall prevalence was: esp – 44.3%, agg/asa1 – 38.4%, ace/acm – 64.3%, efaA – 85.9%, eep – 69.4%, gelE – 64.3%, hyl – 25.1%, and cylA – 47.1%. E. faecalis isolates had significantly higher frequency of adhesin genes (esp and agg/asa1 and gelatinase in comparison to E. faecium. Multiple virulence genes in E. faecalis were significantly more prevalent than in E. faecium isolates. Domination of E. faecium with or without only one gene compared to the isolates of E. faecalis were found. Enterococcus spp. isolates obtained from outpatients compared to inpatients isolates had significantly higher frequency of agg/asa1, eep, gelE and cylA. Some adhesins genes (esp, agg/asa1 and efaA had higher prevalence among the non-invasive Enterococcus spp. isolates compared to those causing invasive bacteremia, while ace/acm revealed higher dissemination in isolates causing invasive infections compared to non-invasive isolates. Conclusion Most E. faecalis attaches to abiotic surfaces in hospital environment, which correlates with higher prevalence of gene encoding for virulence factors involved in biofilm formation, such as enterococcal surface protein, aggregation substance, and gelatinase. The intestinal tract is an

  8. Surotomycin demonstrates low in vitro frequency of resistance and rapid bactericidal activity in Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium.

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    Mascio, Carmela T M; Chesnel, Laurent; Thorne, Grace; Silverman, Jared A

    2014-07-01

    Surotomycin (CB-183,315) is an orally administered, minimally absorbed, selective bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide in phase 3 development for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the emergence of resistance in C. difficile (ATCC 700057 and three recent clinical isolates from the restriction endonuclease analysis groups BI, BK, and K), vancomycin-susceptible (VS) Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 49452), vancomycin-resistant (VR) E. faecalis (ATCC 700802), VS Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 6569), and VR E. faecium (ATCC 51559) under anaerobic conditions. The rate of spontaneous resistance was below the limit of detection (Enterococcus (VSE), and VR Enterococcus (VRE), except for C. difficile BK (2.6-log-unit reductions for both). These results suggest that emergence of resistance to surotomycin against C. difficile, E. faecalis, and E. faecium is likely to be rare.

  9. Incidence of High-Level Evernimicin Resistance in Enterococcus faecium among Food Animals and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; McNicholas, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    Six high-level evernimicin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates were identified among 304 avilamycin-resistant E. faecium isolates from animals and 404 stool samples from humans with diarrhea. All four animal isolates, and one of the human isolates, were able to transfer resistance to a susceptible E. faecium strain. The resulting transconjugants all tested positive for the presence of emtA, a gene encoding a methyltransferase previously linked with high-level evernimicin resistance. The f...

  10. Streptogramin resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolated from production animals in Denmark in 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Bager, Flemming;

    2002-01-01

    The genetic background for streptogramin resistance was examined in Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs (n = 55) and broilers (n = 207) in 1997 in Denmark. Fifty-one percent and 67%, respectively, of the isolates were resistant to streptogramins. Among streptogramin-resistant E. faecium (SREF...

  11. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for High-resolution Typing of Enterococcus faecium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Been, Mark; Pinholt, Mette; Top, Janetta;

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, a common inhabitant of the human gut, has emerged as an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen in the last two decades. Since the start of the 21(st) century, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) has been used to study the molecular epidemiology of E. faecium. However...

  12. Failure of vancomycin treatment for meningitis caused by vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overbeek, Ellen C.; Janknegt, Rob; Ter Berg, Hans W. M.; Top, Janetta; Sportel, Esther; Heddema, Edou R.

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a nosocomial vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium meningitis with poor response to vancomycin. E. faecium infections continue to represent a therapeutic challenge in Europe, even in countries where vancomycin resistance is still rare. In the case of vancomycin-sensiti

  13. Mutant prevention concentrations of daptomycin for Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinel, Clara; Jaussaud, Clara; Auzou, Michel; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Cattoir, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    Owing to the emergence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, treatment of enterococcal infections has become challenging. Although spontaneous in vitro resistance frequencies are low, the emergence of resistance is increasingly reported during daptomycin therapy. The mutant selection window (MSW), comprised between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC), corresponds to the concentration range within which resistant mutants may be selected. Since no data are available for enterococci, the aim of this study was to determine MPCs and MSWs for 12 representative E. faecium clinical isolates. MICs and MPCs were determined by broth microdilution and agar dilution methods, respectively. A basic MSW-derived pharmacodynamic analysis was also performed using mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values obtained with dosages from 4 to 12 mg/kg. MICs and MPCs of daptomycin ranged from 0.5 to 4 mg/L and from 2 to 32 mg/L, respectively, with no correlation between them. The wideness of MSWs ranged from 2× to 32× MIC. Mean plasma Cmax values of daptomycin were calculated from 55 to 174.5 mg/L when using a dosage from 4 to 12 mg/kg. All Cmax values were above the MPCs whatever the dosage. Taking into account the protein binding of daptomycin (ca. 90%), the unbound fraction Cmax was just within the MSW in 67-92% of strains at recommended dosages (4-6 mg/kg) and was above the MPC for the majority of strains only with the highest dosage (12 mg/kg). This study shows that free daptomycin Cmax values usually fell into MSWs when using lower dosages (<10 mg/kg).

  14. Selection of potential probiotic Enterococcus faecium isolated from Portuguese fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana; Borges, Sandra; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-11-17

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. In addition to efaAfm gene, commonly found in E. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. All of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °C. E. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the target bacteria investigated. E. faecium 85 and 101 inhibited Listeria innocua and E. faecium DSMZ 13590. The strain E. faecium 120 inhibited seven target bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 7946, L. monocytogenes 7947, L. innocua 2030c, L. innocua NCTC 11286, E. faecium DSMZ 13590, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and was chosen as the representative to assess the ability to survive gastrointestinal tract passage simulation, as well as the protective role of two food matrices (skim milk and Alheira) during its passage. For both matrices used, no significant differences (pdetection limit of the enumeration technique by the end of the two digestions, in contrast to the Alheira matrix, for which isolate 120 showed a reduction of only ca. 1 log CFU/ml. The E. faecium strain 120 was shown to be a potential candidate for further investigations as a potential probiotic culture.

  15. Algorithm for pre-emptive glycopeptide treatment in patients with haematologic malignancies and an Enterococcus faecium bloodstream infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xuewei; Arends, Jan P; Span, Lambert Fr; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nowadays Enterococcus faecium has become one of the most emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors in haematology patients who are at risk of an Enterococcus faecium bloodstream infection (BSI) and should be considered for pre-em

  16. Isolation and characterization of tyramine-producing Enterococcus faecium strains from red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Capozzi, V.; Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Beneduce, Luciano; Fernández García, María; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Bernoit, Bach; Laurent, Barnavon; Grieco, F.; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium strains were isolated from red wines undergoing malolactic fermentation and identified by comparison of their 16S rDNA gene sequences with those included in the GenEMBL Databases. The tyrosine decarboxylase gene was identified in all the strains analysed by PCR using gene-specific primers and the ability to produce tyramine in a synthetic media was analysed by RP-HPLC. Survival of an . E. faecium strain was also evaluated in microvinification assays using two different mu...

  17. Molecular analysis of Tn1546 in Enterococcus faecium isolated from animals and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Ahrens, Peter; Dons, L.;

    1998-01-01

    The internal areas and the position of integration of the glycopeptide resistance element Tn1546 were characterized by using PCR fragment length polymorphism, sequencing, and DNA hybridization techniques with 38 high-level vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates of human and animal ori...... of animal and human origins can contain indistinguishable genetic elements coding for vancomycin resistance, indicating either horizontal gene transfer between E. faecium organisms of human and animal origins or the existence of a common reservoir for glycopeptide resistance....

  18. Antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and faecium bacteria isolated from the human and the livestock sources

    OpenAIRE

    Yaser Sharifi; Azadeh Abedzadeh; Atieh Salighe; Naser Kalhor; Mohammad Khodadad Motlagh; Ali Javadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Enterococci have emerged as a major cause of nosocomial infections and within this group, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause the majority of human and livestock enterococcal infections. In this article, we tried to determine antibiotics and metals resistance patterns of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains. Methods: One hundred sixty different strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium were collected from livestock sewage and the human fecal waste during 15 months. T...

  19. Enterococcus faecium WB2000 Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Oral Cariogenic Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of probiotic Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on biofilm formation by cariogenic streptococci. The ability of E. faecium WB2000 and JCM5804 and Enterococcus faecalis JCM5803 to inhibit biofilm formation by seven laboratory oral streptococcal strains and 13 clinical mutans streptococcal strains was assayed. The Enterococcal strains inhibited biofilm formation in dual cultures with the mutans streptococcal strains Streptococcus mutans Xc and Streptococcus sobrinus JCM5176 (P<0.05, but not with the noncariogenic streptococcal strains. Enterococcus faecium WB2000 inhibited biofilm formation by 90.0% (9/10 of the clinical S. mutans strains and 100% (3/3 of the clinical S. sobrinus strains. After culturing, the pH did not differ between single and dual cultures. The viable counts of floating mutans streptococci were lower in dual cultures with E. faecium WB2000 than in single cultures. Enterococcus faecium WB2000 acted as a probiotic bacterial inhibitor of cariogenic streptococcal biofilm formation.

  20. Glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium from broilers and pigs following discontinued use of avoparcin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Madsen, Mogens;

    1999-01-01

    The use of the glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was discontinued in Denmark in 1995 following concerns that vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium occurring as a result of its use could be transferred to humans via food. The present study is an analysis of results obtained by the continu......The use of the glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was discontinued in Denmark in 1995 following concerns that vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium occurring as a result of its use could be transferred to humans via food. The present study is an analysis of results obtained...

  1. Probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) induced responses of the hepatic proteome improves metabolic efficiency of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Aijuan; Luo, Jianjie; Meng, Kun; Li, Jianke; Bryden, Wayne L.; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Wang, L. X. N.; Liu, Guohua; Yao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background The liver plays important roles in nutrient metabolism, detoxification and immunity. Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) is a probiotic that has been shown to have positive effects on broiler production. However, its molecular effects on liver metabolism have not been characterized. This study aims to further identify the biological roles of E. faecium by characterizing the hepatic proteomic changes of broilers (Gallus gallus) fed E. faecium using two-dimensional fluorescence differe...

  2. Dissemination of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in a ricotta processing plant and evaluation of pathogenic and antibiotic resistance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meg da Silva; Fujimoto, Graciela; de Souza, Leandro Pio; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; da Silva, Márcio José; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the sources of contamination by Enterococcus spp. in a ricotta processing line were evaluated. The isolated strains were tested for virulence genes (gelE, cylA,B, M, esp, agg, ace, efaA, vanB), expression of virulence factors (hemolysin and gelatinase), and the resistance to 10 different antibiotics. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were subjected to discriminatory identification by intergenic spacer region (ITS)-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the ITS region. The results showed that Enterococcus spp. was detected in the raw materials, environment samples and the final product. None of the 107 Enterococcus isolates were completely free from all virulence genes considered. A fraction of 21.5% of the isolates containing all of the genes of the cylA, B, M operon also expressed β-hemolysis. Most of the isolates showed the gelE gene, but only 9.3% were able to hydrolyze gelatin. In addition, 23.5% of the observed Enterococcus isolates had the vanB gene but were susceptible to vancomycin in vitro. The dissemination of antibiotic-resistant enterococci was revealed in this study: 19.3% of the E. faecium samples and 78.0% of the E. faecalis samples were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. Sequencing of region discriminated 5 and 7 distinct groups among E. faecalis and E. faecium, respectively. Although some similarity was observed among some of the isolates, all E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates had genetic differences both in the ITS region and in the virulence profile, which makes them different from each other.

  3. Genetic variability of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolates from humans, chickens, and pigs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Yitbarek; Hassan, Latiffah; Zakaria, Zunita; Abdul Aziz, Saleha

    2013-08-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been reported to be present in humans, chickens, and pigs in Malaysia. In the present study, representative samples of VRE isolated from these populations were examined for similarities and differences by using the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. Housekeeping genes of Enterococcus faecium (n = 14) and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11) isolates were sequenced and analyzed using the MLST databases eBURST and goeBURST. We found five sequence types (STs) of E. faecium and six STs of E. faecalis existing in Malaysia. Enterococcus faecium isolates belonging to ST203, ST17, ST55, ST79, and ST29 were identified, and E. faecium ST203 was the most common among humans. The MLST profiles of E. faecium from humans in this study were similar to the globally reported nosocomial-related strain lineage belonging to clonal complex 17 (CC17). Isolates from chickens and pigs have few similarities to those from humans, except for one isolate from a chicken, which was identified as ST203. E. faecalis isolates were more diverse and were identified as ST4, ST6, ST87, ST108, ST274, and ST244, which were grouped as specific to the three hosts. E. faecalis, belonging to the high-risk CC2 and CC87, were detected among isolates from humans. In conclusion, even though one isolate from a chicken was found clonal to that of humans, the MLST analysis of E. faecium and E. faecalis supports the findings of others who suggest VRE to be predominantly host specific and that clinically important strains are found mainly among humans. The infrequent detection of a human VRE clone in a chicken may in fact suggest a reverse transmission of VRE from humans to animals.

  4. Resistência antimicrobiana em Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium isolados de carcaças de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia F. Borges de Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o isolamento e analisar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana de Enterococcus de carcaças de frango resfriadas e congeladas comercializadas no Distrito Federal, detectando genes de resistência antimicrobiana e identificando as espécies Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium por reação polimerase em cadeia. Foram analisadas 100 carcaças de frangos, das quais foram isoladas 50 cepas de Enterococcus spp., sendo 42% de E. faecalis e 2% de E. faecium. O teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana demonstrou que todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um antimicrobiano, dos quais 90,47% das cepas de E. faecalis, 100% das cepas de E. Faecium e 82,14% dos Enterococcus spp. apresentaram resistência à Tetraciclina; 80,95% das cepas de E. faecalis e 35,71% das cepas de Enterococcus spp. foram resistentes à Eritromicina; 39,28% dos Enterococcus spp. e 23,80% dos E. faecalis à Ciprofloxacina e 28,57% dos E. faecalis apresentaram resistência ao Cloranfenicol. Foram detectados os genes de resistência antimicrobiana erm(B, vanC-1, aph(3'-llla, ant(6-la, vanB, vanA, aac(6'-le-aph(2''-la, erm(A e tet(M - este último mais frequente. Estes resultados sugerem sérios problemas para a Saúde Pública, uma vez que esses microrganismos podem possuir a capacidade de transmitir genes de resistência antimicrobiana para outros microrganismos presentes na microbiota intestinal de humanos e animais, podendo inviabilizar o uso destas drogas para tratamentos clínicos.

  5. High Rate of Resistance to Quinupristin-Dalfopristin in Enterococcus faecium Clinical Isolates from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Won Sup; Ko, Kwan Soo; Song, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Sulhee; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Kim, Choon-Kwan; Lee, Hyuck; Kim, Shin-Woo; Chang, Hyun-Ha; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Jung, Sook-In; Son, Jun Seong; Yeom, Joon-Sup

    2005-01-01

    We tested the in vitro susceptibilities of 603 enterococcal isolates from eight tertiary-care hospitals in Korea. The quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance rate in Enterococcus faecium was very high (25 isolates, 10.0%). It was suggested that both clonal spread and the sporadic emergence of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant isolates may explain the high prevalence of quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance in Korea.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Probiotic Enterococcus faecium Strain L-3

    OpenAIRE

    Karaseva, Alena; Tsapieva, Anna; Pachebat, Justin; SUVOROV, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium strain L-3, isolated from a probiotic preparation, Laminolact, which is widely used in the Russian Federation. The draft genome sequence is composed of 74 contigs for a total of 2,643,001 bp, with 2,646 coding genes. Five clusters for bacteriocin production were found.

  7. Effects of ionophores on Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium growth in pure and mixed ruminal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterococcus faecalis and faecium are Gram-positive human pathogens that can live in the gastrointestinal tract of food animals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an increasing threat to humans as a nosocomial infection, as well as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Ionophores ar...

  8. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results.

  9. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Maria Olbrich dos Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC, glycocholic acid (GC, and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC, although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT. When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results.

  10. Contribution of the enterococcal surface protein Esp to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Esther; Singh, Kavindra V; Jacques-Palaz, Karen D; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Oostdijk, Evelien A N; Bonten, Marc J M; Murray, Barbara E; Willems, Rob J L

    2011-12-01

    The enterococcal surface protein Esp, specifically linked to nosocomial Enterococcus faecium, is involved in biofilm formation. To assess the role of Esp in endocarditis, a biofilm-associated infection, an Esp-expressing E. faecium strain (E1162) or its Esp-deficient mutant (E1162Δesp) were inoculated through a catheter into the left ventricle of rats. After 24 h, less E1162Δesp than E1162 were recovered from heart valve vegetations. In addition, anti-Esp antibodies were detected in Esp-positive E. faecium bacteremia and endocarditis patient sera. In conclusion, Esp contributes to colonization of E. faecium at the heart valves. Furthermore, systemic infection elicits an Esp-specific antibody response in humans.

  11. Phenotypic and molecular antibiotic resistance profile of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from different traditional fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Valenzuela, Antonio; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2013-02-01

    A collection of 55 enterococci (41 Enterococcus faecium and 14 E. faecalis strains) isolated from various traditional fermented foodstuffs of both animal and vegetable origins, and water was evaluated for resistance against 15 antibiotics. Lower incidence of resistance was observed with gentamicin, ampicillin, penicillin and teicoplanin. However, a high incidence of antibiotic resistance was detected for rifampicin (12 out of 14 of isolates), ciprofloxacin (9/14), and quinupristin/dalfopristin (8/14) in E. faecalis strains. Enterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to rifampicin (25/41), ciprofloxacin (23/41), erythromycin (18/41), levofloxacin (16/41), and nitrofurantoin (15/41). One Enterococcus faecalis and two E. faecium strains were resistant to vancomycin (MIC>16 μg/mL). Among 55 isolates, 27 (19 E. faecium and eight E. faecalis) were resistant to at least three antibiotics. High level of multidrug resistance to clinically important antibiotics was detected in E. faecalis strains (57% of E. faecalis versus 46% of E. faecium), which showed resistance to six to seven antibiotics, especially those isolated from foods of animal origin. So, it is necessary to re-evaluate the use of therapeutic antibiotics in stock farms at both regional and international levels due to the high number of multiple resistant (MR) bacteria. Fifty-six MR E. faecalis and E. faecium strains selected from this and previous studies (Valenzuela et al., 2008, 2010) were screened by polymerase chain reaction for antibiotic resistance genes, revealing the presence of tet(L), tet(M), ermB, cat, efrA, efrB, mphA, or msrA/B genes. The ABC Multidrug Efflux Pump EfrAB was detected in 96% of E. faecalis strains and also in 13% of E. faecium strains; this is the first report describing EfrAB in this enterococcal species. The efflux pump-associated msrA/B gene was detected in 66.66% of E. faecium strains, but not in E. faecalis strains. PMID:23259502

  12. Effect of Enterococcus faecium SF68 on growth performance and in vivo digestibility in buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary supplementation with Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 on growth performance, faecal consistency and in vivo digestibility in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis calves was evaluated. Forty calves were randomly assigned at 10 d of age to one of four treatments: (A milk replacer with no additive, (B milk replacer supplemented with 0.17 g/l of viable (2 x l09 cfu/g E. faecium bacteria daily for 3 days with an interval of 7 days throughout 11 weeks, (C milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 4 weeks, (D milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 11 weeks. A total mixed ration was offered ad libitum from 5th week of the experimental period. Faecal score was significantly better in E. faecium-treated calves than control ones. The use of E. faecium had no effect on average daily gain at any stage, total body weight (BW gain, dry matter intake or total tract digestibility. Therefore, E. faecium supplementation may be able to act favourably on the health of the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Studies on the drug resistance profile of Enterococcus faecium distributed from poultry retailers to hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limayem, Alya; Donofrio, Robert Scott; Zhang, Chao; Haller, Edward; Johnson, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    The multidrug resistant Enterococcus faecium (MEF) strains originating from farm animals are proliferating at a substantial pace to impact downstream food chains and could reach hospitals. This study was conducted to elucidate the drug susceptibility profile of MEF strains collected from poultry products in Ann Arbor, MI area and clinical settings from Michigan State Lab and Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) in Florida. Presumptive positive Enterococcus isolates at species level were identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. The antibiotic susceptibility profile for both poultry and clinical strains was determined by the Thermo Scientific's Sensititre conform to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) and validated via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods. Out of 50 poultry samples (Turkey: n = 30; Chicken: n = 20), 36 samples were positive for Enterococcus species from which 20.83% were identified as E. faecium. All the E. faecium isolates were multidrug resistant and displayed resistance to the last alternative drug, quinupristin/dalfopristin (QD) used to treat vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) in hospitals. Results indicate the presence of MEF strains in food animals and clinical settings that are also resistant to QD. PMID:26357893

  14. Safety of the Surrogate Microorganism Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 for Use in Thermal Process Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Kopit, Lauren M.; Kim, Eun Bae; Roland J Siezen; Harris, Linda J.; Maria L Marco

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 is a surrogate microorganism used in place of pathogens for validation of thermal processing technologies and systems. We evaluated the safety of strain NRRL B-2354 based on its genomic and functional characteristics. The genome of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was sequenced and found to comprise a 2,635,572-bp chromosome and a 214,319-bp megaplasmid. A total of 2,639 coding sequences were identified, including 45 genes unique to this strain. Hierarchical clustering ...

  15. Effects of Genes Encoding Resistance to Streptogramins A and B on the Activity of Quinupristin-Dalfopristin against Enterococcus faecium

    OpenAIRE

    Bozdogan, Bülent; Leclercq, Roland

    1999-01-01

    Quinupristin-dalfopristin is a streptogramin combination active against multiply resistant Enterococcus faecium. Among 45 E. faecium isolated from patients in various French hospitals, only two strains were intermediate (MIC = 2 μg/ml) and one, E. faecium HM1032, was resistant (MIC = 16 μg/ml) to quinupristin-dalfopristin, according to British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards approved breakpoints. The latter strain contained the v...

  16. Differentiation of Enterococcus faecium from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains by PCR and dot-blot hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, S; Fernández, A; Martín, R; Reviriego, C; Marín, M L; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

    2003-12-01

    Variations in length and sequence of the 16S/23S spacer region of Enterococcus faecium provided the basis for development of simple PCR and dot-blot hybridisation assays that enabled the differentiation of potentially probiotic Enterococcus faecium strains from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Such assays may be useful for differentiation of yoghurt starter cultures and enterococcal strains when they are simultaneously present in probiotic food products.

  17. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolate Enterococcus faecium VRE16

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Suelen Scarpa; Van Tyne, Daria; Dabul, Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca; Gilmore, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Specific lineages of the commensal bacterium Enterococcus faecium belonging to CC17, especially ST412, have been isolated from patients in several hospitals worldwide and harbor antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors. Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence and highlight features of E. faecium VRE16, a representative of this ST. PMID:27660781

  18. High-Frequency Recovery of Quinupristin-Dalfopristin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolates from the Poultry Production Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Joshua R.; McIntosh, Angela C.; Qaiyumi, Sadaf; Johnson, Judith A.; English, Linda L.; Carr, Lewis E.; Wagner, David D.; Joseph, Sam W.

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance to the streptogramin quinupristin-dalfopristin in Enterococcus faecium isolates from chickens on the Eastern Seaboard, was evaluated. Quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance was found in 51 to 78% of E. faecium isolates from the food production environment. The high level of resistance in this organism suggests that this reservoir of resistance may compromise the therapeutic potential of quinupristin-dalfopristin.

  19. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolate Enterococcus faecium VRE16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Suelen Scarpa; Van Tyne, Daria; Dabul, Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca; Gilmore, Michael S; Camargo, Ilana L B C

    2016-01-01

    Specific lineages of the commensal bacterium Enterococcus faecium belonging to CC17, especially ST412, have been isolated from patients in several hospitals worldwide and harbor antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors. Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence and highlight features of E. faecium VRE16, a representative of this ST. PMID:27660781

  20. Safety assessment and probiotic evaluation of Enterococcus faecium YF5 isolated from sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qianglai; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Peng, Shanshan; Dong, Suqin; Wang, Baogui; Li, Ping; Chen, Tingtao; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2013-04-01

    Enterococcus faecium YF5, a strain previously isolated from sourdough, was assessed for safety and probiotic potential. Its virulence and antibiotic resistant phenotypes (cytolysin and gelatinase production, antibiotic susceptibility) and genes (cylA, gelE, ace, agg, esp, and vanA) were surveyed. Results indicated that the tested virulence determinants were nontoxic. In addition, E. faecium YF5 was sensitive to 3 antibiotics such as amoxicillin, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, results of in vivo animal acute oral toxicity of E. faecium YF5 studies were similar to the control group that indicated no abnormalities. In addition, E. faecium YF5 stably survived in low pH, bile salts, gastric, and intestinal fluids in vitro. Moreover, E. faecium YF5 was found to adhere to human colon cancer cell line HT-29 at 3.39 (±0.67) × 10(5) CFU/mL. When cocultured with pathogenic organisms (Enterobacter sakazakii CMCC45402, Escherichia coli CMCC44102, enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli O157: H7 CMCC44828, Salmonella Typhimurium CMCC50071, Shigella flexneri 301, and Shigella sonnei ATCC 29930) and 2 gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54001 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC 26003), it inhibited these foodborne pathogens with exception of S. aureus. Therefore, E. faecium YF5 can be regarded as a safe strain and it may be used as a probiotic preparation or for microecologics. PMID:23488799

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  2. Detection of CC17 Enterococcus faecium in dogs and a comparison with human isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, K H; Moon, B Y; Hwang, S Y; Park, Y H

    2012-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium strains of clonal complex (CC) 17 were isolated from domestic dogs. The strains were more prevalent in infectious isolates than in colonized isolates, suggesting that strains of the CC17 lineage may have an advantage in causing infections in dogs. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns of some dog and human isolates were over 90% similar. However, antimicrobial resistance patterns and virulence factors were not identical, which might reflect different use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine or in host specificity.

  3. Evaluation of whey fermented by Enterococcus faecium in consortium with Veilonella parvula in ruminant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Silva de Oliveira; Augusto César de Queiroz; Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani; Geraldo Fábio Viana Bayão; Edenio Detmann; Edson Mauro Santos; Thiago Carvalho da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the whey fermented by Enterococcus faecium in consortium with Veilonella parvula on the in vitro growth of ruminal bacteria and as a supplement in the cattle diet. In the in vitro experiment, a randomized design, with the following combinations was used: ruminal bacteria; ruminal bacteria and inactive whey; ruminal bacteria and active whey; and active whey. In the in vivo experiment, five fistulated Zebu Holstein-Zebu crossbred heifers were distribu...

  4. Bacteriophage Therapy Rescues Mice Bacteremic from a Clinical Isolate of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Biswajit; Adhya, Sankar; Washart, Paul; Paul, Brian; Trostel, Andrei N.; Powell, Bradford; Carlton, Richard; Merril, Carl R.

    2002-01-01

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) has become endemic in many hospitals and nursing homes in the United States. Such colonization predisposes the individual to VRE bacteremia and/or endocarditis, and immunocompromised patients are at particular risk for these conditions. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains requires the exploration of alternative antibacterial therapies, which led our group to study the ability of...

  5. Variation within the vat(E) Allele of Enterococcus faecium Isolates from Retail Poultry Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Simjee, S.; McDermott, P. F.; Wagner, D D; White, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    In a survey of retail meat samples, twelve quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant (MICs, ≥4 mg/liter) Enterococcus faecium isolates that carried a vat(E) gene were recovered. DNA sequence comparison revealed five new variations in the vat(E) allele among 12 isolates, which were designated vat(E-4) through vat(E-8); two isolates had vat(E-1). There was no correlation between the number of base changes and the quinupristin-dalfopristin MIC.

  6. The effects of probiotic Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134 in the weaned pigs nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Lojanica M.; Manojlović M.; Jeremić D.; Petronijević S.

    2010-01-01

    Placing a ban on the use of antibiotics as additives for animal feed, had raised the producing risk, because of possibility for occurrence of many diseases in rearing piglets. One of alternative solutions is the use of probiotics as supplements, directly or in piglets feed. Aim of this study was to investigate the effects probiotic Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134 on the rearing piglets in the period from weaning to fattening start. This experiment included 500 piglets, divided in 2 groups, 250 ...

  7. Growth condition-dependent cell surface proteome analysis of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnige, Jan C; de Been, Mark; Zhou, Miaomiao; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Top, Janetta

    2015-11-01

    The last 30 years Enterococcus faecium has become an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitals worldwide. The aim of this study was to obtain insight in the cell surface proteome of E. faecium when grown in laboratory and clinically relevant conditions. Enterococcus faecium E1162, a clinical blood stream isolate, was grown until mid-log phase in brain heart infusion medium (BHI) with, or without 0.02% bile salts, Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSBg) and urine, and its cell surface was "shaved" using immobilized trypsin. Peptides were identified using MS/MS. Mapping against the translated E1162 whole genome sequence identified 67 proteins that were differentially detected in different conditions. In urine, 14 proteins were significantly more and nine proteins less abundant relative to the other conditions. Growth in BHI-bile and TSBg, revealed four and six proteins, respectively, which were uniquely present in these conditions while two proteins were uniquely present in both conditions. Thus, proteolytic shaving of E. faecium cells identified differentially surface exposed proteins in different growth conditions. These proteins are of special interest as they provide more insight in the adaptive mechanisms and may serve as targets for the development of novel therapeutics against this multi-resistant emerging pathogen. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002497 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002497).

  8. Effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 strain on egg yolk fat and cholesterol

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    Mária Angelovičová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to evaluate the functional efficiency of a probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M74 in the feed on egg yolk weight, egg yolk fat and cholesterol contents of Shaver Starcross 288 hens.  Feed in the experimental group was enriched with a probiotic additive containing of 5*109 viable Enterococcus faecium per g. Egg samples a total 30 pcs per group were collected during the first egg-laying period at week 28 and 38 of hens´ age. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Significantly lower concentrations of egg yolk cholesterol were found in the experimental group at week 28, and week 38 in compare with controls. In conclusion, the addition of probiotic strains Enterococcus faecium M74 to the feed of Shaver Starcross 288 hens reduced cholesterol in egg yolk at all sampling times. Even though the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics has not yet been fully understood, it is an established fact that cholesterol and bile salt metabolism are closely linked. However, the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics based on the bile salt hydrolase activity hypothesis has not yet been sufficiently elucidated.

  9. First outbreak of linezolid-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in an Irish hospital, February to September 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, C; Murphy, V; Doyle, O; Wrenn, C; Flynn, A; O'Flaherty, N; Fenelon, L E; Schaffer, K; FitzGerald, S F

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of linezolid-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LRVREfm) occurred in the hepatology ward of a tertiary referral hospital in Ireland between February and September 2014. LRVREfm was isolated from 15 patients; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed spread of a single clone. This is the first report of an outbreak of linezolid-resistant vancomycin-resistant enterococcus in Ireland.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 against gram-positive pathogens

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    Maristela da Silva do Nascimento

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Using the critical-dilution method, the bacteriocin produced by E. faecium FAIR-E 198 inhibited all L. monocytogenes strains evaluated (1,600 to 19,200 AU mL-1. However, none of the B. cereus and S. aureus strains investigated were inhibited. The maximum activity of this bacteriocin (800 AU mL-1 was observed in MRS broth, while the activity in milk was 100 AU mL-1. In the co-cultivation test in milk, B. cereus K1-B041 was reduced to below the detection limit (1.00 log CFU mL-1 after 48 h. E. faecium reduced the initial L. monocytogenes Scott A population by 1 log CFU mL-1 after 3 h at 35ºC. However, the pathogen regained growth, reaching 3.68 log CFU mL-1 after 48 h. E. faecium did not influence the growth of S. aureus ATCC 27154 during the 48 h of co-cultivation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of the antimicrobial activity of E. faecium FAIR-E 198 is strictly related to the species and strain of the target microorganism and to the culture medium.

  11. Photodynamic and antibiotic therapy impair the pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in a whole animal insect model.

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    José Chibebe Junior

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecium has emerged as one of the most important pathogens in healthcare-associated infections worldwide due to its intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT is an alternative therapeutic platform that is currently under investigation for the control and treatment of infections. PDT is based on the use of photoactive dye molecules, widely known as photosensitizer (PS. PS, upon irradiation with visible light, produces reactive oxygen species that can destroy lipids and proteins causing cell death. We employed Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth caterpillar fatally infected with E. faecium to develop an invertebrate host model system that can be used to study the antimicrobial PDT (alone or combined with antibiotics. In the establishment of infection by E. faecium in G. mellonella, we found that the G. mellonella death rate was dependent on the number of bacterial cells injected into the insect hemocoel and all E. faecium strains tested were capable of infecting and killing G. mellonella. Antibiotic treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin or the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin prolonged caterpillar survival infected by E. faecium (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively. In the study of antimicrobial PDT, we verified that methylene blue (MB injected into the insect followed by whole body illumination prolonged the caterpillar survival (P = 0.0192. Interestingly, combination therapy of larvae infected with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with antimicrobial PDT followed by vancomycin, significantly prolonged the survival of the caterpillars when compared to either antimicrobial PDT (P = 0.0095 or vancomycin treatment alone (P = 0.0025, suggesting that the aPDT made the vancomycin resistant E. faecium strain more susceptible to vancomycin action. In summary, G. mellonella provides an invertebrate model host to

  12. Cotransfer of antibiotic resistance genes and a hylEfm-containing virulence plasmid in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Cesar A; Panesso, Diana; Singh, Kavindra V; Rice, Louis B; Murray, Barbara E

    2009-10-01

    The hyl(Efm) gene (encoding a putative hyaluronidase) has been found almost exclusively in Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates, and recently, it was shown to be on a plasmid which increased the ability of E. faecium strains to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, the results of mating experiments between hyl(Efm)-containing strains of E. faecium belonging to clonal cluster 17 and isolated in the United States and Colombia indicated that the hyl(Efm) gene of these strains is also carried on large plasmids (>145 kb) which we showed transfer readily from clinical strains to E. faecium hosts. Cotransfer of resistance to vancomycin and high-level resistance (HLR) to aminoglycosides (gentamicin and streptomycin) and erythromycin was also observed. The vanA gene cluster and gentamicin resistance determinants were genetically linked to hyl(Efm), whereas erm(B) and ant(6)-I, conferring macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance and HLR to streptomycin, respectively, were not. A hyl(Efm)-positive transconjugant resulting from a mating between a well-characterized endocarditis strain [TX0016 (DO)] and a derivative of a fecal strain of E. faecium from a healthy human volunteer (TX1330RF) exhibited increased virulence in a mouse peritonitis model. These results indicate that E. faecium strains use a strategy which involves the recruitment into the same genetic unit of antibiotic resistance genes and determinants that increase the ability to produce disease. Our findings indicate that the acquisition of the hyl(Efm) plasmids may explain, at least in part, the recent successful emergence of some E. faecium strains as nosocomial pathogens. PMID:19667280

  13. Success of linezolid therapy for postneurosurgical ventriculitis due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaJi Qiu; Jie Tang; DeLing Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ventriculitis is one of the most severe events in postneurosurgical intracranial infections.There are no guidelines recommending an appropriate treatment before.Case presentation:This case presents a successful linezolid treatment for post-neurosurgical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ventriculitis of a 24-year-old man in the department of neurosurgery,Beijing Tiantan Hospital.Conclusions:Linezolid should be considered as one of the important methods for the treatment of postneurosurgical intracranial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

  14. Characterization of functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İspirli, Hümeyra; Demirbaş, Fatmanur; Dertli, Enes

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains identified after isolation from human faeces. Of these isolates, strain R13 showed the best resistance to low pH, bile salts, and survival in the simulated in vitro digestion assay, and demonstrated an important level of adhesion to hexadecane as a potential probiotic candidate. Analysis of the antibiotic resistance of E. faecium strains indicated that in general these isolates were sensitive to the tested antibiotics and no strain appeared to be resistant to vancomycin. Examination of the virulence determinants for E. faecium strains demonstrated that all strains contained the virulence genes common in gut- and food-originated enterococci, and strain R13 harboured the lowest number of virulence genes. Additionally, no strain contained the genes related to cytolysin metabolism and showed hemolytic activity. The antimicrobial role of E. faecium strains was tested against several pathogens, in which different levels of inhibitory effects were observed, and strain R13 was inhibitory to all tested pathogens. PCR screening of genes encoding enterocin A and B indicated the presence of these genes in E. faecium strains. Preliminary characterization of bacteriocins revealed that their activity was lost after proteolytic enzyme treatments, but no alteration in antimicrobial activity was observed at different pHs (3.5 to 9.5) and after heat treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed the functional characteristics of E. faecium R13 as a gut isolate, and this strain could be developed as a new probiotic after further tests.

  15. Safety of the surrogate microorganism Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 for use in thermal process validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopit, Lauren M; Kim, Eun Bae; Siezen, Roland J; Harris, Linda J; Marco, Maria L

    2014-03-01

    Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 is a surrogate microorganism used in place of pathogens for validation of thermal processing technologies and systems. We evaluated the safety of strain NRRL B-2354 based on its genomic and functional characteristics. The genome of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was sequenced and found to comprise a 2,635,572-bp chromosome and a 214,319-bp megaplasmid. A total of 2,639 coding sequences were identified, including 45 genes unique to this strain. Hierarchical clustering of the NRRL B-2354 genome with 126 other E. faecium genomes as well as pbp5 locus comparisons and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that the genotype of this strain is most similar to commensal, or community-associated, strains of this species. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 lacks antibiotic resistance genes, and both NRRL B-2354 and its clonal relative ATCC 8459 are sensitive to clinically relevant antibiotics. This organism also lacks, or contains nonfunctional copies of, enterococcal virulence genes including acm, cyl, the ebp operon, esp, gelE, hyl, IS16, and associated phenotypes. It does contain scm, sagA, efaA, and pilA, although either these genes were not expressed or their roles in enterococcal virulence are not well understood. Compared with the clinical strains TX0082 and 1,231,502, E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was more resistant to acidic conditions (pH 2.4) and high temperatures (60°C) and was able to grow in 8% ethanol. These findings support the continued use of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 in thermal process validation of food products. PMID:24413604

  16. Cluster of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium ST117 in Norwegian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegstad, Kristin; Longva, Jørn-Åge; Hide, Reidar; Aasnæs, Bettina; Lunde, Tracy M; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov

    2014-10-01

    A linezolid-resistant, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium strain was isolated from 3 patients who had not received linezolid. The first patient was hospitalized in the same hospitals and wards as the 2 following patients. The E. faecium isolates were resistant to linezolid (minimum inhibitory concentration 8-32 mg/l), ampicillin, and high levels of gentamicin. Resistance to linezolid was associated with a G2576T mutation in 23S rDNA. The cfr linezolid resistance gene was not detected. The 3 isolates showed identical DNA fingerprints by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, belonged to ST117, and harboured virulence genes esp, hyl, acm, efaAfm, srgA, ecbA, scm, pilA, pilB, and pstD typically associated with high-risk E. faecium genotypes. The linezolid-resistant E. faecium high-risk clone caused bacteraemia in the first 2 cancer patients and survived in the hospital environment for more than a year before appearing in the urethral catheter of the third patient.

  17. Characterisation of an antiviral pediocin-like bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Wachsman, Monica; Tomé, Elisabetta; Dousset, Xavier; Destro, Maria Teresa; Dicks, Leon Milner Theodore; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Vaz-Velho, Manuella; Drider, Djamel

    2010-10-01

    The bacteriocin-producing strain Enterococcus faecium ST5Ha was isolated from smoked salmon and identified by biomolecular techniques. Ent. faecium ST5Ha produces a pediocin-like bacteriocin with activity against several lactic acid bacteria, Listeria spp. and some other human and food pathogens, and remarkably against HSV-1 virus. Bacteriocin ST5Ha was produced at high levels in MRS broth at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C, reaching a maximum production of 1.0 x 10(9) AU/ml, checked against Listeria ivanovii ATCC19119 as target strain and surrogate of pathogenic strain Listeria monocytogenes. The molecular weight of bacteriocin ST5Ha was estimated to be 4.5 kDa according to tricine-SDS-PAGE data. Ent. faecium ST5Ha harbors a 1.044 kb chromosomal DNA fragment fitting in size to that of pediocin PA-1/AcH. In addition, the sequencing of bacteriocin ST5Ha gene indicated 99% of DNA homology to pediocin PA-1/AcH. The combined application of low levels (below MIC) of ciprofloxacin and bacteriocin ST5Ha resulted in a synergetic effect in the inhibition of target strain L. ivanovii ATCC19119. Bacteriocin ST5Ha displayed antiviral activity against HSV-1, an important human pathogen, with a selectivity index of 173. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on Ent. faecium as a potential producer of pediocin-like bacteriocin with antiviral activity.

  18. ARE ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM CRL 183 AND LACTOBACILLUS HELVETICUS SSP. JUGURTI 416 ABLE TO PRODUCE ANTIMICROBIAL SUBSTANCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BEDANI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Production of antimicrobial substance by E. faecium CRL 183 and L. helveticus ssp jugurti 416 was tested against pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms isolated from Wistar rat faeces, using a spot-on-the-lawn assay. Three pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 1/2a, Salmonella enteridites 193/95, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and twenty-fi ve colonies, isolated from animal faeces, belonging to the following groups Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Bacteroides and Enterobacteriaceae, were used as indicator microorganisms. The results showed that E. faecium CRL 183 and L. helveticus ssp jugurti 416 did not produce signifi cant antimicrobial activity against the indicator microorganisms tested. More tests needed to be carried out with other indicator bacteria and other culture media to confi rm the lack of antimicrobial production.

  19. Effects of nitrogen sources on bacteriocin production by Enterococcus faecium A 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantev, A; Kabadjova, P; Valcheva, R; Danova, S; Dousset, X; Haertlé, T; Chobert, J M; Ivanova, I

    2002-01-01

    The production of a novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide enterococcin A 2000, active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms including Listeria subsp. and Escherichia coli, by Enterococcus faecium strain A 2000 isolated from the surface of traditional Bulgarian yellow cheese "kash-kaval" is considerably influenced by complex nitrogen sources in the production medium. Medium components, especially peptone and yeast extract, and their concentration contributed to the increase in bacteriocin production during the stationary phase (16-46 h) of cultivation even in the absence of one of the components present in the basal cultivation MRS medium.

  20. Distinct SagA from Hospital-Associated Clade A1 Enterococcus faecium Strains Contributes to Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, F L; de Been, M; Braat, J C; Hoogenboezem, T; Vink, C; Bayjanov, J; Rogers, M R C; Huebner, J; Bonten, M J M; Willems, R J L; Leavis, H L

    2015-10-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections. Elucidation of E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to treat these infections. In several bacteria, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins act as matrix components contributing to biofilm development. In this study, we investigated biofilm formation capacity and the roles of eDNA and secreted proteins for 83 E. faecium strains with different phylogenetic origins that clustered in clade A1 and clade B. Although there was no significant difference in biofilm formation between E. faecium strains from these two clades, the addition of DNase I or proteinase K to biofilms demonstrated that eDNA is essential for biofilm formation in most E. faecium strains, whereas proteolysis impacted primarily biofilms of E. faecium clade A1 strains. Secreted antigen A (SagA) was the most abundant protein in biofilms from E. faecium clade A1 and B strains, although its localization differed between the two groups. sagA was present in all sequenced E. faecium strains, with a consistent difference in the repeat region between the clades, which correlated with the susceptibility of biofilms to proteinase K. This indicates an association between the SagA variable repeat profile and the localization and contribution of SagA in E. faecium biofilms.

  1. Evaluation of technological properties of Enterococcus faecium CECT 8849, a strain isolated from human milk, for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Arroyo, Rebeca; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Ángela; Medina, Margarita; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Fernández, Leonides

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a variety of biochemical properties of Enterococcus faecium CECT 8849, which had been isolated from breast milk, were analyzed. Its acidifying capacity and proteolytic activity were low but, in contrast, remarkable peptidase and esterase activities were observed. Ethanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were the most abundant volatile compounds found in experimental model cheese manufactured with E. faecium CECT 8849. This strain inhibited the growth of several Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua strains in vitro. Enterocin A and B structural genes were detected in E. faecium CECT 8849. Model fermented milk and cheeses were manufactured from milk inoculated or not with L. innocua CECT 8848 (2.5-3 log10 colony forming units mL(-1)) using E. faecium CECT 8849 or Lactococcus lactis ESI 153 as starter cultures. Although E. faecium CECT 8849 controlled Listeria growth in both dairy models, it led to lower reduction in Listeria counts when compared with L. lactis ESI 153.

  2. Inhibitory influence of Enterococcus faecium on the propagation of swine influenza A virus in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Wang

    Full Text Available The control of infectious diseases such as swine influenza viruses (SwIV plays an important role in food production both from the animal health and from the public health point of view. Probiotic microorganisms and other health improving food supplements have been given increasing attention in recent years, but, no information on the effects of probiotics on swine influenza virus is available. Here we address this question by assessing the inhibitory potential of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium on the replication of two porcine strains of influenza virus (H1N1 and H3N2 strain in a continuous porcine macrophage cell line (3D4/21 and in MDBK cells. Cell cultures were treated with E. faecium at the non-toxic concentration of 1×10(6 CFU/ml in growth medium for 60 to 90 min before, during and after SwIV infection. After further incubation of cultures in probiotic-free growth medium, cell viability and virus propagation were determined at 48 h or 96 h post infection. The results obtained reveal an almost complete recovery of viability of SwIV infected cells and an inhibition of virus multiplication by up to four log units in the E. faecium treated cells. In both 3D4/21- and MDBK-cells a 60 min treatment with E. faecium stimulated nitric oxide (NO release which is in line with published evidence for an antiviral function of NO. Furthermore, E. faecium caused a modified cellular expression of selected mediators of defence in 3D4-cells: while the expression of TNF-α, TLR-3 and IL-6 were decreased in the SwIV-infected and probiotic treated cells, IL-10 was found to be increased. Since we obtained experimental evidence for the direct adsorptive trapping of SwIV through E. faecium, this probiotic microorganism inhibits influenza viruses by at least two mechanisms, direct physical interaction and strengthening of innate defence at the cellular level.

  3. Inhibitory influence of Enterococcus faecium on the propagation of swine influenza A virus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenya; Chai, Weidong; Burwinkel, Michael; Twardziok, Sven; Wrede, Paul; Palissa, Christiane; Esch, Bettina; Schmidt, Michael F G

    2013-01-01

    The control of infectious diseases such as swine influenza viruses (SwIV) plays an important role in food production both from the animal health and from the public health point of view. Probiotic microorganisms and other health improving food supplements have been given increasing attention in recent years, but, no information on the effects of probiotics on swine influenza virus is available. Here we address this question by assessing the inhibitory potential of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium) on the replication of two porcine strains of influenza virus (H1N1 and H3N2 strain) in a continuous porcine macrophage cell line (3D4/21) and in MDBK cells. Cell cultures were treated with E. faecium at the non-toxic concentration of 1×10(6) CFU/ml in growth medium for 60 to 90 min before, during and after SwIV infection. After further incubation of cultures in probiotic-free growth medium, cell viability and virus propagation were determined at 48 h or 96 h post infection. The results obtained reveal an almost complete recovery of viability of SwIV infected cells and an inhibition of virus multiplication by up to four log units in the E. faecium treated cells. In both 3D4/21- and MDBK-cells a 60 min treatment with E. faecium stimulated nitric oxide (NO) release which is in line with published evidence for an antiviral function of NO. Furthermore, E. faecium caused a modified cellular expression of selected mediators of defence in 3D4-cells: while the expression of TNF-α, TLR-3 and IL-6 were decreased in the SwIV-infected and probiotic treated cells, IL-10 was found to be increased. Since we obtained experimental evidence for the direct adsorptive trapping of SwIV through E. faecium, this probiotic microorganism inhibits influenza viruses by at least two mechanisms, direct physical interaction and strengthening of innate defence at the cellular level.

  4. Auswirkungen eines Enterococcus faecium- Probiotikums auf Leistungsdaten und ausgewählte Parameter der intestinalen Mikrobiota beim Schwein

    OpenAIRE

    Macha, Moritz

    2010-01-01

    In this study the impact of probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on the intestinal microbiota and the resulting effects on performance and health status of piglets and sows was investigated. A method to detect the probiotic Enterococcus within total intestinal enterococci was developed. 20 sows and their litters were divided into two trial groups and kept separately. Piglets were weaned at 28th day of life. Control group received standard diet while probiotic group was fed the ...

  5. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from humans in the community, broilers and pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Agersø, Yvonne; Gerner-Smidt, P.;

    2000-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolated from humans in the community (98 and 65 isolates), broilers (126 and 122), and pigs (102 and 88) during 1998 were tested for susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobial agents and for the presence of selected genes encoding resistance using PCR...

  6. Characterization of Enterococcus faecium bacteriophage IME-EFm5 and its endolysin LysEFm5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pengjuan; Cheng, Mengjun; Li, Xinwei; Jiang, Haiyan; Yu, Chuang; Kahaer, Nadire; Li, Juecheng; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Feifei; Hu, Liyuan; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu; Gu, Jingmin

    2016-05-01

    Due to the worldwide prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains, phages therapy has been revitalized recently. In this study, an Enterococcus faecium phage named IME-EFm5 was isolated from hospital sewage. Whole genomic sequence analysis demonstrated that IME-EFm5 belong to the Siphoviridae family, and has a double-stranded genome of 42,265bp (with a 35.51% G+C content) which contains 70 putative coding sequences. LysEFm5, the endolysin of IME-EFm5, contains an amidase domain in its N-terminal and has a wider bactericidal spectrum than its parental phage IME-EFm5, including 7 strains of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The mutagenesis analysis revealed that the zinc ion binding residues (H27, H132, and C140), E90, and T138 are required for the catalysis of LysEFm5. However, the antibacterial activity of LysEFm5 is zinc ion independent, which is inconsistent with most of other amidase members. The phage lysin LysEFm5 might be an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by multidrug-resistant E. faecium.

  7. Outbreak of vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium containing the wild-type vanA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakacs, Tom A; Kalan, Lindsay; McConnell, Michael J; Eshaghi, Alireza; Shahinas, Dea; McGeer, Allison; Wright, Gerry D; Low, Donald E; Patel, Samir N

    2014-05-01

    Accurate detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is essential in preventing transmission in health care settings. Chromogenic media are widely used for screening VRE because of fast turnaround times (TAT) and high sensitivity. We report an outbreak of Enterococcus faecium bearing vanA yet susceptible to vancomycin (vancomycin-variable Enterococcus [VVE]). Between October 2009 to March 2011, clinical and screening specimens (n=14,747) were screened for VRE using VRE-selective medium and/or PCR. VVE isolates were genotyped to determine relatedness. Plasmids from these isolates were characterized by sequencing. Overall, 52 VVE isolates were identified, comprising 15% of all VRE isolates identified. Isolates demonstrated growth on Brilliance VRE agar (Oxoid) at 24 h of incubation but did not grow on brain heart infusion agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (Oxoid) or bile esculin azide agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (Oxoid) and were susceptible to vancomycin. Genotyping of 20 randomly selected VVE isolates revealed that 15/20 were identical, while 5 were highly related. PCR of the VVE transposon confirmed the presence of vanHAXY gene cluster; however, vanS (sensor) and vanR (regulator) genes were absent. The outbreak was controlled through routine infection control measures. We report an emergence of a fit strain of E. faecium containing vanA yet susceptible to vancomycin. Whether this new strain represents VRE has yet to be determined; however, unique testing procedures are required for reliable identification of VVE.

  8. Atypical genetic locus associated with constitutive production of enterocin B by Enterococcus faecium BFE 900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, C M; Worobo, R W; Quadri, L E; Schillinger, U; Holzapfel, W H; Vederas, J C; Stiles, M E

    1999-05-01

    A purified bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium BFE 900 isolated from black olives was shown by Edman degradation and mass spectrometric analyses to be identical to enterocin B produced by E. faecium T136 from meat (P. Casaus, T. Nilsen, L. M. Cintas, I. F. Nes, P. E. Hernández, and H. Holo, Microbiology 143:2287-2294, 1997). The structural gene was located on a 2.2-kb HindIII fragment and a 12.0-kb EcoRI chromosomal fragment. The genetic characteristics and production of EntB by E. faecium BFE 900 differed from that described so far by the presence of a conserved sequence like a regulatory box upstream of the EntB gene, and its production was constitutive and not regulated. The 2.2-kb chromosomal fragment contained the hitherto undetected immunity gene for EntB in an atypical orientation that is the reverse of that of the structural gene. Typical transport and other genes associated with bacteriocin production were not detected on the 12.0-kb chromosomal fragment containing the EntB structural gene. This makes the EntB genetic system different from most other bacteriocin systems, where transport and possible regulatory genes are clustered. EntB was subcloned and expressed by the dedicated secretion machinery of Carnobacterium piscicola LV17A. The structural gene was amplified by PCR, fused to the divergicin A signal peptide, and expressed by the general secretory pathway in Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433.

  9. Investigating the mobilome in clinically important lineages of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikalsen, Theresa; Pedersen, Torunn; Willems, Rob;

    2015-01-01

    elements (n=85), resistance determinants (n=67), prophages (n=29) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-cas sequences (n=6) separated the strains according to species, and for E. faecalis also according to STs. RCR-, Rep_3-, RepA_N- and Inc18-family plasmids were highly...... compared to ST40. Notably, the transposases of IS981, ISEfm1 and IS1678 that have only been reported in few enterococcal isolates were well represented in the E. faecium strains. E. faecalis ST40 strains harboured possible functional CRISPR-Cas systems, and still resistance and prophage sequences were...

  10. Use of antimicrobial growth promoters in food animals and Enterococcus faecium resistance to therapeutic antimicrobial drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    1999-01-01

    , clear evidence of a health risk was not available. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the use of the glycopeptide avoparcin as a growth promoter has created in food animals a major reservoir of Enterococcus faecium, which contains the high level glycopeptide resistance determinant vanA, located...

  11. Multiple hospital outbreaks of vanA Enterococcus faecium in Denmark, 2012-13, investigated by WGS, MLST and PFGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, Mette; Larner-Svensson, Hanna; Littauer, Pia;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Denmark, the incidence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has increased since 2012. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and clonal relatedness of VREfm isolates in Danish hospitals in 2012-13 using WGS. The second aim was to evaluate if WGS...

  12. Relationship between copper, glycopeptide, and macrolide resistance among Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from pigs in Denmark between 1997 and 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    A significant relationship between copper resistance (tcrB), glycopeptide resistance (Tn1546), and macrolide resistance [erm(B)] in Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs was found. The tcrB gene was located closely upstream of the Tn1546 element. However, the continued use of copper sulfate has...

  13. Relations between the consumption of antimicrobial growth promoters and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Andersen, J. S.; Seyfarth, A.M.;

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigates, at farm level, the effect of the time-span between sampling and the last time a particular antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP) Was included in the feed on the probability of selecting an AGP-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolate from a broiler flock. The probability...

  14. IS element IS16 as a molecular screening tool to identify hospital-associated strains of Enterococcus faecium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Guido; Fleige, Carola; Geringer, Uta; van Schaik, Willem; Klare, Ingo; Witte, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hospital strains of Enterococcus faecium could be characterized and typed by various molecular methods (MLST, AFLP, MLVA) and allocated to a distinct clonal complex known as MLST CC17. However, these techniques are laborious, time-consuming and cost-intensive. Our aim was to identify hos

  15. Effect of Probiotic Strain Enterococcus faecium M74 Supplementation on the Carcass Parameters of Different Hybrid Combination Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Weis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of addition of Enterococcus faecium M74 in drinking water on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Totally 120 chickens (60 of hybrid Hybro, 60 of Ross 308 were divided to two groups. Experimental chickens of Hybro (n=30 and Ross 308 (n=30 received a probiotic preparation in drinking water from day 1 to day 42 with concentration of 2x109 CFU of Enterococcus faecium M 74 in 1 g of nutrient medium with dextrose. The control group of Hybro (n=30 and Ross 308 (n=30 received water in same total amount as experimental group without any additives. The feeding period lasted 42 days. In case of Hybro, we showed higher effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 supplementation on slaughter weight (1807.51 vs. 1929.08 g; P0.05 in comparison with Ross 308 (2126.63 vs. 2199.31g; P>0.05. Differences in percentage of valuable parts (thigh and breast and carcass yield of Hybro and Ross 308 were not statistically significant (P>0.05 by addition of probiotic On the end of fattening, Ross 308 broiler chickens fed diet with probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium had significantly less (P<0.05 abdominal fat than those fed without the probiotic. In Hybro broiler chickens we recorded not significant difference between groups (P>0.05.

  16. Antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility profiles of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolated from community wastewater in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) previously isolated from human wastewater effluents in a nonclinical semiclosed agri-food system in Texas were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics and disinfectants. The 50 VRE were resistant to eight fluoroquinolones and to 10 of 17 Natio...

  17. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  18. High-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium causing invasive infection: Twelve-year surveillance in the Minami Ibaraki Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuka, Hanako; Nakajima, Jun; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Funayama, Yasunori; Ebihara, Tsugio; Ishikawa, Hiroichi; Saito, Kazuto; Koganemaru, Hiroshi; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2016-01-01

    We examined prevalence of high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium causing invasive infection in the Minami Ibaraki Area. Ten strains of both species each, recovered from the blood or the cerebrospinal fluid between 2003 and 2014, were randomly selected every year. High-level resistance to gentamicin (HLR-GM) and streptomycin (HLR-SM) was detected in 34% (41 of 120 strains) and 18% (21) of E. faecalis and 9% (11) and 39% (48) of E. faecium, respectively. In comparisons of the proportions among three four-year periods, HLR-SM among E. faecium was significantly lower in the 2011-2014 period. All strains with HLR-GM were positive for the aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia gene. The ant(6')-Ia gene was detected in all with HLR-SM except for one E. faecalis strain. The present study showed that prevalence of HLR-GM among E. faecalis and E. faecium causing invasive infection in this area was nearly equivalent to that described in previous studies in Japan and that proportions of strains with HLAR did not vary during the study period except for that of HLR-SM among E. faecium.

  19. Clinical investigation and analysis about Enterococcus Faliscan and Enterococcus faecium infection%粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌感染调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈名霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解2010~2011年医院肠球菌属在临床感染中的检出率及对常用抗菌药物的耐药率,指导临床合理用药.方法 采用德国西门子公司生产的Microscan-autoscan半自动细菌鉴定系统鉴定菌株,以药敏分析系统微量稀释法检测药物敏感性.结果 109株粪肠球菌主要来自痰和中段尿;69株屎肠球菌主要来自中段尿和痰,两者在泌尿系统和呼吸系统的检出率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).屎肠球菌和粪肠球菌对阿莫西林/克拉维酸、苯唑青霉素、头孢唑林、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、高浓度庆大霉素筛选、红霉素耐药率均较高,;屎肠球菌对环丙沙星、利福平、左氟沙星、高浓度链霉素筛选、呋喃妥因耐药率较粪肠球菌高,而且粪肠球菌对四环素,氯霉素耐药率较屎肠球菌高.结论 粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌在临床感染中的耐药性明显不同,但利奈唑胺和万古霉素对粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌均有较好的抗感染作用,在治疗引起的感染时应按照药敏试验结果合理选择用药.%Objective To guide clinical medication by studying the hospital Enterococcus detection rate of nosocomial infection and antimicrobial resistance rates in 2010-2011. Methods Microscan-autoscan automatic made by the Germany Siemens company identificate bacterias, systematic identification of strains,the sensitivity of detection of drug susceptibility analysis system microdilu-tion method. Results 109 cases of Enterococcus faecalis and 69 cases Enterococcus faecium were detected from the sputum and u-rine from January 2010 to December 2011, in the detection rate of urinary and respiratory systems. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis on amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, oxacillin, cefazolin, piperacillin/tazobactam, high concentrations of gentamicin screening,erythromycin resistance rate were both higher ; Enterococcus faecium to gentamicin,ciprofloxacin,rifampicin,levofloxa-cin, streptomycin

  20. Partial purification and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium 130 isolated from mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luiz Tulini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are important in foods as potential probiotics and also due to the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds that can contribute for biopreservation. In this work, the bacteriocin produced by the food isolate Enterococcus faecium 130 was partially purified and characterized. The compound was active against Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes. It was produced after 4 days of storage at a broad temperature range (4 to 37 °C; it was stable at pH ranging from 2 to 10 with no loss of activity after heating at 100 °C for 15 minutes. Bacteriocin was partially purified by the adsorption-desorption technique, and the analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed a molecular mass of 3.5 to 6.5 kDa. These data encourage studies on application of this bacteriocin in food systems as an additional hurdle to microbial growth.

  1. A Vaccine Approach for the Prevention of Infections by Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Srinivas; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Lin, Fiona; Khoury, Nancy; Hao, Li; Pavliak, Vilo; Jones, C Hal; Laverde, Diana; Huebner, Johannes; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Donald, Robert G K

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium hospital infections has been steadily increasing. With the goal of discovering new vaccine antigens, we systematically fractionated and purified four distinct surface carbohydrates from E. faecium endocarditis isolate Tx16, shown previously to be resistant to phagocytosis in the presence of human serum. The two most abundant polysaccharides consist of novel branched heteroglycan repeating units that include signature sugars altruronic acid and legionaminic acid, respectively. A minor high molecular weight polysaccharide component was recognized as the fructose homopolymer levan, and a glucosylated lipoteichoic acid (LTA) was identified in a micellar fraction. The polysaccharides were conjugated to the CRM197 carrier protein, and the resulting glycoconjugates were used to immunize rabbits. Rabbit immune sera were evaluated for their ability to kill Tx16 in opsonophagocytic assays and in a mouse passive protection infection model. Although antibodies raised against levan failed to mediate opsonophagocytic killing, the other glycoconjugates induced effective opsonic antibodies, with the altruronic acid-containing polysaccharide antisera showing the greatest opsonophagocytic assay activity. Antibodies directed against either novel heteroglycan or the LTA reduced bacterial load in mouse liver or kidney tissue. To assess antigen prevalence, we screened a diverse collection of blood isolates (n = 101) with antibodies to the polysaccharides. LTA was detected on the surface of 80% of the strains, and antigens recognized by antibodies to the two major heteroglycans were co-expressed on 63% of these clinical isolates. Collectively, these results represent the first steps toward identifying components of a glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent E. faecium infection. PMID:26109072

  2. Deletions in a ribosomal protein-coding gene are associated with tigecycline resistance in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebel, Marc; Quick, Joshua; Prieto, Ana Maria Guzman; Hill, Robert L R; Pike, Rachel; Huber, Damon; David, Miruna; Hornsey, Michael; Wareham, David; Oppenheim, Beryl; Woodford, Neil; van Schaik, Willem; Loman, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an emerging nosocomial pathogen associated with antibiotic therapy in the hospital environment. Whole-genome sequences were determined for three pairs of related, consecutively collected E. faecium clinical isolates to determine putative mechanisms of resistance to tigecycline. The first isolates (1S, 2S and 3S) in each of the three pairs were sensitive to tigecycline [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.125 mg/L]. Following tigecycline therapy, the second isolate in each pair demonstrated increased resistance to tigecycline. Two isolates (1R and 2R) were resistant (MIC of 8 mg/L) and one isolate (3I) demonstrated reduced susceptibility (MIC of 0.5 mg/L). Mutations distinguishing each pair of sensitive and resistant isolates were determined through alignment to a reference genome and variant detection. In addition, a de novo assembly of each isolate genome was constructed to confirm mutations. A total of 16 mutations in eleven coding sequences were determined. Mutations in the rpsJ gene, which encodes a structural protein forming part of the 30S ribosomal subunit, were detected in each of the pairs. Mutations were in regions proximal to the predicted tigecycline-binding site. Predicted amino acid substitutions were detected in 1R and 3I. The resistant strains were additionally associated with deletions of 15 nucleotides (2R) and 3 nucleotides (1R). This study confirms that amino acid substitutions in rpsJ contribute towards reduced susceptibility to tigecycline and suggests that deletions may be required for tigecycline resistance in E. faecium.

  3. Effects of organic acids on thermal inactivation of acid and cold stressed Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana

    2009-08-01

    In this study the adaptative response to heat (70 degrees C) of Enterococcus faecium using fresh and refrigerated (at 4 degrees C for up to 1 month) stationary phase cells grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.4 (non-acid-adapted cells) and acidified BHI at pH values of 6.4 and 5.4 with acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, malic and hydrochloric acids (acid-adapted cells) was evaluated. In all cases, the survival curves obtained were concave upward. A mathematical model based on the Weibull distribution accurately described the inactivation kinetic. The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, whereas the subsequent cold storage of cells reduced E. faecium thermal tolerance. Fresh acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values (time needed to obtain an inactivation level of 2.5 log10 cycles) ranging from 2.57 to 9.51 min, while non-acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values of 1.92 min. The extent of increased heat tolerance varied with the acid examined, resulting in the following order: citric > or = acetic > malic > or = lactic > hydrochloric > or = ascorbic. In contrast, cold storage progressively decreased E. faecium thermal resistance. The t(2.5) values found at the end of the period studied were about 2-3-fold lower than those corresponding to non-refrigerated cells, although this decrease was more marked (about 5-fold) when cells were grown in buffered BHI and BHI acidified at pH 5.4 with hydrochloric acid. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of microbial response to various preservation stresses in order to increase the efficiency of thermal processes and to indicate the convenience of counterbalancing the benefits of the hurdle concept.

  4. Effect of Oral Administration of Enterococcus faecium Ef1 on Innate Immunity of Sucking Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-fen Li, Yi Huang§, Ya-li Li, Qin Huang, Zhi-wen Cui, Dong-you Yu, Imran R. Rajput and Cai-hong Hu*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of orally administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on innate immune responses of jejunal mucosa in newborn piglets. Twenty-four commercial crossbred healthy newborn piglets were randomly divided into two groups, control (T0 and treatment (T1 group. Each group consists of 12 piglets. T1 was administered sterilized skim milk 2 ml piglet-1 day-1 with addition of E. faecium EF1 (5~6×108 cfu/ml by oral gavage on alternative odd days (1st, 3rd and 5th after birth. T0 fed with the same volume of sterilized skim milk without probiotics. The merciful killing of piglets at the 25th day after birth was performed to collect the samples of jejunal mucosa to measure the innate cytokine responses and the Toll-like receptors gene expression by quantitative real time PCR. The results showed that TGF-β1 and TNF-α concentrations increased and mRNA expression levels also improved significantly in T1 as compared to T0. While, the production of IFN-γ and IL-8 decreased significantly in T1 and gene expression modification was not observed. In addition, TLR (Toll-like receptor 2 and TLR 9 transcription levels were up-regulated in treatment (T1 group. These findings revealed that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 was effective to activate innate immunity and could modulate the TLRs expression in jejunal mucosa of piglets.

  5. Partial Characterization of Bacteriocins Produced by Two New Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Human Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, Mélanie; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at characterizing two novel bacteriocin-producing enterococcal strains isolated from human intestine. A total of 200 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from a woman stool sample. Two of them were selected for characterization due to their high antimicrobial activity against five strains of Listeria monocytogenes. The selected bacteria were identified as two different strains of Enterococcus faecium and designated MT 104 and MT 162. The bacteriocins produced by MT 104 and MT 162 were stable at different pH ranging from 2 to 11 and were active after different treatments such as heat, enzymes, detergents, and γ-irradiation. The two isolated strains exhibited some probiotic properties such as survival in simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid, lack of expression of bile salt hydrolase or hemolytic activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cells efficiently, and sensitivity to clinical antimicrobial agents. Thus, the two isolated strains of E. faecium could become new probiotic bacteria and their bacteriocins could be used for controlling L. monocytogenes in combination with irradiation for food preservation. PMID:26782736

  6. Hybrid Potential Simulation of the Acylation of Enterococcus faecium l,d-Transpeptidase by Carbapenems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Nicholus; Field, Martin J; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Arthur, Michel; Bougault, Catherine M

    2016-06-01

    The l,d-transpeptidases, Ldts, catalyze peptidoglycan cross-linking in β-lactam-resistant mutant strains of several bacteria, including Enterococcus faecium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although unrelated to the essential d,d-transpeptidases, which are inactivated by the β-lactam antibiotics, they are nevertheless inhibited by the carbapenem antibiotics, making them potentially useful targets in the treatment of some important diseases. In this work, we have investigated the acylation mechanism of the Ldt from E. faecium by the carbapenem, ertapenem, using computational techniques. We have employed molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with QC/MM hybrid potential calculations to map out possible reaction paths. We have focused on determining the following: (i) the protonation state of the nucleophilic cysteine of the enzyme when it attacks; (ii) whether nucleophilic attack and β-lactam ring-opening are concerted or stepwise, the latter occurring via an oxyanion intermediate; and (iii) the identities of the proton acceptors at the beginning and end of the reaction. Overall, we note that there is considerable plasticity in the mechanisms, owing to the significant flexibility of the enzyme, but find that the preferred pathways are ones in which nucleophilic attack of cysteine thiolate is concerted with β-lactam ring-opening. PMID:27196382

  7. Hybrid Potential Simulation of the Acylation of Enterococcus faecium l,d-Transpeptidase by Carbapenems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Nicholus; Field, Martin J; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Arthur, Michel; Bougault, Catherine M

    2016-06-01

    The l,d-transpeptidases, Ldts, catalyze peptidoglycan cross-linking in β-lactam-resistant mutant strains of several bacteria, including Enterococcus faecium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although unrelated to the essential d,d-transpeptidases, which are inactivated by the β-lactam antibiotics, they are nevertheless inhibited by the carbapenem antibiotics, making them potentially useful targets in the treatment of some important diseases. In this work, we have investigated the acylation mechanism of the Ldt from E. faecium by the carbapenem, ertapenem, using computational techniques. We have employed molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with QC/MM hybrid potential calculations to map out possible reaction paths. We have focused on determining the following: (i) the protonation state of the nucleophilic cysteine of the enzyme when it attacks; (ii) whether nucleophilic attack and β-lactam ring-opening are concerted or stepwise, the latter occurring via an oxyanion intermediate; and (iii) the identities of the proton acceptors at the beginning and end of the reaction. Overall, we note that there is considerable plasticity in the mechanisms, owing to the significant flexibility of the enzyme, but find that the preferred pathways are ones in which nucleophilic attack of cysteine thiolate is concerted with β-lactam ring-opening.

  8. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time.

  9. Antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and faecium bacteria isolated from the human and the livestock sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Sharifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococci have emerged as a major cause of nosocomial infections and within this group, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause the majority of human and livestock enterococcal infections. In this article, we tried to determine antibiotics and metals resistance patterns of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains. Methods: One hundred sixty different strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium were collected from livestock sewage and the human fecal waste during 15 months. Then bacterial antibiotics sensitivity tests were carried out using the Agar disc diffusion method. Results: Generally, 100% of E. faecalis strains separated from human and livestock sources (i.e. sheep showed penicillin (P/ kanamycin (K/ nitrofurantoin (N/ loracarbef (L/ Ciprofloxacin (Cc/ ampicillin (AN/ nalidixic acid (NA/ sulfamethoxazole (S antibiotics resistance patterns. In addition, 55% of isolated E. faecium showed P/S/AN/NA antibiotics resistance patterns. Each strain showed a resistance to at least two aminoglycoside antibiotics. However, E. faecalis strains from human and the livestock sources showed 94% and 100% of resistance to nitrofurantoin, respectively. The effects of different metal concentrations was evaluated in both strains. The agar dilution method was applied in this stage. Hg at 0.05 mmol/L of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC showed toxicity to both the human and livestock Enterococcus strains. Cadmium at 1 mmol/L and 0.5 mmol/L concentrations had the most toxicity to E. faecalis and E. faecium strains, respectively. Obviously, toxicity to bacteria is less than other metals. As a result, Zn/Ni/Cu/Co resistance pattern is suggested for both strains. Finally, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns were monitored simultaneously. Conclusion: Almost all E. faecalis strains isolated from humans and livestock showed antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of P/K/L/Cc/S/AN/NA/Zn/Cu/Co simultaneously. Moreover, 55% of E

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B; Vederas, John C; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faeciumM3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvussubsp.fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential. PMID:27013035

  11. Application of bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Pingitore, Esteban; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Sesma, Fernando; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2012-10-01

    Several strains of Enterococcus spp. are capable of producing bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity against important bacterial pathogens in dairy products. In this study, the bacteriocins produced by two Enterococcus strains (Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch), isolated from cheeses, were characterized and tested for their capability to control growth of Listeria monocytogenes 426 in experimentally contaminated fresh Minas cheese during refrigerated storage. Both strains were active against a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms and bacteriocin absorption to various L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19443 and Lactobacillus sakei ATCC 15521 varied according to the strain and the testing conditions (pH, temperature, presence of salts and surfactants). Growth of L. monocytogenes 426 was inhibited in cheeses containing E. mundtii CRL35 up to 12 days at 8 °C, evidencing a bacteriostatic effect. E. faecium ST88Ch was less effective, as the bacteriostatic affect occurred only after 6 days at 8 °C. In cheeses containing nisin (12.5 mg/kg), less than one log reduction was observed. This research underlines the potential application of E. mundtii CRL35 in the control of L. monocytogenes in Minas cheese.

  12. The mazEF toxin-antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasantha Kumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat; Khosravi, Afra; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2015-01-01

    The toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems are potent and sensitive targets in all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains.

  13. 粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的耐药性分析%Analysis on the antimicrobial resistance of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊淑珍; 赵文辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌对抗感染药物的耐药性,为临床提供治疗依据.方法 对住院及门诊患者送检样本中培养分离出281株肠球菌(粪肠球菌112株,屎肠球菌169株)的感染分布与耐药情况进行分析.采用稀释法进行药物敏感试验,结果按美国临床实验室标准化研究所标准判定.结果 屎肠球菌对青霉素G的耐药率最高(93.7%),其次为红霉素、氨苄西林和环丙沙星.粪肠球菌对奎奴普丁/达福普汀耐药率最高为(74.0%),其次为高浓度庆大霉素、四环素、红霉素和环丙沙星.粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌对利奈唑胺和万古霉素的耐药率均低于2.0%,替考拉宁的耐药率最低(均为0).结论 粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌对不同抗感染药物的耐药率有较大差异,在抗感染治疗前应先做细菌培养和药物敏感试验,依据报告结果合理选用抗感染药物.%Objective To observe antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus Faecalis and Enterococcus Faecium to antibiotics.Methods Totally 281 strians of enterococci composed of 112 strains of enterococcus faecalis and 169 strains of enterococcus faecium were cultured and isolated from samples of inpatients and outpatients;distribution of infection and antimicrobial resistance were analyzed.Agar dilution method was used to do antibiotic susceptibility test and the results were determined based on the standard of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI).Results The resistance rate of enterococcus faecium to penicillin G (93.7%) was the highest among all of the antimicrobial tested,followed by erythromycin,ampicillin and ciprofloxacin.The resistance rate of enterococcus faecium to quinupristin/dalfopristin (74.0%) was the highest among all of the antimicrobials tested,followed by tetracycline,erythromycin and ciprofloxacin.The resistance rate of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium to linezolid and vancomycin were all lower than 2.0%,and that to

  14. Virulence Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Coastal Beaches and Human and Nonhuman Sources in Southern California and Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are harmless to humans; however, strains harboring virulence genes, including esp, gelE, cylA, asa1, and hyl, have been associated with human infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are present in beach waters worldwide, yet little is known about their virulence potential. Here, multiplex PCR was used to compare the distribution of virulence genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from beaches in Southern California and Puerto Rico to isolates from potential sources including humans, animals, birds, and plants. All five virulence genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium from beach water, mostly among E. faecalis. gelE was the most common among isolates from all source types. There was a lower incidence of asa1, esp, cylA, and hyl genes among isolates from beach water, sewage, septage, urban runoff, sea wrack, and eelgrass as compared to human isolates, indicating that virulent strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium may not be widely disseminated at beaches. A higher frequency of asa1 and esp among E. faecalis from dogs and of asa1 among birds (mostly seagull suggests that further studies on the distribution and virulence potential of strains carrying these genes may be warranted.

  15. Generation of a Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Clinical Isolate Expressing a (FMN)-Based Fluorescent Protein

    OpenAIRE

    PINILLA REDONDO, RAFAEL

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, including Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE), have become one of the greatest clinical challenges of the 21st century. Particularly, VRE strains of E. faecium, a natural member of the gastrointestinal consortia, have recently emerged as one of the most problematic cases of MDR nosocomial pathogens. It is widely known that the establishment of high-level intestinal colonization of this bacterium, triggered by antibiotic treatme...

  16. Optimizing hybrid assembly of next-generation sequence data from Enterococcus faecium: a microbe with highly divergent genome

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yajun; Yu, Yao; Pan, Bohu; Hao, Pei; Li, Yixue; Shao, Zhifeng; Xu, Xiaogang; Li, Xuan

    2012-01-01

    Background Sequencing of bacterial genomes became an essential approach to study pathogen virulence and the phylogenetic relationship among close related strains. Bacterium Enterococcus faecium emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen that were often associated with resistance to common antibiotics in hospitals. With highly divergent gene contents, it presented a challenge to the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies featuring high-throughput and shorter read-length. This study was...

  17. Synergy Testing of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium against Quinupristin-Dalfopristin in Combination with Other Antimicrobial Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, S O; Louie, L; Louie, M.; Simor, A E

    1999-01-01

    Using checkerboard and time-kill assays, we evaluated the in vitro activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin (RP 59500) alone and in combination with five other antimicrobial agents against 12 clinical strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). In time-kill studies, six VREF strains exhibited synergism with the combination of quinupristin-dalfopristin and doxycycline and three exhibited synergism with quinupristin-dalfopristin plus ampicillin-sulbactam. Combinations of quinupris...

  18. Quinupristin-Dalfopristin Resistance in Enterococcus faecium Isolates from Humans, Farm Animals, and Grocery Store Meat in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Donabedian, S. M.; Perri, M B; Vager, D.; Hershberger, E.; Malani, P.; Simjee, S.; Chow, J.; Vergis, E. N.; Muder, R R; Gay, K.; Angulo, F. J.; Bartlett, P.; Zervos, M J

    2006-01-01

    Three hundred sixty-one quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D)-resistant Enterococcus faecium (QDREF) isolates were isolated from humans, turkeys, chickens, swine, dairy and beef cattle from farms, chicken carcasses, and ground pork from grocery stores in the United States from 1995 to 2003. These isolates were evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine possible commonality between QDREF isolates from human and animal sources. PCR was performed to detect the streptogramin resi...

  19. The first report of the vanC₁ gene in Enterococcus faecium isolated from a human clinical specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingyue; Wang, Yue; Chen, Zhongju; Zhu, Xuhui; Tian, Lei; Sun, Ziyong

    2014-09-01

    The vanC₁ gene, which is chromosomally located, confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Enterococcus faecium TJ4031 was isolated from a blood culture and harbours the vanC₁gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect vanXYc and vanTc genes. Only the vanXYc gene was found in the E. faecium TJ4031 isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 2 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that the vanC₁ and vanXYc genes were not expressed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and southern hybridisation results showed that the vanC₁ gene was encoded in the chromosome. E. faecalis isolated from animals has been reported to harbour vanC₁gene. However, this study is the first to report the presence of the vanC₁gene in E. faecium of human origin. Additionally, our research showed the vanC₁gene cannot serve as a species-specific gene of E. gallinarum and that it is able to be transferred between bacteria. Although the resistance marker is not expressed in the strain, our results showed that E. faecium could acquire the vanC₁gene from different species.

  20. Investigation on Interaction Between Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium on Biogenic Amine Production%粪肠球菌(Enterococcus faecalis)和屎肠球菌(Enterococcus faecium)产生物胺交互作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒蕊华; 芦士玲; 徐幸莲

    2011-01-01

    粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌是发酵香肠中常检出的2种主要的产酪胺和苯乙胺微生物。将粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌按照不同比例进行混合接种培养,发现在48h连续培养过程中,当粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌以1∶9比例混和接种培养时,体系pH值、细菌数量和酪胺生成量均显著低于其他各处理组;粪肠球菌有很强的产苯乙胺能力而屎肠球菌产苯乙胺能力较弱,当两者混合接种培养时,各混合体系的产苯乙胺水平相当,屎肠球菌产苯乙胺能力不受影响,而粪肠球菌产苯乙胺能力显著降低。%Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the main β-phenylethylamine and tyramine-producing bacteria.In this study,we cultured Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium by different ratio in one medium.During 48hs' cultivation we found that: when the inoculation ratio of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium was 1∶ 9,the pH value,bacteria population and tyramine production were obviously higher than other tested ratios;Enterococcus faecalis has a great capacity for producing β-phenylethylamine while the capacity of Enterococcus faecium was not so great.When Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were inoculated together,the β-phenylethylamine-producing capacity of Enterococcus faecium was not affected while that of Enterococcus faecalis was decreased.

  1. Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in a Pig and Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lodemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Porcine (IPEC-J2 and human (Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4 h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6 h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods.

  2. Use of Enterococcus faecium as a surrogate for Salmonella enterica during extrusion of a balanced carbohydrate-protein meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Andreia; Stratton, Jayne; Weier, Steve; Hartter, Timothy; Plattner, Brian; Rokey, Galen; Hertzel, Gerry; Gompa, Lakshmi; Martinez, Bismarck; Eskridge, Kent M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with the consumption of low-moisture products, including extruded products. Therefore, there is a need for a nonpathogenic, surrogate microorganism that can be used to validate extrusion processes for Salmonella. The objective of this research was to determine if Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 is an adequate surrogate organism for Salmonella during extrusion. Extrusions at different temperatures were done in material contaminated with both organisms. Results indicated that the minimum temperature needed to achieve a 5-log reduction of E. faecium was 73.7°C. Above 80.3°C, the enumeration of E. faecium showed counts below the detectable levels (detection limit of the method. The data show that E. faecium is inactivated at higher temperatures than Salmonella, indicating that its use as a surrogate would provide an appropriate margin of error in extrusion processes designed to eliminate this pathogen. Attempting to minimize risk, the industry could validate different formulations, in combination with thermal treatments, using E. faecium as a safer alternative for those validation studies.

  3. Enterococcal surface protein Esp is not essential for cell adhesion and intestinal colonization of Enterococcus faecium in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Luit-Asbroek Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococcus faecium has globally emerged as a cause of hospital-acquired infections with high colonization rates in hospitalized patients. The enterococcal surface protein Esp, identified as a potential virulence factor, is specifically linked to nosocomial clonal lineages that are genetically distinct from indigenous E. faecium strains. To investigate whether Esp facilitates bacterial adherence and intestinal colonization of E. faecium, we used human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2 cells and an experimental colonization model in mice. Results No differences in adherence to Caco-2 cells were found between an Esp expressing strain of E. faecium (E1162 and its isogenic Esp-deficient mutant (E1162Δesp. Mice, kept under ceftriaxone treatment, were inoculated orally with either E1162, E1162Δesp or both strains simultaneously. Both E1162 and E1162Δesp were able to colonize the murine intestines with high and comparable numbers. No differences were found in the contents of cecum and colon. Both E1162 and E1162Δesp were able to translocate to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Conclusion These results suggest that Esp is not essential for Caco-2 cell adherence and intestinal colonization or translocation of E. faecium in mice.

  4. Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 Modulates Epithelial Integrity, Heat Shock Protein, and Proinflammatory Cytokine Response in Intestinal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Klingspor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have shown positive effects on gastrointestinal diseases; they have barrier-modulating effects and change the inflammatory response towards pathogens in studies in vitro. The aim of this investigation has been to examine the response of intestinal epithelial cells to Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium, a probiotic positively affecting diarrhea incidence in piglets, and two pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli strains, with specific focus on the probiotic modulation of the response to the pathogenic challenge. Porcine (IPEC-J2 and human (Caco-2 intestinal cells were incubated without bacteria (control, with E. faecium, with enteropathogenic (EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC each alone or in combination with E. faecium. The ETEC strain decreased transepithelial resistance (TER and increased IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in both cell lines compared with control cells, an effect that could be prevented by pre- and coincubation with E. faecium. Similar effects were observed for the increased expression of heat shock protein 70 in Caco-2 cells. When the cells were challenged by the EPEC strain, no such pattern of changes could be observed. The reduced decrease in TER and the reduction of the proinflammatory and stress response of enterocytes following pathogenic challenge indicate the protective effect of the probiotic.

  5. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth.

  6. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth. PMID:25907061

  7. Effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on selected lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria in co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, I C; Zentek, J; Vahjen, W

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 is used as a probiotic for piglets and has been shown to modify the porcine intestinal microbiota. However, the mode of action of this probiotic modification is still unclear. One possible explanation is the direct growth inhibiting or stimulating effect of the probiotic on other indigenous bacteria. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the growth interactions of the probiotic with different indigenous porcine bacteria in vitro. Reference strains were cultivated with the probiotic E. faecium strain NCIMB10415 (SF68) in a checkerboard assay with 102 to 105 cells/ml inoculum per strain. Growth kinetics were recorded for 8 h and used to determine specific growth of the co-cultures. Additionally, total DNA was extracted from the co-cultures at the end of the incubation to verify which strain in the co-culture was affected. Co-cultivation with eight Enterococcus spp. tester strains showed strain-specific growth differences. Three of four E. faecium strains were not influenced by the probiotic strain. PCR results showed reduced growth of the probiotic strain in co-culture with E. faecium DSM 6177. Three of four Enterococcus faecalis strains showed reduced specific growth in co-culture with the probiotic strain. However, E. faecalis DSM 20478 impaired growth of the probiotic E. faecium strain. The growth of Lactobacillus johnsonii DSM 10533 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 was enhanced in co-culture with the probiotic strain, but co-cultivations with Lactobacillus mucosae DSM13345 or Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM10533 showed no differences. Co-cultures with the probiotic E. faecium showed no impact on the growth rate of four different enterobacterial reference strains (2 strains of Salmonella enterica and 2 strains of Escherichia coli), but PCR results showed reduced cell numbers for a pathogenic E. coli isolate at higher concentration of the probiotic strain. As the in vitro effect of the probiotic E. faecium on

  8. Biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta and the control of these pathogens through cleaning and sanitization procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-01

    The biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta on stainless steel coupons was evaluated, and the effect of cleaning and sanitization procedures in the control of these biofilms was determined. The formation of biofilms was observed while varying the incubation temperature (7, 25 and 39°C) and time (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). At 7°C, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were below 2 log10 CFU/cm(2). For the temperatures of 25 and 39°C, after 1 day, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were 5.75 and 6.07 log10 CFU/cm(2), respectively, which is characteristic of biofilm formation. The tested sanitation procedures a) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning, b) anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer and c) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer were effective in removing the biofilms, reducing the counts to levels below 0.4 log10 CFU/cm(2). The sanitizer biguanide was the least effective, and peracetic acid was the most effective. These studies revealed the ability of enterococci to form biofilms and the importance of the cleaning step and the type of sanitizer used in sanitation processes for the effective removal of biofilms.

  9. Molecular screening of virulence genes in high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hasani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study screened clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium to determine the prevalence of high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococci and the potential virulence genes among them. Materials and Methods: Clinical enterococcal isolates were obtained from three university teaching hospitals in Northwest Iran. Isolated enterococci were identified phenotypically followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of genus, species-specific targets, gentamicin resistance, and potential virulence genes. Results: Of 220 enterococcal isolates, 133 (60.45% isolates were identified as high-level gentamicin-resistant. Of these isolates, 79 (59.4% and 54 (40.6% were E. faecalis and E. faecium, respectively. All high-level gentamicin-resistant strains carried aac(6′Ie-aph(2″Ia. Of 220 isolates, 65.9% were positive for gelE, and 55%, 53.6%, 51.8%, and 49.5% of isolates were positive for cpd, asa1, ace, and esp, respectively. Phenotypically detected β-haemolytic strains (19.54% were found to possess cylL ls MAB. Conclusion: The study revealed that high-level gentamicin-resistance was related to the presence of aac(6′Ie-aph(2″Ia. Isolated enterococci harboured potential virulence determinants, which were more common among E. faecalis than among E. faecium strains.

  10. Evaluation of whey fermented by Enterococcus faecium in consortium with Veilonella parvula in ruminant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the whey fermented by Enterococcus faecium in consortium with Veilonella parvula on the in vitro growth of ruminal bacteria and as a supplement in the cattle diet. In the in vitro experiment, a randomized design, with the following combinations was used: ruminal bacteria; ruminal bacteria and inactive whey; ruminal bacteria and active whey; and active whey. In the in vivo experiment, five fistulated Zebu Holstein-Zebu crossbred heifers were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Supplements were formulated without the addition of whey, with the addition of two levels of unfermented whey (2.5 and 5 L/day or two levels of fermented whey (2.5 and 5 L/day. A positive effect of the whey fermentation was detected on the consumption of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber, corrected for ash and protein in kg/day. No effects of whey were observed on the pH and concentration of rumen ammonia nitrogen, serum concentration of urea and glucose, urinary excretion of urea or nutrient digestibility, except for the total digestible nutrients. Supplementation with whey improved the apparent nitrogen balance, but supplementation with fermented whey decreased the intestinal flow of microbial nitrogen and microbial synthesis efficiency in relation to the unfermented whey. The whey fermentation process does not optimize the physiological responses of heifers supplemented with 2.5 and 5.0 L of whey.

  11. Bacteriocinogenic potential and safety evaluation of non-starter Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from home made white brine cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Basaglia, Marina; Casella, Sergio; Hue, Isabelle; Dousset, Xavier; Gombossy de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2014-04-01

    Four LAB strains, isolated from Bulgarian home made white brine cheese, were selected for their effective inhibition against Listeria monocytogenes. According to their biochemical and physiological characteristics, the strains were classified as members of Enterococcus genus, and then identified as Enterococcus faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing. Their bacteriocin production and inhibitory spectrum were evaluated together with the occurrence of several bacteriocin genes (entA, entB, entP, entL50B). Their virulence potential and safety was assessed both using PCR targeted to the genes gelE, hyl, asa1, esp, cylA, efaA, ace, vanA, vanB, hdc1, hdc2, tdc and odc and by phenotypical tests for antibiotic resistance, gelatinase, lipase, DNAse and α- and β-haemolysis. The E. faecium strains harboured at least one enterocin gene while the occurrence of virulence, antibiotic resistance and biogenic amines genes was limited. Considering their strong antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes strains, the four E. faecium strains exhibited promising potential as bio-preservatives cultures for fermented food productions.

  12. Probiotic attributes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory effects of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: in vitro and in vivo evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyashri, G; Krishna, G; Muralidhara; Prapulla, S G

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that probiotic bacteria play a vital role in modulating various aspects integral to the health and well-being of humans. In the present study, probiotic attributes and the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory potential of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003 were investigated by employing suitable model systems. E. faecium exhibited robust resistance to gastrointestinal stress conditions as it could withstand acid stress at pH 1.5, 2 and 3. The bacterium also survived at a bile salt concentration of 0.45 %, and better tolerance was observed towards pepsin and trypsin. E. faecium produced lactic acid as a major metabolic product, followed by butyric acid. Lyophilized cell-free supernatant (LCS) of E. faecium exhibited significant antioxidant capacity evaluated against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, ascorbate auto-oxidation, oxygen radical absorbance and reducing power. Interestingly, E. faecium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG MTCC 1408 and LCS showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect by negatively modulating TNF-α production and upregulating IL-10 levels in LPS-stimulated macrophage cell lines. In an in vivo mice model, the propensity of probiotic supplements to modulate endogenous oxidative markers and redox status in brain regions was assessed. Young mice provided with oral supplements (daily for 28 days) of E. faecium and L. rhamnosus exhibited diminished oxidative markers in the brain and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes with a concomitant increase in γ-aminobutyric acid and dopamine levels. Collectively, our findings clearly suggest the propensity of these bacteria to protect against tissue damage mediated through free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms need further studies, it is tempting to speculate that probiotics confer a neuroprotective advantage in vivo against oxidative damage-mediated neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:26450608

  13. Pyrosequencing-based comparative genome analysis of the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium and identification of a large transferable pathogenicity island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonten Marc JM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecium is an important cause of nosocomial infections in immunocompromized patients. Results We present a pyrosequencing-based comparative genome analysis of seven E. faecium strains that were isolated from various sources. In the genomes of clinical isolates several antibiotic resistance genes were identified, including the vanA transposon that confers resistance to vancomycin in two strains. A functional comparison between E. faecium and the related opportunistic pathogen E. faecalis based on differences in the presence of protein families, revealed divergence in plant carbohydrate metabolic pathways and oxidative stress defense mechanisms. The E. faecium pan-genome was estimated to be essentially unlimited in size, indicating that E. faecium can efficiently acquire and incorporate exogenous DNA in its gene pool. One of the most prominent sources of genomic diversity consists of bacteriophages that have integrated in the genome. The CRISPR-Cas system, which contributes to immunity against bacteriophage infection in prokaryotes, is not present in the sequenced strains. Three sequenced isolates carry the esp gene, which is involved in urinary tract infections and biofilm formation. The esp gene is located on a large pathogenicity island (PAI, which is between 64 and 104 kb in size. Conjugation experiments showed that the entire esp PAI can be transferred horizontally and inserts in a site-specific manner. Conclusions Genes involved in environmental persistence, colonization and virulence can easily be aquired by E. faecium. This will make the development of successful treatment strategies targeted against this organism a challenge for years to come.

  14. Reduced susceptibility to quinupristin/dalfopristin in Enterococcus faecium in Greece without prior exposure to the agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanika, M; Prati, A; Kiritsi, M; Spiliopoulou, I; Neonakis, I; Anifantaki, M; Petinaki, E

    2008-01-01

    During 2005-2006, a total of 865 Enterococcus faecium isolated from patients from eight Greek hospitals were tested for susceptibility to quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D). Among them, 250 genetically unrelated strains (28.9%) were found to be intermediate-resistant to Q/D (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 1.5-4 mg/L); all were resistant to dalfopristin (MIC=16-64 mg/L), whilst 69% were resistant to quinupristin, carrying the ermB gene. No strain was found to carry any of the known genes, such as vatE and vatD, involved in Q/D resistance, indicating that a non-transferable undetermined mechanism is responsible for the expression of low-level Q/D resistance. The high percentage of Q/D-intermediate-resistant E. faecium in Greece was not associated with prior consumption of the agent or with the veterinary use of virginiamycin. PMID:17923393

  15. Identification of a New Peptide Deformylase Gene From Enterococcus faecium and Establishment of a New Screening Model Targeted on PDF for Novel Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN-BING TANG; SHU-YI SI; YUE-QIN ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    To identify a new peptide deformylase (PDF) gene (Genebank Accession AY238515) from Enterococcus faecium and to establish a new screening model targeted on PDF. Methods A new PDF gene was identified by BLAST analysis and PCR and was subsequently over-expressed in the prokaryotic expression host E.coli Bl21(DE3). Over-expressed protein was purified for enzymatic assay by metal affinity chromatography and a new screening model was established for novel antibiotics. Result A new PDF gene of Enterococcus faecium was identified successfully. Ten positive samples were picked up from 8000 compound library and the microbial fermentation broth samples. Conclusion A new PDF of gene Enterococcus faecium was first identified and the model had a high efficacy. Positive samples screened may be antibacterial agents of broad spectrum.

  16. Biofilm formation on polystyrene under different temperatures by antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Marinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of antibiotic resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from food to form biofilm at different temperatures in the absence or presence of 0.75% glucose was evaluated. A synergistic effect on biofilm at 10 °C, 28 °C, 37 °C and 45 °C and glucose was observed for E. faecalis and E. faecium.

  17. Biofilm formation on polystyrene under different temperatures by antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, A.R.; Martins, P.D.; Ditmer, E.M.; d’Azevedo, P.A.; Frazzon, J.; Van Der Sand, S.T.; Frazzon, A.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of antibiotic resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from food to form biofilm at different temperatures in the absence or presence of 0.75% glucose was evaluated. A synergistic effect on biofilm at 10 °C, 28 °C, 37 °C and 45 °C and glucose was observed for E. faecalis and E. faecium. PMID:24294231

  18. Persistence of Vancomycin Resistance in Multiple Clones of Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Danish Broilers 15 Years after the Ban of Avoparcin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Mander, Manuela; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence and diversity of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) were investigated in 100 Danish broiler flocks 15 years after the avoparcin ban. VREF occurred in 47 flocks at low fecal concentrations detectable only by selective enrichment. Vancomycin resistance was prevalently...... associated with a transferable nontypeable plasmid lineage occurring in multiple E. faecium clones. Coselection of sequence type 842 by tetracycline use only partly explained the persistence of vancomycin resistance in the absence of detectable plasmid coresistance and toxin-antitoxin systems....

  19. Feeding of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 differentially affects shedding of enteric viruses in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuzer Susanne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effects of probiotic bacteria on viral infections have been described previously. Here, two groups of sows and their piglets were fed with or without feed supplementation of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415. Shedding of enteric viruses naturally occurring in these pigs was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. No differences between the groups were recorded for hepatitis E virus, encephalomyocarditis virus and norovirus. In contrast, astrovirus was exclusively detected in the non-supplemented control group. Rotavirus was shedded later and with lower amounts in the probiotic piglet group (p p p p p p 

  20. Influence of a Probiotic Strain of Enterococcus faecium on Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 Infection in a Porcine Animal Infection Model▿

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó, István; Lothar H Wieler; Tedin, Karsten; Scharek-Tedin, Lydia; Taras, David; Hensel, Andreas; Appel, Bernd; Nöckler, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    The beneficial effects of probiotic Enterococcus spp. in different hosts, such as mice and humans, have previously been reported in several studies. However, studies of large domestic animals, as well as challenge studies with pathogenic microorganisms, are very rare. Here, we investigated the influence of oral treatment of pigs with the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 infections in weaning piglets. Clinical symptoms, fecal...

  1. Purification of a dimeric arginine deiminase from Enterococcus faecium GR7 and study of its anti-cancerous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kaur, Rajinder

    2016-09-01

    The arginine deiminase (ADI, E.C 3.5.3.6) - a key enzyme of ADI pathway of Enterococcus faecium GR7 was purified to homogeneity. A sequential purification strategy involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, molecular sieve followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration was applied to the crude culture filtrate to obtain a pure enzyme preparation. The enzyme was purified with a fold of 16.92 and showed a final specific activity of 76.65IU/mg with a 49.17% yield. The dimeric ADI has a molecular mass of about 94,364.929Da, and comprises of hetrodimers of 49.1kDa and 46.5kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF and PAGE analysis. To assess anti-cancerous activity of ADI by MTT assay was carried out against cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Sp2/0-Ag14 and Hep-G2). Purified ADI exhibited the most profound antiproliferative activity against Hep-G2 cells; with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.95μg/ml. Purified ADI from E. faecium GR7 was observed to induce apoptosis in the Hep-G2 cells by DNA fragmentation assay. Our findings suggest the possibility of a future use of ADI from E. faecium GR7 as a potential anticancer drug.

  2. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing Arginine Deiminase Production Medium for Enterococcus faecium sp. GR7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arginine metabolism in Enterococcus faecium sp. GR7 was enhanced via arginine deiminase pathway. Process parameters including fermentation media and environmental conditions were optimized using independent experiments and response surface methodology (central composite design. Fermentation media (EAPM were optimized using independent experiments which resulted in 4-fold increase in arginine deiminase specific activity as compared to basal medium. To further enhance arginine deiminase activity in E. faecium sp. GR7 and biomass production including a five-level central composite design (CCD was employed to study the interactive effect of three-process variables. Response surface methodology suggested a quadratic model which was further validated experimentally where it showed approximately 15-fold increase in arginine metabolism (in terms of arginine deiminase specific activity over basal medium. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface cartons, optimal concentrations of the media components (g/L were determined as arginine 20.0; tryptone 15.0; lactose 10.0; K2HPO4 3.0; NaCl 1.0, MnSO4 0.6 mM; Tween 80 1%; pH 6.0 for achieving specific arginine deiminase activity of 4.6 IU/mG with concomitant biomass production of 12.1 mg/L. The model is significant as the coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.87 to 0.90 for all responses. Enhanced arginine deiminase yield from E. faecium, a GRAS lactic acid bacterial strain, is desirable to explore in vitro therapeutic potential of the arginine metabolizing E. faecium sp. GR7.

  3. Inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 in a selection of low moisture foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachon, Grzegorz; Peñaloza, Walter; Gibbs, Paul A

    2016-08-16

    The aims of this study were to obtain data on survival and heat resistance of cocktails of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and the surrogate Enterococcus faecium (NRRL B-2354) in four low moisture foods (confectionery formulation, chicken meat powder, pet food and savoury seasoning) during storage before processing. Inoculated samples were stored at 16°C and cell viability examined at day 0, 3, 7 and 21. At each time point, the heat resistance at 80°C was determined. The purpose was to determine a suitable storage time of inoculated foods that can be applied in heat resistance studies or process validations with similar cell viability and heat resistance characteristics. The main inactivation study was carried out within 7days after inoculation, the heat resistance of each bacterial cocktail was evaluated in each low moisture food heated in thermal cells exposed to temperatures between 70 and 140°C. The Weibull model and the first order kinetics (D-value) were used to express inactivation data and calculate the heating time to achieve 5 log reduction at each temperature. Results showed that the pathogens Salmonella and L. monocytogenes and the surrogate E. faecium NRRL B-2354, can survive well (maximum reduction 0.05). The inactivation kinetics of the pathogens and surrogate at temperatures between 70 and 140°C, were different between each organism and product. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was a suitable Salmonella surrogate for three of the low moisture foods studied, but not for the sugar-containing confectionery formulation. Heating low moisture food in moisture-tight environments (thermal cells) to 111.2, 105.3 or 111.8°C can inactivate 5 log of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes or E. faecium NRRL B-2354 respectively. PMID:27174678

  4. Indication of transposition of a mobile DNA element containing the vat(D) and erm(B) genes in Enterococcus faecium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Flannagan, S.E.; Clewell, D.B.;

    2001-01-01

    The vat(D) and erm(B) genes encoding streptogramin resistance in Enterococcus faecium transferred together, and a direct physical link between erm(B) and vat(D) was detected. Both the vat(D) and erm(B) probes hybridized to fragments of different sizes in the donor and transconjugants, which...

  5. tcrB, a gene conferring transferable copper resistance in Enterococcus faecium: occurrence, transferability, and linkage to macrolide and glycopeptide resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2002-01-01

    B protein from Enterococcus hirae. The tcrB gene was found in E. faecium isolated from pigs (75%), broilers (34%), calves (16%), and humans (10%) but not in isolates from sheep. Resistant isolates, containing the tcrB gene, grew on brain heart infusion agar plates containing up to 28 mM CuSO4 compared...

  6. Characterization of vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium isolates from humans, chickens and pigs by RiboPrinting and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Fussing, Vivian; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2000-01-01

    Forty-eight vancomycin-resistant and 35 vancomycin-sensitive Danish Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from pigs, chickens and humans, as well as the human vanA reference isolate BM4147, were characterized by EcoRI RiboPrinting and Smal pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RiboPrinting of the 84...

  7. Avoparcin used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on Danish poultry and pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Flemming; Madsen, M.; Christensen, J.;

    1997-01-01

    We determined the association between the use of the glycopeptide antibiotic avoparcin as a growth promoter and the occurrence of Enterococcus faecium (VREF) with high-level resistance to vancomycin (MIC greater than or equal to 64 mu g ml(-1)) on poultry and pig farms. The investigations were...

  8. Genomic analysis of 495 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium reveals broad dissemination of a vanA plasmid in more than 19 clones from Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, Mette; Gumpert, Heidi; Bayliss, Sion;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: From 2012 to 2014, there has been a huge increase in vancomycin-resistant (vanA) Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) in Copenhagen, Denmark, with 602 patients infected or colonized with VREfm in 2014 compared with just 22 in 2012. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic...

  9. Analysis of distribution and drug resistance of Enterococcus faecium%屎肠球菌的分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭君洛; 王亨; 张敬芝; 孙甜甜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and drug resistance ofEnterococcus faecium,provide evidence for clinical rational use of antimicrobial agents.Methods Retrospective analysis of drug resistance of Enterococcus faecium,summarize the specimen type,distribution of departments and so on,to explore the trend of drug resistance.Results Enterococcus faecium to vancomycin resistance rate from 3.54% (4/113) in 2010,rose to 8.45% (18/213) in 2013.One strains of hnezolid resistant Enterococcus faecium 717 was found,the minimum inhibitory concentration of 7.9 mg/L,not tigecycline resistance in Enterococcus faecium found.Conclusion Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium for linezolid and tigecycline susceptibility is still high,the two kinds of antimicrobial agents can be used for the treatment of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium.%目的 探讨屎肠球菌的分布及耐药性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据.方法 回顾性分析屎肠球菌的耐药性,总结标本类型、科室分布等情况,探讨耐药性的变化趋势.结果 2010年1月至2013年12月每年屎肠球菌分离率呈递增趋势,且耐万古霉素屎肠球菌分离率也逐年增加.屎肠球菌万古霉素耐药率由2010年的3.54%(4/113),上升到2013年的8.45%(18/213).717株中发现1株利奈唑胺耐药屎肠球菌,其最低抑菌浓度为7.9 mg/L,未发现替加环素耐药的屎肠球菌.结论 耐万古霉素屎肠球菌对于利奈唑胺和替加环素的敏感性仍很高,这两种抗菌药物可用于耐万古霉素屎肠球菌的治疗.

  10. Ampicillin Resistance and Outcome Differences in Acute Antepartum Pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G. Greer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure the incidence of ampicillin-resistant uropathogens in acute antepartum pyelonephritis and to determine if patients with resistant organisms had different clinical outcomes. Study design. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of pregnant women admitted with pyelonephritis, diagnosed by standard clinical and laboratory criteria. All patients received ampicillin and gentamicin. Results. We identified 440 cases of acute pyelonephritis. Seventy-two percent (316 cases had urine cultures with identification of organism and antibiotic sensitivities. Fifty-one percent of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant. The patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms were more likely to be older and multiparous. There were no significant differences in hospital course (length of stay, days of antibiotics, ECU admission, or readmission. Patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms did not have higher complication rates (anemia, renal dysfunction, respiratory insufficiency, or preterm birth. Conclusion. A majority of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant, but no differences in outcomes were observed in these patients.

  11. The Antibacterial Effect of Chinese Herb Extracts On Honeybee Pathogen Enterococcus faecium%中草药提取物对蜜蜂屎肠球菌(Enterococcus faecium)的抑制作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建能; 陈盛禄; 李央群; 苏松坤

    2006-01-01

    为了观察中草药对蜜蜂屎肠球菌(Enterococcus faecium)的体外抑菌效果,选用14种中草药按常规法制备水提物,用纸片法和试管二倍稀释法检测中草药水提物对蜜蜂屎肠球菌的抑菌作用.试验结果表明,所选14种中草药中9种对蜜蜂屎肠球菌有中度以上抑菌作用,其中大青叶的抑菌作用最强,其次是黄连、金银花、黄芪、黄芩、大黄、板篮根、淫羊藿和青蒿.

  12. Characterization of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium from clinical and chicken sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asha Peter; Radhakrishnan EK; Jyothis Mathew; Shini Zacharia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate the genomic and phenotypic relationship among E.faecium strains isolated from chicken and clinical sources. Methods: Enterococci were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical methods and the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion methods. Phenotypes and genotypes of vancomycin resistance were detected by E tests and PCR amplification techniques respectively. Genotyping of the vancomycin resistant E.faecium from two sources were done by RAPD typing. Results: The Vancomycin resistant E.faecium identified was selected for this comparative study. Among the VREF from two sources minor biochemical difference with regards to raffinose fermentation and haemolytic properties was observed. The RAPD tests using random primers also showed polymorphism. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the strains from two different sources were not identical.

  13. Antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility profiles of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolated from community wastewater in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Ross C; Duke, Sara E; Ziprin, Richard L; Harvey, Roger B; Hume, Michael E; Poole, Toni L; Scott, H Morgan; Highfield, Linda D; Alali, Walid Q; Andrews, Kathleen; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2008-03-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) from human wastewater effluents in a nonclinical semiclosed agri-food system in Texas were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics and disinfectants. The 50 VRE were resistant to eight fluoroquinolones and 10 of 17 antimicrobials typically active against Gram-positive organisms. The VRE were susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid. Lack of the insertion element IS1251 correlated with VRE susceptibility to streptomycin and gentamicin at p or =2 ppm. Triclosan MICs for many of the VRE were well over expected product application levels. No association was observed between antibiotic resistance and disinfectant susceptibility in these VRE. Enterococci multiply-resistant to vancomycin and aminoglycosides were found in a non-hospital environment where one would not expect to find them. PMID:18193143

  14. Transposon characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) and dissemination of resistance associated with transferable plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Liebana, Ernesto; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2007-01-01

    of the resistance. Methods and results: One hundred and one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from 19 unrelated farms have been investigated. Tn 1546 characterization by long PCR and Clal-digestions of amplicons showed a very low diversity of Tn types (n = 4) in comparison to the high genotypic...... diversity demonstrated by PFGE (n = 62). Conjugation experiments were carried out to assess the transfer of vancomycin resistance. Co-transfer of vanA together with erm(B) positioned on the same conjugative plasmid containing a replicon similar to pRE25 was demonstrated and also the presence of different...... plasmid replicons, associated with antimicrobial resistance on several unrelated farms. Conclusions: Horizontal transfer of vancomycin resistance may play a more important role in the persistence of antimicrobial resistance than clonal spread. The presence of different plasmid replicons, associated...

  15. Optimization of conditions for probiotic curd formulation by Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 with probiotic properties using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2014-11-01

    Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 possessing potential probiotic properties as well as enterocin producing ability was used as starter culture. Effect of time (12-24 h) and inoculum level (3-7 % v/v) on cell growth, bacteriocin production, antioxidant property, titrable acidity and pH of curd was studied by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were 26.48 h and 2.17%v/v inoculum and the second order model validated. Co cultivation studies revealed that the formulated product had the ability to prevent growth of foodborne pathogens that affect keeping quality of the product during storage. The results indicated that application of E. faecium MTCC 5695 along with usage of optimized conditions attributed to the formation of highly consistent well set curd with bioactive and bioprotective properties. Formulated curd with potential probiotic attributes can be used as therapeutic agent for the treatment of foodborne diseases like Traveler's diarrhea and gastroenteritis which thereby help in improvement of bowel health. PMID:26396297

  16. 羊源肠球菌属与屎肠球菌双重PCR检测方法的建立%Establishment of a Duplex PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Sheep-originated Enterococcus and Enterococcus faecium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昆; 凤英; 高娃; 杨斌; 张月梅; 宋越; 陈伟; 吴树清; 赵世华

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To establish a duplex PCR assay for simultaneous and quick detection of sheep-originated clinical isolates of Enterococcus and Enterococcus faecium. [Methods]The genus specific and species specific primers for Enterococcus and Enterococcus faecium targeting at 16S rDNA and ddl gene were designed respectively, and the reaction system of duplex PCR assay was determined. The specificity and sensitivity of the established duplex PCR assay were evaluated. The simulated bacterial infection blood samples were prepared by using healthy sheep blood and mixed bacterial solution and were used to verify the specificity and sensitivity of the established duplex PCR assay in detection of clinical samples. [Results]The results showed that the duplex PCR assay was able to specifically amplify the DNA fragments of 294 bp from Enterococcus and 557 bp from Enterococcus faecium,but was negative for other common animal-originated pathogenic bacteria. The detection limits of the assay for Enterococcus and Enterococcus faecium were 5.71×10-5 ng/μL and 5.71×10-4 ng/μL, respectively. The duplex PCR assay was able to specifically detect the Enterococcus and Enterococcus faecium in simulated bacterial infection blood samples, and the detection limit for Enterococcus faecium was 1×101 CFU/mL. [Conclusion]It was indicated that the established duplex PCR assay is specific and sensitive for detection of clinical Enterococcus and Enterococcus faecium isolates.%[目的]建立羊源肠球菌属与屎肠球菌的双重PCR检测方法,对临床分离的菌株进行快速检测。[方法]设计肠球菌属特异性和屎肠球菌种特异性引物,建立双重PCR反应体系;评价双重PCR反应的特异性和敏感性;利用混合菌液制备模拟感染样品,确定双重PCR反应对模拟感染样品检测的特异性和敏感性。[结果]建立的双重PCR反应能够特异性的扩增肠球菌属(294 bp)和屎肠球菌(557 bp) DNA片段;该方法对常见的

  17. Molecular characterization of resistance, virulence and clonality in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis: A hospital-based study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-xian; Li, Tong; Ning, Yong-zhong; Shao, Dong-hua; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shu-qin; Liang, Guo-wei

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) in China is increasing, the molecular epidemiology of VRE in China is only partly known. This study was conducted to assess the molecular characterization of resistance, virulence and clonality of 69 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) and seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREfs) isolates obtained from a Chinese hospital between July 2011 and July 2013. The glycopeptide resistance genes (VanA and VanB) were screened by multiplex PCR. The presence of five putative virulence genes (esp, gelE, asa1, hyl and cylA) were evaluated by another multiplex PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was used to assess the clonality. All 76 VRE isolates exhibited VanA phenotype and harbored VanA gene. Esp was the only gene detected both in VREfm and VREfs strains, accounting for 89.9% and 42.9%, respectively. The hyl gene was merely positive in 27.5% of VREfm strains. MLST analysis demonstrated three STs (ST6, ST4 and ST470) in VREfs and twelve STs (ST78, ST571, ST17, ST564, ST389, ST18, ST547, ST341, ST414, ST343, ST262 and ST203) in VREfm, which were all designated as CC17 by eBURST algorithm. An outbreak of VREfm belonging to ST571 was found to happen within the neurology ward in this hospital. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ST6 (CC2) VREfs strains in China and the first outbreak report of VREfm strains belonging to ST571 around the world. Our data could offer important information for understanding the molecular features of VRE in China.

  18. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and zinc oxide stimulate immune reactions to trivalent influenza vaccination in pigs but do not affect virological response upon challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenya; Burwinkel, Michael; Chai, Weidong; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Breithaupt, Angele; Hoffmann, Bernd; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Zn(high); 50 ppm, Zn(low)). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Zn(high) and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Zn(low)) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Zn(high)+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Zn(high) and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Zn(low) control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology. PMID:24489827

  19. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a multi-species biofilm with Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and control through sanitation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-01

    The formation of mono-species biofilm (Listeria monocytogenes) and multi-species biofilms (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and L. monocytogenes) was evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness of sanitation procedures for the control of the multi-species biofilm also was evaluated. The biofilms were grown on stainless steel coupons at various incubation temperatures (7, 25 and 39°C) and contact times (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). In all tests, at 7°C, the microbial counts were below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) and not characteristic of biofilms. In mono-species biofilm, the counts of L. monocytogenes after 8 days of contact were 4.1 and 2.8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C, respectively. In the multi-species biofilms, Enterococcus spp. were present at counts of 8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C after 8 days of contact. However, the L. monocytogenes in multi-species biofilms was significantly affected by the presence of Enterococcus spp. and by temperature. At 25°C, the growth of L. monocytogenes biofilms was favored in multi-species cultures, with counts above 6 log CFU/cm(2) after 8 days of contact. In contrast, at 39°C, a negative effect was observed for L. monocytogenes biofilm growth in mixed cultures, with a significant reduction in counts over time and values below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) starting at day 4. Anionic tensioactive cleaning complemented with another procedure (acid cleaning, disinfection or acid cleaning+disinfection) eliminated the multi-species biofilms under all conditions tested (counts of all micro-organisms<0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). Peracetic acid was the most effective disinfectant, eliminating the multi-species biofilms under all tested conditions (counts of the all microorganisms <0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). In contrast, biguanide was the least effective disinfectant, failing to eliminate biofilms under all the test conditions.

  20. Acquisition of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains during long-term hospitalization and fast adaptation of enterococcal flora to antibiotic treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Berit; Wolz, Christiane; Schumacher, Ulrike; Beyser, Kurt; Heeg, Peter; Borgmann, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Recently, it has been suspected that long durations of hospitalization might be a possible risk factor to get colonized by multiple VRE strains. Here we present the case of a patient who underwent stem cell transplantation and subsequently stayed at the hospital for about 4 months until death. At least four different Enterococcus faecium strains were identified from routinely taken microbiological specimens as demonstrated by pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis. Additionally, these strains showed variable susceptibility to quinupristine/dalfopristine, vancomycin, and/or linezolid depending on different antibiotic administrations. These findings indicate that patients might be colonized with multiple Enterococcus faecium strains and that the enterococcal flora quickly adapts due to antibiotic exposure.

  1. HIGH-LEVEL AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE ENTEROCOCCUS SPP IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Giono Cerezo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus is one important cause hospital-acquired infections. High levels of resistance for aminoglycosides (HLAR as gentamicin (HLGR and streptomycin (HLSR in Enterococcus isolates in a tertiary clinical care in Mexico City were studied. Identified using Microscan® system. Resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin and vancomycin according to NCCLS. HLGR and HLSR were confirmed using disks. 91 strains were isolated and identified from clinical samples from January 1998 to January 1999. Two species were identified. 83 (91.2 % E. faecalis and 8/91 (8.8 % were E. faecium. E. faecalis in urine samples were 67/91 (73.6%. Neither showed vancomycin or ampicillin resistance; 1/8 E. faecium was ampicillin resistant. 30/83 (36% E. faecalis and 3/8 E. faecium were gentamicin resistant; while 39/83 (47.0% E. faecalis and 4/8(50% E. faecium were streptomycin resistant. 14/83 (16% E. faecalis, 3/8 E. faecium showed sensitive pattern for gentamicin and streptomycin. None strains were -lactamases producer. E. faecalis 12/83 (14.4% were HLGR and 28/83 (33.7% were HLSR. E. faecium. 2/8 were HLGR and 2/8 were HLSR. HLAR 33/83 (39.7% were E. faecalis and 3/8(37.5% were E. faecium isolated from urine. E. faecalis was more frequent than E. faecium and show that HLAR in Enterococci is high and could be a serious problem if spread as nosocomial infection. RESUMEN: Enterococcus es una causa importante de infección intrahospitalaria. Se determinaron los niveles altos de resistencia para aminoglucósidos(HLAR, gentamicina (HLGR y estreptomicina (HLSR en Enterococcus aislados de diversos casos clínicos en un hospital de tercer nivel en México, D.F. La identificación se realizó usando el sistema de Microscan® y la resistencia a ampicilina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, vancomicina, HLGR y HLSR de acuerdo a la NCCLS. 91 cepas fueron aisladas de muestras clínicas de Enero de 1998 a Enero 1999, se identificaron dos especies. 83 (91.2% E. faecalis y 8/91 (8

  2. A thioredoxin fusion protein of VanH, a D-lactate dehydrogenase from Enterococcus faecium: cloning, expression, purification, kinetic analysis, and crystallization.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, V. S.; Manohar, A. V.; Gillon, W.; MacFarlane, E. L.; Hynes, R. C.; Pai, E F

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding the vancomycin resistance protein VanH from Enterococcus faecium, a D-lactate dehydrogenase, has been cloned into a thioredoxin expression system (pTRxFus) and expressed as a fusion protein. The use of several other expression systems yielded only inclusion bodies from which no functional protein could be recovered. Experiments to remove the thioredoxin moiety by enterokinase cleavage at the engineered recognition site under a variety of conditions resulted in nonspecific pr...

  3. VanC型肠球菌与屎肠球菌对常用抗菌药的耐药状况研究%Study on the resistance rate of VanC type Enterococcus and Enterococcus faecium to antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代强; 薛峰; 郑波

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较VanC型肠球菌及屎肠球菌对常用抗菌药物的敏感性。方法针对56株VanC型肠球菌及299株屎肠球菌,用琼脂二倍稀释法进行药物敏感性分析;检测高水平耐万古霉素屎肠球菌的万古霉素耐药基因型。结果VanC型肠球菌万古霉素最低抑菌浓度( MIC)众数为4 mg・ L-1,未发现对氨苄西林、万古霉素、替考拉宁及利奈唑胺耐药的VanC型肠球菌。屎肠球菌对氨苄西林、左氧氟沙星、红霉素及利福平的耐药率均达85%以上;对万古霉素和替考拉宁的耐药率分别为1.7%和0.7%;未发现对利奈唑胺和替加环素耐药的屎肠球菌。屎肠球菌万古霉素MIC众数为0.5 mg・ L-1。5株万古霉素屎肠球菌万古霉素耐药基因均为vanA型。结论屎肠球菌对万古霉素尚保持较高敏感性,万古霉素对VanC型肠球菌最低抑菌浓度较屎肠球菌高。%Objective To compare susceptibility of the VanC phenotype Enterococcus and Enterococcus faecium to antibiotics normally used in clinical.Method The antimicrobial susceptibility of 53 isolates of VanC type Enterococcus and 299 isolates of E.faecium were determined by ar-gar dilution.The vancomycin resistance genes were analysis of high -level vancomycin-resistant E.faecium.Results The median minimum inhibitory concentration( MIC) distribution of VanC phenotype Enteroco-ccus to wancomycin was 4 mg・ L-1 , no VanC phenotype Enterococcus were found resistant to ampicilin, vancomycin, teicoplanin and linizolid. The resistant rates of E.faecium to ampicillin, levofloxacin, erythromy-cin and rifampin were above 85%.The resistant rates of E.faecium to vancomycin and teicoplanin were 1.7% and 0.7%, sepreately. No E.faecium isolates were found resistant to linizolid.The median MIC distribution of E.faecium to vancomycin was 0.5 mg・ L-1 .vanA gene were found in 5 isolates of vancomycin resistant E.faeciums.Conclusion E.faecium remained sensitive

  4. Identification and functional characterization of the putative polysaccharide biosynthesis protein (CapD) of Enterococcus faecium U0317.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Spiess, Meike; Wobser, Dominique; Rodriguez, Marta; Blum, Hubert E; Sakιnç, Türkân

    2016-01-01

    Most bacterial species produce capsular polysaccharides that contribute to disease pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system and are also involved in inhibiting leukocyte killing. In the present study, we identified a gene in Enterococcus faecium U0317 with homologies to the polysaccharide biosynthesis protein CapD that is made up of 336 amino acids and putatively catalyzes N-linked glycosylation. A capD deletion mutant was constructed and complemented by homologous recombination that was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The mutant revealed different growth behavior and morphological changes compared to wild-type by scanning electron microscopy, also the capD mutant showed a strong hydrophobicity and that was reversed in the reconstituted mutant. For further characterization and functional analyses, in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo a mouse infection models were used. Antibodies directed against alpha lipotechoic acid (αLTA) and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (αPpiC), effectively mediated the opsonophagocytic killing in the capD knock-out mutant, while this activity was not observed in the wild-type and reconstituted mutant. By comparison more than 2-fold decrease was seen in mutant colonization and adherence to both T24 and Caco2 cells. However, a significant higher bacterial colonization was observed in capD mutant during bacteremia in the animal model, while virulence in a mouse UTI (urinary tract infection) model, there were no obvious differences. Further studies are needed to elucidate the function of capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene clusters and its involvement in the disease pathogenesis with the aim to develop targeted therapies to treat multidrug-resistant E. faecium infections.

  5. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from carriage and clinical samples in a tertiary hospital, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalan, Aysegul; Coskun-Ari, Fatma Filiz; Ozdem, Birsen; Unaldi, Ozlem; Celikbilek, Nevreste; Kirca, Fisun; Aydogan, Sibel; Muderris, Tuba; Guven, Tumer; Acikgoz, Ziya Cibali; Durmaz, Riza

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the presence of vancomycin resistance (vanA and vanB) and virulence genes (esp, asa1, gelE, ace, hyl, cylA, cpd and ebpA) in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains and to analyse the clonal relationships among the strains. E. faecium strains were identified from rectal and clinical specimens by biochemical tests and the API-20 Strep kit. Susceptibility testing was performed using disc-diffusion and broth-dilution methods. PFGE was used for molecular typing of the VREfm strains. The vancomycin resistance and virulence genes were amplified by two-step multiplex PCR. All 55 VREfm isolates were resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin and high-level gentamicin but were susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid. Multiplex PCR analysis indicated that all isolates harboured vanA and that 41 (75 %) were positive for virulence genes. The esp gene was the most common virulence factor and was detected in nine (41 %) invasive and 32 (96.7 %) non-invasive isolates. Multiple virulence genes were observed only in two non-invasive isolates; one harboured esp and ebpA and the other harboured esp, ebpA, asa1, gelE and cpd. PFGE typing yielded 16 different types, seven of which were clusters with two to 14 strains each. The clustering rates of the rectal swab, blood and urine isolates were 72.7 %, 61.5 % and 87.5 %, respectively. The genetic similarity observed among the VREfm isolates indicated cross-transmission in the hospital. Further studies on the virulence factors present in the strains might provide insight into the acquisition of these traits and their contribution to increased prevalence of VREfm.

  6. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from carriage and clinical samples in a tertiary hospital, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalan, Aysegul; Coskun-Ari, Fatma Filiz; Ozdem, Birsen; Unaldi, Ozlem; Celikbilek, Nevreste; Kirca, Fisun; Aydogan, Sibel; Muderris, Tuba; Guven, Tumer; Acikgoz, Ziya Cibali; Durmaz, Riza

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the presence of vancomycin resistance (vanA and vanB) and virulence genes (esp, asa1, gelE, ace, hyl, cylA, cpd and ebpA) in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains and to analyse the clonal relationships among the strains. E. faecium strains were identified from rectal and clinical specimens by biochemical tests and the API-20 Strep kit. Susceptibility testing was performed using disc-diffusion and broth-dilution methods. PFGE was used for molecular typing of the VREfm strains. The vancomycin resistance and virulence genes were amplified by two-step multiplex PCR. All 55 VREfm isolates were resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin and high-level gentamicin but were susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid. Multiplex PCR analysis indicated that all isolates harboured vanA and that 41 (75 %) were positive for virulence genes. The esp gene was the most common virulence factor and was detected in nine (41 %) invasive and 32 (96.7 %) non-invasive isolates. Multiple virulence genes were observed only in two non-invasive isolates; one harboured esp and ebpA and the other harboured esp, ebpA, asa1, gelE and cpd. PFGE typing yielded 16 different types, seven of which were clusters with two to 14 strains each. The clustering rates of the rectal swab, blood and urine isolates were 72.7 %, 61.5 % and 87.5 %, respectively. The genetic similarity observed among the VREfm isolates indicated cross-transmission in the hospital. Further studies on the virulence factors present in the strains might provide insight into the acquisition of these traits and their contribution to increased prevalence of VREfm. PMID:25976005

  7. 粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的临床分布特点及其耐药性研究%Research on the clinical infection and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙一峰; 唐黎明

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究医院患者肠球菌感染特点及其耐药性,为临床合理选择抗菌药物提供参考.方法 通过临床病原学标本检测方法,收集和分析某医院患者送检标本粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌检验结果.结果 该医院2013-2014年间,从住院患者送检病原学标本中共分离出屎肠球菌137株和粪肠球菌125株,主要分离自尿液,构成比分别为45.26%和41.60%.临床分离的屎肠球菌对红霉素、氨苄西林和环丙沙星的耐药率均超过80%;而粪肠球菌对氨苄西林和环丙沙星的耐药率均较低.两种肠球菌均对替加环素和万古霉素高度敏感.结论 该医院临床分离的屎肠球菌和粪肠球菌主要来自尿液;两种肠球菌对抗菌药物耐药谱存在差别,提示应加强药敏试验,合理选用抗菌药物.%Objective To study the clinical infection characteristic and antibiotic-resistance so as to provide reference for the clinical diagnosis and reasonable medication. Methods The determination test of clinical pathogenic sampling was used to collect and analyze the detection results of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in samples from hospital pa-tients. Results The 137 strains of Enterococcus faecium and 125 strains of Enterococcus faecalis detected from pathogenic samples of inpatients from 2013-2014 in this hospital were mainly isolated from urine,the constituent ratios were 45. 26%and 41. 60% respectively. The resistance rates of Enterococcus faecium to Erythromycin, Ampicillin and Ciprofloxacin were all above 80%, which were obviously higher than that of Enterococcus faecalis. The sensitivity of these strains to Tigecycline and Vancomycin were all 100%. Conclusion The Enterococcus are mainly isolated from urine. The resistance rate of En-terococcus faecium to commonly used antibiotics are higher, and we should strengthen the drug sensitivity test and monito-ring clinical drug resistance.

  8. SURVEILLANCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS AND ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM STRAINS ISOLATED FROM INPATIENTS%临床分离粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的耐药性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕成岭; 樊淑珍

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To get knowledge of antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus Faecalis and Enterococcus Faecium to antibiotics, and further provide basis for treatment. Methods:316 strians of enterococci composed of 126 strains of enterococcus faecalis and 190 strains of enterococcus faecium were cultured and isolated from samples of inpatients and outpatients,and distribution of infection and antimicrobial resistance were analyzed. Agar dilution method was used to do antibiotic susceptibility test,and the results were determined based on the standard of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute ( CLSI 2012 ) . Results:The resistance rate of enterococcus faecium to penicillin G ( 93 . 7%) is the highest among all of the antimicrobial tested, followed by erythromycin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin. The resistance rate of enterococcus faecium to quinupristin/dalfopristin(74%) was the highest among all of the antimicrobials tested,followed by tetracycline,erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. The resistance rate of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium to linezolid and vancomycin were all lower than 2%,and that to teicoplanin was the lowest(0%) . Conclusions:The resistance rate of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium to different kinds of antibiotics differed much. Bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be performed before anti-infection treatment initiated and reasonable antibiotics be selected based on antimicrobial susceptibility test report.%目的:了解粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌对抗菌药物的耐药性,为临床提供治疗依据。方法:对住院及门诊病人送检样本中培养分离出316株肠球菌(粪肠球菌126株,屎肠球菌190株)的感染分布与耐药情况进行分析。采用稀释法进行药物敏感试验,结果按美国临床实验室标准化研究所标准判定。结果:屎肠球菌对青霉素G的耐药率最高(93.7%),其次为红霉素、氨苄西林和环丙沙星。粪肠球菌对奎

  9. Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Enterococcus Surveillance Programme annual report, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Pearson, Julie C; Christiansen, Keryn; Gottlieb, Thomas; Bell, Jan M; George, Narelle; Turnidge, John D

    2013-09-01

    In 2010, 15 institutions around Australia conducted a period prevalence study of key resistances in isolates of Enterococcus species associated with a range of clinical disease amongst in- and outpatients. Each institution collected up to 100 consecutive isolates and tested these for susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials using standardised methods. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on representative pulsotypes of E. faecium. Susceptibility results were compared with similar surveys conducted in 1995, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2009. In the 2010 survey, E. faecalis (1,201 isolates) and E. faecium (170 isolates) made up 98.9% of the 1,386 isolates tested. Ampicillin resistance was very common (85.3%) in E. faecium and absent in E. faecalis. Non-susceptibility to vancomycin was 36.5% in E. faecium (similar to the 35.2% in 2009 but up from 15.4% in the 2007 survey) and 0.5% in E. faecalis. There were significant differences in the proportion of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium between the states ranging from 0% in Western Australia to 54.4% in South Australia. The vanB gene was detected in 62 E. faecium and 3 E. faecalis isolates. The vanA gene was detected in 1 E. faecium isolate. All vancomycin-resistant E. faecium belonged to clonal complex 17. The most common sequence type (ST) was ST203, which was found in all regions that had reports of vancomycin resistant enterococci. ST341 was detected only in New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory and ST414 only in South Australia and Victoria. High-level resistance to gentamicin was 34.1% in E. faecalis and 66.1% in E. faecium. A subset of isolates was tested against high-level streptomycin, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin. High-level streptomycin resistance was found in 8.2% of E. faecalis isolates and 43.8% of E. faecium isolates. Linezolid non

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Bonvital (Enterococcus faecium as a feed additive for sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bonvital is a preparation of a strain of Enterococcus faecium authorised for piglets, pigs for fattening, sows, chickens for fattening, chickens reared for laying and minor poultry species. EFSA was requested to assess the safety and efficacy of Bonvital when used with sows throughout the complete reproductive cycle at the dose of 5 × 108 CFU/kg feed. The safety for the target species, consumers of products derived from animals fed the additive, users and the environment has been considered in the context of the previous opinions. The FEEDAP Panel is not aware of any information that would lead it to revise these conclusions. Consequently, the FEEDAP Panel has considered only the efficacy of Bonvital for sows. The results of three studies each performed over two complete reproductive cycles showed that Bonvital, at the minimum recommended dose of 5 × 108 CFU/kg feed, has the potential to increase litter weight gain or maintain sow condition. Based on these results, the FEEDAP Panel concludes that the data provided support the extension of use of the additive to the entire reproductive cycle.

  11. Intestinal Structure and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with a Synbiotic Containing Enterococcus faecium and Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha Awad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of the synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO [a combination of Enterococcus faecium, a prebiotic (derived from chicory and immune modulating substances (derived from sea algae], with a dose of 1 kg/ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets on the intestinal morphometry and nutrient absorption. The general performance was improved (P < 0.05 by the dietary inclusion of synbiotic compared with the controls. Furthermore, the addition of synbiotic increased (P < 0.001 the villus height/crypt depth ratio and villus height in ileum. However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of synbiotic compared with control. The addition of glucose in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001 in short-circuit current (Isc in jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in both synbiotic and control groups. However, in jejunum the percentage of Isc increase after glucose addition was higher for synbiotic group (333 % than control group (45 %. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO increased the growth performance and improved intestinal morphology and nutrient absorption.

  12. Characterization of a heat stable anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium isolated from idli batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayendra, S V N; Rajashree, K; Halami, Prakash M

    2010-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce various types of bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized polypeptides, which have antibacterial spectrum against many food borne pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium, is of particular concern to the food industry because of its ability to grow even at refrigeration temperatures and its tolerance to preservative agents. Some of the bacteriocins of LAB are known to have anti-listerial property. In the present study, the bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium El and J4 isolated from idli batter samples was characterized. The isolates were found to tolerate high temperatures of 60°C for 15 and 30 min and 70°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin was found to be heat stable and had anti-listerial activity. The bacteriocin did not lost anti-listerial activity when treated at 100°C for 30 min or at 121°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin lost its antimicrobial activity after treating with trypsin, protinase-K, protease and peptidase. PMID:23100837

  13. Characterization of a heat stable anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium isolated from idli batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayendra, S V N; Rajashree, K; Halami, Prakash M

    2010-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce various types of bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized polypeptides, which have antibacterial spectrum against many food borne pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium, is of particular concern to the food industry because of its ability to grow even at refrigeration temperatures and its tolerance to preservative agents. Some of the bacteriocins of LAB are known to have anti-listerial property. In the present study, the bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium El and J4 isolated from idli batter samples was characterized. The isolates were found to tolerate high temperatures of 60°C for 15 and 30 min and 70°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin was found to be heat stable and had anti-listerial activity. The bacteriocin did not lost anti-listerial activity when treated at 100°C for 30 min or at 121°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin lost its antimicrobial activity after treating with trypsin, protinase-K, protease and peptidase.

  14. Antimicrobial activity and the presence of virulence factors and bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus faecium CM33 isolated from ewe colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUSEF eNAMI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractScreening of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ewe colostrum led to the identification and isolation of Enterococcus faecium CM33 with interesting features, such as high-survival rates under acidic or bile salt conditions, high tolerance to the simulated gastrointestinal condition, and high adhesive potential to Caco-2 cells. According to the inhibition of pathogen adhesion test results, this strain could reduce more than 50% adhesion capacity of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Caco-2 cells. Based on the antibiotic sensitivity test findings, E. faecium CM33 was susceptible to gentamycin, vancomycin, erythromycin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and kanamycin. Upon the assessment of the virulence determinants for E. faecium CM33, this strain was negative for all tested virulence genes. Furthermore, the genome of this strain was evaluated for the incidence of the known enterocin genes by specific PCR amplification, and the genes encoding enterocins A, 31, X, and Q were discovered. The findings of this study showed that the strain E. faecium CM33 could be considered a valuable nutraceutical, and it can be introduced as a new potential probiotic.

  15. 微囊化屎肠球菌活茵制剂的研究%Study on the production technology and properties of microencapsulated Enterococcus faecium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷婷; 李爱科; 陶浩瀚; 易建明

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究制备新型微囊化屎肠球菌活菌制剂的方法.[方法]采用发酵前包被工艺,对屎肠球菌进行微囊化,在加入适量氯化钙的MRS培养基中进行固化培养,过滤收集微胶囊,45℃干燥后得到微囊化屎肠球菌活菌制剂.采用平板菌落计数法评价其对80℃高温、模拟胃肠液及常温贮藏条件的耐受能力.[结果]采用发酵前包被工艺获得的微囊化屎肠球菌液态产品的活菌数较发酵后包被工艺提高了2 lgCFU/mL.通过在发酵培养基中加入2 g/L氯化钙,并在45 C条件下烘干,不仅可以得到球形度好、大小均匀的微囊化屎肠球菌固态产品,而且其活菌数可以达到11.57 lgCFU/g.与游离屎肠球菌同态产品相比.微囊化屎肠球菌活菌制剂具有更强的耐受80 C高温及模拟胃肠液的能力(P<0.01).在常温条件下储存2个月,活菌数基本没有变化.[结论]微囊化屎肠球菌活菌制剂的发酵前包被制备工艺简单、产品形态较好、抗逆性强、稳定性高,且具有较高的包埋率,可以作为饲用高活性微生态制剂应用于生产实际.%[Objective] The research prepared and studied probiotics of new microencapsulated Entero-coccus faecium. [Method] In this paper, we microencapsulated Enterococcus faecium using coating technology before fermentation,collected them by filtration technology,cultured in MRS medium adding suitable concentration of anhydrous calcium chloride,dried under the condition of 45 ℃ and got solid microencapsulated Enterococcus faecium products. And their tolerance abilities to the 80 ℃ temperature and the artificial gastric and intestinal fluids were evaluated in viable plate counts. [Result] The viable bacteria counts of liquid microencapsulated Enterococcus faecium products using coating technology before fermentation increased by 2 lgCFU/mL,more than that after fermentation. We could not only get both moderate sizes and ideal morphology products,but also high

  16. Isolation and identification of Enterococcus faecium from seafoods: antimicrobial resistance and production of bacteriocin-like substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Antonio Sánchez; Benomar, Nabil; Abriouel, Hikmate; Cañamero, Magdalena Martínez; Gálvez, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    A collection of isolates from uncooked seafoods (molluscs, fish, and fish fillets) were identified as Enterococcus faecium species and studied in further detail. Isolates were clustered in well-defined genomic groups according to food origin after ERIC-PCR analysis. Four isolates (FR 1-2, FB 1-3-B, FB 3-1, FTA 1-2) decarboxylated lysine, ornithine, and tyrosine. Isolate FR 1-2 also decarboxylated histidine. Most isolates were sensitive to antibiotics of clinical use, but resistance was detected more frequently towards nitrofurantoin (50%), erythromycin (33.33%) or rifampicin (33.33%) to quinupristin/dalfopristin (12.5%). Resistance to beta-lactams or vancomycin was not detected. The enterococcal antigen A was the presumed virulence trait detected most frequently. None of isolates carried haemolysin/cytolysin genes. Twelve isolates produced anti-listerial activity. Among them, seven isolates also produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances against other enterococci, and one isolate was also able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus. Three isolates only were active against Listeria monocytogenes, and two only were active against enterococci. One bacteriocinogenic isolate carried the enterocin A structural gene, but genes corresponding to other enterocins (EntB, EntP, EntQ, Ent1071, EntL50A/EntL50B, and Ent31) were not detected. Bacteriocin-producing enterococci lacking undesirable traits (such as antibiotic resistance or biogenic amine production) or their produced bacteriocins could be potential candidates to aid in preservation of seafoods and other food products as well. PMID:20688238

  17. Clinical study on the efficacy of mesalazine and live combined Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium enteric-coated capsules in the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ping Hu; Xi-Li Chen; Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of mesalazine and live combined Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium enteric-coated capsules in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods:A total of 70 patients with UC who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2015 to January, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the control group were given mesalazine, 1 g/time, 4 times a day. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given live combined Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium enteric-coated capsules, 0.42 g/time, 3 times/d, taken with warm water half an hour after meal. Four-week treatment was regarded as one course. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 before and after treatment were determined. The change of Sutherland index was detected, and the efficacy was estimated.Results: The serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced, IL-10 level was significantly elevated when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group. Sutherland index after treatment in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group. The total effective rate in the observation group (97.14%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (80.00%).Conclusions:Mesalazine and live combined Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium enteric-coated capsules in the treatment of UC can effectively regulate the cytokine level, correct the intestinal flora disturbance, and improve the intestinal environment, with a satisfying clinical effect.

  18. Intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers and histomorphological parameters in the porcine gut after Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 feeding in a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Neumann, K; Plendl, J

    2015-03-15

    Salmonellae are among the most widespread sources of foodborne infections and Salmonella Typhimurium, in particular, is correlated with human disease caused by the consumption of contaminated pork. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) have early contact with intestinal antigens and play an important role in the detection of pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine whether a presumed probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain could improve histomorphological and immune system-related parameters of gut function after a Salmonella challenge in weaned pigs. In particular the morphological parameters villus length and width, crypt depth and width as well as the actual enlargement of the intestinal epithelial surface were calculated and the number of IEL was evaluated in sections of the porcine gut. Weaned piglets were challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104, and half of them also received Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in the diet. Animals were sacrificed at days post infection (DPI) 2 and 28. The effect of the factors "time post-infection/age" and "probiotic treatment" on jejunal morphology and IEL numbers and distribution was evaluated by light microscopy. The time post-infection had significant effects in both feeding groups. Animals sacrificed at DPI 28 had longer and wider villi, deeper and wider crypts, a higher villus enlargement factor, a higher ratio between villus and crypt enlargement factors as well as more IEL. Probiotic treatment resulted in longer villi, a higher ratio of villus surface/crypt circumference enlargement factors and significantly more IEL. The larger total number of IEL displayed by the probiotic group resulted from significantly higher numbers of IEL at the nuclear and apical levels of the intraepithelial compartment but not from the number of IEL situated at the basement membrane. The probiotic effects were only measurable 28 DPI. It is proposed that Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 exerts an

  19. Differentiation of vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium from vanA-negative E. faecium by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kato, Karin; Yunoki, Tomoyuki; Hotta, Go; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Ito, Yutaka; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens that require rapid and accurate detection for infection control. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) has begun to be used in many clinical laboratories because it is a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for identifying micro-organisms. In this study, the performance of MALDI-TOF/MS to differentiate vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium (VPEF) from vanA-negative E. faecium (VNEF) was evaluated. A total of 61 VPEF isolates collected during regional surveillance in Kyoto (Japan) and 71 VNEF isolates collected from bacteraemia patients were analysed using MALDI-TOF/MS with three ClinProTools models. All of the isolates were correctly identified as E. faecium using the MALDI Biotyper system. To discriminate between VPEF and VNEF, all three ClinProTools models yielded >90% recognition capability (basic sensitivity) and cross-validation (reliability of the models); the genetic algorithm model exhibited the highest performance (99.18% and 92.40%, respectively). The high detection performance of MALDI-TOF/MS for VPEF offers the potential for routine laboratory use. PMID:25104134

  20. Differentiation of vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium from vanA-negative E. faecium by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kato, Karin; Yunoki, Tomoyuki; Hotta, Go; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Ito, Yutaka; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens that require rapid and accurate detection for infection control. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) has begun to be used in many clinical laboratories because it is a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for identifying micro-organisms. In this study, the performance of MALDI-TOF/MS to differentiate vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium (VPEF) from vanA-negative E. faecium (VNEF) was evaluated. A total of 61 VPEF isolates collected during regional surveillance in Kyoto (Japan) and 71 VNEF isolates collected from bacteraemia patients were analysed using MALDI-TOF/MS with three ClinProTools models. All of the isolates were correctly identified as E. faecium using the MALDI Biotyper system. To discriminate between VPEF and VNEF, all three ClinProTools models yielded >90% recognition capability (basic sensitivity) and cross-validation (reliability of the models); the genetic algorithm model exhibited the highest performance (99.18% and 92.40%, respectively). The high detection performance of MALDI-TOF/MS for VPEF offers the potential for routine laboratory use.

  1. Inhibition of Ampicillin-resistance in Bacteria by Modified DNAzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; LI Zhe; YANG Shuo; WANG Rui-jian; LIU Bin; SONG Yu-ming; SUN Yan-hong; HAO Dong-yun; NG Xlao-ping

    2008-01-01

    To overcome ampicillin-resistance of bacteria which is believed to attribute their endogenous β-lactamase,we designed three 10-23 DNAzymes(DZ1,Dz2,Dz3) targeting the coding region of β-lactamase mRNA and examined their inhibitory capabilities of the ampicillin-resistance of TEM-1 and TEM-3 bacteria,Dz1 was a traditional 10-23 DNAzyme,Dz2 was the mutant of Dz1 by addition of the protected nucleotide to each arm of the enzyme,and Dz3 was a mutant of DZ1 at antisense arms of which phosphorothioate modifications were made,Kinetic analysis,bacterial growth,and β-lactamase activity measurement showed that all the three DNAzymes worked efficiently in vitro and in vivo,A 9 hours bacterial growth inhibition test showed that the inhibition rates of TEM-1 bacteria by Dz1,Dz2,and Dz3 were 27%,50%,and 29%,respectively,In addition,the inhibition rates of TEM-3 bacteria by those three DNAzymes were found to be 49%,58%,and 45%,respectively,The current findings suggest that DNAzymes may become potential candidates of alternative inhibitors for bacteria drug-resistance.

  2. Relevance of hot spots in the evolution and transmission of Tn1546 in glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GREF) from broiler origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Hasman, Henrik; Svendsen, Christina Aaby;

    2008-01-01

    -resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from broiler farms. Methods: Total DNA was digested, ligated and amplified using primers from inside Tn1546. The resulting amplicons were purified and sequenced. Two new primers were designed based on obtained sequences. Results: Two main insertion points have been repeatedly......) was duplicated as previously described, indicating transposition at the target site. Furthermore, this 'hot spot' was also detected in isolates from Norway (2/8) and Denmark (17/20). The second insertion point detected in 45 isolates from the UK revealed integration into an Inc18-like plasmid, most likely...

  3. Mechanisms of Resistance to Quinupristin-Dalfopristin among Isolates of Enterococcus faecium from Animals, Raw Meat, and Hospital Patients in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani, Mehnam; Beighton, David; Philpott-Howard, John; Woodford, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-eight quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant isolates of Enterococcus faecium from hospital patients and nonhuman sources in European countries were studied. High-level resistance (MICs, ≥32 μg/ml) was associated with the presence of vat(E) (satG) (14 isolates [50%]) or vat(D) (satA) (6 isolates [21%]). These genes were not detected in eight (29%) isolates with lower levels of quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance (MICs, 4 to 16 μg/ml). This suggests the presence of further mechanisms of r...

  4. Clinical-Use-Associated Decrease in Susceptibility of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium to Linezolid: a Comparison with Quinupristin-Dalfopristin

    OpenAIRE

    Raad, Issam I.; Hanna, Hend A.; Hachem, Ray Y.; Dvorak, Tanya; Arbuckle, Rebecca B.; Chaiban, Gassan; Rice, Louis B.

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of 135 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium bacteremic isolates to linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin was determined. All were susceptible to linezolid, while 88% were susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin prior to the clinical use of the drugs at our hospital. More than 6 months after their clinical use, a decrease in susceptibility was noted for only linezolid at 83%. This was related in part to a single G2576U gene mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene.

  5. The N-terminal domain of the thermo-regulated surface protein PrpA of Enterococcus faecium binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Prieto, Ana M; Urbanus, Rolf T; Zhang, Xinglin; Bierschenk, Damien; Koekman, C Arnold; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P; Pape, Marieke; Paganelli, Fernanda L; Wobser, Dominique; Huebner, Johannes; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; van Schaik, Willem

    2015-12-17

    Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, but is also found in non-enteric environments where it can grow between 10 °C and 45 °C. E. faecium has recently emerged as a multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogen. We hypothesized that genes involved in the colonization and infection of mammals exhibit temperature-regulated expression control and we therefore performed a transcriptome analysis of the clinical isolate E. faecium E1162, during mid-exponential growth at 25 °C and 37 °C. One of the genes that exhibited differential expression between 25 °C and 37 °C, was predicted to encode a peptidoglycan-anchored surface protein. The N-terminal domain of this protein is unique to E. faecium and closely related enterococci, while the C-terminal domain is homologous to the Streptococcus agalactiae surface protein BibA. This region of the protein contains proline-rich repeats, leading us to name the protein PrpA for proline-rich protein A. We found that PrpA is a surface-exposed protein which is most abundant during exponential growth at 37 °C in E. faecium E1162. The heterologously expressed and purified N-terminal domain of PrpA was able to bind to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen and fibronectin. In addition, the N-terminal domain of PrpA interacted with both non-activated and activated platelets.

  6. Enterococcus faecium lung abscess: one case report and literature review%屎肠球菌所致肺脓肿一例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方向群; 刘又宁

    2010-01-01

    目的 提高对屎肠球菌所致肺脓肿的认识,提高其诊断及治疗水平.方法 回顾性分析解放军总医院呼吸科1例经病理及肺组织细菌学培养确诊的屎肠球菌性肺脓肿病例并进行相关文献复习.结果 患者男,60岁,因"反复咳嗽、咳痰6个月余,加重伴痰中带血3个月余"于2008年1月30日入院,入院前曾怀疑"肺栓寒"、"肺癌"等,在外院2次CT引导下经皮肺穿刺组织活检考虑为"肺炎",但经多种抗菌药物治疗效果差,肺部病变进展伴空洞形成.入院后在CT引导下经皮肺穿刺组织活检及细菌学培养,确诊为屎肠球菌肺脓肿,根据药敏试验结果给予万古霉素、替考拉宁及利奈唑胺治疗后好转.到目前为止,国内外能检索到确诊为肠球菌性肺炎或肺脓肿的个案报道共13例,其中屎肠球菌性肺脓肿3例.结论 屎肠球菌性肺脓肿极少见,确诊需要病理及肺组织细菌学培养;根据药敏试验结果应用抗菌药物可取得较好疗效.%Objective To study the diagnosis and treatment of enterococcus faecium lung abscess. Methods A retrospective analysis of one case of Enterococcus faecium lung abscess and literature review was conducted. Results This patient suffered from cough and sputum over 6 months and complicated with hemoptysis over 3 months. Pulmonary embolism and lung cancer were suspected initially. After 2 times of CT-guided pereutancous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy the diagnosis of pneumonia was made in other hospitals. However, the consolidation in the lung progressed and cavity appeared although antibiotic therapy was conducted. After admission to our hospital, CT-guided percutancous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy was made and the lung tissue was sent for bacterial culture. Enterococcus faecium was cultured and it was susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. The disease improved significantly after treatment with these 3 antibiotics in turn. In addition

  7. Genome-wide Screening Identifies Phosphotransferase System Permease BepA to Be Involved in Enterococcus faecium Endocarditis and Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; Huebner, Johannes; Singh, Kavindra V; Zhang, Xinglin; van Schaik, Willem; Wobser, Dominique; Braat, Johanna C; Murray, Barbara E; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Leavis, Helen L

    2016-07-15

    Enterococcus faecium is a common cause of nosocomial infections, of which infective endocarditis is associated with substantial mortality. In this study, we used a microarray-based transposon mapping (M-TraM) approach to evaluate a rat endocarditis model and identified a gene, originally annotated as "fruA" and renamed "bepA," putatively encoding a carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease (biofilm and endocarditis-associated permease A [BepA]), as important in infective endocarditis. This gene is highly enriched in E. faecium clinical isolates and absent in commensal isolates that are not associated with infection. Confirmation of the phenotype was established in a competition experiment of wild-type and a markerless bepA mutant in a rat endocarditis model. In addition, deletion of bepA impaired biofilm formation in vitro in the presence of 100% human serum and metabolism of β-methyl-D-glucoside. β-glucoside metabolism has been linked to the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans that are exposed on injured heart valves, where bacteria attach and form vegetations. Therefore, we propose that the PTS permease BepA is directly implicated in E. faecium pathogenesis. PMID:26984142

  8. Validation of extrusion as a killing step for Enterococcus faecium in a balanced carbohydrate-protein meal by using a response surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Andreia; Stratton, Jayne; Weier, Steve; Hartter, Timothy; Plattner, Brian; Rokey, Galen; Hertzel, Gerry; Gompa, Lakshmi; Martinez, Bismarck; Eskridge, Andkent M

    2012-09-01

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis and recalls of low-moisture foods including extruded products highlight the need for the food and feed industries to validate their extrusion processes to ensure the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms. Response surface methodology was employed to study the effect of moisture and temperature on inactivation by extrusion of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 in a carbohydrate-protein mix. A balanced carbohydrate-protein mix was formulated to different combinations of moisture contents, ranging from 24.9 to 31.1%, and each was inoculated with a pure culture of E. faecium to a final level of 5 log CFU/g. Each mix of various moistures was then extruded in a pilot scale extruder at different temperatures (ranging from 67.5 to 85°C). After the extruder was allowed to equilibrate for 10 min, samples were collected in sterile bags, cooled in dry ice, and stored at 4°C prior to analysis. E. faecium was enumerated with tryptic soy agar and membrane Enterococcus media, followed by incubation at 35°C for 48 h. Each extrusion was repeated twice, with the central point of the design being repeated four times. From each extrusion, three subsamples were collected for microbial counts and moisture determination. Based on the results, the response surface model was y = 185.04 - 3.11X(1) - 4.23X(2) + 0.02X(1)(2) - 0.004X(1)X(2) + 0.08X(2)(2), with a good fit (R(2) = 0.92), which demonstrated the effects of moisture and temperature on the inactivation of E. faecium during extrusion. According to the response surface analysis, the greatest reduction of E. faecium for the inoculation levels studied here (about 5 log) in a carbohydrate-protein meal would occur at the temperature of 81.1°C and moisture content of 28.1%. Other temperature and moisture combinations needed to achieve specific log reductions were plotted in a three-dimensional response surface graph.

  9. Prevalence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from sewage and clinical samples in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangiri S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to perform a molecular epidemiological survey by investigating the antibiotic resistance and the presence of known virulence factors in Enterococcus faecium isolates in Iran. The data collected from this study would allow us to control the spread and develop strategies for treatment of the enterococcal infections. Materials and Methods: In this study, 156 vancomycin-sensitive E. faecium (VSEF; 58 and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF; 98 samples were isolated from clinical specimen and sewage treatment plants (STPs. These isolates were screened for the presence of genes encoding for aggregation substance (asa1, cytolysin (cyl, enterococcal surface protein (esp, gelatinase (gelE and hyaluronidase (hyl by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Although significantly different, the results showed the presence of hyl and esp genes in both clinical (41 and 75%, respectively and sewage (3.2 and 41%, respectively isolates. Sensitivity of all isolates to seven antibiotics was examined. The results of the clinical isolates showed that the majority of esp positive isolates were also resistant to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin. Furthermore, cyl, gelE and asa1 were not found in either clinical or STP isolates. Finally, we determined the distinct types of isolates using Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE, which confirmed that most of the isolates were clonally unrelated. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that higher number of the clinical E. faecium isolates carried virulence genes than the isolates from STP. Finally, the lack of the genes in clinical and STP isolates confirmed that these genes do not transfer horizontally.

  10. Role of the Emp Pilus Subunits of Enterococcus faecium in Biofilm Formation, Adherence to Host Extracellular Matrix Components, and Experimental Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Somarajan, Sudha R; Yadav, Puja; Chang, Chungyu; Spencer, Robert; Sillanpää, Jouko; Ton-That, Hung; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-05-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important cause of hospital-associated infections, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), bacteremia, and infective endocarditis. Pili have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of Gram-positive bacteria, including E. faecium We previously demonstrated that a nonpiliated ΔempABC::cat derivative of E. faecium TX82 was attenuated in biofilm formation and in a UTI model. Here, we studied the contributions of the individual pilus subunits EmpA, EmpB, and EmpC to pilus architecture, biofilm formation, adherence to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and infection. We identified EmpA as the tip of the pili and found that deletion of empA reduced biofilm formation to the same level as deletion of the empABC operon, a phenotype that was restored by reconstituting in situ the empA gene. Deletion of empB also caused a reduction in biofilm, while EmpC was found to be dispensable. Significant reductions in adherence to fibrinogen and collagen type I were observed with deletion of empA and empB, while deletion of empC had no adherence defect. Furthermore, we showed that each deletion mutant was significantly attenuated in comparison to the isogenic parental strain, TX82, in a mixed-inoculum UTI model (P infective endocarditis model (P = 0.0088). Our results indicate that EmpA and EmpB, but not EmpC, contribute to biofilm and adherence to ECM proteins; however, all the Emp pilins are important for E. faecium to cause infection in the urinary tract. PMID:26930703

  11. Validation of Baking To Control Salmonella Serovars in Hamburger Bun Manufacturing, and Evaluation of Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Nonpathogenic Surrogate Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channaiah, Lakshmikantha H; Holmgren, Elizabeth S; Michael, Minto; Sevart, Nicholas J; Milke, Donka; Schwan, Carla L; Krug, Matthew; Wilder, Amanda; Phebus, Randall K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Milliken, George

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to validate a simulated commercial baking process for hamburger buns to destroy Salmonella serovars and to determine the appropriateness of using nonpathogenic surrogates (Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for in-plant process validation studies. Wheat flour was inoculated (∼6 log CFU/g) with three Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium, Newport, or Senftenberg 775W) or with E. faecium. Dough was formed, proofed, and baked to mimic commercial manufacturing conditions. Buns were baked for up to 13 min in a conventional oven (218.3°C), with internal crumb temperature increasing to ∼100°C during the first 8 min of baking and remaining at this temperature until removal from the oven. Salmonella and E. faecium populations were undetectable by enrichment (>6-log CFU/g reductions) after 9.0 and 11.5 min of baking, respectively, and ≥5-log-cycle reductions were achieved by 6.0 and 7.75 min, respectively. D-values of Salmonella (three-serovar cocktail) and E. faecium 8459 in dough were 28.64 and 133.33, 7.61 and 55.67, and 3.14 and 14.72 min at 55, 58, and 61°C, respectively, whereas D-values of S. cerevisiae were 18.73, 5.67, and 1.03 min at 52, 55, and 58°C, respectivly. The z-values of Salmonella, E. faecium, and S. cerevisiae were 6.58, 6.25, and 4.74°C, respectively. A high level of thermal lethality was observed for baking of typical hamburger bun dough, resulting in rapid elimination of high levels of the three-strain Salmonella cocktail; however, the lethality and microbial destruction kinetics should not be extrapolated to other bakery products without further research. E. faecium demonstrated greater thermal resistance compared with Salmonella during bun baking and could serve as a conservative surrogate to validate thermal process lethality in commercial bun baking operations. Low thermal tolerance of S. cerevisiae relative to Salmonella serovars limits its usefulness as a surrogate for process validations

  12. Development and evaluation of a Quadruplex Taq Man real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and their vanA and vanB genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Naserpour Farivar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed and evaluated the utility of a quadruplex Taqman real-time PCR assay that allows simultaneous identification of vancomycin-resistant genotypes and clinically relevant enterococci.The specificity of the assay was tested using reference strains of vancomycin-resistant and susceptible enterococci. In total, 193 clinical isolates were identified and subsequently genotyped using a Quadruplex Taqman real-time PCR assay and melting curve analysis. Representative Quadruplex Taqman real-time PCR amplification curve were obtained for Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, vanA-containing E. faecium, vanB-containing E. faecalis.Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of the isolates gave same results for 82 enterococcal isolates, while in 5 isolates, they were inconsistent. We had three mixed strains, which were detected by the TaqMan real-time PCR assay and could not be identified correctly using phenotypic methods.Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE genotyping and identification of clinically relevant enterococci were rapidly and correctly performed using TaqMan real-time multiplex real-time PCR assay.

  13. 产酪胺粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌PCR检测方法的建立%Development of A PCR Assay for Detection of Tyramine-producing Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒蕊华; 卢士玲; 徐幸莲

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立快速简便地检测产酪胺粪肠球菌(Enterococcus faecalis)和屎肠球菌(Enterococcus faecium)的PCR方法。方法:将粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的酪氨酸脱羧酶基因与GenBank数据库中已公布的细菌的酪氨酸脱羧酶基因进行比对,根据它们的非保守序列,分别设计粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的特异性引物,建立检测产酪胺粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的PCR方法。结果:根据非保守序列,分别设计粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的特异性引物,用27株细菌对这两对引物分别进行反复验证,结果显示,所设计的两对引物都只对其目的菌株产生特异性扩增,对其他菌株没有扩增,方法的检测限可达到1.0×102CFU/mL。结论:本方法具有良好的特异性、稳定性和灵敏性,可用作食品中产酪胺粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的检测。%Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a PCR assay for the detection of tyramine-producing Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium.Methods: The tyrosine decarboxylase genes(tdc gene) of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were compared with those published in GenBank database,and specific primers were designed based on their nonconservative sequences to develop a PCR assay.Results: Each primer pair could only amplified their target gene from the associated ones of 27 bacterial strains tested.The detection limit of this assay was 1.0×102 CFU/mL.Conclusion: The developed PCR assay has good specificity,stability and sensitivity.

  14. 2012年全国三级医院尿标本分离粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌耐药状况研究%Resistance rate of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from urine of the tertiary hospital of China in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑波; 薛峰; 张凌云; 朱赛楠; 李耘

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解我国尿标本分离粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌耐药状况。方法针对尿标本中分离的189株粪肠球菌和224株屎肠球菌,用琼脂二倍稀释法进行药物敏感性分析。检测肠球菌万古霉素耐药基因型。结果粪肠球菌对氨苄西林和左氧氟沙星的敏感率分别为87.8%和61.4%,屎肠球菌对氨苄西林和左氧氟沙星的敏感率仅为6.3%和5.4%。屎肠球菌和粪肠球菌对米诺环素的敏感率分别为51.3%和19.6%。粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌对红霉素和利福平的敏感率均不足25%。粪肠球菌对万古霉素和替考拉宁的敏感率分别为99.5%和100.0%,屎肠球菌对万古霉素和替考拉宁的敏感率分别为96.9%和97.8%。1株万古霉素耐药粪肠球菌和7株万古霉素耐药屎肠球菌均携带 vanA 基因。结论尿分离粪肠球菌对氨苄西林和左氧氟沙星较为敏感,屎肠球菌对米诺环素较为敏感。肠球菌对万古霉素和替考拉宁尚保持较高敏感性。%Objective To investigate resistance of the Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from urine in China.Methods The antimicrobial susceptibility of 189 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and 224 isolates of Enterococcus faecium from urine was determined by argar dilu-tion.The vancomycin resistance genes were analysis of vancomycin resis-tant Enterococcus.Results The susceptibility rate of Enterococcus faecalis to ampicillin and levofloxacin were 87.8%and 61.4%, respectively, and the susceptibility of Enterococcus faecium to ampicillin and levofloxacin were 6.1% and 5.4%, respectively.The susceptibility rate of Enteroco-ccus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis to minocycline were 51.3% and 19.6%, respectively.The susceptibility rate of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium to erythromycin and rifampin were lower than 25%.The susceptibility rate of Enterococcus faecalis to vancomycin and teicopla-nin were 99.5%and 100.0%, and the

  15. Characterization of Enterococcus faecium isolates and first report of vanB phenotype-vanA genotype incongruence in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahdal, M N; Abozaid, S M; Al-Shammary, H F; Bohol, M F; Al-Thawadi, S I; Al-Jaberi, A A; Senok, A C; Shibl, A M; Al-Qahtani, A A

    2012-11-01

    We aimed to characterize the vancomycin genotype/phenotype, carriage of putative virulence genes, and genetic relatedness of Enterococcus faecium isolates in Saudi Arabia. E. faecium isolated from inpatients at our medical center were studied. Sensitivity to ampicillin, linezolid, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin was determined. The presence of van genes and virulence genes for aggregation substance (Asa-1), enterococcal surface proteins (esp), cytolysin (cylA, cylL, cylM), gelatinase (gelE), E. faecium endocarditis antigen (EfaA( fm )), hyaluronidase (hyl), and collagen adhesion (Ace) was assessed. Genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Twenty-nine E. faecium isolates were obtained and the majority of isolates (n/N = 22/29) were from stool specimens. PFGE analysis identified eight pulsotypes (A-H) based on 80 % similarities. Isolates were represented in five major pulsotypes: type A (n = 5), type B (n = 3), type D (n = 6), type E (n = 5), and type F (n = 7). All isolates were vanA gene-positive. Thirteen isolates had vanA(+)/vanB(+) genotype. Of these, ten exhibited a vanB phenotype and three had a vanA phenotype. Eight isolates with vanA(+)/vanB(-) genotype exhibited vanB phenotype. Six of these eight isolates belonged to the same pulsotype. All isolates were positive for gelE, esp, and EfaA( fm ) genes. Five were CylA-positive and 24 had the hyl genes. Of the eight isolates harboring a combination of gelE, esp, EfaA( fm ), and hyl genes, five showed vanB phenotype-vanA genotype incongruence. This is the first report of vanB phenotype-vanA genotype incongruent E. faecium in the Middle East region. Molecular typing indicates clonal spread and high occurrence of virulence genes, especially esp genes, associated with epidemic clones. PMID:22790538

  16. High prevalence of ST-78 infection-associated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from hospitals in Asunción, Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Northwood, J B; Loor, R G J; Tholen, A T R; Riera, E; Falcón, M; van Belkum, A; van Westreenen, M; Hays, J P

    2010-06-01

    Forty infection-associated VanA-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) strains obtained from five collaborating hospitals in Asunción, Paraguay were investigated. Genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing revealed the presence of 17 cluster types and four STs, with 93% (37/40) of isolates comprising ST type 78. Other ST types included ST-132, ST-210 and one new ST type (ST-438). All but one isolate (ST-438) were associated with clonal complex 17 (CC17), and 97% of the total isolates carried the esp gene. Three Tn1546 variants were found, including a new lineage containing an ISEfa5 insertion in an existing IS1251 element.

  17. [In vitro activities of quinupristin/dalfopristin in combination with vancomycin and gatifloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülden, Erdinç; Ermertcan, Safak

    2009-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of quinupristin/dalfopristin in combination with vancomycin and gatifloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium isolates. A total 17 gram-positive bacterial isolates, composed of 4 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 5 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 3 vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEF) and 5 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF) isolates, recovered from several clinical specimens in Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Turkey, were enrolled in this study. Antibiotic susceptibilities and interactions between antibiotics were determined by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden) method and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices were calculated for each combination. Synergistic activity was detected in only one MSSA isolate with the combination of quinupristin/dalfopristin and vancomycin (sigma FIC= 0.5). While the combination of quinupristin/dalfopristin and gatifloxacin yielded synergistic interaction in two MRSA and one MSSA isolate (sigma FIC= 0.37, 0.36 and 0.28, respectively) and additive interaction in one MSSA isolate (sigma FIC= 0.75), synergic activity was detected in one of the VREF isolate (sigma FIC= 0.29) and additive activity in two isolates (sigma FIC= 0.75 and 0.91, respectively). In this study, it was observed that the combination of quinupristin/dalfopristin and gatifloxacin was superior to the combination of quinupristin/dalfopristin and vancomycin especially in MRSA and VREF isolates. These in vitro results should be supported by in vivo studies which will guide the use of antibiotic combinations especially in the treatment of multi-resistant gram-positive bacterial infections. PMID:19334380

  18. Physical, biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from Thai indigenous chicken intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraiyot Saelim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract was active in the wide range of pH 2-10 and temperature 30-100°C and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and -amylase. It remained active after storage at -20°C for 2 months. Moreover, enterocin CE5-1 showed antibacterial activity against lactobacilli, bacilli, listeria, staphylococci and enterococci, especially antibiotic-resistant enterococci. In vitro study of enterocin CE5-1 decreased the population of Ent. faecalis VanB from 6.03 to 4.03 log CFU/ml. The lethal mode of action of enterocin CE5-1 appeared to be pore and filament formation in the cell wall. PCR sequencing analysis revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs, containing enterocin CE5-1 (entCE5-1 and enterocin immunity (entI gene. Therefore, enterocin CE5-1 from Ent. faecium CE5-1 could possibly be used as an antimicrobial agent to control foodborne pathogen, spoilage bacteria and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in foods, feeds and the environments.

  19. Intrinsic resistance to aminoglycosides in Enterococcus faecium is conferred by the 16S rRNA m5C1404-specific methyltransferase EfmM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galimand, Marc; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Panvert, Michel;

    2011-01-01

    confers resistance to these drugs. The EfmM protein shows significant sequence similarity to E. coli RsmF (previously called YebU), which is a 5-methylcytidine (m(5)C) methyltransferase modifying 16S rRNA nucleotide C1407. The target for EfmM is shown by mass spectrometry to be a neighboring 16S r......RNA nucleotide at C1404. EfmM uses the methyl group donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine to catalyze formation of m(5)C1404 on the 30S ribosomal subunit, whereas naked 16S rRNA and the 70S ribosome are not substrates. Addition of the 5-methyl to C1404 sterically hinders aminoglycoside binding. Crystallographic......Aminoglycosides are ribosome-targeting antibiotics and a major drug group of choice in the treatment of serious enterococcal infections. Here we show that aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecium strain CIP 54-32 is conferred by the chromosomal gene efmM, encoding the E. faecium...

  20. Distribution of streptogramin resistance genes and genetic relatedness among quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant Enterococcus faecium recovered from pigs and chickens in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, I Y; Ku, H O; Lim, S K; Lee, K J; Park, C K; Jung, G S; Jung, S C; Park, Y H; Nam, H M

    2010-08-01

    Fifty-four quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (QDREF) isolated from chickens and pigs during 2002-2003 in Korea were screened by PCR for the presence of streptogramin resistance genes vatD, vatE, and vgbA, and macrolide resistance gene ermB. None of the QDREF isolates carried vgbA and vatD genes, while vatE and ermB were detected in 9.2% and 74% of the isolates, respectively. Twenty-six percent (14/54) of the QDREF isolates contained none of the resistance determinants tested. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns revealed high heterogeneity: 47 different patterns for 54 QDREF evaluated. Identical PFGE types were observed in two pairs of chicken isolates and a pair of pig isolates, respectively, but chicken isolates did not share PFGE pattern with pig isolates, suggesting clonal spread of QDREF strain between the same species of animals but not between different species of animals. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of vatE-positive E. faecium isolates and also the first evidence of clonal spread of QDREF strain between animals in Korea. PMID:20206952

  1. Sequencing of the ddl gene and modeling of the mutated D-alanine:D-alanine ligase in glycopeptide-dependent strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Y; Prevost, M; Van Bambeke, F; Casadewall, B; Tulkens, P M; Courvalin, P

    2001-04-01

    Glycopeptide dependence for growth in enterococci results from mutations in the ddl gene that inactivate the host D-Ala:D-Ala ligase. The strains require glycopeptides as inducers for synthesis of resistance proteins, which allows for the production of peptidoglycan precursors ending in D-Ala-D-Lac instead of D-Ala-D-Ala. The sequences of the ddl gene from nine glycopeptide-dependent Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates were determined. Each one had a mutation consisting either in a 5-bp insertion at position 41 leading to an early stop codon, an in-frame 6-bp deletion causing the loss of two residues (KDVA243-246 to KA), or single base-pair changes resulting in an amino acid substitution (E13 --> G, G99 --> R, V241 --> D, D295 --> G, P313 --> L). The potential consequences of the deletion and point mutations on the 3-D structure of the enzyme were evaluated by comparative molecular modeling of the E. faecium enzyme, using the X-ray structure of the homologous Escherichia coli D-Ala:D-Ala ligase DdlB as a template. All mutated residues were found either to interact directly with one of the substrates of the enzymatic reaction (E13 and D295) or to stabilize the position of critical residues in the active site. Maintenance of the 3-D structure in the vicinity of these mutations in the active site appears critical for D-Ala:D-Ala ligase activity.

  2. Molecular Occurrence of Enterocin A Gene among Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Gastro-Intestinal Tract and Antimicrobial Effect of this Bacteriocin Against Clinical Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Salehi

    2014-06-01

    Materials and Methods: In this study occurrence of class II enterocin structural gene (enterocin A in a target of 42 Enterococcus faecium strains, isolated from gastrointestinal tract of animal have been surveyed. E. faecium identification and occurrence of enterocin A gene was performed by PCR method. Cell-free neutralized supernatant of gene positive strains was used to test bacteriocin production and antimicrobial spectrum of supernatant was assayed by wall diffusion method on the gram-positive and negative indicators bacteriaResults: Based on our results, 73.8% of isolated strains had enterocin A gene that they inhibited growth of indicator bacteria such as clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteric PTCC1709, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis.Conclusions: Studied enterocins have growth inhibitory spectrum on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria especially against pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, these strains have the potential to explore and use as, alternative antimicrobial compound and bio-preservatives in food or feed or as probiotics.

  3. The fosfomycin resistance gene fosB3 is located on a transferable, extrachromosomal circular intermediate in clinical Enterococcus faecium isolates.

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    Xiaogang Xu

    Full Text Available Some VanM-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from China are also resistant to fosfomycin. To investigate the mechanism of fosfomycin resistance in these clinical isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, filter-mating, Illumina/Solexa sequencing, inverse PCR and fosfomycin resistance gene cloning were performed. Three E. faecium clinical isolates were highly resistant to fosfomycin and vancomycin with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs >1024 µg/ml and >256 µg/ml, respectively. The fosfomycin and vancomycin resistance of these strains could be co-transferred by conjugation. They carried a fosfomycin resistance gene fosB encoding a protein differing by one or two amino acids from FosB, which is encoded on staphylococcal plasmids. Accordingly, the gene was designated fosB3. The fosB3 gene was cloned into pMD19-T, and transformed into E. coli DH5α. The fosfomycin MIC for transformants with fosB3 was 750-fold higher than transformants without fosB3. The fosB3 gene could be transferred by an extrachromosomal circular intermediate. The results indicate that the fosB3 gene is transferable, can mediate high level fosfomycin resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and can be located on a circular intermediate.

  4. [Infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin -resistant Staphylocccus aureus (MRSA) and multirresistant entorococci are still problematic in nosocomial infections and new challenges have emerged for their containment. MRSA has increased the multiresistant profile; it has been described vancomycin and linezolid resistant isolates and isolates with decreased daptomycin susceptibility. Moreover, new clones (ST398) have emerged, initially associated with piggeries, and new mec variants (mecC) with livestock origin that escape to the detection with current molecular methods based on mecA gene have been detected. In enterococci, linzeolid resistant isolates and isolates with deceased susceptibility to daptomycin have been described. Moreover, ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium due to β-lactamase production has been recently found in Europe. Control of MRSA isolates and multiresistant enteroccocci should combined antibiotic stewardship strategies and epidemiological measures, including detection of colonized patients in order to reduce colonization pressure and their transmission.

  5. Selection of potential Enterococcus faecium isolated from Thai native chicken for probiotic use according to the in vitro properties

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    Napaporn Lertworapreecha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty strains of E. faecium were isolated from 30 samples of native chickens’ gastrointestinal tracts. All strains weretested on acid and bile tolerance. Fifteen strains passed the acid tolerance test. The best five strains were EFMC 17, 21 and24; EFMD 25; EFMI 47 and 49. Only four strains, EFMC 21; EFMD 30; EFMI 47, and 49, survived 4 hours of bile exposure.Fifteen strains that passed the acid tolerance test were tested for their ability of intestinal mucus attachment. The resultsindicated that all strains were able to attach to intestinal mucus. For the ability of pathogenic bacteria inhibition test, theresult found seven strains (EFMC 17, 21 and 24; EFMD 29 and 30; EFMI 46 and 49 showed better performance than strainEFC. All seven strains were acid producer, but only four strains (EFMC 21; EFMD 25; EFMI 47 and 49 were able to releasebacteriocin. Based on proper probiotic properties two strains (EFMI 47 and 49 of E. faecium isolated from Thai native chicksin this study have a potential use as probiotics. Antimicrobial susceptibility test of these two strains have been also performed;they were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, trimethoprime/sulphamethoxazole, vancomycin,and trimethoprim. On the other hand, they were resistant to cefotaxime, erythromycin, and tetracycline. The DNA-DNAhybridization percentage of DNA-DNA homology to E. faecium NRIC 1145 of EFMI 47 and EFMI 49 were 82.36 and 78.63%,respectively.

  6. Human and Swine Hosts Share Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium CC17 and CC5 and Enterococcus faecalis CC2 Clonal Clusters Harboring Tn1546 on Indistinguishable Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas, Ana R.; Coque, Teresa M.; Novais, Carla;

    2011-01-01

    comprised isolates showing similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns (≤6 bands difference; >82% similarity). Some CC5 PFGE subtype strains from swine were indistinguishable from hospital vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) causing infections. A truncated variant of Tn1546 (encoding...... resistance to vancomycin) and tcrB (coding for resistance to copper) were consistently located on 150- to 190-kb plasmids (rep(pLG1)). E. faecium CC17 (ST132) isolates from pig manure and two clinical samples showed identical PFGE profiles and contained a 60-kb mosaic plasmid (rep(Inc18) plus rep...

  7. Biogenesis of Enterococcis faecium biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paganelli, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Enterococcus faecium have rapidly increased worldwide and treatment options become more limited. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors in pathogenic E. faecium contribute to difficult-to-treat infections, frequently biofilm mediated, such a

  8. Treatment of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium with RP 59500 (Quinupristin-Dalfopristin) Administered by Intermittent or Continuous Infusion, Alone or in Combination with Doxycycline, in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations

    OpenAIRE

    Aeschlimann, Jeffrey R.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Rybak, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Quinupristin-dalfopristin is a streptogramin antibiotic combination with activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF), but emergence of resistance has been recently reported. We studied the activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin against two clinical strains of VREF (12311 and 12366) in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) to determine the potential for resistance selection and possible strategies for prevention. Baseline MICs/mini...

  9. Influence of inducible cross-resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B-type antibiotics in Enterococcus faecium on activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin in vitro and in rabbits with experimental endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fantin, B.; Leclercq, R.; Garry, L; Carbon, C

    1997-01-01

    The influence of inducible cross-resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B (MLS(B)) type antibiotics (inducible MLS(B) phenotype) on the activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin was investigated against Enterococcus faecium in vitro and in rabbits with experimental endocarditis. In vitro, quinupristin-dalfopristin displayed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against a MLS(B)-susceptible strain similar to those against two strains with the inducible MLS(B) phenotype. In ...

  10. Detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx, including Enterococcus faecium strains of CC17 and the new singleton ST573.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; López, María; Guerra, Ana; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) within the faecal flora of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx. The association with other resistance genes and the detection of virulence genes were also analysed. From 2008 to 2010, 365 faecal samples from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx were collected and tested for VRE recovery. Mechanisms of resistance to vancomycin and other antibiotics, as well as genes encoding virulence factors were detected through PCR. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was performed for Enterococcus faecium strains. VRE were recovered in 8 of the 365 analysed samples. The vanA gene was identified in two E. faecium isolates recovered from Iberian wolf faecal samples and the remaining six showed intrinsic resistance (3 vanC1-E. gallinarum and 3 vanC2-E. casseliflavus, from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx faecal samples, respectively). One vanA-containing isolate showed tetracycline and erythromycin resistance [with erm(B) and tet(L) genes] and the other one also exhibited ampicillin and kanamycin resistance [with erm(B), tet(M) and aph(3')-III genes]. One of the vanA-isolates revealed a new sequence type named ST573 and the other one belonged to the CC17 clonal complex (ST18). The hyl gene was detected in one E. casseliflavus and three E. gallinarum but not among vanA-positive isolates, and the occurrence of cylA and cylL genes was confirmed in two E. casseliflavus isolates. A low prevalence of VRE has been detected in faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx and strains with an acquired mechanism of resistance to vancomycin have not been detected among Iberian lynx.

  11. Characterization of Enterococcus faecium with macrolide resistance and reduced susceptibility to quinupristin/dalfopristin in a Japanese hospital: detection of extensive diversity in erm(B)-regulator regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Nayuta; Urushibara, Noriko; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Ghosh, Souvik; Suzaki, Keisuke; Watanabe, Naoki; Quiñones, Dianelys; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-08-01

    Cross-resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics is mainly mediated by the erm (erythromycin ribosome methylation) genes that encode 23S rRNA methylases in enterococi, and various mechanisms are involved in the streptogramin B resistance. Prevalence of MLSB resistance and its genetic mechanisms were analyzed for a total of 159 strains of Enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Japan from 1997 to 2006. Resistance to erythromycin (EM) and clindamycin was detected in 88.1% and 89.9% of all the strains examined, respectively, and expression of resistance was totally constitutive. Although none of the strain was resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), 28 strains (17.6%) showed intermediate resistance to Q/D (MIC: 2 μg/ml). The erm(B) gene was detected in 139 strains (87.4%), and msrC was found in all the strains examined, whereas no other known MLSB resistance genes were identified. The erm(B) regulator region (RR) containing a coding region of the leader peptide was classified into 13 genetic variations (L1-L3, M, S1-S7, D, and R genotypes) in 56 strains. However, no relatedness was identified between the erm(B) RR genotype and EM resistance, or reduced susceptibility to Q/D, although most of Q/D-intermediate strains were assigned to the L1, L2, and S1 genotypes. Q/D-intermediate strains were classified into five multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types, including four types of clonal complex (CC)-C1, five sequence types (STs), including four STs of CC-17, and several resistance gene/virulence factor profiles. The present study revealed the occurrence of Q/D-intermediate E. faecium, which are composed of heterogeneous strains in Japan, and more genetic diversity in the erm(B) RRs than those reported previously.

  12. Molecular structure and transferability of Tn1546-like elements in Enterococcus faecium isolates from clinical, sewage, and surface water samples in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, M; Pourshafie, M R; Katouli, M; Möllby, R

    2008-03-01

    The molecular structure and transferability of Tn1546 in 143 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) isolates obtained from patients (n = 49), surface water (n = 28), and urban and hospital sewage (n = 66) in Tehran, Iran, were investigated. Molecular characterization of Tn1546 elements in vanA VREF was performed using a combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing of the internal PCR fragments of vanA transposons. Long-PCR amplification showed that the molecular size of Tn1546 elements varied from 10.8 to 12.8 kb. The molecular analysis of Tn1546 showed that 45 isolates (31.5%) harbored a deletion/mutation upstream from nucleotide 170. No horizontal transfer of Tn1546 was observed following filter-mating conjugation with these isolates. Nevertheless, the rates of transferability for other isolates were 10(-5) to 10(-6) per donor. Insertion sequences IS1216V and IS1542 were present in 103 (72%) and 138 (96.5%) of the isolates, respectively. The molecular analysis of Tn1546 elements resulted in three genomic organizations. The genomic organization lineage 1 was dominated by the isolates from clinical samples (3.4%), lineage 2 was dominated mostly by sewage isolates (24.5%), and lineage 3 contained isolates obtained from all sources (72.1%). The genetic diversity determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a single E. faecium clone, designated 44, which was common to the samples obtained from clinical specimens and hospital and municipal sewage. Furthermore, the results suggest that lineage 3 Tn1546 was highly disseminated among our enterococcal isolates in different PFGE patterns. PMID:18192406

  13. Characterization of Enterococcus faecium with macrolide resistance and reduced susceptibility to quinupristin/dalfopristin in a Japanese hospital: detection of extensive diversity in erm(B)-regulator regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Nayuta; Urushibara, Noriko; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Ghosh, Souvik; Suzaki, Keisuke; Watanabe, Naoki; Quiñones, Dianelys; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-08-01

    Cross-resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics is mainly mediated by the erm (erythromycin ribosome methylation) genes that encode 23S rRNA methylases in enterococi, and various mechanisms are involved in the streptogramin B resistance. Prevalence of MLSB resistance and its genetic mechanisms were analyzed for a total of 159 strains of Enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Japan from 1997 to 2006. Resistance to erythromycin (EM) and clindamycin was detected in 88.1% and 89.9% of all the strains examined, respectively, and expression of resistance was totally constitutive. Although none of the strain was resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), 28 strains (17.6%) showed intermediate resistance to Q/D (MIC: 2 μg/ml). The erm(B) gene was detected in 139 strains (87.4%), and msrC was found in all the strains examined, whereas no other known MLSB resistance genes were identified. The erm(B) regulator region (RR) containing a coding region of the leader peptide was classified into 13 genetic variations (L1-L3, M, S1-S7, D, and R genotypes) in 56 strains. However, no relatedness was identified between the erm(B) RR genotype and EM resistance, or reduced susceptibility to Q/D, although most of Q/D-intermediate strains were assigned to the L1, L2, and S1 genotypes. Q/D-intermediate strains were classified into five multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types, including four types of clonal complex (CC)-C1, five sequence types (STs), including four STs of CC-17, and several resistance gene/virulence factor profiles. The present study revealed the occurrence of Q/D-intermediate E. faecium, which are composed of heterogeneous strains in Japan, and more genetic diversity in the erm(B) RRs than those reported previously. PMID:23442208

  14. Virulence and resistance pattern of a novel sequence type of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium identified by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Gladys Villas Boas; Marchi, Ana Paula; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Rizek, Camila; Amigo, Ulisses; Moreno, Andrea Micke; Rossi, Flavia; Guimaraes, Thais; Levin, Anna Sara; Costa, Silvia F

    2016-09-01

    Empirical use of linezolid has been advocated in neutropenic febrile patients colonised by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) because of the risk of bloodstream infection (BSI). This study aimed to genetically describe a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) BSI isolate resistant to linezolid (VRLRE) in a patient previously colonised by VREfm and to determine the incidence of colonisation and infection by VREfm in a bone marrow transplant unit over a 10-year period. Data for VREfm colonisation and infection were evaluated. PCR for the vanA and vanB genes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing (vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid and aminoglycosides) were performed. Three isolates, including the VRLRE, were selected for whole-genome sequencing by Ion Torrent™, with E. faecium CP006620-Aus0085 used as a reference. Eighty-seven VREfm were analysed; all were linezolid-susceptible and harboured vanA, except for one blood isolate from a febrile neutropenic patient colonised by VREfm who received linezolid for 12 days and developed a BSI by VRLRE (linezolid MIC≥8μg/mL). Linezolid resistance was associated with a G2576T mutation in the 23SrRNA gene. PFGE analysis demonstrated that the 87 isolates belonged to four major clusters; however, the VRLRE presented only 50% similarity. Three sequence types (STs) were identified: ST412 (the predominant clone, which was more virulent compared with the other isolates); ST478 (linezolid-susceptible VREfm); and a novel ST named ST987 (VRLRE). SNP analysis showed a higher similarity between linezolid-susceptible VREfm and the predominant clone compared with VRLRE. VRLRE presented a G2576T mutation and belonged to a novel ST (ST987). PMID:27530835

  15. Mass transfer characterization of gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: encapsulation improves its survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyashri, Gangaraju; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudatt

    2015-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by free and Ca-alginate encapsulated cells of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003 was investigated. Mass transfer rates characterizing the GABA production process using encapsulated cells were investigated. Experiments were performed to investigate external film and internal pore diffusion mass transfer rates. The Damkohler and Thiele analysis provides a good description of external film and internal pore diffusion resistances, respectively. The experiments revealed that the external film effects could be neglected but the process is affected to the greater extent by internal mass transfer effects and was found to be the principal rate-controlling step. Protective effect of encapsulation on cell survivability was tested under digestive environment, when challenged to salivary α-amylase, simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid. Viability of encapsulated cells was significantly higher under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions and could produce higher GABA than those observed with free cells. The results indicate that the Ca-alginate encapsulated probiotics could effectively be delivered to the colonic site for effective inhibitory action.

  16. Stimulation of duodenal biopsies and whole blood from dogs with food-responsive chronic enteropathy and healthy dogs with Toll-like receptor ligands and probiotic Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, S; Henrich, M; Neiger, R; Werling, D; Allenspach, K

    2014-08-01

    The composition of the microbiome plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans and chronic enteropathies (CE) in dogs. The administration of probiotic micro-organisms is one way of modulating the microbiome, but experiments elucidating mechanisms of action of probiotics in the intestine of healthy and CE dogs are lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and Enterococcus faecium (EF) on ex vivo cultured duodenal samples and whole blood (WB) from dogs with food-responsive chronic enteropathy (FRE) when compared to healthy dogs. Biopsy stimulation was performed in 17 FRE and 11 healthy dogs; WB stimulation was performed in 16 FRE and 16 healthy dogs. Expression of TLR2, 4, 5 and 9, IL-17A, IL-22, IFNy, TNFα, IL-4, IL-10, TGFβ and PPARy was determined in biopsies by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, production of TNFα, IL-10, IFNy and IL-17A protein in WB and biopsy supernatants was assessed by ELISA. Treatment with individual TLR ligands or EF induced a variety of changes in the expression of different TLRs and cytokines, but not necessarily a consistent change with a single stimulating agent. Even though cytokine protein could not be detected in supernatants from ex vivo stimulated biopsies, we found TNFα protein responses in blood to be opposite of the transcriptional responses seen in the biopsies. Stimulation of canine duodenal biopsies with TLR ligands can potentially induce anti-inflammatory gene expression, especially in healthy tissue, whereas the effects of EF were limited.

  17. The Enterococcus faecium enterococcal biofilm regulator, EbrB, regulates the esp operon and is implicated in biofilm formation and intestinal colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janetta Top

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Enterococcus faecium is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Strains causing clinical infections or hospital outbreaks are enriched in the enterococcal surface protein (Esp encoding ICEEfm1 mobile genetic element. Previous studies showed that Esp is involved in biofilm formation, endocarditis and urinary tract infections. In this study, we characterized the role of the putative AraC type of regulator (locus tag EfmE1162_2351, which we renamed ebrB and which is, based on the currently available whole genome sequences, always located upstream of the esp gene, and studied its role in Esp surface exposure during growth. A markerless deletion mutant of ebrB resulted in reduced esp expression and complete abolishment of Esp surface exposure, while Esp cell-surface exposure was restored when this mutant was complemented with an intact copy of ebrB. This demonstrates a role for EbrB in esp expression. However, during growth, ebrB expression levels did not change over time, while an increase in esp expression at both RNA and protein level was observed during mid-log and late-log phase. These results indicate the existence of a secondary regulation system for esp, which might be an unknown quorum sensing system as the enhanced esp expression seems to be cell density dependent. Furthermore, we determined that esp is part of an operon of at least 3 genes putatively involved in biofilm formation. A semi-static biofilm model revealed reduced biofilm formation for the EbrB deficient mutant, while dynamics of biofilm formation using a flow cell system revealed delayed biofilm formation in the ebrB mutant. In a mouse intestinal colonization model the ebrB mutant was less able to colonize the gut compared to wild-type strain, especially in the small intestine. These data indicate that EbrB positively regulates the esp operon and is implicated in biofilm formation and intestinal colonization.

  18. 老年患者屎肠球菌感染的临床分布及耐药性分析%Clinical distribution of Enterococcus faecium infection in elderly patients and the a-nalysis of drug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 万小旭; 吴宝刚; 王佳贺

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨老年患者屎肠球菌感染的临床分布特点,并分析其对临床常用抗菌药物的耐药性,为临床合理治疗屎肠球菌感染提供参考依据。方法采用回顾性分析及统计分析方法,收集我院2013年1月至2015年12月期间屎肠球菌感染的老年患者(≥65岁)的临床数据,对其进行感染现状及耐药性分析。结果3年内共检出屎肠球菌感染384例,其检出率呈逐年升高趋势。屎肠球菌感染的标本类型中尿液所占比例最高,达47.14%,其次为引流液和全血标本,分别占19.53%和16.15%。在科室分布中,标本主要分离于重症监护病房( ICU)、普通外科病房和呼吸内科病房,分别占23.96%、20.57%和16.41%。药敏结果显示:屎肠球菌对氨苄西林、红霉素、环丙沙星、克林霉素、莫西沙星、青霉素G、左氧氟沙星等抗菌药物的耐药性均超过90%,而对喹奴普汀/达福普汀、替加环素、万古霉素、利奈唑胺等药物具有高度敏感性。结论屎肠球菌对不同抗菌药物的敏感性不同,且其院内感染近年有增高趋势,对屎肠球菌感染的耐药性监测,有利于指导临床合理用药。%Objective To investigate the clinical distribution characteristics of Enterococcus faecium infection in elderly patients and analyze their drug resistance to clinical use of common antibiotics in order to provide some refer-ences for the rational treatment of Enterococcus faecium infection. Methods The retrospective analysis and statistical analysis were carried out to collect the clinical data and to analyze the infection status and drug resistance in elderly pa-tients (65 or higher) who were infected with Enterococcus faecium from January 2013 to December 2015. Results Totally 384 strains of Enterococcus faecium infection were detected in these three years and the detection rate was in-creased year by year. The type of specimen with highest proportion

  19. The axe-txe complex of Enterococcus faecium presents a multilayered mode of toxin-antitoxin gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Boss

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant variants of human pathogens from the genus Enterococcus represent a significant health threat as leading agents of nosocomial infections. The easy acquisition of plasmid-borne genes is intimately involved in the spread of antibiotic resistance in enterococci. Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems play a major role in both maintenance of mobile genetic elements that specify antibiotic resistance, and in bacterial persistence and virulence. Expression of toxin and antitoxin genes must be in balance as inappropriate levels of toxin can be dangerous to the host. The controlled production of toxin and antitoxin is usually achieved by transcriptional autoregulation of TA operons. One of the most prevalent TA modules in enterococcal species is axe-txe which is detected in a majority of clinical isolates. Here, we demonstrate that the axe-txe cassette presents a complex pattern of gene expression regulation. Axe-Txe cooperatively autorepress expression from a major promoter upstream of the cassette. However, an internal promoter that drives the production of a newly discovered transcript from within axe gene combined with a possible modulation in mRNA stability play important roles in the modulation of Axe:Txe ratio to ensure controlled release of the toxin.

  20. Study on in vitro inhibitory activity of antibacterial material of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Enterococcus faecium%铜绿假单胞菌抗菌物质对屎肠球菌的体外抑菌作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦金喜; 李仲兴; 杨永昌; 袁欣; 柏秀菊; 石忻罗

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro inhibitory activity of antibacterial material of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Enterococcus. Methods: The in vitro inhibitory activity of antibacterial material of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against 12 Enterococcus faecium was performed by using the cross streak assay. Results: The in vitro inhibitory activity of antibacterial material of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Enterococcus was good. The inhibition rates of No. 1,4,5 and 6 strain of P. aeruginosas against Enterococcus faecium were all 100%. Conclusion: The antibacterial material of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against 12 Enterococcus had strong antibacterial activity, which has the potential to open a new train of thought for the antibiotics research of Enterococcus infection. This is the first report concerning antibacterial activity study for antimicrobial substances of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Enterococcus.%目的:为了观察铜绿假单胞菌对屎肠球菌的体外抑菌活性.方法:用交叉条带实验方法进行铜绿假单胞菌对12株屎肠球菌的体外抑制活性的测定.结果:铜绿假单胞菌抗菌物质对屎肠球菌体外抑菌活性良好,所试10株的铜绿假单胞菌对屎肠球菌均有一定的抗菌活性,其中第1、4、5、6号株的铜绿假单胞菌对屎肠球菌抑制率达100%.结论:铜绿假单胞菌抗菌物质对12株肠球菌具有良好的抗菌活性,无疑对肠球菌的抗菌研究方面开辟了新的思路.这是首次进行铜绿假单胞菌抗菌物质对屎肠球菌的抗菌活性研究报告.

  1. 一株猪源屎肠球菌的分离、鉴定及益生功能初步研究%Isolation,Identification of Enterococcus faecium Strain and Preliminary Study on its Beneficial Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡; 王建设; 刘婷; 李晓清; 王安如

    2012-01-01

    In this article,strain ZW002 belonged to Lactobacillus was isolated from healthy pig feces. According to the results of morphological,physiological,biochemical tests,and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene,strain ZW002 was identified as Enterococcus faecium ,the accession number of 16S rRNA gene is JN542513. Moreover,the preliminary study of its beneficial effects, like acid resistance, bile salt tolerance and antibacterial activity was carried out. The results showed that strain ZW002 exhibited good stress tolerance and antibacterial activity, which lead strain ZW002 to be a promising candidate for probiotic research.%从健康仔猪粪便中分离到一株乳酸菌ZW002,并从形态、生理生化指标,16S rRNA基因序列分析,鉴定该菌株为屎肠球菌(Enterococcus faecium),将其16S rRNA基因提交GenBank,登录号为JN542513.从耐酸、耐胆盐及抑菌性能等方面对菌株进行益生功能初步研究,结果表明,菌株ZW002表现出良好的耐受性及益菌性能,为猪用微生态制剂的研究开发奠定了基础.

  2. Detection of a New cfr-Like Gene, cfr(B), in Enterococcus faecium Isolates Recovered from Human Specimens in the United States as Part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Ashcraft, Deborah S; Kahn, Heather P; Pankey, George; Jones, Ronald N; Farrell, David J; Mendes, Rodrigo E

    2015-10-01

    Two linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates (MICs, 8 μg/ml) from unique patients of a medical center in New Orleans were included in this study. Isolates were initially investigated for the presence of mutations in the V domain of 23S rRNA genes and L3, L4, and L22 ribosomal proteins, as well as cfr. Isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (just one band difference), and one representative strain was submitted to whole-genome sequencing. Gene location was also determined by hybridization, and cfr genes were cloned and expressed in a Staphylococcus aureus background. The two isolates had one out of six 23S rRNA alleles mutated (G2576T), had wild-type L3, L4, and L22 sequences, and were positive for a cfr-like gene. The sequence of the protein encoded by the cfr-like gene was most similar (99.7%) to that found in Peptoclostridium difficile, which shared only 74.9% amino acid identity with the proteins encoded by genes previously identified in staphylococci and non-faecium enterococci and was, therefore, denominated Cfr(B). When expressed in S. aureus, the protein conferred a resistance profile similar to that of Cfr. Two copies of cfr(B) were chromosomally located and embedded in a Tn6218 similar to the cfr-carrying transposon described in P. difficile. This study reports the first detection of cfr genes in E. faecium clinical isolates in the United States and characterization of a new cfr variant, cfr(B). cfr(B) has been observed in mobile genetic elements in E. faecium and P. difficile, suggesting potential for dissemination. However, further analysis is necessary to access the resistance levels conferred by cfr(B) when expressed in enterococci.

  3. Involvement of the Eukaryote-Like Kinase-Phosphatase System and a Protein That Interacts with Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 in Emergence of Cephalosporin Resistance in Cephalosporin-Sensitive Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein Mutants in Enterococcus faecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Desbonnet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic resistance of Enterococcus faecium to ceftriaxone and cefepime (here referred to as “cephalosporins” is reliant on the presence of class A penicillin-binding proteins (Pbps PbpF and PonA. Mutants lacking these Pbps exhibit cephalosporin susceptibility that is reversible by exposure to penicillin and by selection on cephalosporin-containing medium. We selected two cephalosporin-resistant mutants (Cro1 and Cro2 of class A Pbp-deficient E. faecium CV598. Genome analysis revealed changes in the serine-threonine kinase Stk in Cro1 and a truncation in the associated phosphatase StpA in Cro2 whose respective involvements in resistance were confirmed in separate complementation experiments. In an additional effort to identify proteins linked to cephalosporin resistance, we performed tandem affinity purification using Pbp5 as bait in penicillin-exposed E. faecium; these experiments yielded a protein designated Pbp5-associated protein (P5AP. Transcription of the P5AP gene was increased after exposure to penicillin in wild-type strains and in Cro2 and suppressed in Cro2 complemented with the wild-type stpA. Transformation of class A Pbp-deficient strains with the plasmid-carried P5AP gene conferred cephalosporin resistance. These data suggest that Pbp5-associated cephalosporin resistance in E. faecium devoid of typical class A Pbps is related to the presence of P5AP, whose expression is influenced by the activity of the serine-threonine phosphatase/kinase system.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Probiotic LACTINA® (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecium for chickens for fattening and piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic LACTINA® is a feed additive consisting of six strains of lactic acid bacteria. In 2007 the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the additive when used as a zootechnical additive (functional group: gut flora stabilisers in diets for chickens for fattening, piglets and pigs for fattening. At that time the FEEDAP Panel was able to conclude only on the safety for the environment. EFSA is now requested to assess the safety for the target animals and consumers, and the efficacy of the additive when added in diets for chickens for fattening at 5 x 108 - 9 x 109 CFU/kg feed and for piglets at 9 x 108 - 1 x 1010 CFU/kg feed. The identity of the six strains was established. As no antibiotic resistance of concern was detected and as five of the strains qualify for the Qualified Presumption of Safety approach to safety assessment, their use is presumed safe for target species and consumers. The Enterococcus faecium strain is not a recognised pathogen for animals and as the additive did not adversely affect growth of chickens or piglets, Probiotic LACTINA® is considered safe for the target species up to 1 x 1010 CFU/kg feed. The E. faecium strain does not contain marker genes typical of hospital-associated isolates responsible for clinical infections. The metabolic pathways of E. faecium are well known. Since no other harmful metabolites are expected and the additive does not contain excipients of concern, it is considered safe for consumers. Probiotic LACTINA® showed a potential to increase the body weight of suckling piglets when used at approximately 5 x 109 CFU/kg feed. The Panel could not conclude on the efficacy of Probiotic LACTINA® when used in diets for chickens for fattening or weaned piglets.

  5. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Phenylethylamine and Tyramine -production by Enterococcus faecium%环境因素对屎肠球菌产苯乙胺和酪胺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士玲; 李开雄; 徐幸莲; 李蕊婷; 马宇霞; 李宝坤

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors such as pH, oxygen content, temperature, addition of NaC1 and sugar and effects of amines-productive dominant bacteria on biogenic amines were studied in order to find out production mecha- nism of phenylethylamine and tyramine by Enterococcus faecium. The results showed that the growth rate and produc- tion ability of phenylethylamine and tyramine -production of Enterococcus faecium were inhibited at initial pH 5.00, and production ability of phenylethylamine and tyramine -production was lower at aerobic environment than that at an- aerobic ones. Temperature, pH, addition level of NaC1 and sugar had significant effect on growth rate of Enterococcus faeeium and the effect of pH and temperature was higher by four factors quadratic rotation experiment. There were sig- nificant interaetional effect of pH and temperature on production of phenylethylamine and tyramine. There were signif- icant interactional effects of addition level of pH and temperature on production of phenylethylamine and tyramine and the effects were also increased with the increase of temperature.%为揭示环境因素对屎肠球菌产苯乙胺和酪胺的影响,研究了NaCl、糖的添加量、pH、含氧量、温度环境因素以及产胺菌之间对生物胺的影响。结果表明,当pH为5.00时,屎肠球菌的生长和产生物胺能力都受到抑制。当pH为6.00时,产胺菌的产胺能力在有氧条件下显著低于厌氧条件下。通过4因素二次回归方程分析pH、温度、加糖量和加食盐量对生物胺产生的影响,结果表明,pH、糖、盐和温度对屎肠球菌生长有显著的影响,其中受pH和温度影响较大。pH和温度对苯乙胺和酪胺产生有显著的交互影响,并且这种交互作用随着温度升高显著增强。

  6. Therapeutic Efficacy of Lactulose Combined with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium Preparation on Chronic Constipation%乳果糖联合枯草杆菌二联活菌治疗慢性便秘的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小玲; 何义波; 吴瑜梅

    2016-01-01

    Background:The incidence of chronic constipation is increasing in recent years,which seriously affects the quality of life of patients. Aims:To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of lactulose combined with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium preparation on chronic constipation. Methods:A total of 112 patients with chronic constipation from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2014 at Emeishan Hospital of TCM were enrolled,and were randomly divided into observation group and control group. Patients in both groups accepted the guidance of diet. In addition,patients in control group were orally administrated with lactulose while patients in observation group were orally administrated with lactulose combined with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium preparation. After 4 weeks of treatment,therapeutic efficacy in the two groups was compared,patient assessment of constipation quality of life scale(PAC-QOL)was used to evaluate the quality of life. Results:The overall therapeutic efficacy rate in observation group was significantly higher than that in control group (98. 2% vs. 72. 2% ;χ2 = 12. 399,P < 0. 05). Score of every factor and the total score of PAC-QOL were significantly lower after treatment than those before treatment in both groups(P < 0. 05),while physical discomfort score and the total score in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group( P < 0. 05). Conclusions:Lactulose combined with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium preparation can effectively improve the symptoms of difficulty in defecation,hard stool,and improve the quality of life in patients with chronic constipation.%背景:近年慢性便秘发病率呈上升趋势,严重影响患者的生活质量。目的:探讨乳果糖联合枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊治疗慢性便秘的临床疗效。方法:选择2011年1月—2014年1月峨眉山市中医院慢性便秘患者112例,随机分为观察组和对照组。两组患者均接受饮食指导,对

  7. Screening for fosfomycin resistance genes in Enterococcus faecium via high-throughput sequencing%屎肠球菌磷霉素耐药基因的高通量测序筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓刚; 林东昉; 叶信予; 吴湜; 胡付品; 王明贵

    2011-01-01

    目的 从对磷霉素耐药的屎肠球菌临床分离株中筛选介导屎肠球菌对磷霉素耐药的基因,并验证其作用。方法通过药物敏感测定及接合转移实验,了解磷霉素耐药屎肠球菌的耐药性及其可转移性。通过Solexa高通量测序筛选磷霉素耐药基因,并对该耐药基因进行克隆确认其基因功能。结果屎肠球菌临床株Efm-HS0661对糖肽类抗生素及磷霉素耐药,且可通过接合转移试验发生磷霉素耐药性的转移。Solexa高通量测序及比对筛选获得一2414 bp核苷酸序列,含有全长420 bp的fosB基因,与已知fosB基因氨基酸序列同源性达99.8%。含该基因的DH5α克隆转化子的磷霉素最低抑菌浓度较不含者明显升高。结论 Solexa高通量测序技术可用于临床菌株未知耐药基因的快速筛选,质粒介导的磷霉素耐药基因fosB可导致屎肠球菌对磷霉素耐药。%Objective To screen fosfomycin-resistant genes in the clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium Efm-HS0661 and verify their functions. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility and conjugation experiments were carried out to determine if the antimicrobial resistance in clinical strain was transferable. By Solexa high-throughput sequencing, the genes conferring fosfomycin resistance were screened. The function of resistance gene was identified by cloning. Results The clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium Efm-HS0661 were resistant to glycopeptide antibiotics and fosfomycin, and the fosfomycin resistance was found to be transferred by conjugation. Within the 2414 bp nucleotide sequence obtained by high-throughput sequencing, fosB, a plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance gene was found. The fosB gene was 420 bp in length, which shared 99. 8% amino acid identity with other fosB from Staphylococcus spp. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of DH5α transformant containing fosB gene against fosfomycin was higher than that of DHSa

  8. 安图医院尿路感染患者中段尿中分离出的粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的耐药性分析%Analysis on the drug resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the midstream urine of patients with urinary tract infection in Antu Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍彩丽; 范倩燕; 吴迪; 汤园园; 谈秋雯; 张雪莲

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析安图医院尿路感染患者中段尿中分离出的粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的耐药性及耐药基因,为临床用药提供参考。方法选取尿路感染患者中段尿中分离出的粪肠球菌(23株)和屎肠球菌(18株),采用API进行菌种鉴定,纸片扩散法进行体外药物敏感性试验,并采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)对其耐药基因进行检测。结果23株粪肠球菌中tetM、ermB、aac(6′)/aph(2′)、ant(6)-Ⅰ和aph(3′)-Ⅲ基因阳性检出率分别为65.2%、82.6%、100.0%、100.0%和100.0%;18株屎肠球菌中tetM、ermB、aac(6′)/aph(2′)、ant(6)-Ⅰ和aph(3′)-Ⅲ基因阳性检出率分别为55.5%、55.5%、100.0%、94.4%和100.0%。粪肠球菌对青霉素、四环素、环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星、红霉素的耐药率>50.0%,屎肠球菌对青霉素、氨苄西林、环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星、红霉素的耐药率为100.0%。结论临床分离的肠球菌属耐药相关基因携带率很高,肠球菌属对多种抗菌药物耐药率较高。%Objective To analyze the drug resistance and gene of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the midstream urine of patients with urinary tract infection in Antu Hospital,and to provide the reference for clinical medication.Methods Enterococcus faecalis (23 isolates)and Enterococcus faecium (1 8 isolates)were isolated and collected from the midstream urine of patients with urinary tract infection.The bacteria were identified by API,and drug sensitivity test was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method.Drug resistance genes were also detected by polymerase chain reaction(PCR).Results The positive rates of tetM,ermB,aac(6′)/aph(2′),ant(6)-Ⅰ and aph(3′)-Ⅲ genes were 65.2%,82.6%,1 00.0%,1 00.0% and 1 00.0% in the 23 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis. In the 1 8 isolates of Enterococcus faecium,the positive rates of tet

  9. Use of the Yeast Pichia pastoris as an Expression Host for Secretion of Enterocin L50, a Leaderless Two-Peptide (L50A and L50B) Bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecium L50▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, Antonio; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Sánchez, Jorge; Diep, Dzung B.; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E.; Cintas, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report the expression and secretion of the leaderless two-peptide (EntL50A and EntL50B) bacteriocin enterocin L50 from Enterococcus faecium L50 by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33. The bacteriocin structural genes entL50A and entL50B were fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene region encoding the mating pheromone α-factor 1 secretion signal (MFα1s) and cloned, separately and together (entL50AB), into the P. pastoris expression and secretion vector pPICZαA, which contains the methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase promoter (PAOX1) to express the fusion genes. After transfer into the yeast, the recombinant plasmids were integrated into the genome, resulting in three bacteriocinogenic yeast strains able to produce and secrete the individual bacteriocin peptides EntL50A and EntL50B separately and together. The secretion was efficiently directed by MFα1s through the Sec system, and the precursor peptides were found to be correctly processed to form mature and active bacteriocin peptides. The present work describes for the first time the heterologous expression and secretion of a two-peptide non-pediocin-like bacteriocin by a yeast. PMID:20348300

  10. 产细菌素屎肠球菌E6的特性分析及发酵条件优化%Characteristics and optimization of fermentative condition for bacteriocin producing Enterococcus Faecium E6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶瑜; 常伟; 唐洁; 李明元

    2013-01-01

    研究了屎肠球菌E6抑菌活性的生物学特性,并通过响应面法优化其发酵条件.结果表明,屎肠球菌E6产蛋白质类细菌素,能够抑制单增李斯特氏菌、大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和枯草芽孢杆菌生长,在pH3.0~7.0条件下有明显抑菌活性,60~121℃热处理20min后仍具有抑菌活性.通过Box-Behnken实验设计优化屎肠球菌E6发酵条件为培养时间36.0h,培养温度31.0℃,培养基pH5.1.在此条件下,发酵上清液抑菌圈直径可达20.17mm,较优化前提高了27.2%.%The characteristics of antimicrobial activity and the fermentative condition of Enterococcus Faecium E6 were discussed.Proteinic bacteriocin produced by E6 showed inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. It showed obviously activity under pH3.0 ~ 7.0 condition.lt was also active when heated at 60~121℃ for 20min. The fermentative condition, optimized by Box-Behnken design,was cultured at pH 5.1,temperature of 31.0℃ for 36.0h.Under this condition,the diameter of inhibition zone reached up to 20.17mm,which increased by 27.2% than optimization before.

  11. Prevalence of beta-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    The genetic background for beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was examined by PCR and sequencing in 160 ampicillin-resistant isolates (109 Escherichia coli and 51 Salmonella) obtained from healthy and diseased food animals in Denmark. Sequencing revealed three different...... new variants of bla(TEM) were detected, which have been designated bla(TEM-127) and bla(TEM-128.) In TEM-127, amino acid 158 is substituted from His to Asn, whereas a substitution from Asp to Glu is seen at amino acid 157 in TEM-128. According to MIC determinations, these novel enzymes do not possess...

  12. In vitro and in vivo synergism between amoxicillin and clavulanic acid against ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    OpenAIRE

    Yogev, R; Melick, C; Kabat, W J

    1981-01-01

    Eight strans of ampicillin-resistant beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae type b were studied in vitro for synergy between amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for amoxicillin alone were 6.25 to 12.5 microgram/ml, and for clavulanic acid alone they were 12.5 to 25 microgram/ml. However, seven of eight strains were inhibited by a combination of 0.36 microgram of amoxicillin and 0.36 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. Infant rat models of bacteremi...

  13. Clarithromycin Resistance Mechanisms of Epidemic β-Lactamase-Nonproducing Ampicillin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae Strains in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyama, Shoji; Wajima, Takeaki; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clarithromycin resistance mechanisms of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae strains. In all clarithromycin-resistant strains, the transcript level of acrB was significantly elevated, and these strains had a frameshift mutation in acrR Introduction of the acrR mutation into H. influenzae Rd generated a clarithromycin-resistant transformant with the same MIC as the donor strain. Our results indicate that the acrR mutation confers clarithromycin resistance by the increasing the transcription of acrB.

  14. 肠球菌临床耐药性分析及耐药基因vanM在屎肠球菌中的检测%Analysis on Enterococcal Clinical Resistance and Detection of New Resistance Gene vanM in Enterococcus faecium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓薇; 孙贺; 李咏梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibiotic resistance of isolated Enterococcus spp. and the distribution of gene vanM in Enterococcus faecium. Methods VITEK60 automatic microorganism analyzer was used to conduct identification of Enterococci and drug sensitive test,and the results were calculated and analyzed according to the standard of NCCLS/CLSI;Glycopeptide drug resistance gene vanM was detected by PCR and the sequence of positive gene was measured for analyzing the relationship between the resistance gene and the resistance. Results 506 Enterococcus isolates, there were 277 isolates of Enterococcus faecium and 299 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis. The sample resources included urine 167(33. 0%),stool 114(22. 5%),sputum 78(15. 4%),bile 57 (11.3%),pus 54(10. 7%) and others 36(7. 1%) respectively. The drug sensitive test results showed that Enterococcus had a high antibiotic resistance to most antibiotics;the resistance rate of Enterococcus faecium toβ-lactams(ampicillin),quinolones(levofloxacin) and glycopeptide(vancomycin and teicoplanin) antibiotics was significantly higher than that of Enterococcus faecalis(P<0. 05);the detectable rate of vanM fragment was 100%and that of teicoplanin-resistant isolates was 90%. Conclusions Enterococcus faecium can cause all kinds of clinical infection and its resistant rate is significantly higher than that of Enterococcus faecalis,showing a multiple drug resistance trend. vanM gene may play an important role in the resistance mechanisms to glycopeptide antibiotics,vancomycin and teicoplanin.%目的:了解肠球菌临床分离株耐药性及vanM基因在屎肠球菌的分布情况,为临床合理用药及探讨耐药机制提供依据.方法采用VITEK60全自动微生物分析仪对肠球菌进行鉴定及药敏试验,按NCCLS/CLSI标准判断并统计分析结果;PCR法检测耐万古霉素、替考拉宁菌株中的耐药基因vanM,并对阳性基因进行测序,分析耐药基因与耐药性的关系.

  15. Postneurosurgical Central Nervous System Infection Due to Enterococcus faecalis Successfully Treated With Intraventricular Vancomycin

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Trisha; Lewis, Mark E.; Niesley, Michelle L.; Chowdhury, Mashiul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Infections from Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are uncommon in the post-neurosurgical intervention setting., [1, 2, 3, 4] Intraventricular antibiotics are recommended when standard intravenous therapy fails. [5] Here we present a case of post-neurosurgical ventriculitis, meningitis, and cerebritis in an oncology patient caused by refractory Enterococcus faecalis successfully treated with intraventricular vancomycin.

  16. Prevalence of beta-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    The genetic background for beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was examined by PCR and sequencing in 160 ampicillin-resistant isolates (109 Escherichia coli and 51 Salmonella) obtained from healthy and diseased food animals in Denmark. Sequencing revealed three different...... variants of bla(TEM-1), of which bla(TEM-1b) was the most frequently detected (80 E. coli and 47 Salmonella), followed by bla(TEM-1a) (eight E. coli, one Salmonella) and bla(TEM-1c) (seven E. coli). A few isolates were found to express OXA, TEM-30, or PSE beta-lactamases. Mutations in the ampC promoter...... leading to increased production of the AmpC beta-lactamase were demonstrated in 11 cefoxitin-resistant or intermediate E. coli isolates. Nine of these isolates did not contain any bla(TEM) genes, whereas the remaining two did. No genes encoding SHV or extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Two...

  17. Genetic detection and multilocus sequence typing of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains from mullets fish (Liza ramada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carlos; Torres, Carmen; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Carneiro, Catarina; López, Maria; Radhouani, Hajer; Pardal, Miguel; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2011-09-01

    Enterococci have emerged as important nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens in humans. The presence of vanA-enterococci was investigated in 103 fecal samples recovered from mullets fish (Liza ramada). All fecal samples were inoculated in Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented with 4 mg/L of vancomycin for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) recovery and two isolates/sample were characterized. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for 11 antibiotics by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. VRE identification was performed by biochemical and molecular methods. Additionally, the mechanisms of resistance to glycopeptides (vanA, vanB, vanC1, vanC2, and vanD) and other antibiotics [erm(A), erm(B), tet(L), tet(M), aph(2'')-aac(6'), aph(3')-IIIa, ant(6'), vat(D), vat(E)] as well as the presence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) and hyl virulence factors were investigated. vanA-Enterococcus faecium isolates were recovered from 4 of 103 tested samples, and they showed glycopeptide and erythromycin resistances. Three of them were also ampicillin resistant, two showed resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and kanamycin, and one showed resistance to gentamicin. The tet(M) and erm(B) genes were found in all tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant strains, respectively. The aph(3')-III and aph(2'')-aac(6') genes were identified in the kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant isolates, respectively. The IS1216 element was identified within vanX-vanY region of Tn1546 in two vanA isolates. The hyl and esp virulence genes were found in four and two isolates, respectively. vanA-strains were ascribed to sequence types ST280 (two isolates) and ST273 (two isolates), including both lineages into the clonal complex CC17. Mullets fish can excrete VRE in their feces and may be a reservoir for such resistant bacteria that can be transmitted to other animals including humans. PMID:21563953

  18. Identification of γ-aminobutyric Acid producing Enterococcus faecium and Characterization of Its Glutamate Decarboxylase%产γ-氨基丁酸屎肠球菌的鉴定及其谷氨酸脱羧酶酶学性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云; 杨胜远; 杨韵晴; 黄荣城; 陈郁娜; 刘祥流

    2010-01-01

    目的: 鉴定1株产γ氨基丁酸(γ-aminobutyric acid,GABA)的乳酸菌HS3,并研究了其谷氨酸脱羧酶(Glutamate decarboxylase,GAD)粗酶酶学性质.方法:根据形态培养特征、生理生化特征和16S rDNA序列比对及系统发育分析对菌株HS3进行了鉴定.采用菌体细胞破碎后的粗酶液,研究了温度、pH和金属离子对酶活的影响.结果:菌株HS3的形态培养和生理生化特征符合肠球菌属(Enterococcus)特征,其16S rDNA序列与Enterococcus faecium(EU717962)16S rDNA序列同源性达99%,鉴定菌株HS3为屎肠球菌(Enterococcus faecium),菌株HS3 GAD最适作用温度为40 ℃,最适作用pH4.5.酶的热稳定较好,50℃处理4h,在pH3.5~6.0酶活基本稳定.Ca~(2+)对酶有激活作用,5mmol/L和50mmol/L浓度酶活分别提高了37.41%和17.43%.Ba~(2+)和Zn~(2+)在5mmol/L浓度时激活作用明显,而Mg~(2+)在5mmol/L浓度激活作用较好.结论:菌株HS3的GAD活力较高,稳定性较好,为生物合成GABA提供了新的微生物菌种资源.

  19. Distribution of phylogroups and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from healthy humans and from patients with bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, A.; Hammerum, A. M.; Porsbo, Lone Jannok;

    In 2002-03, 31 ampicillin resistant faecal isolates were collected from healthy humans. Moreover, 31 ampicillin resistant blood isolates from patients with bacte-raemia were collected in 2000-02. All isolates were tested positive for the pres-ence of blaTEM. Isolates were characterized by minimum...... inhibitory concentration to antimicrobial agents and examined by PCR to determine their phylogroups. The phylotyping grouped the faecal samples into A (13%), B1 (10%), B2 (42%), D (19%), NT (16%) while the blood isolates grouped into A (16%), B1 (0%), B2 (48%), D (32%) and NT (3%). The frequency...... of resistance in faecal and blood isolates (F/B) was: tetracycline (48%/48%), gentamicin (0%/10%), ciprofloxacin (3%,13%), sulfonamide (68%/77%) and trimethoprim (39%/39%). Conclusion: B2 was the most prevalent phylogroup found both in faecal isolates collected from healthy humans and in blood isolates from...

  20. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs and broiler chickens to tetracycline degradation products and distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants in E-coli from food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, G.; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2003-01-01

    of tet(A) and tet(B) applied to all three animal species, and there was no difference between the distribution of tet(A) and tet(B) genes among non-pathogenic and pathogenic E. coli in any of the animal species. The susceptibility of 20 of these isolates together with 10 tetracycline sensitive E. coli......-anhydrochlortetracycline. In general both the tetracycline resistant and susceptible E. faecium were more susceptible to the compounds tested than E. coli. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V.. All rights reserved....

  1. Determination of Steviosin in Combine Bacillus Subtilis and Enterococcus Faecium Granules with Multivitamines,live By RP-HPLC%反相高效液相色谱法测定枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒中甜菊糖苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙菲; 孙欣

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish RP-HPLC method for determination of Steviosin in Combine Bacilus Subtilis and Enterococcus Faecium Granules with Multivitamines,live.Methods Using a column packed with AgiLent Zobax SB-C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);The mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.002 mol/L H3pO4 by gradient elution and the detection wavelength was 210 nm;the flow rate was 1.0ml/min,the injection volume was 10μl,the column temperature was 30℃.Results The Linear response of Steviosin range from 5.160~103.2μg/ml r=0.9999(n=7);The average recovery of Steviosin was 99.04%,RSD= 0.6%(n=6).Conclusion The method is convenient and accurate and can be used for the quality control of Combine Bacilus Subtilis and Enterococcus Faecium Granules with Multivitamines,live.%目的:建立反相高效液相色谱(RP-HPLC)法测定枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒中甜菊糖苷的含量。方法选用AgiLent Zobax SB-C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)为色谱柱,线性梯度洗脱,流动相为乙腈-0.002 mol/L磷酸溶液;检测波长为210 nm;流速1.0 ml/min;进样量10μl;柱温30℃。结果甜菊糖苷的线性范围为5.160~103.2 g/ml(r=0.9999,n=7);提取回收率为99.04%(RSD为0.6%,n=6)。结论本法操作简便、准确,可用于枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒的质量控制。

  2. Identification of Enterococcus sp. in GIT of Broiler Chickens after Application of Biological Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Nováková

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was a rapid detection and identification of Enterococcus sp. in various segments of chicken gastrointestinal tract by polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. As a biological material were used broiler chickens Hybro. They were fattening by the combined probiotic preparation for elimination of pathogens and better utilization of feed. In our study, the identification of Enterococcus species was based on the superoxid dismutase gene (sodA. Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis were determined in all samples (100% occurence. Occurence of Enterococcus gallinarum was 87.5% and Enterococcus cecorum was 0%.

  3. Fate of classical faecal bacterial markers and ampicillin-resistant bacteria in agricultural soils under Mediterranean climate after urban sludge amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Platero, Leticia; Nadal, Ignacio; Navarro-García, Federico

    2016-09-15

    The use of sewage sludge or biosolids as agricultural amendments may pose environmental and human health risks related to pathogen or antibiotic-resistant microorganism transmission from soils to vegetables or to water through runoff. Since the survival of those microorganisms in amended soils has been poorly studied under Mediterranean climatic conditions, we followed the variation of soil fecal bacterial markers and ampicillin-resistant bacteria for two years with samplings every four months in a split block design with three replica in a crop soil where two different types of biosolids (aerobically or anaerobically digested) at three doses (low, 40; intermediate, 80; and high, 160Mg·ha(-1)) were applied. Low amounts of biosolids produced similar decay rates of coliform populations than in control soil (-0.19 and -0.27log10CFUs·g(-1)drysoilmonth(-1) versus -0.22) while in the case of intermediate and high doses were close to zero and their populations remained 24months later in the range of 4-5log10CFUs·g(-1)ds. Enterococci populations decayed at different rates when using aerobic than anaerobic biosolids although high doses had higher rates than control (-0.09 and -0.13log10CFUs·g(-1)dsmonth(-1) for aerobic and anaerobic, respectively, vs -0.07). At the end of the experiment, counts in high aerobic and low and intermediate anaerobic plots were 1 log10 higher than in control (4.21, 4.03, 4.2 and 3.11log10CFUs·g(-1) ds, respectively). Biosolid application increased the number of Clostridium spores in all plots at least 1 log10 with respect to control with a different dynamic of decay for low and intermediate doses of aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Ampicillin-resistant bacteria increased in amended soils 4months after amendment and remained at least 1 log10 higher 24months later, especially in aerobic and low and intermediate anaerobic plots due to small rates of decay (in the range of -0.001 to -0.008log10CFUs·g(-1)dsmonth(-1) vs -0.016 for control). Aerobic

  4. PCR-based plasmid typing in Enterococcus faecium strains reveals widely distributed pRE25-, pRUM-, pIP501-and pHT beta-related replicons associated with glycopeptide resistance and stabilizing toxin-antitoxin systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosvoll, T.C.S.; Pedersen, T.; Sletvold, H.;

    2010-01-01

    A PCR-based typing scheme was applied to identify plasmids in an epidemiologically and geographically diverse strain collection of Enterococcus faecium (n=93). Replicon types of pRE25 (n=56), pRUM (n=41), pIP501 (n=17) and pHT beta (n=14) were observed in 83% of the strains, while pS86, pCF10, p......AM373, pMBB1 or pEF418 were not detected. Furthermore, 61% of the strains contained the axe-txe (n=42) or/and the omega-epsilon-zeta (n=18) plasmid stabilization loci. Sequence analyses divided the omega-epsilon-zeta operon into two distinct phylogenetic groups. The present typing scheme accounted...... for about 60% of the total number of plasmids detected by S1 nuclease analyses, which revealed zero to seven plasmids (10 kb to > 200 kb) per isolate. Interestingly, strains belonging to the clinically important clonal complex 17 (CC17) yielded a significantly higher number of plasmids (3.1) and p...

  5. Live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium enteric-coated capsules combined with smecta in treatment of antibiotics-related diarrhea%美常安与思密达治疗抗生素相关性腹泻的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium enteric-coated capsules combined with smecta in the treatment of antibiotics-related diarrhea.Methods 80 patients with antibiotics-related diarrhea were randomly divided into a study group and a control group.The study group was treated with live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium enteric-coated capsules (two capsules each time,three times a day) and smecta (taking 3.0 g dissolved in 50 ml warm water between meals,three times a day) and the control group with live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium enteric-coated capsules (two capsules each time,three times a day).The relief times of main symptoms (diarrhea,bloating,fatigue),stool frequency and forming time,mold detection rate,treatment effective rate,and adverse drug reactions were compared between these two groups.Results The effective rate was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (g 2=4.021,P<0.05).After the treatment,the relief times of diarrhea,bloating,and fatigue and stool forming time were significantly shorter and the stool frequency and stool mold detection rate were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group (t=-15.460,t=-10.086,t=-6.555,P<0.01;t=-3.471,P< 0.01;t=-1.903,P<0.01;x 2=7.440,P<0.05).No serious adverse reactions occurred in both groups.Conclusions Live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium enteric-coated capsules combined with smecta in the treatment of antibiotics-related diarrhea is effective,safe,and reliable,can rapidly improve the patients' clinical symptoms,has no adverse drug reactions,and has clinical application value.%目的 探讨美常安联合思密达治疗抗生素相关性腹泻的临床效果.方法 将80例抗生素相关性腹泻患者按照数字表法分为研究组和对照组.研究组采用美常安(每次2粒,每天3次)与思密达(3.0g溶解于50 ml温

  6. Detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis ST6-vanB2 and E. faecium ST915-vanA in faecal samples of wild Rattus rattus in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Carmen; González-Barrio, David; García, Jesús T; Ceballos, Sara; Olea, Pedro P; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Torres, Carmen

    2015-05-15

    The detection of vancomycin-resistant-enterococci (VRE) among wild animals represents a worrisome public health concern. The objectives of the study were to determine the possible presence of VRE in faecal samples of wild small mammals in Spain, to characterize the vancomycin resistance mechanisms and genetic lineages of recovered isolates and to know the diversity of enterococcal species in these animals. A total of 155 faecal samples from small mammals were inoculated in Slanetz-Bartley agar supplemented or not with vancomycin (Van-SB/SB plates). The antimicrobial susceptibility profile to 12 antimicrobials and the presence of 20 antimicrobial resistance genes was analyzed. The structure of Tn1546 and the presence of gelE, cylA, asa, esp and hyl genes was studied. Multilocus-sequence-typing (MLST) technique was also performed. VRE isolates were recovered in Van-SB plates in 11 samples. Two samples contained vanB2-positive E. faecalis isolates of lineage ST6, which showed a multiresistance phenotype and harboured the virulence genes gelE and asa. One sample contained a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolate of the new lineage ST915, with the vanA gene included into Tn1546 (truncated with IS1542 and IS1216 elements). The vanB2 and vanA isolates were obtained from Rattus rattus. The remaining eight VRE-positive samples contained species with intrinsic vancomycin-resistance mechanisms: E. casseliflavus (n=5) and E. gallinarum (n=3). One hundred and forty-seven vancomycin-susceptible-enterococcal isolates were obtained in SB plates, and E. faecalis and E. faecium were the most frequent detected species. This is the first report of vanB2-containing enterococci in wild animals.

  7. 2009~2012年重庆医科大学附属第一医院粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌耐药性监测%The resistance surveillance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between 2009 and 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎七绮; 牛司强

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus f aecalis and Enterococcus f aecium isolated from the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between 2009 and 2012 .Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to the unified protocol .The dates were analyzed by WHONET 5 .6 software according to clinical and laboratory standards institute(CLSI) of 2012 .Results A total of 783 non-repetitive Enterococcus f aecalis and 664 non-repeti-tive Enterococcus f aecium isolates were collected .The strains were still highly susceptible to linezolid and vancomycin .The resist-ance rates were all less than 2 .0% .The resistance rates of vancomycin to Enterococcus f aecalis and Enterococcus f aecium were 0 .1% and 1 .4% ,respectively .The percentage of Enterococcus f aecalis resistant to ampicillin ,penicilin and nitrofurantoin were 5 .7% ,2 .6% and 2 .2% ,respectively .About 32 .9% of Enterococcus f aecalis isolates were resistant to gentamicin .The resistance rates of ampicillin and penicillin to Enterococcus f aecium were more than 90 .0% .Conclusion Enterococcus f aecalis is main En-terococcus in the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University .There is an obvious difference between the antibiotic re-sistance of the Enterococcus f aecalis and Enterococcus f aecium .So ,monitoring drug resistance of the Enterococcus shows great sig-nificance to the clinical treatment .%目的:了解2009~2012年重庆医科大学附属第一医院临床分离的粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌对各类抗菌药物的耐药性。方法临床分离病原菌按统一方案进行细菌药物敏感试验,根据2012年版临床实验室标准化协会(CLSI)指导原则判读细菌的药物敏感试验结果,采用WHONET5.6软件对数据进行分析。结果共分离到非重复粪肠球菌783株,屎肠球菌664株,二者对利奈唑胺和万古霉素非常敏感(耐药率均低于2.0%),粪肠球菌

  8. Fecal carriage of vancomycin- and ampicillin-resistant Enterococci observed in Swedish adult patients with diarrhea but not among healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, M B; Pörnull, K J; Karnell, A; Telander, B; Svenungsson, B

    2001-01-01

    During a 1-y prospective study between 1 October 1996 and 30 September 1997, fecal samples from 786 adult patients with diarrhea and 203 healthy control subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and ampicillin-resistant Enterococci (ARE). The carriage rates of VRE and ARE were 0.4% and 6%, respectively among patients and 0% among controls. The 3 VRE isolates were all VanA and were obtained from patients who had been abroad (Thailand, Spain, France) within the previous 3 months. Thirteen of the 45 patients with ARE (29%) had been abroad within 2 weeks of the onset of diarrhea. These findings suggest a potential risk of introduction of antibiotic-resistant Enterococci in Swedish hospitals by patients receiving treatment for diarrhea after traveling abroad. PMID:11669222

  9. Detection of the classical G2576U mutation in linezolid resistant Staphylococcus aureus along with isolation of linezolid resistant Enterococcus faecium from a patient on short-term linezolid therapy: First report from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Linezolid is an effective drug against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE. We describe the emergence of linezolid resistance in MRSA and VRE from India. Material and Methods: One MRSA and two VRE strains were isolated from a patient on linezolid therapy of one week duration. All three isolates were resistant to linezolid with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC ≥4 mg/L. The 746-bp region flanking the possible G2576U mutation on the corresponding DNA from the 23S rRNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and amplicons were sequenced for all the three isolates. Conjugation experiments using the linezolid resistant MRSA (LRMRSA and linezolid resistant VRE (LRVRE isolates as donors and wild strains of corresponding genera as recipients were performed. Results: The MRSA isolate had the classical G2576U mutation. High quality value scores in the sequencing software validated the mutation. Conjugation studies did not indicate presence of transferable resistance for linezolid. Sequencing did not indicate presence of any mutation in the two LRVRE isolates. Conclusions: This is the first report from India citing resistance in Staphylococcus and Enterococcus against Linezolid.

  10. Experimental study of the impact of antimicrobial treatments on Campylobacter, Enterococcus and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles of the gut microbiota of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Jouy, Eric; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Dheilly, Alexandra; Kérouanton, Annaëlle; Zeitouni, Salman; Kempf, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the impact of antimicrobial treatments on the susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, and on the diversity of broiler microbiota. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were first orally inoculated with strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus faecium. Birds were then orally treated with recommended doses of oxytetracycline, sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim, amoxicillin or enrofloxacin. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after antimicrobial treatment. The susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated on supplemented or non-supplemented media was studied and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) profiles of the gut microbiota were analysed. Enrofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter were selected in the enrofloxacin-treated group and showed the Thr86Ile mutation in the gyrA gene. Acquisition of the tetO gene in Campylobacter coli isolates was significantly more frequent in birds given oxytetracycline. No impact of amoxicillin treatment on the susceptibility of Campylobacter could be detected. Ampicillin- and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim-resistant Enterococcus faecium were selected in amoxicillin-treated broilers, but no selection of the inoculated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium could be detected, although it was also resistant to tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim. PCR-CE-SSCP revealed significant variations in a few peaks in treated birds as compared with non-treated chickens. In conclusion, antimicrobial treatments perturbed chicken gut microbiota, and certain antimicrobial treatments selected or co-selected resistant strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus.

  11. Enterococcus Xinjiangensis sp. nov., Isolated from Yogurt of Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaopu; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Dongqi

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-strain-positive bacterial strain 48(T) was isolated from traditional yogurt in Xinjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polymerase α subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of Enterococcus ratti and analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 48(T) accounted for 96.1, 95.8, 95.8, and 95.7 % with Enterococcus faecium CGMCC 1.2136(T), Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T), and E. ratti ATCC 700914(T) in the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The sequence of rpoA gene showed similarities of 99.0, 96.0, 96.0, and 96 % with that of E. faecium ATCC 19434(T), Enterococcus villorum LMG12287, E. hirae ATCC 9790(T), and E. durans ATCC 19432(T), respectively. Based upon of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the study, a novel species, Enterococcus xinjiangensis sp. nov., was proposed and the type strain was 48(T)(=CCTCC AB 2014041(T) = JCM 30200(T)). PMID:27260143

  12. Cotransfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and a hylEfm-Containing Virulence Plasmid in Enterococcus faecium▿

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Cesar A.; Panesso, Diana; Singh, Kavindra V.; Rice, Louis B.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2009-01-01

    The hylEfm gene (encoding a putative hyaluronidase) has been found almost exclusively in Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates, and recently, it was shown to be on a plasmid which increased the ability of E. faecium strains to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, the results of mating experiments between hylEfm-containing strains of E. faecium belonging to clonal cluster 17 and isolated in the United States and Colombia indicated that the hylEfm gene of these strains is also ca...

  13. Genetic markers for detection of Escherichia coli K-12 harboring ampicillin-resistance plasmid from an industrial wastewater treatment effluent pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, G A R; Xavier, M A S; Oliveira, D A; Menezes, E V; Magalhães, S S G; Gandra, J A C D; Xavier, A R E O

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology industries that use recombinant DNA technology are potential sources for release of genetically modified organisms to the environment. Antibiotic-resistance marker genes are commonly used for recombinant bacteria selection. One example is the marker gene coding for β-lactamase (bla) in plasmids found in Escherichia coli K-12. The aim of this study was to provide an approach to develop a molecular method for genetic marker detection in E. coli K-12 harboring bla genes from an industrial wastewater treatment effluent pond (IWTEP). For the detection of bla and Achromobacter lyticus protease I (api) genes in samples from IWTEP, we employed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using E. coli K-12 genetic marker detection primers, previously described in the literature, and primers designed in our laboratory. The microbiological screening method resulted in 22 bacterial colony-forming units isolated from three different IWTEP harvesting points. The multiplex PCR amplicons showed that five isolates were positive for the bla gene marker and negative for the E. coli K-12 and api genes. The 16S rRNA regions of positive microorganisms carrying the bla gene were genotyped by the MicroSeq®500 system. The bacteria found were Escherichia spp (3/5), Chromobacterium spp (1/5), and Aeromonas spp (1/5). None of the 22 isolated microorganisms presented the molecular pattern of E. coli K-12 harboring the bla gene. The presence of microorganisms positive for the bla gene and negative for E. coli K-12 harboring bla genes at IWTEP suggests that the ampicillin resistance found in the isolated bacteria could be from microorganisms other than the E. coli K-12 strain harboring plasmid. PMID:27323199

  14. Prevalence of macrolide-non-susceptible isolates among β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in a tertiary care hospital in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajima, Takeaki; Seyama, Shoji; Nakamura, Yuka; Kashima, Chihiro; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Ushio, Masanobu; Fujii, Takeshi; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2016-09-01

    β-Lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Haemophilus influenzae account for a large portion of H. influenzae clinical isolates in Japan. The aim of this study was to clarify the antimicrobial susceptibility of BLNAR H. influenzae clinical isolates as well as the annual changes in susceptibility. BLNAR H. influenzae isolates were collected from a tertiary care hospital from 2007 to 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and resistance mechanisms were analysed. All of the isolates (n=304) had amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) and isolates were classified by these amino acid substitutions: R517H or N526K (class I); S385T and R517H (class II); and S385T and N526K (class III). Classes I, II and III represented 8.2% (n=25), 9.5% (n=29) and 81.6% (n=248) of the isolates, respectively; 2 isolates could not be classified because they had a PBP3 with a substantially mutated FtsI transpeptidase domain. All of the isolates were highly susceptible to fluoroquinolones and carbapenems. The number of clarithromycin (CAM)-non-susceptible [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥16μg/mL] H. influenzae isolates increased significantly between 2010 and 2012. Moreover, CAM-non-susceptible H. influenzae isolates were prevalent among class II and class III BLNAR H. influenzae. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the CAM-resistant (MIC ≥32μg/mL) H. influenzae isolates showed that they were not specific sequence types, suggesting that CAM resistance may occur in any isolates. These results raise concern regarding the occurrence of multidrug-resistant BLNAR H. influenzae. PMID:27530834

  15. Production of ACAT1 56-kDa isoform in human cells via trans-splicing involving the ampicillin resistance gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Jing Hu; Jia Chen; Xiao-Nan Zhao; Jia-Jia Xu; Dong-Qing Guo; Ming Lu; Ming Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Trans-splicing,a process involving the cleavage and joining of two separate transcripts,can expand the transcriptome and proteome in eukaryotes.Chimeric RNAs generated by trans-splicing are increasingly described in literatures.The widespread presence of antibiotic resistance genes in natural environments and human intestines is becoming an important challenge for public health.Certain antibiotic resistance genes,such as ampicillin resistance gene (Amp),are frequently used in recombinant plasmids.Until now,trans-splicing involving recombinant plasmid-derived exogenous transcripts and endogenous cellular RNAs has not been reported.Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) is a key enzyme involved in cellular cholesterol homeostasis.The 4.3-kb human ACAT1 chimeric mRNA can produce 50-kDa and 56-kDa isoforms with different enzymatic activities.Here,we show that human ACAT1 56-kDa isoform is produced from an mRNA species generated through the trans-splicing of an exogenous transcript encoded by the antisense strand of Ampr (asAmp) present in common Ampr-plasmids and the 4.3-kb endogenous ACAT1 chimeric mRNA,which is presumably processed through a prior event of interchromosomal trans-splicing.Strikingly,DNA fragments containing the asAmp with an upstream recombined cryptic promoter and the corresponding exogenous asAmp transcripts have been detected in human cells.Our findings shed lights on the mechanism of human ACAT1 56-kDa isoform production,reveal an exogenous-endogenous trans-splicing system,in which recombinant plasmid-derived exogenous transcripts are linked with endogenous cellular RNAs in human cells,and suggest that exogenous DNA might affect human gene expression at both DNA and RNA levels.

  16. Prevalence of macrolide-non-susceptible isolates among β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in a tertiary care hospital in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajima, Takeaki; Seyama, Shoji; Nakamura, Yuka; Kashima, Chihiro; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Ushio, Masanobu; Fujii, Takeshi; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2016-09-01

    β-Lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Haemophilus influenzae account for a large portion of H. influenzae clinical isolates in Japan. The aim of this study was to clarify the antimicrobial susceptibility of BLNAR H. influenzae clinical isolates as well as the annual changes in susceptibility. BLNAR H. influenzae isolates were collected from a tertiary care hospital from 2007 to 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and resistance mechanisms were analysed. All of the isolates (n=304) had amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) and isolates were classified by these amino acid substitutions: R517H or N526K (class I); S385T and R517H (class II); and S385T and N526K (class III). Classes I, II and III represented 8.2% (n=25), 9.5% (n=29) and 81.6% (n=248) of the isolates, respectively; 2 isolates could not be classified because they had a PBP3 with a substantially mutated FtsI transpeptidase domain. All of the isolates were highly susceptible to fluoroquinolones and carbapenems. The number of clarithromycin (CAM)-non-susceptible [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥16μg/mL] H. influenzae isolates increased significantly between 2010 and 2012. Moreover, CAM-non-susceptible H. influenzae isolates were prevalent among class II and class III BLNAR H. influenzae. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the CAM-resistant (MIC ≥32μg/mL) H. influenzae isolates showed that they were not specific sequence types, suggesting that CAM resistance may occur in any isolates. These results raise concern regarding the occurrence of multidrug-resistant BLNAR H. influenzae.

  17. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli strains from chicken in Enugu State, Nigeria Produção de beta-lactamase de espectro expandido por cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina isoladas de frango em Enugu State, Nigéria

    OpenAIRE

    Chah, K.F.; Oboegbulem, S. I.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-two ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains isolated from commercial chickens in Enugu State, Nigeria, were screened for beta-lactamase production using the broth method with nitrocefin® as the chromogenic cephalosporin to detect enzyme production. Beta-lactamase producing strains were further examined for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production using the Oxoid combination discs method. One hundred and seventy (98.8%) of the 172 ampicillin-resistant E. coli str...

  18. Identification of vancomycin-susceptible major clones of clinical Enterococcus from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourafa, Nadjette; Abat, Cédric; Loucif, Lotfi; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Bentorki, Ahmed Aimen; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to characterize clinical strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from Algerian inpatients and outpatients, to investigate their susceptibility to antibiotics and to analyse their phylogenetic relatedness. A total of 85 non-duplicate Enterococcus spp. isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 from various clinical samples, including urine, vaginal swab, pus, blood and semen, from Algerian inpatients (n=62) and outpatients (n=23) were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Clonal relatedness was analysed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Enterococcus faecalis was the most predominant species (75.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecium (21.2%), Enterococcus gallinarum (2.4%) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (1.2%). High-level resistance to aminoglycosides was significantly more prevalent in hospitalized patients than in outpatients. None of the E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were resistant to vancomycin. High genetic diversity was observed among the E. faecalis isolates, with the identification of a new clonal complex (CC256), as well as the detection of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium lineages ST17, ST18 and ST78 associated with hospital isolates. This is the first report of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium ST17 and ST18 in Algeria. Although acquired vancomycin resistance was not observed among the enterococcal strains, there is a continued need to monitor the level of antibiotic resistance among enterococci as well as the evolution of the E. faecalis/E. faecium ratio. PMID:27530845

  19. Identification of vancomycin-susceptible major clones of clinical Enterococcus from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourafa, Nadjette; Abat, Cédric; Loucif, Lotfi; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Bentorki, Ahmed Aimen; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to characterize clinical strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from Algerian inpatients and outpatients, to investigate their susceptibility to antibiotics and to analyse their phylogenetic relatedness. A total of 85 non-duplicate Enterococcus spp. isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 from various clinical samples, including urine, vaginal swab, pus, blood and semen, from Algerian inpatients (n=62) and outpatients (n=23) were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Clonal relatedness was analysed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Enterococcus faecalis was the most predominant species (75.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecium (21.2%), Enterococcus gallinarum (2.4%) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (1.2%). High-level resistance to aminoglycosides was significantly more prevalent in hospitalized patients than in outpatients. None of the E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were resistant to vancomycin. High genetic diversity was observed among the E. faecalis isolates, with the identification of a new clonal complex (CC256), as well as the detection of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium lineages ST17, ST18 and ST78 associated with hospital isolates. This is the first report of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium ST17 and ST18 in Algeria. Although acquired vancomycin resistance was not observed among the enterococcal strains, there is a continued need to monitor the level of antibiotic resistance among enterococci as well as the evolution of the E. faecalis/E. faecium ratio.

  20. Eight-year Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterococcus Spp. Isolated in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1446 strains of Enterococcus spp. were collected from urine 640 (44.3%), sputum 315 (21.8%), secretions and pus 265 (18.3%) during the past 8 years. The rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were 57.4%∼75.9% and 69.0%∼93.8% during the past 8 years, respectively. No Enterococcus spp. was resistant to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. had increased in recent 8 years. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  1. 枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒对厌食症患儿血清神经肽Y和肿瘤坏死因子-α水平影响及疗效%Influence and effect of Combined Bacillus Subtilis and Enterococcus Fae-cium Granules with Multivitamines for serum neuropeptide Y and tumor necrosis factor-αlevels of children with anorexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈潜; 杨戎威

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒对厌食症患儿血清神经肽Y(NPY)和肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)水平影响及疗效。方法选取2012年6月~2014年6月在浙江省嘉兴市妇幼保健院儿童厌食症患者86例,采用随机数字表将其分为观察组(43例)和对照组(43例)。两组患儿均予以纠正患儿不良饮食习惯、健胃消食药和葡萄糖酸锌等常规治疗。观察组患儿加用枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒1.0 g/次,2次/d,温开水冲服。疗程为6周。对照组患儿除不使用枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒外余治疗基本同观察组。观察并记录两组患儿治疗前和治疗6周后血清NPY和TNF-α水平的变化,并比较其治疗后的临床效果及药物不良反应。结果治疗6周后,两组患儿血清NPY和TNF-α水平[观察组:(45.53±7.82)pg/mL,(10.24±2.74)mmol/L;对照组:(37.39±7.53)pg/mL,(8.19±2.13)mmol/L]较治疗前[观察组:(32.17±5.18)pg/mL,(6.82±1.76)mmol/L;对照组:(32.79±4.23)pg/mL,(7.03±1.54)mmol/L]明显上升(t =2.89、3.12、2.31、2.45,P<0.05或P<0.01),且观察组上升程度较对照组更明显(t =2.19、2.24,P<0.05);同时观察组患儿临床总有效率(93.02%)较对照组(76.74%)更佳(χ2=4.44,P<0.05)。两组患儿治疗中无明显的药物不良反应发生。结论枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒治疗儿童厌食症的效果较确切,且安全性较好,其作用机制可能与其升高血清NPY和TNF-α水平,提高患儿的食欲密切相关。%Objective To discuss the influence and effect of Combined Bacillus Subtilis and Enterococcus Faecium Granules with Multivitamines for serum neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αlevels of children with anorexia. Methods Eighty six cases of children with anorexia collected by Jiaxing Maternal and Child Care Service Center from June 2012 to June 2014 were selected, and divided into observation group (43 cases) and control group (43 cases) by random

  2. Application of Combined Bacillus Subtilis and Enterococcus Faecium Granules with Multivitamines-Live in Treatment of Henoch Purpura in Children%枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒在儿童腹型过敏性紫癜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左满凤; 艾柳; 舒琼璋; 董晶

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe the adjunctive effect of the viable organism praeparatum Combined Bacillus Subtilis and Enterococcus Faecium Granules with Multivitamines-Live(Medilae-Vita) in the treatment of henoch purpura in children. Methods: Together 139 children with henoch purpura as research subjects were divided into observation group and control group by random number table method. In the control group, children were treated with cimetidine, vitamin C, calcium, glucocorticosteroid; and antibiotics therapy was given to those who had combined infection. The observation group were given Medilac-Vita in addition to the same treatment as the control group. Aged 4~6 years, 1 g each time; aged - 12 years, 1. 5 g each time; all three times a day, 7 days as a course of treatment. The symptom changes of digestive tube ( stomachache, emesia, hemafecia), levels of salivary secretary IgA ( sIgA) and clinical effect after treatment in I week of the two groups were observed. Results: The extinction time of digestive tube symptoms in observation group was less than that of the control group (P0.05). The total effective rate in observation group was 95.71% , while that of the control group was 81.82% , there was significant difference in the two groups (x2 = 4. 978, P<0. 05). Conclusions: Viable organism praeparatum Medilac-Vila can enhance the immunity of mucous membrane. In the treatment of henoch purpura in children, it can relieve digestive tube symptoms quickly, prevent alimentary tract hemorrhage, and shorten the course of treatment%目的:观察枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒在儿童腹型过敏性紫癜(HSP)治疗中的辅助作用.方法:将139例腹型HSP住院患儿中完成研究的125例纳入研究对象,采用随机数字表法随机分为观察组70例和对照组55例.对照组给予西咪替丁、维生素C、钙剂及糖皮质激素等综合治疗,合并感染者给予抗生素治疗,观察组在对照组治疗基础上加服枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒,年龄4

  3. Enterococcus infection biology: lessons from invertebrate host models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Grace J; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-03-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:24585051

  4. AN EFFICIENT IMMUNOMAGNETIC CAPTURE SYSTEM FOR ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS AND ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterococci detection is one of the two approved procedures by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) used for the assessment of the microbiological quality of recreational waters. The action levels established by the EPA for enterococci are 35 pr 100 ml in marine recreati...

  5. Prevalence and characterization of Enterococcus spp. isolated from Brazilian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Bruna C; Esteves, Carolina T; Palazzo, Izabel C V; Darini, Ana Lúcia C; Felis, G E; Sechi, Leonardo A; Franco, Bernadette D G M; De Martinis, Elaine C P

    2008-08-01

    Enterococci can be used in the food industry as starter or probiotic cultures. However, enterococci are also implicated in severe multi-resistant nosocomial infections. In this study, the prevalence of enterococci in selected Brazilian foodstuffs (raw and pasteurized milk, meat products, cheeses and vegetables) was evaluated. Phenotypic and PCR protocols were used for species identification. Tests for production of gelatinase, haemolysin, bacteriocin and bile salt hydrolysis were done with all enterococci isolates, whereas molecular determination of virulence markers (genes esp, gel, ace, as, efaA, hyl and cylA) and antibiotic resistance was checked only for Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The antibiotic-resistant isolates were assayed for biofilm formation and adhesion to mammalian cells. From the 120 food samples analyzed, 52.5% were positive for enterococci, meat and cheese being the most contaminated. E. faecium was the predominant species, followed by E. faecalis, E. casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum. Phenotypic tests indicated that 67.7% of isolates hydrolyzed bile salts, 15.2% produced bacteriocin, 12.0% were beta-hemolytic and 18.2% produced gelatinase. Antibiotic resistance (gentamicin, tetracycline and erythromycin) and genes encoding for virulence traits were more frequent in E. faecalis than in E. faecium. Three E. faecium isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Among antibiotic-resistant isolates, 72.4% of E. faecalis were able to form biofilm and 13.8% to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Antibiotic-resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were grouped by RAPD-PCR and a scattered distribution was noted, indicating that resistance was not related to a particular clone. The spread of virulence/resistance traits in isolates of the two species and different RAPD-types suggest the pathogenic potential of both species. By contrast, the recovery of bacteriocinogenic E. faecium isolates with no virulence traits suggests their

  6. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  7. Genetic diversity of the ftsI gene in β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulmin; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Shin, Na-Young; Byun, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jae-Wook; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eu Yoon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Sohn, Woo Yun; Kang, Jin Han

    2013-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae frequently colonizes the nasopharynx of children and adults, which can lead to a variety of infections. We investigated H. influenzae carriage in the nasopharynx of 360 children, in terms of (1) the prevalence of strains with decreased susceptibility, and (2) the presence of amino acid substitutions in PBP3. One hundred twenty-three strains were isolated (34.2%, 123/360), 122 of which were classified as nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi). Of these, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible strains accounted for 26.2%, β-lactamase-producing-ampicillin-resistant strains for 9.0%, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains for 40.2%, and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) for 24.6%, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were so diverse that they were clustered into 41 groups. The amino acid substitutions in the transpeptidase domain (292 amino acids) of ftsI in BLNAR isolates showed that group IIb accounted for 30.6%, IIc for 8.2%, IId for 16.3%, III for 32.7%, and the others for 12.2%. Moreover, groups IIb (56.7%; 17/30) and III (23.3%; 7/30) were prevalent among BLPACR strains. They were subclassified into more diverse sequence subtypes by analysis of the entire PBP3 (610 amino acids). Groups IIb, IIc, IId, and III exhibited 13, four, six, and four sequence subtypes, respectively. Such a genetic diversity is likely indicative of significant potential for decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in nasopharyngeal-colonizing NTHi strains.

  8. Screening municipal wastewater effluent and surface water used for drinking water production for the presence of ampicillin and vancomycin resistant enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taučer-Kapteijn, Maja; Hoogenboezem, Wim; Heiliegers, Laura; de Bolster, Danny; Medema, Gertjan

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of clinical enterococcal isolates that are resistant to both ampicillin and vancomycin is a cause of great concern, as therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of infections caused by such organisms are becoming limited. Aquatic environments could play a role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistant enterococci. This study investigated the presence of ampicillin and vancomycin resistant enterococci in the treated effluent of six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and in surface water used as a source for drinking water production in the Netherlands. Membrane filtration in combination with selective media with ampicillin or vancomycin was applied to determine the presence of ampicillin resistant Enterococcus (ARE) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) species. Ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) >16μg/mL; n=1033) was observed in all studied WWTP effluents. In surface water used for drinking water production (intake locations), no ARE or VRE were observed. At both types of location, intrinsic vancomycin resistant Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were isolated with the vancomycin medium. The ampicillin resistant E. faecium (AREfm) isolates (n=113) did not contain the vanA or vanB gene, but MIC testing for vancomycin showed intermediate vancomycin resistance (2-8μgmL(-1)) to occur in these AREfm strains. This study documents the discharge of ampicillin resistant E. faecium strains with intermediate vancomycin resistance by the WWTPs into the surface water, but no presence of these strains downstream at intake locations for drinking water production.

  9. Prevalence of enterococcus species and their virulence genes in fresh water prior to and after storm events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, J P S; Skelly, E; Hodgers, L; Ahmed, W; Li, Y; Toze, S

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. isolates (n = 286) collected from six surface water bodies in subtropical Brisbane, Australia, prior to and after storm events, were identified to species level and tested for the presence of seven clinically important virulence genes (VGs). Enterococcus faecalis (48%), Enterococcus faecium (14%), Enterococcus mundtii (13%), and Enterococcus casseliflavus (13%) were frequently detected at all sites. The frequency of E. faecium occurrence increased from 6% in the dry period to 18% after the wet period. The endocarditis antigen (efaA), gelatinase (gelE), collagen-binding protein (ace), and aggregation substance (asa1) were detected in 61%, 43%, 43%, and 23% of Enterococcus isolates, respectively. The chances of occurrence of ace, gelE, efaA, and asa1 genes in E. faecalis were found to be much higher compared to the other Enterococcus spp. The observed odds ratio of occurrence of ace and gelE genes in E. faecalis was much higher at 7.96 and 6.40 times, respectively. The hyl gene was 3.84 times more likely to be detected in E. casseliflavus. The presence of multiple VGs in most of the E. faecalis isolates underscores the importance of E. faecalis as a reservoir of VGs in the fresh water aquatic environment. Consequently, if contaminated surface water is to be used for production of potable and nonpotable water some degree of treatment depending upon intended use such as detention in basins prior to use or chlorination is required.

  10. Effect of Enterovocus faecium DSM 7134 probiotic upon some hematobiochemical values in acute ochratoxicoses in broilirs

    OpenAIRE

    Blagoevska Katerina; Dodovski Aleksandar; Blagoevski Andreja; Popovska-Percinic Florina; Pendovski Lazo; Mickov Ljupco; Stojkovski Velimir

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a single strain probiotic Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134, upon some biochemical and haematological parameters in broilers, was examined after a single dose application of ochratoxin A (OTA). For that purpose, a total of 160 Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four different treatments with two replicates of 20 chicks each: 1) control; 2) probiotic 3.300 x 109 CFU, tested at 0.2 g/l in drinking water; 3) OTA 50 mg/l, in drinking water; and 4) probiotic plus OTA, in ...

  11. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from the river and coastal waters in northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Majid; Hajiesmaili, Reza; Talebjannat, Maryam; Yahyapour, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    As fecal streptococci commonly inhabit the intestinal tract of humans and warm blooded animals, and daily detection of all pathogenic bacteria in coastal water is not practical, thus these bacteria are used to detect the fecal contamination of water. The present study examined the presence and the antibiotic resistance patterns of Enterococcus spp. isolated from the Babolrud River in Babol and coastal waters in Babolsar. Seventy samples of water were collected in various regions of the Babolrud and coastal waters. Isolated bacteria were identified to the species level using standard biochemical tests and PCR technique. In total, 70 Enterococcus spp. were isolated from the Babolrud River and coastal waters of Babolsar. Enterococcus faecalis (68.6%) and Enterococcus faecium (20%) were the most prevalent species. Resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin was prevalent. The presence of resistant Enterococcus spp. in coastal waters may transmit resistant genes to other bacteria; therefore, swimming in such environments is not suitable.

  12. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococcus Spp. Isolated from the River and Coastal Waters in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As fecal streptococci commonly inhabit the intestinal tract of humans and warm blooded animals, and daily detection of all pathogenic bacteria in coastal water is not practical, thus these bacteria are used to detect the fecal contamination of water. The present study examined the presence and the antibiotic resistance patterns of Enterococcus spp. isolated from the Babolrud River in Babol and coastal waters in Babolsar. Seventy samples of water were collected in various regions of the Babolrud and coastal waters. Isolated bacteria were identified to the species level using standard biochemical tests and PCR technique. In total, 70 Enterococcus spp. were isolated from the Babolrud River and coastal waters of Babolsar. Enterococcus faecalis (68.6% and Enterococcus faecium (20% were the most prevalent species. Resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin was prevalent. The presence of resistant Enterococcus spp. in coastal waters may transmit resistant genes to other bacteria; therefore, swimming in such environments is not suitable.

  13. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Marek, Agnieszka; Banach, Tomasz; Adaszek, Łukasz; Pyzik, Ewelina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus in poultry, to identify them by means of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS), and to analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains to the drugs most frequently used in poultry. The material for the bacteriological tests was obtained mainly from the heart (97%) of the birds investigated. Of a total of 2,970 samples tested, 911 (30.7%) tested positive for Enterococcus spp. Enterococci were detected in broilers (88.1%), laying hens (5.3%), turkeys (3.9%), breeding hens (2.2%), and geese (0.4%). The most commonly identified species were Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (74.7%), E. faecium (10.1%), E. gallinarum (5.5%), E. hirae (4.6%), and E. cecorum (4.1%). The most frequent resistance properties were resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (88%), tylosin (71.4%), enrofloxacin (69.4%), doxycycline (67.3%), and lincomycin/spectinomycin (56.1%). Only one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, E. cecorum from a broiler, was found.

  14. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Marek, Agnieszka; Banach, Tomasz; Adaszek, Łukasz; Pyzik, Ewelina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus in poultry, to identify them by means of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS), and to analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains to the drugs most frequently used in poultry. The material for the bacteriological tests was obtained mainly from the heart (97%) of the birds investigated. Of a total of 2,970 samples tested, 911 (30.7%) tested positive for Enterococcus spp. Enterococci were detected in broilers (88.1%), laying hens (5.3%), turkeys (3.9%), breeding hens (2.2%), and geese (0.4%). The most commonly identified species were Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (74.7%), E. faecium (10.1%), E. gallinarum (5.5%), E. hirae (4.6%), and E. cecorum (4.1%). The most frequent resistance properties were resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (88%), tylosin (71.4%), enrofloxacin (69.4%), doxycycline (67.3%), and lincomycin/spectinomycin (56.1%). Only one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, E. cecorum from a broiler, was found. PMID:27342087

  15. Characterization of different food-isolated Enterococcus strains by MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Böhme, Karola; Fernández-No, Inmaculada C; Morandi, Stefano; Alnakip, Mohammed E; Caamaño-Antelo, Sonia; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Calo-Mata, Pilar

    2013-08-01

    Enterococcus is a controversial genus due to its great variability; this genus includes pathogenic strains, spoilage strains, and apparently safe strains including some probiotic strains. Previous studies focused on the characterization of strains of Enterococcus spp. involved in nosocomial infections. However, little research has been conducted on Enterococcus strains in foodstuffs. In the present work, 36 strains of different species of Enterococcus have been characterized by means of MALDI-TOF MS, resulting in highly specific mass spectral fingerprints. Characteristic peak masses common to certain bacterial species of Enterococcus have been identified. Thus, a peak at m/z 4426 ± 1 was assigned as a genus-specific biomarker. In addition, phyloproteomic relationships based on the mass spectral data were compared to the results of a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence. A better grouping at the species level was observed in the phyloproteomic tree, especially for the Enterococcus faecium group. Presumably, the assortment of some strains or ecotypes could be related to their ecological niche specialization. The approach described in this study leads the way toward the rapid and specific identification of different strains and species of Enterococcus in food based on molecular protein markers, aiming at the early detection of pathogenic strains and strains implicated in food poisoning or food spoilage.

  16. Identification of aminoglycoside resistance genes by Triplex PCR in Enterococcus spp. isolated from ICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnejad, Reza; Sajjadi, Nikta; Masoumi Zavaryani, Sara; Piranfar, Vahhab; Hajihosseini, Maryam; Roshanfekr, Maliheh

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of antibiotic-resistant enterococci is an important part of patient treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance patterns and simultaneously identify and characterise the resistance genes in Enterococcus spp. using a triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. In all, 150 consecutive Enterococcus spp were collected from several hospitals in Tehran (Iran) from January to December 2015. The Enterococcus species were identified by standard phenotypic/biochemical tests and PCR. The antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined using a disk diffusion method. The triplex PCR method was designed to identify gentamicin and other aminoglycoside resistance genes. Among the 150 Enterococcus specimens, 87 cases (58%) were Enterococcus faecalis, and 63 cases (42%) were Enterococcus faecium. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for tetracycline while the lowest was found for vancomycin. Among the identified samples, 56.9% contained the aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia gene, 22.2% contained the aph(3')-IIIa gene, and 38.8% contained the ant(4')-?a gene. Eight percent of the isolates contained the three aminoglycoside resistance genes. Data analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the phenotypic gentamicin resistance and the presence of the aminoglycoside resistance genes (18.9%, p Enterococcus strains had increased aminoglycoside resistance. The direct correlation between resistance genes, such as the aminoglycoside resistance factor, and phenotypic resistance was not significant (p > 0.05).

  17. Sensitivity of antibiotic resistant and antibiotic susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains against ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role.

  18. Environmental waters as a source of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus species in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljović, Katarina; Popović, Nikola; Vidojević, Amarela Terzić; Tolinački, Maja; Mihajlović, Sanja; Jovčić, Branko; Kojić, Milan

    2015-09-01

    Despite the number of studies on antibiotic-resistant enterococci from Serbian clinical settings, there are no data about environmental contamination with these bacteria. Thus, this study investigated the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in Belgrade, Serbia. Enterococcus species collected from ten surface water sites, including a lake, two major river systems, and springs, were tested. Among enterococci, we found single (21.7 %), double (17.4 %), and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns (56.3 %). Vancomycin-resistant strains were not found, indicating that their abundance in Belgrade is tightly linked to clinical settings. The multiple drug-resistant strains Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus mundtii were frequently detected in the lake during the swimming season and in the rivers near industrial zones. We confirmed the presence of ermB, ermC, ant(6)-Ia, tetM, and tetL and mutations in gyrA genes. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene of E. faecium isolates that harbor esp gene classified them into two groups based on high-bootstraps scores in the tree analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of antibiotic-resistant enterococci revealed genomic similarity ranging from 75 to 100 %. This study indicates the importance of anthropogenic impact to the spread of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in environmental waters of Belgrade, Serbia.

  19. Enterococcus populations in artisanal Manchego cheese: biodiversity, technological and safety aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Arribas, Pedro; Seseña, Susana; Poveda, Justa M; Chicón, Rosa; Cabezas, Lourdes; Palop, Llanos

    2011-08-01

    Enterococci represent a considerable proportion of the microbiota in Manchego cheeses. In this study, a total of 132 enterococci isolated from good quality Manchego cheeses from two dairies at different ripening times were genotypically characterized and identified using molecular techniques. Representative isolates from the clusters obtained after genotyping were assayed for some enzymatic activities considered to have a potential role in cheese ripening, and for 2,3-butanedione and acetoin production, evaluation of odor intensity and appearance in milk and safety evaluation. Enterococcus faecalis was the predominant specie, accounting for 81.8% of the total isolates, while Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus avium were present in low proportions. The number of genotypes involved at each ripening time varied both between dairies and with the ripening times; genotype E. faecalis Q1 being present in almost all the samples from both dairies. Eight isolates showed a higher proteolytic activity and 3 isolates produced high quantities of acetoin-diacetyl, for which reason they are interesting from a technological standpoint. A low antibiotic resistance was found and almost all the strains were susceptible to clinically important antibiotics. On the contrary, only four isolates (E. faecalis C4W1 and N0W5, and E. faecium N32W1 and C16W2) did not harbor some of the virulence genes assayed. PMID:21569931

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococcus Species: A Hospital-Based Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species isolated from a university hospital, and explore the mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial resistance, so as to provide clinical evidence for the inappropriate clinical use of antimicrobial agents and the control and prevention of enterococcal infections. Methods: a total of 1,157 enterococcal strains isolated from various clinical specimens from January 2010 to December 2012 in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University were identified to species level with a VITEK-2 COMPACT fully automated microbiological system, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus species was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The multiple-drug resistant enterococcal isolates were screened from the clinical isolates of Enterococcus species from the burns department. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin was determined with the agar dilution method, and the changes in the MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones following reserpine treatment were evaluated. The β-lactam, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, macrolide, glycopeptide resistance genes and the efflux pump emeA genes were detected in the enterococcal isolates using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Results: the 1,157 clinical isolates of Enterococcus species included 679 E. faecium isolates (58.7%, 382 E. faecalis isolates (33%, 26 E. casseliflavus isolates (2.2%, 24 E. avium isolates (2.1%, and 46 isolates of other Enterococcus species (4%. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance varied significantly between E. faecium and E. faecalis, and ≤1.1% of these two Enterococcus species were found to be resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. In addition, the Enterococcus species isolated from different departments of the hospital

  1. Synthesis of E. faecium wall teichoic acid fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Es, Daan; Groenia, Nadia A; Laverde, Diana; Overkleeft, Herman S; Huebner, Johannes; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Codée, Jeroen D C

    2016-09-01

    The first synthesis of different Enterococcus faecium wall teichoic acid (WTA) fragments is presented. The structure of these major cell wall components was elucidated recently and it was shown that these glycerolphosphate (GroP) based polymers are built up from -6-(GalNAc-α(1-3)-GalNAc-β(1-2)-GroP)- repeating units. We assembled WTA fragments up to three repeating units in length, in two series that differ in the stereochemistry of the glycerolphosphate moiety. The key GalNAc-GalNAc-GroP synthons, required for the synthesis, were generated from galactosazide building blocks that were employed in highly stereoselective glycosylation reactions to furnish both the α- and β-configured linkages. By comparing the NMR spectra of the synthesized fragments with the isolated material it appears that the hereto undefined stereochemistry of the glycerol phosphate moiety is sn-glycerol-3-phosphate. The generated fragments will be valuable tools to study their immunological activity at the molecular level. PMID:26993744

  2. 372例肠球菌对16种抗菌药物的药敏试验研究%Drug Sensitive Analysis of Enterococcus towards Sixteen Antibacterials of Our Institute in Nearly Three Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军艳; 何启强; 陆明海; 任慧玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective Discuss drug resistance of enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis to sixteen an-tibiotics.Methods Experiment with drug sensitivity of 372 types of entrococcus (including 280 enterococcus faecium and 92 enterococcus faecalis)were detected to sixteen antibiotics such as penicillin,erythrocin,chloramphenicol,van-comycin,linezolid etc.from Jan.2010 to Jan.2014.The data were analized.Results In nearly three years,the highest resistance rate of enterococcus faecium on erythrocin is 86.07%,the lowest on linezolid is 0.36%.The highest resist-ance rate of enterococcus faecalis on erythrocin is 92.39%,the lowest on linezolid is 1.09%.The resistance rate of enterococcus faecium is significantly higher than the enterococcus faecalis (P 0.05),耐药率最低的均是利奈唑胺,分别为0.36%和1.09%,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。在青霉素、氨苄西林、他唑巴坦、奈替米星、环丙沙星和呋喃妥因等6种抗菌药物中,粪肠球菌的耐药率明显高于屎肠球菌,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),而在氯霉素和高浓度链霉素中,粪肠球菌的耐药率明显低于屎肠球菌,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌对16种抗菌药物有不同程度的耐药性,且耐药率有差异。

  3. Enterococcus phages as potential tool for identifying sewage inputs in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; K.Vijayavel,; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; J. Ebdon,; ,; H. Taylor,; ,; Whitman, Richard L.; ,; D.R. Kashian,

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses living in bacteria that can be used as a tool to detect fecal contamination in surface waters around the world. However, the lack of a universal host strain makes them unsuitable for tracking fecal sources. We evaluated the suitability of two newly isolated Enterococcus host strains (ENT-49 and ENT-55) capable for identifying sewage contamination in impacted waters by targeting phages specific to these hosts. Both host strains were isolated from wastewater samples and identified as E. faecium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Occurrence of Enterococcus phages was evaluated in sewage samples (n = 15) from five wastewater treatment plants and in fecal samples from twenty-two species of wild and domesticated animals (individual samples; n = 22). Levels of Enterococcus phages, F + coliphages, Escherichia coli and enterococci were examined from four rivers, four beaches, and three harbors. Enterococcus phages enumeration was at similar levels (Mean = 6.72 Log PFU/100 mL) to F + coliphages in all wastewater samples, but were absent from all non-human fecal sources tested. The phages infecting Enterococcus spp. and F + coliphages were not detected in the river samples (detection threshold bacteriophages associated with these particular Enterococcus host strains offer potentially sensitive and human-source specific indicators of enteric pathogen risk.

  4. Bacteremia with an iliopsoas abscess and osteomyelitis of the femoral head caused by Enterococcus avium in a patient with end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Akira; Hangai, Mika; Oda, Toshimi

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old man on hemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease due to polycystic kidney disease presented with hip pain on extension and a high C-reactive protein level. Further examinations revealed an iliopsoas abscess and femoral head osteomyelitis caused by Enterococcus avium (E. avium) detected in blood and pus cultures. Complete resolution of the infection with ampicillin-resistant E. avium required six months of vancomycin therapy and two surgical drainage procedures. There have been no previous case reports in which both blood and abscess cultures confirmed E. avium infection. Careful attention should be paid to the detection of non-specific symptoms in patients on hemodialysis, with blood cultures being essential in such cases.

  5. 肠球菌的临床感染与耐药性分析%Clinical infection and drug-resistance analysis of Enterococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢星梅; 卢雅敏; 吴庆; 陈思思; 周铁丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解温州医学院附属第一医院临床分离主要肠球菌的分布及其对常用抗菌药物的耐药现状,以指导临床合理用药.方法 对2008年至2011年临床分离的635株粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的标本来源和药敏结果进行回顾性分析.结果 各种临床标本中两种肠球菌的分布比例存在差异,总体以尿液标本所占比例最多,且屎肠球菌的总体分离率高于粪肠球菌.粪肠球菌对利奈唑胺、氨苄西林、万古霉素、呋喃妥因和替考拉宁的耐药率都在5.0%以下,对莫西沙星和青霉素G的耐药率也仅为7.0%和6.7%;屎肠球菌对莫西沙星、左旋氧氟沙星、环丙沙星、氨苄西林、青霉素G和红霉素的耐药率都在90.0%以上,对利奈唑胺、万古霉素、替考拉宁和奎奴敏感.粪肠球菌的多重耐药株占总数的26.4%,屎肠球菌的多重耐药株占总数的78.2%.结论 粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌对15种抗菌药物的耐药情况不同,屎肠球菌具有更高的耐药率和更广的耐药谱.临床应根据药敏试验的结果合理选择抗菌药物,以防止耐药菌株的产生和播散.%Objective To explore the current distribution and drug-resistance of the main types of clinically isolated Enterococci in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College to guide optimal clinical drug practice. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed with the source and antimicrobial susceptibility results of 635 strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium which were clinically isolated during 2008 to 2011. Results The ratios of the two types of Enterococci had a difference in different specimens. Most of Enterococci were isolated from urine specimens which accounted for the highest ratio in total, and the isolation rate of Enterococcus faecium was significantly higher than that of Enterococcus faecalis. The drug resistance rate of Enterococcus faecalis to linezolid, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and

  6. vanA-containing E. faecium isolates of clonal complex CC17 in clinical and environmental samples in a Tunisian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhani, Dalèle; Klibi, Naouel; Dziri, Raoudha; Ben Hassan, Meriem; Asli Mohamed, Selim; Ben Said, Laila; Mahjoub, Aouini; Ben Slama, Karim; Jemli, Boutheina; Bellaj, Ridha; Barguellil, Farouk; Torres, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-eight vancomycin (VA)-resistant enterococci isolated from different patients (n = 16) and also from the environment (n = 12) were recovered in a Tunisian military hospital during 2012-2013. The mechanisms of resistance to VA and to other antibiotics as well as the presence of esp and hyl virulence genes were determined in these isolates by PCR, being their clonal relationship analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). VA resistance mechanisms detected were as follows (species-patient/environment): vanA (Enterococcus faecium, 13/5), vanC1 (Enterococcus gallinarum, 3/0), and vanC2 (Enterococcus casseliflavus, 0/7). Most of the VA-resistant enterococci presented a multiresistance phenotype and harbored different resistance genes (erm(B), tet(M), tet(L), ant(6)-Ia, aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-IIIa, and catA). The PFGE revealed the presence of 3 clones (A, B, C) and 1 closely related pattern (A1) among the 13 vanA-containing E. faecium isolates of patients showing 11 of them the A-A1 patterns. The clone A was also detected in all 5 environmental vanA-containing E. faecium isolates. Strains did not contain esp or hyl virulence genes. Multilocus sequence typing was performed in 4 E. faecium isolates representative of the 4 detected pulsotypes (A, A1, B, and C), and 2 different sequence types were identified (ST18 and ST80), both of them included in clonal complex CC17. These strains contained the IS16 element and showed ampicillin and ciprofloxacin resistance. VA resistance could be an emerging problem in Tunisia, and this is one of the first cases described so far in this country.

  7. Macrolide, glycopeptide resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus species isolates from dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iweriebor, Benson C; Obi, Larry C; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-07-01

    The genus Enterococcus is known to possess the capacity to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistant determinants alongside the ability to produce various virulence genes that enables it to establish infections. We assessed the prevalence and antibiogram profiles of Enterococcus spp. in faecal samples of dairy cattle. Faecal swab samples were collected from 400 dairy cattle from two commercial cattle farms in two rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Confirmation of enterococci isolates was carried out by PCR targeting of the tuf gene. Species delineation was by species-specific primers targeting the superoxide dismutase (sod A) gene in a multiplex PCR assay. Isolates were screened for the presence of the following virulence genes (ace, gel E, esp, efa A, cyl A and hyl E) and antimicrobial resistance determinants to erythromycin, vancomycin and streptomycin were evaluated molecularly. A total of 340 isolates were confirmed as belonging to the genus Enterococcus . Species distribution among the isolates consisted of Enterococcus faecium (52.94 %) and Enterococcus durans (23.53 %) in preponderance compared to the three other species, namely Enterococcus faecalis (8.8 %), Enterococcus hirae (8.6 %) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (5.9 %). All were resistant to vancomycin, while 99 % showed resistance to aminoglycoside and 94 % to macrolide. Three virulence genes (ace, gel E and esp) were detected in almost all the confirmed isolates. The resistance determinants van B (19.7 %), van C1 (25 %), van C2/3 (26.3 %) erm B (40.29 %) and str A (50.88 %) were detected among the isolates. A high prevalence of multidrug-resistant enterococci isolates was detected in this study and the genetic repertoire to survive in the presence of antimicrobial agents was present in these organisms.

  8. Macrolide, glycopeptide resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus species isolates from dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iweriebor, Benson C; Obi, Larry C; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-07-01

    The genus Enterococcus is known to possess the capacity to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistant determinants alongside the ability to produce various virulence genes that enables it to establish infections. We assessed the prevalence and antibiogram profiles of Enterococcus spp. in faecal samples of dairy cattle. Faecal swab samples were collected from 400 dairy cattle from two commercial cattle farms in two rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Confirmation of enterococci isolates was carried out by PCR targeting of the tuf gene. Species delineation was by species-specific primers targeting the superoxide dismutase (sod A) gene in a multiplex PCR assay. Isolates were screened for the presence of the following virulence genes (ace, gel E, esp, efa A, cyl A and hyl E) and antimicrobial resistance determinants to erythromycin, vancomycin and streptomycin were evaluated molecularly. A total of 340 isolates were confirmed as belonging to the genus Enterococcus . Species distribution among the isolates consisted of Enterococcus faecium (52.94 %) and Enterococcus durans (23.53 %) in preponderance compared to the three other species, namely Enterococcus faecalis (8.8 %), Enterococcus hirae (8.6 %) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (5.9 %). All were resistant to vancomycin, while 99 % showed resistance to aminoglycoside and 94 % to macrolide. Three virulence genes (ace, gel E and esp) were detected in almost all the confirmed isolates. The resistance determinants van B (19.7 %), van C1 (25 %), van C2/3 (26.3 %) erm B (40.29 %) and str A (50.88 %) were detected among the isolates. A high prevalence of multidrug-resistant enterococci isolates was detected in this study and the genetic repertoire to survive in the presence of antimicrobial agents was present in these organisms. PMID:27166215

  9. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning;

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  10. Characterization of aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes among Enterococcus spp. isolated from a hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanxiang; Li, Jing; Wei, Quhao; Hu, Qingfeng; Lin, Xiaowei; Chen, Mengquan; Ye, Renji; Lv, Huoyang

    2015-03-11

    This study investigated the aminoglycoside resistance phenotypes and genotypes, as well as the prevalence of virulence genes, in Enterococcus species isolated from clinical patients in China. A total of 160 enterococcal isolates from various clinical samples collected from September 2013 to July 2014 were identified to the species level using the VITEK-2 COMPACT system. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the identified Enterococcus strains were determined by the Kirby-Bauer (K-B) disc diffusion method. PCR-based assays were used to detect the aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes in all enterococcal isolates. Of 160 Enterococcus isolates, 105 were identified as E. faecium, 35 as E. faecalis, and 20 isolates were classified as "other" Enterococcus species. High-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) for gentamicin, streptomycin, and both antibiotics was identified in 58.8, 50, and 34.4% of strains, respectively. The most common virulence gene (50.6% of isolates) was efaA, followed by asa1 (28.8%). The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2''), aph(2')-Id, aph(3')-IIIa, and ant(6')-Ia, present in 49.4%, 1.3%, 48.8% and 31.3% of strains, respectively. Overall, E. faecium and E. faecalis were most frequently associated with hospital-acquired enterococcal infections in Zhejiang Province. All aminoglycoside resistance genes, except aph(2'')-Id, were significantly more prevalent in HLAR strains than amongst high level aminoglycoside susceptible (HLAS) strains, while there was no significant difference between HLAR and HLAS strains in regard to the prevalence of virulence genes, apart from esp, therefore, measures should be taken to manage infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus species.

  11. Detection of vanA-containing Enterococcus species in faecal microbiota of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Joana; Andrade, Margarida; Radhouani, Hajer; López, Maria; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patricia; Torres, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium and E. durans isolates with the genotype vanA were detected in 7 of 118 faecal samples (5.9%) of natural gilthead seabream recovered off the coast of Portugal, and one vancomycin-resistant isolate/sample was further characterized. The genes erm(B), tet(L), tet(M), aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-IIIa and/or ant(6)-Ia were identified in most of the 7 vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Sequence types ST273, ST313 and ST76 were detected in three E. faecium isolates and ST6 in two E. faecalis isolates. VanA-containing enterococci are suggested to be disseminated in fish in marine ecosystems close to areas of human activity.

  12. Enterococcus: review of its physiology, pathogenesis, diseases and the challenges it poses for clinical microbiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John VU; John CARVALHO

    2011-01-01

    The genus Enterococcus is composed of 38 species,the most important of which are Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium-both human intestinal colonizers.Hospitals within the United States and around the world commonly isolate these bacteria because they are a cause of bacteremia,urinary tract infections (UTIs),endocarditis,wound infections,meningitis,intraabdominal and pelvic infections,and nosocomial and iatrogenic infections.Given the ubiquity of enterococci within the human population,it is important for laboratories to be able to distinguish these agents within hospitalized patients from other bacterial genera and also differentiate different species within the Enterococcus genus as well as different strains within each species.Unfortunately,the enterococci are emerging as serious pathogens in both the developed world,where surveillance needs to be improved and speciation procedures are inadequate or cumbersome,and in developing nations,which lack the trained hospital personnel or funding to sufficiently identify enterococci to the genus or species level.This review explores the Enterococcus genus and highlights some of the concerns for national and international clinical microbiology laboratories.

  13. Comparative analysis of classical and molecular microbiology methods for the detection of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in well water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Andrée F; Huppé, Vicky; Bissonnette, Luc; Boissinot, Maurice; Rodrigue, Lynda; Bérubé, Ève; Bergeron, Michel G

    2012-11-01

    The microbiological quality of 165 1 litre well water samples collected in the Québec City region was assessed by culture-based methods (mFC agar, Chromocult coliform agar, Colilert(®), MI agar, Chromocult enterococci, Enterolert™, and mEI agar) and by a molecular microbiology strategy, dubbed CRENAME-rtPCR, developed for the detection of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecalis/faecium, and Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii. In these drinking water samples, approved culture-based methods detected E. coli at rates varying from 1.8 to 3.6% and Enterococcus spp. at rates varying from 3.0 to 11.5%, while the molecular microbiology approach for E. coli was found to be as efficient, detecting contamination in 3.0% of samples. In contrast, CRENAME-rtPCR detected Enterococcus spp. in 27.9% of samples while the E. faecalis/faecium molecular assay did not uncover a single contaminated sample, thereby revealing a discrepancy in the coverage of waterborne enterococcal species detected by classical and molecular microbiology methods. The validation of the CRENAME-E. coli rtPCR test as a new tool to assess the quality of drinking water will require larger scale studies elaborated to demonstrate its equivalence to approved methods.

  14. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail cheese, ready-to-eat salads, ham, and raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, G; Calonico, C; Ducci, B; Magnanini, A; Lo Nostro, A

    2014-08-01

    Food specimens were analyzed in order to research Enterococcus spp.: 636 samples of raw meat (227 beef, 238 poultry, and 171 pork), 278 samples of cheese (110 fresh soft cheese and 168 mozzarella cheese), 214 samples of ready-to-eat salads, and 187 samples of ham. 312 strains of Enterococcus spp samples were isolated, then identified and submitted to susceptibility tests against 11 antimicrobial agents. The predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis in raw meat and Enterococcus faecium in retail products. Low percentages of microorganisms were resistant to vancomycin (3.53%), teicoplanin (2.24%), linezolid (0.32%), and amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid (0.32%). A high percentage of resistance was noted in E. faecalis at high level gentamicin (21.9%) and tetracycline (60.6%). In general, strains of E. faecalis were more resistant than E. faecium. Enterococci should be considered not only potential pathogens, but also a reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance which can be transferred to other microorganisms. Continuous monitoring of their incidence and emerging resistance is important in order to identify foods which potentially represent a real risk to the population, and to ensure effective treatment of human enterococcal infections.

  15. Longer Intestinal Persistence of Enterococcus faecalis Compared to Enterococcus faecium Clones in Intensive-Care-Unit Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; del Campo, Rosa; Coque, Teresa M.; Asensio, Angel; Bonten, Marc; Willems, Rob; Baquero, Fernando; Canton, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of intestinal colonization with enterococcal clones in intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients was evaluated. Eight patients admitted directly to the neurosurgical ICU at the Ramon y Cajal University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) from the community and with no overlapping stay during a 10-month p

  16. A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF A FLOW CYTOMETER USED FOR DETECTING ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM AND ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS IN RECREATIONAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved method for Enterococci (Method 1600) in recreational water is a membrane filter (MF) method that takes 24 hours to obtain results. If the recreational water is not in compliance with the standard, the risk of exposure to...

  17. Factores de riesgo para la adquisición de Bacteriemia por Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium

    OpenAIRE

    Conde Estévez, David

    2012-01-01

    Las infecciones nosocomiales son una causa frecuente de incremento de estancia hospitalaria, costos sanitarios y mortalidad. En la actualidad, el enterococo es uno de los microorganismos implicados con mayor frecuencia en infecciones nosocomiales. Con frecuencia estas infecciones son difíciles de tratar debido la resistencia múltiple de estos microorganismos frente a los antibióticos convencionales. La literatura disponible sobre las infecciones producidas por este microorganismo es limitada....

  18. Einfluss der Verfütterung des Probiotikums E. faecium NCIMB 10415 im frühen postnatalen Stadium auf die Zusammensetzung und Stoffwechselaktivität der gastrointestinalen Mikrobiota bei Ferkeln

    OpenAIRE

    Klär, Irina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 as a diet supplement (administered from the 1st day post natum) on the intestinal microbiota of piglets. Using different PCR methods, we investigated (both qualitatively and quantitatively) the bacterial composition of the microbiota in the stomach, distal jejunum, and colon ascen-dens of piglets throughout the suckling period, the transition to solid food, and the weaning period, thereby keeping track of the ...

  19. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... or ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity...

  20. Diversity, distribution and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. recovered from tomatoes, leaves, water and soil on U.S. Mid-Atlantic farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Shirley A; Goldstein, Rachel E Rosenberg; George, Ashish; Ewing, Laura; Tall, Ben D; Boyer, Marc S; Joseph, Sam W; Sapkota, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    Antibiotic-resistant enterococci are important opportunistic pathogens and have been recovered from retail tomatoes. However, it is unclear where and how tomatoes are contaminated along the farm-to-fork continuum. Specifically, the degree of pre-harvest contamination with enterococci is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence, diversity and antimicrobial susceptibilities of enterococci collected from tomato farms in the Mid-Atlantic United States. Tomatoes, leaves, groundwater, pond water, irrigation ditch water, and soil were sampled and tested for enterococci using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Sensititre microbroth dilution system. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were characterized using amplified fragment length polymorphism to assess dispersal potential. Enterococci (n = 307) occurred in all habitats and colonization of tomatoes was common. Seven species were identified: Enterococcus casseliflavus, E. faecalis, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus avis, Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus raffinosus. E. casseliflavus predominated in soil and on tomatoes and leaves, and E. faecalis predominated in pond water. On plants, distance from the ground influenced presence of enterococci. E. faecalis from samples within a farm were more closely related than those from samples between farms. Resistance to rifampicin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was prevalent. Consumption of raw tomatoes as a potential exposure risk for antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. deserves further attention.

  1. Diversity, distribution and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. recovered from tomatoes, leaves, water and soil on U.S. Mid-Atlantic farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Shirley A; Goldstein, Rachel E Rosenberg; George, Ashish; Ewing, Laura; Tall, Ben D; Boyer, Marc S; Joseph, Sam W; Sapkota, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    Antibiotic-resistant enterococci are important opportunistic pathogens and have been recovered from retail tomatoes. However, it is unclear where and how tomatoes are contaminated along the farm-to-fork continuum. Specifically, the degree of pre-harvest contamination with enterococci is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence, diversity and antimicrobial susceptibilities of enterococci collected from tomato farms in the Mid-Atlantic United States. Tomatoes, leaves, groundwater, pond water, irrigation ditch water, and soil were sampled and tested for enterococci using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Sensititre microbroth dilution system. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were characterized using amplified fragment length polymorphism to assess dispersal potential. Enterococci (n = 307) occurred in all habitats and colonization of tomatoes was common. Seven species were identified: Enterococcus casseliflavus, E. faecalis, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus avis, Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus raffinosus. E. casseliflavus predominated in soil and on tomatoes and leaves, and E. faecalis predominated in pond water. On plants, distance from the ground influenced presence of enterococci. E. faecalis from samples within a farm were more closely related than those from samples between farms. Resistance to rifampicin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was prevalent. Consumption of raw tomatoes as a potential exposure risk for antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. deserves further attention. PMID:24010630

  2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical isolates of Enterococcus species Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro en aislamientos clínicos de Enterococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Calderón-Jaimes

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of several antimicrobial agents against 97 clinical significant isolates of Enterococcus spp. MATHERIAL AND METHODS: During a 2-year prospective study at Instituto Nacional de Pediatria (National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City. Ninety seven strains of Enterococcus spp. (60 E. faecalis and 37 E. faecium were tested against 11 antibiotics. Susceptibility tests were performed with agar, according to the standards of the sNational Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Isolates were screened for high-level resistance (HLR to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and other antibiotics, as well as for vancomycin-phenotypes. Differences between proportions were evaluated with chi2 of Fisher exact fest. RESULTS: Overall resistance rates to the antibiotics tested were: 17/97 (17.5% to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and imipenem. There was neither HLR nor beta-lactamase production; 74/97 (48.4% were resistant to erythromycin; 60% to ciprofloxacin; 31/97 (32% to gentamicin, and 55/97 (56.7% to streptomycin. Seven strains were vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, all of them identified as E. faecium; 5/7 with Van A and 2/7 with Van B phenotypes. All the isolates were susceptible to linezolid. The difference in susceptibility among species was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Mutidrug-resistant enterococci is a real problem and continuous surveillance is necessary. The microbiology laboratory is the first line of defense against the spread of multiantibiotic-resistan enterococci in the hospital environment . All the strains recovered should be tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin and glycopeptides.OBJECTIVO: Describir la actividad antimicrobiana de varios antibióticos, contra 97 cepas de Enterococcus spp., consideradas como aislamientos clínicamente significativos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En un estudio prospectivo de dos años, (enero de 1998

  3. 316株肠球菌属的临床分布及耐药分析%CLINICAL DISTRIBUTION AND DRUG RESISTANCE OF 316 ISOLATES OF ENTEROCOCCUS SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕成岭

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To get knowledge of antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus Faecalis and Enterococcus Faecium to antibiotics, and further provide basis for treatment. Methods:316 strians of enterococci composed of 126 strains of enterococcus faecalis and 190 strains of enterococcus faecium were cultured and isolated from samples of inpatients and outpatients, and distribution of infection sites and antimicrobial resistance were analyzed. Agar dilution method was used to do antibiotic susceptibility test, and the results were determined based on the standard of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Results:The resistance rate of enterococcus faecium to penicillin G(93.7% ) is the highest among all of the antimicrobial tested, followed by erythromycin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. The resistance rate of enterococcus faecium to quinupristin/dalfopristin(74% )was the highest among all of the antimicrobials tested, followed by tetracycline, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. The resistance rate of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium to linezolid and vancomycin were all lower than 2% , and that to teicoplanin was the lowest (0% ). Conclusions: The resistance rate of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium to different kinds of antibiotics differed much. Bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test should be performed before anti - infection treatment initiated and reasonable antibiotics be selected based on antimicrobial susceptibility test report.%目的:了解粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌对抗菌药物的耐药性,为临床提供治疗依据.方法:对住院及门诊病人送检样本中培养分离出316株肠球菌(粪肠球菌126株,屎肠球菌190株)的感染分布与耐药情况进行分析.采用稀释法进行药物敏感试验,结果按美国临床实验室标准化研究所标准判定.结果:屎肠球菌对青霉素G的耐药率最高(93.7%),其次为红霉素、氨苄西林和环丙沙星.粪肠球

  4. Correlation between API 20 STREP and multiplex PCR for identification of Enterococcus spp. isolated from Brazilian foods Correlação entre API 20 STREP e PCR multiplex para identificação de Enterococcus spp. isolados de amostras de alimentos no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna C. Gomes; Carolina T. Esteves; Izabel C.V. Palazzo; Ana Lúcia C. Darini; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.; De Martinis, Elaine C. P.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the suitability of API 20 STREP and multiplex PCR to speciate 52 Enterococcus spp. obtained from Brazilian foods. A high percentage of isolates (78.9%) presented discrepant results between evaluated tests. Similar results were obtained for six E. faecalis and five E. faecium. The PCR multiplex was more effective than API 20 STREP for complete identification of the isolates.A identificação das espécies de 52 Enterococcus spp. isolados de amostras de alimentos foi realizada emprega...

  5. Correlation between API 20 STREP and multiplex PCR for identification of Enterococcus spp. isolated from Brazilian foods Correlação entre API 20 STREP e PCR multiplex para identificação de Enterococcus spp. isolados de amostras de alimentos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna C. Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the suitability of API 20 STREP and multiplex PCR to speciate 52 Enterococcus spp. obtained from Brazilian foods. A high percentage of isolates (78.9% presented discrepant results between evaluated tests. Similar results were obtained for six E. faecalis and five E. faecium. The PCR multiplex was more effective than API 20 STREP for complete identification of the isolates.A identificação das espécies de 52 Enterococcus spp. isolados de amostras de alimentos foi realizada empregando-se duas metodologias: sistema API 20 STREP e PCR multiplex. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que 78,9% dos isolados apresentaram resultados diferentes nos dois testes utilizados. Apenas seis E. faecalis e cinco E. faecium apresentaram resultados concordantes pelos dois métodos. PCR multiplex permitiu a identificação completa de um número significantemente maior de enterococos do que o sistema API 20 STREP.

  6. Diversity and stability of plasmids from glycopeptide resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, H.; Villadsen, A. G.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    was seen at the end of the 7-year period, coinciding with the ban in 1998 of the macrolide tylosin as growth promoter for pig production. The stability of the plasmid in its original host was compared with stability of the same plasmid in BM4105RF, when both strains were maintained in liquid cultures...

  7. [Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome associated to a Morganella morganii and Enterococcus faecium peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourrel, F; Gouin, P; Dureuil, B; Veber, B

    2007-10-01

    About fifty to sixty percent of patients with septic shock acquire acute adrenal insufficiency. This insufficiency is most often relative, but can sometimes be absolute. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is a rare aetiology of absolute acute adrenal insufficiency. It is classically described in patients with severe meningococcemia (purpura fulminans), who commonly present many of the risk factors associated with bilateral adrenal haemorrhage (shock, coagulation disorders, sepsis). We report a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage during a peritonitis complicated by a septic shock, with no coagulation disorder. This observation shows up that this bilateral adrenal haemorrhage can complicate severe sepsis of various origins, and not only severe meningococcemia. It can be suspected in face of a septic shock with an unfavourable evolution despite adequate treatment.

  8. Prolonged Use of Oritavancin for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer A; Feeney, Eoin R; Kubiak, David W; Corey, G Ralph

    2015-12-01

    Oritavancin is a novel lipoglycopeptide with activity against Gram-positive organisms including streptococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant S aureus (VRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) [1-3]. The US Food and Drug Administration approved oritavancin as a single intravenous dose of 1200 mg for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections on the basis of 2 clinical trials demonstrating noninferiority compared with vancomycin [4, 5]. There are limited options for treatment of serious VRE infections. Monotherapy with daptomycin or tigecycline or linezolid may be sufficient in some cases, but combination therapy is often indicated for severe or complicated infections such as endocarditis. Several antibiotic combinations have been used in isolated case reports with some efficacy, including the following: high-dose ampicillin with an aminoglycoside [6], ampicillin with ceftriaxone or imipenem [7, 8], high-dose daptomycin with ampicillin and gentamicin [9] or with gentamicin and rifampin [10], daptomycin with tigecycline [11, 12], quinupristin-dalfopristin with high-dose ampicillin [13] or doxycycline and rifampin [14], and linezolid with tigecycline [15]. The limited efficacy, limited susceptibility, and extensive toxicities with many of these agents and combinations present barriers to effective treatment. Additional treatment options for VRE endocarditis would be valuable. Although oritavancin has been shown to have in vitro activity against some isolates of VRE, clinical data are lacking. We describe the first use of a prolonged course of oritavancin in the treatment of a serious VRE infection, prosthetic valve endocarditis. PMID:26677455

  9. Biotechnological and safety characterization of Enterococcus lactis, a recently described species of dairy origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Brasca, Milena

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnological and safety properties of a recently described enterococcal species, Enterococcus lactis, were investigated. With regard to the technological properties, in milk all the strains tested had weak acidifying and proteolytic activities, generally medium reduction activity over 24 h (-102 mV detection did not identify any of the common genetic determinants for vancomycin, tetracycline and erythromycin resistance. The E. lactis strains showed good survival in simulated in vitro digestion and were able to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Pseudomonas syringae. Screening for enterocin structural genes showed that all isolates harboured the entP gene. The presence of nine virulence factor genes (cylA, asa1, gelE, hyl, esp, ace, efaA, hdc and tdc) was investigated by PCR and no virulence determinants were detected. This study highlights that the recently described E. lactis may be a potential source of novel strains with interesting features that could be used for fermented dairy foods.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits in Enterococcus strains isolated from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseppi, Ramona; Messi, Patrizia; Anacarso, Imacolata; Bondi, Moreno; Sabia, Carla; Condò, Carla; de Niederhausern, Simona

    2015-07-01

    We investigated presence and prevalence of antibiotic-resistances and other biological characters in enterococci isolated from faeces of healthy dogs and cats because these microorganisms represent important human and veterinary pathogens/opportunists, and a significant burden for healthcare systems. In all samples (n=115) we detected enterococci, with a predominance of Enterococcus faecium (42; 36.5%) and Enterococcus faecalis (36; 31.3%) species, endowed with virulence traits and multidrug-resistance. The two predominant resistance patterns (erythromycin, tetracycline) were examined by polymerase chain reaction for tet and erm genes. Only tetM for tetracycline, and ermA and ermB for erythromycin were detected. PCR for gelatinase gene (gelE) was positive in 62.6% of isolates, but only 26.1% produce gelatinase suggesting the existence of silent genes. efaAfs and efaAfm genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium respectively. 89.6% of isolates produced bacteriocin-like substances with a prevailing action against Listeria genus and, among these, 33.9% were positive for the bacteriocin structural genes entA, entL50 or entP. According to our study, pet animals can be considered a reservoir of potentially pathogenic enterococci and we cannot exclude that those microorganisms may be responsible for opportunistic infections in high-risk pet owners.

  11. 198株屎肠球菌的临床分布及耐药性分析%198 Strains of Excrement Enterococcus Clinical Distribution and Drug Resistance Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小娟; 汪泓

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the nosocomial Enterococcus faecium(EFM) clinical distribution and drug resistance,and provide reference for rational use of antibacterial drugs and clinical treat-ment. Methods The clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium were cultured and identified, using disk diffusion method (K-B) for drug sensitivity test. Results 198 isolates of Enterococcus faeci-um, mainly from urine, sputum and stool samples, accounted for 50%,30.8% and 7.6%,were main-ly isolated from intensive care unit(ICU), and Respiratory Department of Internal Medicine Depart-ment of urology. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus faecium, resistance to vancomycin, te-icoplanin is a low rate, respectively 1% and 2.5%. Enterococcus faecium to linezolid sensitive rate is 100%.Conclusions Enterococcus faecium clinical types can cause infection, and the multi drug resistance rate high, difficult to treat, should arouse more attention in clinic.%目的:了解医院屎肠球菌(EFM)的临床分布及耐药状况,为临床治疗与合理使用抗菌药物提供参考。方法将临床分离的屎肠球菌进行培养鉴定,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)进行药物敏感试验。结果分离到198株屎肠球菌,主要来自于尿液、痰液和粪便标本,分别占50.0%、30.8%和7.6%,标本主要分离于重症监护病房(ICU)、泌尿外科和呼吸内科。屎肠球菌对多种抗菌药物耐药,对万古霉素、替考拉宁的耐药率较低,分别为1.0%和2.5%。屎肠球菌对利奈唑胺敏感率为100%。结论屎肠球菌可引起临床各类感染,且多耐药率高,治疗困难,应引起临床高度重视。

  12. Comparison between automated system and PCR-based method for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of clinical Enterococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlaneto-Maia, Luciana; Rocha, Kátia Real; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are increasingly responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. This study was undertaken to compare the identification and susceptibility profile using an automated MicrosScan system, PCR-based assay and disk diffusion assay of Enterococcus spp. We evaluated 30 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. Isolates were identified by MicrosScan system and PCR-based assay. The detection of antibiotic resistance genes (vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and erythromycin) was also determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to vancomycin (30 µg), gentamicin (120 µg), tetracycline (30 µg) and erythromycin (15 µg) were tested by the automated system and disk diffusion method, and were interpreted according to the criteria recommended in CLSI guidelines. Concerning Enterococcus identification the general agreement between data obtained by the PCR method and by the automatic system was 90.0% (27/30). For all isolates of E. faecium and E. faecalis we observed 100% agreement. Resistance frequencies were higher in E. faecium than E. faecalis. The resistance rates obtained were higher for erythromycin (86.7%), vancomycin (80.0%), tetracycline (43.35) and gentamicin (33.3%). The correlation between disk diffusion and automation revealed an agreement for the majority of the antibiotics with category agreement rates of > 80%. The PCR-based assay, the van(A) gene was detected in 100% of vancomycin resistant enterococci. This assay is simple to conduct and reliable in the identification of clinically relevant enterococci. The data obtained reinforced the need for an improvement of the automated system to identify some enterococci.

  13. Proteomic characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus recovered from Seagulls at the Berlengas Natural Reserve, W Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Céline

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococci have emerged as the third most common cause of nosocomial infections, requiring bactericidal antimicrobial therapy. Although vancomycin resistance is a major problem in clinics and has emerged in an important extend in farm animals, few studies have examined it in wild animals. To determine the prevalence of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains among faecal samples of Seagulls (Larus cachinnans of Berlengas Natural Reserve of Portugal, we developed a proteomic approach integrated with genomic data. The purpose was to detect the maximum number of proteins that vary in different enterococci species which are thought to be connected in some, as yet unknown, way to antibiotic resistance. Results From the 57 seagull samples, 54 faecal samples showed the presence of Enterococcus isolates (94.7%. For the enterococci, E. faecium was the most prevalent species in seagulls (50%, followed by E. faecalis and E. durans (10.4%, and E. hirae (6.3%. VanA-containing enterococcal strains were detected in 10.5% of the 57 seagull faecal samples studied. Four of the vanA-containing enterococci were identified as E. faecium and two as E. durans. The tet(M gene was found in all five tetracycline-resistant vanA strains. The erm(B gene was demonstrated in all six erythromycin-resistant vanA strains. The hyl virulence gene was detected in all four vanA-containing E. faecium isolates in this study, and two of them harboured the purK1 allele. In addition these strains also showed ampicillin and ciprofoxacin resistance. The whole-cell proteomic profile of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains was applied to evaluate the discriminatory power of this technique for their identification. The major differences among species-specific profiles were found in the positions corresponding to 97-45 kDa. Sixty individualized protein spots for each vanA isolate was identified and suitable for peptide mass fingerprinting measures by spectrometry measuring

  14. Identification and sensitivity analysis of 190 strains of Enterococcus%190株肠球菌的鉴定及药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯恩航; 施中凯; 张兰萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the current distribution and antibiotic resistance of enterococci in Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital. Method 190 enterococcus strains isolated from August 2004 to June 2006 were identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility consequence were retrospectively analyzed. Result The isolating rate of Enterococcus faecalis (46.3%) decreased, while the isolating rate of Enterococcus faecium (33.2%) and Enterococcus gallinarum ( 13.7% ) increased. The detection rate of the persisters of Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus gallinarumis were 85.1% ,75.0% and 70.2%, respectively. Penicilin and Nitrofurantoin had curativeeffect to the infection caused by Enterococcus faecalis. Vancocin and Teicoplanin were the best choice to treat the infection caused by Enterococcus. Conclusion Eterococcus has become the principal pathogenic bacteria that lead to clinical infection. Its natural characteristics of drug-resistance and multidrug rcsistantce narrow the range of curatives. So we should prevent the emergence of vancocin-resistant Enterococcus.%目的 了解黑龙江省医院肠球菌的菌种分布及对常用抗生素耐药性的现状.方法 对2004年8月至2006年6月检出的190株肠球菌的菌种鉴定及药敏结果进行回顾性分析.结果 粪肠球菌(46.3%)分离率下降;屎肠球菌(33.2%)、鹑鸡肠球菌(13.7%)分离率增加.耐药株检出率屎肠球菌为85.1%,粪肠球菌为75.0%,鹑鸡肠球菌为70.2%.青霉素和呋喃妥因对粪肠球菌引起的感染有一定的疗效,万古霉素,替考拉宁是治疗肠球菌引起感染的最佳选择.结论 肠球菌已成为引起临床感染的重要致病菌,它的天然耐药和多重耐药的特性使得临床可选治疗药物范围狭窄.应防止耐万古霉素肠球菌株的产生.

  15. Comparison of Enterococcus species diversity in marine water and wastewater using Enterolert and EPA Method 1600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Donna M; Griffith, John F; McGee, Charles D; Weisberg, Stephen B; Hagedorn, Charles

    2013-01-01

    EPA Method 1600 and Enterolert are used interchangeably to measure Enterococcus for fecal contamination of public beaches, but the methods occasionally produce different results. Here we assess whether these differences are attributable to the selectivity for certain species within the Enterococcus group. Both methods were used to obtain 1279 isolates from 17 environmental samples, including influent and effluent of four wastewater treatment plants, ambient marine water from seven different beaches, and freshwater urban runoff from two stream systems. The isolates were identified to species level. Detection of non-Enterococcus species was slightly higher using Enterolert (8.4%) than for EPA Method 1600 (5.1%). E. faecalis and E. faecium, commonly associated with human fecal waste, were predominant in wastewater; however, Enterolert had greater selectivity for E. faecalis, which was also shown using a laboratory-created sample. The same species selectivity was not observed for most beach water and urban runoff samples. These samples had relatively higher proportions of plant associated species, E. casseliflavus (18.5%) and E. mundtii (5.7%), compared to wastewater, suggesting environmental inputs to beaches and runoff. The potential for species selectivity among water testing methods should be considered when assessing the sanitary quality of beaches so that public health warnings are based on indicators representative of fecal sources.

  16. Comparison of Enterococcus Species Diversity in Marine Water and Wastewater Using Enterolert and EPA Method 1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Ferguson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EPA Method 1600 and Enterolert are used interchangeably to measure Enterococcus for fecal contamination of public beaches, but the methods occasionally produce different results. Here we assess whether these differences are attributable to the selectivity for certain species within the Enterococcus group. Both methods were used to obtain 1279 isolates from 17 environmental samples, including influent and effluent of four wastewater treatment plants, ambient marine water from seven different beaches, and freshwater urban runoff from two stream systems. The isolates were identified to species level. Detection of non-Enterococcus species was slightly higher using Enterolert (8.4% than for EPA Method 1600 (5.1%. E. faecalis and E. faecium, commonly associated with human fecal waste, were predominant in wastewater; however, Enterolert had greater selectivity for E. faecalis, which was also shown using a laboratory-created sample. The same species selectivity was not observed for most beach water and urban runoff samples. These samples had relatively higher proportions of plant associated species, E. casseliflavus (18.5% and E. mundtii (5.7%, compared to wastewater, suggesting environmental inputs to beaches and runoff. The potential for species selectivity among water testing methods should be considered when assessing the sanitary quality of beaches so that public health warnings are based on indicators representative of fecal sources.

  17. Identification, antimicrobial susceptibility, and virulence factors of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from Camels in Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor Junco, María Teresa; Gonzalez-Martin, Margarita; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Noe Francisco; Gutierrez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of Enterococcus spp. strains in camel faeces, their virulence factors, and resistance to the antibiotics commonly used as therapy of enterococcal infections. One hundred and seventy three Enterococcus strains were isolated and identified to species level using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion method. Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, gentamicin, and streptomycin were all determined. Genes encoding resistance to vancomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin as well as genes encoding some virulence factors were identified by PCR. Enterococcus hirae (54.3%) and Enterococcus faecium (25.4%) were the species most frequently isolated. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin or showed high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR). Strains resistant to rifampicin (42.42%) were those most commonly found followed those resistant to trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole (33.33%). The genes tetM, tetL, vanC1, and vanC2-C3 were detected in some strains. Virulence genes were not detected. Monitoring the presence of resistant strains of faecal enterococci in animal used with recreational purposes is important to prevent transmission of those strains to humans and to detect resistance or virulence genes that could be transferred to other clinically important bacteria.

  18. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli strains from chicken in Enugu State, Nigeria Produção de beta-lactamase de espectro expandido por cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina isoladas de frango em Enugu State, Nigéria

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    K.F. Chah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and seventy-two ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains isolated from commercial chickens in Enugu State, Nigeria, were screened for beta-lactamase production using the broth method with nitrocefin® as the chromogenic cephalosporin to detect enzyme production. Beta-lactamase producing strains were further examined for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production using the Oxoid combination discs method. One hundred and seventy (98.8% of the 172 ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains produced beta-lactamase enzyme. Sixteen (9.4% beta-lactamase producers were phenotypically confirmed to produce ESBLs. Six of the ESBL producing strains were only detected with ceftazidime versus ceftazidime/clavulanate combination while ten of the ESBL producers were detected with cefotaxime versus cefotaxime/clavulanate combination. Chicken may serve as a reservoir of ESBL-producing E. coli strains which could be transferred to man and other animals.Cento e setenta e duas cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina isoladas de frangos em Enugu State, Nigéria, foram avaliadas quanto à produção de beta-lactamase através do uso de método em caldo com nitrocefin® como indicador cromogênico da produção da enzima. Em seguida, as cepas produtoras de beta-lactamase foram examinadas quanto à produção de beta-lactamase de espectro expandido (ESBL através do método de discos combinados Oxoid. Entre as cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina, cento e setenta (98,8% produziram beta-lactamase. Testes fenotípicos indicaram que dezesseis (9,4% das cepas produtoras de beta-lactamase produziram ESBL. Seis cepas produtoras de ESBL foram detectadas apenas com a combinação ceftazidima versus cefotaxime/clavulanato, enquanto dez cepas produtoras de ESBL foram detectadas com a combinação cefotaxime versus cefotaxime/clavulanato. Frangos podem ser reservatório de cepas de E.coli produtoras de ESBL, que podem ser transferidos para o homem

  19. Analysis on enterococcus resistance for antibiotics in urinary tract infection%肠球菌所致泌尿系统感染的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锋; 姜凯; 邢志广; 吕壮伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨肠球菌在泌尿系统感染中的耐药情况,为临床抗感染治疗提供依据.方法 对2009年1月~2011年12月门诊和住院患者的1 329份尿液标本常规进行病原菌培养与鉴定,药敏试验采用K-B纸片扩散法.结果 肠球菌占泌尿系感染的10.2%,以屎肠球菌和粪肠球菌为主,屎肠球菌(35.3%)所占比例高于粪肠球菌(27.2%).两种肠球菌对万古霉素、替考拉宁、氨苄西林、氯霉素的耐药率均较低,其中粪肠球菌还对青霉素G、呋哺妥因的耐药率较低,分别为21.6%、27.0%.结论 肠球菌属对抗生素呈多重耐药,且不同种的肠球菌耐药性差异较大,临床应根据药敏试验结果,合理选择抗菌药物.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the drug resistance of enterococci in urinary tract infection, to provide the bases for clinical anti-infective therapy. METHODS The pathogenic bacteria in urine specimens of 1 329 outpatients and inpatients between in January, 2009 and in December, 2011 were cultured and identified, and antimicrobial susceptibility test that KB disk diffusion method was used. RESULTS Enterococcus in urinary tract infection accounted for 10.2%, of which were main entero-coccus faecium and enterococcus faecalis.The proportion of enterococcus faecium (33.3%) was higher than those of enterococcus faecalis (27.2%). Two kinds of enterococcus were with low resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin, chloram-phenicol, one of which enterococcus faecalis was with low resistance to penicillin G (21.6%), nitrofurantoin (27.0%). CONCLUSION Enterococcus is with multiple antibiotic resistance, and drug resistance of different species of enterococci are quite different.The clinical medication should have a rational choice in antimicrobial agents based on susceptibility testing.

  20. Development of quantitative PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA genes of Enterococcus spp. and their application to the identification of enterococcus species in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hodon; Henson, Michael; Elk, Michael; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Griffith, John; Blackwood, Denene; Noble, Rachel; Gourmelon, Michèle; Glassmeyer, Susan; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2013-01-01

    The detection of environmental enterococci has been determined primarily by using culture-based techniques that might exclude some enterococcal species as well as those that are nonculturable. To address this, the relative abundances of enterococci were examined by challenging fecal and water samples against a currently available genus-specific assay (Entero1). To determine the diversity of enterococcal species, 16S rRNA gene-based group-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed and evaluated against eight of the most common environmental enterococcal species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of 439 presumptive environmental enterococcal strains were analyzed to study further the diversity of enterococci and to confirm the specificities of group-specific assays. The group-specific qPCR assays showed relatively high amplification rates with targeted species (>98%), although some assays cross-amplified with nontargeted species (1.3 to 6.5%). The results with the group-specific assays also showed that different enterococcal species co-occurred in most fecal samples. The most abundant enterococci in water and fecal samples were Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, although we identified more water isolates as Enterococcus casseliflavus than as any of the other species. The prevalence of the Entero1 marker was in agreement with the combined number of positive signals determined by the group-specific assays in most fecal samples, except in gull feces. On the other hand, the number of group-specific assay signals was lower in all water samples tested, suggesting that other enterococcal species are present in these samples. While the results highlight the value of genus- and group-specific assays for detecting the major enterococcal groups in environmental water samples, additional studies are needed to determine further the diversity, distributions, and relative abundances of all enterococcal species found in water.

  1. COMPARISON BETWEEN AUTOMATED SYSTEM AND PCR-BASED METHOD FOR IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF CLINICAL Enterococcus spp

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    Luciana Furlaneto-Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are increasingly responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. This study was undertaken to compare the identification and susceptibility profile using an automated MicrosScan system, PCR-based assay and disk diffusion assay of Enterococcus spp. We evaluated 30 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. Isolates were identified by MicrosScan system and PCR-based assay. The detection of antibiotic resistance genes (vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and erythromycin was also determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to vancomycin (30 µg, gentamicin (120 µg, tetracycline (30 µg and erythromycin (15 µg were tested by the automated system and disk diffusion method, and were interpreted according to the criteria recommended in CLSI guidelines. Concerning Enterococcus identification the general agreement between data obtained by the PCR method and by the automatic system was 90.0% (27/30. For all isolates of E. faecium and E. faecalis we observed 100% agreement. Resistance frequencies were higher in E. faecium than E. faecalis. The resistance rates obtained were higher for erythromycin (86.7%, vancomycin (80.0%, tetracycline (43.35 and gentamicin (33.3%. The correlation between disk diffusion and automation revealed an agreement for the majority of the antibiotics with category agreement rates of > 80%. The PCR-based assay, the van(A gene was detected in 100% of vancomycin resistant enterococci. This assay is simple to conduct and reliable in the identification of clinically relevant enterococci. The data obtained reinforced the need for an improvement of the automated system to identify some enterococci.

  2. PRELIMINARY DETECTION OF BACTERIOCIN-LIKE INHIBITORY SUBSTANCES PRODUCED BY ENTEROCOCCUS SPECIESISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

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    Snehal P Nemade and M Musaddiq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some lactic acid bacteria and particularly species belonging to the genus Enetrococcus are known to produce bacteriocin like inhibitory substance (BLIS. Usually they are small cationic peptide with bactericidal activity. The antimicrobial peptide produced by bacteria that deserve considerable interest for their use as natural and non-toxic food preservatives. The use of bacteriocin is among the new approaches as it has major potential in preservatives. Broad spectrum activities against prominent pathogens make it an issue of medical interest. The ability to produce such a biocompound may play role in providing an ecological advantage on non-bacteriocin producer species. 34 strains of Enterococci were isolated from different sources. These strains were identified to species: E. faecalis and E. faecium. Direct antimicrobial activity against indicator strain S. aureus was detected in 34 of the tested isolates. From these, only 7 displayed strong inhibitory activity against this indicator strain. The antimicrobial activity was altered after treatment with trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, papain which confirms the proteinaceous nature of the inhibition. This fact suggests that bacteriocin-like substance produced by Enterococcus strains may find application as biopreservatives in food products. Hence, the focus here is put on bacteriocin like substance screened by Enterococcus species isolated from different sources

  3. Are Enterococcus populations present during malolactic fermentation of red wine safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was the genetic characterisation and safety evaluation of 129 Enterococcus isolates obtained from wine undergoing malolactic fermentation. Genetic characterisation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR displayed 23 genotypes. 25 isolates representative of all genotypes were identified as Enterococcus faecium by species-specific PCR and assayed for antibiotic resistance, presence of virulence genes and aminobiogenic capacity, both in decarboxylase medium and wine. The aminobiogenic capacity in wine was analysed in presence (assay 1) and absence (assay 2) of Oenococcus oeni CECT 7621. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazol, vancomycin and teicoplanin was exhibited by 96% of the strains, but none of them harboured the assayed virulence genes. All of the strains harboured the tyrosine decarboxylase (tdc) gene, while 44% were positive for tyramine in decarboxylase medium. Only five out of 25 strains survived in wine after seven days of incubation, and when concentrations of biogenic amines in wines were determined by HPLC, only those wines in which the five surviving strains occurred contained biogenic amines. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were detected in wines from both assays, although concentrations were higher in assay 2. Tyramine and phenylethylamine were detected only in absence of O. oeni. This research contributes for the knowledge of safety aspects of enterococci related to winemaking.

  4. Are Enterococcus populations present during malolactic fermentation of red wine safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was the genetic characterisation and safety evaluation of 129 Enterococcus isolates obtained from wine undergoing malolactic fermentation. Genetic characterisation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR displayed 23 genotypes. 25 isolates representative of all genotypes were identified as Enterococcus faecium by species-specific PCR and assayed for antibiotic resistance, presence of virulence genes and aminobiogenic capacity, both in decarboxylase medium and wine. The aminobiogenic capacity in wine was analysed in presence (assay 1) and absence (assay 2) of Oenococcus oeni CECT 7621. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazol, vancomycin and teicoplanin was exhibited by 96% of the strains, but none of them harboured the assayed virulence genes. All of the strains harboured the tyrosine decarboxylase (tdc) gene, while 44% were positive for tyramine in decarboxylase medium. Only five out of 25 strains survived in wine after seven days of incubation, and when concentrations of biogenic amines in wines were determined by HPLC, only those wines in which the five surviving strains occurred contained biogenic amines. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were detected in wines from both assays, although concentrations were higher in assay 2. Tyramine and phenylethylamine were detected only in absence of O. oeni. This research contributes for the knowledge of safety aspects of enterococci related to winemaking. PMID:24929723

  5. Echinoderms from Azores islands: an unexpected source of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Catarina; Silva, Nuno; Pombo, Sofia; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Micael, Joana; Rodrigues, Pedro; Costa, Ana Cristina; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-04-15

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and the implicated mechanisms of resistance were evaluated in Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli, isolated from a total of 250 faecal samples of echinoderms collected from Azorean waters (Portugal). A total of 144 enterococci (120 Enterococcus faecium, 14 E. hirae, 8 E. faecalis, 2 E. gallinarum) and 10 E. coli were recovered. High percentages of resistance in enterococci were found for erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracyclin and ciprofloxacin. The erm(A) or erm(B), tet(M) and/or tet(L), vat(D), aac(6')-aph(2″) and aph(3')-IIIa genes were found in isolates resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, high-level gentamicin and high-level kanamycin, respectively. Resistance in E. coli isolates was detected for streptomycin, amikacin, tetracycline and tobramycin. The aadA gene was found in streptomycin-resistant isolates and tet(A)+tet(B) genes in tetracycline-resistant isolates. The data recovered are essential to improve knowledge about the dissemination of resistant strains through marine ecosystems and the possible implications involved in transferring these resistances either to other animals or to humans. PMID:23419753

  6. Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaneini, M; Hosseinkhani, F; Jabalameli, F; Nasiri, M J; Dadashi, M; Pouriran, R; Beigverdi, R

    2016-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is considered to be a major nosocomial pathogen that results in serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. Limited information is available concerning the prevalence of VRE infections in Iran. We carried out a systematic search by using different electronic databases including: Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and the Iranian Database. Meta-analysis was performed using comprehensive meta-analysis software. The meta-analyses revealed that the prevalence of VRE infections was 9.4 % (95 % confidence interval [95 % CI] 7.3-12) among culture-positive cases for Enterococcus species. The prevalence of VRE in Iran is compared with the results of developed countries. The prevalence of VRE in Germany, the United Kingdom (UK), and Italy was 11.2 %, 8.5-12.5 %, and 9 % respectively. Additionally, the frequency of vancomycin resistance among E. faecalis isolates was higher than for E. faecium. The results of this study indicate that a comprehensive infection control strategy based on hand hygiene, educating the hospital staff members, providing clinical guidance and principles for the appropriate use of antibiotics, sanitizing the hospitals, contact precautions, and active surveillance systems on the basis of international criteria is urgently needed. PMID:27344575

  7. Interaction of TGF-β4 and IL-17 with IgA secretion in the intestine of chickens fed with E. faecium AL41 and challenged with S. Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaffová, Viera; Bobíková, Katarína; Husáková, Eva; Levkut, Martin; Herich, Róbert; Revajová, Viera; Levkutová, Mária; Levkut, Mikuláš

    2015-06-01

    The relative mRNA expression of IgA, TGF-β4, IL-17, and concentration of secretory IgA (sIgA) in small intestine of chickens pretreated with Enterococcus faecium AL41 and challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 were studied. Salmonella-free day-old chicks (40) Cobb 500 breed, were divided into four groups of 10 chicks each (n = 10): control (C), treated with E. faecium AL41 strain (EFAL41), challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 (SE), and combined (EFAL41+SE). Expression of IgA and sIgA concentration was upregulated in EFAL41 group in jejunum and ileum on 4 days post-Salmonella infection (dpi). Chicks in combined group demonstrated upregulation of cytokines and IgA expression, and increased sIgA concentration in the intestine flush on 7 dpi. The experiment demonstrated beneficial effect of E. faecium AL41 on IgA production and secretion in intestine. Findings also indicated that IgA played important role in decrease of S. Enteritidis in the intestine, and cytokines TGF-β4 and IL-17 contributed to the increased IgA secretion.

  8. 肠球菌感染分布及其耐药性分析%Analysis of enterococcus infection distribution and drug resistance in urine sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玲龙; 宣迎梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand enterococcus distribution in hospitalized patients with urinary tract infec‐tion and drug resistance characteristic ,provide the basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment .Methods In our hospital from January 2011 to December 2011 ,enterococcus strains from clinical urine culture were identified ,drug sensitive experiment were operated by the method of K‐B .The results were judged according to the standard of CLSI2010 . The data were analyzed by WHONET5 .5 softwareResults Enterococcus Faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was more seen in 253 cases of enterococcus in patients with urinary tract infection ,59 .7% and 38 .7% ,respectively .The drug resistance of Enterococcus Faecium in high concentration of gentamicin ,penicillin kind ,nitrofurantoin ,quinolone were significantly higher than that of dung enterococcus ,the resistant strains to vancomycin were urine enterococcus ,the resistant rate was 2 .04% .All of enterococcus were sensitive to rina thiazole amine ,the rate was 100% ,the sen‐sitive rate of enterococcus to theTeicoplanin was 98 .8% ,but ,the sensitive rate of its to levofloxacin was only 32 .1%.Conclusion The whole of enterococcus resistance has become increasingly serious .The found of vancomycin resist‐ant of enterococcus could be used as the guidance for clinical medication .%目的:为了解该院住院患者泌尿系感染中的肠球菌分布特点及耐药特征,为临床诊断和治疗提供依据。方法对该院2011年1月至2012年12月临床尿液标本培养分离鉴定,采用K‐B法对分离到的肠球菌进行药敏实验,结果判读依据CLSI2010标准,用WHONET5.5软件进行数据分析。结果253例肠球菌泌尿系感染患者中以粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌为多见,分别为59.7%和38.7%。屎肠球菌对高浓度庆大霉素、青霉素类、呋喃妥因、喹诺酮类耐药性明显高于粪肠球菌,耐万古霉素的全为屎肠球菌,耐药率为2.04%。但

  9. 632株肠球菌属的临床分布及耐药分析%Distribution and Drug Resistance of 632 Isolates of Enterococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小芳; 周惠琴; 沈海英; 杨欢; 朱雪明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of enterococcus to the common antibiotics, to guide rational application of antibiotics for clinic. Methods The bacteria were identified by Phoneix 100 system, the antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by disk diffusion test. Results 632 strains were isolated from clinical specimens, including 403 strains of Enterococcus faecalis(63. 7%), 166 strains of Enterococcus faecium(26. 3%), 49 strains of Enterococcus avium(7. 8%), 14 strains of Enterococcus durans(2. 2%). The strains were mainly isolated from sputa(36. 2%) and urine(21. 3%). Enterococcus exhibited the highest resistance to erythromycin. The next resistant drugs were rifampin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin successively. As a whole, the resistant rate of Enterococcus faecium was higher than Enterococcus faecalis. During this study, 5 strains of vancomycin resistant and 2 strains of linezolid resistant were detected in Enterococcus faecalis, while not founded in other enterococcus. Conclusion In view of the obvious difference in the distribution and drug resistance of enterococcus, the clinical treatment should be rational according to susceptibility test results. Moreover, with the existing of vancomycin and linezolid resistant enterococcus, our clinician should pay more attention.%目的 了解肠球菌属的临床分布及对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,指导临床合理选择抗菌药物.方法 采用Phoneix 100细菌鉴定仪进行菌株鉴定,药敏试验采用Kirby-Bauer法.结果 共分离出632株肠球菌属,其中粪肠球菌403株(63.7%),屎肠球菌166株(26.3%),鸟肠球菌49株(7.8%),坚忍肠球菌14株(2.2%);肠球菌属主要分离自呼吸道分泌物229株(36.2%)、中段尿134株(21.3%);肠球菌属对红霉素耐药率最高,其次是利福平、左旋氧氟沙星、环丙沙星,其中屎肠球菌耐药率明显高于其他肠球菌.在粪肠球菌中分别检出耐万古霉素菌株5株(1.3

  10. Detection of ermB Gene in Erythromycin Resistant Enterococcus%红霉素耐药肠球菌ermB基因检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 翟燕红; 赵娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the drug resisrance and ermB gene of erythromycin resistant Enterccoccus. Methods The antimicrobial susceptibility to antibiotics of Enterococcus was determined,and PCR technique was applied to identify ermB gene. Results Among all of the 50 Enterococcus strains,39 isolates were Enterococcus faecalis,11 isolates were Enterococcus faecium ,the resistance rate to erythromycin was 88% , the ermB gene carnage rate in erythromycin resistant Enterococcus was 84. 09 % (37/44). Conclusion Resistance to erythromycin in Enterococcus isolates was generally mediated via ermB gene.%目的 研究北京妇产医院临床感染患者分离的肠球菌对红霉素的耐药情况以及耐药基因ermB的分布特点.方法 测定肠球菌的抗生素敏感性及采用PCR法检测红霉素耐药基因ermB.结果 50株肠球菌中,粪肠球菌39株(78%),屎肠球菌11株(22%);红霉素耐药率为88%(44株/50株).在44株红霉素耐药肠球菌中,ermB基因总的携带率为84.09%(37株/44株).结论 临床标本中分离的红霉素耐药的肠球菌主要耐药基因为ermB基因.

  11. Diversity and stability of Plasmids from glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GRE) isolated from pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Villadsen, A.G.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    was seen at the end of the 7-year period, coinciding with the ban in 1998 of the macrolide tylosin as growth promoter for pig production. The stability of the plasmid in its original host was compared with stability of the same plasmid in BM4105RF, when both strains were maintained in liquid cultures...

  12. Extensive contact tracing and screening to control the spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ST414 in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Vincent Chi-chung; HO Pak-leung; TAI Josepha Wai-ming; NG Modissa Lai-ming; CHAN Jasper Fuk-woo; WONG Sally Cheuk-ying; LI Iris Wai-sum; CHUNG Hon-ping; LO Wai-kei; YUEN Kwok-yung

    2012-01-01

    Background Proactive infection control management is crucial in preventing the introduction of multiple drug resistant organisms in the healthcare setting.In Hong Kong,where vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) endemicity is not yet established,contact tracing and screening,together with other infection control measures are essential in limiting intraand inter-hospital transmission.The objective of this study was to illustrate the control measures used to eradicate a VRE outbreak in a hospital network in Hong Kong.Methods We described an outbreak of VRE in a healthcare region in Hong Kong,involving a University affiliated hospital and a convalescent hospital of 1600 and 550 beds respectively.Computer-assisted analysis was utilized to facilitate contact tracing,followed by VRE screening using chromogenic agar.Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to assess the clonality of the VRE strains isolated.A case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors for nosocomial acquisition of VRE.Results Between November 26 and December 17,2011,11 patients (1 exogenous case and 10 secondary cases) in two hospitals with VRE colonization were detected during our outbreak investigation and screening for 361 contact patients,resulting in a clinical attack rate of 2.8% (10/361).There were 8 males and 3 females with a median age of 78 years (range,40-87 years).MLST confirmed sequence type ST414 in all isolates.Case-control analysis demonstrated that VRE positive cases had a significantly longer cumulative length of stay (P <0.001),a higher proportion with chronic cerebral and cardiopulmonary conditions (P=0.001),underlying malignancies (P <0.001),and presence of urinary catheter (P <0.001),wound or ulcer (P <0.001),and a greater proportion of these patients were receiving 3-Iactam/ β-Iactamase inhibitors (P=0.009),carbapenem group (P <0.001),fluoroquinolones (P=0.003),or vancomycin (P=0.001)when compared with the controls.Conclusion Extensive contact tracing and screening with a "search-and-confine" strategy was a successful tool for outbreak control in our healthcare region.

  13. Untersuchung der Effekte von Enterococcus faecium (probiotischer Stamm NCIMB 10415) und Zink auf die angeborene Immunantwort im Schwein

    OpenAIRE

    Hansche, Bianca F.

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance and the possibility of a transfer of antibiotic resistance genes led to banning the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in swine production in the European Union since January 1, 2006. Due to the high number of piglet losses - mainly caused by diarrhea during the weaning period - viable alternatives to antibiotics are needed. One possibility is the use of specific feed additives such as probiotics or zinc. Probioti...

  14. Effect of oil and dry roasting of peanuts at various temperatures and times on survival of Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of outbreaks of salmonellosis since 2006 associated with the consumption of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter have increased concerns about this food and the associated processing methods. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the level of Salmonella reduction associated with o...

  15. Characterization of a heat stable anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium isolated from idli batter

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayendra, S.V.N; Rajashree, K.; Halami, Prakash M

    2010-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce various types of bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized polypeptides, which have antibacterial spectrum against many food borne pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium, is of particular concern to the food industry because of its ability to grow even at refrigeration temperatures and its tolerance to preservative agents. Some of the bacteriocins of LAB are known to have anti-listerial property. In the present study, the bacterio...

  16. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Sampedro, Ricardo; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-03-01

    This work describes the diversity and evolution of Tn5801 among enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci based on analysis of the 5,073 genomes of these bacterial groups available in gene databases. We also examined 610 isolates of Enterococcus (from 10 countries, 1987 to 2010) for the presence of this and other known CTn-tet(M) elements due to the scarcity of data about Tn5801 among enterococci. Genome location (by ICeu-I-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] hybridization/integration site identification), conjugation and fitness (by standard methods), Tn5801 characterization (by long-PCR mapping/sequencing), and clonality (by PFGE/multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) were studied. Twenty-three Tn5801 variants (17 unpublished) clustered in two groups, designated "A" (25 kb; n = 14; predominant in Staphylococcus aureus) and "B" (20 kb; n = 9; predominant in Streptococcus agalactiae). The percent GC content of the common backbone suggests a streptococcal origin of Tn5801 group B, with further acquisition of a 5-kb fragment that resulted in group A. Deep sequence analysis allowed identification of variants associated with clonal lineages of S. aureus (clonal complex 8 [CC8], sequence type 239 [ST239]), S. agalactiae (CC17), Enterococcus faecium (ST17/ST18), or Enterococcus faecalis (ST8), local variants, or variants located in different species and geographical areas. All Tn5801 elements were chromosomally located upstream of the guaA gene, which serves as an integration hot spot. Transferability was demonstrated only for Tn5801 type B among E. faecalis clonal backgrounds, which eventually harbored another Tn5801 copy. The study documents early acquisition of Tn5801 by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Clonal waves of these pathogens seem to have contributed to the geographical spread and local evolution of the transposon. Horizontal transfer, also demonstrated, could explain the variability observed, with the isolates often containing sequences of

  17. Investigation of the Prevalence of vanA and vanB genes in vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE by Taq Man real time PCR Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Mirzaei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterococci are important nosocomial agents and due to their potential antimicrobial resistance they have a significant role in the dissemination of resistance genes. Currently, these species are described as healthcare concern. The aim of this study was to determine vanA and vanB genes in vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE strains isolated from the various clinical samples in the hospitals in Iran. Methods: Susceptibility of 235 strains to vancomycin was screened as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by E- test. The genes encoding modifying vancomycin precursor’s dipeptide termini named as vanA and vanB genes were targeted by Taq Man real time PCR assay in vancomycin resistant and vancomycin intermediate resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains. Results: A total of 235 enterococci were isolated from the clinical specimens. One hundred and ninety three (82.1% of them were defined as E. faecalis, 33 (14.0% E. faecium, 1/235 (0.4% E. avium, 1/235 (0.4% E. raffinosus and 7/235 (3.0% E. galinarium. The prevalence of vancomycin resistance was 13.6% (32/235 consisting of 18/235 (7.7% E. faecalis and 6.0% (14/235 E. faecium. Among the 32 VRE strains, a total of 36 vanA and vanB genes were detected (some isolates had both vanA and vanB genes. These resistance genes were not detected in 5 out of 32 (15.6% isolates. Conclusion:E. faecalis was more common in clinical samples and vanA (58.3% gene was the predominant gene among the VRE isolates. The current study showed that Taq Man real time PCR assay is the useful, precise and rapid detection of vancomycin resistance genes. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 192-198

  18. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病院内下呼吸道肠球菌感染临床分析%Clinical analysis of nosocomial lower respiratory enterococcus infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱勤; 李小惠

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查与分析老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)住院患者院内下呼吸道肠球菌感染情况和耐药性。方法回顾性分析68例发生下呼吸道肠球菌属感染患者的临床资料和耐药情况。结果从患者痰标本中共分离出68株肠球菌,其中粪肠球菌30株,屎肠球菌38株。所有68株肠球菌均对利奈唑胺、替考拉宁以及万古霉素敏感,屎肠球菌对青霉素、氨苄西林、利福平、庆大霉素、环丙沙星、四环素的耐药性显著高于粪肠球菌(P14 d、合并肿瘤和基底节脑梗死、侵入性操作、合并非发酵菌和肠杆菌科感染是COPD院内感染肠球菌的高危因素。结论本院COPD院内下呼吸道肠球菌感染的现象时有发生,临床应依据药敏试验结果给予合适的抗菌药物治疗,以提高治疗效果。%ObjectiveTo research and analyze nosocomial lower respiratory enterococcus infection condition and drug resistance in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MethodsClinical data and drug resistance status of 68 patients with nosocomial lower respiratory enterococcus infection were retrospectively analyzed.ResultsA total of 68 enterococcus strains were separated from sputum samples. Among them, there were 30 enterococcus faecalis strains and 38 enterococcus faecium strains. All the 68 strains were sensitive to linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin. Enterococcus faecium had much high resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, rifampicin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline than enterococcus faecalis (P14 d, complicated tumor and basal ganglia cerebral infarction, invasive procedure, and complicated non-fermentative bacteria and enterobacteriaceae infection.ConclusionOccurrence of nosocomial lower respiratory enterococcus infection in COPD is occasional. Clinical application of suitable antibacterial agents therapy in accordance with drug sensitive test results can improve curative effect.

  19. Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum as causative agents of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz; Borgonovo, Ariane; Marques, Paula Couto; Tonon, Débora; Bansho, Emilia Tiemi Oshiro; Maggi, Dariana Carla; Dantas-Corrêa, Esther Buzaglo; de Lucca Schiavon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Infection by multidrug resistant bacteria is arousing as a relevant issue among hospitalized subjects and is of particular interest in patients with cirrhosis given the frequent use of broad spectrum antibiotics and their altered immune response. We report the first case report of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) caused by Enterococcus casseliflavus and the sixth case of SBP caused by Enterococcus gallinarum.

  20. Description of two Enterococcus strains isolated from traditional Peruvian artisanal-produced cheeses with a bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Galvez A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to isolate and to characterize strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB with bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity from 27 traditional cheeses artisanal-produced obtained from different Peruvian regions. Twenty Gram+ and catalasenegative strains among 2,277 isolates exhibited bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes CWBIB2232 as target strain. No change in inhibitory activity was observed after organic acid neutralization and treatment with catalase of the cell-free supernatant (CFS. The proteinic nature of the antimicrobial activity was confirmed for the twenty LAB strains by proteolytic digestion of the CFS. Two strains, CWBI-B1431 and CWBI-B1430, with the best antimicrobial activity were selected for further researches. These strains were taxonomically identified by phenotypic and genotypic analyses as Enterococcus mundtii (CWBI-B1431 and Enterococcus faecium (CWBI-B1430. The two strains were sensitive to vancomycin (MIC 2 μg.ml-1 and showed absence of haemolysis.

  1. Analysis of drug-resistance and distribution of Enterococcus spp.isolated from urine%肠球菌在尿液标本中的分布及其耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓燕; 吕火祥; 胡庆丰; 沈蓓琼

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究尿液中肠球菌的分布及其耐药性.方法:分析2007年1月-2010年12月尿液标本中分离出的肠球菌分布和耐药性.结果:尿液标本中粪肠球菌较多见,但屎肠球菌和铅黄球菌检出率增高较快.屎肠球菌对青霉素类、呋喃妥因、喹诺酮类、高浓度庆大霉素、高浓度链霉素和利福平的耐药性明显高于粪肠球菌,而对四环素耐药性低于粪肠球菌.结论:尿液中以粪肠球菌为主.肠球菌的耐药性日趋严重,甚至出现了万古霉素耐药肠球菌.%Objective: To study the drug - resistance and distribution of Enterococcus in urine specimens. Methods: The clinical distribution and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus collected from January 2007 to December 2010 were analyzed. Results; There were mainly Enterococcus faecalis in the urine specimens, but the positive rate raised faster in E. Faecium and E. Casselifa-vus. The antimicrobial resistance of E. Faecium was significantly higher than that of E. Faecalis to Benzylpenicillin, Nitrofuran-toin, Quinolone, high concentration Gentamycin, high concentration Streptomycin and Rifamycin but lower to Tetracycline. Conclusion ; There were mainly E. Faecalis in the urine specimens. The drug - resistance of Enterococcus is more and more serious, and the Vancomycin - resistant Enterococci (VRE) even come to be present.

  2. Mutations associated with reduced surotomycin susceptibility in Clostridium difficile and Enterococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Hannah M; Li, Xiang; Mascio, Carmela; Chesnel, Laurent; Palmer, Kelli L

    2015-07-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an urgent public health concern causing considerable clinical and economic burdens. CDI can be treated with antibiotics, but recurrence of the disease following successful treatment of the initial episode often occurs. Surotomycin is a rapidly bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that is in clinical trials for CDI treatment and that has demonstrated superiority over vancomycin in preventing CDI relapse. Surotomycin is a structural analogue of the membrane-active antibiotic daptomycin. Previously, we utilized in vitro serial passage experiments to derive C. difficile strains with reduced surotomycin susceptibilities. The parent strains used included ATCC 700057 and clinical isolates from the restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) groups BI and K. Serial passage experiments were also performed with vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. The goal of this study is to identify mutations associated with reduced surotomycin susceptibility in C. difficile and enterococci. Illumina sequence data generated for the parent strains and serial passage isolates were compared. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in genes coding for cardiolipin synthase in C. difficile ATCC 700057, enoyl-(acyl carrier protein) reductase II (FabK) and cell division protein FtsH2 in C. difficile REA type BI, and a PadR family transcriptional regulator in C. difficile REA type K. Among the 4 enterococcal strain pairs, 20 mutations were identified, and those mutations overlap those associated with daptomycin resistance. These data give insight into the mechanism of action of surotomycin against C. difficile, possible mechanisms for resistance emergence during clinical use, and the potential impacts of surotomycin therapy on intestinal enterococci.

  3. Enterococcus gallinarum carrying the vanA gene cluster: first report in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, I L B C; Barth, A L; Pilger, K; Seligman, B G S; Machado, A R L; Darini, A L C

    2004-11-01

    In 2000, Enterococcus faecalis resistant to vancomycin was first reported at a tertiary hospital in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. The resistance spread to other hospitals and surveillance programs were established by hospital infection committees to prevent the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. In February 2002, an isolate initially identified at the genus level as Enterococcus was obtained by surveillance culture (rectal swab) from a patient admitted to a hospital for treatment of septic arthritis in the shoulder. The isolate proved to be resistant to vancomycin by the disc diffusion method and confirmed by an E-test resulting in a minimal inhibitory concentration of > or = 256 microg/ml. This isolate was sent to a reference laboratory (Laboratorio Especial de Bacteriologia e Epidemiologia Molecular, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, USP) for further study and proved to be an E. gallinarum by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for the species. Due to the phenotype of unusually high vancomycin resistance, the isolate presumably had the resistance genes (vanA and vanB) and this was confirmed by PCR, which indicated the presence of the vanA gene. A 10.8-kb Tn1546-related transposon was also identified by long-PCR. Interspecies transfer of the vancomycin-resistance gene from the donor E. gallinarum was performed in a successful conjugation experiment in vitro, using E. faecium GE-1 and E. faecalis JH22 as receptors. This is the first report of the detection of a vanA determinant naturally acquired by E. gallinarum in Brazil, indicating the importance of characterizing VRE by both phenotype and genotype methods.

  4. Enterococcus gallinarum carrying the vanA gene cluster: first report in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L.B.C. Camargo

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Enterococcus faecalis resistant to vancomycin was first reported at a tertiary hospital in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. The resistance spread to other hospitals and surveillance programs were established by hospital infection committees to prevent the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. In February 2002, an isolate initially identified at the genus level as Enterococcus was obtained by surveillance culture (rectal swab from a patient admitted to a hospital for treatment of septic arthritis in the shoulder. The isolate proved to be resistant to vancomycin by the disc diffusion method and confirmed by an E-test resulting in a minimal inhibitory concentration of > or = 256 µg/ml. This isolate was sent to a reference laboratory (Laboratório Especial de Bacteriologia e Epidemiologia Molecular, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, USP for further study and proved to be an E. gallinarum by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using specific primers for the species. Due to the phenotype of unusually high vancomycin resistance, the isolate presumably had the resistance genes (vanA and vanB and this was confirmed by PCR, which indicated the presence of the vanA gene. A 10.8-kb Tn1546-related transposon was also identified by long-PCR. Interspecies transfer of the vancomycin-resistance gene from the donor E. gallinarum was performed in a successful conjugation experiment in vitro, using E. faecium GE-1 and E. faecalis JH22 as receptors. This is the first report of the detection of a vanA determinant naturally acquired by E. gallinarum in Brazil, indicating the importance of characterizing VRE by both phenotype and genotype methods.

  5. Study on the stress resistance of encapsulated enterococcus faecalis pre -fermented and post -fermented%发酵前及发酵后包被粪肠球菌微胶囊抗胁迫作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 婷婷; 綦文涛; 李杰; 李爱科

    2016-01-01

    The enterococcus faecium were pre -fermented encapsulated by the method of emulsionand in-ternal gelation and post -fermented encapsulated by spraying dry.The stress resistance of the both micro-encapsulation formulations to the storage,high temperature,gastric juice and intestinal juice were evalua-ted compared with free enterococcus faecium.The results showed that the survival rates of pre -fermented encapsulated enterococcus faecium were 19.46% and 6.90% higher respectively than those of un -capsu-lated and post -fermented encapsulated enterococcus faecium after storage at room temperature for five months.The resistance of enterococcus faecium to the high temperature at 110 ℃ and 130 ℃ was signifi-cantly increased (P <0.05)by the pre -fermented encapsulation compared with post -fermented en-capsulation and free.The survival rates of pre -fermented encapsulated and post -fermented encapsula-ted enterococcus faecium were significantly increased (P <0.05)compared with those of uncoated ones when they were treated in the simulated gastric conditions for 30,90 and 180 min.The pre -fermented encapsulated was particularly evident.The results were similar in mimic environments of gastric juice and intestinal juice.The survival rates of pre -fermented encapsulated and post -fermented encapsulated en-terococcus faecium were increased 19.17% and 14.18%(P <0.05)compared with un -capsulated ones after they were treated in the simulated intestinal conditions for 180 min.These results suggest that the re-sistance of encapsulated enterococcus faecium is much higher than that of un -capsulated ones.The pre -fermented encapsulation can be a more effective way than post -fermented encapsulation for protecting probiotic microbes and has a high value of practical application.%以粪肠球菌(Enterococcus faecium)为芯材,分别进行了乳化凝胶化基础上的发酵前包被和喷雾干燥基础上的发酵后包被。并以未包被的菌粉为对照,研究了两

  6. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Enterococcus species isolated from meat and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniz, S; Andreazza, R; Okeke, B C; Camargo, F A O; Brandelli, A

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have an important role in a great variety of fermented foods. In addition to their contribution to sensory characteristics, they enhance food preservation and can be used as probiotics. In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of culture supernatants and cell free extracts of 16 LAB isolated from meat and dairy products were investigated. The bacterial were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. GenBank BLAST analysis revealed that all the isolates belong to Enterococcus faecium species. Antimicrobial activity against the indicator microorganism (Listeria monocytogenes) was observed at 11 culture supernatants and 4 cell free extracts. The sensibility of culture supernatant was evaluated by proteinase K and trypsin and it was observed that activity of antimicrobial substance was completely lost after the treatment. All of the isolates showed antioxidant activity as determined by the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) method with both types of extracts. When the antioxidant capacity was investigated using ABTS•+ method (2,2 azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and DPPH method (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) it was observed that only culture supernatants showed antioxidant capacity. These bacteria could particularly help to reduce or inhibit pathogenic microorganisms as well as oxidative spoilage in foods and feed.

  7. Effect of whey fermented by Enterococcus faeciumin consortium with Veilonella parvulaon ruminal bacteria in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higor Fábio Carvalho Bezerra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of whey fermented by Enterococus faecium in consortium with Veilonella parvula in vitro on ruminal microorganisms in different substrates, with or without monensin. The first experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, in a 6 × 3 factorial arrangement (six substrates × three whey levels with two replicates. In experiment two, a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement (with and without monensin, three foods and four levels of fermented whey was used, in a randomized design with four replicates, totaling 24 treatments. There was no interaction among the wheys and the substrates in the variable for pectin, starch, and carboxymethyl cellulose. There was a greater growth of amylolytic and pectinolytic microorganisms and a lower growth of proteolytic and cellulolytic microorganisms. A significant effect of optical density was found in the media without substrate and that containing trypticase and glucose due to the addition of fermented whey. There was interaction for the pH at 24 hours among whey, food and monensin. For ammonia at 24 hours there was effect for food, whey and monensin, and interaction among factors. For microbial protein at 24 hours, there was effect for food, whey, monensin and no interaction among sources of variation. The use of whey fermented by bacteria Enterococcus faeciumand Veilonella parvula improves microbial protein synthesis by ruminal bacteria in media containing different energy sources. The combination of fermented whey and monensin shows variable results in relation to microbial growth.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Chambers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively. Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented.

  9. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  10. Serological diagnosis of experimental Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerulf, A; Espersen, F; Gutschik, E;

    1998-01-01

    A modified rat model of endocarditis with catheterization for 2 days was established in female Lewis rats using different inocula of Enterococcus faecalis (strain no. EF 19) in order to measure IgG antibodies in serum during the course of infection. Increasing the inocula intravenously resulted...

  11. 777株临床分离肠球菌的分布及耐药性分析%Distribution of Enterococcus isolated from clinic samples of 777 strains and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红军; 邓文国; 刘倩; 张小龙; 李贵州; 马巧云

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解本院临床肠球菌的菌群分布及耐药情况.方法 采用回顾性调查分析方法对我院分离自各类临床标本的777株肠球菌进行统计,并对抗菌药敏试验结果进行分析.结果 肠球菌菌株来源以尿液(30.5%)、胆汁(25.5%)、分泌物(17.8%)为主;2007~2010年分离的肠球菌对抗生素的耐药率有逐年增高趋势(P<0.05);屎肠球菌对多种抗生素的耐药率明显高于粪肠球菌,且在分离的肠球菌构成比有增高趋势.结论 屎肠球菌在临床分离的肠球菌中越来越常见,肠球菌的多重耐药严重.%Objective To evaluate the distribution of isolated from clinical samples and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. Methods Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in clinical isolates of 777 enterococcus. Results The strains were mainly isolated from the urinary enterococcal isolates (30. 5%), bile (25. 5%) , discharge (17. 8%) dominated; 2007 and 2010 enterococci isolated resistance to antibiotics has increased year by year trend rate (P<0. 05) ; feces resistant to several antibiotics of enterococci was significantly higher than that of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in the separation of the constituent ratio tended to increase. Conclusion Excrement enterococcus in clinical isolates of enterococcus became more and more common, enterococcus multiple drug-resistant was alao seriously.

  12. 243株肠球菌属临床分离株分布及抗菌药物敏感性分析%Distribution and antibiotics sensitivity status of 243 strains of enterococcus from clinical samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱扬会; 郭建巍; 马骢; 郝秀红; 刘丽娟; 李艳君; 马学斌

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the distribution and antibiotic sensitivity of 243 strains Enterococcus from clinical samples in navy general hospital from 2008 to 2010, to offer evidence for drug resistant monitoring and clinical antibiotics usage. METHODS All clinical specimens were isolated and cultured conforms to Standard Operation. The bacteria were identified by using the automatic microorganism analyzer VITEK, and bacteria's drug susceptibility tests were performed using K-B methods and Bio-Mic drug sensitivity analyzer. All the results were analyzed by Whonet 5.4 soft ware. RESULTS Totally 243 strains of Enterococcus were isolated in navy general hospital form 2008 to 2010. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis with a high incidence rate of 56.0% and 28.8%. Enterococcus casseli f avus , Enterococcus gallinarum , Enterococcus avium , Enterococcus durans and Enterococcus hirae with the incidence rates of 7.0%, 4.1 %, 2.1 %, 1.6% and 0.4% respectively.Urine, secretion and blood were the major samples accounted for 84.8%. E. faecalis was the major pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infection and then E. faecium and E. casselifavus which with high drug resistance rates. ICU, department of urinary surgery and department of Respiratory Medicine were main award sickroom of Enterococcus infection. Drug resistances of E. faecium were higher than E. faecalis. The top three resistance antibiotics against E. faecium were ampicillin, penicillin and erythromycin and with a resistance rate of 100.0%,97.1% and 93.4%. for E. faecalis, erythromycin, tetracycline and levofloxacin were major resistance antibiotics with a resistance rate of 80.0%, 42.9 % and 38.6% respectively. CONCLUSION Most of Enterococcus infection is due to E. faecium and there are a lot of differences for drug resistance in the strains of Enterococcus. The hospital administers should strengthen the management of antibiotics usage, it is necessary to rationally use

  13. Rapid detection of Enterococcus spp. direct from blood culture bottles using Enterococcus QuickFISH method: a multicenter investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Melissa K; Anderson, Erica S; Buckner, Rebecca J; Colasante, Georgia; Davis, Thomas E; Coull, James M; Crystal, Benjamin; Latta, Phyllis Della; Fuchs, Martin; Fuller, Deanna; Harris, Will; Hazen, Kevin; Klimas, Lisa L; Lindao, Daniel; Meltzer, Michelle C; Morgan, Margie; Shepard, Janeen; Stevens, Sharon; Wu, Fann; Fiandaca, Mark J

    2014-04-01

    The performance of a diagnostic method for detection and identification of Enterococcus spp. directly from positive blood culture was evaluated in a clinical study. The method, Enterococcus QuickFISH BC, is a second-generation peptide nucleic acid (PNA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test, which uses a simplified, faster assay procedure. The test uses fluorescently labeled PNA probes targeting 16S rRNA to differentiate Enterococcus faecalis from other Enterococcus spp. by the color of the cellular fluorescence. Three hundred fifty-six routine blood culture samples were tested; only 2 discordant results were recorded. The sensitivities for detection of Enterococcus faecalis and non-faecalis Enterococcus were 100% (106/106) and 97.0% (65/67), respectively, and the combined specificity of the assay was 100%. The combined positive and negative predictive values of the assay were 100% (171/171) and 98.9% (185/187), respectively.

  14. A nanoplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of vancomycin and bifunctional aminoglycoside resistance genes in Enterococcus species

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    Ravichandran Manickam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococci have emerged as a significant cause of nosocomial infections in many parts of the world over the last decade. The most common enterococci strains present in clinical isolates are E. faecalis and E. faecium which have acquired resistant to either gentamicin or vancomycin. The conventional culture test takes 2–5 days to yield complete information of the organism and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Hence our present study was focused on developing a nanoplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of vancomycin and bifunctional aminoglycoside resistant enterococci (V-BiA-RE. This assay simultaneously detects 8 genes namely 16S rRNA of Enterococcus genus, ddl of E. faecalis and E. faecium, aacA-aphD that encodes high level gentamicin resistance (HLGR, multilevel vancomycin resistant genotypes such as vanA, vanB, vanC and vanD and one internal control gene. Results Unique and specific primer pairs were designed to amplify the 8 genes. The specificity of the primers was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the nanoplex PCR products and BLAST analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of V-BiA-RE nanoplex PCR assay was evaluated against the conventional culture method. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was found to be 1 ng at the DNA level while the analytical specificity was evaluated with 43 reference enterococci and non-enterococcal strains and was found to be 100%. The diagnostic accuracy was determined using 159 clinical specimens, which showed that 97% of the clinical isolates belonged to E. faecalis, of which 26% showed the HLGR genotype, but none were vancomycin resistant. The presence of an internal control in the V-BiA-RE nanoplex PCR assay helped us to rule out false negative cases. Conclusion The nanoplex PCR assay is robust and can give results within 4 hours about the 8 genes that are essential for the identification of the most common Enterococcus spp. and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. The PCR assay

  15. Surface tension-like forces determine bacterial shapes: Streptococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A L; Higgins, M L; Doyle, R J

    1981-03-01

    The same tendency that causes soap bubbles to achieve a minimum surface area for the volume enclosed seems to account for many of the features of growth and division of bacteria, including both bacilli and cocci. It is only necessary to assume that growth takes place in zones and that only in these zones does the tension caused by hydrostatic pressure create the strain that forces the cell to increase the wall area. The stress developed by osmotic pressure creates strains that significantly lower the free energy of bond splitting by hydrolysis or transfer. We believe this is sufficient to make growing wall have some of the properties ordinarily associated with surface tension. The feature common to all bacterial cell wall growth is that peptidoglycan is inserted under strain-free conditions. Only after the covalent links have been formed are the intervening stressed peptide bonds cleaved so that the new unit supports the stress due to hydrostatic pressure. The present paper analyses the growth of Streptococcus faecium in these terms. This is a particularly simple case and detailed data concerning morphology are available. The best fit to the data is achieved by assuming that growth takes place in a narrow region near the splitting septum and that the septal material is already under tension as it is externalized and is twice as thick as the external wall throughout the development of the nascent poles. Constancy of the ratio of hydrostatic pressure to the effective surface tension, P/T, is also consistent with electron microscopic observations. PMID:7320694

  16. Study on risk factors for nosocomial infections caused by high-level aminoglycoside-resistant Enterococcus and aminoglycoside resistance-related genes%耐氨基苷类高水平肠球菌医院感染的危险因素及氨基糖苷类耐药相关基因研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范建中; 周田美; 董晓勤; 王贤军

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解耐氨基糖苷类高水平肠球菌(HLAR)的耐药性和医院感染的危险因素,研究HLAR氨基糖苷类耐药相关基因类型分布.方法 采用全自动微生物鉴定仪VITEK-AMS对857株肠球菌属进行鉴定及抗菌药物敏感性检测;PCR法检测HLAR氨基糖苷类耐药相关基因,并对PCR结果进行测序分析.结果 肠球菌属中HLAR占50.4%,利奈唑胺、万古霉素和替考拉宁对HLAR的抗菌作用最好,但有3株屎肠球菌对万古霉素和替考拉宁耐药,粪肠球菌对氯霉素和四环素的耐药率高于屎肠球菌,而屎肠球菌对其他常用抗菌药物的耐药率明显高于粪肠球菌,粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌的耐药谱明显不同,aac(6')-Ie-aph(2〃)-Ia基因为耐庆大霉素高水平肠球菌(HLGR)的主要耐药基因,占HLGR的88.0%,严重的基础疾病、侵入性操作和头孢三代抗菌药物和激素的应用是肠球菌属医院感染的常见危险因素.结论 HLAR已成为医院感染的重要耐药菌,HLGR产生的主要机制是aac(6')-Ie-aph(2〃)-Ia基因介导对庆大霉素高水平耐药,控制常见医院感染危险因素,合理使用抗菌药物,可减少HLAR医院感染的发生.%OBJECTIVE To explore the antibiotic resistance and risk factors for nosocomial infections caused by high-level aminoglycoside-resistant (HLAR) Enterococcus, and investigate the genotypes related to high-level aminoglycoside resistance. METHODS A total of 857 strains of Enterococcus were identified and analyzed for their antimicrobial susceptibility by VITEK-AMS. The aminoglycoside resistance-related genes were detected by PCR. The sequencing analysis of PCR products was performed. RESULTS A total of 50. 4% of Enterococcus isolates were HLAR Enterococcus. Linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin were mostly effective against HLAR Enterococcus, but there were three isolates resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The resistance rates to chloramphenicol and tetracycline of E. Faecium were

  17. Microevolutionary events involving narrow host plasmids influences local fixation of vancomycin-resistance in Enterococcus populations.

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    Ana R Freitas

    Full Text Available Vancomycin-resistance in enterococci (VRE is associated with isolates within ST18, ST17, ST78 Enterococcus faecium (Efm and ST6 Enterococcus faecalis (Efs human adapted lineages. Despite of its global spread, vancomycin resistance rates in enterococcal populations greatly vary temporally and geographically. Portugal is one of the European countries where Tn1546 (vanA is consistently found in a variety of environments. A comprehensive multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE isolates (75 Efm and 29 Efs from Portuguese hospitals and aquatic surroundings (1996-2008 was performed to clarify the local dynamics of VRE. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST while plasmid characterization comprised the analysis of known relaxases, rep initiator proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems (TA by PCR-based typing schemes, RFLP comparison, hybridization and sequencing. Tn1546 variants were characterized by PCR overlapping/sequencing. Intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of Efm ST18, ST132 and ST280 and Efs ST6 clones, carrying rolling-circle (pEFNP1/pRI1 and theta-replicating (pCIZ2-like, Inc18, pHTβ-like, two pRUM-variants, pLG1-like, and pheromone-responsive plasmids was documented. Tn1546 variants, mostly containing ISEf1 or IS1216, were located on plasmids (30-150 kb with a high degree of mosaicism and heterogeneous RFLP patterns that seem to have resulted from the interplay between broad host Inc18 plasmids (pIP501, pRE25, pEF1, and narrow host RepA_N plasmids (pRUM, pAD1-like. TAs of Inc18 (ω-ε-ζ and pRUM (Axe-Txe plasmids were infrequently detected. Some plasmid chimeras were persistently recovered over years from different clonal lineages. This work represents the first multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE, revealing a frequent recombinatorial diversification of a limited number of interacting clonal backgrounds, plasmids and transposons at local scale. These interactions provide a continuous process of parapatric clonalization driving a full

  18. Detection of vancomycin resistance in enterococcus species isolated from clinical samples and feces of colonized patients by phenotypic and genotypic methods

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    Priyanka Paul Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to find out the clinical correlation between the presence of vancomycin-resistant genes (van A and van B and their expression as detected by phenotypic tests in colonized patients and in clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Enterococci were isolated from various clinical samples and also from fecal specimens of colonized patients at the time of admission, after 48 h and after 5 days of admission. Identification to species level was done using standard methods. Vancomycin susceptibility in Enterococci was detected by disc diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by agar dilution method. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect the presence of van genes. Results: Out of all the clinical and fecal samples processed, 12.0% isolates were either vancomycin resistant or vancomycin intermediate. Further, these isolates carried van A or van B genes as confirmed by PCR methods. Expression of van A gene was found to be more in Enterococcus faecalis (28.3% as compared to Enterococcus faecium (25.0% in both clinical and fecal isolates. 16.6% strains of E. faecium and 15.0% strains each of E. faecalis and Enterococcus gallinarum were found to carry van B genes. The overall prevalence of vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE in colonized patients was about 9.6%. Prior administration of antibiotics had significant effect (P = 0.001 on VRE carriage. Urinary tract infection was the most common infection caused by vancomycin susceptible Enterococci (VSE, 105/214 (49.0% and VRE, 13/36 (36.1%. There was no significant difference (P = 0.112 in the distribution of VRE and VSE in different infection types. Both clinical and fecal VRE showed maximum resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, and piperacillin. Resistance to linezolid was 2.8% in clinically isolated VRE. Conclusion: VRE in our study were found to be resistant to a number of commonly used antibiotics. The frequency of isolation

  19. 肠球菌属细菌368株临床分布及耐药性分析%Clinical distribution and drug resistance of 368 strains of Enterococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩兰芳

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解肠球菌属细菌在临床标本中的分布及对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,指导临床合理选择抗菌药物.方法 对2011年1月至2012年12月各临床标本中分离的368肠球菌属的细菌菌种分布及药敏结果进行回顾性分析.结果 368株肠球菌属细菌中屎肠球菌213株,占58.0%;粪肠球菌145株,占39.3%;鹑鸡肠球菌4株,占1.1%;铅黄肠球菌3株,占0.8%;耐久肠球菌3株,占0.8%.肠球菌属细菌主要分离自尿液、血液、切口分泌物中,检出率分别为53.0%、13.6%、12.2%.粪肠球菌对红霉素、环丙沙星、喹奴普汀/达福普汀和利福平的耐药性较高,耐药率均>60%,而对青霉素、氨苄西林的耐药率则<20%;屎肠球菌对青霉素、氨苄西林、红霉素、环丙沙星、利福平、左氧氟沙星的耐药率均>95%,而对喹奴普汀/达福普汀和四环素耐药率较低,分别为11.3%和35.6%;两种肠球菌对万古霉素、替考拉宁、利奈唑胺的耐药率均<2%.结论 肠球菌属细菌对抗茵药物的耐药性较高,而且屎肠球菌和粪肠球菌的耐药性明显不同,临床治疗时应根据菌株类别和药敏结果合理用药,尽量减少耐药菌株的产生.%Objective To investigate the distribution of Enterococcus in clinical specimens and their drug resistance to commonly used antibiotics,in order to guide the reasonable selection of antibiotics in clinics.Methods Retrospective analysis was performed with the bacterial distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility results of 368 strains of Enterococcus which were isolated clinically during January 2011 to December 2012.Results Among the 368 strains of Enterococcus,there were 213 strains(58.0%) of Enterococcus faecium,145 strains(39.3%) of Enterococcus faecalis,4 strains(1.1%) of Enterococcus gallimarum,3 strains(0.8%) of Enterococcus casseliflavus,3 strains(0.8%) of Enterococcus durans.The strains were mainly isolated from urine

  20. Drug resistance of enterococcus in middle-segment urine of patients with in urinary tract infection%泌尿系感染患者中段尿液中肠球菌属的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洁卫

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the resistance feature and the distribution of Enterococcus species isolated from middle-segment urine specimens. METHODS Totally 732 samples of middle-segment urine of patients infected in urinary tract were cultured, and the drug resistances were tested. RESULTS From them 493 strains in 454 cases were detected out, among which 151 strains were Enterococcus and 137 strains were Escherichia coli. The results of drug resistances showed the resistant rates of E. faecalis to penicillin and furadantin were lower than those of E. faecium,the resistant rate of E. faecium to quinupristin/dalfopristin was lower than that of E. faecalis.None of E. faecalis and E. faecium resisted to vancomycin and teicoplanin. CONCLUSION The detective rate of the Enterococcus is high in middle-segment urine specimens. The results reveal a different resistance to common antibiotics, but a high sensistivity to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The result of antibiotic susceptibility testing guides the rational use of antibacterial agents.%目的 了解泌尿系感染患者中段尿液中肠球菌属的分布及其耐药情况.方法 收集2019例泌尿系感染患者中段尿液进行细菌培养、鉴定及药敏试验.结果 454例中检出细菌493株,阳性率为22.49%,其中肠球菌属151株,分离率为30.63%,大肠埃希菌137株,分离率为27.79%;粪肠球菌对青霉素及呋喃妥因、喹诺酮类抗菌药物的耐药率明显低于屎肠球菌,屎肠球菌对喹奴普汀/达福普汀的耐药率明显低于粪肠球菌;粪肠球菌及屎肠球菌未见对万古霉素和替考拉宁耐药.结论 肠球菌属在尿液中细菌检出率较高,对常见抗菌药物均存在不同程度的耐药性,对万古霉素和替考拉宁具有高度的敏感性,药敏试验结果可指导临床合理选用抗菌药物.

  1. Trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital: a 4-year study

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    Natália Conceição

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the past two decades members of the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. This study prospectively analyzed the distribution of species and trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital from 2006-2009. METHODS: Enterococcal species were identified by conventional biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was performed by disk diffusion in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. A screening test for vancomycin was also performed. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC for vancomycin was determined using the broth dilution method. Molecular assays were used to confirm speciation and genotype of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE. RESULTS: A total of 324 non-repetitive enterococcal isolates were recovered, of which 87% were E. faecalis and 10.8% E. faecium. The incidence of E. faecium per 1,000 admissions increased significantly (p 256µg/ mL and harbored vanA genes. The majority (89.5% of VRE belonged to E. faecium species, which were characteristically resistant to ampicillin and quinolones. Overall, ampicillin resistance rate increased significantly from 2.5% to 21.4% from 2006-2009. Resistance rates for gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and erythromycin significantly decreased over time, although they remained high. Quinolones resistance rates were high and did not change significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained show a significant increasing trend in the incidence of E. faecium resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin.

  2. Characterization of an Enterococcus gallinarum Isolate Carrying a Dual vanA and vanB Cassette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Alireza; Shahinas, Dea; Li, Aimin; Kariyawasam, Ruwandi; Banh, Philip; Desjardins, Marc; Melano, Roberto G; Patel, Samir N

    2015-07-01

    The ability of vancomycin resistance determinants to be horizontally transferred within enterococci species is a concern. Identification and characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in a clinical isolate have a significant impact on infection control practices. In this study, we describe a clinical isolate of Enterococcus gallinarum exhibiting high-level resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The genetic characterization of this isolate showed the presence of vanA and vanB genes in addition to the naturally carried vanC gene. vanA was identified on pA6981, a 35,608-bp circular plasmid with significant homology to plasmid pS177. The vanB operon was integrated into the bacterial chromosome and showed a high level of homology to previously reported Tn1549 and Tn5382. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of E. gallinarum carrying both vanA and vanB operons, indicating the importance of identifying the vancomycin resistance mechanism in non-E. faecium and non-E. faecalis enterococcal species.

  3. High Level Aminoglycoside Resistance and Distribution of Aminoglycoside Resistant Genes among Clinical Isolates of Enterococcus Species in Chennai, India

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    Elango Padmasini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are nosocomial pathogen with multiple-drug resistance by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Aminoglycosides along with cell wall inhibitors are given clinically for treating enterococcal infections. 178 enterococcal isolates were analyzed in this study. E. faecalis is identified to be the predominant Enterococcus species, along with E. faecium, E. avium, E. hirae, E. durans, E. dispar and E. gallinarum. High level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR by MIC for gentamicin (GM, streptomycin (SM and both (GM + SM antibiotics was found to be 42.7%, 29.8%, and 21.9%, respectively. Detection of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme encoding genes (AME in enterococci was identified by multiplex PCR for aac(6′-Ie-aph(2′′-Ia; aph(2′′-Ib; aph(2′′-Ic; aph(2′′-Id and aph(3′-IIIa genes. 38.2% isolates carried aac(6′-Ie-aph(2′′-Ia gene and 40.4% isolates carried aph(3′-IIIa gene. aph(2′′-Ib; aph(2′′-Ic; aph(2′′-Id were not detected among our study isolates. aac(6′-Ie-aph(2′′-Ia and aph(3′-IIIa genes were also observed in HLAR E. durans, E. avium, E. hirae, and E. gallinarum isolates. This indicates that high level aminoglycoside resistance genes are widely disseminated among isolates of enterococci from Chennai.

  4. High level aminoglycoside resistance and distribution of aminoglycoside resistant genes among clinical isolates of Enterococcus species in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmasini, Elango; Padmaraj, R; Ramesh, S Srivani

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are nosocomial pathogen with multiple-drug resistance by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Aminoglycosides along with cell wall inhibitors are given clinically for treating enterococcal infections. 178 enterococcal isolates were analyzed in this study. E. faecalis is identified to be the predominant Enterococcus species, along with E. faecium, E. avium, E. hirae, E. durans, E. dispar and E. gallinarum. High level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) by MIC for gentamicin (GM), streptomycin (SM) and both (GM + SM) antibiotics was found to be 42.7%, 29.8%, and 21.9%, respectively. Detection of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme encoding genes (AME) in enterococci was identified by multiplex PCR for aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia; aph(2'')-Ib; aph(2'')-Ic; aph(2'')-Id and aph(3')-IIIa genes. 38.2% isolates carried aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia gene and 40.4% isolates carried aph(3')-IIIa gene. aph(2'')-Ib; aph(2'')-Ic; aph(2'')-Id were not detected among our study isolates. aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa genes were also observed in HLAR E. durans, E. avium, E. hirae, and E. gallinarum isolates. This indicates that high level aminoglycoside resistance genes are widely disseminated among isolates of enterococci from Chennai.

  5. Modified 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region restriction endonuclease analysis for species identification of Enterococcus strains isolated from pigs, compared with identification using classical methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Banach, Tomasz; Kowalski, Cezary

    2015-03-01

    Fast and reliable identification of bacteria to at least the species level is currently the basis for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of infections. This is particularly important in the case of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus, whose resistance profile is often correlated with their species (e.g. resistance to vancomycin). In this study, we evaluated restriction endonuclease analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region for species identification of Enterococcus. The utility of the method was compared with that of phenotypic methods [biochemical profile evaluation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)]. Identification was based on 21 Enterococcus reference strains, of the species E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. durans, E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, E. avium, E. cecorum and E. columbae, and 47 Enterococcus field strains isolated from pigs. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the ITS-PCR product using HinfI, RsaI and MboI, in the order specified, enabled species differentiation of the Enterococcus reference and field strains, and in the case of the latter, the results of species identification were identical (47/47) to those obtained by MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, as a result of digestion with MboI, a unique restriction profile was also obtained for the strains (3/3) identified by MALDI-TOF MS as E. thailandicus. In our opinion, restriction endonuclease analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS region of Enterococcus may be a simple and relatively fast (less than 4 h) alternative method for identifying the species occurring most frequently in humans and animals.

  6. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail meats in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Mueen; Diarra, Moussa S; Checkley, Sylvia; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Masson, Luke

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence genotypes of Enterococcus spp. particularly Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail meats purchased (2007-2008) in Alberta, Canada. Unconditional statistical associations between AMR pheno- and genotypes and virulence genotypes were determined. A total of 532 enterococci comprising one isolate from each positive sample were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility. A customized enterococcal microarray was used for species identification and the detection of AMR and virulence genes. E. faecalis was found in >94% of poultry samples and in about 73% of beef and 86% of pork samples. Enterococcus faecium was not found in turkey meat and its prevalence was 2% in beef and pork and 4% in chicken samples. None of the enterococci isolates were resistant to the clinically important drugs ciprofloxacin, daptomycin, linezolid and vancomycin. Multiresistance (≥3 antimicrobials) was more common in E. faecalis (91%) isolated from chicken and turkey (91%) than those isolated from beef (14%) or pork (45%). Resistance to aminoglycosides was also noted at varying degrees. The most common resistance genes found in E. faecalis were aminoglycosides (aac, aphA3, aadE, sat4, aadA), macrolides (ermB, ermA), tetracyclines (tetM, tetL, tetO), streptogramin (vatE), bacitracin (bcrR) and lincosamide (linB). Virulence genes expressing aggregation substances (agg) and cytolysin (cylA, cylB, cylL, cylM) were found more frequently in poultry E. faecalis and were unconditionally associated with tetM, linB and bcrR resistance genes. Other virulence genes coding for adhesion (ace, efaAfs), gelatinase (gelE) were also found in the majority of E. faecalis. Significant statistical associations were found between resistance and virulence genotypes, suggesting their possible physical link on a common genetic element. This study underscores the importance of E. faecalis as a reservoir of resistance and

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species from meat and fermented meat products isolated by a PCR-based rapid screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Musarrat; Krause, Denis O; Holley, Richard A

    2013-05-15

    Enterococci are predominantly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, but species commonly resident on vegetation are known. Their presence in large numbers in foods may indicate a lapse in sanitation and their ability to serve as a genetic reservoir of transferable antibiotic resistance is of concern. Conventional culture methods for identification of enterococci are slow and sometimes give false results because of the biochemical diversity of the organisms in this genus. This work reports the development of a PCR-based assay to detect enterococci at the genus level by targeting a 16S rRNA sequence. Published 16S rRNA sequences were aligned and used to design genus specific primers (EntF and EntR). The primers were able to amplify a 678 bp target region from Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 7080 and 20 other strains of enterococci from 11 different species, but there was no amplification by 32 species from closely related genera (Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Listeria) or species of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The PCR positive samples were plated, screened by a colony patch technique and their identities were confirmed by API 20 Strep panels and sequencing. When dry fermented sausage and ham as well as fresh meat batter for dry cured sausage manufacture were tested for enterococci by the method, 29 Enterococcus strains (15 E. faecalis, 13 E. faecium, and one E. gallinarum) were identified. When susceptibility of these enterococci to 12 antibiotics was tested, the highest incidence of resistance was to clindamycin (89.6%), followed by tetracycline hydrochloride (65.5%), tylosin (62%), erythromycin (45%), streptomycin and neomycin (17%), chloramphenicol (10.3%), penicillin (10.3%), ciprofloxacin (10.3%) and gentamicin (3.4%). None was resistant to the clinically important drugs vancomycin or ampicillin. Most strains (27/29) were resistant to more than one antibiotic while 17 of 29 strains were resistant to three to 8 antibiotics

  8. 医院感染肠球菌的分布特点及其药敏分析%The rule of distribution and drug-sensitivity test by Enterococcus in nosocomial infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王潭枫; 席云

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解医院感染肠球菌的分布特点及其药敏情况,供临床参考.方法 对2007年9月至2008年12月期间,从各临床科室送检标本中分离到的肠球菌223株进行分析与药敏实验.结果 分离到的肠球菌中,粪肠球菌和尿肠球菌分离率最高,分别是68.24%和26.61%,,分离出肠球菌最多的标本是尿液、痰和胆汁,分别是88株、45株和36株,粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌对万古霉素敏感率最高达97.48~98.38%,其次呋喃妥因和氨苄西林,敏感率在53.23~84.27%,对环沙星和氧氟沙星6种抗生素敏感率在24.50~53.22%.结论 医院感染肠球菌以泌尿道和呼吸道最为常见,感染的肠球菌对常用抗菌素耐药性高,且呈多重性耐药,并已出现对万古霉素不敏感株,应引起关注.%Objective To investigate and find the rule of site distribution by Enterococcus in nosocomial infection,and the offer the referrence to clinic.Methods 223 Enterococcus strains were different infection specimens in the hospital from September 2007 to December 2008 were analyzed and performed the drug-sensitivity test.Results In the 223 isolated Enterococcus strains,the isolation rates of E.faecalis and E.faecium were 68.24% and 26.61%.The specimen type with most isolation rates of Enterococcus were urine,sputum and bile,with the number 88 strains,45 strains and 36 strains.In the drug-sensitivity test,E.faecalis and E.faecium were sensitized to,with the rate from 97.48% to 98.38%.The drug-susceptibility rates of Enterococcus to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin were from 53.23% to 84.27%.The drug-susceptibility rates of Enterococcus to ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin were from 24.50% to 53.22%.Conclusion Enterococcus isolated from nosocomial infection were heavily resistanted to antibiotics and multi-drug resistant.And some Enterococcus strains became resistanted to vancomycin.All above should be paid more attention to.

  9. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem;

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative data on faecal shedding of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to other animals as well as humans. In this study we investigated prevalence and concentrations of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same...... media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...

  10. Comparative analysis of two patients with severe drug resistance of urinary tractnosocomial infection in the department of urology of Enterococcus induced%两种肠球菌致泌尿外科医院重症患者尿路感染的耐药性对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉君

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium to our hospital in patients with severeurinary tract infection status and to compare the resistance ,to provide a basis for clinical rational use of antimicrobial agents .Methods From 2011 January -2014 December in our hospital with severe urinary tract infections in patients with isolated 172 strains of En‐terococcus were analyzed ,with the French bioMerieux ATB microorganism identification instrument identification of Enterococcus , using the disc diffusion method (K‐B) was used in drug sensitivity test ,by using WHONET 5 .6 software test data analysis and processing .Results A total of 172 strains of Enterococcus ,the separation of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium rates were 68 .0% (117 strains) and 32 .0% (55 strains);drug sensitive test showed that two kinds of Enterococcus to Linezolid、vanco‐mycin、Ti Koa Laing、tigecycline are more sensitive (resistance rate < 5% ) ,in addition to these 4 drugs ,for the other 12 kinds of antimicrobial resistance has significant difference (P< 0 .05);there were 5 strains of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus ,the 3 strains of Enterococcus faecalis ,2 strains of Enterococcus faecium ,Nailinai temozolomide of 3 strains of Enterococcus faecalis ,En‐terococcus faecium strain .Conclusion Multi drug resistant Enterococcus isolated from our hospital in patients with severe in urine samples of serious ,there are two kinds of resistance strain differences in Enterococcus ,we should strengthen the monitoring of clini‐cal bacteria ,Linezolid、vancomycin、Ti Koa Laing、tigecycline preferred treatment of Enterococcus infections .%目的:研究粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌致该院重症患者尿路感染现状并对其耐药性进行对比分析,为临床合理选用抗菌药物提供依据。方法收集2011年1月至2014年12月重症患者尿路感染分离的172株肠球菌进行分析,用法国生物梅里埃A T B微生物鉴定仪

  11. Complete genome sequence of Brachybacterium faecium type strain (Schefferle 6-10T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla; Pukall, Rudiger; LaButti, Kurt; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Chen, Feng; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; D' haeseleer, Patrik; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Johnathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Brachybacterium faecium Collins et al. 1988 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its location in the Dermabacteraceae, a rather isolated family within the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. B. faecium is known for its rod-coccus growth cycle and the ability to degrade uric acid. It grows aerobically or weakly anaerobically. The strain described in this report is a free-living, nonmotile, Gram-positive bacterium, originally isolated from poultry deep litter. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the actinobacterial family Dermabacteraceae, and the 3,614,992 bp long single replicon genome with its 3129 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  12. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes for Enterococcus spp. Blood Stream Infections: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Billington

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This is the second population-based study to assess the risk factors for enterococcal BSI and compare the characteristics of infection with E. faecalis and E. faecium. Results suggest that BSI with E. faecalis and E. faecium should be regarded as two clinically different entities with unique sets of risk factors and microbiologic characteristics.

  13. Genome-wide Screening Identifies Phosphotransferase System Permease BepA to Be Involved in Enterococcus faecium Endocarditis and Biofilm Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; Huebner, Johannes; Singh, Kavindra V; Zhang, Xinglin; van Schaik, Willem; Wobser, Dominique; Braat, Johanna C; Murray, Barbara E; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Leavis, Helen L

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcusfaeciumis a common cause of nosocomial infections, of which infective endocarditis is associated with substantial mortality. In this study, we used a microarray-based transposon mapping (M-TraM) approach to evaluate a rat endocarditis model and identified a gene, originally annotated as

  14. Untersuchungen zur Induktion und zum Transfer der Vancomycin-Resistenz vom VanA-Typ sowie zur Flavophospholipol-Resistenz in Enterococcus faecium

    OpenAIRE

    Riedl, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    Enterokokken gelten primär als opportunistische Erreger mit geringer Pathopotenz. Sie zeichnen sich allerdings durch ausgeprägte natürliche und erworbene Resistenzen gegen eine Vielzahl von Antibiotika aus. Besorgniserregend ist hierbei insbesondere das Auftreten von Vancomycin-resistenten Enterokokken. Glycopeptidantibiotika, wie Vancomycin und Teicoplanin, werden als Reserveantibiotika gegen multiresistente gram-positive Erreger, wie zum Beispiel Methicillin-resistente Staphylococcus aureus...

  15. In vitro activities of an investigational quinolone, glycylcycline, glycopeptide, streptogramin, and oxazolidinone tested alone and in combinations against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, R C; Penzak, S. R.; Rybak, M J

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activities of clinafloxacin, CL331,002, LY333328, quinupristin dalfopristin, and eperezolid (formerly known as U-100,592) against four strains of enterococci. All regimens tested resulted in the growth inhibition of each isolate. Against the three clinafloxacin-susceptible strains, clinafloxacin tested alone was the most active treatment, decreasing the bacterial inoculum by more than 3 log10 CFU/ml after 24 h in time-kill curve studies.

  16. A longitudinal study to assess the persistence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) on an intensive broiler farm in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Liebana, Ernesto; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2007-01-01

    Seven years after the ban of avoparcin, VREF could still be isolated within sectors of the UK broiler industry. The aim of this study was to assess whether there is a carryover of VREF between consecutive flocks of birds, to conduct a preliminary investigation of possible routes of entry of VREF ...

  17. 泌尿系统感染167株肠球菌的耐药性分析%A resistance analysis on 167 strains of Enterococcus in urinary system infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 邱胜丰

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解2011年南京医科大学第一附附医院患者泌尿系统感染肠球菌的耐药性状况.为临床治疗及防治泌尿系统中肠球菌的感染提供最新参考依据.方法 收集我院2011年1月1日—12月31日泌尿系统感染患者的所有中段尿培养肠球菌阳性菌株并分析其耐药性.结果 中段尿培养1147例阳性者,其中肠球菌培养阳性的为167例,且为单一菌株感染,占整个培养阳性的14.56%.药敏试验显示,肠球菌中粪肠、屎肠、鸟肠球菌对糖肽类、恶唑烷酮类耐药率均小于10%,而对氨基糖苷类、喹诺酮类及青霉素类耐药率在33.3%~87.5%,其他肠球菌对四环素类、喹诺酮类及利福平耐药率在40%~80%,对其他抗生素耐药率为零.结论 随着抗生素的广泛使用,肠球菌的耐药现象也越来越严重,及时动态监测感染泌尿系统肠球菌的耐药性情况可以为临床合理用药提供参考依据.%[ Objective] To investigate the drug resistance of Enterococcus in patients with urinary system infection in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University in 2011, provide the basis for the clinical prevention and treatment of Enterococcus in urinary system infection. [Methods]The midstream urine specimens from inpatients with urinary system infection in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011 were cultured and identified, and the drug resistance of Enterococcus was analyzed. [Results] Among 1 147 cases which had positive results in midstream urine culture, 167 were positive for Enterococcus and all were single strain infection, accounting for 14.56%. The drug resistance test showed that the resistance rates of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus avium to glycopeptides and oxazolidinone were lower than 10% , while the resistance rates to aminoglycoside, quinolones and penicillins were between 33. 3% and 87. 5%. The

  18. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Laura C; Federle, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways.

  19. Enterococcus faecalis Endogenous Endophthalmitis from Valvular Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Barge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 74-year-old female, with a mitral heart valve, who presented with pain and blurred vision in the right eye for 2 days. Her visual acuity was light perception (LP in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Slit lamp examination showed corneal edema and hypopyon, and a view of the right fundus was impossible. Echography showed vitreous condensation. One day after presentation, the patient developed acute lung edema requiring hospitalization, so she was not submitted to vitreous tap and intravitreal treatment. The cardiac and systemic evaluations revealed a mitral endocarditis secondary to Enterococcus faecalis. The patient improved systemically with treatment with gentamicin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Her visual acuity remained as no LP, and her intraocular pressure (IOP has been controlled with brimonidine bid despite developing a total cataract with 360° posterior synechia. A cardiac source for endogenous endophthalmitis should be considered in the presence of a prosthetic cardiac valve. The treatment and followup must be made in cooperation with a cardiologist specialist, but the ophthalmologist can play a key role in the diagnosis.

  20. 磷霉素对肠球菌的接种效应%The inoculum effect of fosfomycin in tests with Enterococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓晨; 张欣; 陈天石; 陈佰义

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inoculum effect of fosfomycin on enterococci,in comparison with penicillin,rifampin,vancomycin and teicoplanin.Methods A total of 91 strains of enterococci were obtained from the patients hospitalized in The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from January 2010 to January 2012.There was no repeated strain.The 91 strains consisted of 44 Enterococcus faecalis and 47 Enterococcus faecium strains.Agar dilution method was used to measure the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the five antibiotics against the 91 enterococci strains under standard low inoculation concentration (1 × 105 colony-forming units [cfu]/mL) and high inoculation concentration (1 × 107 cfu/mL).Results For all tested strains,MIC of fosfomycin fluctuated between 16-64 tμg/mL in high and low inoculated concentrations.Among the tested strains,both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium had the highest drug-sensitive rate (100.0%) and the lowest drugresistance rate (0) to fosfomycin.With the increase of the inoculation concentration,MIC of the five antibiotics increased less than 8 times,which indicated that there was no inoculation effect.Conclusion Fosfomycin shows high drug-sensitivity against enterococci without inoculum effect in vitro,and it is recommended for the treatment of enterococci-infected patients.%目的 与青霉素、利福平、万古霉素、替考拉宁等4种常用抗菌药物对比研究,分析磷霉素对肠球菌的接种效应.方法 选择2010年1月至2012年1月自中国医科大学附属第一医院住院患者分离的91株肠球菌,均为不重复菌株,包括粪肠球菌44株,屎肠球菌47株.采用琼脂稀释法测定磷霉素、青霉素、利福平、万古霉素、替考拉宁5种抗菌药物对91株肠球菌在低接种浓度[1×105菌落形成单位(cfu)/mL]和高接种浓度(1×107 cfu/mL)下的最低抑菌浓度(MIC).结果 对于所有受试菌株,磷霉素在高接种浓度、低接

  1. Genetic and biochemical evidence that recombinant Enterococcus spp. strains expressing gelatinase (GelE) produce bovine milk-derived hydrolysates with high angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitory activity (ACE-IA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gútiez, Loreto; Borrero, Juan; Jiménez, Juan J; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Recio, Isidra; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E

    2014-06-18

    In this work, genes encoding gelatinase (gelE) and serine proteinase (sprE), two extracellular proteases produced by Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, were cloned in the protein expression vector pMG36c, containing the constitutive P32 promoter, generating the recombinant plasmids pCG, pCSP, and pCGSP encoding gelE, sprE, and gelE-sprE, respectively. Transformation of noncaseinolytic E. faecalis P36, E. faecalis JH2-2, E. faecium AR24, and E. hirae AR14 strains with these plasmids permitted detection of caseinolytic activity only in the strains transformed with pCG or pCGSP. Complementation of a deletion (knockout) mutant of E. faecalis V583 for production of gelatinase (GelE) with pCG unequivocally supported that gelE is responsible for the caseinolytic activity of the transformed strain grown in bovine skim milk (BSM). RP-HPLC-MS/MS analysis of hydrolysates of transformed Enterococcus spp. strains grown in BSM permitted the identification of 38 major peptide fragments including peptides with previously reported angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitory activity (ACE-IA), antihypertensive activity, and antioxidant activity.

  2. Meningitis associated with Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus casseliflavus: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Sefa Uçar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are present in the gastrointestinal system as normal floral components. In the past two decades membersof the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Enterococci may cause arange of different disorders such as urinary tract, intraabdominal, and wound infections, as well as endocarditis, meningitisand bacteraemia. Nosocomial enterococcal meningitis is most commonly observed following ventriculoperitonealshunt operations. Vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE represents 30% of all enterococci infections.This report presents a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus casseliflavus meningitis case in a 66-year-old patient withventriculoperitoneal shunt, which has not been reported in the literature before. Successful outcomes were obtainedwith daptomycin plus linezolid combined treatment in VRE meningitis. Treatment recommendations in VRE meningitisare also discussed in this article. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1 (3:138-140

  3. Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. associated with chronic and self-medicated urinary tract infections in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Louise

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI are one of the most common infections among women worldwide. E. coli often causes more than 75% of acute uncomplicated UTI, however, little is known about how recurrent UTIs and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials affect the aetiology of UTIs. This study aimed to establish the aetiology of UTI in a population of recurrent and self-medicated patients referred from pharmacies to a hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam and to describe genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of the associated bacterial pathogens. The aetiology of bacterial pathogens associated with UTI (defined as ≥ 104 CFU/ml urine was established by phenotypic and molecular methods. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were typed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Methods Urine samples from 276 patients suffering symptoms of urinary tract infection were collected and cultured on Flexicult agar® allowing for detection of the most common urine pathogens. Patients were interviewed about underlying diseases, duration of symptoms, earlier episodes of UTI, number of episodes diagnosed by doctors and treatment in relation to UTI. All tentative E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were identified to species level by PCR, 16S rRNA and partial sequencing of the groEL gene. E. faecalis isolates were further characterized by Multi Locus Sequence Typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results Mean age of 49 patients was 48 yrs (range was 11–86 yrs and included 94% women. On average, patients reported to have suffered from UTI for 348 days (range 3 days-10 years, and experienced 2.7 UTIs during the previous year. Cephalosporins were reported the second drug of choice in treatment of UTI at the hospital. E. faecalis (55.1%, E. coli (12.2% and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (8.2% were main bacterial pathogens. MIC testing of E. faecalis showed

  4. Enterococcus Species in the Oral Cavity: Prevalence, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B.; Balducci, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4–11 yrs, adolescents 12–17 yrs, young adults 18–29 yrs, adults 30–59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. E. faecalis isolates, in particular, were evaluated for virulence attributes such as their biofilm formation potential, and susceptibility to antimicrobials and an antiseptic, chlorhexidine gluconate. A total of 40 individuals (16.6%) and 10% children, 4% adolescents, 14% young adults, 30% adults, and 25% elderly carried oral enterococci. The oral enterococcal burden in adolescents was significantly lower than in the adults (p = 0.000) and elderly (p = 0.004). The proportion of carriers was higher among females (p = 0.001). E. faecalis was the most frequent isolate in all the age groups (p = 0.000), followed by E. durans and E. faecium. Whilst all the clinical isolates were able to form biofilms, only a proportion of them were able to produce lipase (92%), hemolysin (38%), and gelatinase (39%). Of all the isolates 53.8% were resistant to tetracycline, 12.3% to amoxicillin, 16.0% to ampicillin, 20.8% to chloramphenicol and 43.4% to erythromycin. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Our data suggest that in this Brazilian cohort the oral cavity may act as a significant reservoir of rather virulent and antibiotic resistant enterococci, with an increasing degree of carriage in the adults and elderly. Hence clinicians should be cognizant of this silent reservoir of virulent enterococci that may pose a particular threat of nosocomial infection

  5. [Emergency of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infections in a teaching hospital in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fica, Alberto; Jemenao, María Irene; Bilbao, Paola; Ruiz, Gloria; Sakurada, Andrea; Pérez de Arce, Edith; Zúñiga, Isabel; Gompertz, Macarena

    2007-12-01

    An active surveillance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) intestinal colonization in selected group of patients has been developed in Chile since year 2000. Nevertheless, no reports of clinical cases have been published. Aim. To describe main clinical and microbiological features of patients infected by VRE in a tertiary-level teaching Hospital. Patients and methods. Intestinal and clinical samples positive to VRE were provided by laboratory, and a retrospective analysis of potential risk factors, clinical features, treatment and outcomes was performed. Study encompassed years 2001 to 2006. Main results. 23 cases of infections were identified, all cases occurring during 2005 and 2006. Incidence rate was 0.07 and 0.09 cases per 1000 occupied bed-days, respectively. The mean age was 62.0 +/- 17 years. A significant proportion of patients had cancer (39.1%), recent surgical procedures (54.1%), were on dialysis (26.1%), or were using steroids (26.1%). Most patients had received 2 or more antimicrobial (87%), almost a third represented transfers from other hospitals and an additional 22% readmissions before 30 days of latest discharge. Patients were mainly hospitalized in the ICU (60.9%) but nearly 30% were associated exclusively to nephrological or onco-hematological wards. Clinical manifestations included bacteremia (30.4%), surgical site infections or abscesses (26.1%), urinary tract infections (26.1%) and others. . Three patients (13%) did not have symptoms. After identification was possible, all isolates were identified as E. faecium (82.6% of total), the rest as Enterococcus sp. Most strains showed intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin (66.7%). For 14 strains studied both with vancomycin and teicoplanin, , phenotype Van B was predominant (85.7%), followed by VanA (7.1%) and VanB/VanD type (7.1%). No molecular studies were performed. Fifteen patients (65.4%) received a surgical and/or medical treatment. A favorable response was observed in 80% of these

  6. Impact of probiotic drugs, based on Enterobacter faecium autostrains, on human intestinal microflora in confined habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Batov, Alexey; Usanova, Nonna

    The aim of research: Investigation of influence of probiotic drugs based on autostrains of Enter-obacter faecium, selected from the crew in long term isolation experiment in confined habitat. It is known that during long-term presence in confined habitat the risk of infectious diseases increases. One of the main infectious risk occurs during first 20 days of isolation as a result of exchange of strains and stress-mediated disbacterioses. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate activities of probiotics to avoid this risk. Furthermore, in case of super long term autonomous flight there should be possibilities of application of autochthonous microflora strains as pro-biotics to strengthen colonial resistance of crews. Materials and methods: In the experiment there were used probiotic drugs based on autostrains of E. faecium, selected from the crew before the experiment. Probiotic drugs were consumed during 30 days since the beginning of the experiment with the break of consumption between 10th to 19th day. Results: Comparing the state of intestinal microflora of the crew on the baseline and 14th day of experiment re-vealed remarkable changes of microflora: the increasing of concentration of bifidobacteria and E. faecium (approximately 10 times), elimination of hemolytic streptococcus, yeasts, reduction of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative non-fermenting rods, lactobacilli and normal E.coli. On the 45th day of isolation, 15 days after finishing of auto-strains administration, there fere signs of restoration of disbacteriosis: the quantitative decreasing lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and normal E.coli, increasing of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative nonfermentive rods. Conclusion: Thus we managed to avoid risk of pathogenicity potential growth in first 2 decades of isolation. Application of probiotic, based on the autostrains of E. faecium leads to insignificant changes of concentration of lactobacteries, bifidobacteries, normal E. coli and to

  7. An antimicrobial peptidoglycan hydrolase for treating Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterococcus faecalis is an intestinal bacteria species that can become an opportunistic pathogen in humans and farm animals with antibiotic resistant strains becoming increasingly common. In farm animals, strong antimicrobials, such as Vancomycin, should not be used due to the risk of propagation ...

  8. Risk Factors of Endocarditis in Patients with Enterococcus faecalis Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Lauridsen, Trine K; Arpi, Magnus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  The NOVA score is a recently developed diagnostic tool to identify patients with increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) among patients with Enterococcus faecalis (EF) bacteremia. We aim to validate an adapted version of the NOVA score and to identify risk factors for IE...

  9. Meningitis associated with Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus casseliflavus: First report

    OpenAIRE

    Nilay Sefa Uçar; Pervin Özlem Balcı; Fazilet Duygu; Mehtap Solmaz

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are present in the gastrointestinal system as normal floral components. In the past two decades membersof the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Enterococci may cause arange of different disorders such as urinary tract, intraabdominal, and wound infections, as well as endocarditis, meningitisand bacteraemia. Nosocomial enterococcal meningitis is most commonly observed following ventriculoperitonealshunt operations. Vancomycin resistant ent...

  10. Influence of Streptococcus mutans on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Dong Mei; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Exterkate, Rob A. M.; Jiang, Lei Meng; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; Crielaard, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: An important virulence factor of Enterococcus faecalis is its ability to form biofilms. Most studies on biofilm formation have been carried out by using E. faecalis monocultures. Given the polymicrobial nature of root canal infections, it is important to understand biofilm formation of

  11. Changes in colon gene expression associated with increased colon inflammation in interleukin-10 gene-deficient mice inoculated with Enterococcus species

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    Knoch Bianca

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate responses to normal intestinal bacteria may be involved in the development of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD, e.g. Crohn's Disease (CD, Ulcerative Colitis (UC and variations in the host genome may mediate this process. IL-10 gene-deficient (Il10-/- mice develop CD-like colitis mainly in the colon, in part due to inappropriate responses to normal intestinal bacteria including Enterococcus strains, and have therefore been used as an animal model of CD. Comprehensive characterization of changes in cecum gene expression levels associated with inflammation in the Il10-/- mouse model has recently been reported. Our aim was to characterize changes in colonic gene expression levels in Il10-/- and C57BL/6J (C57; control mice resulting from oral bacterial inoculation with 12 Enterococcus faecalis and faecium (EF strains isolated from calves or poultry, complex intestinal flora (CIF collected from healthy control mice, or a mixture of the two (EF·CIF. We investigated two hypotheses: (1 that oral inoculation of Il10-/- mice would result in greater and more consistent intestinal inflammation than that observed in Il10-/- mice not receiving this inoculation, and (2 that this inflammation would be associated with changes in colon gene expression levels similar to those previously observed in human studies, and these mice would therefore be an appropriate model for human CD. Results At 12 weeks of age, total RNA extracted from intact colon was hybridized to Agilent 44 k mouse arrays. Differentially expressed genes were identified using linear models for microarray analysis (Bioconductor, and these genes were clustered using GeneSpring GX and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. Intestinal inflammation was increased in Il10-/- mice as a result of inoculation, with the strongest effect being in the EF and EF·CIF groups. Genes differentially expressed in Il10-/- mice as a result of EF or EF·CIF inoculation were associated

  12. Clonal dissemination of VanA-type glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecalis between hospitals of two cities located 100 km apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial dissemination of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci represents a major problem in hospitals worldwide. In Brazil, the dissemination among hospitals in the city of São Paulo of polyclonal DNA profiles was previously described for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We describe here the dissemination of VanA phenotype E. faecalis between two hospitals located in different cities in the State of São Paulo. The index outbreak occurred in a tertiary care university hospital (HCUSP in the city of São Paulo and three years later a cluster caused by the same strain was recognized in two patients hospitalized in a private tertiary care hospital (CMC located 100 km away in the interior of the state. From May to July 1999, 10 strains of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis were isolated from 10 patients hospitalized in the HCUSP. The DNA genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE showed that all isolates were originated from the same clone, suggesting nosocomial dissemination. From May to July 2002, three strains of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis were isolated from two patients hospitalized in CMC and both patients were colonized by the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in skin lesions. All isolates from CMC and HCUSP were highly resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The three strains from CMC had minimum inhibitory concentration >256 µg/ml for vancomycin, and 64 (CMC 1 and CMC 2 and 96 µg/ml (CMC 3 for teicoplanin, characterizing a profile of VanA resistance to glycopeptides. All strains had the presence of the transposon Tn1546 detected by PCR and were closely related when typed by PFGE. The dissemination of the E. faecalis VanA phenotype among hospitals located in different cities is of great concern because E. faecalis commonly colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of patients and healthy persons for periods varying from weeks to years, which, together with the persistence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from meat

    OpenAIRE

    Różańska Hanna; Lewtak-Piłat Aleksandra; Osek Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from cattle, pig, and poultry meat. A test was performed on 111 strains using the minimum inhibitory concentration technique. The highest number of isolates (94 strains) were resistant to lincomycin, the second-highest resistance was to quinupristin/dalfopristin (88 strains), tetracycline followed (65 strains), and erythromycin resistance was also notable (40 strains). All isolate...

  14. Genetic analysis of a novel plasmid encoded durancin locus in Enterococcus durans 41D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterococcus durans is commonly found in the intestinal tract in humans and animals and several strains are known to produce bacteriocins. Durancin GL, a novel bacteriocin of Enterococcus durans 41D with antilisterial activity was isolated from artisanal cheese samples and its genetic determinants ...

  15. Comparison of the effect of monolaurin on the growth and survival of Enterococcus and Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of monolaurin, a glyceride ester derivative of lauric acid, on the growth of Enterococcus sp. and Salmonella sp. was determined. Salmonella is considered one of the main pathogens in poultry industry, and Enterococcus is an important indicator of fecal contamination and an important cause...

  16. Evaluation of Enterococcus spp. from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed, and rearing environment against fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin as probiotics constitutes an alternative strategy to the antibiotic treatment for disease control in aquaculture. Enterococci are currently used as probiotics in human and animal health. In this study, we evaluated the safety of 64 enterococci isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed and rearing environment, and their antimicrobial activity against 9 fish pathogens. The 64 enterococcal isolates were identified to the species level by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using specific primers for the different enterococcal species, and confirmed by superoxide dismutase gene sequencing. Enterococcus faecium and E. hirae were the most common species (42.2 and 35.9%, respectively). A total of 48 isolates (75%) showed phenotypic resistance to at least 1 antibiotic determined by a disk-diffusion method, and 25 isolates (39.1%) harbored at least 1 antibiotic resistance gene [erm(B), tet(M), tet(S), tet(K), tet(L), tet(T), vanC2, and aad(E)], detected by PCR. One (1.6%) isolate produced gelatinase and none produced hemolysin, using a plate assay. The virulence genes gelE (46.9%), efaAfs (17.2%), agg (1.6%), and hyl (1.6%) were detected by PCR. A total of 48 isolates (75%) exerted antimicrobial activity against 1 or more of the tested fish pathogens, using a stab-on-agar test. From these isolates, 21 (43.8%) harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene (entP, entL50A and entL50B, hirJM79, entSE-K4, entQ and entA), detected by PCR. None of the enterococci showed bile deconjugation and mucin degradation abilities. A total of 17 enterococcal isolates (26.6%) that did not harbor any antibiotic resistance or virulence factor were considered safe for application as probiotics, including 6 isolates (35.3%) that showed antimicrobial activity against at least 1 fish pathogen and harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene. Rainbow trout, feed, and rearing environment constitute an appropriate source for the

  17. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus and enterococcus as predominant pathogens in liver transplant recipients with Gram-positive coccal bacteremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shao-hua; KONG Hai-shen; JIA Chang-ku; XU Jian; ZHANG Wen-jin; WANG Wei-lin; SHEN Yan; ZHANG Min; ZHENG Shu-sen

    2010-01-01

    Background Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus have been a common cause of infection among liver transplant (LT) recipients in recent decades. The understanding of local epidemiology and its evolving trends with regard to pathogenic spectra and antibiotic susceptibility is beneficial to prophylactic and empiric treatment for LT recipients. This study aimed to investigate etiology, timing, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors for multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-positive coccal bacteremia after LT.Methods A cohort analysis of prospectively recorded data was performed to investigate etiologies, timing, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors for MDR Gram-positive coccal bacteremia in 475 LT recipients.Results In 475 LT recipients in the first six months after LT, there were a total of 98 episodes of bacteremia caused by Gram-positive cocci in 82 (17%) patients. Seventy-five (77%) bacteremic episodes occurred in the first post-LT month.The most frequent Gram-positive cocci were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS, 46 isolates),methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 13) and enterococcus (34, E. faecium 30, E. faecalis 4). In all Gram-positive bacteremic isolates, 59 of 98 (60%) were MDR. Gram-positive coccal bacteremia and MDR Gram-positive coccal bacteremia predominantly occurred in patients with acute severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B and with fulminant/subfulminant hepatitis. Four independent risk factors for development of bacteremia caused by MDR Gram-positive coccus were: LT candidates with encephalopathy grades Ⅱ-Ⅳ (P=0.013, OR: 16.253, 95% CI:1.822-144.995), pre-LT use of empirical antibiotics (P=0.018, OR: 1.029, 95% CI: 1.002-1.057), post-LT urinary tract infections (P <0.001, OR: 20.340, 95% CI: 4.135-100.048) and abdominal infection (P=0.004, OR: 2.820, 95% CI:1.122-10.114). The main infectious manifestations were coinfections due to gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli

  18. In vitro fosfomycin activity in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Superti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are part of the endogenous flora of human beings, are naturally resistant to several classes of antimicrobials, and are able to acquire resistance with relative ease. Currently the vancomycin-resistant enterococci are spread all over the world and treatment options for infections caused by it are often extremely limited. We assessed 193 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolates collected from four different hospitals in Porto Alegre for their susceptibility to fosfomycin using the E-test and agar diffusion. Fosfomycin proved to be active in vitro against the great majority of isolates, indicating that it is a valid option in the treatment of these infections.

  19. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  20. Erythromycin- and copper-resistant Enterococcus hirae from marine sediment and co-transfer of erm(B) and tcrB to human Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquaroli, Sonia; Di Cesare, Andrea; Vignaroli, Carla; Conti, Giulia; Citterio, Barbara; Biavasco, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    An erythromycin-, copper- and cadmium-resistant isolate of Enterococcus hirae from marine sediment was shown to harbor the plasmid pRE25 and to co-transfer erm(B) and tcrB to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2. These data highlight the scope for antibiotic resistance selection by the marine environment through heavy metals and its possible involvement in antibiotic-resistant enterococcal infections.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE FIRST REPORTED VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCUS OUTBREAK AT A TERTIARY-CARE HOSPITAL IN BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotiprasitsakul, Darunee; Santanirand, Pitak; Thitichai, Phantanee; Rotjanapan, Porpon; Watcharananan, Siriorn; Siriarayapon, Potjaman; Chaihongsa, Narong; Sirichot, Suntariya; Chitasombat, Maria; Chantharit, Prawat; Malathum, Kumthorn

    2016-05-01

    This retrospective study described the first reported vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) outbreak from June 2013 through January 2014 at a tertiary-care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. After the index case was detected in an 18-bed medical intermediate care unit, a number of interventions was implemented, including targeted active surveillance for VRE, strict contact precautions, enhanced standard precautions, dedicated units for VRE cases, extensive cleaning of the environment and the restricted use of antibiotics. VRE isolates were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) testing. A prevalence case-control study was conducted. Among 3,699 culture samples from 2,671 patients screened, 74 patients (2.8%) had VRE. The positivity rate declined from 15.1% during week 1 to 8.2% during week 2 and then 1.4% during week 3. By weeks 4-9, the prevalences were 0-2.7%. However, the prevalence rose to 9.4% during week 10 and then subsequently declined. All VRE isolates were Enterococcus faecium and had the vanA gene. RAPD analysis revealed a single predominant clone. Multivariate analysis showed mechanical ventilation for ≥ 7 days was a predictive factor for VRE colonization [odds ratio (OR) 11.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75-75.35; p = 0.011]. This experience demonstrates VRE can easily spread and result in an outbreak in multiple-bed units. Active surveillance, early infection control interventions and rapid patient cohorting were important tools for control of this outbreak. Patients requiring mechanical ventilator for ≥ 7 days were at higher risk for VRE acquisition.

  2. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Enterococcus mundtii isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigwood, T; Hudson, J A; Cooney, J; McIntyre, L; Billington, C; Heinemann, J A; Wall, F

    2012-12-01

    Two bacterial isolates with inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis were obtained from soil. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization identified them as Enterococcus mundtii, a species whose ability to compete with L. monocytogenes is relatively unexplored compared to other members of the genus. The thermal stability of the inhibitory factor and its sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes indicate that it is most likely a bacteriocin. Both isolates grew at comparable rates to L. monocytogenes at 5 °C and 10 °C in vitro. One isolate killed L. monocytogenes when it reached concentrations of 10(6)-10(8) CFU ml(-1). Minimum inocula of 10(6) and 10(5) CFU ml(-1) of E. mundtii were required to reduce and maintain L. monocytogenes concentrations beneath the level of detection at 5 °C and 10 °C, respectively. In situ experiments at 5 °C showed that E. mundtii inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes on vacuum-packed cold smoked salmon during its four week shelf life. E. mundtii could, therefore, control the growth of L. monocytogenes at low temperatures, indicating a potential application in controlling this pathogen in chilled foods. To control growth of Listeria, the concentration of E. mundtii needs to be high, but it is possible that a purified bacteriocin could be used to achieve the same effect.

  3. Structure, Function, and Biology of the Enterococcus faecalis Cytolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Van Tyne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive commensal member of the gut microbiota of a wide range of organisms. With the advent of antibiotic therapy, it has emerged as a multidrug resistant, hospital-acquired pathogen. Highly virulent strains of E. faecalis express a pore-forming exotoxin, called cytolysin, which lyses both bacterial and eukaryotic cells in response to quorum signals. Originally described in the 1930s, the cytolysin is a member of a large class of lanthionine-containing bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria. While the cytolysin shares some core features with other lantibiotics, it possesses unique characteristics as well. The current understanding of cytolysin biosynthesis, structure/function relationships, and contribution to the biology of E. faecalis are reviewed, and opportunities for using emerging technologies to advance this understanding are discussed.

  4. Endodontic sealers: Intratubular penetration and permeability to Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolini Maria Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Evaluate in vitro the intratubular penetration and permeability of endodontic sealers in teeth contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods : Human canines were filled with AHPlus ® , Endo CPM-sealer ® or EndoRez ® sealers. To evaluate permeability, the coronary portion of each tooth was contaminated with E. faecalis, then the apical portion was immersed in brain heart infusion (BHI broth, and medium turbidity was observed for thirty days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to evaluate the intratubular penetration of each sealer at the cervical, middle, and apical thirds of the tooth. Results : Only one tooth from the Endo CPM-sealer ® group presented broth contamination. EndoRez ® showed increased intratubular penetration compared to AHPlus ® and Endo CPM-sealer ® . Conclusions : Endo CPM-sealer ® showed greater permeability to E. faecalis and EndoRez ® showed increased intratubular penetration.

  5. Genetic characteristics of vancomycin resistance gene cluster in Enterococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhui, Chen; Xiaogang, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Vancomycin resistant enterococci has become an important nosocomial pathogen since it is discovered in late 1980s. The products, encoded by vancomycin resistant gene cluster in enterococci, catalyze the synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors with low affinity with glycopeptide antibiotics including vancomycin and teicoplanin and lead to resistance. These vancomycin resistant gene clusters are classified into nine types according to their gene sequences and organization, or D-Ala:D-Lac (VanA, VanB, VanD and VanM) and D-Ala:D-Ser (VanC, VanE, VanG, VanL and VanN) ligase gene clusters based on the differences of their encoded ligases. Moreover, these gene clusters are characterized by their different resistance levels and infection models. In this review, we summarize the classification, gene organization and infection model of vancomycin resistant gene cluster in Enterococcus spp.

  6. Infeções nosocomiais por enterococcus faecalis

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Mariana Vilhena

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas As infeções nosocomiais são consideradas um problema mundial de saúde pública. A sua disseminação tem contribuído para aumento das taxas de mortalidade e morbilidade, a maioria das vezes devido às limitadas ou mesmo inexistentes opções terapêuticas. Enterococcus faecalis é uma bactéria Gram-positiva, anaeróbia facultativa, pr...

  7. Emphysematous pyometra secondary to Enterococcus avium infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, An-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Sheng

    2016-06-16

    A 5-year-old female intact Mastiff dog was presented with a history of vaginal discharge for 1 day. Physical examination revealed a sanguineo-purulent vaginal discharge and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Abdominal radiographs showed several dilated and gas- filled tubular loops. The differential diagnoses included emphysematous pyometra or small intestinal mechanical ileus. Surgical exploration of the abdomen demonstrated a severely dilated and gas-filled uterus, and emphysematous pyometra was confirmed. The patient's clinical signs resolved after ovariohysterectomy. Histopathology revealed mild endometrial cystic hyperplasia with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the superficial endometrial epithelia. Enterococcus avium, an α-hemolytic gram-positive coccus, was isolated from the uterus. This paper highlights the radiographic features of emphysematous pyometra and a pathogen that has never been reported to be associated with canine pyometra previously. PMID:27111397

  8. Enterococcus species diversity and molecular characterization of biomarker genes in Enterococcus faecalis in Port Blair Bay, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Sathish, Thadikamala; Raghavan, Rangamaran Vijaya; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Venkateshwaran, Pitchiah; Das, Apurba Kumar; Dheenan, Palaiya Sukumaran; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Dharani, Gopal; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-05-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the abundance and diversity of Enterococcus sp. and the distribution of biomarker genes in Enterococcus faecalis in Port Blair Bay, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Enterococcus sp. densities at the seven sampling stations were highly influenced by tidal fluctuations and season. The distributions and diversities of species varied in the inner and outer regions of Port Blair Bay. Among the 1816 total isolates, the occurrence of fecal Enterococcus was high (1.78×10(4) CFU/100 mL) in Phoenix Bay. Moreover, 67.76% of the isolates were identified as Enterococcus, and the most frequently identified species were E. hirae, E. avium and E. faecalis. Assessments of antibiotic resistance and biomarker genes revealed the maximum occurrence in the Aberdeen Bay isolates. The most prevalent biomarker genes observed in the E. faecalis isolates were gelE and asa1, whereas cyl was not found among the isolates. In silico sequence analysis of biomarker genes of E. faecalis also revealed that they are evolutionarily well conserved with those of earlier reports. Further, multivariate analysis distinguished the JB, PB and OS stations from the other stations according to distinctive microbial densities and compositions. In addition, the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices and box-whisker plots further facilitated and supported the multivariate results.

  9. Draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains isolated from chickens in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolka, Beata; Boyen, Filip; Butaye, Patrick;

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains (1710s23 and 1711s24), cultivated from the ceca of healthy laying hens originating from different farms in Belgium.......Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains (1710s23 and 1711s24), cultivated from the ceca of healthy laying hens originating from different farms in Belgium....

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Porcine Isolate Enterococcus faecalis D32

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zischka, Melanie; Kuenne, Carsten; Blom, Jochen;

    2012-01-01

    The complete and annotated genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis D32, a commensal strain isolated from a Danish pig, suggests putative adaptation to the porcine host and absence of distinct virulence-associated traits.......The complete and annotated genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis D32, a commensal strain isolated from a Danish pig, suggests putative adaptation to the porcine host and absence of distinct virulence-associated traits....

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolates from raw beef and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustacková, A; Nápravníková, E; Schlegelová, J

    2004-01-01

    E. faecalis (67%) and E. faecium (13.7%) were most frequently isolated among enterococci that contaminate cooled and frozen processed meat, follow-up heat-treated meat products and unheated fermented dry salami. Most isolates of both species were resistant to cephalothin (95 and 83 %) and clindamycin (77 and 67%, respectively). Furthermore, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were resistant to erythromycin (44 and 72%), tetracycline (34.5 and 17.4%), and streptomycin (13.3 and 4.3%, respectively). Only a few of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin while all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, penicillin, and teicoplanin. During the production of heat-treated meat products, numbers of resistant isolates increased in spite of the decreasing enterococcal contamination of the samples. An opposite situation was found in the production of fermented dry salami. PMID:15530006

  12. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  13. Antimicrobial effect of alexidine and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Shik Kim; Seok Woo Chang; Seung-Ho Baek; Seung Hyun Han; Yoon Lee; Qiang Zhu; Kee-Yeon Kum

    2013-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that alexidine has greater affinity for the major virulence factors of bacteria than chlorhexidine. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of 1% alexidine with that of 2% chlorhexidine using Enterococcus faecalis.infected dentin blocks. Sixty bovine dentin blocks were prepared and randomly divided into six groups of 10 each. E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 dentin blocks using the Luppens apparatus for 24 h and then the dentin blocks were soaked in 2% chlorhexidine or 1% alexidine solutions for 5 and 10 min, respectively. Sterile saline was used as a control. The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed by counting the number of bacteria adhering to the dentin surface and observing the degradation of bacterial shape or membrane rupture under a scanning electron microscope. Significantly fewer bacteria were observed in the 2% chlorhexidine- or 1% alexidine-soaked groups than in the control group (P~O.05). However, there was no significant difference in the number of bacteria adhering to the dentinal surface between the two experimental groups or between the two soaking time groups (P>0.05). Ruptured or antiseptic-attached bacteria were more frequently observed in the lO-min-soaked chlorhexidine and alexidine groups than in the 5-min-soaked chlorhexidine and alexidine groups. In conclusion, lO-min soaking with 1% alexidine or 2% chlorhexidine can be effective against E. faecalis infection.

  14. Covalent immobilization of Enterococcus faecalis Esawy dextransucrase and dextran synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Amal M; Gamal, Amira A; Hassan, Mohamed E; Hassanein, Naziha M; Esawy, Mona A

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis Esawy dextransucrase was immobilized in Fe(3+)-cross-linked alginate/carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads. The gel beads were modified with polyethylenimine (PEI) followed by glutaraldehyde (GA) to form Fe(3+) (ACPG) beads. Fe(3+) (ACPG) was characterized using FTIR and DSC techniques. GA activated beads showed new two peaks. The first was at 1,717 cm(-1) which refers to (CO) group of a free aldehyde end of glutaraldehyde, and another peak was at 1,660 cm(-1) referring to (CN) group. The immobilization process improved the optimum temperature from 35 to 45°C. The immobilized enzyme showed its optimum activity in wide pH range (4.5-5.4) compared to pH 5.4 in case of free form. Also, the immobilization process improved the thermal and pH enzyme stability to great extent. Reusability test proved that the enzyme activity retained 60% after 15 batch reactions. Immobilized enzyme was applied successfully in the synthesis of oligosaccharides and different molecular weights of dextran.

  15. Mathematical models for Enterococcus faecalis recovery after microwave water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Earl; Reznik, Aron; Benjamin, Ellis; Pramanik, Saroj K; Sowers, Louise; Williams, Arthur L

    2009-12-01

    Microwave water disinfection is a rapid purification technique which can give billions of people access to clean drinking water. However, better understanding of bacterial recovery after microwave heating over time is necessary to determine parameters such as delayed bacterial growth rates and maximum bacterial yields. Mathematical models for Enterococcus faecalis recovery after microwave treatment in optimum growth conditions were developed for times up to 5 minutes using an optical absorbance method. Microwave times below 3 minutes (2,450 MHz, 130W) showed that bacterial recovery maintained a time-dependent sigmoidal form which included a maximum value. At microwave times greater than three minutes, bacterial recovery, with a time-dependent exponential form, significantly decreased and did not reach the maximum value within the interval of observance (0-8 hours). No bacterial growth was found after 6 minutes of microwave treatment. The prepared mathematical models were produced by transforming the given variables to the logistic or exponential functions. We found that time-dependent maximum growth rates and lag times could be approximated with second order polynomial functions. The determined models can be used as a template to illustrate bacterial survival during water purification using microwave irradiation, in both commercial and industrial processes.

  16. Enterococcus growth on eelgrass (Zostera marina); implications for water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Donna M; Weisberg, Stephen B; Hagedorn, Charles; De Leon, Kristine; Mofidi, Vida; Wolfe, Julia; Zimmerman, May; Jay, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Enterococci are fecal indicator bacteria used to monitor fecal pollution of recreational waters. When enterococci levels exceed health standards, fecal pollution is assumed as the cause. Enterococci growing on plants limit their usefulness as fecal indicator bacteria. Here we examined enterococcal growth on eelgrass in Mission Bay, CA where enterococci levels have exceeded water quality thresholds. A total of 69 eelgrass samples were collected from six sites, shaken to remove enterococci attached to plant surfaces and the eluant filtered onto culture media. Isolates were then identified to species using biochemical methods, and DNA typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was done to assess clonality of strains. Enterococci concentrations among eelgrass ranged from 8 to 14 000 CFU g(-1) dry weight. The most predominant enterococcal species found were Enterococcus casseliflavus and E. hirae followed by E. faecalis. Cluster analysis indicated a high level of clonality among isolates across all species, with clonal isolates consistently associated with individual eelgrass samples. Finding high densities of E. casseliflavus, E. hirae and E. faecalis on eelgrass that included clonal strains indicates the capability of enterococcal growth on eelgrass. Amplification of enterococci on eelgrass presents challenges for regulatory agencies that interpret elevated levels of these bacteria as an indication of fecal pollution. PMID:26976844

  17. Pathological study of experimental infection with Enterococcus faecalis in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Al-hamdany

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried to isolate and identificate of Enterococcus. faecalis from small intestine and cecum of quails by culturing on differential and selective media. The concentration of E. faecalis suspension was fixed for experimental infection. Quails divided randomly into four groups, the first group considered as control group, the other groups injected with 0.5 ml of bacterial suspension as following: second group 1X108 CFU, the third group injected with 1X109 CFU, and the forth group injected with 1X1010 CFU. The clinical signs and pathological changes of heart, liver and kidney were observed at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after infection. The results showed identification of E. faecalis after culturing and isolation of it. The gross lesions represented by opacity of pericardium, heart hypertrophy and liver infarction, histopathological lesions include beginning of endocarditis, severe fatty changes with localized recent thrombus and severe necrosis in liver, and cell swelling of epithelium lining renal tubules and apoptosis in kidney. The histopathological changes were more severe at 3 and 7 days post infection. This study concludes that quails have a strong defense and immune mechanism despite the appearance of pathological changes with high concentrations of bacterial suspension which cause death in other animals such as mice and rats, also E.faecalis possesses the ability to induce apoptosis.

  18. The Enterococcus faecalis exoproteome: identification and temporal regulation by Fsr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayendra Shankar

    Full Text Available Analysis of the culture supernatant exoproteins produced by two PFGE clusters of high-level gentamicin and ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis from the UK and Ireland revealed two distinct protein profiles. This grouping distinguished OG1RF and GelE metalloprotease-expressing isolates from JH2-2 and other GelE-negative isolates. The integrity of the fsrABDC operon was found to determine the exoproteome composition, since an fsrB mutant of strain OG1RF appeared very similar to that of strain JH2-2, and complementation of the latter with the fsrABDC operon produced an OG1RF-like exoproteome. The proteins present in the supernatant fraction of OG1RF were separated using 2D gels and identified by mass spectrometry and comprised many mass and pI variants of the GelE and SprE proteases. In addition cell wall synthesis and cell division proteins were identified. An OG1RF fsrB mutant had a distinct exoprotein fraction with an absence of the Fsr-regulated proteases and was characterised by general stress and glycolytic proteins. The exoproteome of the OG1RF fsrB mutant resembles that of a divIVA mutant of E. faecalis, suggestive of a stress phenotype.

  19. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  20. Rapid kill-novel endodontic sealer and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    Full Text Available With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means.

  1. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leron Khalifa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages. Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals.

  2. Probiotic potential of Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from meconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eKhassaf Al Atyaa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 107 bacterial isolates with Gram positive staining and negative catalase activity, presumably assumed as LAB, were isolated from samples of meconium of six donors at Roubaix hospital, in the north of France. All these bacterial isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Enterococcus faecalis. However, only six isolates among which E. faecalis 14, E. faecalis 28, E. faecalis 90, E. faecalis 97 and E. faecalis 101 (obtained from donor 3 and E. faecalis 93 (obtained from donor 5 were active against some Gram negative bacteria (GNB and Gram positive bacteria (GPB, through production of lactic acid and bacteriocin like inhibitory substances (BLIS. The identification of these isolates was confirmed by 16rDNA sequencing and their genetic relatedness was established by REP-PCR and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE methods. Importantly, the aforementioned antagonistic isolates were sensitive to various classes of antibiotics tested, exhibited high scores of coaggregation and hydrophobicity, and were not hemolytic. Taken together, these properties render these strains as potential candidates for probiotic applications.

  3. Effect of whey fermented by Enterococcus faeciumin consortium with Veilonella parvulaon ruminal bacteria in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Higor Fábio Carvalho Bezerra; Juliana Silva de Oliveira; Edson Mauro Santos; Augusto César de Queiroz; Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani; Ricardo Martins Araujo Pinho; Jurandir Queiroz de Oliveira Junior; Elizabete Cristina Batista da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of whey fermented by Enterococus faecium in consortium with Veilonella parvula in vitro on ruminal microorganisms in different substrates, with or without monensin. The first experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, in a 6 × 3 factorial arrangement (six substrates × three whey levels) with two replicates. In experiment two, a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement (with and without monensin, three foods and four levels of...

  4. 流感嗜血杆菌耐药基因及耐药机制分析%Detection of Ampicillin- Resistant Genes and Studies on the Molecular Mechanisms of Ampicillin - Resistant Haemophilus Influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟天鹰; 王惠云; 谈华; 陈倩; 胡正; 糜祖煌; 迟富丽

    2006-01-01

    目的从分子水平了解南京地区儿童流感嗜血杆菌(Hi)对氨苄西林的耐药状况.方法对158株Hi临床分离株进行β-内酰胺酶检测,PCR扩增β-内酰胺酶的TEM及ROB编码基因,并克隆到T载体中作核酸序列测定与分析.结果本地区儿童感染Hi对氨苄西林的耐药率为41.77%.β-内酰胺酶阳性率为40.51%.TEM基因阳性89株,ROB阳性基因1株.63株耐氨苄西林且β-内酰胺酶阳性,耐药性主要是由于产生β-内酰胺酶和TEM基因.2株耐氨苄西林且β-内酰胺酶阴性.1株β-内酰胺酶阳性,但未检测到TEM或ROB基因.结论本地区儿童感染Hi对氨苄西林的耐药情况不容乐观,耐药机制主要是产生β-内酰胺酶,且以TEM型为主.

  5. Virulence determinants and production of extracellular enzymes in Enterococcus spp. from surface water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molale, Lesego Gertrude; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Virulence factors in Enterococcus may be indicative of potential pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of clinically relevant virulence genes, in Enterococcus spp. from environmental water, and their in vitro expression. One hundred and twenty-four Enterococcus isolates (seven species), from five surface water systems in the North West Province, South Africa, were screened for the presence of asa1, cylA, esp, gelE and hyl using polymerase chain reaction. The expression of cylA, hyl and gelE was determined by phenotypic assessments. Sixty-five percent of the isolates were positive for one virulence gene and 13% for two or more. Most frequently detected genes were gelE (32%) and cylA (28%). Enterococcal surface protein was absent in all isolates screened. The presence of virulence genes was correlated with their extracellular enzyme production. The results show that a large percentage of these environmental Enterococcus spp. possess virulence factors that could be expressed in vitro. This is a cause for concern and could have implications for individuals using this water for recreational and cultural purposes. Further investigation is required into the sources of these potential pathogenic Enterococcus isolates and measures to minimize their presence in water sources.

  6. In vitro inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis with a led device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ercole, S; Spoto, G; Trentini, P; Tripodi, D; Petrini, M

    2016-07-01

    Non-coherent light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are effective in a large variety of clinical indications; however, the bactericidal activity of LEDs is unclear, although the effectiveness of such lights is well known. Currently, no studies have examined the effects of NIR-LED on bacteria. The aims of this study were to verify the antibacterial activity of 880-nm LED irradiation on a bacterial suspension of Enterococcus faecalis and to compare it with the actions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and the concurrent use of both treatments. Before we proceeded with the main experiment, we first performed preliminary tests to evaluate the influence of such parameters as the distance of irradiation, the energy density, the irradiation time and the presence of photosensitizers on the antimicrobial effects of LEDs. After treatment, the colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) was recorded and the data were submitted to ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests at a level of significance of 5%. The results showed that LED irradiation, at the parameters used, is able to significantly decrease E. faecalis viability in vitro. The total inhibition of E. faecalis was obtained throughout concurrent treatment of LED and NaOCl (1%) for 5min. The same antimicrobial activity was confirmed in all of the experiments (p<0.05), but no statistically significant differences were found by varying such parameters as the distance of irradiation (from 0.5mm to 10mm), energy density (from 2.37 to 8.15mJ/s), irradiation time (from 5min to 20min) or by adding toluidine blue O (TBO). PMID:27107704

  7. The cell wall-targeting antibiotic stimulon of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Abranches

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that is highly resistant to a variety of environmental insults, including an intrinsic tolerance to antimicrobials that target the cell wall (CW. With the goal of determining the CW-stress stimulon of E. faecalis, the global transcriptional profile of E. faecalis OG1RF exposed to ampicillin, bacitracin, cephalotin or vancomycin was obtained via microarrays. Exposure to the β-lactams ampicillin and cephalotin resulted in the fewest transcriptional changes with 50 and 192 genes differentially expressed 60 min after treatment, respectively. On the other hand, treatment with bacitracin or vancomycin for 60 min affected the expression of, respectively, 377 and 297 genes. Despite the differences in the total number of genes affected, all antibiotics induced a very similar gene expression pattern with an overrepresentation of genes encoding hypothetical proteins, followed by genes encoding proteins associated with cell envelope metabolism as well as transport and binding proteins. In particular, all drug treatments, most notably bacitracin and vancomycin, resulted in an apparent metabolic downshift based on the repression of genes involved in translation, energy metabolism, transport and binding. Only 19 genes were up-regulated by all conditions at both the 30 and 60 min time points. Among those 19 genes, 4 genes encoding hypothetical proteins (EF0026, EF0797, EF1533 and EF3245 were inactivated and the respective mutant strains characterized in relation to antibiotic tolerance and virulence in the Galleria mellonella model. The phenotypes obtained for two of these mutants, ΔEF1533 and ΔEF3245, support further characterization of these genes as potential candidates for the development of novel preventive or therapeutic approaches.

  8. Identification of surface proteins in Enterococcus faecalis V583

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijsink Vincent GH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surface proteins are a key to a deeper understanding of the behaviour of Gram-positive bacteria interacting with the human gastro-intestinal tract. Such proteins contribute to cell wall synthesis and maintenance and are important for interactions between the bacterial cell and the human host. Since they are exposed and may play roles in pathogenicity, surface proteins are interesting targets for drug design. Results Using methods based on proteolytic "shaving" of bacterial cells and subsequent mass spectrometry-based protein identification, we have identified surface-located proteins in Enterococcus faecalis V583. In total 69 unique proteins were identified, few of which have been identified and characterized previously. 33 of these proteins are predicted to be cytoplasmic, whereas the other 36 are predicted to have surface locations (31 or to be secreted (5. Lipid-anchored proteins were the most dominant among the identified surface proteins. The seemingly most abundant surface proteins included a membrane protein with a potentially shedded extracellular sulfatase domain that could act on the sulfate groups in mucin and a lipid-anchored fumarate reductase that could contribute to generation of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions The present proteome analysis gives an experimental impression of the protein landscape on the cell surface of the pathogenic bacterium E. faecalis. The 36 identified secreted (5 and surface (31 proteins included several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis, pheromone-regulated processes, and transport of solutes, as well as proteins with unknown function. These proteins stand out as interesting targets for further investigation of the interaction between E. faecalis and its environment.

  9. Is Haemophilus influenzae better satellite for Enterococcus faecalis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Zafer Mengeloglu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background — Haemophilus influenzae can grow on blood agar media with Staphylococcus aureus which can provide factor V as it is called “Satellite phenomenon”. Objectives — In this study we tested and compared three different beta-haemolytic genus including three Staphylococcus aureus, three coagulase-negative staphylococci, and two Enterococcus faecalis strains in order to determine an alternative microorganism to be used for satellite test to identify H. influenzae conventionally. Materials and Methods — We used suspensions of H. influenzae in two different tribudities as 0.5 and 4 McFarland for each strain. Five totally-blinded reviewers examined the test results and scored both the colony sizes of H. influenzae and the diameter of the growth-zone. The sum of the scores for the colony sizes and the growth-zones were determined as “total diagnostic score” (TDS as being between 0-6 points for each test. Results — A total of 320 test scores were analysed. The mean TDS of E. faecalis group was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.001. In the S. aureus group, 23 (19.2% tests had 0 points as TDS; but in enterococci group no isolates had lower scores than 3 points. In enterococci group, the rate of isolates which had 5 or 6 points was 77.5% (62/80; but in S. aureus group no isolate had higher than 4 points. Conclusions — Our study shows that using a beta-haemolytic E. faecalis strain will provide significantly more accurate results and will significantly reduce false-negative results for satellite test instead of S. aureus, which is particularly proposed to be used.

  10. Reversal of Ampicillin Resistance in MRSA via Inhibition of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a by Acalypha wilkesiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of a semipure fraction from the plant, Acalypha wilkesiana assigned as 9EA-FC-B, alone and in combination with ampicillin, was studied against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In addition, effects of the combination treatment on PBP2a expression were investigated. Microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC. Synergistic effects of 9EA-FC-B with ampicillin were determined using the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index and kinetic growth curve assay. Western blot experiments were carried out to study the PBP2a expression in treated MRSA cultures. The results showed a synergistic effect between ampicillin and 9EA-FC-B treatment with the lowest FIC index of 0.19 (synergism ≤ 0.5. The presence of 9EA-FC-B reduced the MIC of ampicillin from 50 to 1.56 μg mL−1. When ampicillin and 9EA-FC-B were combined at subinhibitory level, the kinetic growth curves were suppressed. The antibacterial effect of 9EA-FC-B and ampicillin was shown to be synergistic. The synergism is due the ability of 9EA-FC-B to suppress the activity of PBP2a, thus restoring the susceptibility of MRSA to ampicillin. Corilagin was postulated to be the constituent responsible for the synergistic activity showed by 9EA-FC-B.

  11. Space-time clustering of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Danish pigs at slaughter between 1997 and 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Ersbøll, A. K.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo;

    2009-01-01

    or clustered in space and time. Data on E coli isolates between 1997 and 2005 were obtained from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) whereas data on the quantity of ampicillin consumed was obtained from the Danish Register of Veterinary Medicines (Vet...

  12. In vitro activity of trovafloxacin against Bacteroides fragilis in mixed culture with either Escherichia coli or a vancomycin- resistant strain of Enterococcus faecium determined by an anaerobic time-kill technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E.T. Stearne (Lorna); C. Kooi; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma); I.C. Gyssens (Inge)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTo determine the efficacy of trovafloxacin as a possible treatment for intra-abdominal abscesses, we have developed an anaerobic time-kill technique using different inocula to study the in vitro killing of Bacteroides fragilis in pure culture or in mixed cul

  13. 临床分离屎肠球菌pilA和hylEfm基因流行病学研究%Prevalence of genes involved in pilA and hylEfm of clinical isolates of enterococcus faecium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳俊; 黄文祥; 辛小娟; 佘轩; 尹珍

    2015-01-01

    目的:检测屎肠球菌菌毛样结构蛋白基因pilA和类透明质酸酶基因hylEfm在临床感染株中的分布,探讨屎肠球菌感染率持续上升的原因.方法:采用多重PCR检测临床感染株、住院患者肠道定植株和健康志愿者肠道定植株的pilA和hylEfm基因的分布;然后通过接合实验确认pilA和hylEfm基因在屎肠球菌间的传递方式;最后采用分子杂交法确认转移后pilA和hylEfm的质粒或染色体定位.结果:137株屎肠球菌感染株中共筛查确认120株携带pilA基因,阳性率为88%;21株携带hylEfm基因,阳性率为15%.分离鉴定住院患者肠道定植株、健康志愿者肠道定植株各50株,pilA基因阳性菌株分别为35株(阳性率70%)、26株(阳性率52%),临床感染株与住院患者肠道定植株、健康志愿者肠道定植株pilA基因携带率差异具有统计学意义(P<0.0001;P=0.008 0).接合实验证实pilA和hylEfm基因均能通过质粒的接合在不同菌株间进行传递,并同时伴随耐药基因传递.Southern Slot杂交发现pilA与hylEfm基因可位于同一大质粒上,不同菌株间此质粒大小存在差异(145.5~291 kb).结论:临床感染患者分离屎肠球菌大多携带pilA基因.pilA和hylEfm基因可通过同一个可移动大质粒在菌株之间进行传递,同时伴随耐药基因的转移.

  14. Characterization of glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GRE) from broilers and pigs in Denmark: Genetic evidence that persistence of GRE in pig herds is associated with coselection by resistance to macrolides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2000-01-01

    Glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) from broilers and pigs were characterized to investigate the background for the persistence of GRE in pig herds. All porcine isolates belonged to closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoretic (PFGE) types, with the ermB and vanA genes located on the same...... transferable genetic element. Broiler isolates belonged to different PFGE types. The persistence of GRE in Danish pig herds after the ban of glycopeptides may be explained by the genetic link between ermB and vanA and coselection by use of macrolides for treatment and growth promotion....

  15. Genome sequences of copper resistant and sensitive Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from copper-fed pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Siyu; Wang, Dan; Wang, Yihua;

    2015-01-01

    Six strains of Enterococcus faecalis (S1, S12, S17, S18, S19 and S32) were isolated from copper fed pigs in Denmark. These Gram-positive bacteria within the genus Enterococcus are able to survive a variety of physical and chemical challenges by the acquisition of diverse genetic elements. The gen...

  16. Detection of vanC 1 gene transcription in vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiane Martin de Moura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the presence and expression levels of the vanC 1 and vanC 2/3 genes in vancomycin-susceptible strains of Enterococcus faecalis. The vanC 1 and vanC 2/3 genes were located in the plasmid DNA and on the chromosome, respectively. Specific mRNA of the vanC 1 gene was detected in one of these strains. Additionally, analysis of the vanC gene sequences showed that these genes are related to the vanC genes of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus. The presence of vanC genes is useful for the identification of E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. Moreover, this is the first report of vanC mRNA in E. faecalis.

  17. Detection of vanC1 gene transcription in vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Tiane Martin de; Cassenego, Ana Paula Vaz; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Ribeiro, Andrea Machado Leal; Franco, Ana Cláudia; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2013-06-01

    Here we report the presence and expression levels of the vanC1 and vanC(2/3) genes in vancomycin-susceptible strains of Enterococcus faecalis. The vanC1 and vanC(2/3) genes were located in the plasmid DNA and on the chromosome, respectively. Specific mRNA of the vanC1 gene was detected in one of these strains. Additionally, analysis of the vanC gene sequences showed that these genes are related to the vanC genes of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus. The presence of vanC genes is useful for the identification of E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. Moreover, this is the first report of vanC mRNA in E. faecalis.

  18. Noncontiguous finished genome sequence and description of Enterococcus massiliensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, S; Cimmino, T; Togo, A; Million, M; Michelle, C; Khelaifia, S; Lagier, J-C; Raoult, D; Rolain, J-M

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus massiliensis strain sp. nov. (= CSUR P1927 = DSM 100308) is a new species within the genus Enterococcus. This strain was first isolated from a fresh stool sample of a man during culturomics study of intestinal microflora. Enterococcus massiliensis is a Gram-positive cocci, facultative anaerobic and motile. E. massiliensis is negative for mannitol and positive for β-galactosidase, contrary to E. gallinarum. The complete genome sequence is 2 712 841 bp in length with a GC content of 39.6% and contains 2617 protein-coding genes and 70 RNA genes, including nine rRNA genes. PMID:27330820

  19. Comparative genomic analysis identifies divergent genomic features of pathogenic Enterococcus cecorum including a type IC CRISPR-Cas system, a capsule locus, an epa-like locus, and putative host tissue binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Luke B; Suyemoto, M Mitsu; Scholl, Elizabeth H; Fuller, Fredrick J; Barnes, H John

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus cecorum (EC) is the dominant enteric commensal of adult chickens and contributes to the gut consortia of many avian and mammalian species. While EC infection is an uncommon zoonosis, like other enterococcal species it can cause life-threating nosocomial infection in people. In contrast to other enterococci which are considered opportunistic pathogens, emerging pathogenic strains of EC cause outbreaks of musculoskeletal disease in broiler chickens. Typical morbidity and mortality is comparable to other important infectious diseases of poultry. In molecular epidemiologic studies, pathogenic EC strains were found to be genetically clonal. These findings suggested acquisition of specific virulence determinants by pathogenic EC. To identify divergent genomic features and acquired virulence determinants in pathogenic EC; comparative genomic analysis was performed on genomes of 3 pathogenic and 3 commensal strains of EC. Pathogenic isolates had smaller genomes with a higher GC content, and they demonstrated large regions of synteny compared to commensal isolates. A molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated sequence divergence in pathogenic EC genomes. At a threshold of 98% identity, 414 predicted proteins were identified that were highly conserved in pathogenic EC but not in commensal EC. Among these, divergent CRISPR-cas defense loci were observed. In commensal EC, the type IIA arrangement typical for enterococci was present; however, pathogenic EC had a type IC locus, which is novel in enterococci but commonly observed in streptococci. Potential mediators of virulence identified in this analysis included a polysaccharide capsular locus similar to that recently described for E. faecium, an epa-like locus, and cell wall associated proteins which may bind host extracellular matrix. This analysis identified specific genomic regions, coding sequences, and predicted proteins which may be related to the divergent evolution and increased virulence of emerging

  20. Separation and Identification of Enterococcus faecalis RQ15 in Tibetan Kefir%藏灵菇中Enterococcus faecalis RQ15的分离及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙翠焕; 冀宝营; 朱巍巍; 王艳华; 朱万芹

    2013-01-01

    A lactic acid bacterial strain was separated by combining aerobic and anaerobic mode from folk family making yogurt with kefir grains as test materials. It was identified as Enterococcus faecalis RQ15 by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular biology. Peptonization phenomenon occurred when the strain was cultured in delayed cultivation with a 12% recovery skim milk and cold preservation of the strain. The follow-up study showed that the protease produced by the strain had the feature of low temperature protease.%以民间家庭制作酸奶用藏灵菇为试材,通过有氧与厌氧相结合的分离方式,从中分离到1株乳酸球菌.经形态学、生理生化特性研究及分子生物学鉴定,该菌株为粪肠球菌,编号Enterococcus faecalis RQ15.在12%复原脱脂乳中延时培养及冷藏保存该菌株时,产生胨化现象.后续的研究表明Enterococcus aecalis RQ15产生的蛋白酶具有低温蛋白酶的特征.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of the Commensal Enterococcus faecalis 62, Isolated from a Healthy Norwegian Infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brede, Dag Anders; Snipen, Lars Gustav; Ussery, David;

    2011-01-01

    The genome of Enterococcus faecalis 62, a commensal isolate from a healthy Norwegian infant, revealed multiple adaptive traits to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environment and the milk-containing diet of breast-fed infants. Adaptation to a commensal existence was emphasized by lactose and other...

  2. Draft Genome Sequence for a Clinical Isolate of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Keesha E; Madinger, Nancy E; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strain, isolated from a patient at the University of Colorado Hospital. The genome assembly is 3,040,186 bp in length with 37.6% GC content. This isolate encodes eleven resistance genes, including those for glycopeptide, aminoglycoside, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, and tetracycline resistance. PMID:27340066

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  4. Characterization of transferable tetracycline resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis isolated from raw food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Licht, Tine Rask

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of tetracycline resistance, and of specific genetic determinants for this resistance was investigated in 1003 strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from various raw food products originating from five categories including chicken meat, other poultry meat, beef, pork, and 'other...

  5. Detection and quantification limits of the EPA Enterococcus qPCR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA will be recommending a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting Enterococcus spp. as an option for monitoring recreational beach water quality in 2013 and has published preliminary proposed water quality criteria guidelines for the method. An im...

  6. Enterococcus olivae sp. nov., isolated from Spanish-style green-olive fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Padrós, Helena; González, Juan M; Caballero-Guerrero, Belén; Ruiz-Barba, José Luis; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Six strains of a hitherto unknown, Gram-stain-positive coccus were recovered from samples of Spanish-style green-olive fermentations. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from these isolates shared 98.7% and 98.5% of their nucleotide positions with those from Enterococcus saccharolyticus subsp. taiwanensis 812(T) and from E. saccharolyticus subsp. saccharolyticus ATCC 43076(T), respectively. The sequence of the rpoA gene in the isolates was 95% similar to that of E. saccharolyticus CECT 4309(T) ( = ATCC 43076(T)). The 16S rRNA and rpoA gene phylogenies revealed that the isolates grouped in a statistically well-supported cluster separate from E. saccharolyticus. Enzyme activity profiles as well as fermentation patterns differentiated the novel bacteria from other members of the Enterococcus genus. Finally, phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data supported the identification of a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus olivae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IGG16.11(T) ( = CECT 8063(T) = DSM 25431(T)).

  7. Comparing Temperature Effects on E. Coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus Survival in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare dependency of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonel...

  8. An indigenous gut bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), increases seed consumption by Harpalus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpalus pensylvanicus is a beneficial beetle contributing to insect control and seed predation in North American cropland. The bacterial endosymbiont Enterococcus faecalis is found in the intestinal tract of H. pensylvanicus and is thought to contribute to the digestion of the insect's seed diet. W...

  9. Occurrence of Enterococcus species with virulence markers in an urban flow-influenced tropical recreational beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asmat; Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Usup, Gires; Heng, Lee Yook

    2014-05-15

    Median enterococci counts of beach water samples gradually increased at statistically significant levels (χ2: 26.53, df: 4; pEnterococcus faecalis presented four sequence types (ST) one of which shared six out of seven tested loci with ST6, a member of the clonal complex of multi-drug resistant strains associated with hospital outbreaks.

  10. Presence of pathogenicity island genes in Enterococcus faecalis isolates from pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shankar, Nathan; Baghdayan, Arto S.; Willems, Rob;

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis isolates of porcine origin were screened for the presence of a previously identified pathogenicity island (PAI). By using the esp gene as a genetic marker for the presence of this PAI, 9 esp-positive and 10 esp-negative isolates of porcine origin were investigated by use...

  11. Comparison of temperature effects on E. coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus survival in surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the dependencies of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database consisting of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonella...

  12. Role of surface charge heterogeneity in Enterococcus faecalis adhesion and biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merode, Annet

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium found in the gut of most animal species. It is also a leading cause of nosocomial infections in humans and has the abllity to adhere to the surface of biomaterials and form biofilms on them. ... Zie: Summary

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Enterococcus faecalis in liver transplant patients at University Hospital Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waar, K; Slooff, MJH; Harmsen, HJM; Degener, JE; Willems, Rob J. L.

    2003-01-01

    We report the molecular epidemiology of Enterococcus faecalis in liver transplant patients transplanted at the University Hospital Groningen (The Netherlands) as determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) typing. A total of 133 E. faecalis isolates were cultured from the faeces and

  14. REAL-TIME PCR METHOD TO DETECT ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 16S rDNA real-time PCR method was developed to detect Enterococcus faecalis in water samples. The dynamic range for cell detection spanned five logs and the detection limit was determined to be 6 cfu/reaction. The assay was capable of detecting E. faecalis cells added to biof...

  15. Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis outbreaks in broiler flocks : clinical and pathological characteristics and molecular epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F C; van de Graaf-Bloois, L; Wagenaar, J A; Westendorp, S T; van Bergen, M A P; Dwars, R M; Landman, W J M; Wagenaar, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis, characterized by a peak in mortality during the second week of the grow-out, and occasionally lameness, was diagnosed at Dutch broiler farms. OBJECTIVES: Field cases were studied to increase knowledge on clinical and pathological characteristic

  16. Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis outbreaks in broiler flocks: clinical and pathological characteristics and molecular epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Graaf-Blois, Van de L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Westendorp, S.T.; Bergen, Van M.A.P.; Dwars, R.M.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis, characterized by a peak in mortality during the second week of the grow-out, and occasionally lameness, was diagnosed at Dutch broiler farms. Objectives: Field cases were studied to increase knowledge on clinical and pathological characteristic

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a New Enterococcus faecalis Bacteriophage, vB_EfaS_IME197.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Xing, Shaozhen; Zhang, Xianglilan; Pei, Guangqian; An, Xiaoping; Mi, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yong; Tong, Yigang

    2016-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome sequence of a new Enterococcus faecalis phage, vB_EfaS_IME197, which has a linear double-stranded DNA genome of 41,307 bp with 34% G+C content. We describe the main features of the genome of vB_EfaS_IME197. PMID:27634987

  18. Investigation of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Different strains of Lactococcus lactis are capable of producing the bacteriocin nisin. However, genetic transfer mechanisms allow the natural occurrence of genes involved in nisin production in members of other bacterial genera, such as Enterococcus spp. In a previous study, nisA was identified in eight enterococci capable of producing antimicrobial substances. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains, as well as nisin expression. The nisA genes from eight Enterococcus spp. strains were sequenced and the translated amino acid sequences were compared to nisin amino-acid sequences previously described in databases. Although containing nisin structural and maturation related genes, the enterococci strains tested in the present study did not present the immunity related genes (nisFEG and nisI). The translated sequences of nisA showed some point mutations, identical to those presented by Lactococcus strains isolated from goat milk. All enterococci were inhibited by nisin, indicating the absence of immunity and thus that nisin cannot be expressed. This study demonstrated for the first time the natural occurrence of nisin structural genes in Enterococcus strains and highlights the importance of providing evidence of a link between the presence of bacteriocin genes and their expression.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus sp. Strain HSIEG1, Isolated from the Human Small Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.; Boekhorst, te J.; Smid, E.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus sp. strain HSIEG1 was isolated from the human small intestine. Its draft genome predicts a broad carbohydrate fermentation capability, which matches well with the observed physiological characteristics of this strain. This metabolic flexibility is expected to be of importance for surviv

  20. Lack of antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens extracts against Enterococcus fecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Fatemeh; Delavar, Sadegh Fallah; Keihanian, Fereshteh; Ranjbar, Arash; Karkan, Morteza Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus fecalis is responsible for majority of enterococci infections and can cause clinical disorders in adult and pediatrics. In order to adverse effects of synthetic drugs, it has made a positive attitude toward alternative and complementary medicine. Ruta graveolens has a wide therapeutic application for various diseases. Aim of this study was to see the effect of this herb on Enterococcus fecalis growth. In this investigation we used standard Enterococcus fecalis. Effect of hydro-alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens on growth of bacteria has been evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution method and compared with eight prevalent antibiotics. None of disks with different extracts in the range of 50 to 400μ/ μl show any non-growth hallo. Disks with 500μg of all type extracts in comparison with antibiotic disks did not avoid from growth of bacteria. Third test showed the growth of bacteria and ineffectiveness of various amount of extracts. It seems that this ineffectiveness is because of low antibacterial substance against the bacteria in extracts of the herb and high resistant nature of Enterococcus fecalis to antibiotics and it needs more studies.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808, Isolated from Dahi, a Fermented Milk Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, N; Mehdi, A; Soomro, S I; Soomro, N I; Tareb, R; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J P; Bakhtiar, S M; Imran, M

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808 has been isolated from dahi, an indigenous fermented milk product of Pakistan. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, which consists of 160 contigs corresponding to 2,957,514 bp and a G+C content of 38.5%. PMID:27635009

  2. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance determinants among Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus isolated from Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The importance of Salmonella, Campylobacter, E.coli, and Enterococcus as carriers of antimicrobial resistance is well known, but limited work has been done to examine the relationship between this phenotypic characteristic and genotypic attributes among strains isolated in similar set...

  3. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput r

  4. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.V. van der Waal; L.M. Jiang; J.J. de Soet; L.W.M. van der Sluis; P.R. Wesselink; W. Crielaard

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput r

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808, Isolated from Dahi, a Fermented Milk Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, N.; Mehdi, A.; Soomro, S. I.; Soomro, N. I.; Tareb, R.; Desmasures, N.; Vernoux, J. P.; Bakhtiar, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808 has been isolated from dahi, an indigenous fermented milk product of Pakistan. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, which consists of 160 contigs corresponding to 2,957,514 bp and a G+C content of 38.5%. PMID:27635009

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain W11 Isolated from an Algal Food Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yuki; Takizawa, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis strain W11 isolated from an algal food product in Japan. This study should facilitate the identification of a novel mechanism of glycerol metabolic control in lactic acid bacteria. PMID:27688337

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a New Enterococcus faecalis Bacteriophage, vB_EfaS_IME197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Xing, Shaozhen; Zhang, Xianglilan; Pei, Guangqian; An, Xiaoping; Mi, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome sequence of a new Enterococcus faecalis phage, vB_EfaS_IME197, which has a linear double-stranded DNA genome of 41,307 bp with 34% G+C content. We describe the main features of the genome of vB_EfaS_IME197. PMID:27634987

  8. Investigation of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Different strains of Lactococcus lactis are capable of producing the bacteriocin nisin. However, genetic transfer mechanisms allow the natural occurrence of genes involved in nisin production in members of other bacterial genera, such as Enterococcus spp. In a previous study, nisA was identified in eight enterococci capable of producing antimicrobial substances. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains, as well as nisin expression. The nisA genes from eight Enterococcus spp. strains were sequenced and the translated amino acid sequences were compared to nisin amino-acid sequences previously described in databases. Although containing nisin structural and maturation related genes, the enterococci strains tested in the present study did not present the immunity related genes (nisFEG and nisI). The translated sequences of nisA showed some point mutations, identical to those presented by Lactococcus strains isolated from goat milk. All enterococci were inhibited by nisin, indicating the absence of immunity and thus that nisin cannot be expressed. This study demonstrated for the first time the natural occurrence of nisin structural genes in Enterococcus strains and highlights the importance of providing evidence of a link between the presence of bacteriocin genes and their expression. PMID:27255139

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain W11 Isolated from an Algal Food Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis strain W11 isolated from an algal food product in Japan. This study should facilitate the identification of a novel mechanism of glycerol metabolic control in lactic acid bacteria. PMID:27688337

  10. First report of multiresistance gene cfr in Enterococcus species casseliflavus and gallinarum of swine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yang; Dai, Lei; Wu, Congming; Shen, Jianzhong

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and genetic environment of the multiresistance gene cfr in Enterococcus species of swine origin. Twenty-five cfr-carrying Enterococcus isolates were collected from swine in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shandong, China. The isolates consist of 24 Enterococcus casseliflavus and one Enterococcus gallinarum isolate, and exhibited six SmaI PFGE patterns. The cfr gene was located on plasmids in all isolates except E. casseliflavus En83, in which cfr was located on the chromosomal DNA. The cfr gene environments in most of these isolates contain DNA sequences similar to pEF-01, which was first found in Enterococcus. However, inverse PCR analysis suggested that the cfr-carrying circular forms might be different from pEF-01. The circular forms in Eg51 and its transconjugant, and En23, En10, and En94 are similar to the circular form in pEF-01, except for the truncated IS1216, which is replaced by a transposase of the IS256 family in En24. The cfr circular form could not be detected in either En77 or En83, and the same cfr-carrying segments of ∼ 10 kb had only 3500bp of sequence similar to pEF-01. This is the first report of cfr gene in E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum. The potential dissemination of the multidrug resistance gene amongst different bacterial species, especially in enterococci of human and animal origins, is concerning and should be closely monitored.

  11. A probiotic treatment containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus improves IBS symptoms in an open label trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yu-jing; CHEN Shu-jie; YU Ying-cong; SI Jian-min; LIU Bin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods: Eighty-five patients [male 32, female 53; age (45.31±11.72) years]were given live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules 1260 mg/d t.i.d.×4 weeks. Syndrome scales were used to evaluate the efficacy in gastrointestinal syndrome. Fecal flora was also measured before and after the treatment. Six bacteria were cultured and the colony forming units were counted in stool. SPSS was used for data analysis. Results: Seventy-four patients finished the follow-up. No side-effect was found. For treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, the effective rate of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules was 56.8% in the second week, 74.3% in the fourth week and 73.0% in the sixth week. Single symptom was improved, especially in abdominal pain and stool character. The probiotica containing live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus could increase bifidobacterium count (P<0.01) and lactobacillus count (P<0.05); decrease bacteroides count (P<0.05) and enterococci count (P<0.01); No obvious changes were observed in clostridium difficile colonitis and enterobacteriaceae (P>0.05). Conclusion: The result of the study indicated that the administration of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus improved the symptom of irritable bowel syndrome and that there was a gradual increase of this effect. Thereafter conditions remained stable for 2 weeks. That improvement may be associated with alterations in gastrointestinal flora.

  12. In Vitro Activities of Telavancin and Vancomycin against Biofilm-Producing Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis Strains▿

    OpenAIRE

    LaPlante, Kerry L.; Mermel, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the activities of telavancin and vancomycin against biofilm-producing Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains. At clinically attainable concentrations, telavancin was active against bacteria embedded in biofilm (minimal biofilm eradication concentration [MBEC], 0.125 to 2 μg/ml) and inhibited biofilm formation at concentrations below the MIC. Vancomycin did not demonstrate the same activity (MBEC, ≥512 μg/ml) against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Telavancin ...

  13. Novel Carbapenem Antibiotics for Parenteral and Oral Applications: In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of 2-Aryl Carbapenems and Their Pharmacokinetics in Laboratory Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Koichi; Takemoto, Koji; Hatano, Kazuo; Nakai, Toru; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Eriguchi, Yoshiro; Eguchi, Ken; Shimizudani, Takeshi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kanazawa, Katsunori; Sunagawa, Makoto; Ueda, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    SM-295291 and SM-369926 are new parenteral 2-aryl carbapenems with strong activity against major causative pathogens of community-acquired infections such as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including ciproflox...

  14. New trends in dentistry: plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis. The efficacy compared to chlorhexidine

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Lígia de Castilho; Cintia Helena Coury Saraceni; Ingrit Elida Collantes Díaz; Mateus Luís Barradas Paciencia; Ivana Barbosa Suffredini

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an important pathogen associated with endodontic diseases, and its elimination and control are of paramount importance, as it represents one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of endodontic disease. Twenty-five plant extracts obtained from Brazilian forests were found to be effective against planktonic E. faecalis and were subjected to two traditional antibacterial assays, the microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and the disk diffusion assay (DDA), using chlo...

  15. Ethanolamine Activates a Sensor Histidine Kinase Regulating Its Utilization in Enterococcus faecalis▿ ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Del Papa, María Florencia; Perego, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive commensal bacterium of the human intestinal tract. Its opportunistic pathogenicity has been enhanced by the acquisition of multiple antibiotic resistances, making the treatment of enterococcal infections an increasingly difficult problem. The extraordinary capacity of this organism to colonize and survive in a wide variety of ecological niches is attributable, at least in part, to signal transduction pathways mediated by two-component systems (TCS). He...

  16. Application of Oligonucleotide Microarrays for Bacterial Source Tracking of Environmental Enterococcus sp. Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Furey, John S.; Kelley Betts; Indest, Karl J.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort towards adapting new and defensible methods for assessing and managing the risk posed by microbial pollution, we evaluated the utility of oligonucleotide microarrays for bacterial source tracking (BST) of environmental Enterococcus sp. isolates derived from various host sources. Current bacterial source tracking approaches rely on various phenotypic and genotypic methods to identify sources of bacterial contamination resulting from point or non-point pollution. For this study Ent...

  17. Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0930, a strain with probiotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Li, Bailiang; Du, Jincheng; Yu, Shangfu; Li, Wan; Evivie, Smith Etareri; Guo, Lidong; Ding, Xiuyun; Xu, Min; Huo, Guicheng

    2016-01-10

    Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0930 strain was originally isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. The complete genome sequence of E. durans KLDS6.0930 was carried out using the PacBio RSII platform. The genome contains a circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. Genome sequencing information provides the genetic basis for bioinformatics analysis of bile salt and acid tolerance, cell adhesion, and molecular mechanisms responsible for lipid metabolism.

  18. Is a single positive blood culture for Enterococcus species representative of infection or contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindai, K; Strerath, M S; Hess, T; Safdar, N

    2014-11-01

    Data on the clinical outcomes of patients with a single compared with multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococcus species is limited. We undertook a retrospective cohort study in adults with at least one positive blood culture for Enterococcus species in a single institution. Clinical outcomes included death and elimination of infection. We included 471 positive blood cultures from 206 enterococcal positive blood culture episodes in 189 patients. Multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococcus species occurred in 110/206 (53.4 %) episodes; 31.6 % of patients had diabetes mellitus; 42.9 % of patients had solid or hematologic malignancy; 26.5 % of patients were solid organ transplant recipients; hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated acquisition represented 55.3 % and 33.0 % of episodes, respectively. Thirty-five patients died and 110 episodes of enterococcal bloodstream infection were successfully treated. In the multivariable analysis, multiple positive blood cultures were not statistically significantly associated with an increased likelihood of in-hospital death [odds ratio (OR) 1.00, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.42-2.40] or elimination (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 0.76-2.64) compared with single positive blood cultures. Hematologic malignancy and diabetes mellitus were independently associated with in-hospital death (OR 2.83, 95 % Cl 1.02-7.82; OR 2.79, 95 % Cl 1.16-6.70, respectively). Infectious disease consultation was associated with a greater likelihood of elimination (OR 2.50, 95 % Cl 1.32-4.72). The clinical outcomes of patients with single versus multiple positive blood cultures with Enterococcus species were similar in our institution. Further studies should examine efficient methods to detect contamination versus true infection.

  19. Deactivation of Enterococcus Faecalis Bacteria by an Atmospheric Cold Plasma Brush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Lv, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xing-Quan; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed and used to treat enterococcus faecalis bacteria. The results show that the efficiency of the inactivation process by helium plasma is dependent on applied power and exposure time. After plasma treatments, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  20. PCR-RFLP of 16S ribosomal DNA to confirm the identification of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus isolated from clinical and food samples PCR-RFLP do 16S DNA ribossomal para confirmar a identificação de Enterococcus gallinarum e Enterococcus casseliflavus isolados de amostras clínicas e alimentares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Weber Medeiros

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to confirm the identification of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus isolated from clinical and food samples by PCR-RFLP. METHODS: Fifty-two strains identified by conventional biochemical exams were submitted to PCR amplification and digested with HinfI. Only 20 (38.5% of the 52 strains showed a DNA pattern expected for E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. RESULTS: Analysis of the results of this study showed that E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus are occasionally erroneously identified and confirmed the potential application of 16S rDNA analysis for accurate identification of these species. CONCLUSIONS: A correct identification is important to distinguish between intrinsic and acquired vancomycin resistance.INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo deste estudo foi confirmar a identificação de amostras clínicas e alimentos de Enterococcus gallinarum e Enterococcus casseliflavus por PCR-RFLP. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e duas cepas identificadas por exames bioquímicos convencionais foram submetidos a amplificação por PCR e digestão com HinfI. Apenas 20 (38,5% das 52 amostras apresentaram um padrão de DNA esperado E. gallinarum e E. casseliflavus. RESULTADOS: Analise dos resultados deste estudo demonstraram que, algumas vezes E. gallinarum e E. casseliflavus são erroneamente identificados e confirmaram a potencial aplicação da análise do 16S rDNA para identificação exata destas espécies. CONCLUSÕES: A correta identificação é importante a fim de distinguir entre resistência intrínseca e adquirida à vancomicina.

  1. The Enterococcus hirae Mur-2 enzyme displays N-acetylglucosaminidase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Catherine; Magnet, Sophie; Mesnage, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    Enterococcus hirae produces two autolytic enzymes named Mur-1 and Mur-2, both previously described as N-acetylmuramidases. We used tandem mass spectrometry to show that Mur-2 in fact displays N-acetylglucosaminidase activity. This result reveals that Mur-2 and its counterparts studied to date, which are members of glycosyl hydrolase family 73 from the CAZy (Carbohydrate-Active enZyme) database, display the same catalytic activity.

  2. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis Phage IME-EF1 and Its Endolysin

    OpenAIRE

    Wenhui Zhang; Zhiqiang Mi; Xiuyun Yin; Hang Fan; Xiaoping An; Zhiyi Zhang; Jiankui Chen; Yigang Tong

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is increasingly becoming an important nosocomial infection opportunistic pathogen. E. faecalis can easily obtain drug resistance, making it difficult to be controlled in clinical settings. Using bacteriophage as an alternative treatment to drug-resistant bacteria has been revitalized recently, especially for fighting drug-resistant bacteria. In this research, an E. faecalis bacteriophage named IME-EF1 was isolated from hospital sewage. Whole genomic sequence analysis dem...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain F165 Isolated from a Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieta, Luiza; Prichula, Janira; Sambrano, Gustavo E.; Soares, Renata; Bello, Aline Dall; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    We report here a draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis strain F165 isolated from a urine specimen in South Brazil. The genome size was 3,049,734 bp, with a G+C content of 37.38%, and genes related to antimicrobial resistance and adherence were found in the strain. These findings are consistent with pathogenesis of E. faecalis species.

  4. Role of a qnr-Like Gene in the Intrinsic Resistance of Enterococcus faecalis to Fluoroquinolones▿

    OpenAIRE

    Arsène, Stéphanie; Leclercq, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are poorly active against enterococci. Recently, plasmid-borne resistance to fluoroquinolones due to the qnr gene was reported in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The gene encodes a pentapeptide repeat protein that protects DNA gyrase from inhibition by fluoroquinolones. We have identified in the genome of Enterococcus faecalis V583 a qnr-like gene, named E. faecalis qnr (qnrE. faecalis), encoding a putative pentapeptide repeat protein that shares 25% identity with Q...

  5. [Antibiotic resistance analysis of Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkevich, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The isolates from foods were screened for sensitivity to clinically significant antibiotics to assess the actual situation related to the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in food. The goal of this work was to study the phenotypic characteristics of the antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the good quality foods, and evaluation of the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in this groups of microbial contaminants. 68 strains of Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterococcus spp. isolated from poultry and livestock meat, pasteurized dairy products, acquired in the retail in the Moscow region, were studied. The disk-diffusion method (DDM) analysis showed a rather high prevalence of bacteria that are resistant and forming resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics: in general 38% of Enterobacteriaceae strains and 40% of Enterococcus spp., isolated from meat products were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, and 21 and 33% - from dairy products, respectively; 26% of milk isolates and 54% of meat isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Considering that the tetracyclines is the most frequently used in animal husbandry and veterinary, the incidence and levels of tetracycline resistance were evaluated using tests with higher sensitivity to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), than the DDM. It was shown that among the Enterobacteriaceae strains 26% of dairy> isolates and 38% isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (MIC ranged from 8 to 120 mg/kg) and 17-40% - among Enterococcus spp. These data obtained on a small number of samples, however, correspond to the frequency of tetracycline resistant strains detected in animal products in the EU (10-50%). Two multidrug-resistant enterobacteria strains - Klebsiella pneumoniae (farmer cheese) and Escherichia coli (minced turkey) were found among the .46 strains (4.4%), and they were resistant to 8 antibiotics. PMID:27455596

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecalis Symbioflor 1 Clones DSM16430 and DSM16434

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzenwanker, Moritz; Chakraborty, Anindita; Hain, Torsten; Zimmermann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic Symbioflor 1 is a historical concoction of 10 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed two groups: one comprising eight identical clones (DSM16430, DSM16432, DSM16433, DSM16435 to DSM16439) and a further two isolates (DSM16431, DSM16434) with marginally different profiles. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the draft genome sequences of representative isolates. PMID:27688319

  7. Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis LD33, a bacteriocin-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuehua, Jiao; Lanwei, Zhang; Fei, Liu; Huaxi, Yi; Xue, Han

    2016-06-10

    Enterococcus faecalis LD33 strain was originally isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. Its complete genome sequence was carried out using the Illumina Hiseq and the PacBio RSII platform. The genome only has a circular chromosome and a GC content of 37.58%. Other core information shown in the genome sequencing results further insight on this bacterium's genetic elements for bacteriocin production and the genes related to respiratory chain. PMID:27090021

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Diode Laser and Sodium Hypochlorite in Enterococcus Faecalis-Contaminated Root Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrabi, Khosrow; Sooratgar, Aidin; Zolfagharnasab, Kaveh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the disinfection ability of 980-nm diode laser in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a common root canal irrigant in canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods and Materials: The root canals of 18 extracted single-rooted premolars were prepared by rotary system. After decoronation, the roots were autoclaved. One specimen was chosen for the negative control, and the remaining teeth were incub...

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecalis Symbioflor 1 Clones DSM16430 and DSM16434.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzenwanker, Moritz; Chakraborty, Anindita; Hain, Torsten; Zimmermann, Kurt; Domann, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic Symbioflor 1 is a historical concoction of 10 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed two groups: one comprising eight identical clones (DSM16430, DSM16432, DSM16433, DSM16435 to DSM16439) and a further two isolates (DSM16431, DSM16434) with marginally different profiles. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the draft genome sequences of representative isolates. PMID:27688319

  10. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Endodontic Irrigants against Enterococcus Faecalis and Escherichia Coli: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Noopur; Rehani, Usha; Agarwal, Abhay; Kaushik, Mayur; Adlakha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the relative antimicrobial efficacy of five different commonly used antimicrobial agents with regard to reduction in the number of Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli as compared to normal saline. An agar disk diffusion in vitro method was used to test the efficacy of the root canal irrigants against these two microorganisms. The root canal irrigants used were: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 10% citric acid, 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 3%...

  11. The in vitro Effect of Irrigants with Low Surface Tension on Enterococcus faecalis

    OpenAIRE

    Giardino, Luciano; Estrela, Carlos; Generali, Luigi; Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the complex anatomy of the root canal system and high surface tension of common root canal irrigants (RCI), conducting an investigation on RCIs containing surfactants is a priority. The aim of this in vitro study was to verify the antibacterial potential of RCI with low surface tension in root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods and Materials: Thirty-five extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis f...

  12. A Nonstationary Negative Binomial Time Series with Time-Dependent Covariates: Enterococcus Counts in Boston Harbor

    OpenAIRE

    E. Andres Houseman; Brent Coull; James Shine

    2004-01-01

    Boston Harbor has had a history of poor water quality, including by enteric pathogens. We conduct a statistical analysis of data collected by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) between 1996 and 2002 to evaluate the effects of court-mandated improvements in sewage treatment. We propose a negative binomial model for time series of Enterococcus counts in Boston Harbor, where nonstationarity and autocorrelation are modeled using a nonparametric smooth function of time in the predi...

  13. Mycotic Aneurysm of the Popliteal Artery Secondary to Enterococcus Endo-carditis : a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogeswaran, S K; Stabel, P; Avet, J; Daenen, G

    2014-01-01

    A mycotic popliteal aneurysm (MAAP) is a very rare condition [1]. We describe a 87-year-old Caucasian male who presented with a MAAP of the right leg due to an enterococcus mitral valve endocarditis. The aneurysm was excised and a reversed vein graft was interposed between the normal popliteal artery and the posterior tibial artery. A second vein graft was interposed between the first graft and the anterior tibial artery.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis LD33, a bacteriocin-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuehua, Jiao; Lanwei, Zhang; Fei, Liu; Huaxi, Yi; Xue, Han

    2016-06-10

    Enterococcus faecalis LD33 strain was originally isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. Its complete genome sequence was carried out using the Illumina Hiseq and the PacBio RSII platform. The genome only has a circular chromosome and a GC content of 37.58%. Other core information shown in the genome sequencing results further insight on this bacterium's genetic elements for bacteriocin production and the genes related to respiratory chain.

  15. Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in the gut: Synergy in commensalism?

    OpenAIRE

    Garsin, Danielle A.; Michael C Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Candida albicans and the gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis are both normal residents of the human gut microbiome and cause opportunistic disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Using a nematode infection model, we recently showed that co-infection resulted in less pathology and less mortality than infection with either species alone and this was partly explained by an interkingdom signaling event in which a bacterial-derived product inhibits hyphal mor...

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Orphan CRISPR2 Locus in 242 Enterococcus faecalis Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Hullahalli, Karthik; Rodrigues, Marinelle; Schmidt, Brendan D.; Li, Xiang; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Palmer, Kelli L.

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and their associated Cas proteins (CRISPR-Cas) provide prokaryotes with a mechanism for defense against mobile genetic elements (MGEs). A CRISPR locus is a molecular memory of MGE encounters. It contains an array of short sequences, called spacers, that generally have sequence identity to MGEs. Three different CRISPR loci have been identified among strains of the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. CRISPR1 and CRISPR3 are as...

  17. Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., a novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Spitaels, Freek; Cnockaert, Margo; Praet, Jessy; El Farricha, Omar; Swings, Jean; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Four lactic acid bacteria isolates obtained from fresh dromedary camel milk produced in Dakhla, a city in southern Morocco, were characterised in order to determine their taxonomic position. The four isolates had highly similar MALDI-TOF MS and RAPD fingerprints and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the four isolates was most similar to that of Enterococcus sulfureus ATCC 49903(T) and Enterococcus italicus DSM 15952(T) (99.33 and 98.59% similarity, respectively). However, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes revealed that the taxon represented by strain LMG 28766(T) was well separated from E. sulfureus LMG 13084(T) and E. italicus LMG 22039(T), which was further confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization values that were clearly below the species demarcation threshold. The novel taxon was easily differentiated from its nearest neighbour species through sequence analysis of protein encoding genes, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and multiple biochemical tests, but had a similar percentage G+C content of about 39%. We therefore propose to formally classify these isolates as Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., with LMG 28766(T) (=CCMM B1177(T)) as the type strain.

  18. Undomesticated animals as a reservoir of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Kostruba, Anna

    2014-07-01

    To assess implications for public health we compared the resistance of Enterococcus spp. strains to antibacterial drugs in wild and exotic animals with strains originating in domesticated animals and characterized correlations between Enterococcus species, the source of the isolate, and the degree of resistance to selected antibiotics. All strains, regardless of source, were susceptible to β-lactams, gentamicin, linezolid, and teicoplanin; the highest resistance was to kanamycin, quinupristin, and rifampicin. Thirteen strains from undomesticated animals were resistant to vancomycin, and one strain, from a fox, was resistant to streptomycin (high-dose). Multidrug-resistant strains accounted for 46% of the strains from wild animals and 59% of the strains from an exotic animal (the Russian tortoise; Testudo horsfieldii). Despite the relatively low level of resistance in the strains isolated from wild and exotic animals, the large number of intermediately susceptible strains in these groups is an indication of the evolutionary character of the development of resistance, suggesting that these animals may be potential reservoirs of Enterococcus strains resistant to a wide panel of currently used antibiotics.

  19. Detection and DNA quantification of Enterococcus casseliflavus in a foal with septic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Beccati, Francesca; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Sgariglia, Elisa; Coletti, Mauro; Vuerich, Matteo; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 3-month-old 180-kg (396-lb) Hanoverian colt was examined because of fever, lethargy, inappetence, drooping of the left ear, and stiff neck posture. Initial treatment included empirical antimicrobial treatment and NSAIDs. CLINICAL FINDINGS Initial findings were consistent with CNS anomalies. Endoscopy revealed hyperemia, ecchymosis, and some mucopurulent exudate in the right guttural pouch. Hematologic findings were consistent with neutrophilic inflammation. On the third day of hospitalization, severe neurologic signs were observed. Computed tomography of the skull revealed a comminuted fracture of the axial aspect of the right mandibular condyle. Examination of CSF revealed turbidity, xanthochromia, and intracellular and extracellular cocci, consistent with septic meningitis. After DNA extraction from blood and CSF, sequenced products from a PCR assay for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were 99% identical to Enterococcus casseliflavus. Microbial culture of CSF and blood samples yielded bacteria with Enterococcus spp morphology; antimicrobials were selected on the basis of susceptibility testing that identified the isolate as vancomycin resistant. A quantitative PCR assay was used to estimate Enterococcus DNA concentrations in CSF and blood. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Treatment for E casseliflavus meningitis, including trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and ampicillin sodium administration, resulted in resolution of clinical signs. Culture of CSF and blood samples after 12 days of the targeted treatment yielded no growth. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this was the first report of E casseliflavus meningitis in a horse. Treatment was successful; vancomycin-resistant enterococci can be a clinical problem and may potentially be zoonotic.

  20. Virulence potential of Enterococcus gallinarum strains isolated from selected Nigerian traditional fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IYABO C. OLADIPO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Five Enterococcus isolates from some Nigerian traditional fermented foods were identified as Enterococcus gallinarum by using phenotypic and genotypic tests. Safety properties such as antibiotic susceptibility, virulence gene detection, haemolysin, gelatinase and bacteriocin production were determined using standard methods. There was no resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Virulence gene for collagen binding antigen and aggregation substance were detected in 60% of the E. gallinarum strains; while surface adhesin was detected in 20%, but none of the strains had cytolysin activator and gelatinase. Phenotype characterizations of the E. gallinarum isolates indicated that none of the isolates produced haemolysin and gelatinase. Enterococcus gallinarum C103 and U82 had no antimicrobial activity against all the selected bacteria pathogens while E. gallinarum W184, T71 and W21 were active against some of the indicator bacteria pathogens. Only E. gallinarum T71 and W21 showed broad spectra of antimicrobial activity. Combination of virulence factors did not appear in these food isolates. Therefore, these strains particularly the two strains with high spectra of antimicrobial activity could be exploited as functional starters in foods.