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Sample records for ampicillin resistant escherichia

  1. R factor-mediated and chromosomal resistance to ampicillin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, A; Pitton, J S

    1974-02-01

    Sixty-four ampicillin-resistant strains of Escherichia coli were studied. Six characters were examined: (i) resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, and carbenicillin, (ii) synergy between ampicillin and cloxacillin, (iii) level of beta-lactamase activity after osmotic shock, (iv) transferability of ampicillin resistance, (v) immunological characterization of the enzyme, and (vi) determination of substrate profiles. One class of strains was found in which synthesis of beta-lactamase is inferred to be plasmid mediated; these strains are highly resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin, sensitive to cephalothin, do not show synergism between ampicillin and cloxacillin, and reveal a high enzymatic activity after osmotic shock. A second class is formed by strains for which beta-lactamase synthesis is inferred to be chromosomal; these strains present a low resistance level to ampicillin, are sensitive to carbenicillin and resistant to cephalothin, show a synergism between ampicillin and cloxacillin, and reveal a very low enzymatic activity after osmotic shock. These characters may be used to differentiate periplasmic and cell-bound beta-lactamases.

  2. Photoactivatable antisense DNA: suppression of ampicillin resistance in normally resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparro, F P; Edelson, R L; O'Malley, M E; Ugent, S J; Wong, H H

    1991-01-01

    Antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides complementary to a segment of the beta-lactamase gene and containing psoralen monoadducts at specific sites were examined for their ability to make normally resistant bacteria sensitive to ampicillin. Irradiation of oligonucleotides and psoralens with long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (380-400 nm) produced monoadducted antisense molecules. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to purify microgram quantities of photoactivatable antisense DNA. Escherichia coli transformed with a plasmid containing the gene for beta-lactamase were used to test a series of oligonucleotides containing psoralen monoadducts after additional exposure to the photoactivating effects of long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (320-400 nm). Normally resistant bacteria treated with this photoactivatable form of antisense DNA (0.4 microM) were specifically sensitized to ampicillin. The reduction in colony formation ranged from 31 to 79% in comparison to control oligonucleotides which did not contain photoactivatable monoadduct moieties. Bacteria treated in a similar manner but in the presence of tetracycline instead of ampicillin were not affected. The activity of beta-galactosidase, whose gene is located on the same plasmid as beta-lactamase, was not affected.

  3. Space-time clustering of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Danish pigs at slaughter between 1997 and 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Ersbøll, A. K.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2009-01-01

    In Denmark, antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in animals, animal products and humans, is routinely monitored. This study aimed at determining whether the observed variations in the prevalence of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs at slaughter were random....... The clusters of ampicillin resistant E coli appeared at the same time as the national consumption of ampicillin in pigs increased, however antimicrobial consumption at the herd level did not appear to have any effects on space-time clustering in this study. The results could serve as a platform to highlight...... or clustered in space and time. Data on E coli isolates between 1997 and 2005 were obtained from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) whereas data on the quantity of ampicillin consumed was obtained from the Danish Register of Veterinary Medicines (Vet...

  4. Sources of Variation in the Ampicillin-Resistant Escherichia coli Concentration in the Feces of Organic Broiler Chickens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pleydell, E. J.; Brown, P. E.; Woodward, M. J.; Davies, R. H.; French, N. P.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data for the population dynamics of antimicrobial-resistant commensal bacteria. This study was designed to evaluate both the proportions of the Escherichia coli populations that are resistant to ampicillin at the level of the individual chicken on commercial broiler farms and the feasibility of obtaining repeated measures of fecal E. coli concentrations. Short-term temporal variation in the concentration of fecal E. coli was investigated, and a prelimina...

  5. A forward mutation assay using ampicillin-resistance in Escherichia coli designed for investigating the mutagenicity of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, D; Crofton-Sleigh, C; Venitt, S

    1987-11-01

    The development of a bacterial mutation assay using forward mutation to ampicillin-resistance is described. It is a technically simple assay using Escherichia coli D494uvrB transformed with a multi-copy mutator plasmid pGW1700. Mutation is detected by an increase in the frequency of ampicillin-resistant colonies following treatment of bacteria with the test material during logarithmic growth. The determination of viable counts allows a correction factor to be applied to compensate for the effects of sample-induced growth enhancement or toxicity on the bacterial population. The assay has been tested with a range of reference mutagens. It is particularly sensitive to base-pair substitution mutagens, detecting these at doses equal to or less than those detected in the Salmonella/microsome assay or the SOS Chromotest. The assay also detects frameshift mutagens but with lower sensitivity than the Salmonella/microsome assay.

  6. Sources of Variation in the Ampicillin-Resistant Escherichia coli Concentration in the Feces of Organic Broiler Chickens▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleydell, E. J.; Brown, P. E.; Woodward, M. J.; Davies, R. H.; French, N. P.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data for the population dynamics of antimicrobial-resistant commensal bacteria. This study was designed to evaluate both the proportions of the Escherichia coli populations that are resistant to ampicillin at the level of the individual chicken on commercial broiler farms and the feasibility of obtaining repeated measures of fecal E. coli concentrations. Short-term temporal variation in the concentration of fecal E. coli was investigated, and a preliminary assessment was made of potential factors involved in the shedding of high numbers of ampicillin-resistant E. coli by growing birds in the absence of the use of antimicrobial drugs. Multilevel linear regression modeling revealed that the largest component of random variation in log-transformed fecal E. coli concentrations was seen between sampling occasions for individual birds. The incorporation of fixed effects into the model demonstrated that the older, heavier birds in the study were significantly more likely (P = 0.0003) to shed higher numbers of ampicillin-resistant E. coli. This association between increasing weight and high shedding was not seen for the total fecal E. coli population (P = 0.71). This implies that, in the absence of the administration of antimicrobial drugs, the proportion of fecal E. coli that was resistant to ampicillin increased as the birds grew. This study has shown that it is possible to collect quantitative microbiological data on broiler farms and that such data could make valuable contributions to risk assessments concerning the transfer of resistant bacteria between animal and human populations. PMID:17085693

  7. Sources of variation in the ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli concentration in the feces of organic broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleydell, E J; Brown, P E; Woodward, M J; Davies, R H; French, N P

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data for the population dynamics of antimicrobial-resistant commensal bacteria. This study was designed to evaluate both the proportions of the Escherichia coli populations that are resistant to ampicillin at the level of the individual chicken on commercial broiler farms and the feasibility of obtaining repeated measures of fecal E. coli concentrations. Short-term temporal variation in the concentration of fecal E. coli was investigated, and a preliminary assessment was made of potential factors involved in the shedding of high numbers of ampicillin-resistant E. coli by growing birds in the absence of the use of antimicrobial drugs. Multilevel linear regression modeling revealed that the largest component of random variation in log-transformed fecal E. coli concentrations was seen between sampling occasions for individual birds. The incorporation of fixed effects into the model demonstrated that the older, heavier birds in the study were significantly more likely (P = 0.0003) to shed higher numbers of ampicillin-resistant E. coli. This association between increasing weight and high shedding was not seen for the total fecal E. coli population (P = 0.71). This implies that, in the absence of the administration of antimicrobial drugs, the proportion of fecal E. coli that was resistant to ampicillin increased as the birds grew. This study has shown that it is possible to collect quantitative microbiological data on broiler farms and that such data could make valuable contributions to risk assessments concerning the transfer of resistant bacteria between animal and human populations.

  8. Detection of Ampicillin Resistance Genes (bla in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli with Polymerase Chain Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiana Milanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a rod negative Gram which could be pathogenic, if its value increases or located in outer gastrointestinal tract. Pathogenic E. coli will produce enterotoxin which will cause diarrhoea or infection in urine tract. Ampicilin was one of particular antibiotics to overcome infection. Ampicilin nowadays is no longer used as primary medicine, because of its resistance case. The aim of this research is to detect the presence of gene which is responsible to ampicilin resistant E. coli. We used isolated midstream urine from cystitis object in Hasan Sadikin Hospital (RSHS as samples. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method (colony-PCR and DNA-PCR were done to invenstigate the antibiotic resistency. Based on the result of antibiotic susceptibility testing to ampicillin, E. coli samples were resistant to ampicilin. Elektroforegram products of colony-PCR and DNA-PCR showed that the resistance case of ampicilin caused by bla gene (199 bp. Selective and rational antibiotic treatment is required to prevent ampicillin resistance in patients with symptoms

  9. Prevalence of beta-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    The genetic background for beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was examined by PCR and sequencing in 160 ampicillin-resistant isolates (109 Escherichia coli and 51 Salmonella) obtained from healthy and diseased food animals in Denmark. Sequencing revealed three different...... variants of bla(TEM-1), of which bla(TEM-1b) was the most frequently detected (80 E. coli and 47 Salmonella), followed by bla(TEM-1a) (eight E. coli, one Salmonella) and bla(TEM-1c) (seven E. coli). A few isolates were found to express OXA, TEM-30, or PSE beta-lactamases. Mutations in the ampC promoter...... leading to increased production of the AmpC beta-lactamase were demonstrated in 11 cefoxitin-resistant or intermediate E. coli isolates. Nine of these isolates did not contain any bla(TEM) genes, whereas the remaining two did. No genes encoding SHV or extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Two...

  10. Prevalence of beta-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    leading to increased production of the AmpC beta-lactamase were demonstrated in 11 cefoxitin-resistant or intermediate E. coli isolates. Nine of these isolates did not contain any bla(TEM) genes, whereas the remaining two did. No genes encoding SHV or extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Two......The genetic background for beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was examined by PCR and sequencing in 160 ampicillin-resistant isolates (109 Escherichia coli and 51 Salmonella) obtained from healthy and diseased food animals in Denmark. Sequencing revealed three different...... variants of bla(TEM-1), of which bla(TEM-1b) was the most frequently detected (80 E. coli and 47 Salmonella), followed by bla(TEM-1a) (eight E. coli, one Salmonella) and bla(TEM-1c) (seven E. coli). A few isolates were found to express OXA, TEM-30, or PSE beta-lactamases. Mutations in the ampC promoter...

  11. Self-transmissible antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, and tetracyclin found in Escherichia coli isolates from contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Satish K; Kaiser, Alan; Parkash, Mohinder; Chaudhry, G Rasul

    2004-01-01

    Presence and survival of cultivable bacteria in drinking water can act as a vehicle to disseminate virulence genes (adherence, enterotoxigenic and antibiotic resistance) to other bacteria. This can result in high morbidity and mortality, and the failure of the treatment of life threatening bacterial infections in humans and animals. In this study, antibiotic resistance (ABR) patterns and transferability of the ABR markers was investigated in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from drinking water and human urine samples. The ABR in E. coli isolates was determined against 15 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. A high frequency of ABR to carbenicillin (56%), tetracycline (53%) and streptomycin (49%) and a low frequency of cefizoxime (5%), amikacin (8%), cefazidine, (5%), chloramphenicol (9%), and kanamycin (18%) was found in the tested E. coli isolates. ABR to kanamycin (0% vs. 35%) and moxalactam (4% vs. 30%) was higher in drinking water isolates whereas resistance to streptomycin (92% vs. 15%), ampicillin (24% vs. 10%), and nalidixic acid (12% vs. 0%) was higher in human urine isolates. A large number of E. coli isolates (93%) exhibited resistance to two or more antibiotics. Two of E. coli isolates from drinking water showed resistances to six (Cb Cm Cx Ip Mx Tc and An Cb Km Mx Sm Tc) and one was resistant to seven antibiotics (Am An Cb Km Mx Sm Tc). A majority of the multiple antibiotic resistant E. coli isolates contained one or more plasmids (size ranged approximately 1.4 Kb to approximately 40 Kb). The ABR traits (Am and Tc) were transferable to other bacteria via conjugation. These data raise an important question about the impact of E. coli containing self-transmissible R-plasmids as a potential reservoir of virulence genes in drinking water.

  12. Modeling the growth dynamics of multiple Escherichia coli strains in the pig intestine following intramuscular ampicillin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    using a mathematical model to simulate the competitive growth of E. coli strains in a pig intestine under specified plasma concentration profiles of ampicillin. Results : In vitro growth results demonstrated that the resistant strains did not carry a fitness cost for their resistance, and that the most...... with ampicillin resistance in E. coli. Besides dosing factors, epidemiological factors (such as number of competing strains and bacterial excretion) influenced resistance development and need to be considered further in relation to optimal treatment strategies. The modeling approach used in the study is generic......Background : This study evaluated how dosing regimen for intramuscularly-administered ampicillin, composition of Escherichia coli strains with regard to ampicillin susceptibility, and excretion of bacteria from the intestine affected the level of resistance among Escherichia coli strains...

  13. Ampicillin Resistance and Outcome Differences in Acute Antepartum Pyelonephritis

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    Laura G. Greer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure the incidence of ampicillin-resistant uropathogens in acute antepartum pyelonephritis and to determine if patients with resistant organisms had different clinical outcomes. Study design. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of pregnant women admitted with pyelonephritis, diagnosed by standard clinical and laboratory criteria. All patients received ampicillin and gentamicin. Results. We identified 440 cases of acute pyelonephritis. Seventy-two percent (316 cases had urine cultures with identification of organism and antibiotic sensitivities. Fifty-one percent of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant. The patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms were more likely to be older and multiparous. There were no significant differences in hospital course (length of stay, days of antibiotics, ECU admission, or readmission. Patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms did not have higher complication rates (anemia, renal dysfunction, respiratory insufficiency, or preterm birth. Conclusion. A majority of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant, but no differences in outcomes were observed in these patients.

  14. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-01-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and b...

  15. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli strains from chicken in Enugu State, Nigeria Produção de beta-lactamase de espectro expandido por cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina isoladas de frango em Enugu State, Nigéria

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    K.F. Chah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and seventy-two ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains isolated from commercial chickens in Enugu State, Nigeria, were screened for beta-lactamase production using the broth method with nitrocefin® as the chromogenic cephalosporin to detect enzyme production. Beta-lactamase producing strains were further examined for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production using the Oxoid combination discs method. One hundred and seventy (98.8% of the 172 ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains produced beta-lactamase enzyme. Sixteen (9.4% beta-lactamase producers were phenotypically confirmed to produce ESBLs. Six of the ESBL producing strains were only detected with ceftazidime versus ceftazidime/clavulanate combination while ten of the ESBL producers were detected with cefotaxime versus cefotaxime/clavulanate combination. Chicken may serve as a reservoir of ESBL-producing E. coli strains which could be transferred to man and other animals.Cento e setenta e duas cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina isoladas de frangos em Enugu State, Nigéria, foram avaliadas quanto à produção de beta-lactamase através do uso de método em caldo com nitrocefin® como indicador cromogênico da produção da enzima. Em seguida, as cepas produtoras de beta-lactamase foram examinadas quanto à produção de beta-lactamase de espectro expandido (ESBL através do método de discos combinados Oxoid. Entre as cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina, cento e setenta (98,8% produziram beta-lactamase. Testes fenotípicos indicaram que dezesseis (9,4% das cepas produtoras de beta-lactamase produziram ESBL. Seis cepas produtoras de ESBL foram detectadas apenas com a combinação ceftazidima versus cefotaxime/clavulanato, enquanto dez cepas produtoras de ESBL foram detectadas com a combinação cefotaxime versus cefotaxime/clavulanato. Frangos podem ser reservatório de cepas de E.coli produtoras de ESBL, que podem ser transferidos para o homem

  16. Emergence of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Camilla H; Sandvang, Dorthe; Olsen, Stefan S

    2008-01-01

    Background Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates are reported in increasing numbers in many European hospitals. The clonal complex 17 (CC17) characterized by ampicillin resistance has been associated with nosocomial E. faecium outbreaks and infections in five continents. The aim was ...

  17. Ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae from COPD patients in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Satyanarayana; Kolsum, Umme; Jackson, Sarah; Barraclough, Richard; Maschera, Barbara; Simpson, Karen D; Pascal, Thierry G; Durviaux, Serge; Hessel, Edith M; Singh, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is commonly isolated from the airways of COPD patients. Antibiotic treatment may cause the emergence of resistant H. influenzae strains, particularly ampicillin-resistant strains, including β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR) strains. Genetic identification using ftsI sequencing is the optimum method for identifying mutations within BLNAR strains. The prevalence of BLNAR in COPD patients during the stable state has not been reported. We investigated the antibiotic resistance patterns of H. influenzae present in the sputum of stable COPD patients, focusing on ampicillin resistance; the prevalence of enzyme and non-enzyme-mediated ampicillin resistance was determined. A subset of patients was followed up longitudinally to study H. influenzae strain switching and antibiotic sensitivity changes. Sputum sampling was performed in 61 COPD patients, with 42 samples obtained at baseline; H. influenzae was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 28 samples. In all, 45 patients completed the follow-up for 2 years; 24 H. influenzae isolates were obtained. Disk diffusion showed the highest antibiotic resistance in the penicillin antibiotic group (eg, 67% for ampicillin) and macrolides (eg, 46% for erythromycin), whereas all isolates were susceptible to quinolones. Of the 16 isolates resistant to ampicillin, 9 (56%) were β-lactamase positive. The β-lactamase-negative isolates were further investigated; none of these fulfilled the phenotypic BLNAR classification criteria of ampicillin minimum inhibitory concentration >1 µg/mL, and only one demonstrated an ftsI mutation. Frequent H. influenzae strain switching was confirmed using multilocus sequence typing and was associated with changes in the antibiotic sensitivity pattern. We observed an overidentification of ampicillin resistance by disk diffusion. The majority of ampicillin resistance was due to enzyme production. H. influenzae strain changes during the stable state may be associated

  18. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-11-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and broth microdilution procedures. Repeat testing of isolates by macro- and microdilution synergy methods yielded MICs that were within one twofold dilution of each other for both intra- and intertest comparisons. Synergy was always detected by time-kill studies when the MIC of ampicillin in the combination synergy screen was 16 micrograms/ml in the combination microdilution synergy screen. The determination of the synergy by the broth microdilution procedure appears to be simple, convenient, and accurate.

  19. The molecular changing mechanism of Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Mieke Hemiawati Satari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular changing of S.aureus, which is resistant to Ampicillin-Sulbactam and then become resistant to Methicillin as a result of improper dosage. The study was conducted by isolating Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant and Methicillin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA, afterwards an amplification process was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. to isolate the betalactamase enzyme regulator and PBP 2a genes. The result of this research showed that there were a deletion of few amino acids from the regulator gene, and a suspicion that the DNA sequence had been substituted from PBP 2 gene into PBP 2a (gen mec. This process had formed MRSA.

  20. Ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae from COPD patients in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddi S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Satyanarayana Maddi,1 Umme Kolsum,1 Sarah Jackson,1 Richard Barraclough,2 Barbara Maschera,3 Karen D Simpson,3 Thierry G Pascal,4 Serge Durviaux,4 Edith M Hessel,3 Dave Singh1 1Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of South Manchester Foundation Trust, Manchester, 3Refractory Respiratory Inflammation DPU, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK; 4Clinical Laboratory Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium Background: Haemophilus influenzae is commonly isolated from the airways of COPD patients. Antibiotic treatment may cause the emergence of resistant H. influenzae strains, particularly ampicillin-resistant strains, including β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR strains. Genetic identification using ftsI sequencing is the optimum method for identifying mutations within BLNAR strains. The prevalence of BLNAR in COPD patients during the stable state has not been reported. We investigated the antibiotic resistance patterns of H. influenzae present in the sputum of stable COPD patients, focusing on ampicillin resistance; the prevalence of enzyme and non-enzyme-mediated ampicillin resistance was determined. A subset of patients was followed up longitudinally to study H. influenzae strain switching and antibiotic sensitivity changes.Patients and methods: Sputum sampling was performed in 61 COPD patients, with 42 samples obtained at baseline; H. influenzae was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 28 samples. In all, 45 patients completed the follow-up for 2 years; 24 H. influenzae isolates were obtained.Results: Disk diffusion showed the highest antibiotic resistance in the penicillin antibiotic group (eg, 67% for ampicillin and macrolides (eg, 46% for erythromycin, whereas all isolates were susceptible to

  1. Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudobova, Dagmar; Dostalova, Simona; Blazkova, Iva; Michalek, Petr; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Sklenar, Matej; Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Gumulec, Jaromir; Tmejova, Katerina; Konecna, Marie; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Hynek, David; Masarik, Michal; Kynicky, Jindrich; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-01-01

    There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus non-resistant strain and strains resistant to cadmium or lead ions. Metal resistant strains were created by the gradual addition of 2 mM solution of metal ions (cadmium or lead) to the S. aureus culture. An increasing antimicrobial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM) on the resistant strains was observed using a method of growth curves. A significant growth inhibition (compared to control) of cadmium resistant cells was observed in the presence of all the four different antibiotics. On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. Other antibiotics were still toxic to the bacterial cells. Significant differences in the morphology of cell walls were indicated by changes in the cell shape. Our data show that the presence of metal ions in the urban environment may contribute to the development of bacterial strain resistance to other substances including antibiotics, which would have an impact on public health. PMID:24651395

  2. Genome-Wide Identification of Ampicillin Resistance Determinants in Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinglin; Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Bierschenk, Damien; Kuipers, Annemarie; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has become a nosocomial pathogen of major importance, causing infections that are difficult to treat owing to its multi-drug resistance. In particular, resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic ampicillin has become ubiquitous among clinical isolates. Mutations in the low-affinity penicillin binding protein PBP5 have previously been shown to be important for ampicillin resistance in E. faecium, but the existence of additional resistance determinants has been suggested. Here, we constructed a high-density transposon mutant library in E. faecium and developed a transposon mutant tracking approach termed Microarray-based Transposon Mapping (M-TraM), leading to the identification of a compendium of E. faecium genes that contribute to ampicillin resistance. These genes are part of the core genome of E. faecium, indicating a high potential for E. faecium to evolve towards β-lactam resistance. To validate the M-TraM results, we adapted a Cre-lox recombination system to construct targeted, markerless mutants in E. faecium. We confirmed the role of four genes in ampicillin resistance by the generation of targeted mutants and further characterized these mutants regarding their resistance to lysozyme. The results revealed that ddcP, a gene predicted to encode a low-molecular-weight penicillin binding protein with D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase activity, was essential for high-level ampicillin resistance. Furthermore, deletion of ddcP sensitized E. faecium to lysozyme and abolished membrane-associated D,D-carboxypeptidase activity. This study has led to the development of a broadly applicable platform for functional genomic-based studies in E. faecium, and it provides a new perspective on the genetic basis of ampicillin resistance in this organism. PMID:22761597

  3. R plasmid with carbadox resistance from Escherichia coli of porcine origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmae, K; Yonezawa, S; Terakado, N

    1981-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates of porcine fecal origin from a farm where the antibacterial agent carbadox was used were examined for resistance to carbadox (Cdxr). Of 72 strains examined, 24 showed resistance to this drug. All 24 Cdxr strains, except one, were also resistant to tetracycline (Tcr), streptomycin (Smr), spectinomycin (Spcr), sulfadimethoxine (Sur), kanamycin (Kmr), ampicillin (Apcr), or a combination of tetracycline, streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfadimethoxine, and ampicillin. The ...

  4. Physical size of the donor locus and transmission of Haemophilus influenzae ampicillin resistance genes by deoxyribonucleic acid-mediated transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendler, J.W. III

    1976-01-01

    The properties of donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from three clinical isolates and its ability to mediate the transformation of competent Rd strains to ampicillin resistance were examined. A quantitative technique for determining the resistance of individual Haemophilus influenzae cells to ampicillin was developed. When this technique was used, sensitive cells failed to tolerate levels of ampicillin greater than 0.1 to 0.2 μg/ml, whereas three resistant type b β-lactamase-producing strains could form colonies 1- to 3-μg/ml levels of the antibiotic. DNA extracted from the resistant strains elicited transformation of the auxotrophic genes in a multiply auxotrophic Rd strain. For two of the donors, transformation to ampicillin resistance occurred after the uptake of a single DNA molecule approximately 10 4 -fold less frequently than transformation of auxotrophic loci and was not observed to occur at all with the third. The frequency of transformation to ampicillin resistance was two- to fivefold higher in strain BC200 (Okinaka and Barnhart, 1974), which was cured of a defective prophage. All three clinical ampicillin-resistant strains were poor recipients, but the presence of the ampicillin resistant genes in strain BC200 did not reduce its competence

  5. Dogs are a reservoir of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium lineages associated with human infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Top, Janetta; Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.

    2009-01-01

    complex 17 (CC17), including those of sequence types ST-78 and ST-192, which are widespread in European and Asian hospitals. Longitudinal screening of 18 healthy humans living in contact with 13 of the dogs under study resulted in the identification of a single, intermittent CC17 carrier. This person...... generally differed from those previously described for clinical human isolates. The results indicate that dogs are frequent carriers of CC17-related lineages and may play a role in the spread of this nosocomial pathogen. The distinctive virulence and antimicrobial resistance profiles observed among canine......Ampicillin resistance is a marker for hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium. Feces from 208 dogs were selectively screened for the occurrence of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREF). AREF was detected in 42 (23%) of 183 dogs screened in a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom and in 19...

  6. Intravitreal Ampicillin Sodium for Antibiotic-Resistant Endophthalmitis: Streptococcus uberis First Human Intraocular Infection Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Velez-Montoya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment with intravitreal ampicillin sodium of a postoperative endophthalmitis case due to Streptococcus uberis; an environmental pathogen commonly seen in mastitis cases of lactating cows. Methods. Case Report. A 52-year-old, Hispanic diabetic patient who suddenly developed severe pain and severe loss of vision, following vitrectomy. Results. The patient was diagnosed with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to a highly resistant strain of Streptococcus uberis that did not respond to intravitreal antibiotics. He was treated with an air-fluid interchange, anterior chamber washout, intravitreal ampicillin sodium (5 mg/0.1 mL, and silicon oil tamponade (5000 ck. The eye was anatomically stabilized, though there was no functional recovery. Conclusion. Streptococcus uberis is an uncommon pathogen to the human eye, which has unique features that help the strain in developing resistance to antibiotics. While treatment with intravitreal ampicillin is feasible, there are still concerns about its possible toxicity.

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae Causing Acute Otitis Media in Japanese Infants and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Risako; Yano, Hisakazu; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Kanamori, Hajime; Endo, Shiro; Ichimura, Sadahiro; Ogawa, Miho; Shimojima, Masahiro; Ozawa, Daiki; Inomata, Shinya; Tanouchi, Ayako; Kaku, Mitsuo; Katori, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a particularly important cause of acute otitis media (AOM). There is a high prevalence of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains in Japanese children, which is associated with recurrent AOM and prolonged treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile, mechanisms of ampicillin resistance and molecular epidemiology of ampicillin resistance in H. influenzae strains causing AOM in Japanese children. One hundred fifty-seven strains of H. influenzae isolated from the middle ear fluid of pediatric patients (aged 0-3 years) with AOM from various areas of Japan were studied. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile, genes encoding β-lactamase and alterations of penicillin-binding protein 3 were investigated. Genetic relatedness among ampicillin-resistant isolates was examined by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Of 157 isolates, 108 (68.8%) demonstrated reduced susceptibility to ampicillin, including 95 (60.5%) of β-lactamase-nonproducing isolates and 13 (8.3%) of β-lactamase-producing isolates. All BLNAR (minimum inhibitory concentration of ampicillin ≥ 4 mg/L) isolates had amino acid substitutions related to ampicillin resistance. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated genetic diversity although there were 2 clusters of highly resistant isolates with identical STs (sequence types; ST161 and 549). Alterations of penicillin-binding protein 3 represented the most prevalent mechanism of ampicillin resistance among H. influenzae isolates causing AOM in Japanese children. BLNAR isolates from children with AOM demonstrated genetic diversity. This study identified for the first time ST clones associated with BLNAR H. influenzae causing AOM in Japanese children.

  8. Differential Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 (PBP5) Levels in the Enterococcus faecium Clades with Different Levels of Ampicillin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Rae, Meredith; Davlieva, Milya G; Singh, Kavindra V; Shamoo, Yousif; Murray, Barbara E

    2017-01-01

    Ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium is a serious concern worldwide, complicating the treatment of E. faecium infections. Penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) is considered the main ampicillin resistance determinant in E. faecium The three known E. faecium clades showed sequence variations in the pbp5 gene that are associated with their ampicillin resistance phenotype; however, these changes alone do not explain the array of resistance levels observed among E. faecium clinical strains. We aimed to determine if the levels of PBP5 are differentially regulated between the E. faecium clades, with the hypothesis that variations in PBP5 levels could help account for the spectrum of ampicillin MICs seen in E. faecium We studied pbp5 mRNA levels and PBP5 protein levels as well as the genetic environment upstream of pbp5 in 16 E. faecium strains that belong to the different E. faecium clades and for which the ampicillin MICs covered a wide range. Our results found that pbp5 and PBP5 levels are increased in subclade A1 and A2 ampicillin-resistant strains compared to those in clade B and subclade A2 ampicillin-susceptible strains. Furthermore, we found evidence of major clade-associated rearrangements in the region upstream of pbp5, including large DNA fragment insertions, deletions, and single nucleotide polymorphisms, that may be associated with the differential regulation of PBP5 levels between the E. faecium clades. Overall, these findings highlight the contribution of the clade background to the regulation of PBP5 abundance and point to differences in the region upstream of pbp5 as likely contributors to the differential expression of ampicillin resistance. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Meningitis Due to Ampicillin-and Chloramphenicol-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae Type B in Canada. Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kabani

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The first report of a case of ampicillin- and chloramphenicol-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive infection in Canada is described in a four-month-old male with meningitis. He was treated with cefotaxime 200 mg/kg/day divided every 6 h and dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg/day divided every 6 h, eventually recovering after a complicated course. Follow-up at 21 months showed mild to moderate global developmental delay. While chloramphenicol resistance is rare in North America, a case of meningitis initially unresponsive to ampicillin and chloramphenicol must be considered suspect for resistance. Third generation cephalosporins should be used for resistant cases.

  10. Reversal of Ampicillin Resistance in MRSA via Inhibition of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a by Acalypha wilkesiana

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    Carolina Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of a semipure fraction from the plant, Acalypha wilkesiana assigned as 9EA-FC-B, alone and in combination with ampicillin, was studied against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In addition, effects of the combination treatment on PBP2a expression were investigated. Microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC. Synergistic effects of 9EA-FC-B with ampicillin were determined using the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index and kinetic growth curve assay. Western blot experiments were carried out to study the PBP2a expression in treated MRSA cultures. The results showed a synergistic effect between ampicillin and 9EA-FC-B treatment with the lowest FIC index of 0.19 (synergism ≤ 0.5. The presence of 9EA-FC-B reduced the MIC of ampicillin from 50 to 1.56 μg mL−1. When ampicillin and 9EA-FC-B were combined at subinhibitory level, the kinetic growth curves were suppressed. The antibacterial effect of 9EA-FC-B and ampicillin was shown to be synergistic. The synergism is due the ability of 9EA-FC-B to suppress the activity of PBP2a, thus restoring the susceptibility of MRSA to ampicillin. Corilagin was postulated to be the constituent responsible for the synergistic activity showed by 9EA-FC-B.

  11. Radiation sensitivity of Salmonella isolates relative to resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemira, Brendan A.; Lonczynski, Kelly A.; Sommers, Christopher H.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance of inoculated bacteria is a commonly used selective marker. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic nalidixic acid have been shown to have an increased sensitivity to irradiation. The purpose of this research was to screen a collection of Salmonella isolates for antibiotic resistance and determine the association, if any, of antibiotic resistance with radiation sensitivity. Twenty-four clinical isolates of Salmonella were screened for native resistance to multiple concentrations of ampicillin (Amp), chloramphenicol (Chl), or gentamicin (Gm). Test concentrations were chosen based on established clinical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, and isolates were classified as either sensitive or resistant based on their ability to grow at or above the MIC. Salmonella cultures were grown overnight at (37 o C) in antibiotic-amended tryptic soy broth (TSB). Native resistance to Gm was observed with each of the 24 isolates (100%). Eight isolates (33%) were shown to be resistant to Amp, while seven isolates (29%) were shown to be resistant to Chl. In separate experiments, Salmonella cultures were grown overnight (37 o C) in TSB, centrifuged, and the cell pellets were re-suspended in phosphate buffer. The samples were then gamma irradiated at doses up to 1.0 kGy. The D 10 values (the ionizing radiation dose required to reduce the viable number of microorganisms by 90%) were determined for the 24 isolates and they ranged from 0.181 to 0.359 kGy. No correlation was found between the D 10 value of the isolate and its sensitivity or resistance to each of the three antibiotics. Resistance to Amp or Chl is suggested as appropriate resistance marker for Salmonella test strains to be used in studies of irradiation

  12. Radiation sensitivity of Salmonella isolates relative to resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemira, Brendan A.; Lonczynski, Kelly A.; Sommers, Christopher H.

    2006-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance of inoculated bacteria is a commonly used selective marker. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic nalidixic acid have been shown to have an increased sensitivity to irradiation. The purpose of this research was to screen a collection of Salmonella isolates for antibiotic resistance and determine the association, if any, of antibiotic resistance with radiation sensitivity. Twenty-four clinical isolates of Salmonella were screened for native resistance to multiple concentrations of ampicillin (Amp), chloramphenicol (Chl), or gentamicin (Gm). Test concentrations were chosen based on established clinical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, and isolates were classified as either sensitive or resistant based on their ability to grow at or above the MIC. Salmonella cultures were grown overnight at (37 °C) in antibiotic-amended tryptic soy broth (TSB). Native resistance to Gm was observed with each of the 24 isolates (100%). Eight isolates (33%) were shown to be resistant to Amp, while seven isolates (29%) were shown to be resistant to Chl. In separate experiments, Salmonella cultures were grown overnight (37 °C) in TSB, centrifuged, and the cell pellets were re-suspended in phosphate buffer. The samples were then gamma irradiated at doses up to 1.0 kGy. The D10 values (the ionizing radiation dose required to reduce the viable number of microorganisms by 90%) were determined for the 24 isolates and they ranged from 0.181 to 0.359 kGy. No correlation was found between the D10 value of the isolate and its sensitivity or resistance to each of the three antibiotics. Resistance to Amp or Chl is suggested as appropriate resistance marker for Salmonella test strains to be used in studies of irradiation.

  13. Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 is widespread in healthy dogs: anthropozoonosis or zooanthroponosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Williams, Nicola J; Willems, Rob

    2008-01-01

    to the spread of this AREfm genetic lineage in the human population. The unexpected and widespread occurrence of hospital-adapted clones in dogs raises an important question concerning the evolution of this clonal complex: does CC17 originate from humans (anthropozoonosis) or from dogs (zooanthroponosis......). In this study, we investigated the occurrence of AREfm CC17 in faecal samples collected from healthy dogs in Denmark and in England. Methods: 210 healthy dogs were screened for the occurrence of AREfm using a selective isolation procedure, i.e. plating on Slanetz Bartley agar containing 32 µg/ml ampicillin....... Presumptive AREfm were confirmed by a species-specific PCR and their resistance patterns were determined according to CLSI guidelines. The purK gene was sequenced in all isolates and a subset of 15 isolates was further analysed by MLST analysis. Results: AREfm was detected in 59 (28%) dogs. Based on MLST...

  14. Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 is widespread in healthy dogs: anthropozoonosis or zooanthroponosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Williams, Nicola J; Willems, Rob

    2008-01-01

    -locus variant ST192 are among the most common STs in European hospitals. ST78 was isolated from a dog and 10-year old boy living in the same household, suggesting possible transmission between dogs and humans living in close contact. Resistance to erythromycin (97%), ciprofloxacin (95%), tetracycline (83...... to the spread of this AREfm genetic lineage in the human population. The unexpected and widespread occurrence of hospital-adapted clones in dogs raises an important question concerning the evolution of this clonal complex: does CC17 originate from humans (anthropozoonosis) or from dogs (zooanthroponosis......). In this study, we investigated the occurrence of AREfm CC17 in faecal samples collected from healthy dogs in Denmark and in England. Methods: 210 healthy dogs were screened for the occurrence of AREfm using a selective isolation procedure, i.e. plating on Slanetz Bartley agar containing 32 µg/ml ampicillin...

  15. Substitutions in PBP3 confer resistance to both ampicillin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Haemophilus parainfluenzae as revealed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene recombinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienholtz, Nanna H; Ciechanowski, Aynur Barut; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    I from clinical strains encoding four substitutions in the transpeptidase region of PBP3 conferred resistance to ampicillin, but not to cephalosporins. Introduction of ftsI from a clinical strain encoding eight substitutions conferred resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. MICs....../H/S in combination with V511A were resistant to ampicillin. Substitution S385T increased the MICs of third-generation cephalosporins if V511A was also present. Conclusions: Substitutions in PBP3 are sufficient to confer resistance to both ampicillin and third-generation cephalosporins in H. parainfluenzae...... . A combination of substitutions at positions Val-511 and Asn-526 confers resistance to ampicillin. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins probably requires more than four substitutions in PBP3....

  16. The resistance to chemotherapeutic agents of Escherichia coli from domestic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, S; Frost, A J

    1984-03-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in the rectal flora of 168 healthy dogs and 93 cats in the Brisbane area was investigated. Rectal swabs were plated on MacConkey agar with and without antibiotics, and 690 isolates confirmed as faecal E. coli were tested for resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, neomycin, furazolidone and sulphanilamide. Resistant isolates were obtained from 101 (60%) of the dogs and 24 (26%) of the cats sampled. A high percentage of the isolates was resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin and sulphanilamide. Multiple resistance to 3 or more of the drugs was exhibited by the majority of isolates and a total of 31 different multiple resistance patterns was demonstrated. Of the 50 strains tested for transfer of resistance, 30 (60%) transferred some or all of their resistance determinants to an E. coli K12F - recipient.

  17. Presence of the resistance genes vanC1 and pbp5 in phenotypically vancomycin and ampicillin susceptible Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Mölle, Gabriele; Preikschat, Petra; Kämpf, Peter; Bauer-Unkauf, Ilse; Bischoff, Meike; Hölzel, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Ampicillin and vancomycin are important antibiotics for the therapy of Enterococcus faecalis infections. The ampicillin resistance gene pbp5 is intrinsic in Enterococcus faecium. The vanC1 gene confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Both genes are chromosomally located. Resistance to ampicillin and vancomycin was determined in 484 E. faecalis of human and porcine origin by microdilution. Since E. faecalis are highly skilled to acquire resistance genes, all strains were investigated for the presence of pbp5 (and, in positive strains, for the penicillin-binding protein synthesis repressor gene psr) and vanC1 (and, in positive strains, for vanXYc and vanT) by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One porcine and one human isolate were phenotypically resistant to ampicillin; no strain was vancomycin resistant. Four E. faecalis (3/1 of porcine/human origin) carried pbp5 (MIC=1 mg/L), and four porcine strains were vanC1 positive (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]=1 mg/L). Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR revealed that the genes were not expressed. The psr gene was absent in the four pbp5-positive strains; the vanXYc gene was absent in the four vanC1-positive strains. However, vanT of the vanC gene cluster was detected in two vanC1-positive strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pbp5, identical with the "E. faecium pbp5 gene," and of vanC1/vanT in E. faecalis. Even if resistance is not expressed in these strains, this study shows that E. faecalis have a strong ability to acquire resistance genes-and potentially to spread them to other bacteria. Therefore, close monitoring of this species should be continued.

  18. Lethal Neonatal Meningoencephalitis Caused by Multi-Drug Resistant, Highly Virulent Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Junaid; Dufendach, Kevin R.; Wellons, John C.; Kuba, Maria G.; Nickols, Hilary H.; G��mez-Duarte, Oscar G.; Wynn, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal meningitis is a rare but devastating condition. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria represent a substantial global health risk. We report on an aggressive case of lethal neonatal meningitis due to a MDR Escherichia coli (serotype O75:H5:K1). Serotyping, MDR pattern, and phylogenetic typing revealed that this strain is an emergent and highly virulent neonatal meningitis E. coli isolate. The isolate was resistant to both ampicillin and gentamicin; antibiotics currently used for empiric...

  19. PROFILE OF RESISTANCE OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM CANINE PYOMETRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Santana Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial pyometra is a disease that affects more frequently reproductively active adult females. Characterized by inflammation and accumulation of exudate in the uterine cavity, generally associated with bacterial infections. The present study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolates from 42 female dogs diagnosed with pyometra, seen at the Department of Small Animal Surgery, Hospital of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Bahia. To perform the bacteriological analysis, a sample of the contents of the uterus was obtained immediately after surgery of ovariosalpingohisterectomy therapy (OSH and sent to the laboratory. Microbiological analysis showed a predominance of the bacterium Escherichia coli in 40.5% (15/37. Strains of Escherichia coli isolates showed higher rates of resistance to antimicrobial erythromycin (93.3 %, azithromycin (80 %, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin (40% each. This study reinforces the need to perform the microbiological examination for epidemiological purposes and the correct therapeutic application, thereby avoiding the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials and the potential emergence of multidrug-resistant  strains. Keywords: bacteria; multiresistant;  uterus.

  20. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli has become a major threat and cause of many urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the resistant plasmids of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from (Urinary tract infections)UTIs in Abeokuta.

  1. Drug-resistant Escherichia coli, Rural Idaho

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, Elizabeth L.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Johnson, James R.; Haddadin, Bassam; Williamson, Jacquelyn; Samore, Matthew H.

    2005-01-01

    Stool carriage of drug-resistant Escherichia coli in home-living residents of a rural community was examined. Carriage of nalidixic acid–resistant E. coli was associated with recent use of antimicrobial agents in the household. Household clustering of drug-resistant E. coli was observed. Most carriers of drug-resistant E. coli lacked conventional risk factors.

  2. Emergence of Quinolone Resistance amongst Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy three isolates of Escherichia coli obtained from 7 hospitals in Lagos were screened for Fluoroquinolone resistance (FQR). Rate of resistance was 22.3% showing an increase in quinolone resistance when compared with resistant rates between 1994 and 1999 which ranged from 0 – 2% then.

  3. [Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from community-acquired urinary tract infections. What antimicrobial to use?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo-Lara, Claudia Elena; González-Martínez, Pedro Mario; Ayala-Gaytán, Juan Jacobo

    2009-01-01

    Determine antibiotic resistance of community-acquired uropathogen Escherichia coli and infer therapeutic options. E. coli strains isolated from urine during a one-year period were studied. Identification and susceptibility tests were performed. A total of 652 isolates were included from patients in two institutions, a healthcare clinic 303 (46.5%) and a hospital 349 ( 53.5%). The antimicrobials with higher resistance rates were ampicillin 67.2%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 59.2%, cefazolin 35.6% and ciprofloxacin 24.7%. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin used for empiric treatment in community urinary infections is high, and there are few available treatment options.

  4. Evaluation of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarestrup, Frank M; Hasman, Henrik; Veldman, Kees; Mevius, Dik

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta-lactamase genes were tested for susceptibility toward cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, cefquinome, ceftazidime, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, and cefuroxime using minimum inhibitory concentration determinations and disc diffusion. The collection consisted of 84 ampicillin-susceptible, 57 ampicillin-resistant but cephalosporin-susceptible, 56 ESBL isolates and 19 isolates with plasmidic AmpC, as well as 10 ampC hyper-producing E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration distributions and zone inhibitions varied with the tested compound. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to the cephalosporins compared to ampicillin-susceptible isolates. Cefoperazone, cefquinome, and cefuroxime were not useful in detecting isolates with ESBL or plasmidic AmpC. The best substances for detection were cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, and ceftriaxone, whereas ceftazidime and ceftiofur were not as efficient. Ceftriaxone may be the recommended substance for monitoring because of some ability in separating ampC hyper-producing E. coli from ESBL and plasmidic AmpC isolates.

  5. Clinical Pharmacology of Ampicillin in Neonates and Infants: Effects and Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin is a bactericidal antibiotic, it penetrates into the bacterial wall better than penicillin G and is active against gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to penicillin G. Ampicillin has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and is the most widely used antibiotic for treating infections caused by Listeria, β-lactamase-negative Haemophilus, enterococci, Shigella, streptococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhea, Neisseria meningitis and many coliform organisms. Ampicillin is excreted unchanged in the urine. In neonates with a gestational and postnatal ages of ≤ 34 weeks and ≤ 7 days, respectively, the half-life, the clearance and the distribution volume of ampicillin are 5.0 hours, 0.055 l/h/kg, and 0.40 l/kg, respectively. The ampicillin half-life decreases and the clearance of ampicillin increases with the neonatal maturation whereas the distribution volume is not affected by the neonatal maturation. Ampicillin may be administered orally. Ampicillin penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid, especially when the meninges are inflamed. The recommended dose of ampicillin is 50 mg/kg every 12 hours in the first week of life, every 8 hours in neonates 1-3 weeks old, and every 6 hours in neonates 4 or more weeks old. Bacteremia, caused by group B Streptococcus, is treated with 150 to 200 mg/kg/day ampicillin and meningitis is treated with 300 to 400 mg/kg/day ampicillin in divided doses. Some organisms are resistant to ampicillin and a combination of gentamicin and a third-generation cephalosporin is recommended. The aim of this study is to review the effects and pharmacokinetics of ampicillin in neonates and infants.

  6. Ampicillin radioprotector effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, E.; Fernandez-Larrea, O.; Rios, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of ampicillin during irradiation and recovery of the Bacillus licheniformis RI 75-1 stump with a savage genotype of recovery exposed to ionizing radiations and treated with gamma quantums. Previous research enabled to prove that in Bacillus licheniformis spores suspensions, irradiated of vegetative cells in ampicillin at D-1--0- dose, causes significative lethal increases. In this paper, The irradiation of vegetative cells in presence of 5 mcg/ml of ampicillin increases the viability at doses above 1 kGy. the survival rates was raised when vegetative cells of Bacillus lincheniformis were irradiated at 1.2 kGy and recovered in a nutrient environment during 2 hours (LHR) in presence of ampicillin. Twenty-two stumps of Bacillus licheniformis obtained through different mutagenic treatments were studied in relation to the resistance of ampicillim and at 3 Kgy gamma quantums and a direct correlation between these two was stablished. Previous treatment with ampicillin of the vegetative cells from the Bacillus licheniformis increased the number of resistants to gamma quantums. There was no information about this phenomenom in literature consulted

  7. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance patterns and class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli O26 isolated from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Velusamy; Gillespie, Barbara E; Nguyen, Lien T; Headrick, Susan I; Murinda, Shelton E; Oliver, Stephen P

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistance patterns and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes and class 1 integrons in 35 Escherichia coli O26 isolated from humans and food-producing animals were evaluated. All isolates were resistant to cefaclor, cefalothin and sulfonamide and were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, cefmetazole, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and trimethoprim. Most isolates were resistant to aztreonam, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and kanamycin. All ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli O26 carried ampC and strA-strB gene sequences, respectively. Florfenicol- and chloramphenicol-resistant isolates carried floR but not cmlA. Class1 integrons were identified in 14% of E. coli O26 isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of multiple antimicrobial resistance genes in E. coli O26 isolated from human and animal origins.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  9. The effects of amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses, growth and ampicillin resistance of intestinal coliform bacteria in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively. The umbilical and inguinal areas of weaned pigs were palpated at four and nine weeks of age. At the same time, altogether 124 pigs with hernias or abscesses and 820 non-defective pigs from three pens per batch were weighed individually. Mortality and the need to treat piglets for other diseases were recorded. Piglet faecal samples were collected from three areas of the floors of each pen at four weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias or abscesses did not differ between the groups at four weeks of age, but it was higher in the CON group than in the ANT group at nine weeks of age (2.3% vs. 0.7%, P resistant intestinal coliform bacteria and the resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates were not different between the ANT and CON groups. In conclusion, our results showed that the amoxicillin treatment of new-born piglets produced statistically significant effect in some of the parameters studied. However, as these effects were only minor, we did not find grounds to recommend preventive antibiotic treatment. Further, continuous antimicrobial treatment of newborn piglets could negatively influence the development of the normal microbiota of the piglet and promote selection of antimicrobial resistance genes in herds. Therefore we suggest rejection of the use of routine administration of

  10. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the ... lactam resistance in multidrug resistant E. coli in ESBL and non-ESBL isolates. .... and decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, particularly ertapenem (Perez et al.,.

  11. Ampicillin-Resistant Non-β-Lactamase-Producing Haemophilus influenzae in Spain: Recent Emergence of Clonal Isolates with Increased Resistance to Cefotaxime and Cefixime▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cobos, Silvia; Campos, José; Lázaro, Edurne; Román, Federico; Cercenado, Emilia; García-Rey, César; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Oteo, Jesús; de Abajo, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of the ftsI gene encoding the transpeptidase domain of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP 3) was determined for 354 nonconsecutive Haemophilus influenzae isolates from Spain; 17.8% of them were ampicillin susceptible, 56% were β-lactamase nonproducing ampicillin resistant (BLNAR), 15.8% were β-lactamase producers and ampicillin resistant, and 10.4% displayed both resistance mechanisms. The ftsI gene sequences had 28 different mutation patterns and amino acid substitutions at 23 positions. Some 93.2% of the BLNAR strains had amino acid substitutions at the Lys-Thr-Gly (KTG) motif, the two most common being Asn526 to Lys (83.9%) and Arg517 to His (9.3%). Amino acid substitutions at positions 377, 385, and 389, which conferred cefotaxime and cefixime MICs 10 to 60 times higher than those of susceptible strains, were found for the first time in Europe. In 72 isolates for which the repressor acrR gene of the AcrAB efflux pump was sequenced, numerous amino acid substitutions were found. Eight isolates with ampicillin MICs of 0.25 to 2 μg/ml showed changes that predicted the early termination of the acrR reading frame. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that most BLNAR strains were genetically diverse, although clonal dissemination was detected in a group of isolates presenting with increased resistance to cefotaxime and cefixime. Background antibiotic use at the community level revealed a marked trend toward increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid consumption. BLNAR H. influenzae strains have arisen by vertical and horizontal spread and have evolved to adapt rapidly to the increased selective pressures posed by the use of oral penicillins and cephalosporins. PMID:17470649

  12. Efficacy of ampicillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus restored through synergy with branched poly(ethylenimine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxley, Melissa A; Friedline, Anthony W; Jensen, Jessica M; Nimmo, Susan L; Scull, Erin M; King, Jarrod B; Strange, Stoffel; Xiao, Min T; Smith, Benjamin E; Thomas Iii, Kieth J; Glatzhofer, Daniel T; Cichewicz, Robert H; Rice, Charles V

    2016-12-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics kill Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by inhibiting the function of cell wall penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) 1 and 3. However, β-lactams are ineffective against PBP2a, used by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to perform essential cell wall crosslinking functions. PBP2a requires teichoic acid to properly locate and orient the enzyme, and thus MRSA is susceptible to antibiotics that prevent teichoic acid synthesis in the bacterial cytoplasm. As an alternative, we have used branched poly(ethylenimine), BPEI, to target teichoic acid in the bacterial cell wall. The result is restoration of MRSA susceptibility to the β-lactam antibiotic ampicillin with a MIC of 1 μg ml -1 , superior to that of vancomycin (MIC=3.7 μg ml -1 ). A checkerboard assay shows synergy of BPEI and ampicillin. NMR data show that BPEI alters the teichoic acid chemical environment. Laser scanning confocal microscopy images show BPEI residing on the bacterial cell wall, where teichoic acids and PBPs are located.

  13. Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance among Escherichia coli Strains in Trans-Nzoia County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Kibenei Kipkorir, Philip Bett, Patrick O. Onyango

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and the genetic basis to antimicrobial resistance, targeting blaTEM gene expression of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among patients suffering from gastroenteritis in Kitale County Referral Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was adopted. A total of 103 fecal specimens were collected from participants ranging in age from two weeks to 82 years. E. coli was isolated and identified based on phenotypic and biochemical properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of blaTEM gene. Results: The prevalence of E. coli was 90.2% and age of the patient explained 53% of variation in prevalence. Isolates of diarrheagenic E. coli showed varied degree of susceptibility with sulfamethoxazole at 97%, co-trimoxazole 96%, ampicillin 84%, chloramphenicol 27%, tetracycline 16%, kanamycin 10% and streptomycin 9%. However, E. coli was highly sensitive to gentamicin at 96.8%. Approximately 42.2% of E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin and streptomycin. All isolates that were resistant to ampicillin harbored blaTEM gene suggesting genetic mediation. Conclusion: The observed pattern of resistance to antibiotics points to the need to regulate their use and arrest buildup of resistant genes within the population. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(3: 107-112

  14. The effects of amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses, growth and ampicillin resistance of intestinal coliform bacteria in weaned pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively. The umbilical and inguinal areas of weaned pigs were palpated at four and nine weeks of age. At the same time, altogether 124 pigs with hernias or abscesses and 820 non-defective pigs from three pens per batch were weighed individually. Mortality and the need to treat piglets for other diseases were recorded. Piglet faecal samples were collected from three areas of the floors of each pen at four weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias or abscesses did not differ between the groups at four weeks of age, but it was higher in the CON group than in the ANT group at nine weeks of age (2.3% vs. 0.7%, P coliform bacteria and the resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates were not different between the ANT and CON groups. In conclusion, our results showed that the amoxicillin treatment of new-born piglets produced statistically significant effect in some of the parameters studied. However, as these effects were only minor, we did not find grounds to recommend preventive antibiotic treatment. Further, continuous antimicrobial treatment of newborn piglets could negatively influence the development of the normal microbiota of the piglet and promote selection of antimicrobial resistance genes in herds. Therefore we suggest rejection of the use of routine administration of antimicrobial agents at birth

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from chickens with colibacillosis in and around Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Bamusi; Mafirakureva, Prettimore; Mbanga, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Colibacillosis, a disease caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), can lead to great economic losses in the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance patterns in APEC in Zimbabwe. From 503 chickens diagnosed with colibacillosis, 103 E. coli isolates were obtained. Isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using microscopy and biochemical tests. The disc diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to 8 commercial antibiotics. Many isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antibiotic. Antibiogram profiles indicated maximum resistance to tetracycline (100%), bacitracin (100%), and cloxacillin (100%) and a high prevalence of resistance to ampicillin (94.1%). However; there were high prevalences of sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (100%) and gentamycin (97.1%). The isolates showed moderate rates of sensitivity to chloramphenicol and neomycin. All isolates in this study showed multidrug resistance because they were all resistant to 3 or more antibiotics. Seven multidrug resistance patterns were observed. The most common pattern (resistance to ampicillin, bacitracin, cloxacillin, and tetracycline) was exhibited by 30 isolates. Our findings show that there is emerging drug resistance in APEC associated with colibacillosis in Zimbabwe. The observed high level of multidrug resistance could hamper the treatment of colibacillosis in Zimbabwe.

  16. Virulence and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from rooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmet, Vladimir; Drugdova, Zuzana; Kmetova, Marta; Stanko, Michal

    2013-01-01

    With regard to antibiotic resistance studies in various model animals in the urban environment, the presented study focused on the rook, many behavioural and ecological aspects of which are important from an epidemiological point of view. A total of 130 Escherichia coli strains isolated from rook faeces during a two-year period (2011-2012) were investigated for antibiotic resistance and virulence. Resistance to ampicillin (60%) and streptomycin (40%) were the most frequent, followed by resistance to fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin-22% and enrofloxacin-24%), tetracycline (18%), cotrimoxazol (17%) and florfenicol (14%). Ceftiofur resistance occured in 10.7% of strains and cefquinom resistance in 1.5% of strains. Twenty-five E.coli strains with a higher level of MICs of cephalosporins (over 2mg/L of ceftazidime and ceftriaxon) and fluoroquinolones were selected for detection of betalactamase genes (CTX-M, CMY), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance qnrS, integrase 1, and for APEC (avian pathogenic E.coli) virulence factors (iutA, cvaC, iss, tsh, ibeA, papC, kpsII). Genes of CTX-M1, CMY-2, integrase 1, papC, cvaC, iutA were detected in one strain of E.coli, and qnrS, integrase 1, iss, cvaC, tsh were detected in another E.coli. DNA microarray revealed the absence of verotoxin and enterotoxin genes and pathogenicity islands. The results show that rooks can serve as a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant E. coli with avian pathogenic virulence factors for the human population, and potentially transmit such E.coli over long distances.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commensal bacteria contribute to the distribution and persistence of antimicrobial resistance in the environment. This study monitored antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from the faeces of on-farm and slaughter cattle and beef. A total of 342 (89.5%) E. coli isolates were obtained from 382 samples.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... Commensal bacteria contribute to the distribution and persistence of antimicrobial resistance in the environment. This study monitored antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from the faeces of on-farm and slaughter cattle and beef. A total of 342 (89.5%) E. coli isolates were obtained.

  19. Moderate prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from lettuce, irrigation water, and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Callens, Benedicte; Dewulf, Jeroen; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-11-01

    Fresh produce is known to carry nonpathogenic epiphytic microorganisms. During agricultural production and harvesting, leafy greens can become contaminated with antibiotic-resistant pathogens or commensals from animal and human sources. As lettuce does not undergo any inactivation or preservation treatment during processing, consumers may be exposed directly to all of the (resistant) bacteria present. In this study, we investigated whether lettuce or its production environment (irrigation water, soil) is able to act as a vector or reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Over a 1-year period, eight lettuce farms were visited multiple times and 738 samples, including lettuce seedlings (leaves and soil), soil, irrigation water, and lettuce leaves were collected. From these samples, 473 isolates of Escherichia coli were obtained and tested for resistance to 14 antimicrobials. Fifty-four isolates (11.4%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The highest resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (7%), followed by cephalothin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and streptomycin, with resistance rates between 4.4 and 3.6%. No resistance to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, or kanamycin was observed. One isolate was resistant to cefotaxime. Among the multiresistant isolates (n = 37), ampicillin and cephalothin showed the highest resistance rates, at 76 and 52%, respectively. E. coli isolates from lettuce showed higher resistance rates than E. coli isolates obtained from soil or irrigation water samples. When the presence of resistance in E. coli isolates from lettuce production sites and their resistance patterns were compared with the profiles of animal-derived E. coli strains, they were found to be the most comparable with what is found in the cattle reservoir. This may suggest that cattle are a potential reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli strains in plant primary production.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolated from humans and foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Benevides Melo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has increased in recent years, raising the concern of public health authorities. We conducted a study of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from human and food samples to assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and to determine the genotype and clonal relationship of 84 E. coli isolates (48 from humans and 36 from foods. An antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method. Virulence factors were evaluated by multiplex PCR, and the clonal relationship among the resistant isolates was studied by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Overall, 26%, 20.2%, 15.4% and 6% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and cephalotin, respectively. Twenty two percent of the isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. Multiple-drug resistance was mostly observed in the human isolates and involved the antibiotics ampicillin and tetracycline. None of the six virulence genes were identified among the isolates. Analysis of genetic diversity by PFGE of 31 resistant isolates, revealed 29 distinct restriction patterns. In conclusion, E. coli from humans and foods are resistant to commonly used antibiotics and are highly genetically diverse. In this setting, inappropriate use of antibiotics may be a cause of high resistance rate instead of clonal spread.

  1. Escherichia coli isolates from sick chickens in China: changes in antimicrobial resistance between 1993 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Weiqiu; Yin, Jiajun; Zhang, Ning; Geng, Shizhong; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Yanhong; Gao, Song; Jiao, Xinan

    2014-10-01

    The use of antimicrobials for the control of infectious disease has increased in recent decades. Understanding trends in antimicrobial resistance provides clues about the relationship between antimicrobial use and the emergence of resistance. We examined the resistance of 540 Escherichia coli isolates to 19 antimicrobials that represent 11 classes of antimicrobial agents. The isolates were collected from chickens between 1993 and 2013 in China. Overall, >96.7% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the tested compounds, and 87.2% of them displayed multidrug resistance (MDR) representing five to six antimicrobial classes. A high proportion of E. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline (90.6%), nalidixic acid (80.6%), ampicillin (77.2%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (76.9%), and streptomycin (72.8%). Only 3.0% of the isolates were resistant to nitrofurantoin, and none was resistant to meropenem. Resistance to amikacin, ampicillin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, piperacillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole significantly increased from 1993 to 2013 (P <0.01). There was an increasing trend in MDR over the 20 year period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella sp and Escherichia coli Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Salmonella sp and E. coli isolated were significantly resistant to gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, cefixine and ampicillin. Resistance to gentamicin was the least with 33-71% in Salmonella sp and 25-80% in E. coli. The level of drug resistance in these organisms is ascribed to ...

  3. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli from chicken and swine, China, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Shen, Zhangqi; Zhang, Chunping; Song, Li; Wang, Bing; Shang, Jun; Yue, Xiuying; Qu, Zhina; Li, Xinnan; Wu, Liqin; Zheng, Yongjun; Aditya, Anand; Wang, Yang; Xu, Shixin; Wu, Congming

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance trend in Escherichia coli from food animals in China. During 2008-2015, a total of 15,130 E. coli were isolated from chicken and swine from seven provinces. The susceptibilities of these isolates to nine classes of antimicrobial agents were determined using broth microdilution susceptibility method. The findings of this study include: (1) multi-drug resistance was highly prevalent in E. coli; (2) these E. coli isolates showed high resistant rate (>80%) to several old drugs, including ampicillin, tetracycline and sulfisoxazole; (3) increasing resistance to colistin, florfenicol and ceftiofur was observed; (4) the E. coli isolates from different provinces had different resistance patterns. All these data highlight the rising problem of antimicrobial resistance. It is urgent to improve the management of animal production and enhance the proper use of antimicrobials in China as well as the other countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening municipal wastewater effluent and surface water used for drinking water production for the presence of ampicillin and vancomycin resistant enterococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taucer-Kapteijn, M.; Hoogenboezem, Wim; Heiliegers, Laura; de Bolster, Danny; Medema, G.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of clinical enterococcal isolates that are resistant to both ampicillin and vancomycin is a cause of great concern, as therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of infections caused by such organisms are becoming limited. Aquatic environments could play a role in the dissemination

  5. Role of nutrient limitation and stationary-phase existence in Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm resistance to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, Jeff N; Zahller, Jeff; Roe, Frank; Stewart, Philip S

    2003-04-01

    Biofilms formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae resisted killing during prolonged exposure to ampicillin or ciprofloxacin even though these agents have been shown to penetrate bacterial aggregates. Bacteria dispersed from biofilms into medium quickly regained most of their susceptibility. Experiments with free-floating bacteria showed that stationary-phase bacteria were protected from killing by either antibiotic, especially when the test was performed in medium lacking carbon and nitrogen sources. These results suggested that the antibiotic tolerance of biofilm bacteria could be explained by nutrient limitation in the biofilm leading to stationary-phase existence of at least some of the cells in the biofilm. This mechanism was supported by experimental characterization of nutrient availability and growth status in biofilms. The average specific growth rate of bacteria in biofilms was only 0.032 h(-1) compared to the specific growth rate of planktonic bacteria of 0.59 h(-1) measured in the same medium. Glucose did not penetrate all the way through the biofilm, and oxygen was shown to penetrate only into the upper 100 micro m. The specific catalase activity was elevated in biofilm bacteria to a level similar to that of stationary-phase planktonic cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that bacteria were affected by ampicillin near the periphery of the biofilm but were not affected in the interior. Taken together, these results indicate that K. pneumoniae in this system experience nutrient limitation locally within the biofilm, leading to zones in which the bacteria enter stationary phase and are growing slowly or not at all. In these inactive regions, bacteria are less susceptible to killing by antibiotics.

  6. In vitro potentiation of ampicillin, oxacillin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin by sanguinarine against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Choi, Jang-Gi; Keum, Joon-Ho; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Su-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Won; Park, Chung-Berm; Kim, Young-Guk; Han, Sin-Hee; Lee, John-Hwa; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2011-08-01

    Few new drugs are available against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), because MRSA has the ability to acquire resistance to most antibiotics, which consequently increases the cost of medication. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potentiation of sanguinarine (SN) with selected antibiotics (ampicillin [AC], oxacillin [OX], norfloxacin [NR], ciprofloxacin [CP], and vancomycin [VC]) against MRSA. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by using the broth microdilution method and the synergistic effect of AC, OX, NR, CP, and VC in combination with SN was examined by the checkerboard dilution test. The results of the checkerboard test suggested that all combinations exhibited some synergy, partial synergy, or additivity. None of the combinations showed an antagonism effect. The combination of SN plus CP exhibited maximum synergistic effect in 11/13 strains, followed by SN plus NR in 9/13 strains, and AC and OX in 7/13 strains each. The combination of SN with VC, however, mostly showed partial synergy in 11/13 strains. The time-kill assay showed that SN in combination with other antibiotics reduced the bacterial count by 10(2)-10(3) colony forming units after 4 h and to less than the lowest detectable limit after 24 h. Although in vivo synergy and clinical efficacy of SN cannot be predicted, it can be concluded that SN has the potential to restore the effectiveness of the selected antibiotics, and it can be considered in an alternative MRSA treatment.

  7. Simultaneous delivery of antibiotics neomycin and ampicillin in drinking water inhibits fermentation of resistant starch in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Aldaz, Diana G; Guice, Justin L; Page, Ryan C; Raggio, Anne M; Martin, Roy J; Husseneder, Claudia; Durham, Holiday A; Geaghan, James; Janes, Marlene; Gauthier, Ted; Coulon, Diana; Keenan, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Antibiotics ampicillin 1 g/L and neomycin 0.5 g/L were added to drinking water before or during feeding of resistant starch (RS) to rats to inhibit fermentation. In a preliminary study, antibiotics and no RS were given prior to rats receiving a transplant of cecal contents via gavage from donor rats fed RS (without antibiotics) or a water gavage before feeding resistant starch to both groups. Antibiotics given prior to feeding RS did not prevent later fermentation of RS regardless of either type of gavage. In the second study, antibiotics were given simultaneously with feeding of RS. This resulted in inhibition of fermentation of RS with cecal contents pH >8 and low amounts of acetate and butyrate. Rats treated with antibiotics had reduced Bifidobacteria spp., but similar Bacteroides spp. to control groups to reduce acetate and butyrate and preserve the production of propionate. Despite reduced fermentation, rats given antibiotics had increased glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and cecum size, measures that are usually associated with fermentation. A simultaneous delivery of antibiotics inhibited fermentation of RS. However, increased GLP-1 and cecum size would be confounding effects in assessing the mechanism for beneficial effects of dietary RS by knocking out fermentation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Antibiotic resistance properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains isolated from pregnant women with history of recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) and healthy pregnant women. Methods: A total of 485 high vaginal swab specimens were collected from pregnant women with ...

  9. Antibiotic resistance properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus, ..... and Argentina [28]. CONCLUSION. As far as we know, the present study is the first prevalence report on antibiotic resistance pattern of UPEC strains in ... serogroups profiles of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated ...

  10. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the objective of examining the outer membrane proteins and their involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the response of gram negative bacterial biomembrane alteration was studied using extended ...

  11. Assessment of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates and screening of Salmonella spp. in wild ungulates from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Diana; Torres, Rita T; Kronvall, Göran; Fonseca, Carlos; Mendo, Sónia; Caetano, Tânia

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global problem. Wild animals are rarely exposed to antibiotics and therefore low levels of antibiotic resistance are expected. However, the growing interactions of these animals with humans and livestock may have a huge impact on their bacterial flora. This study aimed to assess the levels of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from widespread wild ungulates in Portugal. The interpretation of inhibition zone diameters was performed according to clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cut-offs, determined with the normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method. For clinical breakpoints, 16% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, including ampicillin (10%), tetracycline (9%), streptomycin (5%) co-trimoxazole (4%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%) and cefoxitin (1%). The levels of resistance detected in E. coli strains isolated from wild boar were statistically different for ampicillin and co-trimoxasol. According to NRI cut-offs, 10% of the population showed a non-wild-type phenotype against at least one antibiotic, also including tetracycline (9%), co-trimoxazole (6%), streptomycin (4%), ampicillin (2%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%). Considering this parameter of comparison, no statistically different levels of resistance were identified between E. coli recovered from the three wild ungulates. Screening of Salmonella spp., which can be potentially pathogenic, was also performed, revealing that its prevalence was very low (1.5%). The study demonstrated that wild ungulates from Portugal are also reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Outbreak of Ampicillin/Piperacillin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU: Investigation and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Farruggia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control.

  13. Outbreak of ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU): investigation and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Giuliana; Panico, Manuela; Dallolio, Laura; Suzzi, Roberta; Ciccia, Matilde; Sandri, Fabrizio; Farruggia, Patrizia

    2013-02-26

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control.

  14. Outbreak of Ampicillin/Piperacillin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU): Investigation and Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Giuliana; Panico, Manuela; Dallolio, Laura; Suzzi, Roberta; Ciccia, Matilde; Sandri, Fabrizio; Farruggia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control. PMID:23442560

  15. [Resistence of Escherichia coli, the most frequent cause of urinary tract infection in children, to antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Vesna; Milosević, Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) take the second place in the incidence of bacterial infection in children. Escherichia coli is a cause of infection in 85-90%. A periodic evaluation of the resistance to antimicrobial drugs has to be performed in each geographic region, since investigations confirmed that the resistance of bacteria causing UTI has been in progress. A retrospective investigation has been performed, comprising the two time periods in the range of 10 years in order to identify the prevalence and resistance of the bacteria causing UTI in the patients treated at the Department of Nephrology of Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina. During the first investigated period from January 1996 up to December 1997, there were 163 urin analyses performed vs 134 urine analyses in the second period, starting from January 2006 to December 2007. In both periods, Escherichia coli, was the most frequent cause of UTI (82.1% in 1996/97 vs 86.50% in 2006/07). During this ten-year period, the resistance of Escherichia coli increased both to ampicillin (from 53% to 69% (p > 0.05) and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (34% vs 55%; p resistance to ceftazidim, gentamycin and nalidixic acid, but significant increase to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and cephalexin. For the initial therapy of UTI in the Province of Vojvodina we recommend: perorally--ephalosporins I, II and III generation, and in case when the child is not capable to get therapy perorally, or in the case of highly febrile infant--ephalosporins III generation parenterally.

  16. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile.

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    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001. Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001. The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the

  17. Genetic elements associated with antimicrobial resistance among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli

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    Amal Awad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC are pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most predominant bacterial disease affecting poultry worldwide called avian colibacillosis. This study describes the genetic determinants implicated in antimicrobial resistance among APEC isolated from different broiler farms in Egypt. Methods A total of 116 APEC were investigated by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance patterns to 10 antimicrobials, and the genetic mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes. Results Antibiogram results showed that the highest resistance was observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and chloramphenicol. The detected carriage rate of integron was 29.3% (34/116. Further characterization of gene cassettes revealed the presence gene cassettes encoding resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, aadA23, and streptothricin (sat2. To our knowledge, this the first description of the presence of aadA23 in APEC isolates. Analysis of other antimicrobial resistance types not associated with integrons revealed the predominance of resistance genes encoding resistance to tetracycline (tetA and tetB, ampicillin (bla TEM, chloramphenicol (cat1, kanamycin (aphA1, and sulphonamide (sul1 and sul2. Among ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, the S83L mutation was the most frequently substitution observed in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA (56.3%. The bla TEM and bla CTX−M−1 genes were the most prevalent among APEC isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESβL. Conclusions These findings provided important clues about the role of integron-mediated resistance genes together with other independent resistance genes and chromosomal mutations in shaping the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from poultry farms in Egypt.

  18. Genetic elements associated with antimicrobial resistance among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

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    Awad, Amal; Arafat, Nagah; Elhadidy, Mohamed

    2016-11-25

    Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most predominant bacterial disease affecting poultry worldwide called avian colibacillosis. This study describes the genetic determinants implicated in antimicrobial resistance among APEC isolated from different broiler farms in Egypt. A total of 116 APEC were investigated by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance patterns to 10 antimicrobials, and the genetic mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes. Antibiogram results showed that the highest resistance was observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and chloramphenicol. The detected carriage rate of integron was 29.3% (34/116). Further characterization of gene cassettes revealed the presence gene cassettes encoding resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12), streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, aadA23), and streptothricin (sat2). To our knowledge, this the first description of the presence of aadA23 in APEC isolates. Analysis of other antimicrobial resistance types not associated with integrons revealed the predominance of resistance genes encoding resistance to tetracycline (tetA and tetB), ampicillin (bla TEM ), chloramphenicol (cat1), kanamycin (aphA1), and sulphonamide (sul1 and sul2). Among ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, the S83L mutation was the most frequently substitution observed in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA (56.3%). The bla TEM and bla CTX-M-1 genes were the most prevalent among APEC isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESβL). These findings provided important clues about the role of integron-mediated resistance genes together with other independent resistance genes and chromosomal mutations in shaping the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from poultry farms in Egypt.

  19. Study of Sensibility and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection in Tabriz City

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    Hamed Molaabaszadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background & Objective: Urinary infection is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases, and Escherichia coli is the most important cause of urinary infections. This study was done with the aim of surveying the amount of susceptibility and resistance among the strains of Escherichia coli isolated from those who referred to the private laboratories in the Iranian city of Tabriz.   Materials & Methods: This survey was done periodically during the first 6 months of the year 2010. Samples were obtained in a sterile manner and were subjected to all necessary pathological tests. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility was conducted with disk diffusion standard method, and the results were analyzed.   Results: Totally, 5701 Escherichia coli strains were identified. The highest sensitivity to Imipenem was 90.95%, Nitrofurantoin 85.97%, and Cefotaxime 71.02% and the highest resistance to Ampicillin was 83.95%, Tetracycline 80.97%, and Co-trimoxazole 63.92%.   Conclusion: Our results suggest that the cause of the high resistance of Escherichia coli strains to Ampicillin and Tetracycline could be the consumption of these antibiotics. Therefore, abstaining from overuse of unnecessary antibiotics and production of new-generation and cost-effective antibiotics are recommend. 

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in equine faecal Escherichia coli isolates from North West England

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    Williams Nicola J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli isolates of equine faecal origin were investigated for antibiotic resistance, resistance genes and their ability to perform horizontal transfer. Methods In total, 264 faecal samples were collected from 138 horses in hospital and community livery premises in northwest England, yielding 296 resistant E. coli isolates. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods in order to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. PCR amplification was used to detect genes conferring resistance to: ampicillin (TEM and SHV beta-lactamase, chloramphenicol (catI, catII, catIII and cml, tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tet E and tetG, and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA9, dfrA12, dfrA13, dfr7, and dfr17. Results The proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates, and multidrug resistant isolates (MDR was significantly higher in hospital samples compared to livery samples (MDR: 48% of hospital isolates; 12% of livery isolates, p dfr, TEM beta-lactamase, tet and cat, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, respectively. Within each antimicrobial resistance group, these genes occurred at frequencies of 93% (260/279, 91%, 86.8% and 73.5%, respectively; with 115/296 (38.8% found to be MDR isolates. Conjugation experiments were performed on selected isolates and MDR phenotypes were readily transferred. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that E. coli of equine faecal origin are commonly resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Furthermore, our results suggest that most antibiotic resistance observed in equine E. coli is encoded by well-known and well-characterized resistant genes common to E. coli from man and domestic animals. These data support the ongoing concern about antimicrobial resistance, MDR, antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic risk that horses could potentially pose to

  1. Evaluation of Eight Different Cephalosporins for Detection of Cephalosporin Resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Veldman, K

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta......-resistant but cephalosporin-susceptible, 56 ESBL isolates and 19 isolates with plasmidic AmpC, as well as 10 ampC hyper-producing E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration distributions and zone inhibitions varied with the tested compound. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to the cephalosporins...... be the recommended substance for monitoring because of some ability in separating ampC hyper-producing E. coli from ESBL and plasmidic AmpC isolates....

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from different parts of the digestive tract of sheep

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    E. Afshari-Safavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate differences in resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from different parts of sheep digestive tract, the intestinal tracts of 24 sheep were sampled at various locations (duode-num, jejunum, caecum, colon and rectum after slaughter. Samples were cultured on MacConkey agar and obtained colonies were confirmed as E. coli based on the biochemical tests results. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 10 antibiotics (colistin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, ampicillin, cephotaxime, neomycin and florfenicol, using disc diffusion method. The tested E. coli resistant to colistin, ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were isolated more frequently from large intestine (rectum than from small intestine (duodenum (P<0.05. In conclusion, antimicrobial resistance pattern of generic E. coli inhabiting the intestinal tract of sheep depends on sampling location, which should be considered in interpreting the results of antimicrobial resistance tests of E. coli isolated from the faecal samples and generalising results to bacteria colonised in other parts of the digestive tract

  3. Multivariable Analysis of the Association Between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Pigs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kohei; Goto, Masaki; Ozawa, Manao; Kawanishi, Michiko; Koike, Ryoji; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between antimicrobial agent use and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs using data from 2004 to 2007 in the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM). Fecal E. coli isolates from 250 pigs (one isolate each from a pig per farm) were examined for antimicrobial resistance. Information on the use of antimicrobials within preceding 6 months and types of farms recorded in JVARM was collected and statistically analyzed against the resistance patterns. In the univariate analysis, associations between both therapeutic and feed additive use of antimicrobials, and resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, colistin, and bicozamycin, and husbandry factors were investigated. In multivariable analysis, generalized estimating equations were used to control geographical intraclass correlation. Confounding for structurally unrelated associations was tested using generalized linear models. The results suggested direct and cross selections in the associations between use of aminoglycosides in reproduction farms and resistance to kanamycin, use of tetracyclines in larger farms and resistance to oxytetracycline, use of beta-lactams and resistance to ampicillin, use of phenicols and resistance to chloramphenicol, and use of fluoroquinolones and resistance to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Coselection was suggested in the use of tetracyclines and chloramphenicol resistance. The associations between use of beta-lactams and dihydrostreptomycin resistance, use of macrolides and ampicillin and oxytetracycline resistance, and use of colistin and kanamycin resistance were significant, but were confounded by the simultaneous use of homologous antimicrobials.

  4. [In vitro induction of transmissive resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ampicillin chloramphenicol in Vibrio cholera non-O1/non-O139 serogroups isolated within 1990-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selianskaia, N A; Ryzhko, I V; Verkina, L M; Trishina, A V; Mironova, A V

    2011-01-01

    Inducible character of resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ampicillin was investigated in 20 strains of Vibrio cholera non-O1/non-O139 serogroups isolated from inhabitants of Uzbekistan in 1990 (10 strains, ctx+) and in 2001 (5 strains, ctx-) and from inhabitants of Kalmykiya within 2003-2005 (5 strains, ctx-). Eight of the 20 isolates showed not only capacity for induction of the antibiotic resistance, but also its possible self transfer to Escherichia coli and reverse crosses in El Tor V. cholerae P-5879. It was shown that the effect of the antibacterial on the isolates phenotypic susceptibility could increase the resistance markers expression, when the genomes contained sites responsible for their expression, that required constant bacteriological control of the treatment efficacy and the use of the isolates antibioticograms for early replace of the inefficient drug by the efficient one. The prevalence of V. cholerae O1 and non-O1/non-O13 serogroups with multiple resistance to the antibacterial and the genetic potency for the antibiotic resistance development in the pathogen made difficult the choice of efficient drugs for prophylaxis and treatment of diseases caused by V. cholerae.

  5. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Sources in Hangzhou City

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    Zhaojun Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli and examined the possible relationship between water quality parameters and antibiotic resistance from two different drinking water sources (the Qiantang River and the Dongtiao Stream in Hangzhou city of China. E. coli isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Most of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TE, followed by ampicillin (AM, piperacillin (PIP, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT, and chloramphenicol (C. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli isolates from two water sources was similar; For E. coli isolates from the Qiantang River, their antibiotic resistance rates decreased from up- to downstream. Seasonally, the dry and wet season had little impact on antibiotic resistance. Spearman's rank correlation revealed significant correlation between resistance to TE and phenicols or ciprofloxacin (CIP, as well as quinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin and cephalosporins or gentamicin (GM. Pearson's chi-square tests found certain water parameters such as nutrient concentration were strongly associated with resistance to some of the antibiotics. In addition, tet genes were detected from all 82 TE-resistant E. coli isolates, and most of the isolates (81.87% contained multiple tet genes, which displayed 14 different combinations. Collectively, this study provided baseline data on antibiotic resistance of drinking water sources in Hangzhou city, which indicates drinking water sources could be the reservoir of antibiotic resistance, potentially presenting a public health risk.

  6. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  7. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheal cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Mehdi M.; Salmanzadeh-Ahrabi, S.; Jafari, F.; Zali, Reza M.; Mani, M.; Alikhani, Yousef M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to identify and classify Iranian isolates of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the basis of presence of virulence genes and to determine antibiotic susceptibility of isolated strains. The current cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 at the Pasteur Institute, Tehran, Iran. One hundred and ninety-three diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from diarrheal patients in different regions of Iran were included in current study. Virulence factors genees for diarrheagenic E. coli were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 193 diarrheagenic E. coli detected by PCR, 86(44.5%) were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 74 (38.4%) enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 19 (9.8%) enteroaggregative E. coli and 14 (7.3%) enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates. Susceptibility to 12 clinically important antimicrobial agents was determined for 193 strains of diarrhheagenic E. coli. A high incidence of resistance to tetracycline (63%), ampicillin (62%), streptomycin (56%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (44.5%), trimetoprim/sulphamethoxazole (39.5%) and cephalothin (37%) was observed. The STEC and EPEC strains with high resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin but highly susceptible to quinolones are among the most important causative agent of diarrhea in Iran. This study suggests that antimicrobial resistance is wide spread among E. coli strains colonizing Iranian patients. Guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics in developing countries require updating. (author)

  8. Inhibition of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by combination of ampicillin and a bioactive fraction from Duabanga grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Carolina; Pang, Ee Leen; Lim, Kuan-Hon; Loh, Hwei-San; Ting, Kang Nee

    2015-06-10

    The inhibition of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) is a promising solution in overcoming resistance of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A potential approach in achieving this is by combining natural product with currently available antibiotics to restore the activity as well as to amplify the therapeutic ability of the drugs. We studied inhibition effects of a bioactive fraction, F-10 (isolated from the leaves of Duabanga grandiflora) alone and in combination with a beta-lactam drug, ampicillin on MRSA growth and expression of PBP2a. Additionally, phytochemical analysis was conducted on F-10 to identify the classes of phytochemicals present. Fractionation of the ethyl acetate leaf extract was achieved by successive column chromatography which eventually led to isolation of an active fraction, F-10. Both extract and F-10 were analyzed for the presence of major classes of phytochemicals in addition to obtaining a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile to reveal the complexity of the fraction F-10. Broth microdilution method was employed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract and fractions against MRSA. Evaluation of synergistic activity of the active fraction with ampicillin was determined using checkerboard methodand kinetic growth experiments. Effect of combination treatments on expression of PBP2a, a protein that confers resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, was elucidated with the Western blot assay. MIC of F-10 against MRSA was 750 mg/L which showed an improved activity by 4-fold compared to its crude extract (MIC = 3000 mg/L). Phytochemical analysis revealed occurrence of tannins, saponin, flavonoids, sterols, and glycosides in F10 fraction. In FIC index interpretation, the most synergistic activity was achieved for combinations of 1/64 × MIC ampicillin + 1/4 × MIC F-10. The combination also evidently inhibited MRSA growth in kinetic growth curve assay. As a result of this synergistic

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antibiotic resistance of commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy pigs

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    Mazurek Justyna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the characteristics of the resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs from three farms in Western Poland. The sensitivity to 13 antimicrobial agents was tested by a disk diffusion method, and the presence of 13 resistance genes was determined by PCR. The majority of the isolates were multi-resistant. The most common multi-resistance patterns were streptomycin, trimethoprim, sulfisoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline. Although some resistance genes, such as strA/strB, blaTEM, sul1, sul2, and tetA, were equally represented in isolates from each farm, differences in the distribution of tetB and tetC, hfrV, dhfrXII, and sul1 resistance genes were observed among the isolates from different farms. Approximately one-third (35.9% of the isolates possessed a class 1 integron. The four major different variable regions of the class 1 integron contained streptomycin (aadA1, aadA2, and aadA5 and/or trimethoprim (dhfrI, dhfrV and dhfrXVII, and/or sulphonamides (sul1 resistance genes. The results of this study emphasise that uncontrolled use of antibiotics causes the development of resistance and provides the evidence of frequent occurrence of more than one gene encoding the resistance to the same antimicrobial agent in the multi-resistant strains.

  10. Sensitivity of antibiotic resistant and antibiotic susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains against ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role.

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Wild Animals in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyl, Dariusz; Zając, Magdalena; Lalak, Anna; Skarżyńska, Magdalena; Samcik, Ilona; Kwit, Renata; Jabłoński, Artur; Bocian, Łukasz; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2017-11-29

    Antimicrobial resistance was tested in Escherichia coli isolated from feces (n = 660) of red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, European bison, and wild boar shot in regional forests in Poland during two winter hunting seasons. Indicator E. coli (n = 542) was resistant against 11 of 14 tested compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline (1.3-6.6% range). No significant differences were observed between boar and ruminant isolates. Most of deer and bison isolates showed no resistance. Selective screening of wildlife samples revealed 1.7% prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli found mostly in wild boars. They produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (bla CTX-M-1 , bla CTX-M-15 ) and plasmid-mediated AmpC-type cephalosporinase (bla CMY-2 ). The majority of the isolates originated from boars shot in a narrow time frame and space; therefore, common antimicrobial selection pressure in the environment was assumed. Three E. coli isolates carried plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (qnrS1/S3). No transferable colistin resistance mechanisms were found in two resistant E. coli. Transferability of resistance was proved in a single pAmpC-positive isolate carrying IncI1-alpha 95 kb plasmid. No cephalosporin-resistant E. coli harbored pathogenicity markers; therefore, they might be considered a vector of resistance determinants, but not a pathogen themselves.

  12. Fate of classical faecal bacterial markers and ampicillin-resistant bacteria in agricultural soils under Mediterranean climate after urban sludge amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Platero, Leticia; Nadal, Ignacio; Navarro-García, Federico

    2016-09-15

    The use of sewage sludge or biosolids as agricultural amendments may pose environmental and human health risks related to pathogen or antibiotic-resistant microorganism transmission from soils to vegetables or to water through runoff. Since the survival of those microorganisms in amended soils has been poorly studied under Mediterranean climatic conditions, we followed the variation of soil fecal bacterial markers and ampicillin-resistant bacteria for two years with samplings every four months in a split block design with three replica in a crop soil where two different types of biosolids (aerobically or anaerobically digested) at three doses (low, 40; intermediate, 80; and high, 160Mg·ha(-1)) were applied. Low amounts of biosolids produced similar decay rates of coliform populations than in control soil (-0.19 and -0.27log10CFUs·g(-1)drysoilmonth(-1) versus -0.22) while in the case of intermediate and high doses were close to zero and their populations remained 24months later in the range of 4-5log10CFUs·g(-1)ds. Enterococci populations decayed at different rates when using aerobic than anaerobic biosolids although high doses had higher rates than control (-0.09 and -0.13log10CFUs·g(-1)dsmonth(-1) for aerobic and anaerobic, respectively, vs -0.07). At the end of the experiment, counts in high aerobic and low and intermediate anaerobic plots were 1 log10 higher than in control (4.21, 4.03, 4.2 and 3.11log10CFUs·g(-1) ds, respectively). Biosolid application increased the number of Clostridium spores in all plots at least 1 log10 with respect to control with a different dynamic of decay for low and intermediate doses of aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Ampicillin-resistant bacteria increased in amended soils 4months after amendment and remained at least 1 log10 higher 24months later, especially in aerobic and low and intermediate anaerobic plots due to small rates of decay (in the range of -0.001 to -0.008log10CFUs·g(-1)dsmonth(-1) vs -0.016 for control). Aerobic

  13. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from retail raw chicken meat in Taif, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalhi, Abdullah D; Gherbawy, Youssuf A; Hassan, Sabry A

    2010-03-01

    The present study was carried out to screen and analyze the genetic characteristics of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from chicken meat marketed in the local markets of the Taif region in Saudi Arabia. A total of 119 samples were purchased from various supermarkets and examined for bacterial contamination with resistant E. coli. Thirty-seven E. coli isolates were evaluated for their antibiotic susceptibilities and the presence of class 1 integrons and antibiotic resistance genes. Results of antibiograms revealed that E. coli isolates were resistant to one or more of the antibiotics tested. Resistance was most frequently observed against sulphafurazole (89.2%), ampicillin (78.4%), nalidixic acid (70.3%), streptomycin (48.6%), chloramphenicol (32.4%), and gentamicin (24.3%). Fifteen E. coli strains have multidrug resistance phenotypes and harbored at least three antibiotic resistance genes. The bla(TEM) (beta-lactamase) and sul (sulfonamide) resistance encoding genes were detected in all the tested isolates. Polymerase chain reaction screening detected class 1 integrons in all multiresistant E. coli isolates. The present study provides an assessment of the occurrence of multidrug resistance of E. coli from raw chicken meat collected from local markets.

  14. Characterisation of quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli of 1997 and 2005 isolates from poultry in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio-Avila, C; Rosario, C; Arroyo-Escalante, S; Carrillo-Casas, E M; Díaz-Aparicio, E; Suarez-Güemes, F; Silva-Sanchez, J; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, J; Maravilla, P; Hernández-Castro, R

    2016-08-01

    Forty-two enrofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from eggs and first-week mortality associated with yolk sac infection of two vertically integrated poultry companies of Central Mexico in 1997 and 2005 were characterised. E. coli resistance to 19 antibiotics was determined, as well as the minimum inhibitory concentrations (broth dilution) for ciprofloxacin. The presence of gyrA,B, parC,E chromosomal point mutations, qnrA,B,S plasmid genes and the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase aac(6')-Ib-cr were determined by PCR and sequencing. Resistance to ampicillin (95%), piperacillin (95%), gatifloxacin (95%), levofloxacin (95%), ampicillin/sulbactam (90%), cefazolin (85%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (80%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (80%), aztreonam (80%), cefepime (80%), cefotaxime (80%), ceftazidime (80%), ceftriaxone (80%) and cefoxitin (75%) was high in the 2005 strains and 19 (95%) strains were resistant to 7 or more antimicrobials. The strains from 1997 expressed high rates of resistance only to the fluoroquinolones and 4 strains (18%) expressed resistance to 7 or more antimicrobials. All strains had a gyrA mutation (Ser83Leu) and a parC mutation (Ser80Ile or Ser80Arg) and 41 (97.6%) strains had a second gyrA mutation (Asp87Asn, Asp87Tyr or Asp87Gly). Only two (4.7%) strains had a parE mutation (Ser458Ala). A total of 10 strains were positive for the aac(6')-Ib wild-type gene, 6 strains for the aac(6')-Ib-cr variant and 6 strains possessed both the wild type and the variant. No gyrB mutations or qnrA,B,S genes were detected. This is the first report in Latin America of chromosomal and plasmid quinolone resistance genes in E. coli strains recovered from poultry.

  15. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

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    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  16. No Development of Imipenem Resistance in Pneumonia Caused by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to rise due to the increased number of antibiotic prescriptions and is now a major threat to public health. In particular, there is an increase in antibiotic resistance to Escherichia coli according to the latest reports. This article examines, retrospectively, antibiotic resistance in patients with community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by E coli. The data of all patients with community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by E coli were collected from the hospital charts at the HELIOS Clinic, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany, within the study period 2004 to 2014. An antibiogram was performed for the study patients with pneumonia caused by E coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for the different antibiotics that have been consistently used in the treatment of patients with pneumonia caused by E coli. All demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of all of the patients with pneumonia caused by E coli were collected from the patients' records. During the study period of January 1, 2004 to August 12, 2014, 135 patients were identified with community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia affected by E coli. These patients had a mean age of 72.5 ± 11.6 (92 [68.1%, 95% CI 60.2%-76.0%] males and 43 [31.9%, 95% CI 24.0%-39.8%] females). E coli had a high resistance rate to ampicillin (60.7%), piperacillin (56.3%), ampicillin-sulbactam (44.4%), and co-trimoxazole (25.9%). No patients with pneumonia caused by E coli showed resistance to imipenem (P E coli was resistant to many of the typically used antibiotics. No resistance was detected toward imipenem in patients with pneumonia caused by E coli.

  17. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  18. Persistence of Escherichia coli clones and phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance in recurrent urinary tract infections in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kõljalg, Siiri; Truusalu, Kai; Vainumäe, Inga

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the clonality of consecutive Escherichia coli isolates during the course of recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) in childhood in order to compare clonality with phenotypic antibiotic resistance patterns, the presence of integrons, and the presence of the sul1, sul2, and sul3 genes....... Altogether, 78 urinary E. coli isolates from 27 children, who experienced recurrences during a 1-year follow-up after the first attack of acute pyelonephritis, were investigated. The MICs of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and gentamicin...

  19. Antibiotic resistant Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A hundred and four indigenous chicken rectal swabs were analysed, of which 67.3% were contaminated with Escherichia coli and 12.5% with Salmonella typhimurium. Seventy Escherichia coli isolates showed resistance phenotypes to one, two or more antibiotics. The most common antimicrobial resistance pattern ...

  20. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance and Novel Point Mutation in Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Mangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Kogaluru Shivakumaraswamy; Deekshit, Vijaya Kumar; Venugopal, Moleyuru Nagarajappa; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2017-12-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria is usually associated with mutations in the topoisomerase regions. We report a novel point mutation in fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains. E. coli isolated from the environment in and around Mangalore, India, were examined for their antimicrobial resistance profile to 12 antibiotics and for the antibiotic resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 67 E. coli isolated, 24 (35.8%) were sensitive to all antibiotics and 43 (64.2%) showed resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics used in the study. One isolate (EC10) was resistant to nine of the 12 antibiotics used. Resistance to nalidixic acid was the most common (34.32%), followed by nitrofurantoin (26.86%), tetracycline (22.38%), ampicillin (20.89%), cotrimoxazole (13.43%), ciprofloxacin (11.94%), gentamicin (10.44%), piperacillin/tazobactam (7.46%), chloramphenicol (7.46%), and cefotaxime (4.47%). Least resistance was observed for meropenem (1.49%) and none of the isolates showed resistance to imipenem. All the isolates harbored resistance genes corresponding to their antimicrobial resistance. Few quinolone-resistant isolates carried single point mutation (ser83Leu) and some had double point mutation (Ser83Leu and Asp87Asn) in gyrA. A third novel point mutation was also observed at position 50 with the change in the amino acid from tyrosine to cysteine (Tyr50Cys) in gyrA region. The study throws light on a novel point mutation in fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. While the study helps to understand the risk and occurrence of antibiotic resistance among gram-negative bacteria from the environment, the alarming rate of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a cause of concern in addressing infections.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and phylogenetic characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from clinically healthy swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Khin Khin; Koowattananukul, Chailai; Chansong, Nisit; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2012-11-01

    A total of 344 commensal Escherichia coli isolates from clinically healthy pigs were examined for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, class 1 integrons, resistance genes, virulence gene profile, and phylogenetic groups. The majority of E. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline (96.2%) and ampicillin (91.6%). Up to 98% were multidrug resistant. Seventy-three percent of the isolates carried class 1 integrons. Inserted-gene cassette arrays in variable regions included incomplete sat, aadA22, aadA1, dfrA12-aadA2, and sat-psp-aadA2, of which the aadA2 gene cassette was most prevalent (42.9%). Horizontal transfer was detected in eight E. coli isolates carrying class 1 integrons with dfrA12-aadA2 gene cassette array. Sixteen resistance genes were identified among the E. coli isolates with corresponding resistance phenotype. Ten virulence genes (including elt, estA, estB, astA, faeG, fasA, fedA, eaeA, paa, and sepA) were detected, of which fasA was most commonly found (98.3%). Most of the E. coli isolates belonged to phylogenetic group B1. Significantly positive associations were observed between some virulence genes and some resistance phenotypes and genotypes (p antimicrobial resistance-encoding genes and virulence determinants.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from poultry and livestock, China.

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    Afrah Kamal Yassin

    Full Text Available Poultry and livestock are the most important reservoirs for pathogenic Escherichia coli and use of antimicrobials in animal farming is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. The aim of our study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from food animals in Jiangsu, China. The disc diffusion method was used to determine susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents in 862 clinical isolates collected from chickens, ducks, pigs, and cows between 2004 and 2012. Overall, 94% of the isolates showed resistance to at least one drug with 83% being resistance to at least three different classes of antimicrobials. The isolates from the different species were most commonly resistant to tetracycline, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin, and showed increasing resistance to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin. They were least resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (3.4% and ertapenem (0.2%. MDR was most common in isolates from ducks (44/44, 100%, followed by chickens (568/644, 88.2%, pigs (93/113, 82.3% and cows (13/61, 21.3%. Our finding that clinical E. coli isolates from poultry and livestock are commonly resistant to multiple antibiotics should alert public health and veterinary authorities to limit and rationalize antimicrobial use in China.

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic profiling of antimicrobial resistance in enteric Escherichia coli communities isolated from finisher pigs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M G; Jordan, D; Gibson, J S; Cobbold, R N; Chapman, T A; Abraham, S; Trott, D J

    2016-10-01

    To assess herd-to-herd variation in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in faecal commensal Escherichia coli communities isolated from Australian slaughter-age pigs. Hydrophobic grid-membrane filtration (HGMF) was used to screen populations of E. coli isolated from faecal samples obtained from pigs prior to or at slaughter. Multiplex PCRs were applied to the pooled DNA extracted from the samples to identify specific ARGs. Pooled faecal samples from 30 finishers, from 72 different Australian pig farms, produced 5003 isolates for screening. HGMF techniques and image analysis were used to confirm E. coli resistance phenotypes to four antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, gentamicin, florfenicol and ceftiofur) using selective agars. Multiplex PCRs were performed on DNA from pooled samples for 35 ARGs associated with seven chemical classes. The prevalence of E. coli isolates showing no resistance to any of the drugs was 50.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 41.8-58.6%). Ceftiofur resistance was very low (1.8%; CI 0.8-3.9%) and no ARGs associated with 3rd-generation cephalosporin resistance were detected. By contrast, ampicillin (29.4%, CI 22.8-37.0%), florfenicol (24.3%, CI 17.8-32.3%) and gentamicin (CI 17.5%, 10.7-27.2%) resistance prevalence varied greatly between farms and associated ARGs were common. The most common combined resistance phenotype was ampicillin-florfenicol. The use of registered antimicrobials in Australian pigs leads to the enteric commensal populations acquiring associated ARGs. However, despite a high intensity of sampling, ARGs imparting resistance to the critically important 3rd-generation cephalosporins were not detected. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Characterization of Colistin-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Diseased Pigs in France

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    Sabine Delannoy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied a collection of 79 colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates isolated from diseased pigs in France between 2009 and 2013. We determined a number of phenotypic and genetic characters using broth microdilution to characterize their antimicrobial susceptibility. We performed pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to assess their genetic diversity and assign them to phylogroups. High-throughput real-time PCR micro-array was used to screen for a selection of genetic markers of virulence, and PCR and sequencing of the main recognized resistance genes allowed us to investigate the mechanisms of colistin resistance. Results showed that isolates belonged to several phylogroups and most had a unique PFGE profile. More than 50% of the isolates were also resistant to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, ampicillin or chloramphenicol. The mcr-1 gene was detected in 70 out of 79 isolates and was transferred by conjugation in 33 of them, sometimes together with resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, or gentamicin. Mutations in the amino-acid sequences of proteins MgrB, PhoP, PhoQ, PmrB, but not PmrA, were detected in isolates with or without the mcr-1 gene. More than one-third of the isolates harbored the F18, F4, astA, hlyA, estI, estII, elt, stx2e, iha, orfA, orfB, paa, terE, ecs1763, or ureD virulence markers. In conclusion, although most isolates had a unique PFGE profile, a few particular combinations of phylogenetic groups, virulence genes and mutations in the sequenced genes involved in colistin resistance were identified on a number of occasions, suggesting the persistence of certain isolates over several years.

  5. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci and Escherichia coli isolates from European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Figueiredo, Nicholas; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Radhouani, Hajer; Rodrigues, Jorge; Poeta, Patrícia

    2010-09-15

    A total of 44 Escherichia coli and 64 enterococci recovered from 77 intestinal samples of wild European rabbits in Portugal were analyzed for resistance to antimicrobial agents. Resistance in E. coli isolates was observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, streptomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. None of the E. coli isolates produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The bla(TEM), aadA, aac(3)-II, tet(A) and/or tet(B), and the catA genes were demonstrated in all ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol-resistant isolates respectively, and the sul1 and/or sul2 and/or sul3 genes in 4 of 5 sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistant isolates. Of the enterococcal isolates, Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent detected species (39 isolates), followed by E. faecium (21 isolates) and E. hirae (4 isolates). More than one-fourth (29.7%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline; 20.3% were resistant to erythromycin, 14.1% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 10.9% were resistant to high-level-kanamycin. Lower level of resistance (streptomycin. No vancomycin-resistance was detected in the enterococci isolates. Resistance genes detected included aac(6')-aph(2''), ant(6)-Ia, tet(M) and/or tet(L) in all gentamicin, streptomycin and tetracycline-resistant isolates respectively. The aph(3')-IIIa gene was detected in 6 of 7 kanamycin-resistant isolates, the erm(B) gene in 11 of 13 erythromycin-resistant isolates and the vat(D) gene in the quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium isolate. This survey showed that faecal bacteria such as E. coli and enterococci of wild rabbits could be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci and Escherichia coli isolates recovered from Iberian wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, A; Igrejas, G; Radhouani, H; Correia, S; Pacheco, R; Santos, T; Monteiro, R; Guerra, A; Petrucci-Fonseca, F; Brito, F; Torres, C; Poeta, P

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report the antimicrobial resistance, the molecular mechanisms associated and the detection of virulence determinants within faecal Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolates of Iberian wolf. Enterococci (n = 227) and E. coli (n = 195) isolates were obtained from faecal samples of Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). High rates of resistance were detected for tetracycline and erythromycin among the enterococci isolates, and most of resistant isolates harboured the tet(M) and/or tet(L) and erm(B) genes, respectively. The blaTEM, tet(A) and/or tet(B), and aadA or strA-strB genes were detected among most ampicillin-, tetracycline- or streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolates, respectively. E. coli isolates were ascribed to phylogroups A (n = 56), B1 (91), B2 (13) and D (35). The occurrence of resistant enterococci and E. coli isolates in the faecal flora of Iberian wolf, including the presence of resistant genes in integrons, and virulence determinants was showed in this study. Iberian wolf might act as reservoir of certain resistance genes that could be spread throughout the environment. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Microarray Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Isolates from Portuguese Poultry

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    Nuno Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 174 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy Portuguese Gallus gallus was evaluated. Resistance profiles were determined against 33 antimicrobials by microbroth dilution. Resistance was prevalent for tetracycline (70% and ampicillin (63%. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL phenotype was observed in 18% of the isolates. Multidrug resistance was found in 56% of isolates. A subset of 74 isolates were screened by DNA microarrays for the carriage of 88 antibiotic resistance genes and 62 virulence genes. Overall, 37 different resistance genes were detected. The most common were tet(A (72%, blaTEM (68%, and sul1 (47%, while 21% isolates harbored an ESBL gene (blaCTX-M group 1, group 2, or group 9. Of these, 96% carried the increased serum survival (iss virulence gene, while 89% presented the enterobactin siderophore receptor protein (iroN, 70% the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh, and 68% the long polar fimbriae (lpfA virulence genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. In conclusion, prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli from the microbiota of Portuguese chickens was high, including to extended spectrum cephalosporins. The majority of isolates seems to have the potential to trigger extraintestinal human infection due to the presence of some virulence genes. However, the absence of genes specific for enteropathogenic E. coli reduces the risk for human intestinal infection.

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME WILD MEDICAL PLANTS EXTRACT TO ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI

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    Lukáš Hleba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are probably the most successful family of drugs so far developed for improving human health. Because of increasing resistance to antibiotics of many bacteria, plant extracts and plant compounds are of new interest as antiseptics and antimicrobial agents in medicine. In this study, we researched antimicrobial effects of extracts of some medical plants (Tussilagofarfara, Equisetum arvense, Sambucusnigra, Aesculushippocastanumand Taraxacumofficinale from Slovakia to antibiotic resistant and antibiotic sensitive bacteria isolated from milk of cows and mare, which were breeded in different conditions. Microorganisms which were used in this experiment we isolated from milk from conventional breeding of cows (tenE. coli strains and from ecological breeding of Lipicanmare (tenE. coli strains by sterile cotton swabs. For antibiotic susceptibility testing was used disc diffusion method according by EUCAST. After dried at room temperature we weighed 50 g of crushed medical plants (parts and it were to extract in 400 ml methanol for two weeks at room temperature. For antimicrobial susceptibility testing of medical plants extract blank discs with 6 mm diameter disc diffusion method was used. We determined that all Escherichia coli strains isolated from milk of conventional breeding of cows were resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. We determined that all tested ampicillin and chloramphenicol resistant E. coli strains isolated from conventional breeding of cow showed susceptibility to all used medical plants extracts. In difference, we determined that antibiotic susceptible E. coli strains isolated from ecological breeding of Lipicanmare were susceptible to Tussilagofarfara extract only. From these results we could be conclude some observations, which could be important step in treatment of bacterial infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria and it could be important knowledge for treatment of livestock in conventional breeding

  9. Comparative study of class 1 integron, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline (ACSSuT) and fluoroquinolone resistance in various Salmonella serovars from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yuan-Man; Tang, Chiu-Ying; Lin, Hsuan; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Lin; Su, Yu-Heng; Chen, Daniel S; Lin, Jiunn-Horng; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2013-01-01

    A total of 499 Salmonella isolates including 9 serovars from humans and various animal hosts were collected to compare prevalence of integron and antimicrobial resistance. The integron and gene cassette were detected by PCR, and then the gene cassette type was further determined by sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted by disk diffusion method. The positivity percentage of class 1 integron and the diversity of gene cassettes carried by integron were quite different in various Salmonella serovars, especially comparing those from animals to humans. After sequencing and RFLP analysis, it was identified eight gene cassette types. The gene cassette type D carrying ampicillin/streptomycin resistance genes was the most common one (42.2%) in the integron-positive isolates. More diversity of gene cassette types was identified in humans comparing to that in animals. Several gene cassette types were identified for the first time in some Salmonella serovars. In this study, 31.5% (157/499) of the isolates were multi-resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT). S. Choleraesuis isolates with the cassette type A1, but S. Typhimurium isolates with the cassette type E1, were frequently associated with ACSSuT-resistant (80.6% and 72.7%, respectively). There was a significant association between the presence of class 1 integron and quinolone resistance in S. Choleraesuis isolates, but not in S. Typhimurium. Our findings imply that transmission efficiency of various gene cassettes through the integron could be different in various Salmonella serovars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of subtherapeutic administration of antibiotics on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, T W; Yanke, L J; Topp, E; Olson, M E; Read, R R; Morck, D W; McAllister, T A

    2008-07-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in 300 feedlot steers receiving subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics was investigated through the collection of 3,300 fecal samples over a 314-day period. Antibiotics were selected based on the commonality of use in the industry and included chlortetracycline plus sulfamethazine (TET-SUL), chlortetracycline (TET), virginiamycin, monensin, tylosin, or no antibiotic supplementation (control). Steers were initially fed a barley silage-based diet, followed by transition to a barley grain-based diet. Despite not being administered antibiotics prior to arrival at the feedlot, the prevalences of steers shedding TET- and ampicillin (AMP)-resistant E. coli were >40 and combination with sulfamethazine increased the prevalence of tetracycline- and AMP-resistant E. coli in cattle. However, resistance to antibiotics may be related to additional environmental factors such as diet.

  11. Identification of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotto, Carlo; Bissa, Massimiliano; Illiano, Elena; Mezzanotte, Valeria; Marazzi, Francesca; Turolla, Andrea; Antonelli, Manuela; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Radaelli, Antonia

    2016-12-01

    The emergence and diffusion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been a major public health problem for many years now. In this study, antibiotic-resistance of coliforms and Escherichia coli were investigated after their isolation from samples collected in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in the Milan area (Italy) along different points of the treatment sequence: inflow to biological treatment; outflow from biological treatment following rapid sand filtration; and outflow from peracetic acid disinfection. The presence of E. coli that showed resistance to ampicillin (AMP) and chloramphenicol (CAF), used as representative antibiotics for the efficacy against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. After determining E. coli survival using increasing AMP and CAF concentrations, specific single-resistant (AMP R or CAF R ) and double-resistant (AMP R /CAF R ) strains were identified among E. coli colonies, through amplification of the β-lactamase Tem-1 (bla) and acetyl-transferase catA1 (cat) gene sequences. While a limited number of CAF R bacteria was observed, most AMP R colonies showed the specific resistance genes to both antibiotics, which was mainly due to the presence of the bla gene sequence. The peracetic acid, used as disinfection agent, showed to be very effective in reducing bacteria at the negligible levels of less than 10 CFU/100 mL, compatible with those admitted for the irrigation use of treated waters. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolated from animals at slaughter

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    Dariusz eWasyl

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli (N = 3430 isolated from slaughtered broilers, laying hens, turkeys, swine, and cattle in Poland has been run between 2009 and 2012. Based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC microbiological resistance to each of 14 tested antimicrobials was found reaching the highest values for tetracycline (43.3%, ampicillin (42.3%, and ciprofloxacin (39.0% whereas the lowest for colistin (0.9%, cephalosporins (3.6 ÷ 3.8%, and florfenicol (3.8%. The highest prevalence of resistance was noted in broiler and turkey isolates, whereas it was rare in cattle. That finding along with resistance patterns specific to isolation source might reflect antimicrobial consumption, usage preferences or management practices in specific animals. Regression analysis has identified changes in prevalence of microbiological resistance and shifts of MIC values. Critically important fluoroquinolone resistance was worrisome in poultry isolates, but did not change over the study period. The difference (4.7% between resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid indicated the scale of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Cephalosporin resistance were found in less than 3.8% of the isolates but an increasing trends were observed in poultry and MIC shift in the ones from cattle. Gentamycin resistance was also increasing in E. coli of turkey and cattle origin although prevalence of streptomycin resistance in laying hens decreased considerably. Simultaneously, decreasing MIC for phenicols observed in cattle and layers isolates as well as tetracycline values in E. coli from laying hens prove that antimicrobial resistance is multivariable phenomenon not only directly related to antimicrobial usage. Further studies should elucidate the scope of commensal E. coli as reservoirs of resistance genes, their spread and possible threats for human and animal health.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries.

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    Julia Österberg

    Full Text Available Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolated from animals at slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyl, Dariusz; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Zając, Magdalena; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli (N = 3430) isolated from slaughtered broilers, laying hens, turkeys, swine, and cattle in Poland has been run between 2009 and 2012. Based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) microbiological resistance to each of 14 tested antimicrobials was found reaching the highest values for tetracycline (43.3%), ampicillin (42.3%), and ciprofloxacin (39.0%) whereas the lowest for colistin (0.9%), cephalosporins (3.6 ÷ 3.8%), and florfenicol (3.8%). The highest prevalence of resistance was noted in broiler and turkey isolates, whereas it was rare in cattle. That finding along with resistance patterns specific to isolation source might reflect antimicrobial consumption, usage preferences or management practices in specific animals. Regression analysis has identified changes in prevalence of microbiological resistance and shifts of MIC values. Critically important fluoroquinolone resistance was worrisome in poultry isolates, but did not change over the study period. The difference (4.7%) between resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid indicated the scale of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Cephalosporin resistance were found in less than 3.8% of the isolates but an increasing trends were observed in poultry and MIC shift in the ones from cattle. Gentamycin resistance was also increasing in E. coli of turkey and cattle origin although prevalence of streptomycin resistance in laying hens decreased considerably. Simultaneously, decreasing MIC for phenicols observed in cattle and layers isolates as well as tetracycline values in E. coli from laying hens prove that antimicrobial resistance is multivariable phenomenon not only directly related to antimicrobial usage. Further studies should elucidate the scope of commensal E. coli as reservoirs of resistance genes, their spread and possible threats for human and animal health. PMID:23935596

  15. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Nygaard Jensen, Annette; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Cibin, Veronica; Barco, Lisa; Denis, Martine; Aabo, Sören; Bengtsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance.

  16. [Study on antibiotic resistance ofEscherichia coliandEnterococcuscolonized in intestine of neonates from neonatal intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X F; Liu, Z J; Chen, X; Li, J; Cui, Z G; Kan, B; Ma, J R; Cui, J H

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To understand the antibiotic resistance of bacteria colonized in intestine of the neonates from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and provide evidence to guide clinical antibiotic treatment. Methods: From May, 2014 to May, 2015, a total of 572 stool samples were collected from the neonates of NICU in our hospital. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were detected with VITEK-2 system. Results: A total of 328 strains of E. coli and 243 strains of Enterococcus were isolated respectively in this study. The 199 strains of E. coli selected for drug susceptibility test showed lower resistant rate to imipenem, ertapenem, amikacin, nitrofurantoin, ranging from 0.50 % to 3.52 % and showed higher resistant rate to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and cefazolin, ranging from 54.27 % to 84.92 % . No meropenem resistant strainsere were found. The percentage of ESBLs production strains was 45 % . The multi drug resistance test showed that 34.6 % of the strains were resistant to four antibiotics. Three strains were resistant to seven antibiotics. The 243 strains of Enterococcus showed lower resistant rate to quinupristin/dalfopristin, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin, ranging from 0.41 % to 4.53 % and showed higher resistant rate to ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin and erythromycin, ranging from 70.78 % to 91.77 % . No strains which were resistant to tigecycline, vancomycin, rina thiazole amine/ketone were found. The multi drug-resistance test showed that 86.5 % of the strains were resistant to five antibiotics. Conclusions: According to the analysis of the 199 strains of E. coli and 243 strains of Enterococcus isolated from the neonates, we found that the resistance of intestinal bacteria in the neonates was very serious, showing multi drug resistance. It is necessary to use antibiotics according to the drug susceptibility test results in clinical treatment.

  17. Investigation of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from Tibetan pigs.

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    Peng Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, and analyzed the influence of free-ranging husbandry on antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: A total of 232 fecal samples were collected from Tibetan pigs, and the disk diffusion method was used to examine their antimicrobial resistance. Broth microdilution and agar dilution methods were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobial agents for which disks were not commercially available. RESULTS: A total of 129 E. coli isolates and 84 Enterococcus isolates were recovered from the fecal samples. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and 40.4% were resistant to tetracycline. A small number of isolates were resistant to florfenicol (27.9%, ampicillin (27.9%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (19.4%, nalidixic acid (19.4%, streptomycin (16.2% and ceftiofur (10.9%, and very low resistance rates to ciprofloxacin (7.8%, gentamicin (6.9%, and spectinomycin (2.3% were observed in E. coli. All Enterococcus isolates, including E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. hirae, and E. mundtii, were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and vancomycin, but showed high frequencies of resistance to oxacillin (92.8%, clindamycin (82.1%, tetracycline (64.3%, and erythromycin (48.8%. Resistance rates to florfenicol (17.9%, penicillin (6.0%, ciprofloxacin (3.6%, levofloxacin (1.2%, and ampicillin (1.2% were low. Only one high-level streptomycin resistant E. faecium isolate and one high-level gentamicin resistant E. faecium isolate were observed. Approximately 20% and 70% of E. coli and Enterococcus isolates, respectively, were defined as multidrug-resistant. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, E. coli and Enterococcus isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs showed relatively lower resistance rates than those in other areas of China, where more intensive farming practices are

  18. Investigation of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from Tibetan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wu, Dongfang; Liu, Kunyao; Suolang, Sizhu; He, Tao; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Congming; Wang, Yang; Lin, Degui

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, and analyzed the influence of free-ranging husbandry on antimicrobial resistance. A total of 232 fecal samples were collected from Tibetan pigs, and the disk diffusion method was used to examine their antimicrobial resistance. Broth microdilution and agar dilution methods were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobial agents for which disks were not commercially available. A total of 129 E. coli isolates and 84 Enterococcus isolates were recovered from the fecal samples. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and 40.4% were resistant to tetracycline. A small number of isolates were resistant to florfenicol (27.9%), ampicillin (27.9%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (19.4%), nalidixic acid (19.4%), streptomycin (16.2%) and ceftiofur (10.9%), and very low resistance rates to ciprofloxacin (7.8%), gentamicin (6.9%), and spectinomycin (2.3%) were observed in E. coli. All Enterococcus isolates, including E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. hirae, and E. mundtii, were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and vancomycin, but showed high frequencies of resistance to oxacillin (92.8%), clindamycin (82.1%), tetracycline (64.3%), and erythromycin (48.8%). Resistance rates to florfenicol (17.9%), penicillin (6.0%), ciprofloxacin (3.6%), levofloxacin (1.2%), and ampicillin (1.2%) were low. Only one high-level streptomycin resistant E. faecium isolate and one high-level gentamicin resistant E. faecium isolate were observed. Approximately 20% and 70% of E. coli and Enterococcus isolates, respectively, were defined as multidrug-resistant. In this study, E. coli and Enterococcus isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs showed relatively lower resistance rates than those in other areas of China, where more intensive farming practices are used. These results also revealed that free

  19. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY

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    I. Pisano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008 sampling period. Samples of water (n=12 and feces (n=59, collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 μg/ml. All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7. Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%, 5 to tetracycline (12,82% and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%. Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%, 1 to tetracycline (5.26% and 19 to kanamycin (100. These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naïve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia

  20. Antimicrobial resistance profiles among Escherichia coli strains isolated from commercial and cooked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seung-Hee; Lee, Jip-Ho; Park, Sang-Hoon; Song, Mi-Ok; Park, Sun-Hee; Jung, Hyo-Won; Park, Geon-Yong; Choi, Sung-Min; Kim, Moo-Sang; Chae, Young-Zoo; Park, Seog-Gee; Lee, Young-Ki

    2012-10-15

    A total of 4330 food samples of which microbiological standard for Escherichia coli is negative in Korea were determined for the frequency of E. coli. Ninety six samples (2.2%) were positive for E. coli. Detection rate of E. coli varied significantly by food type and ranged from 0.3% to 10.9%. Seasoned raw meat (yukhoe) and cold bean-soup had the highest prevalence for E. coli (10.9%) followed by gimbap (5.2%), meat broth for cold noodle (2.9%) and sprout (2.1%). E. coli isolates (n=96) were investigated for their phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance patterns. Seventeen E. coli isolates (17.7%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents tested. High rates of resistance to the following drugs were observed: tetracycline (15.6%), streptomycin (12.5%), ampicillin (10.4%), nalidixic acid (9.4%) and ticarcillin (9.4%). All ampicillin resistant isolates were screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production by the combination disk test. None of the E. coli isolates produced ESBLs. Seventeen out of 96 E. coli isolates which were resistant to at least one antibiotic were investigated by PCR for the presence of 3 classes of antimicrobial resistance genes (tetracycline, aminoglycosides and beta-lactams). The tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB were found in 7 and 5 isolates, respectively. The aminoglycoside resistance genes, strA/B, aphA1, aadA and aac(3)-IV were found in 9, 5, 2 and 2 isolates, respectively. The beta-lactam resistance gene, bla(TEM) was found in 7 isolates. Results of this study show that 13 E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant (to three or more antibiotics) and 12 isolates carried at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. These isolates can act as the reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes and facilitate the dissemination of these genes to other pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Adequate intervention to reduce microbial contamination of these foods is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  1. Susceptibility patterns of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli associated with traveller's diarrhoea: emergence of quinolone resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, J; Vargas, M; Ruiz, J; Espasa, M; Pujol, M; Corachán, M; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Gascón, J

    2001-11-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) isolates were identified as a cause of traveller's diarrhoea in 50 (9%) of 517 patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. Molecular epidemiological characterisation and investigation of the mechanisms of acquisition of quinolone resistance among nalidixic acid-resistant EAggEC strains was performed. Seventeen (34%) of 50 patients needed antimicrobial therapy, because of persistence of symptoms in nine cases and the severity of symptoms in eight cases. Ampicillin and tetracycline resistance was high, whereas chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole showed moderate activity and amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin showed very good activity. Resistance to nalidixic acid was demonstrated in three isolates, two from patients who had travelled to India. In all three strains the resistance was linked to mutations in the gyrA gene alone or in both gyrA and parC genes. Although ciprofloxacin shows excellent in-vitro activity and could be useful in the treatment of traveller's diarrhoea in patients travelling abroad, it may not be useful in patients who have journeyed to India or to Mexico.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli in Mexico: how serious is the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Llanes, Joel; Varon, Joseph; Velarde Félix, Jesús Salvador; González-Ibarra, Fernando Pavel

    2012-02-13

    This study aimed to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in Mexico to several antibiotics and research some therapeutic options. Positive cultures for E. coli isolated from bronchial secretions, urine, central catheter, blood, and infected wounds in the Culiacan General Hospital, Sinaloa, Mexico from 30 June 2004 to 1 July 2007 were studied. Resistance against multiple antibiotics was measured and compared by gender and the hospital unit where the bacteria were isolated. In total, 1511 specimens were analyzed from men (45.4%) and women (54.5%), of which 251 were positive for E. coli. Antimicrobial resistance was highest in the neurosurgery service (58.4%). Samples included sputum (14.7%), bronchial secretions (17.9%), wounds (35.4%), urine/Foley catheter tip (35.5%), central catheter tips (5.6%), and blood cultures (7.2%). Resistance to ampicillin was highest at 91% followed by ciprofloxacin at 80.6%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole at 70.2%, piperacillin/tazobactam at 14.4%, and imipenem at 6.8%. Trimethoprim should not be recommended as an empiric option for E. coli infections and the benefit of quinolones is low. It is important to understand the resistance of the bacteria in each medical center, consider its frequency in each service within the same hospital, and take all necessary measures to ensure and create a clinical attitude of prevention.

  3. The molecular phenomena of the blaZ genes forming betalactamase enzymes structure in Staphylococcus aureus resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin

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    Mieke Satari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, infectious disease still an important problem. One of the bacteria causing infectious diseases is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. In the effort to deal with infections caused by S. aureus, beta-lactam antibiotics, such as ampicillin, are used. In fact, it is unfortunately known that many of S. aureus bacteria are resistant to this group of antibiotics. Because of nucleotide base changes in the structure of the genes blaZ which encode beta-lactamase enzymes in S. aureus. Purpose: The objective of this study was to analyze the nucleotide base changes in the structure of the genes blaZ forming beta-lactamase enzymes in S. aureus resistant to ampicillin based on molecular point of view. Methods: Molecular examinations was conducted by isolating the genes, forming beta-lactamase enzyme, which length was 845bp, from 7 isolates of S. aureus resistant to ampicillin by using PCR technique. The results of blaZ amplification were then subjected to homology by using Tn 552 of S. aureus obtained from bank of genes. Results: Based on the result of the homology, it was found that there was a change in purine base TG, which was a pyrimidine base at the -37 position of the initial codon of blaZ. This change, however, did not affect the strength of the promoter since the number of A and T is still more than the number of G and C. In the structure of the blaZ gene there was even no mutation or deletion or nucleotide base substitution found, so it would not affect the effectiveness of beta-lactamase enzyme. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the resistance of S. aureus towards ampicillin was not caused by nucleotide base deletion/substation. It is suspected that there were other causes leading to the resistance, including the overproduction of beta-lactamase enzyme of the blaZ gene, causing the degradation of beta-lactam antibiotics.Latar belakang: Penyakit infeksi sampai saat ini masih merupakan masalah. Salah satu bakteri penyebab

  4. Preliminary studies on antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies on antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from cattle and children in the pastoral community of Nyabushozi, Uganda. J Okwee-Acai, S Majalija, SG Okech, MBS Kisaka, J Acon ...

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular detection of chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from diseased chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Qin; Cui, Bao-An; Zhang, Su-Mei; Shen, Jian-Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Seventy Escherichia coli isolates recovered from diseased chickens diagnosed with colibacillosis in Henan Province, China, between 2004 and 2005 were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility profiles via a broth doubling dilution method. Overall, the isolates displayed resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (100%), oxytetracycline (100%), ampicillin (83%), enrofloxacin (83%), and ciprofloxacin (81%), respectively. Among the phenicols, resistance was approximately 79% and 29% for chloramphenicol and florfenicol, respectively. Molecular detection revealed that the incidence rates of the floR, cmlA, cat1, cat2 and cat3 were 29, 31, 16, 13, and 0%, respectively. Additionally, 10% of the isolates were positive for both floR and cmlA. As these antimicrobial agents may potentially induce cross-resistance between animal and human bacterial pathogens, their prudent use in veterinary medicine is highly recommended. PMID:17679770

  6. Longitudinal Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance in Diarrheagenic and Non-pathogenic Escherichia coli from Young Tanzanian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Jessica C; Johnson, Lashaunda B; Levens, Joshua; Mkocha, Harran; Muñoz, Beatriz; Silbergeld, Ellen K; West, Sheila K; Coles, Christian L

    2016-01-01

    Enteroaggregative, enteropathogenic, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli contribute significantly to the burden of diarrheal infections particularly in developing countries. Antibiotic resistance is increasingly common among bacterial pathogens including pathogenic E. coli. We assessed the relationship between pathogenic E. coli carriage and resistance to six antibiotics in E. coli isolated from young children in rural Tanzania. We surveyed temporal stability in antibiotic resistance in 2492 E. coli isolated from fecal samples obtained from young children in rural Tanzania collected over a 6 months period. Approximately half of the 377 children sampled were exposed to an azithromycin mass treatment program for trachoma control and half resided in control villages. Children were sampled at baseline, 1-, 3-, and 6 months following azithromycin treatment. We compared resistance to six antibiotics in pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains at the population level, within fecal specimens, and within individuals over time using chi-square tests, paired odds ratios, and logistic regression, respectively. Resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was highly prevalent (>65%). Resistance to 5 of 6 antibiotics tested and multi-drug resistance occurred more frequently in pathogenic isolates (p ≤ 0.001) within fecal specimens and overall. Azithromycin mass treatment exposure was significantly associated with increased odds of carriage of isolates resistant to erythromycin (OR 3.64, p resistant to erythromycin, ampicillin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole compared to non-pathogenic isolates from the same fecal specimen. The potential linkage between resistance and virulence in E. coli suggests hygiene and sanitation interventions aimed at reducing disease burden could play a role in controlling transmission of antibiotic resistance.

  7. Identification and molecular characterization of antimicrobial-resistant shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from retail meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Cheng; Wang, Fang; Li, Fan

    2011-04-01

    Ten (2.7%) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were isolated from 370 samples of raw minced beef, mutton, pork, and chicken from the Jilin region of China; and additional 10 E. coli O157:H7 isolates were previously isolated from different Jilin regions. Seventeen of the isolates were multiresistant, exhibiting resistance to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, gentamycin, and streptomycin. Class 1 integrons were detected in nine (45.0%) of the STEC isolates and consisted of serogroups O157, O62, O113, O149, and O70. Integrons containing amplicons of a 0.5-1.5 or 1.0 kb gene cassette were found in seven (77.8%) of the integron-containing isolates. Sequencing analysis revealed that these gene cassettes encode genes conferring resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA1) and streptomycin (aadA1). The 0.5 kb cassette described here was found to encode a putative transporter peptide in the STEC. Seventeen isolates contained plasmids with different bands, and transfer by conjugation between strains of E. coli demonstrated that class 1 integrons located on mobile plasmids could contribute to the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin, gentamycin, streptomycin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim amongst STEC. These data revealed the high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant STEC isolates in Jilin's surrounding regions, providing important and useful surveillance information reflecting antimicrobial selection pressure. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  8. Genomic Analysis of Third Generation Cephalosporin Resistant Escherichia coli from Dairy Cow Manure

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    Muhammad Attiq Rehman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs conferring resistance to new derivatives of β-lactams is a major public health threat if present in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The objective of this study was to characterize ceftiofur (TIO- or cefotaxime (FOX-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from dairy cow manure. Twenty-four manure samples were collected from four farms and incubated under anaerobic conditions for 20 weeks at 4 °C or at 25 °C. A total of 37 TIO- or FOX-resistant E. coli were isolated from two of the four farms to determine their susceptibility to 14 antibiotics. Among the 37 resistant E. coli, 10 different serotypes were identified, with O8:H1 being the predominant serotype (n = 17. Five isolates belonged to each of serotypes O9:NM and O153:H42, respectively. All 37 cephalosporin resistant isolates were multi-resistant with the most prevalent resistance spectrum being amoxicillin-clavulanic acid-ampicillin-cefoxitin-ceftiofur-ceftriaxone-chloramphenicol-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The genomes of 18 selected isolates were then sequenced and compared to 14 selected human pathogenic E. coli reference genomes obtained from public repositories using different bioinformatics approaches. As expected, all 18 sequenced isolates carried at least one β-lactamase bla gene: TEM-1, TEM-81, CTX-M115, CTX-M15, OXA-1, or CMY-2. Several other antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs and virulence determinants were detected in the sequenced isolates and all of them harbored antimicrobial resistance plasmids belonging to classic Inc groups. Our results confirm the presence of diverse ESBL producing E. coli isolates in dairy cow manure stored for a short period of time. Such manure might constitute a reservoir of resistance and virulence genes for other bacteria that share the same environment.

  9. Genomic Analysis of Third Generation Cephalosporin Resistant Escherichia coli from Dairy Cow Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Attiq; Yin, Xianhua; Lepp, Dion; Laing, Chad; Ziebell, Kim; Talbot, Guylaine; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa Sory

    2017-11-17

    The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) conferring resistance to new derivatives of β-lactams is a major public health threat if present in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The objective of this study was to characterize ceftiofur (TIO)- or cefotaxime (FOX)-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from dairy cow manure. Twenty-four manure samples were collected from four farms and incubated under anaerobic conditions for 20 weeks at 4 °C or at 25 °C. A total of 37 TIO- or FOX-resistant E. coli were isolated from two of the four farms to determine their susceptibility to 14 antibiotics. Among the 37 resistant E. coli , 10 different serotypes were identified, with O8:H1 being the predominant serotype ( n = 17). Five isolates belonged to each of serotypes O9:NM and O153:H42, respectively. All 37 cephalosporin resistant isolates were multi-resistant with the most prevalent resistance spectrum being amoxicillin-clavulanic acid-ampicillin-cefoxitin-ceftiofur-ceftriaxone-chloramphenicol-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The genomes of 18 selected isolates were then sequenced and compared to 14 selected human pathogenic E. coli reference genomes obtained from public repositories using different bioinformatics approaches. As expected, all 18 sequenced isolates carried at least one β-lactamase bla gene: TEM-1 , TEM-81 , CTX-M115 , CTX-M15 , OXA-1, or CMY-2 . Several other antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence determinants were detected in the sequenced isolates and all of them harbored antimicrobial resistance plasmids belonging to classic Inc groups. Our results confirm the presence of diverse ESBL producing E. coli isolates in dairy cow manure stored for a short period of time. Such manure might constitute a reservoir of resistance and virulence genes for other bacteria that share the same environment.

  10. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Raw Milk and Raw Milk Cheese in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombarak, Rabee A; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Elbagory, Abdel-Rahman M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance and characterize the implicated genes in 222 isolates of Escherichia coli from 187 samples of raw milk and the two most popular cheeses in Egypt. E. coli isolates were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by a disk diffusion method. Among the 222 E. coli isolates, 66 (29.7%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and half of these resistant isolates showed a multidrug resistance phenotype (resistance to at least three different drug classes). The resistance traits were observed to tetracycline (27.5%), ampicillin (18.9%), streptomycin (18.5%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (11.3%), cefotaxime (4.5%), kanamycin (4.1%), ceftazidime (3.6%), chloramphenicol (2.3%), nalidixic acid (1.8%), and ciprofloxacin (1.4%). No resistance to fosfomycin and imipenem was observed. Tetracycline resistance genes tetA, tetB, and tetD were detected in 53 isolates, 9 isolates, and 1 isolate, respectively, but tetC was not detected. Aminoglycoside resistance genes strA, strB, aadA, and aphA1 were detected in 41, 41, 11, and 9 isolates, respectively. Sulfonamide resistance genes sul1, sul2, and sul3 were detected in 7, 25, and 3 isolates, respectively. Of 42 ampicillin-resistant isolates, bla TEM , bla CTX-M , and bla SHV were detected in 40, 9, and 3 isolates, respectively, and 10 (23.8%) ampicillin-resistant isolates were found to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Each bla gene of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli was further subtyped to be bla CTX-M-15 , bla CTX-M-104 , bla TEM-1 , and bla SHV-12 . The class 1 integron was also detected in 28 resistant isolates, and three different patterns were obtained by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Sequencing analysis of the variable region revealed that four isolates had dfrA12/orfF/aadA2, two had aadA22, and one had dfrA1/aadA1. These data suggest that antimicrobial-resistant E. coli are widely distributed in the milk production

  11. Genetic elements associated with antimicrobial resistance in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC from Brazil

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    Aranda Katia RS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently observed an association of resistance with a certain enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC serotypes and identified a conjugative plasmid, similar to plasmid pED208, that was conserved among archival O111:H2/NM and O119:H2 strains of diverse geographical origin. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of this plasmid among a collection of EPEC isolates from Brazil, as well as to study the susceptibilities of these isolates to antimicrobial agents. Results Resistance was more commonly seen in typical EPEC than atypical strains. The most prevalent resistances were to ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and the sulfonamides. Markers for the EPEC conjugative multiresistance plasmid, were detected in 21 (30% of typical but only 4 (5% of atypical strains (p = 0.001, Chi-squared test. This plasmid, previously reported from only O111 and O119 strains was found in O55 and O127 strains and was associated with the presence of class 1 integrons. Conclusion Our data suggest a limited but expanding host range for the EPEC resistance plasmid.

  12. Resistance patterns, ESBL genes, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli from dogs and owners

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    A.C. Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n = 134, their owners (n = 134, and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n = 44, control, searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3% fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1% control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5% isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains.

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strains from ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Alberto; Horcajo, Pilar; Jurado, Sonia; De la Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Orden, José A

    2011-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty-six attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) strains (20 enterohemorrhagic E. coli and 206 atypical enteropathogenic E. coli) isolated from calves, lambs, and goat kids with diarrhea and from healthy cattle, sheep, and goats were tested for their resistance to 10 antimicrobial agents by the disc diffusion method. Resistant and intermediate strains were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of the major resistance genes. The overall percentage of resistant strains to tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, and sulfamethoxazole was very high (>65%). Moreover, a high level of resistance (approximately 30%) to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was also detected. The AEEC strains were very susceptible (>90%) to gentamicin and colistin. Because AEEC from ruminants can cause diseases in human beings, the high frequency of antimicrobial resistance detected in the current study is a source of concern. For each antimicrobial agent, the predominant resistance genes in the resistant strains were ampicillin, bla(TEM) (97.1%); tetracycline, tetA (76.7%); gentamicin, aac(3)II (80%); streptomycin, strA/strB (76.7%) and aadA (71.7%); chloramphenicol, catI (85.1%); trimethoprim, dhfrI (76.3%); and sulfamethoxazole, sul1 (60%) and sul2 (63.3%). In the majority of cases, resistance to a given antimicrobial, except for streptomycin, was caused by a single gene. A negative association between tetA and tetB, between aac(3)II and aac(3)IV, and between dhfrI and dhfrV was observed. The present study gives baseline data on frequency and molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in AEEC strains from ruminants.

  14. Regional, seasonal, and temporal variations in the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark (1997-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatih, E N; Emborg, H D; Jensen, V F; Lo Fo Wong, D M A; Ersbøll, A K

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and discuss regional, seasonal, and temporal trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005. Data on antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were obtained from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme database. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to detect the presence and evaluate the significance of regional, seasonal, and annual trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for four drugs. Associations between resistance and explanatory variables region, season, and the year of isolate sampling were analyzed using a logistic regression model. The Cochran-Armitage test provided evidence of significant temporal trends for ampicillin-resistant E. coli (an increasing trend, p streptomycin-resistant E. coli (a decreasing trend, p E. coli increased over time for all seasons (p E. coli were captured over time. On the other hand, a significant decreasing trend in prevalence of streptomycin-resistant E. coli was observed for the spring, summer, and winter months (p 0.05). The prevalence of ampicillin-resistant E. coli was observed to increase over time for the various regions, whereas that for streptomycin-resistant E. coli presented an overall significant decrease over time. The estimated odds ratios from the logistic regression model indicated varying risks for the occurrence of resistance by season and by region. The winter months were associated with an increased risk for the occurrence of resistant E. coli as compared to the other seasons of the year. Our study provides evidence of statistically significant regional, seasonal, and temporal variations for ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005.

  15. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli from Cheese Made from Unpasteurized Milk in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Anna C L P; Puño-Sarmiento, Juan J; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Gazal, Luís E S; Maluta, Renato Pariz; Navarro, Armando; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Fagan, Eder P; Nakazato, Gerson

    2018-02-01

    Cow raw milk cheese is widely eaten in Brazil. These products may be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we investigated the presence of Escherichia coli in raw milk cheese from different States in Brazil. From 147 "Minas" cheese samples, 28 cheeses were positive for E. coli. Among 39 E. coli isolates of the cheeses, one was positive for eae and negative for bpfA and efa1/lifA using PCR, and so was classified as atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). Two other isolates were positive for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) genes. The aEPEC isolate belongs to serogroup O127 and was classified in A phylogenetic group, and ExPEC isolates were found in O73:H12 (EC-2 strain) and O64474:H8 (EC-9 strain) serotype. This ExPEC belongs to A and C phylogenetic group, respectively. Most of E. coli strains belonged to Clermont phylogenetic groups A (28.2%), C, and E (23.1%). Six strains (15.4%) of E. coli were positive for group B1 and two (5.1%) for B2. E. coli isolates presented an aggregative (46.0%) and diffuse (12.6%) adherence pattern to HeLa cells, and the other isolates did not show adhesion (41.4%). Four E. coli isolates (10.3%) were shown to produce moderate biofilm. The antimicrobial resistance rate was tetracycline (25.6%), followed by ampicillin (17.9%), cefoxitin (7.7%), nalidixic acid (5.1%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (2.6%). One strain was resistant to three antimicrobials (tetracycline, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid). The presence of these microorganisms, the O127 strain, and a new serogroup in Brazil is a potential risk for public health.

  16. Resistance to Antibiotics in Strains of Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kolář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.

  17. Regional, Seasonal, and Temporal Variations in the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Pigs at Slaughter in Denmark (1997-2005)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and discuss regional, seasonal, and temporal trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005. Data on antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were obtained from the Danish Integrated...... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme database. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to detect the presence and evaluate the significance of regional, seasonal, and annual trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for four drugs. Associations between resistance...... of resistant E. coli as compared to the other seasons of the year. Our study provides evidence of statistically significant regional, seasonal, and temporal variations for ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005....

  18. Associations between anti-microbial resistance phenotypes, anti-microbial resistance genotypes and virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolates from Pakistan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, M; Wang, L P; Wang, S; Hussain, S; Memon, J; Kashif, J; Lu, C-P

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between phenotypic resistance, genotypic resistance and virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolates in Jiangsu province, China and Punjab province Pakistan. A total of 62 E. coli isolates were characterized for phenotypic resistance, genotypic resistance and virulence factor genes. The anti-microbial resistance phenotype and genotypes in relation to virulence factor genes were assessed by statistical analysis. Of 20 tested virulence genes, twelve were found and eight were not found in any isolates. sitA and TspE4C2 were the most prevalent virulence genes. Of the 13 anti-microbial agents tested, resistance to ampicillin, sulphonamide and tetracycline was the most frequent. All isolates were multiresistant, and 74% were resistant to trimethoprim and sulphamethaxazole. Phenotypically, tetracycline-, cefotaxime- and trimethoprim-resistant isolates had increased virulence factors as compared with susceptible isolates. Genotypically, resistant genes Tem, ctx-M, Tet, Sul 1, dhfr1, Cat2 and flo-R showed the association with the virulence genes. Almost all classes of anti-microbial-resistant genes have a high association with virulence. Resistant isolates have more virulent genes than the susceptible isolates. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Relationship between Phenotypic and Genotypic Florfenicol Resistance in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Randall S.; Patterson, Sheila K.; Meier, Anne E.; Gibson, Jessica K.; Lee, Hannah L.; Maddox, Carol W.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between florfenicol resistance and flo genotypes in 1,987 Escherichia coli isolates from cattle. The flo gene was detected in 164 isolates, all of which expressed resistance to florfenicol at MICs of ≥256 μg/ml. The florfenicol MICs for all isolates that lacked flo were ≤16 μg/ml.

  20. Relationship between Phenotypic and Genotypic Florfenicol Resistance in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Randall S.; Patterson, Sheila K.; Meier, Anne E.; Gibson, Jessica K.; Lee, Hannah L.; Maddox, Carol W.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between florfenicol resistance and flo genotypes in 1,987 Escherichia coli isolates from cattle. The flo gene was detected in 164 isolates, all of which expressed resistance to florfenicol at MICs of ≥256 μg/ml. The florfenicol MICs for all isolates that lacked flo were ≤16 μg/ml. PMID:15388477

  1. Antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on the resistance profiles of clinical and non clinical human bacteria isolates in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Escherichia coli isolated from five geopolitical zones of Nigeria were screened for anti-microbial ...

  2. WGS accurately predicts antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in identifying resistance genotypes of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and whether these correlate with observed phenotypes. Methods: Seventy-six E. coli strains were isolated from farm cattle and measured f...

  3. Virulence, resistance, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. isolated from mule foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Carneiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Respiratory diseases are common in young horses but little is known about such infections in mule foals. This study aimed to characterize Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. isolated from tracheal wash (TW and fecal samples (FS of mule foals, with or without cytological evidence of respiratory disease. Strains were analyzed against 13 antimicrobials, for presence of Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL, and virulence genes. Phylogrouping and Randomic (RAPD-PCR profiles were used to evaluate their genetic relatedness. E. coli strains from TW and FS showed greatest resistance to tetracycline, while Klebsiella strains were mainly resistant to ampicillin; multidrug resistance and ESBL production were also detected. The blaCTX gene prevailed among the E. coli isolates, while the blaSHV gene was more frequently found in K. pneumoniae. The fimH gene was detected in most of the isolates and multiple virulence factors were identified in three E. coli isolates. Most of the E. coli isolates belonged to the B1 phylogroup, but B2 strains displayed more virulence genes. The RAPD assay revealed genetic diversity among strains and was able to distinguish FS isolates from TW isolates. Knowledge of the bacteria associated with the respiratory tract of mule foals is important in the treatment of sick animals.

  4. Influence of oral antibiotics on resistance and enterotoxigenicity of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, R; Lallier, R; Larivière, S

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of five piglets were formed and 1390 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained during the 45-day period of observation. One of the groups received feed without antibiotic whereas the second received feed containing 100 ppm neomycin and the third feed with 100 ppm neomycin plus 100 ppm tetracycline. Rectal swabbings for bacterial isolation were repeated ten times, twice during an adaptation period and eight times during the treatment period. Resistance among the isolates to tetracycline, streptomycin and triple sulfas remained high throughout this experiment whereas resistance to neomycin, chloramphenicol and ampicillin were found to increase significantly under the influence of antibiotic supplemented feed. This increase of antibiotic resistance was associated with an increase of the percentage of isolates harboring an R. factor. When comparing the ability of strains harboring an R factor to receive the plasmid Ent from the E. coli K12 (P155) with isolates not harboring such a plasmid, no significant difference was observed in their ability to receive the Ent plasmid. PMID:6994861

  5. Occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. coli isolates from primary and secondary effluents collected from seven WWTPs between 2003 and 2004 were recovered and then screened using one of four antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim). We now report on the testing of a subset of these isolates to determine whether they met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2012 CRE definition (intermediate or full resistance to one or more carbapenem antibiotics (imipenem) and resistant to at least two extended-spectrum cephalosporins (cefotaxime, ceftazidime)) or the updated CDC 2015 definition (resistant to a carbapenem antibiotic or producing a carbapenemase). Based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), isolates classified as nonsusceptible to imipenem or resistant to the two cephalosporin antibiotics or resistant to a fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) were used for PCR assays targeting nine carbapenemase and extended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL) genes. Of the 500 antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates tested, the most prevalent resistance was to cefotaxime (3.6%), followed by ciprofloxacin (2.6%), ceftazidime (2.2%) and imipenem (1.8%). Six (1.2%) isolates were nonsusceptible to imipenem, and resistant to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, meeting the CDC 2012 CRE definition. According to the CDC’s updated definition, eight (1.6%) isolates were CRE with full resistance to imipenem; only two of these eight isolates were also determined to be CRE acco

  6. Inducible plasmid-mediated copper resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, D; Camakaris, J; Lee, B T; Luke, R K

    1985-04-01

    The copper resistance in Escherichia coli determined by plasmid pRJ1004 is inducible. The level of resistance is proportional to the inducing dose of copper. The level of copper resistance in induced and uninduced cells changes with the growth phase of the culture. Induced resistant cells accumulate less copper than uninduced cells, so that reduced accumulation may be the mechanism of resistance. We propose that the inducible plasmid-coded copper resistance interacts with the normal metabolism of the cell to protect against toxic levels of copper while allowing continued operation of copper-dependent functions.

  7. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli and E. coli O157 isolated from water, sediment and biofilms in an agricultural watershed in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maal-Bared, Rasha; Bartlett, Karen H; Bowie, William R; Hall, Eric R

    2013-01-15

    This study examined the distribution of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli and E. coli O157 isolated from water, sediment and biofilms in an intensive agricultural watershed (Elk Creek, British Columbia) between 2005 and 2007. It also examined physical and chemical water parameters associated with antibiotic resistance. Broth microdilution techniques were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for E. coli (n=214) and E. coli O157 (n=27) recovered isolates for ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin and tetracycline. Both E. coli and E. coli O157 isolates showed highest frequency of resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin and nalidixic acid; respectively. For E. coli, the highest frequency of resistance was observed at the most agriculturally-impacted site, while the lowest frequency of resistance was found at the headwaters. Sediment and river rock biofilms were the most likely to be associated with resistant E. coli, while water was the least likely. While seasonality (wet versus dry) had no relationship with resistance frequency, length of biofilm colonization of the substratum in the aquatic environment only affected resistance frequency to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that water depth, nutrient concentrations, temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity had statistically significant associations with frequency of E. coli resistance to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. The results indicate that antibiotic resistant E. coli and E. coli O157 were prevalent in an agricultural stream. Since E. coli is adept at horizontal gene transfer and prevalent in biofilms and sediment, where ample opportunities for genetic exchange with potential environmental pathogens present themselves, resistant isolates may present a risk to ecosystem, wildlife and public health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from food animals and blood stream isolates from humans in Europe: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Antonio R; Collignon, Peter; Aarestrup, Frank M; McEwen, Scott A; Hendriksen, Rene S; Hald, Tine; Wegener, Henrik C

    2011-12-01

    In addition to medical antimicrobial usage, the use of antimicrobials in food animals contributes to the occurrence of resistance among some bacterial species isolated from infections in humans. Recently, several studies have indicated that a large proportion of Escherichia coli causing infections in humans, especially those resistant to antimicrobials, have an animal origin. We analyzed the correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections in humans and in E. coli isolates from poultry, pigs, and cattle between 2005 and 2008 for 11 countries, using available surveillance data. We also assessed the correlation between human antimicrobial usage and the occurrence of resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections. Strong and significant correlations between prevalences of resistance to ampicillin (r=0.94), aminoglycosides (r=0.72), third-generation cephalosporins (r=0.76), and fluoroquinolones (r=0.68) were observed for human and poultry E. coli isolates. Similar significant correlations were observed for ampicillin (r=0.91), aminoglycosides (r=0.73), and fluoroquinolone resistance (r=0.74) in pig and human isolates. In cattle isolates, only ampicillin resistance (r=0.72) was significantly correlated to human isolates. When usage of antimicrobials in humans was analyzed with antimicrobial resistance among human isolates, only correlations between fluoroquinolones (r=0.90) and third-generation cephalosporins (r=0.75) were significant. Resistance in E. coli isolates from food animals (especially poultry and pigs) was highly correlated with resistance in isolates from humans. This supports the hypothesis that a large proportion of resistant E. coli isolates causing blood stream infections in people may be derived from food sources.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Escherichia coli and enterococci from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhouani, Hajer; Igrejas, Gilberto; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Pacheco, Rui; Monteiro, Ricardo; Sargo, Roberto; Brito, Francisco; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-10-01

    The aims of the study were to analyse the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and the mechanisms implicated, as well as the virulence factors, in faecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. from red foxes. From 52 faecal samples, 22 E. coli (42.3%) and 50 enterococci (96.2%) isolates were recovered (one/sample). A high percentage of E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin (54-27%), and they harboured the aadA, tet(A) and/or tet(B), sul1 and blaTEM resistance genes, respectively. The E. coli isolates were ascribed to the 4 major phylogroups, D (41% of isolates), A (31.8%), B1 (18.2%) and B2 (9.1%), and carried the fimA (63.3%) or aer (13.6%) virulence genes. Among enterococcal isolates, Enterococcus faecium was the most prevalent species (50%). A high percentage of enterococcal isolates showed tetracycline resistance (88%) harbouring different combinations of tet(M) and tet(L) genes. The erm(B) or the aph(3')-IIIa gene were identified in most of our erythromycin- or kanamycin-resistant enterococci, respectively. This report suggests the role of red foxes from rural areas in the cycle of transmission and spread of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli and enterococci into the environment, representing a reservoir of these antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of preweaned dairy calf housing system on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Ng, J C; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2014-12-01

    Group housing of preweaned dairy calves is a growing practice in the United States. The objective of this practice is to increase the average daily gain of calves in a healthy and humane environment while reducing labor requirements. However, feeding protocols, commingling of calves, and occurrence of disease in different calf-housing systems may affect the prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria. This study evaluated the effect of a group pen-housing system and individual pen-housing system on antimicrobial resistance trends in fecal Escherichia coli of preweaned dairy calves and on the prevalence of environmental Salmonella. Twelve farms from central New York participated in the study: 6 farms using an individual pen-housing system (IP), and 6 farms using a group pen-housing system (GP). A maximum of 3 fecal E. coli isolates per calf was tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial drugs using a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. Calves in GP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid, whereas calves in IP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, gentamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Calf-housing system had an effect on resistance to individual antimicrobial drugs in E. coli, but no clear-cut advantage to either system was noted with regard to overall resistance frequency. No outstanding difference in the richness and diversity of resistant phenotypes was observed between the 2 calf-housing systems. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli obtained from drinking water sources in northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, Beatus; Buza, Joram; Subbiah, Murugan; Smith, Woutrina; Call, Douglas R

    2016-11-03

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing and significant threat to public health on a global scale. Escherichia coli comprises Gram-negative, fecal-borne pathogenic and commensal bacteria that are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance. AMR E. coli can be ingested via food, water and direct contact with fecal contamination. We estimated the prevalence of AMR Escherichia coli from select drinking water sources in northern Tanzania. Water samples (n = 155) were collected and plated onto Hi-Crome E. coli and MacConkey agar. Presumptive E. coli were confirmed by using a uidA PCR assay. Antibiotic susceptibility breakpoint assays were used to determine the resistance patterns of each isolate for 10 antibiotics. Isolates were also characterized by select PCR genotyping and macro-restriction digest assays. E. coli was isolated from 71 % of the water samples, and of the 1819 E. coli tested, 46.9 % were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim was significantly higher (15-30 %) compared to other tested antibiotics (0-6 %; P E. coli isolates obtained from these water sources were genetically diverse with few matching macro-restriction digest patterns. Water supplies in northern Tanzania may be a source of AMR E. coli for people and animals. Further studies are needed to identify the source of these contaminants and devise effective intervention strategies.

  12. Virulence factors, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties of Escherichia coli strains in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Yazdani, Farshad; Mozafari, Jalal; Valizadeh, Yousef

    2014-04-07

    From a clinical perspective, it is essential to know the microbial safety of fermented dairy products. Doogh and kashk are fermented dairies. These products are used by millions of people but their microbial qualities are unknown. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most commonly detected pathogens in the cases of food poisoning and food-borne illnesses. The present investigation was carried out in order to study the molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from fermented dairy products. Six hundred fermented dairy samples were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. All samples were cultured immediately and those that were E. coli-positive were analyzed for the presence of O157 , O26, O103, O111, O145, O45, O91, O113, O121 and O128 STEC serogroups, tetA, tetB, blaSHV, CITM, cmlA, cat1, aadA1, dfrA1, qnr, aac (3)-IV, sul1 and ereA antibiotic resistance genes and stx1, stx2, eaeA, ehly, cnf1, cnf2, iutA, cdtB, papA, traT, sfaS and fyuA virulence factors using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed also using disk diffusion methodology with Mueller-Hinton agar. Fifty out of 600 (8.33%) dairy samples harbored E. coli. In addition, yoghurt was the most commonly contaminated dairy. O157 (26%) and O26 (12%) were the most commonly detected serogroups. A significant difference was found between the frequency of Attaching and Effacing E. coli and Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (P resistance against tetracycline (tetA and tetB) (76% and 70%, respectively), cephalothin (blaSHV) (38%), ampicillin (CITM) (36%) and gentamicin (aac (3)-IV) (32%) were the most commonly detected. High resistance levels to tetracycline (84%), penicillin (46%), ampicillin (38%) and streptomycin (36%) were observed. Fermented dairy products can easily become contaminated by antibiotic resistant STEC strains. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in Iran. Clinicians should

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated in newly-hatched chickens and effect of amoxicillin treatment during their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Doménech, Eva; Villagrá, Arantxa; Fenollar, Alejandro; Ferrús, Maria Antonia

    2016-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals is the major determinant for the propagation of resistant bacteria in the animal reservoir. However, other factors may also play a part, and in particular vertical spread between the generations has been suggested to be an important transmission pathway. The objective of this paper was to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from newly-hatched chickens as well as to study the antibiotic pressure effect when amoxicillin was administered during their growing period. With this aim, meconium from 22 one-day-old Ross chickens was analysed. In addition, during their growth period, amoxicillin treatments at days 7, 21 and 35 were carried out. Results showed a high number of E. coli-resistant strains were isolated from the treated one-day-old chickens, and were the highest for β-lactams group, followed by quinolone and tetracyclines. After treatment with amoxicillin, the highest percentage of resistances were detected for this antibiotic compared to the others analysed, with significant differences in resistance percentages between control and treated broilers detected in relation to ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Differences in resistances to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid between control and treated animals were not observed and there was lack of resistance for amikacin and ceftriaxone. These results suggest the possibility of vertical transmission of resistant strains to newly-hatched chicks from parent flocks, and seem to indicate that the treatment with amoxicillin increased the resistance of E. coli to other antibiotics.

  14. The rise of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium high-risk clones as a frequent intestinal colonizer in oncohaematological neutropenic patients on levofloxacin prophylaxis: a risk for bacteraemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Díaz, A M; Cuartero, C; Rodríguez, J D; Lozano, S; Alonso, J M; Rodríguez-Domínguez, M; Tedim, A P; Del Campo, R; López, J; Cantón, R; Ruiz-Garbajosa, P

    2016-01-01

    Levofloxacin extended prophylaxis (LEP), recommended in oncohaematological neutropenic patients to reduce infections, might select resistant bacteria in the intestine acting as a source of endogenous infection. In a prospective observational study we evaluated intestinal emergence and persistence of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (AREfm), a marker of hospital adapted high-risk clones. AREfm was recovered from the faeces of 52 patients with prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy, at admission (Basal), during LEP, and twice weekly until discharge (Pos-LEP). Antibiotic susceptibility, virulence traits and population structure (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing) were determined and compared with bacteraemic isolates. Gut enterococcal population was monitored using a quantitative PCR quantification approach. AREfm colonized 61.4% of patients (194/482 faecal samples). Sequential AREfm acquisition (25% Basal, 36.5% LEP, 50% Pos-LEP) and high persistent colonization rates (76.9-89.5%) associated with a decrease in clonal diversity were demonstrated. Isolates were clustered into 24 PFGE-patterns within 13 sequence types, 95.8% of them belonging to hospital-associated Bayesian analysis of population structure subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a. Levofloxacin resistance and high-level streptomycin resistance were a common trait of these high-risk clones. AREfm-ST117, the most persistent clone, was dominant (60.0% isolates, 32.6% patients). It presented esp gene and caused 18.2% of all bacteraemia episodes in 21% of patients previously colonized by this clone. In AREfm-colonized patients, intestinal enrichment in the E. faecium population with a decline in total bacterial load was observed. AREfm intestinal colonization increases during hospital stay and coincides with enterococci population enrichment in the gut. Dominance and intestinal persistence of the ST117 clone might increase the risk of bacteraemia. Copyright © 2015 European Society of

  15. Antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli O26, O145, and O157:H7 isolated from swine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwe Juliana Iwu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli (E. coli serogroups isolated from swine that are regularly exposed to clinically important antibiotics in the farms, calculate multiple antibiotic resistance index and determine the presence of resistance determinants. Methods: Identification of the E. coli isolates (n = 169, delineation into serogroups, and resistance genes determination were done using PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility testing against 16 antibiotics was done using the disk diffusion method. Results: The susceptibility test showed that most of the isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (long-acting counterpart, oxytetracycline and also to ampicillin (84%–100%. On the other hand, a relatively high susceptibility to norfloxacin (83%–100%, ciprofloxacin (63%–100%, gentamicin (77%–100%, and chloramphenicol (77%–100% was observed among the isolates. The multiple antibiotic resistance indices ranged from 0.2 to 0.7 while genes encoding resistances to tetracycline, streptomycin and ampicillin were detected in 48%, 22%, and 78% of all the E. coli isolates, respectively. Conclusions: Findings from this study revealed that swine from this area can be reservoirs of multiple antibiotic resistances. There is need for regular surveillance of antimicrobial usage in swine industries and the use of sub-therapeutic doses of these agents should be discouraged.

  16. Association Between Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Food Animals and Blood Stream Isolates from Humans in Europe: An Ecological Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Collignon, Peter; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    infections in humans, especially those resistant to antimicrobials, have an animal origin.Methods: We analyzed the correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections in humans and in E. coli isolates from poultry, pigs, and cattle between 2005.......74) in pig and human isolates. In cattle isolates, only ampicillin resistance (r=0.72) was significantly correlated to human isolates. When usage of antimicrobials in humans was analyzed with antimicrobial resistance among human isolates, only correlations between fluoroquinolones (r=0.90) and third......Background: In addition to medical antimicrobial usage, the use of antimicrobials in food animals contributes to the occurrence of resistance among some bacterial species isolated from infections in humans. Recently, several studies have indicated that a large proportion of Escherichia coli causing...

  17. Diversity of Plasmids and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Healthy Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C R; Davis, J A; Frye, J G; Barrett, J B; Hiott, L M

    2015-09-01

    The presence and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes from commensal bacteria in companion animals to more pathogenic bacteria may contribute to dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance gene content and the presence of genetic elements in antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli from healthy companion animals. In our previous study, from May to August, 2007, healthy companion animals (155 dogs and 121 cats) from three veterinary clinics in the Athens, GA, USA area were sampled and multidrug-resistant E. coli (n = 36; MDR, resistance to ≥ 2 antimicrobial classes) were obtained. Of the 25 different plasmid replicon types tested by PCR, at least one plasmid replicon type was detected in 94% (34/36) of the MDR E. coli; four isolates contained as many as five different plasmid replicons. Nine replicon types (FIA, FIB, FII, I2, A/C, U, P, I1 and HI2) were identified with FIB, FII, I2 as the most common pattern. The presence of class I integrons (intI) was detected in 61% (22/36) of the isolates with eight isolates containing aminoglycoside- and/or trimethoprim-resistance genes in the variable cassette region of intI. Microarray analysis of a subset of the MDR E. coli (n = 9) identified the presence of genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aac, aad, aph and strA/B), β-lactams (ampC, cmy, tem and vim), chloramphenicol (cat), sulfonamides (sulI and sulII), tetracycline [tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(D) and regulator, tetR] and trimethoprim (dfrA). Antimicrobial resistance to eight antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfisoxazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and five plasmid replicons (FIA, FIB, FII, I1 and I2) were transferred via conjugation. The presence of antimicrobial resistance genes, intI and transferable plasmid replicons indicate that E. coli from companion animals may play an important role in the

  18. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella And Escherichia Coli Isolated From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our investigation revealed that Escherichia coli and Salmonella organisms were isolated in the outbreaks. A pattern of antibiotic resistance that seems to be increasing was also found. Considering the role of chickens and its products in the human food chain in Nigeria; and the close interaction between poultry and man, ...

  19. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella And Escherichia Coli Isolated From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the cause of death using several virological and bacteriological techniques, isolated the pathogenic agents and carried out sensitivity tests. Our investigation revealed that Escherichia coli and Salmonella organisms were isolated in the outbreaks. A pattern of antibiotic resistance that seems to be increasing ...

  20. Multiple-Resistant Commensal Escherichia Coli from Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence traits of 150 strains of Escherichia coli characterized as commensals recovered from faecal samples from pre-school age children in Ile-Ife,. Nigeria were evaluated in order to determine their potentials for pathogenicity and their contribution to antibiotic resistance in the ...

  1. Changes in Escherichia coli resistance to co-trimoxazole in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Thyolo district, Malawi, an operational research study is being conducted on the efficacy and feasibility of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in preventing deaths in HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis (TB). A series of cross-sectional studies were carried out to determine i) whether faecal Escherichia coli (E.coli) resistance to ...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of peptidomimetics against multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Rasmus D; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Franzyk, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    -lactamase-producing Escherichia coli was assessed by testing an array comprising different types of cationic peptidomimetics obtained by a general monomer-based solid-phase synthesis protocol. Most of the peptidomimetics possessed high to moderate activity toward multidrug-resistant E. coli as opposed to the corresponding...

  3. Increased multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli from hospitals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) has become a major public health concern in Sudan and many countries, causing failure in treatment with consequent huge health burden. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and susceptibility of MDR E. coli isolated from patients in hospitals at Khartoum ...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of non-clinical Escherichia coli strains from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine resistance profiles of Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinically healthy chickens in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria. A total of 324 E. coli strains isolated from cloaca swabs from 390 chickens were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. The antibiotics ...

  5. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial resistance in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from two paediatric cohort studies in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Anicia M; Rivera, Fulton P; Pons, Maria J; Riveros, Maribel; Gomes, Cláudia; Bernal, María; Meza, Rina; Maves, Ryan C; Huicho, Luis; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Lanata, Claudio F; Gil, Ana I; Ochoa, Theresa J; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide, being of special concern in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance in 205 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates from two cohort studies in children Peru. ETEC were identified by an in-house multiplex real-time PCR. Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was tested by disk diffusion; mechanisms of resistance were evaluated by PCR. ETEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin (64%), cotrimoxazole (52%), tetracycline (37%); 39% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant. Heat-stable toxin producing (ETEC-st) (48%) and heat-labile toxin producing ETEC (ETEC-lt) (40%) had higher rates of multidrug resistance than isolates producing both toxins (ETEC-lt-st) (21%), pPeru. However, further development of resistance should be closely monitored. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry abattoir workers at risk and broilers on antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Oguttu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage in food animals increases the prevalence of antimicrobial drug resistance among their enteric bacteria. It has been suggested that this resistance can in turn be transferred to people working with such animals, e.g. abattoir workers. Antimicrobial drug resistance was investigated for Escherichia coli from broilers raised on feed supplemented with antimicrobials, and the people who carry out evisceration, washing and packing of intestines in a high-throughput poultry abattoir in Gauteng, South Africa. Broiler carcasses were sampled from 6 farms, on each of which broilers are produced in a separate 'grow-out cycle'. Per farm, 100 caeca were randomly collected 5 minutes after slaughter and the contents of each were selectively cultured for E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each isolate was determined for the following antimicrobials : doxycycline, trimethoprim, sulphamethoxazole, ampicillin, enrofloxacin, fosfomycin, ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid. The same was determined for the faeces of 29 abattoir workers and 28 persons used as controls. The majority of isolates from broilers were resistant, especially to antimicrobials that were used on the farms in the study. Overall median MICs and the number of resistant isolates from abattoir workers (packers plus eviscerators tended to be higher than for the control group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed when the median MICs of antimicrobials used regularly in poultry and percentage resistance were compared, nor could an association between resistance among the enteric E. coli from packers and those from broilers be demonstrated.

  7. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance in 36 E. coli isolated from waste, litter, soil and water samples collected from poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria. Methodology: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of the isolates were determined using...... the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute and resistance genes detected by PCR. Results: A total of 30 isolates (94%) showed resistance to more than one antimicrobial. Percentage resistance was: tetracycline 81%, sulphamethoxazole 67%, streptomycin 56%, trimethoprim 47 %, ciprofloxacin 42......%, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), str...

  8. Multidrug Resistance in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections may cause disease and death. Infants and children are often subject to bacterial infections. Antimicrobials kill bacteria protecting the infected patients andreducing the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by bacteria. The antibiotics may lose their antibacterial activity when they become resistant to a bacteria. The resistance to different antibiotics in a bacteria is named multidrug-resistance. Gram-negative bacilli, especially Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, may become resistant. Amikacin ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxiclav, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin may cause bacterial-resistance. Resistance to bacteria for several pathogens makes complications in the treatment of infections caused by them. Salmonella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cephalotin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Shigella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Multidrug-resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae may be due to β-lactams, macrolides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Multidrug-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may become resistant to β-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. The antibacterial activity against Haemophilus strains may occur with ampicillin, sulbactam-ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. Multidrug-resistance of the Klebsiella species may be due with ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, co-amxilav, mezlocillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ceftazidime. Multidrug-resistance of Escherichia coli may be caused by ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime. Vibrio

  9. Resistencia a los antimicrobianos de aislamientos de Escherichia coli obtenidos de cerdos de la República Argentina Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from pigs in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Moredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 69 aislamientos de Escherichia coli provenientes de cerdos clínicamente sanos o con signología clínica no compatible con diarreas causadas por este microorganismo, con el objetivo de determinar el patrón de resistencia a los antimicrobianos frecuentemente utilizados en medicina veterinaria y humana. Se empleó el método de difusión en agar. Se observaron elevados porcentajes de resistencia frente a ampicilina, estreptomicina y tetraciclina, antimicrobianos utilizados en las explotaciones porcinas, y frente a trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol y cloranfenicol, compuestos que han dejado de utilizarse hace varios años. El 62% de los aislamientos mostró multirresistencia. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente trabajo corroboran la hipótesis de que la distribución fenotípica de la resistencia y, posiblemente, la de sus determinantes genéticos están directamente influenciadas por los tratamientos antimicrobianos utilizados.Sixty-nine Escherichia coli isolates from healthy pigs or with clinical signs non-compatible with diarrhea caused by this microorganism, were studied. The purpose was to determine the resistance profile against antimicrobials frequently used in veterinary and human medicine. The agar diffusion method was used. High resistance percentages against antimicrobials used in swine farms such as ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline were observed, as well as against trimetoprim-sulfametoxazole and chloramphenicol, compounds that were stopped being used several years ago. Sixty two percent of isolates showed multidrug-resistance. The results obtained in this work corroborate the hypothesis that the phenotypic distribution of resistance and possibly that of its genetic determinants, are directly influenced by the antimicrobial treatments used.

  10. Resistance patterns, ESBL genes, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli from dogs and owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A C; Barbosa, A V; Arais, L R; Ribeiro, P F; Carneiro, V C; Cerqueira, A M F

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n=134), their owners (n=134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n=44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic resistance of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mojtaba boniadian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human gastrointestinal disease caused by verotoxigenic Escherichia coli has been diagnosed for recent decades. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most important serotype of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause hemolytic uremic syndrome and hemorrhagic colitis in humans. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of verotoxigenic E. coli and antibiotic resistance of the isolates from vegetables. Materials and methods: A total of 500 fresh vegetable samples were collected randomly from retail shops in Shahrekord, Iran. E. coli was isolated and identified using bacteriological and biochemical tests. PCR method was used to identify the rbfE, stx1, stx2 and eae genes. Also, antibiotic resistance of the isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The results represented that among 25 isolates possess virulence genes, 40, 12 and 4% of the isolates contained eaeA, STx2, and both genes, respectively. But none of them contained H7, STx1, and rfbE genes. The antibiotic resistance pattern demonstrated that the isolates were highly resistant to Gentamycin and cefotoxime. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study showed that the presence of verotoxigenic E.coli in vegetables; and high resistance of the isolates to antibiotics could be hazardous for public health.

  12. [Evaluation of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli in urinary tract infections in Primary Care Barbastro Sector (Huesca)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrán, Ana; Cortés, Ana Ma; López, Concepción

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate the resistance of community-uropathogen, Escherichia coli to several antibiotics in our health sector and deduce empirical treatment options. E. coli strains isolated from urine cultures of patients from Primary Care Barbastro Sector, between January 2011 and December 2013, were studied. The resistances rates for nine common antibiotics were determined, and differences in sensitivity were analyzed, comparing confidence intervals for proportions by the method of Wilson. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria (61.08% of positive urine cultures sent from Primary Care). Overall, there has been an increase in resistance of E. coli isolates in all antimicrobials studied. Still, resistance has remained below 4% compared to fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin and below 10% in cephalosporins second and third generation. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate has increased progressively reaching 21.5% in 2013; only this antibiotic has presented a statistically significant increase. The maximum levels of resistance (over 30%) were found in the antibiotics administered orally and often indicated in uncomplicated urinary tract infections: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Update knowledge susceptibility patterns of microorganisms most commonly isolated in urine samples in each health area allows to choose the most suitable and effective treatments trough empirical knowledge.

  13. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which causes symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI), very lit- tle is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the human urinary tract19. Escherichia coli is responsible for more than 80.0% of all UTIs and causes both ABU and symptomatic UTI19. The main.

  14. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance profiles of escherichia coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Chunu; McFall, Margaret; King, Robin; Irwin, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Alberta, Canada. Cecal contents of broiler chickens from 24 flocks were collected at slaughter between January and March 2005 for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 antimicrobials using a broth microdilution technique. Of 600 E. coli isolates tested, 475 (79.2%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, 326 (54.3%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, 65 (10.8%) were resistant to five or more antimicrobials, and 15 (2.5%) were resistant to seven or more antimicrobials. The most common resistance was to tetracycline (69.2%), followed by streptomycin (48.2%), kanamycin (40.3%), and sulfisoxazole (38.0%). None of the E. coli isolates were resistant to amikacin, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin. Of the isolates that were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, the most common multidrug resistance patterns were streptomycinte-tracycline (44.0%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (30.7%), and kanamycin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (23.5%). Resistance to tetracycline and kanamycin (odds ratio = 46.7, P = 0.0001) was highly associated, followed by resistance to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole (odds ratio = 12.0, P = 0.0001), and streptomycin and tetracycline (odds ratio = 10.3, P = 0.0001). The flock level prevalence of resistance varied from 16.7% for chloramphenicol to 100.0% for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. The results of this study provided baseline information on antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, which can serve as a bench mark for future research.

  15. Characterization of Cefotaxime- and Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Commensal Escherichia coli Originating from Belgian Farm Animals Indicates High Antibiotic Resistance Transfer Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Ellen; Van Meervenne, Eva; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom; Wattiau, Pierre; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Van Coillie, Els

    2017-11-17

    Food-producing animals represent one of the sources of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria. There is an increasing awareness that these bacteria might have the potential to transfer their resistance genes to other (pathogenic) bacteria. In this study, 50 commensal Escherichia coli strains originating from food-producing animals and resistant to the "highest priority, critically important antibiotics" cefotaxime and/or ciprofloxacin, were selected for further characterization. For each strain (i) an antibiogram, (ii) the phylogenetic group, (iii) plasmid replicon type, (iv) presence and identification of integrons, and (v) antibiotic resistance transfer ratios were determined. Forty-five of these strains were resistant to 5 or more antibiotics, and 6 strains were resistant to 10 or more antibiotics. Resistance was most common to ampicillin (100%), sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin (82%), trimethoprim, tetracycline (74%), cefotaxime, (70%) and ceftazidime (62%). Phylogenetic groups A (62%) and B1 (26%) were most common, followed by C (8%) and E (4%). In 43 strains, more than 1 replicon type was detected, with FII (88%), FIB (70%), and I1 (48%) being the most encountered types. Forty strains, positive for integrons, all harbored a class I integron and seven of them contained an additional class II integron. No class III integrons were detected. The antibiotic resistance transfer was assessed by liquid mating experiments. The transfer ratio, expressed as the number of transconjugants per recipient, was between 10 -5 and 10 0 for cefotaxime resistance and between 10 -7 and 10 -1 for ciprofloxacin resistance. The results of the current study prove that commensal E. coli in food-production animals can be a source of multiple resistance genes and that these bacteria can easily spread their ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime resistance.

  16. Phenotypic Assays to Determine Virulence Factors of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) Isolates and their Correlation with Antibiotic Resistance Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasi, Mohsen; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Mehri; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    Urinary tract infection caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains is one of the most important infections in the world. UPEC encode widespread virulence factors closely related with pathogenesis of the bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of different phenotypic virulence markers in UPEC isolates and determine their correlation with antibiotic resistance pattern. UPEC isolates from patients with different clinical symptoms of UTI were collected and screened for biofilm and hemolysin production, mannose resistant, and mannose sensitive hemagglutination (MRHA and MSHA, respectively). In addition, antimicrobial resistance pattern and ESBL-producing isolates were recorded. Of the 156 UPEC isolates, biofilm and hemolysin formation was seen in 133 (85.3%) and 53 (34%) isolates, respectively. Moreover, 98 (62.8%) and 58 (37.2%) isolates showed the presence of Types 1 fimbriae (MSHA) and P fimbriae (MRHA), respectively. Our results also showed a relationship between biofilm formation in UPEC isolated from acute cystitis patients and recurrent UTI cases. Occurrence of UTI was dramatically correlated with the patients' profiles. We observed that the difference in antimicrobial susceptibilities of the biofilm and nonbiofilm former isolates was statistically significant. The UPEC isolates showed the highest resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, and cotrimoxazole. Moreover, 26.9% of isolates were ESBL producers. This study indicated that there is a relationship between the phenotypic virulence traits of the UPEC isolates, patients' profiles, and antibiotic resistance. Detection of the phenotypic virulence factors could help to improve understanding of pathogenesis of UPEC isolates and better medical intervention.

  17. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from cases of calf enteritis during the spring-calving season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, James F; Boland, Fiona; Buckley, James F; Butler, Francis; Egan, John; Fanning, Séamus; Markey, Bryan K; Leonard, Finola C

    2014-05-14

    Neonatal enteritis is a common condition of young calves and can be caused by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. We hypothesised that on-farm antimicrobial use would result in an increased frequency of resistance in these strains during the calving season. We also sought to determine if the frequency of resistance reflected on-farm antimicrobial use. Faecal samples were collected from cases of calf enteritis on 14 spring-calving dairy farms during two 3 week periods: Period 1 - February 11th through March 2nd 2008 and Period 2 - April 14th through May 5th 2008. E. coli were cultured from these samples, pathogenic strains were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out on these pathogenic isolates. Antimicrobial prescribing data were collected from each farm for the previous 12 months as an indicator of antimicrobial use. The correlation between antimicrobial use and resistance was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between resistance, sampling period and pathotype. Penicillins and aminopenicillins, streptomycin, and tetracyclines were the most frequently prescribed antimicrobials and the greatest frequencies of resistance were detected to these 3 antimicrobial classes. A strong correlation (ρ=0.879) was observed between overall antimicrobial use and frequencies of antimicrobial resistance on farms. Sampling period was significant in the regression model for ampicillin resistance while pathotype was significant in the models for streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole resistance. The frequencies of resistance observed have implications for veterinary therapeutics and prudent antimicrobial use. Resistance did not increase during the calving season and factors other than antimicrobial use, such as calf age and bacterial pathotype, may influence the occurrence of resistance in pathogenic E. coli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Ribosome slowed by mutation to streptomycin resistance. [Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galas, D.J.; Branscomb, E.W.

    1976-08-12

    The effect of mutation to streptomycin resistance on the speed of polypeptide elongation in Escherichia coli was investigated. Translation speed was determined by measuring the time required for the first newly synthesized ..beta..-galactosidase molecules to appear after induction of the lactose operon. The results showed that ribosome speed is not a fixed parameter inherent to the protein synthetic apparatus, but a variable determined by the kinetics of translation and ultimately by the structure of the ribosome. (HLW)

  19. Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia fergusonii: a Case of Acute Cystitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Vincenzo; Catavitello, Chiara; Talia, Marzia; Manna, Assunta; Pompetti, Franca; Favaro, Marco; Fontana, Carla; Febbo, Fabio; Balbinot, Andrea; Di Berardino, Fabio; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Di Zacomo, Silvia; Esattore, Francesca; D'Antonio, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    We report a case in which Escherichia fergusonii, an emerging pathogen in various types of infections, was associated with cystitis in a 52-year-old woman. The offending strain was found to be multidrug resistant. Despite in vitro activity, beta-lactam treatment failed because of a lack of patient compliance with therapy. The work confirms the pathogenic potential of E. fergusonii. PMID:18256229

  20. Heterologously expressed bacterial and human multidrug resistance proteins confer cadmium resistance to Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achard-Joris, M; van Saparoea, HBV; Driessen, AJM; Bourdineaud, JP; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The human MDR1 gene is induced by cadmium exposure although no resistance to this metal is observed in human cells overexpressing hMDR1. To access the role of MDR proteins in cadmium resistance, human MDR1, Lactococcus lactis lmrA, and Oenococcus oeni omrA were expressed in an Escherichia coli tolC

  1. Antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from stool samples of children aged 3 to 14 years from Ujjain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is a major global public health concern, particularly in settings where few treatment options are available. Limited research has been done on antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli of Indian children at community level. Therefore we studied antibiotic resistance patterns in E. coli isolates from stool samples of children aged 3-14 years from Ujjain, Central India, to investigate associations of resistance with demographic variables. Methods Children, 3-14 years of age, were included from 30 randomly selected villages of Palwa demographic surveillance site, Ujjain, India. Parents were interviewed using a questionnaire, and stool samples were collected from participating children. E. coli were isolated from stool samples (n = 529), and susceptibility testing to 18 different antibiotics was done using standard methods. Results The proportions of isolates resistant to various antibiotics were, nalidixic acid, (45%), tetracycline (37%), ampicillin (37%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (29%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (29%). No isolates were resistant to imipenem. Overall, 72% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 33% were multi-drug resistant. High rates of cross-resistance were seen for 15 (83%) of the antibiotics studied. E. coli isolates from children with literate mothers were more resistant to penicillins and fluoroquinolones. ESBL-producers comprised 9% of the isolates. Conclusion Antibiotic resistance and cross-resistance were common in E. coli from stools of children. Resistance rates were associated with maternal literacy. PMID:24124728

  2. Current perspectivesin pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Haishen; Hong, Xiaoping; Li, Xuefen

    2015-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging pathogen that causes acute and persistent diarrhea in children and adults. While the pathogenic mechanisms of EAEC intestinal colonization have been uncovered (including bacterial adhesion, enterotoxin and cytotoxin secretion, and stimulation of mucosal inflammation), those of severe extraintestinal infections remain largely unknown. The recent emergence of multidrug resistant EAEC represents an alarming public health threat and clinical challenge, and research on the molecular mechanisms of resistance is urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewnetu, Yalemwork; Lemma, Wossenseged; Birhane, Nega

    2013-10-19

    Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees and has nutritional and therapeutic uses. In Ethiopia, honeys are used traditionally to treat wounds, respiratory infections and diarrhoea. Recent increase of drug resistant bacteria against the existing antibiotics forced investigators to search for alternative natural remedies and evaluate their potential use on scientific bases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different types of honeys in Ethiopia which are used traditionally to treat different types of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Mueller Hinton agar (70191) diffusion and nutrient broth culture medium assays were performed to determine susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and resistant clinical isolates (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), Escherichia coli(R) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), using honeys of Apis mellifera and stingless bees in northern and north western Ethiopia. Honey of the stingless bees produced the highest mean inhibition (22.27 ± 3.79 mm) compared to white honey (21.0 ± 2.7 mm) and yellow honey (18.0 ± 2.3 mm) at 50% (v/v) concentration on all the standard and resistant strains. Stingless bees honey was found to have Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 6.25% (6.25 mg/ml) for 80% of the test organisms compared to 40% for white and yellow Apis mellifera honeys. All the honeys were found to have minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5% (12.5 mg/ml) against all the test organisms. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) was susceptible to amoxicillin, methicillin, kanamycine, tetracycline, and vancomycine standard antibiotic discs used for susceptibility tests. Similarly, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) was found susceptible for kanamycine, tetracycline and vancomycine. Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) has not been tested for amoxicillin ampicillin and methicillin. The susceptibility tests performed against

  4. Five-Year Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Urinary Escherichia coli at an Australian Tertiary Hospital: Time Series Analyses of Prevalence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasugba, Oyebola; Mitchell, Brett G; Mnatzaganian, George; Das, Anindita; Collignon, Peter; Gardner, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the antimicrobial resistance temporal trends and seasonal variation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) urinary tract infections (UTIs) over five years, from 2009 to 2013, and compares prevalence of resistance in hospital- and community-acquired E. coli UTI. A cross sectional study of E. coli UTIs from patients attending a tertiary referral hospital in Canberra, Australia was undertaken. Time series analysis was performed to illustrate resistance trends. Only the first positive E. coli UTI per patient per year was included in the analysis. A total of 15,022 positive cultures from 8724 patients were identified. Results are based on 5333 first E. coli UTIs, from 4732 patients, of which 84.2% were community-acquired. Five-year hospital and community resistance rates were highest for ampicillin (41.9%) and trimethoprim (20.7%). Resistance was lowest for meropenem (0.0%), nitrofurantoin (2.7%), piperacillin-tazobactam (2.9%) and ciprofloxacin (6.5%). Resistance to amoxycillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, gentamicin and piperacillin-tazobactam were significantly higher in hospital- compared to community-acquired UTIs (9.3% versus 6.2%; 15.4% versus 9.7%; 5.2% versus 3.7% and 5.2% versus 2.5%, respectively). Trend analysis showed significant increases in resistance over five years for amoxycillin-clavulanate, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cefazolin, ceftriaxone and gentamicin (Presistance (augmented Dickey-Fuller statistic = 4.136; P = 0.006). An association between ciprofloxacin resistance, cefazolin resistance and ceftriaxone resistance with older age was noted. Given the relatively high resistance rates for ampicillin and trimethoprim, these antimicrobials should be reconsidered for empirical treatment of UTIs in this patient population. Our findings have important implications for UTI treatment based on setting of acquisition.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O157 and O26 isolated from human cases of diarrhoeal disease in England, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin; Doumith, Michel; Jenkins, Claire; Dallman, Timothy J; Hopkins, Katie L; Elson, Richard; Godbole, Gauri; Woodford, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic and transmission to humans occurs via contaminated food or contact with infected animals. In this study, WGS data were used to predict antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in STEC from symptomatic human cases to assess the extent of transmission of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from animals to humans. WGS data from 430 isolates of STEC were mapped to genes known to be associated with phenotypic AMR. Susceptibility testing was performed by a breakpoint method on all viable isolates exhibiting resistance to at least one antimicrobial. 327/396 (82.6%) of STEC O157 and 22/34 (64.7%) of STEC O26 lacked identifiable resistance genes and were predicted to be fully susceptible to 11 diverse classes of antimicrobials. For the remaining 81 isolates, 74 were phenotypically tested and there was concordance between WGS-predicted resistance and expression of phenotypic resistance. The most common resistance profile was ampicillin, streptomycin, trimethoprim/sulphonamide and tetracycline occurring in 25 (5.8%) isolates. Resistance to other antimicrobials, including resistance to chloramphenicol (2.1%), resistance to azithromycin (0.2%) and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (2.6%), was less frequent. Three isolates were identified as ESBL producers. β-Lactams, trimethoprim/sulphonamides and tetracyclines account for the majority of therapeutic antimicrobials sold for veterinary use and this may be a risk factor for the presence of AMR in domestically acquired human clinical isolates of STEC. Isolates that were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamide, tetracycline and azithromycin and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were associated with cases who reported recent travel abroad. © Crown copyright 2016.

  6. Zoonotic potential of multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli obtained from healthy poultry carcasses in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vitor Lima-Filho

    Full Text Available The zoonotic potential to cause human and/or animal infections among multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli from avian origin was investigated. Twenty-seven extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates containing the increased survival gene (iss were obtained from the livers of healthy and diseased poultry carcasses at two slaughterhouses in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. The antimicrobial resistance-susceptibility profiles were conducted with antibiotics of avian and/or human use by the standardized disc-diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance was higher for levofloxacin (51.8%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (70.4%, ampicillin (81.5%, cefalotin (88.8%, tetracycline (100% and streptomycin (100%. The minimum inhibitory concentrations above the resistance breakpoints of doxycycline, neomycin, oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin reached, respectively, 88.0%, 100%, 75% and 91.7% of the isolates. Strains with high and low antimicrobial resistance were i.p. administered to Swiss mice, and histopathological examination was carried out seven days after infection. Resistance to goat and human serum complement was also evaluated. The results show that Swiss mice challenged with strain 2B (resistant to 11 antimicrobials provoked a severe degeneration of hepatocytes besides lymphocytic infiltration in the liver, whereas the spleen showed areas of degeneration of the white and red pulp. Conversely, the spleen and liver of mice challenged with strain 4A (resistant to two antimicrobials were morphologically preserved. In addition, complement resistance to goat and human serum was high for strain 2B and low for strain 4A. Our data show that multidrug resistance and pathogenesis can be correlated in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains obtained from apparently healthy poultry carcasses, increasing the risk for human public healthy.

  7. First detection of extended-spectrum cephalosporin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in Australian food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sam; Jordan, David; Wong, Hui S; Johnson, James R; Toleman, Mark A; Wakeham, David L; Gordon, David M; Turnidge, John D; Mollinger, Joanne L; Gibson, Justine S; Trott, Darren J

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to define the frequency of resistance to critically important antimicrobials (CIAs) [i.e. extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs) and carbapenems] among Escherichia coli isolates causing clinical disease in Australian food-producing animals. Clinical E. coli isolates (n=324) from Australian food-producing animals [cattle (n=169), porcine (n=114), poultry (n=32) and sheep (n=9)] were compiled from all veterinary diagnostic laboratories across Australia over a 1-year period. Isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 18 antimicrobials using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute disc diffusion method. Isolates resistant to CIAs underwent minimum inhibitory concentration determination, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), phylogenetic analysis, plasmid replicon typing, plasmid identification, and virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene typing. The 324 E. coli isolates from different sources exhibited a variable frequency of resistance to tetracycline (29.0-88.6%), ampicillin (9.4-71.1%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (11.1-67.5%) and streptomycin (21.9-69.3%), whereas none were resistant to imipenem or amikacin. Resistance was detected, albeit at low frequency, to ESCs (bovine isolates, 1%; porcine isolates, 3%) and FQs (porcine isolates, 1%). Most ESC- and FQ-resistant isolates represented globally disseminated E. coli lineages (ST117, ST744, ST10 and ST1). Only a single porcine E. coli isolate (ST100) was identified as a classic porcine enterotoxigenic E. coli strain (non-zoonotic animal pathogen) that exhibited ESC resistance via acquisition of bla CMY-2 . This study uniquely establishes the presence of resistance to CIAs among clinical E. coli isolates from Australian food-producing animals, largely attributed to globally disseminated FQ- and ESC-resistant E. coli lineages. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. High prevalence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) Escherichia coli in river bed sediments of the Apies River, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Momba, Maggy Ndombo Benteke

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the presence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in river bed sediments of the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa, in order to better inform health management decisions designed to protect users of the river. Overall, 180 water and sediment samples were collected at 10 sites along the Apies River from January to February 2014. E. coli was enumerated using the Colilert® 18/Quanti-Tray® 2000 (IDEXX). Isolates were purified by streaking on eosin methylene blue agar followed by the indole test. Pure E. coli isolates were tested for resistance to nine antibiotics by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Over 98% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. The highest resistance was observed against nitrofurantoin (sediments) and ampicillin (water). Over 80% of all resistant isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance to ≥3 antibiotics). The abundance of E. coli in the sediments not only adds to the evidence that sediments are a reservoir for bacteria and possibly other pathogens including antibiotic-resistant bacteria but also suggests that antibiotic-resistant genes could be transferred to pathogens due to the high prevalence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) strains of E. coli observed in the sediment. Using untreated water from the Apies River following resuspension for drinking and other household purposes could pose serious health risks for users. Our results suggest that river bed sediments could serve as reservoirs for MAR bacteria including pathogens under different climatic conditions and their analysis could provide information of public health concerns.

  9. Zoonotic potential of multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli obtained from healthy poultry carcasses in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vitor Lima-Filho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The zoonotic potential to cause human and/or animal infections among multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli from avian origin was investigated. Twenty-seven extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates containing the increased survival gene (iss were obtained from the livers of healthy and diseased poultry carcasses at two slaughterhouses in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. The antimicrobial resistance-susceptibility profiles were conducted with antibiotics of avian and/or human use by the standardized disc-diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance was higher for levofloxacin (51.8%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (70.4%, ampicillin (81.5%, cefalotin (88.8%, tetracycline (100% and streptomycin (100%. The minimum inhibitory concentrations above the resistance breakpoints of doxycycline, neomycin, oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin reached, respectively, 88.0%, 100%, 75% and 91.7% of the isolates. Strains with high and low antimicrobial resistance were i.p. administered to Swiss mice, and histopathological examination was carried out seven days after infection. Resistance to goat and human serum complement was also evaluated. The results show that Swiss mice challenged with strain 2B (resistant to 11 antimicrobials provoked a severe degeneration of hepatocytes besides lymphocytic infiltration in the liver, whereas the spleen showed areas of degeneration of the white and red pulp. Conversely, the spleen and liver of mice challenged with strain 4A (resistant to two antimicrobials were morphologically preserved. In addition, complement resistance to goat and human serum was high for strain 2B and low for strain 4A. Our data show that multidrug resistance and pathogenesis can be correlated in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains obtained from apparently healthy poultry carcasses, increasing the risk for human public healthy.

  10. Association between antimicrobial resistance and virulence in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Gabriela Jorge; Mendonça, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The treatment of E. coli infections is now threatened by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The dissemination of resistance is associated with genetic mobile elements, such as plasmids, that may also carry virulence determinants. A proficient pathogen should be virulent, resistant to antibiotics, and epidemic. However, the interplay between resistance and virulence is poorly understood. This review aims to critically discuss the association and linked transmission of both resistance and virulence traits in strains from extraintestinal infections in E. coli, and intestinal pathotypes. Despite the numerous controversies on this topic, findings from research published to date indicate that there is a link between resistance and virulence, as illustrated by the successful E. coli ST131 epidemic clone. Perhaps the most commonly accepted view is that resistance to quinolones is linked to a loss of virulence factors. However, the low virulent phylogenetic groups might be more prone to acquire resistance to quinolones. Specific characteristics of the E. coli genome that have yet to be identified may contribute to such genetic linkages. Research based on bacterial populations is sorely needed to help understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between resistance and virulence, that, in turn, may help manage the future disseminations of infectious diseases in their entirety.

  11. [Subcloning of copper resistance promoters from Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Brown, N L

    1997-12-01

    There were two promoters, PpcoA and PpcoE, in the copper resistant determinant from Escherichia coli. Either of them contains the copper box. In order to confirm the importance of copper box in the copper resistance promoters and to study their characteristics, several fragments of both promoters were subcloned using pUCD615 as reporter vector into its SmaI site. The results of restriction endonuclease digestion and the results of reporter gene lux-luciferase activities indicated that both of the Ppco short-lux fusions didn't show any luciferase activities, which indicated that these two fragments (Ppco short) couldn't act as promoters, and thus confirming the copper box was essential to copper resistance. If there were no copper box in the Ppco promoters, there would be no copper resistance in the E. coli.

  12. Mecanismos moleculares de resistencia antibiótica en Escherichia coli asociadas a diarrea Molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli- associated diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Mosquito

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia antibiótica es un problema emergente a nivel mundial presente en diversas bacterias, en especial en la Escherichia coli, que tiene altos porcentajes de resistencia hacia ampicilina, trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol, tetraciclina, cloramfenicol y ácido nalidíxico, lo que supone grandes complicaciones en el tratamiento antibiótico cuando este es requerido. Este aumento de resistencia antibiótica se debe a la adquisición de diferentes mecanismos moleculares de resistencia mediante mutaciones puntuales a nivel cromosómico o transferencia horizontal de material genético entre especies relacionadas o diferentes, facilitada por algunos elementos genéticos tales como los integrones. Esta revisión discute los efectos de los mecanismos moleculares de resistencia más comunes en E.coli: inactivación enzimática, alteraciones en el sitio blanco y alteraciones de la permeabilidad. El conocer los mecanismos de resistencia implicados, como lo recomienda la Organización Mundial de la Salud, permitirá optimizar la vigilancia de resistencia y las políticas de control y uso de antibióticos a nivel nacional.Antibiotic resistance is an emerging problem worldwide present in many bacteria, specially in Escherichia coli, which has high percentages of resistance to ampicilline, thrimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid, which implies important complications in antibiotic treatment when required. The increasing antibiotic resistance is due to the acquisition of different molecular mechanisms of resistance through point chromosomal mutations and /or horizontal transfer of genetic material between related or different species facilitated by some genetic elements such as integrons. This review discusses the effects of the most common molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in E. coli: enzymatic inactivation, changes in the target site and permeability disturbances. Getting to know the mechanisms of

  13. Microbial Quality and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated from Traditional Ice Cream in Hamadan City, West of Iran

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    Ghadimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Foodborne diseases are one of the most major public health concerns in the world. Ice cream flavors, especially the traditional ones, have a high potential for the transmission of the pathogenic bacteria. Objectives The aim of the current study is to investigate the microbiological status and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from traditional ice cream. Methods A total of 114 traditional ice creams were randomly collected from retail stores in Hamadan, Iran. Samples were investigated for the total bacteria count (TBC and contamination with the coliform, Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella as well as the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results The count of Enterobacteriaceae (89.47%, mold and yeast (50%, coliform (40.35% and TBC (28.07% of samples was higher than Iran’s standard. Salmonella was not found in all samples. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was confirmed in 50% and 37.72% of samples, respectively. Collected Escherichia coli had the highest antibiotic resistance to ampicillin 67.44%, nalidixic acid 39.53% and co-amoxyclav 37.21%. Staphylococcus aureus showed a higher antibiotic resistance to penicillin (82.46% of isolates and oxacillin (38% of isolates. Conclusions The results showed high contamination levels of traditional ice cream with spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as considerable resistance of isolated Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to common antibiotics. Therefore, good hygienic practice during processing and personal hygiene should be considered to improve the quality of ice cream. In addition, it is necessary that the regulatory authorities carry out more control on the production centers of traditional ice cream.

  14. Impact of antibiotic restriction on resistance levels of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Jonas; Andreasen, Viggo; Jarløv, Jens Otto

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of an antibiotic stewardship programme (ASP) on the use of antibiotics and resistance levels of Escherichia coli using a method that allowed direct comparison between an intervention hospital and a control hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted as a retrosp......OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of an antibiotic stewardship programme (ASP) on the use of antibiotics and resistance levels of Escherichia coli using a method that allowed direct comparison between an intervention hospital and a control hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted...... as a retrospective controlled interrupted time series (ITS) at two university teaching hospitals, intervention and control, with 736 and 552 beds, respectively. The study period was between January 2008 and September 2014. We used ITS analysis to determine significant changes in antibiotic use and resistance levels......% CI -177, -126)] and fluoroquinolones [-44.5 DDDs/1000 bed-days (95% CI -58.9, -30.1)]. Resistance of E. coli showed a significant change in slope for cefuroxime [-0.13 percentage points/month (95% CI -0.21, -0.057)] and ciprofloxacin [-0.15 percentage points/month (95% CI -0.26, -0.038)]. CONCLUSIONS...

  15. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelowo, Olawale O; Fagade, Obasola E; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-09-12

    This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance in 36 E. coli isolated from waste, litter, soil and water samples collected from poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of the isolates were determined using the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute and resistance genes detected by PCR. A total of 30 isolates (94%) showed resistance to more than one antimicrobial. Percentage resistance was: tetracycline 81%, sulphamethoxazole 67%, streptomycin 56%, trimethoprim 47 %, ciprofloxacin 42%, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), strB (61%), catA1 (25%), cmlA1 (13%), tetA (21%) and tetB (17%). Class 1 and 2 integrons were found in five (14%) and six (17%) isolates, respectively, while one isolate was positive for both classes of integrons. Seven out of eight isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin and MIC ≤ 32 mg/L to nalidixic acid contained qnrS genes. Our findings provided additional evidence that the poultry production environment in Nigeria represents an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes such as qnrS that may spread from livestock production farms to human populations via manure and water.

  16. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ryan G; Zheng, Jinshui; Garcia-Hernandez, Rigoberto; Ruan, Lifang; Gänzle, Michael G; McMullen, Lynn M

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli.

  17. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eMercer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR. This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli.

  18. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ryan G.; Zheng, Jinshui; Garcia-Hernandez, Rigoberto; Ruan, Lifang; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli. PMID:26441869

  19. WGS accurately predicts antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; McDermott, Patrick F; Li, Cong; Chen, Yuansha; Tadesse, Daniel A; Mukherjee, Sampa; Bodeis-Jones, Sonya; Kabera, Claudine; Gaines, Stuart A; Loneragan, Guy H; Edrington, Tom S; Torrence, Mary; Harhay, Dayna M; Zhao, Shaohua

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WGS in identifying resistance genotypes of MDR Escherichia coli and whether these correlate with observed phenotypes. Seventy-six E. coli strains were isolated from farm cattle and measured for phenotypic resistance to 15 antimicrobials with the Sensititre(®) system. Isolates with resistance to at least four antimicrobials in three classes were selected for WGS using an Illumina MiSeq. Genotypic analysis was conducted with in-house Perl scripts using BLAST analysis to identify known genes and mutations associated with clinical resistance. Over 30 resistance genes and a number of resistance mutations were identified among the E. coli isolates. Resistance genotypes correlated with 97.8% specificity and 99.6% sensitivity to the identified phenotypes. The majority of discordant results were attributable to the aminoglycoside streptomycin, whereas there was a perfect genotype-phenotype correlation for most antibiotic classes such as tetracyclines, quinolones and phenicols. WGS also revealed information about rare resistance mechanisms, such as structural mutations in chromosomal copies of ampC conferring third-generation cephalosporin resistance. WGS can provide comprehensive resistance genotypes and is capable of accurately predicting resistance phenotypes, making it a valuable tool for surveillance. Moreover, the data presented here showing the ability to accurately predict resistance suggest that WGS may be used as a screening tool in selecting anti-infective therapy, especially as costs drop and methods improve. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors and genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates from household water supply in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Talukdar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unsafe water supplies continue to raise public health concerns, especially in urban areas in low resource countries. To understand the extent of public health risk attributed to supply water in Dhaka city, Bangladesh, Escherichia coli isolated from tap water samples collected from different locations of the city were characterized for their antibiotic resistance, pathogenic properties and genetic diversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 233 E. coli isolates obtained from 175 tap water samples were analysed for susceptibility to 16 different antibiotics and for the presence of genes associated with virulence and antibiotic resistance. Nearly 36% (n = 84 of the isolates were multi-drug(≥ 3 classes of antibiotics resistant (MDR and 26% (n = 22 of these were positive for extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. Of the 22 ESBL-producers, 20 were positive for bla CTX-M-15, 7 for bla OXA-1-group (all had bla OXA-47 and 2 for bla CMY-2. Quinolone resistance genes, qnrS and qnrB were detected in 6 and 2 isolates, respectively. Around 7% (n = 16 of the isolates carried virulence gene(s characteristic of pathogenic E. coli; 11 of these contained lt and/or st and thus belonged to enterotoxigenic E. coli and 5 contained bfp and eae and thus belonged to enteropathogenic E. coli. All MDR isolates carried multiple plasmids (2 to 8 of varying sizes ranging from 1.2 to >120 MDa. Ampicillin and ceftriaxone resistance were co-transferred in conjugative plasmids of 70 to 100 MDa in size, while ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline resistance were co-transferred in conjugative plasmids of 50 to 90 MDa. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed diverse genetic fingerprints of pathogenic isolates. SIGNIFICANCE: Multi-drug resistant E. coli are wide spread in public water supply in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Transmission of resistant bacteria and plasmids through supply water pose serious threats to public health in

  1. Staphylococcus aureus ampicillin-resistant from the odontological clinic environment Staphylococcus aureus resistente à ampicilina em ambiente de Clínica Odontológica

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    Wagner Luis de Carvalho Bernardo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of Sthaphylococcus spp. and S. aureus in the odontological clinic environment (air, their production of beta-lactamase and antibacterial susceptibility to the major antibiotics utilized in medical particle. During 12 months of samples collect were isolated 9775 CFU by MSA medium suggesting a high amount of Staphylococcus spp. in the clinic environment which can appear through aerosols. A total of 3149 colonies (32.2% were suggestive of pathogenic staphylococci. Gram coloration, catalase test, colony-mallow growing on chromogenic medium, and coagulase test confirmed the identity of 44 (0.45% S. aureus isolates. Of these, 35 isolates (79.5% showed production of beta-lactamase by CefinaseTM discs and resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin (7 isolates and tetracycline (1 isolate suggesting the existence of multiresistant isolates. The evaluation of the oxacillin MIC by Etest® assays showed susceptibility patterns suggesting the inexistence of the mecA gene in chromosomal DNA. These results point out to the need of a larger knowledge on the contamination means and propagation of this microorganism into the odontological clinic.Foi avaliada a prevalência de Staphylococcus spp. e S. aureus no ambiente clínico odontológico, a produção de beta-lactamase e a susceptibilidade antibacteriana aos principais antibióticos utilizados na prática clínica. Durante 12 meses de coleta de amostras foram isolados 9775 UFC no meio de cultura AMS, demonstrando uma elevada quantidade de Staphylococcus spp. no ambiente clínico, provavelmente em decorrência da propagação de aerossóis. Um total de 3149 colônias (32,2% foi sugestivo de estafilococos patogênicos. Coloração de Gram, teste de catalase, crescimento de colônias-malva sobre meio cromogênico e teste de coagulase confirmaram a identidade de 44 (0,45% isolados de S. aureus. Destes, 35 isolados (79,5% mostraram produção de beta

  2. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from roof-harvested rainwater tanks and urban pigeon faeces as the likely source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the risks associated with the use of roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) and the implication of pigeons as the most likely source of contamination by testing for antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli. A total of 239 E. coli were isolated from thirty fresh pigeon faecal samples (130 isolates), 11 RHRW tanks from three sites in Pretoria (78) and two in Johannesburg (31). E. coli isolates were tested against a panel of 12 antibiotics which included ampicillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline. In all samples, resistance to ampicillin (22.7.9%), gentamicin (23.6%), amikacin (24%), tetracycline (17.4) and amoxicillin (16.9%) were the most frequently encountered form of resistance. However, a relatively higher proportion of isolates from pigeon faeces (67.3%) were antibiotic resistant than those from RHRW (53.3%). The highest number of phenotypes was observed for single antibiotics, and no single antibiotic resistance was observed for chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, cefoxitin, cotrimoxazole, although they were detected in multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) phenotypes. The highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) phenotypes were observed for a combination of four antibiotics, on isolates from JHB (18.8%), pigeon faeces (15.2%) and Pretoria (5.1%). The most abundant resistance phenotype to four antibiotics, Ak-Gm-Cip-T was dominated by isolates from pigeon faeces (6.8%) with Pretoria and Johannesburg isolates having low proportions of 1.3 and 3.1%, respectively. Future studies should target isolates from various environmental settings in which rainwater harvesting is practiced and the characterisation of the antibiotic resistance determinant genes among the isolates.

  3. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

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    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Abo-Amer, Aly E.

    2014-01-01

    Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1–5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration. PMID:25763023

  4. Inhibition of resistance plasmid transfer in Escherichia coli by ionophores, chlortetracycline, bacitracin, and ionophore/antimicrobial combinations.

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    Mathers, Jeremy J; Clark, Steven R; Hausmann, Denny; Tillman, Paul; Benning, Valerie R; Gordon, Shelly K

    2004-01-01

    Medicinal feed additives bacitracin, chlortetracycline (CTC), laidlomycin, lasalocid, and salinomycin inhibited the transfer of multiresistance-conferring plasmid pBR325 (Tet(r) Amp(r) Cp(r), 6.0 kb) into selected gram-negative strains with the use of an in vitro model. High concentrations of ampicillin-sensitive competence-pretreated Escherichia coli HB 101 cells were exposed to 10% (v/v) of 1:10 dimethyl sulfoxide/agent : water containing test mixtures for 0.5 hr prior to plasmid addition and transforming conditions. Transformation was inhibited for all antimicrobials and showed a positive association wich higher concentration. Additional testing of ionophore compounds separately and in combination with bacitracin, chlortetracycline, lincomycin, roxarsone, tylosin, and virginiamycin at representative feed concentrations demonstrated 80.6% to >99.9% inhibition (P < 0.001) of resistance transfer. Bacitracin alone inhibited transformation within the range of 50-500 ppm. No increase in resistance transfer was observed when poultry-derived and reference gram-negative isolates having low or no transformation efficiency were additionally tested. The results suggest that these compounds, at relevant concentrations used in animal feed, may interfere with cell envelope-associated DNA uptake channels or other transformation competence mechanisms. Through these mechanisms, ionophores and cell membrane-interactive feed agents such as CTC and bacitracin may act to inhibit resistance transfer mechanisms within poultry and livestock.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in dogs given antibiotics for chronic dermatological disorders, compared with non-treated control dogs

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    Saijonmaa-Koulumies L

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial resistance in canine staphylococci, Escherichia coli and enterococci, which were isolated from 22 dogs with pyoderma and a history of previous antibiotic treatment, compared to bacterial isolates from 56 non-treated control dogs. Two isolates of each bacterial species per dog were investigated, if detected. Staphylococcal isolates from dogs with pyoderma (35 isolates were more resistant to sulphatrimethoprim than the isolates from controls (56 isolates (57% vs. 25%, p E. coli was detected (24 and 74 isolates from treated and control dogs, respectively, but the differences were not significant. Resistance for macrolide-lincosamides was approximately 20% among staphylococci in both groups. Resistance to ampicillin among enterococci was 4%–7%. The age of the dogs might have an impact on resistance: multiresistance among staphylococcal isolates from younger dogs (≤5 years was more common than in older dogs (≥6 years (24%, vs. 0%, 63 and 27 isolates, respectively, p = 0.02. Staphylococci in younger dogs were more resistant to tetracycline (48% vs. 11%, p E. coli from older dogs tended to be more resistant, although a significant difference was detected only in resistance to tetracycline (13% vs. 2% of 40 and 50 isolates respecthely, p = 0.04. The results of this small study indicate that resistance in canine staphylococci in the capital area of Finland is comparable with many other countries in Europe. Resistance in indicator bacteria, E. coli and enterococci, was low.

  6. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same....... In the faeces of the carriers, the proportion of resistant strains in the total bacterial species population was on average 15% for both ampicillin-resistant E. coli (median faecal load 3.2×10(4)cfu/g) and E. faecium (5.8×10(2)cfu/g), and 4.6% for cefotaxime-resistant E. coli (8.6×10(3) cfu/g). Cefotaxime...

  7. Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from hen egg shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande Burgos, María José; Fernández Márquez, Maria Luisa; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-12-05

    Eggs may contain extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) and diarrheogenic (DEC) Escherichia coli which in addition may carry antibiotic resistance. The wide use of biocides and disinfectants in the food industry may induce biocide tolerance in bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance in E. coli from hen egg shells. A total of 27 isolates obtained from a screening of 180 eggs were studied. Seven isolates carried both eae and bfpA genes of typical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains, while 14 isolates only carried eae associated with atypical EPEC strains. Shiga toxin genes stx and stx2 were detected in four isolates. Heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxin genes as well as aggR were also detected. Several isolates had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) that were higher than the wild-type for the biocide hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP, 18.52%) or the commercial disinfectant P3 oxonia (OX, 14.81%). Antibiotic resistance was detected for ampicillin (37.03%), streptomycin (37.03%), tetracycline (37.03%), chloramphenicol (11.11%), nalidixic acid (18.51%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (14.81%). Eight isolates (29.63%) were biocide tolerant and antibiotic resistant. Efflux pump genes detected included acrB (96.29%), mdfA (85.18%) and oxqA (37.03%), in addition to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) resistance genes qacA/B (11.11%) and qacE (7.40%). Antibiotic resistance genes detected included bla CTX-M-2 (22.22%), bla TEM (3.70%), bla PSE (3.70%), tet(A) (29.63%), tet(B) (29.63%), tet(C) (7.40%), tet(E) (11.11%), aac(6')-Ib (3.70%), sul1 (14.81%), dfrA12 (3.70%) and dfrA15 (3.70%). Most isolates (96.30%) carried more than one genetic determinant of resistance. The most frequent combinations were efflux pump components acrB and mdfA with tetracycline resistance genes (33.33% of isolates). Isolates carrying QAC resistance genes also carried between 4 and 8 of the additional antimicrobial resistance genes

  8. Multiple antimicrobial resistance among Avian Escherichia coli strains in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 101 Escherichia (E. coli isolates from broilers, laying hens and turkeys which had died from colibacillosis, collected from 37 intensive and rural farms in Albania, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility toward 12 different molecules. The highest levels of resistance were observed for Erythromycin (E (100% Amoxicillin (AMX (99.1%, Tetracycline (TE 30 (96.07%, Streptomycin (STR (93.07% and Neomycin (N30 (85.15%. Considerable resistance was also detected for fluoroquinolones. Moreover, 73.33% of E. coli resistant to at least one fluoroquinolone were also resistant to the two other fluoroquinolones checked. No evident differences were found between the E. coli from intensive and from rural farms. Multiple antibiotic resistance was expressed by all the E. coli tested. 23.63% and 17.39% of E. coli isolated from intensive and rural farms, respectively, were resistant towards all the drugs tested. These data would seem to indicate incorrect use of antibiotics on poultry farms in Albania.

  9. Serogrouping and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chicken with colibacillosis in center of Algeria

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    Zehor Halfaoui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Colibacillosis is considered as one of the major bacterial infections in avian pathology. The excessive use of antibiotics reduced their effectiveness, which eventually led to the risk of emergence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and serotype the pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 samples from different organs of broilers with colibacillosis lesions were collected (liver, spleen, lung, and heart in center of Algeria. The isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using conventional techniques. Then, these strains were serotyped and tested over 13 antibiotics. Results: A total of 156 strains of E. coli were isolated. Serotyping results showed that 50 strains belong to 3 serotypes (23 for O1, 11 for O2, 16 for O78 which represent 32% of isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility test, presented high level of resistance to tetracyclines (94.12%, flumequine (91.5%, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (88.89%, enrofloxacin (86.27%, nalidixic acid (85.62%, ampicillin (83.01% and doxycycline (75.81%, medium level resistance to chloramphenicol (39.22%, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (43.13%. All the strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, excepting three, which presented an extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. In addition, the results of multi-resistance showed that all the strains were resistant at the minimum to two antibiotics and 66.66% of strains were resistant to at least seven antibiotics. Conclusion: The antibiotic resistance continues to rise at an alarming rate, and the emergence of ESBL is considered as a threat for public health.

  10. Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Sahoo, Soumyakanta; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Klintz, Senia Rosales; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households) and coastal (187 households) regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696) to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR) of resistance in E. coli isolates from children’s stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18–8.01), cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59–8.03, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00–14.44, P = 0.049) were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39–4.37, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36–7.41, P = 0.008) as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12–4.34, P = 0.022) and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06–7.07, P = 0.036) were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region. PMID:22690160

  11. Violet 405 nm light: A novel therapeutic agent against β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nathaniel L R; de la Presa, Martin; Barneck, Mitchell D; Poursaid, Ahrash; Firpo, Matthew A; Langell, John T

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 1.7 million patients are affected by hospital-acquired infections every year in the United States. The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria associated with these infections prompts the investigation of alternative sterilization and antibacterial therapies. One method currently under investigation is the antibacterial properties of visible light. This study examines the effect of a visible light therapy (VLT) on β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli, a common non-skin flora pathogen responsible for a large percentage of indwelling medical device-associated clinical infection. 405 nm light-emitting diodes were used to treat varying concentrations of a common laboratory E. coli K-12 strain transformed with the pCIG mammalian expression vector. This conferred ampicillin resistance via expression of the β-lactamase gene. Bacteria were grown on sterile polystyrene Petri dishes plated with Luria-Bertani broth. Images of bacterial growth colonies on plates were processed and analyzed using ImageJ. Irradiance levels between 2.89 ± 0.19 and 9.45 ± 0.63 mW cm(-2) and radiant exposure levels between 5.60 ± 0.39 and 136.91 ± 4.06 J cm(-2) were tested. VLT with variable irradiance and constant treatment time (120 minutes) demonstrated significant reduction (P resistant E. coli is especially relevant to the need for novel methods of sterilization in healthcare settings. These results suggest that VLT using 405 nm light could be a suitable clinical option for eradication of β-lactam-resistant E. coli. Visible light kills statistically significant concentrations of E. coli. Antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria exhibits sensitivity to 405 nm light. Greater than 6 log10 reduction in β-lactam-resistant E. coli when treated with visible light therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes and PFGE-profiling of Escherichia coli isolates from South Korean cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Won; Byun, Jae-Won; Jung, Myounghwan; Shin, Min-Kyoung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2014-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Escherichia coli with potential pathogenicity in cattle farm in South Korea, a total of 290 E. coli isolates were isolated from cattle farms over a period of 2 years in South Korea. These were examined for phenotypic and genotypic characteristics including antimicrobial susceptibility, serotype, and gene profiles of virulence and antimicrobial resistance. The most dominant virulence gene was f17 (26.2%), followed by stx2 (15.9%), ehxA (11.0%), stx1 (8.3%), eae (5.2%), and sta (4.1%). Some shiga-toxin producing E. coli isolates possessed eae (15.9%). All isolates except for one showed resistance to one or more antimicrobials, with 152 isolates exhibiting multidrug-resistance. The most prevalent resistance phenotype detected was streptomycin (63.1%), followed by tetracycline (54.5%), neomycin (40.3%), cephalothin (32.8%), amoxicillin (30.0%), ampicillin (29.7%), and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (16.6%). The associated resistance determinants detected were strA-strB (39.0%), tet(E) (80.0%), tet(A) (27.6%), aac(3)-IV (33.1%), aphA1 (21.4%), bla TEM (23.8%), and sul2 (22.1%). When investigated by O serotyping and PFGE molecular subtyping, the high degree of diversity was exhibited in E. coli isolates. These results suggest that E. coli isolates from South Korean cattle farms are significantly diverse in terms of virulence and antimicrobial resistance. In conclusion, the gastroinstestinal flora of cattle could be a significant reservoir of diverse virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants, which is potentially hazardous to public health.

  13. Prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons in multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from aquaculture water in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Elahe; Khamesipour, Faham; Ranjbar, Reza; Ugwu, Ifeoma Chinyere

    2015-07-31

    Integrons play important role in the spread and maintenance of antimicrobial resistance among strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other species of Enterobacteriaceae. This study investigated the prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons among E. coli strains isolated from aquaculture water of fish fields in Iran. One hundred and fifty water samples from different geographical regions in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province were examined over a 2 months period. Isolation was through culture and biochemical tests. Integrons were identified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotide primers specific for class 1 and 2 integrons. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using disc diffusion methods. Eighteen percent of the water samples were positive for E. coli. All the strains were multi-drug resistant; 100% to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline and least resistant to imipenem (7.2%). Ten (50%) of the most resistant strains were positive for class 1 (40%) and class 2 (10%). Escherichia coli in aquaculture in Iran carried integrons class 1 and 2 which could be of public health concern since they could play a role in the spread and maintenance of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial population in the region and should be constantly monitored.

  14. Quantitative resistance level (MIC) of Escherichia coli isolated from calves and pigs suffering from enteritis: national resistance monitoring by the BVL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, Ulrike; Kaspar, Heike; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    National Resistance Monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL), which was put into service in 2001, has made it possible to implement a valid and representative database on the basis of which the resistance situation, development and spread in animal pathogens can be evaluated. Escherichia coil (E. coli) strains originating from calves and pigs suffering from enteritis were first included in the investigations in the 2004/2005 study. A total of 258 bovine and 492 porcine E. coli strains were tested using the broth microdilution method to determine the in vitro susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration) to 23 (fattening pigs) and 28 (calves, piglets, weaners) different antimicrobial substances. Considerable prevalences of resistance were found for some antimicrobials. The strains originating from both animal species displayed high prevalences of resistance for tetracycline, trimethoprim, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline and ampicillin. Reduced susceptibility was detected particularly in the E. coli strains from calves. The data reveal that the resistance level of E. coli strains isolated from cases of enteric disease in calves and pigs is altogether higher than has so far been reported in pathogens causing different diseases and in other food-producing animal species. Based on the results presented, it is possible to assess the current resistance situation for E. coli strains in calves and pigs in Germany. This in turn helps to deduce the necessary management measures that can be taken in order to minimise resistance to antibiotics. Furthermore, the data help to decide on adequate therapy of E. coli infections of the intestinal tract in calves and pigs and encourage the responsible use of antibiotics in the interests of animal health and consumer protection.

  15. Resistance patterns of diversified phylogroups of Escherichia coli associated with mothers having history of preterm births in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Fiza; Siddiqui, Sidra; Khan, Ayesha; Siddiqui, Fariha; Noreen, Zobia; Bokhari, Sadia; Bokhari, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), and are one of the key predictors of preterm births. In the light of this fact, present study was conducted to determine the predominant Escherichia coli (E. coli) phylotypes and their associated antibiotic susceptibility patterns, isolated from pregnant mothers with the history of preterm births. Forty seven E. coli strains were isolated out of a total of 80 urine samples of pregnant women. The isolates were phylotyped and further screened for the presence of Clonal group A. Moreover, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and screening for Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing strains were also performed. Among the 47 isolates, phylogroup B2 was found to be highly prevalent (45%), followed by group D (23%), B1 (10.64%), A (6.38%), E (6.38%), cryptic clade I (4.25%) and F (2.13%). Two isolates belonged to CgA and 41 (87.23%) isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant. Out of nine antibiotics tested in the study, the isolates displayed high resistance to Ampicillin (82.6%), Sulphamethoxazole (65.22%), Nalidixic acid (60.87%), Sulphamethoxazole-Trimethoprim, Doxycycline and Erythromycin (56.52% each). In total, 8 (17.02%) of the isolates were found to be ESBL positive. The prevalence of infections caused by virulent and highly drug resistant E. coli isolates constitute a risk of developing preterm birth complications in pregnant women and requires the selection of appropriate antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused during pregnancy.

  16. Induction of Streptomycin Uptake in Resistant Strains of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höltje, Joachim-Volker

    1979-01-01

    Different streptomycin-resistant strains of Escherichia coli, including an R100 plasmid-carrying strain of E. coli W3110, the ribosomally resistant mutant SM10, and the spontaneous revertant from dependence to independence d1023, exhibited poor accumulation capacity for aminoglycoside antibiotics. This was due to a failure of these mutants to induce the general polyamine transport system that is utilized by streptomycin to enter the cell. It is shown that the aminoglycoside kanamycin, which is effective on these streptomycin-resistant strains, was capable of inducing the uptake of streptomycin, thus giving rise to streptomycin accumulation up to wild-type levels. Plasmid-determined resistance, which has been speculated to be the result of a blockage of the uptake system by modified antibiotic molecules, cannot be overcome by the induction of streptomycin transport. Increase in permeability of the antibiotic does not affect the susceptibility of the bacteria. It is shown that all of the antibiotic taken up was enzymatically modified. R-plasmid-conferred resistance to aminoglycosides is therefore explained by the inactivation of the antibiotic entering the bacterial cell. PMID:371542

  17. Increased survival of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli inside macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskinyte, Migla; Gordo, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Mutations causing antibiotic resistance usually incur a fitness cost in the absence of antibiotics. The magnitude of such costs is known to vary with the environment. Little is known about the fitness effects of antibiotic resistance mutations when bacteria confront the host's immune system. Here, we study the fitness effects of mutations in the rpoB, rpsL, and gyrA genes, which confer resistance to rifampin, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid, respectively. These antibiotics are frequently used in the treatment of bacterial infections. We measured two important fitness traits-growth rate and survival ability-of 12 Escherichia coli K-12 strains, each carrying a single resistance mutation, in the presence of macrophages. Strikingly, we found that 67% of the mutants survived better than the susceptible bacteria in the intracellular niche of the phagocytic cells. In particular, all E. coli streptomycin-resistant mutants exhibited an intracellular advantage. On the other hand, 42% of the mutants incurred a high fitness cost when the bacteria were allowed to divide outside of macrophages. This study shows that single nonsynonymous changes affecting fundamental processes in the cell can contribute to prolonged survival of E. coli in the context of an infection.

  18. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of enterotoxigenic and entero-aggregative Escherichia coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Bonyadian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains and antibiotic resistance of the isolates in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. Out of 200 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of unpasteurized cheeses, 96 and 24 strains of E. coli were isolated, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect the genes encoding heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa, heat-stable enterotoxin b (STb, heat labile toxin (LT and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin1 (EAST1. Twelve out of 120 (10.00% isolates harbored the gene for EAST1, 2(1.66% isolates were detected as producing STb and LT toxins and 12 (10.00% strains contained STb and EAST1 genes. None of the strains contain the STa gene. All of the strains were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion method. Disks included: ciprofloxacin (CFN, trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TSX, oxytetracycline (OTC, gentamicin (GMN, cephalexin (CPN, nalidixic acid (NDA and nitrofurantoin (NFN, ampicillin (AMP, neomycin (NEO and streptomycin (STM. Among 120 isolated strains of E. coli, the resistance to each antibiotics were as follows: OTC100%, CPN 86.00%, NDA 56.00%, NFN 42.00%, GMN 30.00%, TSX 28.00%, CFN 20%, AM 23.40% and STM 4.25%. None of the isolates were resistant to NEO. The present data indicate that different resistant E. coli pathogens may be found in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. It poses an infection risk for human and transferring the resistant factors to microflora of the consumers gut.

  19. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons among commensal Escherichia coli isolates from infants and elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõljalg Siiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to compare the presence of the intI1 gene and its associations with the antibiotic resistance of commensal Escherichia coli strains in children with/without previous antibiotic treatments and elderly hospitalized/healthy individuals. Methods One-hundred-and-fifteen intestinal E. coli strains were analyzed: 30 strains from 10 antibiotic-naive infants; 27 from 9 antibiotic-treated outpatient infants; 30 from 9 healthy elderly volunteers; and 28 from 9 hospitalized elderly patients. The MIC values of ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole were measured by E-test and IntI1 was detected by PCR. Results Out of the 115 strains, 56 (49% carried class 1 integron genes. Comparing persons without medical interventions, we found in antibiotic-naive children a significantly higher frequency of integron-bearing strains and MIC values than in healthy elderly persons (53% versus 17%; p Conclusion The prevalence of integrons in commensal E. coli strains in persons without previous medical intervention depended on age. The resistance of integron-carrying and non-carrying strains is more dependent on influencing factors (hospitalization and antibiotic administration in particular groups than merely the presence or absence of integrons.

  20. Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Poultry Meat Supply in Isfahan

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    Farhad Safarpordehkordi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: Despite the high contamination rate of chicken meat with Escherichia coli, majority of isolates had high resistance to common antibiotics. Complete cooking of meat and avoid indiscriminate prescribing of antibiotics, preventing the occurrence of food poisoning due to resistant Escherichia coli.

  1. Genome Sequences of Two Copper-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Copper-Fed Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Freja L.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances.......The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances....

  2. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O157:H7- from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Velusamy; Nguyen, Lien T; Headrick, Susan I; Murinda, Shelton E; Oliver, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes including O157:H7 (n = 129) from dairy cows, cull dairy cow feces, cider, salami, human feces, ground beef, bulk tank milk, bovine feces, and lettuce; and O157:H7- (n = 24) isolated from bovine dairy and bovine feedlot cows were evaluated for antimicrobial resistance against 26 antimicrobials and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE, tetG, floR, cmlA, strA, strB, sulI, sulII, and ampC). All E. coli exhibited resistance to five or more antimicrobial agents, and the majority of isolates carried one or more target antimicrobial resistance gene(s) in different combinations. The majority of E. coli showed resistance to ampicillin, aztreonam, cefaclor, cephalothin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid, and all isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol. Many STEC O157:H7 and O157:H7-isolates were susceptible to amikacin, carbenicillin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin, moxalactam, norfloxacin, streptomycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline. The majority of STEC O157:H7 (79.8%) and O157:H7- (91.7%) carried one or more antimicrobial resistance gene(s) regardless of whether phenotypically resistant or susceptible. Four tetracycline resistant STEC O157:H7 isolates carried both tetA and tetC. Other tetracycline resistance genes (tetB, tetD, tetE, and tetG) were not detected in any of the isolates. Among nine streptomycin resistant STEC O157:H7 isolates, eight carried strA-strB along with aadA, whereas the other isolate carried aadA alone. However, the majority of tetracycline and streptomycin susceptible STEC isolates also carried tetA and aadA genes, respectively. Most ampicillin resistant E. coli of both serotypes carried ampC genes. Among sulfonamide resistance genes, sulII was detected only in STEC O157:H7 (4 of 80 sulfonamide-resistant isolates) and sulI was detected in O157:H7- (1 of 16 sulfonamide resistant isolates). The emergence and

  3. First report on rapid screening of nanomaterial-based antimicrobial agents against β-lactamase resistance using pGLO plasmid transformed Escherichia coli HB 101 K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, M. Alpha; Muralidhar, Y.; Sravanthi, M.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Nissipriya, M.; Reddy, P. Sirisha; Neelima, T. Shoba; Reddy, G. Dilip; Adilaxmamma, K.; Kumar, P. Anand; Krishna, T. Giridhara

    2016-08-01

    Combating antibiotic resistance requires discovery of novel antimicrobials effective against resistant bacteria. Herein, we present for the first time, pGLO plasmid transformed Escherichia coli HB 101 K 12 as novel model for screening of nanomaterial-based antimicrobial agents against β-lactamase resistance. E. coli HB 101 was transformed by pGLO plasmid in the presence of calcium chloride (50 mM; pH 6.1) aided by heat shock (0-42-0 °C). The transformed bacteria were grown on Luria-Bertani agar containing ampicillin (amp) and arabinose (ara). The transformed culture was able to grow in the presence of ampicillin and also exhibited fluorescence under UV light. Both untransformed and transformed bacteria were used for screening citrate-mediated nanosilver (CNS), aloin-mediated nanosilver (ANS), 11-α-keto-boswellic acid (AKBA)-mediated nanosilver (BNS); nanozinc oxide, nanomanganese oxide (NMO) and phytochemicals such as aloin and AKBA. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained by microplate method using ρ-iodo nitro tetrazolium indicator. All the compounds were effective against transformed bacteria except NMO and AKBA. Transformed bacteria exhibited reverse cross resistance against aloin. ANS showed the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.32 ppm followed by BNS (10.32 ppm), CNS (20.64 ppm) and NZO (34.83 ppm). Thus, pGLO plasmid can be used to induce resistance against β-lactam antibiotics and the model can be used for rapid screening of new antibacterial agents effective against resistant bacteria.

  4. Integration of metal-resistant determinants from the plasmid of an Acidocella strain into the chromosome of Escherichia coli DH5alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sajalendu; Mahapatra, Nitish R; Nandi, Suvobroto; Banerjee, Pataki C

    2005-01-01

    Acidophilic bacteria of mine origin are ideal systems for studying microbial metal resistance because of their ability to grow in the presence of high concentrations of metal salts. We have previously shown that the metal-resistant transformants obtained after transformation of Escherichia coli DH5alpha with plasmid DNA preparation from Acidocella sp. strain GS19h did not contain any plasmid suggesting chromosomal integration of the plasmid(s) (Appl Environ Microbiol 1997; 63: 4523-4527). The present study provides evidence in support of this suggestion. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern of genomic DNA of the plasmidless metal-resistant transformants differed markedly from that of the untransformed DH5alpha strain. Moreover, when the recombinant plasmids constructed by cloning plasmid DNA fragments of the Acidocella strain GS19h in the vector pBluescript II KS+ were used to transform E. coli DH5alpha strain, no plasmid DNA was detected in some of the zinc- and ampicillin-resistant (ZnrAmpr) clones. The PFGE pattern of genomic DNA of such a transformed clone also differed markedly from that of the parent strain, suggesting chromosomal integration of the recombinant plasmid(s) containing both ampicillin- and zinc-resistance determinants. This observation was further supported by hybridization of chromosomal DNA of the plasmidless ZnrAmpr E. coli DH5alpha clone with the probes made from the plasmid DNA of strain GS19h and the vector DNA. Thus, this study corroborates our previous finding and documents the phenomenon of integration of metal-resistant determinants from the Acidocella GS19h plasmid(s) into the chromosome of E. coli DH5alpha.

  5. Multicenter evaluation of resistance patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolated from clinical specimens in Brazil: RESISTNET surveillance program

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    Carmen Paz Oplustil

    Full Text Available Surveillance programs are essential to detect the increase of antimicrobial resistance, and several different programs are being conducted in many countries. The RESISTNET is a surveillance program for bacterial resistance against several antimicrobial agents initiated in 1998 among Latin American countries. In Brazil, several centers were invited to join this surveillance and a total of 11 centers (6 from São Paulo and 5 from other states participated in the study. All results were analyzed using the WHONET program. A total of 894 Escherichia coli, 386 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 70 Shigella spp and 57 Salmonella spp strains were analyzed in this study from April, 1998, to April, 1999. Susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method using NCCLS 1998 guidelines for several different drugs. For all strains, imipenem was the most effective drug (100% of the strains were susceptible. Klebsiella pneumoniae presented a high resistance rate to ampicillin (96.4%. The rate of probable ESBL producers among K. pneumoniae strains was 36.3%, most of them being isolated from catheters (58.8%. Among all Escherichia coli strains analyzed, the highest resistance rate was found for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46.9% and the majority of the resistant strains were isolated from urine samples (47.8%. Among Salmonella spp, the resistance rates were low for all antibiotics tested. For Shigella spp strains there was a high resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (80.0%. No resistance to ceftriaxone was observed in these strains. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is critical for the successful management of infectious diseases. The results of this survey show significant resistance rates among these bacteria which are responsible for several types of human infections.

  6. Rapid Evolution of Silver Nanoparticle Resistance in Escherichia coli

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    Joseph L. Graves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent exponential increase in the use of engineered nanoparticles (eNPs means both greater intentional and unintentional exposure of eNPs to microbes. Intentional use includes the use of eNPs as biocides. Unintentional exposure results from the fact that eNPs are included in a variety of commercial products (paints, sunscreens, cosmetics. Many of these eNPs are composed of heavy metals or metal oxides such as silver, gold, zinc, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide. It is thought that since metallic/metallic oxide NPs impact so many aspects of bacterial physiology that it will difficult for bacteria to evolve resistance to them. This study utilized laboratory experimental evolution to evolve silver nanoparticle (AgNP resistance in the bacterium Escherichia coli (K12 MG1655, a bacterium that did not harbor any silver resistance elements. After 225 generations of exposure to the AgNP environment, the treatment populations demonstrated greater fitness versus control strains as measured by optical density (OD and colony forming units (CFU in the presence of varying concentrations of 10nm citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNP or silver nitrate (AgNO3. Genomic analysis shows that changes associated with AgNP resistance were already accumulating within the treatment populations by generation 100, and by generation 200 three mutations had swept to high frequency in the AgNP resistance stocks. This study indicates that despite previous claims to the contrary bacteria can easily evolve resistance to AgNPs, and this occurs by relatively simple genomic changes. These results indicate that care should be taken with regards to the use of eNPs as biocides as well as with regards to unintentional exposure of microbial communities to eNPs in waste products.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance profiles and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy adults in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Phuong Hoai; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; DO Nguyen, Phuc; Nguyen, Ngan Ly Hoang; Nguyen, Dao Thi Anh; LE, Ninh Hoang; VAN Dang, Chinh; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2017-03-18

    In this study, we attempted to isolate Escherichia coli from healthy adults in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and characterized its antimicrobial resistance profile, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genotype, phylogenetic grouping and virulence gene profile. A total of 103 E. coli isolates were obtained, and most of them were antimicrobial resistant such to streptomycin (80.6%), tetracycline (67.0%), ampicillin (65.0%), sulfamethoxsazole/trimethoprim (48.5%), nalidixic acid (43.7%), chloramphenicol (34.0%), cefotaxime (15.5%), ciprofloxacin (15.5%), kanamycin (12.6%), ceftazidime (10.7%), fosfomycin (4.9%) and gentamicin (2.9%). However, all these E. coli strains were susceptible to imipenem. Surprisingly, of 103 strains, 74 (71.8%) and 43 (41.7%) strains showed resistance to more than 3 and 5 classes of antimicrobials, respectively. Furthermore, 10 E. coli strains were ESBL-producers and positive for bla CTX-M genes (7 for bla CTX-M-9 and 3 for bla CTX-M-1 ), while five were additionally positive for bla TEM genes. S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that 7 and 3 strains of E. coli carry bla CTX-M genes on their large plasmid and chromosome, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis exhibited that majority of the E. coli strains was grouped into A (44.7%), followed by B1 (23.3%), B2 (18.4%) and D (13.6%). Virulence genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli, such as astA, EAF, eaeA, elt and eagg were also detected in ESBL-producing E. coli as well as antimicrobial resistant strains. These data suggest that commensal E. coli of healthy human could be a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance determinants and some of them might be harmful to human.

  8. Transmission of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli between cattle, humans and the environment in peri-urban livestock keeping communities in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupindu, Athumani M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Msoffe, Peter L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Urban and peri-urban livestock farming is expanding world-widely because of increased urbanization and demands for food of animal origin. Such farming practices pose a public health risk as livestock are reservoirs of several zoonotic pathogens. In an attempt to determine the fecal transmission...... infrastructures (Odd Ratio=11.2, 95% CI=1.1-119.3) were associated with E. coli showing identical PFGE types within and between clusters. There is a need to improve animal husbandry and manure management practices to reduce risks of transmission of enteropathogens between livestock and humans in urban and peri-urban...... between livestock and people, 100 household clusters keeping cattle in close proximity of humans were selected in urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro in Tanzania. One hundred eighteen ampicillin and tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli (40 from human stool, 50 from cattle feces, 21 from soil...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance gene determinants in clinical Escherichia coli from different animal species in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Roland; Kuhnert, Peter; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-01-02

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a total of 581 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, from acute mastitis in dairy cattle, from urinary tract infections in dogs and cats, and from septicemia in laying hens collected in Switzerland between 1999 and 2001. Among the 16 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance was most frequent for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin. Isolates from swine presented significantly more resistance than those from the other animal species. The distribution of the resistance determinants for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin was assessed by hybridization and PCR in resistant isolates. Significant differences in the distribution of resistance determinants for tetracycline (tetA, tetB) and sulfonamides (sulII) were observed between the isolates from swine and those from the other species. Resistance to sulfonamides could not be explained by known resistance mechanisms in more than a quarter of the sulfonamide-resistant and sulfonamide-intermediate isolates from swine, dogs and cats. This finding suggests that one or several new resistance mechanisms for sulfonamides may be widespread among E. coli isolates from these animal species. The integrase gene (intI) from class I integrons was detected in a large proportion of resistant isolates in association with the sulI and aadA genes, thus demonstrating the importance of integrons in the epidemiology of resistance in clinical E. coli isolates from animals.

  10. Major diseases, extensive misuse, and high antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli in large- and small-scale dairy cattle farms in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Davis, Margaret A; Roess, Amira A

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the major diseases, antimicrobial use, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in dairy cattle in Jordan. Forty-three (large, n = 21; small, n = 22) farms were surveyed. A validated questionnaire was administered to the herdsmen to elicit information about disease prevalence, antimicrobial knowledge, and antimicrobial use. In addition, fecal samples were collected from 5 lactating animals on each farm. A total of 520 E. coli isolates were tested for resistance to 12 antimicrobials. From the herdsmen's perspective, the diseases that require use of veterinary services in large and small production systems were mastitis (51.2%), metritis (51.2%), and enteritis (39.5%), and the most commonly used antimicrobials were oxytetracycline and streptomycin. Dairy herdsmen (83.7%) reported that it is easy to purchase antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription and 97.7% of them more frequently changed the antimicrobial drug rather than increasing the dose when presented with nonresponse to treatment. Escherichia coli isolates exhibited high resistance to streptomycin (47.5%), tetracycline (45.4%), and ampicillin (34.2%). Less than 10% of isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone. Overall, 64.6 and 37.1% of the E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to ≥1 antimicrobial and multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes), respectively. The isolates exhibited 107 antimicrobial resistance profiles. This study indicates that antimicrobials are frequently misused in dairies in Jordan and that resistance among commensal E. coli toward antimicrobials of human and veterinary importance is high. Therefore, educational programs for herdsmen and enacting regulations and guidelines are necessary to promote the judicious use of antimicrobials in dairy animals in Jordan. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in enteric Escherichia coli from domestic pets and assessment of associated risk markers using a generalized linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Martins, Liliana R; Mahú, Maria I M; Costa, Ana L; Mendes, Angelo; Lopes, Elisabete; Mendonça, Denisa M V; Niza-Ribeiro, João J R; de Matos, Augusto J F; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global public health problem, which is caused by the use of antimicrobials in both human and animal medical practice. The objectives of the present cross-sectional study were as follows: (1) to determine the prevalence of resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from the feces of pets from the Porto region of Portugal against 19 antimicrobial agents and (2) to assess the individual, clinical and environmental characteristics associated with each pet as risk markers for the AMR of the E. coli isolates. From September 2009 to May 2012, rectal swabs were collected from pets selected using a systematic random procedure from the ordinary population of animals attending the Veterinary Hospital of Porto University. A total of 78 dogs and 22 cats were sampled with the objective of isolating E. coli. The animals' owners, who allowed the collection of fecal samples from their pets, answered a questionnaire to collect information about the markers that could influence the AMR of the enteric E. coli. Chromocult tryptone bile X-glucuronide agar was used for E. coli isolation, and the disk diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility. The data were analyzed using a multilevel, univariable and multivariable generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Several (49.7%) of the 396 isolates obtained in this study were multidrug-resistant. The E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to the antimicrobial agent's ampicillin (51.3%), cephalothin (46.7%), tetracycline (45.2%) and streptomycin (43.4%). Previous quinolone treatment was the main risk marker for the presence of AMR for 12 (ampicillin, cephalothin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and aztreonam) of the 15 antimicrobials assessed. Coprophagic habits were also positively associated with an increased risk of AMR for six drugs, ampicillin, amoxicillin

  12. Antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in the beef production and processing chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Concerns have been raised that extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (CefR EC), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli (TxsR EC), extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica (CefR SE), and nalidixic acid-resistant S. enterica (NalR SE) in c...

  13. Neonatal Escherichia coli Bloodstream Infections: Clinical Outcomes and Impact of Initial Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Stephen P; Thaden, Joshua T; Ericson, Jessica E; Cross, Heather; Messina, Julia; Clark, Reese H; Fowler, Vance G; Benjamin, Daniel K; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian

    2015-09-01

    Escherichia coli is a common cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in infants and is associated with high mortality and morbidity among survivors. The clinical significance of antibiotic resistance and timing of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in this population is poorly understood. We identified all infants with E. coli BSIs discharged from 77 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group in 2012. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between 30-day mortality and ampicillin-resistant E. coli BSI, as well as the number of active empiric antimicrobial agents administered, controlling for gestational age, small-for-gestational age status, early-onset versus late-onset BSI, oxygen requirement, ventilator support and inotropic support on the day of the first positive blood culture. We identified 258 episodes of E. coli BSI, including 123 (48%) ampicillin-resistant isolates. Unadjusted 30-day mortality did not significantly differ between infants with ampicillin-resistant versus ampicillin-susceptible E. coli BSI [11 of 123 (9%) vs. 7 of 135 (5%); P = 0.33; adjusted odds ratio = 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 0.39, 4.77)]. Among ampicillin-resistant E. coli BSIs, 30-day mortality was not significantly lower for infants treated with at least one empiric antimicrobial active against ampicillin-resistant E. coli versus infants receiving no active empiric agent [adjusted odds ratio = 1.50 (0.07, 33.6)]. In this population of infants with E. coli BSI, ampicillin resistance was not associated with significantly increased mortality. Among the subset of infants with ampicillin-resistant E. coli, appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was not associated with lower mortality.

  14. Experimental evolution of silver nanoparticle resistance in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad

    The recent exponential increase in the use of engineered nanoparticles (eNPs) means both greater intentional and unintentional exposure of eNPs to microbes. Intentional use includes the use of eNPs as biocides; unintentional exposure results from the fact that eNPs are included in a variety of commercial products (paints, sunscreens, cosmetics.) Many of these eNPs include heavy metals or metal oxides such as titanium dioxide, silver, gold, zinc and zinc oxide. The fact that early studies of the impact of metallic nanoparticles achieved approximately 90% lethality to Ag, Cu eNPs, suggests that genetic variants are already circulating in bacteria that can be co-opted to provide heavy metal eNP resistance. This project has utilized laboratory experimental evolution to evolve eNP resistance in the bacterium Escherichia coli (K12 MG1655 strain.). This is currently being validated by demonstrating the greater fitness of evolved strains versus ancestral strains in the presence of different sized and coated silver nanoparticles (10nm, 40nm, citrate-coated, PVP-coated) as well as phenotypic changes in the bacterial cell wall (as measured by Atomic Force Microscopy, AFM.). Finally, the bacterial genomes of the evolved and ancestral strains were resequenced. The genomic basis of this complex phenotype was determined. The practical application of such knowledge cannot be underestimated since nature is already evolving nanoparticle resistant bacteria. Thus knowledge of the nature of the physiological, morphological, and genomic mechanisms of resistance will be essential to deploy sustainable use of NPs as biocides, and to prevent unintentional environmental damage.

  15. Mechanisms accounting for fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Linnell, Sonia K; Becnel Boyd, Lauren; Steffen, David; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone MICs are increased through the acquisition of chromosomal mutations in the genes encoding gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE), increased levels of the multidrug efflux pump AcrAB, and the plasmid-borne genes aac(6')-Ib-cr and the qnr variants in Escherichia coli. In the accompanying report, we found that ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and norfloxacin MICs for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli clinical isolates were very high and widely varied (L. Becnel Boyd, M. J. Maynard, S. K. Morgan-Linnell, L. B. Horton, R. Sucgang, R. J. Hamill, J. Rojo Jimenez, J. Versalovic, D. Steffen, and L. Zechiedrich, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:229-234, 2009). Here, we sequenced gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE; screened for aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrA; and quantified AcrA levels in E. coli isolates for which patient sex, age, location, and site of infection were known. We found that (i) all fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates had gyrA mutations; (ii) approximately 85% of gyrA mutants also had parC mutations; (iii) the ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin MICs for isolates harboring aac(6')-Ib-cr ( approximately 23%) were significantly higher, but the gatifloxacin and levofloxacin MICs were not; (iv) no isolate had qnrA; and (v) approximately 33% of the fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates had increased AcrA levels. Increased AcrA correlated with nonsusceptibility to the fluoroquinolones but did not correlate with nonsusceptibility to any other antimicrobial agents reported from hospital antibiograms. Known mechanisms accounted for the fluoroquinolone MICs of 50 to 70% of the isolates; the remaining included isolates for which the MICs were up to 1,500-fold higher than expected. Thus, additional, unknown fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms must be present in some clinical isolates.

  16. Mechanisms Accounting for Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Linnell, Sonia K.; Becnel Boyd, Lauren; Steffen, David; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone MICs are increased through the acquisition of chromosomal mutations in the genes encoding gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE), increased levels of the multidrug efflux pump AcrAB, and the plasmid-borne genes aac(6′)-Ib-cr and the qnr variants in Escherichia coli. In the accompanying report, we found that ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and norfloxacin MICs for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli clinical isolates were very high and widely varied (L. Becnel Boyd, M. J. Maynard, S. K. Morgan-Linnell, L. B. Horton, R. Sucgang, R. J. Hamill, J. Rojo Jimenez, J. Versalovic, D. Steffen, and L. Zechiedrich, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:229-234, 2009). Here, we sequenced gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE; screened for aac(6′)-Ib-cr and qnrA; and quantified AcrA levels in E. coli isolates for which patient sex, age, location, and site of infection were known. We found that (i) all fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates had gyrA mutations; (ii) ∼85% of gyrA mutants also had parC mutations; (iii) the ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin MICs for isolates harboring aac(6′)-Ib-cr (∼23%) were significantly higher, but the gatifloxacin and levofloxacin MICs were not; (iv) no isolate had qnrA; and (v) ∼33% of the fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates had increased AcrA levels. Increased AcrA correlated with nonsusceptibility to the fluoroquinolones but did not correlate with nonsusceptibility to any other antimicrobial agents reported from hospital antibiograms. Known mechanisms accounted for the fluoroquinolone MICs of 50 to 70% of the isolates; the remaining included isolates for which the MICs were up to 1,500-fold higher than expected. Thus, additional, unknown fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms must be present in some clinical isolates. PMID:18838592

  17. Frequency of escherichia coli in patients with community acquired urinary tract infection and their resistance pattern against some commonly used anti bacterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, W.; Jamshed, F.; Ahmad, W.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common health problem and Escherichia coli (E coli) are the most common organisms associated with community acquired UTI. Unfortunately these bacteria have developed extensive resistance against most of the commonly used anti-bacterials. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and resistance pattern of E coli in patients of community acquired UTI in an area in northern part of Pakistan. Methods: Urine specimens were collected from patients who were clinically diagnosed as community acquired UTI. Urine routine examination (Urine RE) was done and samples positive for UTI (Pus cells >10/High Power Field) were included in the study. These samples were inoculated on Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar plates and incubated at 37 degree C for 36 hours. Suspected colonies were then inoculated further on EMB plates for pure cultures of E coli characterized by certain morphological characteristics. IMViC was applied for the confirmation of E coli. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests of E coli were performed with standardized commercial susceptibility discs (OXOID). Results: Out of 50 specimens, positive for UTI by urine RE, 20 showed pure growth of E coli on culture (40%). The majority of the isolates (28%; n=14) were from women while only 12% (n=6) were from men. Escherichia coli showed a high rate of resistance towards Ampicillin (90%), Tetracycline (70%), Erythromycin (70%) and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (55%). Sparfloxacin showed better results (45%) than ciprofloxacin (50%). Out of 20 E coli isolates, two (10%) were resistant to all the antibacterials except chloramphenicol, eight isolates (40%) showed resistance to six or more than six while 14 (70%) were resistant to four or more than four drugs. Conclusion: Rate of resistance of E coli against commonly used antibacterials was quite high and majority of the strains showed multidrug resistance. (author)

  18. Antibiotic Resistance and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Isolates from Hospital Wastewater in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Pham Thi; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Nhung, Pham Hong; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Diwan, Vishal; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The environmental spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been recognised as a growing public health threat for which hospitals play a significant role. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in Escherichia coli isolates from hospital wastewater in Vietnam. Wastewater samples before and after treatment were collected using continuous sampling every month over a year. Standard disk diffusion and E-test were used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was tested using combined disk diffusion. ARGs were detected by polymerase chain reactions. Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 83% of isolates; multidrug resistance was found in 32%. The highest resistance prevalence was found for co-trimoxazole (70%) and the lowest for imipenem (1%). Forty-three percent of isolates were ESBL-producing, with the blaTEM gene being more common than blaCTX-M. Co-harbouring of the blaCTX-M, blaTEM and qepA genes was found in 46% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. The large presence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates combined with ARGs in hospital wastewater, even post-treatment, poses a threat to public health. It highlights the need to develop effective processes for hospital wastewater treatment plants to eliminate antibiotic resistant bacteria and ARGs. PMID:28661465

  19. Antibiotic Resistance and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Isolates from Hospital Wastewater in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Lan, Pham Thi; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Nhung, Pham Hong; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Diwan, Vishal; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2017-06-29

    The environmental spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been recognised as a growing public health threat for which hospitals play a significant role. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in Escherichia coli isolates from hospital wastewater in Vietnam. Wastewater samples before and after treatment were collected using continuous sampling every month over a year. Standard disk diffusion and E-test were used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was tested using combined disk diffusion. ARGs were detected by polymerase chain reactions. Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 83% of isolates; multidrug resistance was found in 32%. The highest resistance prevalence was found for co-trimoxazole (70%) and the lowest for imipenem (1%). Forty-three percent of isolates were ESBL-producing, with the bla TEM gene being more common than bla CTX-M . Co-harbouring of the bla CTX-M , bla TEM and qepA genes was found in 46% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. The large presence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates combined with ARGs in hospital wastewater, even post-treatment, poses a threat to public health. It highlights the need to develop effective processes for hospital wastewater treatment plants to eliminate antibiotic resistant bacteria and ARGs.

  20. Determination of extended spectrum β-lactamases/AmpC β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from bovine carcasses in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Montes de Oca, Saúl; Talavera-Rojas, Martín; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Barba-León, Jeannette; Vazquez-Navarrete, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    Food-borne bacterial infections have worldwide importance, and a great variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, mainly of the chromosome type, have rapidly developed. Antimicrobial resistance was determined in this study in terms of the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), plasmid AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpC), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) from 155 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from bovine carcasses from two states in Mexico (states of Mexico and Jalisco). Isolates were challenged with β-lactam antimicrobials (ampicillin, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime) and quinolones (nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin). The presence of the bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M, bla OXA , bla CMY, bla MOX, bla LAT, bla BIL, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA genes was examined by PCR. Clonal relationship was determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The highest resistance was found to be to nalidixic acid (64 %), followed by ampicillin (32 %), ciprofloxacin (10 %), and ceftazidime and cefotaxime (both 1.3 %). bla CMY (n = 1), bla TEM (n = 24), qnrB (n = 9), and qnrS (n = 7) genes were detected. PFGE analysis showed that the majority of isolates had a different genotypic profile. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of the qnrB, qnrS, and bla CMY genes in E. coli isolated from bovine meat in Mexico.

  1. Distribution of phylogroups and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from healthy humans and from patients with bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, A.; Hammerum, A. M.; Porsbo, Lone Jannok

    inhibitory concentration to antimicrobial agents and examined by PCR to determine their phylogroups. The phylotyping grouped the faecal samples into A (13%), B1 (10%), B2 (42%), D (19%), NT (16%) while the blood isolates grouped into A (16%), B1 (0%), B2 (48%), D (32%) and NT (3%). The frequency...

  2. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli from patients with suspected urinary tract infection in primary care, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Gloria; Holm, Anne; Hansen, Frank; Hammerum, Anette M; Bjerrum, Lars

    2017-10-10

    Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen causing Urinary Tract Infections (UTI). Data from the current National Surveillance program in Denmark (DANMAP) may not accurately represent the prevalence of resistant E. coli in primary care, because only urine samples from complicated cases may be forwarded to the microbiological departments at hospitals for diagnostic examination. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of resistant E. coli to the most commonly used antimicrobial agents in primary care in a consecutive sample of patients from general practice. Observational study carried out from December 2014 to December 2015. Thirty-nine general practices from The Capital Region of Denmark included adult patients with urinary tract symptoms and suspected UTI. All urine samples were sent to the central laboratory Statens Serum Institut (SSI). Significant bacteriuria was interpreted according to the European Urinalysis Standards. Susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standards. From the 39 general practices 505 patients were recruited. Completed data were obtained from 485 (96%) patients. According to the European Urinalysis Standards, 261 (54%) patients had positive bacteriuria. The most common uropathogen in patients with uncomplicated (uUTI) and complicated (cUTI) urinary tract infection was E. coli 105 (69%) and 76 (70%), respectively. Eighty-two (45%) of 181 E. coli isolates were resistant to at least one of the tested antibiotics and 50 out of 82 isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. The highest resistance-rate was found against ampicillin 34% (95% CI 24;42) in uUTI and 36% (24;46) in cUTI. There were no differences in the distribution of resistance between uncomplicated and complicated cases. The prevalence of resistance was similar to the one reported in DANMAP 2014. In E. coli from uUTI there is high resistance rates to

  3. Hydrogenase-3 contributes to anaerobic acid resistance of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Noguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H(2 production involves consumption of 2H(+, hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive exposure to acid levels (pH 2-2.5 that are three pH units lower than the pH limit of growth (pH 5-6. Enhanced survival in acid enables a larger infective inoculum to pass through the stomach and colonize the intestine. Most acid resistance mechanisms have been defined using aerobic cultures, but the use of anaerobic cultures will reveal novel acid resistance mechanisms. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the pH regulation of bacterial hydrogenases in live cultures of E. coli K-12 W3110. During anaerobic growth in the range of pH 5 to 6.5, E. coli expresses three hydrogenase isoenzymes that reversibly oxidize H(2 to 2H(+. Anoxic conditions were used to determine which of the hydrogenase complexes contribute to acid resistance, measured as the survival of cultures grown at pH 5.5 without aeration and exposed for 2 hours at pH 2 or at pH 2.5. Survival of all strains in extreme acid was significantly lower in low oxygen than for aerated cultures. Deletion of hyc (Hyd-3 decreased anoxic acid survival 3-fold at pH 2.5, and 20-fold at pH 2, but had no effect on acid survival with aeration. Deletion of hyb (Hyd-2 did not significantly affect acid survival. The pH-dependence of H(2 production and consumption was tested using a H(2-specific Clark-type electrode. Hyd-3-dependent H(2 production was increased 70-fold from pH 6.5 to 5.5, whereas Hyd-2-dependent H(2 consumption was maximal at alkaline pH. H(2 production, was unaffected by a shift in external or internal pH. H(2 production was associated with hycE expression levels as a function of external pH. CONCLUSIONS: Anaerobic growing

  4. Hydrogenase-3 contributes to anaerobic acid resistance of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Ken; Riggins, Daniel P; Eldahan, Khalid C; Kitko, Ryan D; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2010-04-12

    Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H(2) production involves consumption of 2H(+), hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive exposure to acid levels (pH 2-2.5) that are three pH units lower than the pH limit of growth (pH 5-6). Enhanced survival in acid enables a larger infective inoculum to pass through the stomach and colonize the intestine. Most acid resistance mechanisms have been defined using aerobic cultures, but the use of anaerobic cultures will reveal novel acid resistance mechanisms. We analyzed the pH regulation of bacterial hydrogenases in live cultures of E. coli K-12 W3110. During anaerobic growth in the range of pH 5 to 6.5, E. coli expresses three hydrogenase isoenzymes that reversibly oxidize H(2) to 2H(+). Anoxic conditions were used to determine which of the hydrogenase complexes contribute to acid resistance, measured as the survival of cultures grown at pH 5.5 without aeration and exposed for 2 hours at pH 2 or at pH 2.5. Survival of all strains in extreme acid was significantly lower in low oxygen than for aerated cultures. Deletion of hyc (Hyd-3) decreased anoxic acid survival 3-fold at pH 2.5, and 20-fold at pH 2, but had no effect on acid survival with aeration. Deletion of hyb (Hyd-2) did not significantly affect acid survival. The pH-dependence of H(2) production and consumption was tested using a H(2)-specific Clark-type electrode. Hyd-3-dependent H(2) production was increased 70-fold from pH 6.5 to 5.5, whereas Hyd-2-dependent H(2) consumption was maximal at alkaline pH. H(2) production, was unaffected by a shift in external or internal pH. H(2) production was associated with hycE expression levels as a function of external pH. Anaerobic growing cultures of E. coli generate H(2) via Hyd-3 at low external pH, and

  5. Characterization of integron-mediated antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated from a captive population of Amur tigers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Chen, Jianfei; Wang, Yulong; Zhang, Yanlong; Liu, Dan; Hua, Yuping

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify and characterize integrons and integrated resistance gene cassettes among multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a captive population of Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in China. In addition, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons was assessed in E. coli strains (n = 61) isolated from a captive population of Amur tigers in Heilongjiang Amur Tiger Park, China. Among the isolates, 52.46% (32 of 61) were positive for intI1, but no isolates carried intI2 or intI3. Most isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, aztreonam, and polymyxin B, while they also exhibited high incidence rates of resistance to ampicillin, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and dihydrofolate reductase. Sequencing analysis revealed three gene cassettes, which encoded resistance to dihydrofolate reductase (dfrA15), dihydrofolate reductase (dfrA12), and adenyltransferase (aadA2). The gene cassette arrays dfrA15 (31%) and dfrA12-aadA2 (19%) were most prevalent among these isolates.

  6. Effects of ultraviolet disinfection on antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from wastewater: inactivation, antibiotic resistance profiles and antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong-Miao; Xu, Li-Mei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhuang, Kai; Liu, Qiang-Qiang

    2017-04-29

    To evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection on antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant and subjected to UV disinfection. The effect of UV disinfection on the antibiotic resistance profiles and the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of antibiotic-resistant E. coli was evaluated by a combination of antibiotic susceptibility analysis and molecular methods. Results indicated that multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) E. coli were more resistant at low UV doses and required a higher UV dose (20 mJ cm -2 ) to enter the tailing phase compared with those of antibiotic-sensitive E. coli (8 mJ cm -2 ). UV disinfection caused a selective change in the inhibition zone diameters of surviving antibiotic-resistant E. coli and a slight damage to ARGs. The inhibition zone diameters of the strains resistant to antibiotics were more difficult to alter than those susceptible to antibiotics because of the existence and persistence of corresponding ARGs. The resistance of MAR bacteria to UV disinfection at low UV doses and the changes in inhibition zone diameters could potentially contribute to the selection of ARB in wastewater treatment after UV disinfection. The risk of spread of antibiotic resistance still exists owing to the persistence of ARGs. Our study highlights the acquisition of other methods to control the spread of ARGs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiology of 3rd generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy cattle have been identified as a reservoir for 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Escherichia coli. We previously identified 3GC-resistant E. coli from manure composite samples of calves and cows in a survey of 80 farms in Pennsylvania. Resistant strains were most frequently isolated...

  8. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Escherichia coli Isolates from Swine Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, A. G.; Saxton, A. M.; Upchurch, W. G.; Chattin, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from sows and pigs was determined to compare patterns between pigs of various ages and degrees of antibiotic use. Resistance patterns differed between farm types and pigs of differing ages, indicating that pig age and degree of antibiotic use affect resistance of fecal E. coli.

  9. The gold/ampicillin interface at the atomic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrat, N.; Benoit, M.; Giraud, M.; Ponchet, A.; Casanove, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    In the fight against antibiotic resistance, gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with antibiotics grafted on their surfaces have been found to be potent agents. Ampicillin-conjugated AuNPs have been thus reported to overcome highly ampicillin-resistant bacteria. However, the structure at the atomic scale of these hybrid systems remains misunderstood. In this paper, the structure of the interface between an ampicillin molecule AMP and three flat gold facets Au(111), Au(110) and Au(100) has been investigated with numerical simulations (dispersion-corrected DFT). Adsorption energies, bond distances and electron densities indicate that the adsorption of AMP on these facets goes through multiple partially covalent bonding. The stability of the AuNP/AMP nanoconjugates is explained by large adsorption energies and their potential antibacterial activity is discussed on the basis of the constrained spatial orientation of the grafted antibiotic.In the fight against antibiotic resistance, gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with antibiotics grafted on their surfaces have been found to be potent agents. Ampicillin-conjugated AuNPs have been thus reported to overcome highly ampicillin-resistant bacteria. However, the structure at the atomic scale of these hybrid systems remains misunderstood. In this paper, the structure of the interface between an ampicillin molecule AMP and three flat gold facets Au(111), Au(110) and Au(100) has been investigated with numerical simulations (dispersion-corrected DFT). Adsorption energies, bond distances and electron densities indicate that the adsorption of AMP on these facets goes through multiple partially covalent bonding. The stability of the AuNP/AMP nanoconjugates is explained by large adsorption energies and their potential antibacterial activity is discussed on the basis of the constrained spatial orientation of the grafted antibiotic. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03318g

  10. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuyu; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hammerum, Anette M; Porsbo, Lone J; Jensen, Lars B

    2010-07-30

    Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3) in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multiplex PCR was conducted to detect the presence of three sul genes among the sulfonamide-resistant E. coli isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids carrying sul genes were characterized by PCR-based replicon typing to allow a comparison of the types of sul genes, the reservoir and plasmid present. A total of 109/501 isolates exhibited sulfonamide resistance. The relative prevalences of sul genes from the three reservoirs (pigs, pig carcasses and humans) were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids and 100% of sul3-carrying plasmids, but only in 5% of sul2-carrying plasmids. The sul plasmids ranged from 33 to 160-kb in size and belonged to nine different incompatibility (Inc) groups: FII, FIB, I1, FIA, B/O, FIC, N, HI1 and X1. IncFII was the dominant type in sul2-carrying plasmids (52%), while IncI1 was the most common type in sul1 and sul3-carrying plasmids (33% and 45%, respectively). Multireplicons were found associated with all three sul genes. Sul genes were distributed widely in E. coli isolated

  11. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammerum Anette M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3 in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. Methods A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multiplex PCR was conducted to detect the presence of three sul genes among the sulfonamide-resistant E. coli isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids carrying sul genes were characterized by PCR-based replicon typing to allow a comparison of the types of sul genes, the reservoir and plasmid present. Results A total of 109/501 isolates exhibited sulfonamide resistance. The relative prevalences of sul genes from the three reservoirs (pigs, pig carcasses and humans were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids and 100% of sul3-carrying plasmids, but only in 5% of sul2-carrying plasmids. The sul plasmids ranged from 33 to 160-kb in size and belonged to nine different incompatibility (Inc groups: FII, FIB, I1, FIA, B/O, FIC, N, HI1 and X1. IncFII was the dominant type in sul2-carrying plasmids (52%, while IncI1 was the most common type in sul1 and sul3-carrying plasmids (33% and 45%, respectively. Multireplicons were found associated with all three sul genes

  12. Broiler Chickens as Source of Human Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli, Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsteinsdottir, Thorunn R.; Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn; Fridriksdottir, Vala; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Gunnarsson, Eggert

    2010-01-01

    To investigate feed as a source for fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in broiler chickens, we compared antimicrobial drug?resistant E. coli from broiler feed and broilers with ciprofloxacin-resistant human clinical isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Feed was implicated as a source for ciprofloxacin-resistant broiler-derived E. coli and broilers as a source for ciprofloxacin-resistant human-derived E. coli.

  13. Combination of Ceftriaxone and Ampicillin for the Treatment of Enterococcal Endocarditis: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shaylee C; Lau, Tim T Y; Ensom, Mary H H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to review all human trials assessing the efficacy and safety of ampicillin and ceftriaxone for enterococcal endocarditis and to discuss the clinical implications of the findings. MEDLINE (1946-), EMBASE (1974-), CENTRAL, Google Scholar, and the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched through January 2017 using the search terms ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, cephalosporin, enterococ*, and endocarditis. Unpublished studies were eligible for inclusion. Additional references were identified from literature citations. Clinical trials in humans that reported on clinical efficacy or adverse outcomes with ceftriaxone and ampicillin therapy in patients with enterococcal endocarditis were included. Case reports, nonhuman, and non-English studies were excluded. Four observational clinical studies were identified. One examined the effects of ceftriaxone and ampicillin alone, and 3 compared the therapy to the current standard of care, ampicillin and gentamicin. The studies had small sample sizes and were not adequately designed or powered to establish noninferiority or equivalence to the current standard of care. Rates of clinical cure with ampicillin 2 g every 4 hours and ceftriaxone 2 g every 12 hours were similar to those of ampicillin and gentamicin. Ampicillin and ceftriaxone therapy was well tolerated with low rates of renal failure (0%-33%). The evidence to support the use of ampicillin and ceftriaxone for enterococcal endocarditis is not definitive. In the absence of compelling evidence, clinicians may consider ampicillin and ceftriaxone in patients with Enterococcus faecalis infection at high risk for nephrotoxicity or those with aminoglycoside-resistant pathogens.

  14. Synergistic effect of artocarpin on antibacterial activity of some antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septama, Abdi Wira; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2016-01-01

    Antibacterial resistance has dramatically increased and resulted in serious health problems worldwide. One appealing strategy to overcome this resistance problem is the use of combinations of antibacterial compounds to increase their potency. The objective of this study is to determine the synergistic effects of artocarpin for ampicillin, norfloxacin, and tetracycline against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as well as the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A broth microdilution method (1.95-250 µg/mL) was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of artocarpin and the antibiotics. Any synergistic effects were evaluated at their own MIC using the checkerboard method and a time-kill assay at 37 °C for 24 h. Artocarpin showed antibacterial activity against MRSA and E. coli with an MIC value of 62.5 µg/mL, and against P. aeruginosa with an MIC value of 250 µg/mL. The interaction of artocarpin with all tested antibiotics produced synergistic effects against MRSA with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.15-0.37. In addition, a combination of artocarpin and norfloxacin showed a synergistic effect against E. coli with an FICI value of 0.37, while the combinations of artocarpin and tetracycline as well as artocarpin and norfloxacin exhibited synergy interactions against P. aeruginosa with FICI values of 0.24 and 0.37, respectively. Time-kill assays indicated that artocarpin enhanced the antimicrobial activities of tetracycline, ampicillin, and norfloxacin against MRSA as well as Gram-negative bacteria.

  15. Prevalence of Veterinary Antibiotics and Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in the Surface Water of a Livestock Production Region in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuelian; Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jing; Feng, Chenghong; Gao, Min; Wang, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics (VAs) and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a rural water system that was affected by livestock production in northern China. Each of the surveyed sites was determined with at least eight antibiotics with maximum concentration of up to 450 ng L−1. The use of VAs in livestock farming probably was a primary source of antibiotics in the rivers. Increasing total antibiotics were measured from up- to mid- and downstream in the two tributaries. Eighty-eight percent of the 218 E. coli isolates that were derived from the study area exhibited, in total, 48 resistance profiles against the eight examined drugs. Significant correlations were found among the resistance rates of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, chloromycetin and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and chlortetracycline, suggesting a possible cross-selection for resistance among these drugs. The E. coli resistance frequency also increased from up- to midstream in the three rivers. E. coli isolates from different water systems showed varying drug numbers of resistance. No clear relationship was observed in the antibiotic resistance frequency with corresponding antibiotic concentration, indicating that the antibiotic resistance for E. coli in the aquatic environment might be affected by factors besides antibiotics. High numbers of resistant E. coli were also isolated from the conserved reservoir. These results suggest that rural surface water may become a large pool of VAs and resistant bacteria. This study contributes to current information on VAs and resistant bacteria contamination in aquatic environments particularly in areas under intensive agriculture. Moreover, this study indicates an urgent need to monitor the use of VAs in animal production, and to control the release of animal-originated antibiotics into the environment. PMID:25372873

  16. Prevalence of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the surface water of a livestock production region in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuelian; Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jing; Feng, Chenghong; Gao, Min; Wang, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics (VAs) and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a rural water system that was affected by livestock production in northern China. Each of the surveyed sites was determined with at least eight antibiotics with maximum concentration of up to 450 ng L(-1). The use of VAs in livestock farming probably was a primary source of antibiotics in the rivers. Increasing total antibiotics were measured from up- to mid- and downstream in the two tributaries. Eighty-eight percent of the 218 E. coli isolates that were derived from the study area exhibited, in total, 48 resistance profiles against the eight examined drugs. Significant correlations were found among the resistance rates of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, chloromycetin and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and chlortetracycline, suggesting a possible cross-selection for resistance among these drugs. The E. coli resistance frequency also increased from up- to midstream in the three rivers. E. coli isolates from different water systems showed varying drug numbers of resistance. No clear relationship was observed in the antibiotic resistance frequency with corresponding antibiotic concentration, indicating that the antibiotic resistance for E. coli in the aquatic environment might be affected by factors besides antibiotics. High numbers of resistant E. coli were also isolated from the conserved reservoir. These results suggest that rural surface water may become a large pool of VAs and resistant bacteria. This study contributes to current information on VAs and resistant bacteria contamination in aquatic environments particularly in areas under intensive agriculture. Moreover, this study indicates an urgent need to monitor the use of VAs in animal production, and to control the release of animal-originated antibiotics into the environment.

  17. Prevalence of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the surface water of a livestock production region in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Zhang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics (VAs and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli in a rural water system that was affected by livestock production in northern China. Each of the surveyed sites was determined with at least eight antibiotics with maximum concentration of up to 450 ng L(-1. The use of VAs in livestock farming probably was a primary source of antibiotics in the rivers. Increasing total antibiotics were measured from up- to mid- and downstream in the two tributaries. Eighty-eight percent of the 218 E. coli isolates that were derived from the study area exhibited, in total, 48 resistance profiles against the eight examined drugs. Significant correlations were found among the resistance rates of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, chloromycetin and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and chlortetracycline, suggesting a possible cross-selection for resistance among these drugs. The E. coli resistance frequency also increased from up- to midstream in the three rivers. E. coli isolates from different water systems showed varying drug numbers of resistance. No clear relationship was observed in the antibiotic resistance frequency with corresponding antibiotic concentration, indicating that the antibiotic resistance for E. coli in the aquatic environment might be affected by factors besides antibiotics. High numbers of resistant E. coli were also isolated from the conserved reservoir. These results suggest that rural surface water may become a large pool of VAs and resistant bacteria. This study contributes to current information on VAs and resistant bacteria contamination in aquatic environments particularly in areas under intensive agriculture. Moreover, this study indicates an urgent need to monitor the use of VAs in animal production, and to control the release of animal-originated antibiotics into the environment.

  18. Multidrug-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dutch Surface Water and Wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetty Blaak

    Full Text Available The goal of the current study was to gain insight into the prevalence and concentrations of antimicrobial resistant (AMR Escherichia coli in Dutch surface water, and to explore the role of wastewater as AMR contamination source.The prevalence of AMR E. coli was determined in 113 surface water samples obtained from 30 different water bodies, and in 33 wastewater samples obtained at five health care institutions (HCIs, seven municipal wastewater treatment plants (mWWTPs, and an airport WWTP. Overall, 846 surface water and 313 wastewater E. coli isolates were analysed with respect to susceptibility to eight antimicrobials (representing seven different classes: ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol.Among surface water isolates, 26% were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials, and 11% were multidrug-resistant (MDR. In wastewater, the proportions of AMR/MDR E. coli were 76%/62% at HCIs, 69%/19% at the airport WWTP, and 37%/27% and 31%/20% in mWWTP influents and effluents, respectively. Median concentrations of MDR E. coli were 2.2×10(2, 4.0×10(4, 1.8×10(7, and 4.1×10(7 cfu/l in surface water, WWTP effluents, WWTP influents and HCI wastewater, respectively. The different resistance types occurred with similar frequencies among E. coli from surface water and E. coli from municipal wastewater. By contrast, among E. coli from HCI wastewater, resistance to cefotaxime and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significantly overrepresented compared to E. coli from municipal wastewater and surface water. Most cefotaxime-resistant E. coliisolates produced ESBL. In two of the mWWTP, ESBL-producing variants were detected that were identical with respect to phylogenetic group, sequence type, AMR-profile, and ESBL-genotype to variants from HCI wastewater discharged onto the same sewer and sampled on the same day (A1/ST23/CTX-M-1, B23/ST131/CTX-M-15, D2/ST405/CTX-M-15.In

  19. Multidrug-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dutch Surface Water and Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaak, Hetty; Lynch, Gretta; Italiaander, Ronald; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A.; Schets, Franciska M.; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the current study was to gain insight into the prevalence and concentrations of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli in Dutch surface water, and to explore the role of wastewater as AMR contamination source. Methods The prevalence of AMR E. coli was determined in 113 surface water samples obtained from 30 different water bodies, and in 33 wastewater samples obtained at five health care institutions (HCIs), seven municipal wastewater treatment plants (mWWTPs), and an airport WWTP. Overall, 846 surface water and 313 wastewater E. coli isolates were analysed with respect to susceptibility to eight antimicrobials (representing seven different classes): ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol. Results Among surface water isolates, 26% were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials, and 11% were multidrug-resistant (MDR). In wastewater, the proportions of AMR/MDR E. coli were 76%/62% at HCIs, 69%/19% at the airport WWTP, and 37%/27% and 31%/20% in mWWTP influents and effluents, respectively. Median concentrations of MDR E. coli were 2.2×102, 4.0×104, 1.8×107, and 4.1×107 cfu/l in surface water, WWTP effluents, WWTP influents and HCI wastewater, respectively. The different resistance types occurred with similar frequencies among E. coli from surface water and E. coli from municipal wastewater. By contrast, among E. coli from HCI wastewater, resistance to cefotaxime and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significantly overrepresented compared to E. coli from municipal wastewater and surface water. Most cefotaxime-resistant E. coliisolates produced ESBL. In two of the mWWTP, ESBL-producing variants were detected that were identical with respect to phylogenetic group, sequence type, AMR-profile, and ESBL-genotype to variants from HCI wastewater discharged onto the same sewer and sampled on the same day (A1/ST23/CTX-M-1, B23/ST131/CTX-M-15, D2/ST405/CTX

  20. Frequency of antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in Escherichia coli isolated from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wencheng; Li, Caiwu; Yang, Xin; Wang, Yongxiang; Cheng, Guangyang; Zeng, Jinxin; Zhang, Xiuzhong; Chen, Yanpeng; Cai, Run; Huang, Qianru; Feng, Lan; Wang, Hongning; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Guiquan; Chen, Yanxi; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Heming

    2018-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is considered as a common opportunistic pathogen, which causes seriously intestinal infections to giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and other animals. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in E. coli isolated from the faeces of giant pandas in China. A total of 89 E. coli were isolated, after diagnosis of isolates and genomes were extracted. All the isolates were screened for the presence of related drug-resistance genes and integron gene cassettes through the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing. In addition, antimicrobial resistance testing was performed according to the standard disk diffusion method (CLSI 2013). The results demonstrated that all the isolates were multi-drug resistance (MDR). High resistance proportions of the E. coli isolates were to streptomycin (93%), cefazolin (90%), amikacin (75%), tetracycline (65%), ampicillin (62%), cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (54%, each). With respect to the various resistance genes; bla CTX-M , sul1, ant (3')-Ia, tetA, qnrB, tetE, floR, aac (6')-Ib, sul2, rmtA, cmlA, rmtB and tetC were identified with the respective frequencies of 44%, 45%, 38%, 37%, 35%, 27%, 26%, 20%, 18%, 15%, 10%, 7% and 4%. None of the isolates was positive for qnrA and cfr genes. Moreover, a further investigation of integron revealed that the emergence of class 1 and 2 integrons were in 47% and 8% isolates, respectively. While class 3 integron was not screened. Six types of containing in class 1 integron specific gene cassettes (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, dfrA17-aadA5, aadA1, aadA5, dfrA1 and dfrA7) were identified. However, only one gene cassette (dfrA1-sat2-aadA1) was detected in class 2 integron. These finding emphasize that a high level of E. coli isolates harbored antibiotics resistance and integron gene cassettes, which may bring so many potential threats to the health of giant pandas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from different water sources in the Mmabatho locality, Northwest Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Njie Ateba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli (E. coli, isolated from different water sources in the Mmabatho locality were evaluated. Water samples were collected from the local wastewater- and water-treatment plants, the Modimola Dam and homes in the area, and then analysed for the presence of E. coli, using standard methods. Presumptive isolates obtained were confirmed by the analytical profile index test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method. Of the 230 E. coli isolates tested, marked antibiotic resistances (over 70% were observed for erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and norfloxacin. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also compiled. Overall, the phenotype T-Ap-E was frequent for E. coli isolated from the local wastewater and water-treatment plants, Modimola Dam and tap water. Cluster analysis performed showed a unique antibiotic resistance pattern which suggested a link between isolates from all sampling points. The findings indicated that improper wastewater treatment may have a potential impact on the dissemination and survival of E. coli, as well as other pathogenic bacteria in water for human and animal consumption. This may result in water- and food-borne disease outbreaks with a negative effect on antibiotic therapy.

  2. Effect of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Prophylaxis on Antimicrobial Resistance of Fecal Escherichia coli in HIV-Infected Patients in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morpeth, Susan C.; Thielman, Nathan M.; Ramadhani, Habib O.; Hamilton, John D.; Ostermann, Jan; Kisenge, Peter R.; Shao, Humphrey J.; Reller, L. Barth; Itemba, Dafrosa K.; Sam, Noel E.; Bartlett, John A.; Shao, John F.; Crump, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) reduces morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected persons in Africa, but its impact on antimicrobial resistance is of concern. Methods HIV-uninfected (group A), HIV-infected but not requiring SXT (group B), and HIV-infected and eligible for SXT (group C) adults were recruited into a prospective observational cohort study in Moshi, Tanzania. Stool was examined for Escherichia coli nonsusceptible to SXT at baseline and at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 24. General estimating equation models were used to assess differences in susceptibility over time and cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. Results Of 181 subjects, 118 (65.1%) were female and the median (range) age was 36 (20 to 72) years. At baseline, E. coli nonsusceptible to SXT was isolated from 23 (53.5%) of 43 patients in group A, 25 (67.6%) of 37 patients in group B, and 37 (64.9%) of 57 patients in group C. The odds ratios (P value) for SXT nonsusceptibility in group C at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 24 compared with baseline were 3.4 (0.013), 3.0 (0.019), 2.9 (0.030), and 1.5 (0.515), respectively. SXT nonsusceptibility was associated with nonsusceptibility to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid (P ≤ 0.006). Conclusion In Tanzania, carriage of fecal E. coli nonsusceptible to SXT is common before SXT prophylaxis. Initiation of SXT leads to further loss of susceptibility to SXT and to other antimicrobials. PMID:18285712

  3. Relationship between virulence factors, resistance to antibiotics and phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in two locations in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Estrada, Laura Iveth; Ruíz-Rosas, María; Molina-López, José; Parra-Rojas, Isela; González-Villalobos, Edgar; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad

    Escherichia coli is the major causative agent of urinary tract infections (UTI), and virulence factors are responsible for the severity of these emerging infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between virulence determinants and antibiotic susceptibility with phylogenetic groups of E.coli isolates of UTI in two locations in Mexico. An analysis was performed on 50 isolates of E.coli from the centre of the country and 57 from a town in the southwest. The isolates were characterized by phenotype (serotyping assays, in vitro adhesion, biofilm formation, production of haemolysin, and antibiotic susceptibility) and genotype (phylogenetic groups and virulence genes). In the centre of the country location the phylogenetic group B2 (60%) and F (12%) were significantly more prevalent and had a higher frequency of genes, fimH (96%), iutA (66%), sat (36%), compared to the southwest location, where the group A (35%) and B1 (21%) were significantly predominant and had fewer virulence genes. About one-fifth (21.5%) of all isolates belonged to the O25-ST131 group. Haemolysin and biofilm producing strains were significantly higher in the southwest location. Resistance to ampicillin (92.5%), tetracycline (76.6%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (70.1%) were the most common in both groups. The phylogenetic group, virulence factors, and antibiotic susceptibility of the E.coli that causes UTI in the community, varies significantly among the Mexican populations studied. Phylogenetic groups A and B1 may be multidrug resistant and have the ability to produce UTI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. QUINOLONE- AND ETA-LACTAM- RESISTANCE IN Escherichia coli FROM DANISH AND ITALIAN BROILER FLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trevisani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of quinolone- and -lactam-resistant E. coli was investigated among healthy broiler flocks in Denmark and Italy. In Denmark, sock samples were collected from 10 parent flocks and 10 offspring flocks, according to the procedure currently used for the surveillance of Salmonella in the EU. Samples were enriched in McConkey broth and streaked on McConkey agar plates added with nalidixic acid (32 g/ml, ciprofloxacin (2 g/ml, ampicillin (32 g/ml, cefotaxime (2 g/ml or ceftiofur (8 g/ml. The -glucuronidase test was performed for verification of presumptive E. coli. The same methods were used to analyse sock samples collected from 6 Italian broiler flocks. PCR with primers for the CTX-M-type extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs was performed on cephalosporin-resistant isolates. While resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid was widespread in both countries, resistance to ciprofloxacin and cephalosporins was more common among Italian flocks. In Denmark, ciprofloxacin resistance was only detected in 1 parent flock without any history of quinolone usage and none of the flocks was positive for cephalosporin-resistant E. coli. In Italy, resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in all flocks and resistance to ceftiofur and cefotaxime were detected in 5 flocks. Primers specific for the CTX-M-type ESBLs generated PCR amplicons from isolates from 3 of these flocks. In industrialized countries, the poultry production system is highly standardized, and therefore comparable. However, the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials is particularly limited in Danish poultry production. Accordingly, the results of this study could reflect the different policies in antimicrobial usage between the two countries.

  5. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in Central Greece: mechanisms of resistance and molecular identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavroidi Angeliki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli isolates, that are also resistant to other classes of antibiotics, is a significant challenge to antibiotic treatment and infection control policies. In Central Greece a significant increase of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli has occurred during 2011, indicating the need for further analysis. Methods A total of 106 ciprofloxacin-resistant out of 505 E. coli isolates consecutively collected during an eight months period in a tertiary Greek hospital of Central Greece were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and mechanisms of resistance to quinolones were assessed, whereas selected isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing and β-lactamase content. Results Sequence analysis of the quinolone-resistance determining region of the gyrA and parC genes has revealed that 63% of the ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli harbored a distinct amino acid substitution pattern (GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84V, while 34% and 3% carried the patterns GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I and GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84G respectively. The aac (6’-1b-cr plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant was also detected; none of the isolates was found to carry the qnrA, qnrB and qnrS. Genotyping of a subset of 35 selected ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli by multilocus sequence typing has revealed the presence of nine sequence types; ST131 and ST410 were the most prevalent and were exclusively correlated with hospital and health care associated infections, while strains belonging to STs 393, 361 and 162 were associated with community acquired infections. The GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84V substitution pattern was found exclusively among ST131 ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive ST131 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates produced CTX-M-type enzymes; eight the CTX-M-15 and one the CTX-M-3 variant. CTX-M-1 like and KPC-2 enzymes were detected

  6. The prevalence of OqxAB multidrug efflux pump amongst olaquindox resistant Escherichia coli in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. H.; Sørensen, S. J.; Jørgensen, H. S.

    2005-01-01

    to olaquindox as well as resistance to other antimicrobials like chloramphenicol. In this study, 10 of the 556 (1.8%) previously isolated Escherichia coli strains were shown to have an MIC >or= 64 microg/ml olaquindox. In nine of the ten strains, the oqxA gene was detected. Sequencing of an internal fragment......, resistant strains. Furthermore, horizontal transfer of olaquindox resistance from three olaquindox-resistant isolates was achieved using an olaquindox-sensitive E. coli as recipient....

  7. Effects of halides on plasmid-mediated silver resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Maynes, M; Silver, S

    1998-12-01

    Silver resistance of sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and resistance plasmid-containing J53(pMG101) was affected by halides in the growth medium. The effects of halides on Ag+ resistance were measured with AgNO3 and silver sulfadiazine, both on agar and in liquid. Low concentrations of chloride made the differences in MICs between sensitive and resistant strains larger. High concentrations of halides increased the sensitivities of both strains to Ag+.

  8. beta-Lactamases and beta-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, G A; Sutton, L

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains determining 17 different plasmid-determined beta-lactamases were tested for resistance to new broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. Several beta-lactamases demonstrated enhanced resistance to cefamandole but only low-level resistance to other agents. High production of cloned E. coli chromosomal beta-lactamase, however, provided resistance to cefamandole, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam but not to BMY-28142 or imipenem.

  9. Occurrence ofSalmonella entericaandEscherichia coliin raw chicken and beef meat in northern Egypt and dissemination of their antibiotic resistance markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Amira A; Hotzel, Helmut; Awad, Omnia; Tomaso, Herbert; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hafez, Hafez M; El-Adawy, Hosny

    2017-01-01

    The global incidence of foodborne infections and antibiotic resistance is recently increased and considered of public health concern. Currently, scarcely information is available on foodborne infections and ESBL associated with poultry and beef meat in Egypt. In total, 180 chicken and beef meat samples as well as internal organs were collected from different districts in northern Egypt. The samples were investigated for the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica serovars and Escherichia coli . All isolates were investigated for harbouring class 1 and class 2 integrons. Out of 180 investigated samples 15 S. enterica (8.3%) and 21 E. coli (11.7%) were isolated and identified. S. enterica isolates were typed as 9 S. Typhimurium (60.0%), 3 S. Paratyphi A (20.0%), 2 S . Enteritidis (13.3%) and 1 S. Kentucky (6.7%). Twenty-one E. coli isolates were serotyped into O1, O18, O20, O78, O103, O119, O126, O145, O146 and O158. The phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of S. enterica serovars to ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline were 86.7, 80.0, 60.0, 53.3 and 40.0%, respectively. Isolated E. coli were resistant to tetracycline (80.9%), ampicillin (71.4%), streptomycin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (61.9% for each) and cefotaxime (33.3%). The dissemination of genes coding for ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase in S. enterica isolates included bla CTX-M (73.3%), bla TEM (73.3%) and bla CMY (13.3%). In E. coli isolates bla TEM , bla CTX-M and bla OXA were identified in 52.4, 42.9 and 14.3%, respectively. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes identified in S. enterica were qnr A (33.3%), qnr B (20.0%) and qnr S (6.7%) while qnr A and qnr B were detected in 33.3% of E. coli isolates. Class 1 integron was detected in 13.3% of S. enterica and in 14.3% of E. coli isolates. Class 2 integron as well as the colistin resistance gene mcr -1 was not found in any of E. coli or S. enterica isolates. This study

  10. Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli in Iranian Pediatric Patients With and Without Diarrhea: O-Serogroups, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Siroosbakhat, Soheila; Karimi Goudarzi, Peyman; Afsharkhas, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli is an important human pathogen cause of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in humans is a significant public health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance properties of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains with respect to their seasonal, age and geographical distributions in Iranian pediatric patients with and without diarrhea. Patients and Methods: Four hundred and eighty swab samples were taken from pediatric patients with and without diarrhea of four major provinces of Iran. Swab samples were immediately cultured and the positive culture samples were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Finally, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Results: In total, 118 out of 200 diarrheic stool samples (59%) and 77 out of 280 non-diarrheic stool samples (27.5%) were positive for E. coli. Samples taken from one to ten months old cases (73.33%) and those from Shiraz province (81.13%) were the most commonly infected. Samples taken in the summer season (91.66%) were the most commonly infected. A significant difference was shown between AEEC and EHEC strains of E. coli. The genes encoding Shiga toxins and intimin protein were the most commonly detected in all strains. O26 (33.33%), O111 (18.18%) and O91 (12.12%) serogroups had the highest incidence in patients with and without diarrhea. Prevalence of the genes that encode resistance against ampicillin (CITM), gentamicin (aac(3)-IV) and tetracycline (tetA) were 80.30%, 75.75% and 65.15%, respectively. The STEC strains harbored the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (84.84%), gentamycin (78.78%), tetracycline (50%) and sulfamethoxazole (40.90%) antibiotics. We found that 55.08% of diarrheic and 1.29% of non-diarrheic E. coli isolates were

  11. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    PMQR) genes and the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) types in Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Methods: Sixty-one ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates were studied. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed ...

  12. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extraintestinal infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Justine S; Cobbold, Rowland N; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Heisig, Peter; Trott, Darren J

    2010-11-20

    Fluoroquinolone resistance is an emerging problem in companion animal practice. The present study aimed to determine comparative fluoroquinolone minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and pradofloxacin and identify plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms in 41 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli isolates representing three main clonal groups (CGs) cultured from extraintestinal infections in dogs. All isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones and the PMQR genes qnrA1, qnrB2, qnrS1 and qepA were identified in isolates from each CG. For a subset of 13 representative isolates, fluoroquinolone chromosomal resistance mechanisms were characterized. CG1 isolates had three mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR), two in gyrA (Ser TCG-83→Leu TTG and Asp GAC-87→Asn AAC) and one in parC (Ser AGC-80→Ile ATT), whilst CG2 and CG3 isolates also possessed an additional mutation in parC (Glu GAA-84→Gly GGA) which was reflected in higher fluoroquinolone MICs compared to CG1. Organic solvent tolerance was demonstrated in 8 of the 13 isolates, and all 13 isolates demonstrated enhanced efflux on the basis of a 4-fold decrease or greater in the MIC of enrofloxacin when incubated with an efflux pump inhibitor. A mutation in acrR which can cause overexpression of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump was detected in CG1 strains. These findings indicate that fluoroquinolone resistance in MDR E. coli isolated from extraintestinal infections in dogs is associated with a combination of target mutations in the QRDRs, transferable PMQR mechanisms and enhanced efflux. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of Florfenicol Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Isolated from Sick Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Kathleen; Hudson, Charlene; Maurer, John J.; Thayer, Stephan; White, David G.; Lee, Margie D.

    2000-01-01

    Florfenicol is an antibiotic approved for veterinary use in cattle in the United States in 1996. Although this drug is not used in poultry, we have detected resistance to florfenicol in clinical isolates of avian Escherichia coli. Molecular typing demonstrated that the florfenicol resistance gene, flo, was independently acquired and is plasmid encoded.

  14. Detection of Florfenicol Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Isolated from Sick Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Kathleen; Hudson, Charlene; Maurer, John J.; Thayer, Stephan; White, David G.; Lee, Margie D.

    2000-01-01

    Florfenicol is an antibiotic approved for veterinary use in cattle in the United States in 1996. Although this drug is not used in poultry, we have detected resistance to florfenicol in clinical isolates of avian Escherichia coli. Molecular typing demonstrated that the florfenicol resistance gene, flo, was independently acquired and is plasmid encoded. PMID:10639375

  15. Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Fosfomycin-Resistance Genes among Escherichia coli Isolates, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzerara, Yahia; Gallah, Salah; Hommeril, Baptiste; Genel, Nathalie; Decré, Dominique; Rottman, Martin; Arlet, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    FosA, a glutathione S-transferase that inactivates fosfomycin, has been reported as the cause of enzymatic resistance to fosfomycin. We show that multiple lineages of FosA-producing extended spectrum β-lactamase Escherichia coli have circulated in France since 2012, potentially reducing the efficacy of fosfomycin in treating infections with antimicrobial drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli.

  16. Population dynamics of transgenic strain Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 in freshwater and saline lake water microcosms with differing microbial community structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, L. Yu; Kargatova, T. V.; Ganusova, E. E.; Lobova, T. I.; Boyandin, A. N.; Mogilnaya, O. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    2005-01-01

    Populations of Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7, a transgenic microorganism, were heterogenic in the expression of plasmid genes when adapting to the conditions of water microcosms of various mineralization levels and structure of microbial community. This TM has formed two subpopulations (ampicillin-resistant and ampicillin-sensitive) in every microcosm. Irrespective of mineralization level of a microcosm, when E. coli Z905/pPHL7 alone was introduced, the ampicillin-resistant subpopulation prevailed, while introduction of the TM together with indigenous bacteria led to the dominance of the ampicillin-sensitive subpopulation. A high level of lux gene expression maintained longer in the freshwater microcosms than in sterile saline lake water microcosms. A horizontal gene transfer has been revealed between the jointly introduced TM and Micrococcus sp. 9/pSH1 in microcosms with the Lake Shira sterile water. c2005 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from an Urban Lake Receiving Water from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Mexico City: Fecal Pollution and Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Espinosa, Norma; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F

    2015-10-01

    The presence of enteric bacteria in water bodies is a cause of public health concerns, either by directly causing water- and food-borne diseases, or acting as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance determinants. Water is used for crop irrigation; and sediments and aquatic plants are used as fertilizing supplements and soil conditioners. In this work, the bacterial load of several micro-environments of the urban lake of Xochimilco, in Mexico City, was characterized. We found a differential distribution of enteric bacteria between the water column, sediment, and the rhizoplane of aquatic plants, with human fecal bacteria concentrating in the sediment, pointing to the need to assess such bacterial load for each micro-environment, for regulatory agricultural purposes, instead of only the one of the water, as is currently done. Resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was common among Escherichia coli isolates, but was also differentially distributed, being again higher in sediment isolates. A distinct distribution of chloramphenicol minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) among these isolates suggests the presence of a local selective pressure favoring lower MICs than those of isolates from treated water. Fecal bacteria of human origin, living in water bodies along with their antibiotic resistance genes, could be much more common than typically considered, and pose a higher health risk, if assessments are only made on the water column of such bodies.

  18. Molecular detection of virulence genes and multi-drug resistance patterns in Escherichia coli (STEC) in clinical bovine mastitis: Alborz province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, M; Pourtaghi, H

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Iran. Sampling was done from 86 inflamed quarters of dairy cows in 8 commercial farms of Alborz province, Iran in summer 2015. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) virulence genes were detected by multiplex PCR and multi-drug resistance profiles were confirmed using disk diffusion method. Among 60 E. coli isolated from examined samples, 13 (21.6%) of them were STEC. The results of PCR assay showed that eaeA gene was carried by 4 (30.8%) of STEC isolates. Although stx1 in combination with eaeA gene was detected from 7 (53.8%) of STEC isolates, stx1 and stx2 genes were detected from only 1 (7.7%) of the examined samples. The result of the disk diffusion method showed that all E. coli isolates were resistant to penicillin, tylosin, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin, streptomycin and neomycin. However all isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin. Therefore, according to the results establishing a regular monitoring system for identification of cases with clinical mastitis and conducting antibiotic sensitivity tests are recommended.

  19. Detection of Class I and II integrons for the assessment of antibiotic and multidrug resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from agricultural irrigation waters in Bulacan, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraoan, Cielo Emar M; Rivera, Windell L; Vital, Pierangeli G

    2017-05-04

    Contaminated irrigation water may greatly affect not only the quality of produce but also the people exposed to it. In this study, agricultural irrigation waters in Bulacan, Philippines were assessed and found to be contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) ranging from 0.58 to 4.51 log 10 CFU/mL. A total of 79 isolates of E. coli were confirmed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the uidA gene and were tested for phenotypic resistance using 10 antimicrobials through the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Forty-six isolates (58.22%) were noted to be multidrug resistant (MDR) with high resistance rate to cephalothin, tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and chloramphenicol. Moreover, this study also examined the prevalence of Class I and II integrons accounting to 67.39% and 17.39%, respectively, of the MDR E. coli strains using multiplex PCR. The results imply that the agricultural water used in Bulacan is contaminated with the fecal material of man or other animals present in the area, and the presence of MDR bacteria, which pose a potential threat to individuals in these areas, is alarming. In addition, detection of integrons could be a good marker for the identification of MDR isolates. Lastly, this study could develop strategies for the proper management of farming sites leading to the detection of food-borne pathogens and prevention of infectious diseases.

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance, Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Productivity, and Class 1 Integrons in Escherichia coli from Healthy Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changkaew, Kanjana; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Nakajima, Chie; Suthienkul, Orasa; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals increases the risk of higher antimicrobial resistance in the normal intestinal flora of these animals. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains and to characterize class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli in healthy swine in Thailand. All 122 of the tested isolates had drug-resistant phenotypes. High resistance was found to ampicillin (98.4% of isolates), chloramphenicol (95.9%), gentamicin (78.7%), streptomycin (77.9%), tetracycline (74.6%), and cefotaxime (72.1%). Fifty-four (44.3%) of the E. coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL-producing strains. Among them, blaCTX-M (45 isolates) and blaTEM (41 isolates) were detected. Of the blaCTX-M-positive E. coli isolates, 37 carried the blaCTX-M-1 cluster, 12 carried the blaCTX-M-9 cluster, and 5 carried both clusters. Sequence analysis revealed blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135, and blaTEM-175 in 38, 2, and 1 isolate, respectively. Eighty-seven (71%) of the 122isolates carried class 1 integrons, and eight distinct drug-resistance gene cassettes with seven different integron profiles were identified in 43 of these isolates. Gene cassettes were associated with resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, aadA22, or aadA23), trimethoprim (dfrA5, dfrA12, or dfrA17), and lincosamide (linF). Genes encoding β-lactamases were not found in class 1 integrons. This study is the first to report ESBL-producing E. coli with a class 1 integron carrying the linF gene cassette in swine in Thailand. Our findings confirm that swine can be a reservoir of ESBL-producing E. coli harboring class 1 integrons, which may become a potential health risk if these integrons are transmitted to humans. Intensive analyses of animal, human, and environmental isolates are needed to control the spread of ESBL-producing E. coli strains.

  1. Antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic grouping and virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolated from the faeces of intensively farmed and free range poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Akua Serwaah; Rickard, Heather; Ndi, Olasumbo; Sexton, Margaret; Barton, Mary

    2012-01-27

    Antibiotic use in poultry production is a risk factor for promoting the emergence of resistant Escherichia coli. To ascertain differences in different classes of chickens, the resistance profile, some virulence genes and phylogenetic grouping on 251 E. coli isolates from intensive meat (free range and indoor commercial) and free range egg layer chickens collected between December 2008 and June 2009 in South Australia were performed. Among the 251 strains, 102 (40.6%) and 67 (26.7%) were found to be resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin respectively. Resistance was also observed to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (12.4%), streptomycin (10.8%), spectinomycin (9.6%), neomycin (6.0%) and florfenicol (2.0%) but no resistance was found to ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin or gentamicin. Amplification of DNA of the isolates by polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of genes that code for resistant determinants: tetracycline (tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C)), ampicillin (bla(TEM) and bla(SHV)), trimethoprim (dhfrV and dhfrXIII), sulphonamide (sulI and sulII), neomycin (aph(3)-Ia(aphA1)), and spectinomycin-streptinomycin (aadA2). In addition, 32.3-39.4% of the isolates were found to belong to commensal groups (A and B1) and 11.2-17.1% belonged to the virulent groups (B2 and D). Among the 251 E. coli isolates, 25 (10.0%) carried two or more virulence genes typical of Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Furthermore, 17 of the isolates with multi-resistance were identified to be groups B2 and D. Although no significant difference was observed between isolates from free range and indoor commercial meat chickens (P>0.05), significant differences was observed between the different classes of meat chickens (free range and indoor commercial) and egg layers (P<0.05). While this study assessed the presence of a limited number of virulence genes, our study re emphasises the zoonotic potential of poultry E. coli isolates. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Occurrence of quinolone- and beta-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli in danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne

    An increased concern for the possible transfer of resistant bacteria or mobile resistance elements from food animals to humans has resulted in rigorous legislation preventing i.e. practical use of fluoroquinolones in the Danish broiler industry (Olesen et al., 2004; Petersen et al., 2006). In Den......An increased concern for the possible transfer of resistant bacteria or mobile resistance elements from food animals to humans has resulted in rigorous legislation preventing i.e. practical use of fluoroquinolones in the Danish broiler industry (Olesen et al., 2004; Petersen et al., 2006....../ml), ampicillin (32 µg/ml), cefotaxime (2 µg/ml) or ceftiofur (8 µg/ml). Repeated sampling was performed: five plates for each type of antibiotic were used for each sample in order to increase precision of the method. The ß-glucuronidase test was used for verification of presumptive E. coli. Ampicillin...... of resistance towards ceftiofur or cefotaxime might reflect the restricted use of antimicrobials in Danish poultry production. Further investigations are in progress to assess the epidemiological relationship of the isolates resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid as well as to characterize the genes...

  3. Risk factors for colonization with ampicillin and high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci during hospitalization in the ICU and the impact of prior antimicrobial exposure definition: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srovin, Tina Plankar; Seme, Katja; Blagus, Rok; Tomazin, Rok; Cižman, Milan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of our prospective cohort study was to determine the incidence, genetic relatedness and risk factors for colonization with ampicillin and high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci (ARHLARE) among patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. During 15-month period, we included 105 patients. The only independent risk factor for ARHLARE colonization was days of cefotaxime/ceftriaxone therapy [odds ratio (OR): 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.27; P  =  0.045]. Patients with higher total use of antibiotics, patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation, and patients with urinary tract infection (UTI), were also found to be at increased risk to become colonized with ARHLARE. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested multifocal origin of the majority of the colonizing strains. Our results show that an increase in total antibiotic consumption for 10 defined daily doses (DDD)/patient increased the odds of colonization with ARHLARE for 36%. Further efforts to optimize antimicrobial use in high risk patients are proposed.

  4. Antibacterial activity of natural spices on multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Shahedur; Parvez, Anowar Khasru; Islam, Rezuanul; Khan, Mahboob Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Spices traditionally have been used as coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives and medicine in Bangladesh. The present work aimed to find out the antimicrobial activity of natural spices on multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates. Methods Anti-bacterial potentials of six crude plant extracts (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa, Coriandrum sativum, Piper nigrum and Citrus aurantifolia) were tested against five Escherichia coli i...

  5. Threats to aquatic ecosystems caused by antibiotic-resistant isolate of Escherichia coli from sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frąk Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Escherichia coli isolate resistant to penicillin and streptomycin in sewage discharged into the environment was tested. Thirty three Escherichia coli isolate were isolated from sewage samples showed different susceptibility to tested antibiotics. All tested isolate show higher resistance to penicillin than streptomycin. Twenty four tested E. coli isolate showed resistance only to low concentrations of penicillin. Five E. coli isolate showed resistance to higher concentrations of penicillin as well (120 μg·dm−3. Five E. coli isolate showed resistance to penicillin and streptomycin. Discharging sewage that contains bacteria isolate resistant to antibiotics into the aquatic environment causes their spreading and increases threats to aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Development of quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxides resistance in Escherichia coli and molecular change under resistance selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Guo

    Full Text Available Quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxides (QdNOs has been used in animals as antimicrobial agents and growth promoters for decades. However, the resistance to QdNOs in pathogenic bacteria raises worldwide concern but it is barely known. To explore the molecular mechanism involved in development of QdNOs resistance in Escherichia coli, 6 strains selected by QdNOs in vitro and 21 strains isolated from QdNOs-used swine farm were subjected to MIC determination and PCR amplification of oqxA gene. A conjugative transfer was carried out to evaluate the transfer risk of QdNOs resistant determinant. Furthermore, the transcriptional profile of a QdNOs-resistant E. coli (79O4-2 selected in vitro with its parent strain 79-161 was assayed with a prokaryotic suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH PCR cDNA subtraction. The result showed that more than 95% (20/21 clinical isolates were oqxA positive, while all the 6 induced QdNOs-resistant strains carried no oqxA gene and exhibited low frequency of conjugation. 44 fragments were identified by SSH PCR subtraction in the QdNOs-resistant strain 79O4-2. 18 cDNAs were involved in biosynthesis of Fe-S cluster (narH, protein (rpoA, trmD, truA, glyS, ileS, rplFCX, rpsH, fusA, lipoate (lipA, lipid A (lpxC, trehalose (otsA, CTP(pyrG and others molecular. The 11 cDNAs were related to metabolism or degradation of glycolysis (gpmA and pgi and proteins (clpX, clpA, pepN and fkpB. The atpADG and ubiB genes were associated with ATP biosynthesis and electron transport chain. The pathway of the functional genes revealed that E. coli may adapt the stress generated by QdNOs or develop specific QdNOs-resistance by activation of antioxidative agents biosynthesis (lipoate and trehalose, protein biosynthesis, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. This study initially reveals the possible molecular mechanism involved in the development of QdNOs-resistance in E. coli, providing with novel insights in prediction and assessment of the emergency

  7. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli in Public Beach Waters in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Turgeon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may result in the transfer of resistance to commensal or pathogenic microbes present in the gastrointestinal tract, which may lead to severe health consequences and difficulties in treatment of future bacterial infections. It was hypothesized that the recreational waters from beaches represent a source of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli for people engaging in water activities.

  8. Sequences of two related multiple antibiotic resistance virulence plasmids sharing a unique IS26-related molecular signature isolated from different Escherichia coli pathotypes from different hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Venturini

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC are important zoonotic pathogens that increasingly are becoming resistant to multiple antibiotics. Here we describe two plasmids, pO26-CRL125 (125 kb from a human O26:H- EHEC, and pO111-CRL115 (115kb from a bovine O111 aEPEC, that impart resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, sulfathiazole, trimethoprim and tetracycline and both contain atypical class 1 integrons with an identical IS26-mediated deletion in their 3´-conserved segment. Complete sequence analysis showed that pO26-CRL125 and pO111-CRL115 are essentially identical except for a 9.7 kb fragment, present in the backbone of pO26-CRL125 but absent in pO111-CRL115, and several indels. The 9.7 kb fragment encodes IncI-associated genes involved in plasmid stability during conjugation, a putative transposase gene and three imperfect repeats. Contiguous sequence identical to regions within these pO26-CRL125 imperfect repeats was identified in pO111-CRL115 precisely where the 9.7 kb fragment is missing, suggesting it may be mobile. Sequences shared between the plasmids include a complete IncZ replicon, a unique toxin/antitoxin system, IncI stability and maintenance genes, a novel putative serine protease autotransporter, and an IncI1 transfer system including a unique shufflon. Both plasmids carry a derivate Tn21 transposon with an atypical class 1 integron comprising a dfrA5 gene cassette encoding resistance to trimethoprim, and 24 bp of the 3´-conserved segment followed by Tn6026, which encodes resistance to ampicillin, kanymycin, neomycin, streptomycin and sulfathiazole. The Tn21-derivative transposon is linked to a truncated Tn1721, encoding resistance to tetracycline, via a region containing the IncP-1α oriV. Absence of the 5 bp direct repeats flanking Tn3-family transposons, indicates that homologous recombination events played a key role in the formation of this complex

  9. 51 original article antibiotic resistant salmonella and escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    use of antibiotics in the food animals, especially poultry. Keywords: Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, poultry, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION .... legal classification of veterinary drugs to prevent continued abuse of these various products. More work need to be done to comprehensively assess the national prevalence of ...

  10. Wild birds as biological indicators of environmental pollution: antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from common buzzards (Buteo buteo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhouani, Hajer; Poeta, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Pacheco, Rui; Sargo, Roberto; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2012-06-01

    A total of 36 Escherichia coli and 31 enterococci isolates were recovered from 42 common buzzard faecal samples. The E. coli isolates showed high levels of resistance to streptomycin and tetracycline. The following resistance genes were detected: bla(TEM) (20 of 22 ampicillin-resistant isolates), tet(A) and/or tet(B) (16 of 27 tetracycline-resistant isolates), aadA1 (eight of 27 streptomycin-resistant isolates), cmlA (three of 15 chloramphenicol-resistant isolates), aac(3)-II with/without aac(3)-IV (all seven gentamicin-resistant isolates) and sul1 and/or sul2 and/or sul3 [all eight sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim-resistant (SXT) isolates]. intI1 and intI2 genes were detected in four SXT-resistant isolates. The virulence-associated genes fimA (type 1 fimbriae), papC (P fimbriae) and aer (aerobactin) were detected in 61.1, 13.8 and 11.1% of the isolates, respectively. The isolates belonged to phylogroups A (47.2%), B1 (8.3%), B2 (13.9%) and D (30.5%). For the enterococci isolates, Enterococcus faecium was the most prevalent species (48.4%). High levels of tetracycline and erythromycin resistance were found among our isolates (87 and 81%, respectively). Most of the tetracycline-resistant strains carried the tet(M) and/or tet(L) genes. The erm(B) gene was detected in 80% of erythromycin-resistant isolates. The vat(D) and/or vat(E) genes were found in nine of the 17 quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant isolates. The enterococcal isolates showing high-level resistance for kanamycin, gentamicin and streptomycin contained the aph(3')-IIIa, aac(6')-aph(2″) and ant(6)-Ia genes, respectively. This report reveals that common buzzards seem to represent an important reservoir, or at least a source, of multi-resistant E. coli and enterococci isolates, and consequently may represent a considerable hazard to human and animal health by transmission of these isolates to waterways and other environmental sources via their faecal deposits.

  11. Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Related Genes in E. coli Strains Belonging to B2 Phylogroup Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Combination with Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Staji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  This study was conducted to detect the prevalence of EHEC virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup implicated in Urinary tract infections in Semnan, Iran.Methods:   From 240 urine samples 160 E. coli strains were isolated, biochemically. Then, E. coli isolates were examined by Multiplex-PCR for phylogenetic typing and detection of virulence genes (hly, stx1, stx2, eae associated with Enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Finally, Antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates were characterized using Disk Diffusion method.  Results:  From 160 E. coli isolates, 75 strains (47% were assigned to B2 phylogenetic group and prevalence of virulence genes were as follow: hly (21.3%, stx1 (16%, stx2 (10.6% and eae (6.7%, subsequently.  Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance of B2 isolates showed that all isolates were sensitive to Meropenem and Furazolidone and then highest frequency of resistance was observed to Streptomycin, Oxytetracycline, Neomycin, Nalidixic acid and Ampicillin (98.7% to 49.3%. Also low resistance prevalence was observed in case of Ceftizoxime, Lincospectin, Imipenem, Chloramphenicol and flurefenicole (16% to 1.3%.Conclusion:   The data suggest a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in UPEC strains belonging to B2 phylogroup even for the antimicrobials using in pet and farm animals and their potential to cause EHEC specific clinical symptoms which may represent a serious health risk since these strains can be transmitted to GI tract and act as a reservoir for other uropathogenic E. coli and commensal strains.

  12. "Population structure of drug-susceptible, -resistant and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from community-acquired urinary tract infections"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Schønning, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). The pathogenic isolates are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics; with a worldwide dissemination of resistant sequence types (ST). We characterized three different uropathogenic E. coli populations...

  13. Broad spectrum β-lactam resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolated from severely malnourished and nourished children attending Mbagathi district hospital, Nairobi: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mwangi Njoroge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Severely malnourished children have increased risk of being put on antibiotics due to co-morbidities. Aim: The study′s objective was to characterize the Escherichia coli β-lactamase mediated resistance to the broad spectrum β-lactam antimicrobials among this population and compare them with nourished children as controls. Settings and Design: In this case-control, hospital-based setup, 109 E. coli isolates were obtained from each group, one isolate per subject. Materials and Methods: Stool or anal swabs were collected, enriched in buffered peptone water and cultured on MacConkey and eosin methylene blue agars. Biochemical test were used to identify E. coli. antibiograms to determine phenotypic resistance were determined using a panel of 14 drugs. Only the isolates showing synergy between ampicillin-calvulanic acid and one or more third generation cephalosporins were picked as extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producers. Statistical Analysis: Differences in ESBL rates and susceptibility percentages between cases and controls were evaluated for significance using 2-tailed Fisher′s exact test. Results: Prevalence of ESBL phenotype was higher in severely malnourished children (39% as compared to the controls (7%. The plasmid-encoded AmpC′s (pAmpC-like phenotype was observed in 11% isolates. Conclusions: Isolation of ESBL-E. coli among severely malnourished children is high. Surveillance of ESBL producers, both in the community and hospital settings needs to be stepped up in Kenya.

  14. Comparison of the selection of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli during enrofloxacin administration with a local drug delivery system or with intramuscular injections in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béraud, Romain; Huneault, Louis; Bernier, Dave; Beaudry, Francis; Letellier, Ann; del Castillo, Jérôme R E

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated, for the first time, the selection of antibiotic resistance in fecal Escherichia coli, a potential reservoir of genes of resistance, during the prolonged exposure to fluoroquinolones after the implantation of a local drug delivery system (LDDS) in a swine model. Fourteen pigs were randomly assigned to group IM (5 mg/kg/day of intramuscular enrofloxacin--EFX) or LD (surgical implantation of EFX-polymethyl-methacrylate peri-femoral implants). Blood samples were collected daily for determination of plasma EFX and ciprofloxacin (CFX) concentrations. Fecal samples were collected daily to determine the E. coli counts and the susceptibility patterns of its isolates as evaluated by antibiotic disk diffusion tests. In both groups, EFX administration significantly reduced the bacterial counts after 2 days. During recolonization, the bacterial counts remained lower than baseline in group IM but not significantly, and almost reached pre-treatment levels in group LD. Susceptibility to EFX, CFX, and nalidixic acid of recolonizing E. coli in LD pigs slightly decreased but remained within the limit of "susceptible" isolates. In contrast, quinolone susceptibility of recolonizing E. coli in IM pigs dropped dramatically (P intramuscular exposure to fluoroquinolones significantly decreased the susceptibility of E. coli to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P administration of fluoroquinolones.

  15. Study of the resistance mechanisms to ultraviolet radiation in Escherichia Coli. II. General characteristics of the mutants resistant to ultraviolet radiation of Escherichia Coli PQ30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara D, D.

    1995-12-01

    Inside this second work the results are shown on the preliminary characterization of the 5 populations of Escherichia coli that its were subjected to the light UV, by means of 80 irradiation- growth cycles, the dose of which it was duplicated each 10 cycles. The course that the resistance to UV to those 5 populations continued along the process, that covers some 165 generations, and the level reached at the end by each one of them suggests the presence of different resistance mechanisms to the UV light. (Author)

  16. Associations between Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes, Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, and Virulence Genes of Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Healthy Grow-Finish Pigs ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengren, Leigh B.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli often carries linked antimicrobial resistance genes on transmissible genetic elements. Through coselection, antimicrobial use may select for unrelated but linked resistance or virulence genes. This study used unconditional statistical associations to investigate the relationships between antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance genes in 151 E. coli isolates from healthy pigs. Phenotypic resistance to each drug was significantly associated with phenotyp...

  17. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Strains of Escherichia coli in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of six bacteria species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes were ... Énumération de nombre de plaque standard a été effectuée par la méthode de la plaque de propagation sur des échantillons d'eau dilués en série.

  18. The Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia Coli in Poultry Chickens and Variation According to Farming Practices in Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Siddhartha; Hayer, Shivdeep; Sran, Mandeep; Zehra, Asima; Patel, Sunny J.; Kaur, Ravneet; Chatterjee, Leena; Mishra, Savita; Das, B.R.; Singh, Parminder; Singh, Randhir; Gill, J.P.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Agricultural use of antimicrobials in subtherapeutic concentrations is increasing in response to the rising demand for food animal products worldwide. In India, the use of antimicrobials in food animal production is unregulated. Research suggests that many clinically important antimicrobials are used indiscriminately. This is the largest study to date in India that surveys poultry production to test for antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) modulated by farming and managerial practices. Objectives: Our goal was to survey poultry production for resistance to eleven clinically relevant antimicrobials and phenotypic occurrence of ESBLs as modulated by farming and managerial practices. Methods: Eighteen poultry farms from Punjab were surveyed, and 1,556 Escherichia coli isolates from 530 birds were tested for susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method and validated using VITEK 2 (bioMérieux, Marcy-L’Étoile, France). Samples from 510 of these birds were phenotypically tested for ESBL production using the combination disk method and confirmed using VITEK 2. Generalized linear mixed models were used to infer differences in resistance profiles associated with different farming practices and facility types. Results: Resistance profiles were significantly different between broiler and layer farms. Broiler farms were 2.2 [ampicillin (AMP), p=0.017] to 23 [nalidixic acid (NX), pproducing strains (87% compared to 42% in layers), was observed in broiler farms. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that unregulated use of clinically relevant antimicrobials in Indian broiler and layer farms may contribute to the emergence of resistance and support the need to curb the nontherapeutic use of medically important antimicrobials in food animal production. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP292 PMID:28749780

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in veal calves is associated with antimicrobial drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Mevius, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between farm management factors, including antimicrobial drug usage, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the faeces of white veal calves. Ninety E. coli isolates from one pooled sample per farm (n = 48) were tested for

  20. Class 1 integrons in ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli strains from two Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, M. J.; Schouten, I.; Vos, G.; van Belkum, A.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; Schultsz, C.

    2005-01-01

    A significant increase in the isolation frequency of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli was observed in the haematology departments of two university hospitals in The Netherlands. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that this increase was not caused by the emergence of

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in veal calves is associated with antimicrobial drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A B; Wagenaar, J. A.; Stegeman, J A; Vernooij, J C M; Mevius, D J

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between farm management factors, including antimicrobial drug usage, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the faeces of white veal calves. Ninety E. coli isolates from one pooled sample per farm (n = 48) were tested for

  2. Evaluation of Eight Different Cephalosporins for Detection of Cephalosporin Resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarestrup, F.M.; Hasman, H.; Veldman, K.T.; Mevius, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known

  3. De novo acquisition of resistance to three antibiotics by Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, M.A.; Schuurmans, J.M.; Smid, M.C.; Koenders, B.B.; ter Kuile, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of resistance to amoxicillin, tetracycline, and enrofloxacin by Escherichia coli MG 1655 was examined by exposing growing cells to constant or stepwise increasing concentrations of these compounds. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of E. coli for amoxicillin increased from

  4. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon...

  5. OCCURRENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI CLONAL GROUP A IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolates of Escherichia coli belonging to clonal group A (CGA), a recently described disseminated cause of drug-resistant urinary tract infections in humans, were present in four of seven sewage effluents collected from geographically dispersed areas of the United States. ...

  6. Acquisition of carbapenem resistance by plasmid-encoded-AmpC-expressing Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommassen - van Boxtel, Ria; Wattel, Agnes A.; Arenas Busto, Jesus; Goessens, Wil H.F.; Tommassen, J

    2017-01-01

    Although AmpC β-lactamases can barely degrade carbapenems, if at all, they can sequester them and prevent them from reaching their targets. Thus, carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae can result from AmpC production and simultaneous reduction of antibiotic influx

  7. Association between antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Escherichia coli obtained from blood and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Sandvang, Dorthe; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates obtained from faeces (n = 85) and blood (n = 123) were susceptibility tested against 17 antimicrobial agents and the presence of 9 virulence genes was determined by PCR. Positive associations between several antimicrobial resistances and 2 VF genes (iutA and traT) were...

  8. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants among Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia, and Enterococcus using PCR and Microarray Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia, and Enterococcus can be important carriers of antimicrobial resistance. Limited work has been done to examine the relationship among strains co-cultured from the gastrointestinal tract of individual animals. To address this, 1284 isolates were collected from s...

  9. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance to enrofloxacin in uropathogenic Escherichia coli in dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) urinary tract infections (UTIs) are becoming a serious problem both for pets and humans (zoonosis) due to the close contact and to the increasing resistance to antibiotics. Canine E. coli represents a good experimental model useful to study this pathology. Moreover, as des...

  10. Hospitalization, a risk factor for antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the community?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, N; Filius, PMG; van den Bogaard, AE; Nys, S; Degener, J; Endtz, HP; Stobberingh, EE

    Objective: The impact of hospitalization on the prevalence of resistant Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of patients admitted to the surgical wards of three Dutch university-affiliated hospitals was analysed prospectively. Methods: Faecal samples were obtained on admission to the hospital,

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Brown Paul D; McLaughlin Wayne; Miles Tricia D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Antimicrobial usage is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in both veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens and compare these data with isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in Jamaica. Results Eighty-two E. coli stra...

  12. Emergence of a colistin-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolate harboring mcr-1 in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Tada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mcr-1 is a gene encoding a phosphoethanolamine transferase, which confers resistance to colistin by transferring phosphoethanolamine to lipid A. We describe here the emergence of a colistin-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolate harboring plasmid-mediated mcr-1 in Japan. The isolate belonged to ST5702 and is suspected to come from livestock and transmitted to human. This is the first report of a clinical isolate harboring mcr-1 in Japan.

  13. Emergence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates harboring mcr-1 in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Tada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mcr-1 was first detected on a plasmid in colistin-resistant Escherichia coli from livestock and patients in China. We described here the emergence of colistin-resistant E. coli clinical isolates harboring mcr-1 on the chromosomes in Vietnam. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hospital-acquired E. coli isolates harboring mcr-1 in a medical setting in Vietnam.

  14. A clinical isolate of transposon Tn5 expressing streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Genilloud, O; Blázquez, J; Mazodier, P; Moreno, F

    1988-01-01

    The central region of transposon Tn5 carries three antibiotic resistance markers: neo, ble, and str. The str gene codes for a phosphotransferase that inactivates streptomycin. This activity is phenotypically expressed in several gram-negative bacteria but not in Escherichia coli. We identified a Tn5 variant in E. coli clinical isolates that express streptomycin resistance. This transposon carries a 6-base-pair deletion within the str gene, near the 3' end. The same kind of mutation had been p...

  15. Defective lysis of streptomycin-resistant escherichia coli cells infected with bacteriophage f2.

    OpenAIRE

    De Mars Cody, J; Conway, T W

    1981-01-01

    A lysis defect was found to account for the failure of a streptomycin-resistant strain of Escherichia coli to form plaques when infected with the male-specific bacteriophage f2. The lysis defect was associated with the mutation to streptomycin resistance. Large amounts of apparently normal bacteriophage accumulated in these cells. Cell-free extracts from both the parental and mutant strains synthesized a potential lysis protein in considerable amounts in response to formaldehyde-treated f2 RN...

  16. Emergence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates harboring mcr-1 in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Tatsuya; Nhung, Pham Hong; Shimada, Kayo; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Phuong, Doan Mai; Anh, Nguyen Quoc; Ohmagari, Norio; Kirikae, Teruo

    2017-10-01

    The mcr-1 was first detected on a plasmid in colistin-resistant Escherichia coli from livestock and patients in China. We described here the emergence of colistin-resistant E. coli clinical isolates harboring mcr-1 on the chromosomes in Vietnam. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hospital-acquired E. coli isolates harboring mcr-1 in a medical setting in Vietnam. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Colonization with Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli among Nursing Home Residents and Its Relationship to Fluoroquinolone Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N.; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Glaze, Thomas; Bilker, Warren; Johnson, James R.

    2004-01-01

    In a cross-sectional fecal prevalence survey involving 49 residents of a Veterans Affairs nursing home, 59% of subjects were colonized with extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), 22% were colonized with adhesin-positive E. coli, and 51% were colonized with fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. Among 80 unique isolates, adhesins correlated negatively and aerobactin correlated positively with fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:15328142

  18. The cost of antibiotic resistance depends on evolutionary history in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The persistence of antibiotic resistance depends on the fitness effects of resistance elements in the absence of antibiotics. Recent work shows that the fitness effect of a given resistance mutation is influenced by other resistance mutations on the same genome. However, resistant bacteria acquire additional beneficial mutations during evolution in the absence of antibiotics that do not alter resistance directly but may modify the fitness effects of new resistance mutations. Results We experimentally evolved rifampicin-resistant and sensitive Escherichia coli in a drug-free environment, before measuring the effects of new resistance elements on fitness in antibiotic-free conditions. Streptomycin-resistance mutations had small fitness effects in rifampicin-resistant genotypes that had adapted to antibiotic-free growth medium, compared to the same genotypes without adaptation. We observed a similar effect when resistance was encoded by a different mechanism and carried on a plasmid. Antibiotic-sensitive bacteria that adapted to the same conditions showed the same pattern for some resistance elements but not others. Conclusions Epistatic variation of costs of resistance can result from evolution in the absence of antibiotics, as well as the presence of other resistance mutations. PMID:23914906

  19. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Emerging resistance to antimicrobial drugs increases morbidity and mortality by hampering the provision of effective chemotherapy, and makes treatment more costly. The emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents is a global public health problem, especially in pathogens causing nosocomial infections.

  20. Wastewater as a Source of Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical studies have reported that the occurrence of carbapenem resistant E. coli is on the rise. This is of concern because carbapenem antibiotics are typically reserved for treating infections caused by bacteria resistant to other classes of antibiotics. Current literature st...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Healthy Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded from the study that healthy food animals form a reservoir of multiple resistant E. coli which may be transmitted to humans through the food chain. Thus, continued surveillance of E. coli obtained from food production continuum is merited to identify emerging antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes. The Kenya ...

  2. Antibiotic resistance status of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research revealed a high level of antibiotic resistance among E. coli. The percentage of resistance observed for the antibiotics included in this study reflected the degree of their respective uses in pig production in the study area. This work further supports the need for prudent use of each of the antibiotics in animal ...

  3. Detection, Virulence Gene Assessment and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of O157 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ostadgavahi, Ali Toloue; Ghotaslou, Reza; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Sorayaei Sowmesarayi, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-11-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a food-borne pathogen and infection with this organism causes illnesses such as bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Considering the lack of any information about the prevalence rate and the antibiotic resistance pattern of O157:H7 serotype in Tabriz, finding answers to the above mentioned subjects was among the goals of this study. Two hundred E. coli strains from diarrheal or non-diarrheal stools of outpatients and hospitalized cases in Tabriz Imam Reza hospital were isolated between September and December 2014 using MacConkey agar and standard biochemical tests and then cultured on sorbitol MacConkey agar. The sorbitol-negative isolates were confirmed as the O157 serotype using O157 antisera. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the detection of stx-1, stx-2, eae, and mdh genes and the antibiotic resistance pattern of these isolates was determined using Kirby-Bauer method and clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) standards. Of the isolates 11 (5.5%) were sorbitol-negative, which were later analyzed by multiplex PCR and the results revealed that 2 (18.18%) isolates contained the stx-1 gene, 10 (90.91%) contained the stx-2 gene, and 5 (45.45%) contained the eae gene. The stx-2 and eae genes were the most commonly encountered virulence factors. All or most of the isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime (100%), gentamicin (100%), ciprofloxacin (100%), nalidixic acid (90.9%), trimetoprim sulfamethoxazole (90.9%), chloramphenicol (90.9%), ampicillin (81.8%), and cephalothin (72.7%). On the contrary, moderate susceptibility of the isolates to doxycycline (54.5%) was observed. Due to the low frequency of STEC O157 and the high susceptibility rates of the isolates to the tested antibiotics in this study, STEC O157 has not become a major problem in Tabriz yet, but comprehensive microbiological surveillance programs that provide early warning and limit

  4. Occurrence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes among isolates of Escherichia coli exhibiting high levels of aminoglycoside resistance isolated from Korean cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaynehe, Kuastros Mekonnen; Shin, Seung Won; Hong-Tae, Park; Yoo, Han Sang

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated 247 Escherichia coli isolates collected from four cattle farms to characterize aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes, their plasmid replicons and transferability. Out of 247 isolates a high number of isolates (total 202; 81.78%) were found to be resistant to various antibiotics by disc diffusion. Of the 247 strains, 139 (56.3%) were resistant to streptomycin, and other antibiotic resistances followed as tetracycline (12.15%), ampicillin (7%), chloramphenicol (5.7%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (0.8%). Among 247 isolates B1 was the predominant phylogenetic group identified comprising 151 isolates (61.1%), followed by groups A (27.9%), D (7%) and B2 (4%). Out of 139 isolates investigated for AME, 130 (93.5%) isolates carried at least one AME gene. aph3″-1a and aph3″-1b (46%) were the principal genes detected, followed by aac3-IVa (34.5%). ant2″-1a was the least detected gene (2.2%). Nine (6.5%) strains carried no AME genes. Twelve (63.2%) among 19 isolates transferred an AME gene to a recipient and aph3΄-1a was the dominant transferred gene. Transferability mainly occurred via the IncFIB replicon type (52.6%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing demonstrated a higher degree of diversity with 14 distinct cluster types. This result suggests that commensal microflora from food-producing animals has a tremendous ability to harbor and transfer AME genes, and poses a potential risk by dissemination of resistance to humans through the food chain. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Human Health Hazards from Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli of Animal Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, A. M.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2009-01-01

    Because of the intensive use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production, meat is frequently contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Humans can be colonized with E. coli of animal origin, and because of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, these bacteria may...... cause infections for which limited therapeutic options are available. This may lead to treatment failure and can have serious consequences for the patient. Furthermore, E. coli of animal origin may act as a donor of antimicrobial resistance genes for other pathogenic E. coli. Thus, the intensive use...

  6. Cloning of Bacteroides fragilis plasmid genes affecting metronidazole resistance and ultraviolet survival in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehnert, G.U.; Abratt, V.R.; Goodman, H.J.; Woods, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Since reduced metronidazole causes DNA damage, resistance to metronidazole was used as a selection method for the cloning of Bacteroides fragilis genes affecting DNA repair mechanisms in Escherichia coli. Genes from B. fragilis Bf-2 were cloned on a recombinant plasmid pMT100 which made E. coli AB1157 and uvrA, B, and C mutant strains more resistant to metronidazole, but more sensitive to far uv irradiation under aerobic conditions. The loci affecting metronidazole resistance and uv sensitivity were linked and located on a 5-kb DNA fragment which originated from the small 6-kb cryptic plasmid pBFC1 present in B. fragilis Bf-2 cells

  7. Comparison of the Prevalences and Antimicrobial Resistances of Escherichia coli Isolates from Different Retail Meats in the United States, 2002 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickenstaff, K.; Bodeis-Jones, S.; Gaines, S. A.; Tong, E.; McDermott, P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System retail meat program and examined for antimicrobial susceptibility. Retail meat samples (n = 11,921) from four U.S. states collected during 2002 to 2008, consisting of 2,988 chicken breast, 2,942 ground turkey, 2,991 ground beef, and 3,000 pork chop samples, were analyzed. A total of 8,286 E. coli isolates were recovered. The greatest numbers of samples contaminated with the organism were chicken (83.5%) and turkey (82.0%), followed by beef (68.9%) and pork (44.0%). Resistance was most common to tetracycline (50.3%), followed by streptomycin (34.6%), sulfamethoxazole-sulfisoxazole (31.6%), ampicillin (22.5%), gentamicin (18.6%), kanamycin (8.4%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (6.4%), and cefoxitin (5.2%). Less than 5% of the isolates had resistance to trimethoprim, ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin. Compared to beef and pork isolates, the poultry meat isolates had a greater percentage of resistance to all tested drugs, with the exception of chloramphenicol, to which pork isolates had the most resistance. More than half of the turkey isolates (56%) were resistant to multidrugs (≥3 classes) compared to 38.9% of chicken, 17.3% of pork, and 9.3% of beef isolates. The blaCMY gene was present in all ceftriaxone- and ceftiofur-resistant isolates. The cmlA, flo, and catI genes were present in 45%, 43%, and 40% of chloramphenicol-resistant isolates, respectively. Most nalidixic acid-resistant isolates (98.5%) had a gyrA mutation in S83 or D87 or both, whereas only 6.7% had a parC mutation in either S80 or E84. The results showed that E. coli was commonly present in the retail meats, and antimicrobial resistance profiles differed according to the animal origin of the isolates. PMID:22247155

  8. Effects of halides on plasmid-mediated silver resistance in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Maynes, M.; Silver, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    1998-12-01

    Silver resistance of sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and resistance plasmid-containing J53(pMG101) was affected by halides in the growth medium. The effects of halides on Ag{sup +} resistance were measured with AgNO{sub 3} and silver sulfadiazine, both on agar and in liquid. Low concentrations of chloride made the differences in MICs between sensitive and resistant strains larger. High concentrations of halides increased the sensitivities of both strains to Ag{sup +}. The purpose of this report is to set out easy-to-use conditions for measuring silver sensitivity and resistance in familiar and widely used media, Luria-Bertani (LB) agar and broth, so as to facilitate wider identification of silver resistance in nature.

  9. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli carriage in long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N; Lee, Betsy; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2005-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli in residents in a long-term care facility. FQ-resistant E. coli were identified from rectal swabs for 25 (51%) of 49 participants at study entry. On multivariable analyses, prior FQ use was the only independent risk factor for FQ-resistant E. coli carriage and was consistent for FQ exposures in the previous 3, 6, 9, or 12 months. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of FQ-resistant E. coli identified clonal spread of 1 strain among 16 residents. Loss (6 residents) or acquisition (7 residents) of FQ-resistant E. coli was documented and was associated with de novo colonization with genetically distinct strains. Unlike the case in the hospital setting, FQ-resistant E. coli carriage in long-term care facilities is associated with clonal spread.

  10. Escherichia coli in Iran: An Overview of Antibiotic Resistance: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizade, Hesam

    2018-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most prominent cause of infectious diseases that span from the gastrointestinal tract to extra-intestinal sites such as urinary tract infection, septicaemia, and neonatal meningitis. The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in E. coli is an increasing public health concern across the world. Rising resistance in E. coli isolates is also observed in Iran. This review summarizes the status of antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolates in Iran from 2007 to 2016. The data of the prevalence of E. coli antibiotic resistance were collected from databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and Scientific Information Database. Antibiotic resistance in E. coli is on the rise. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance of E. coli varies from region to region in Iran.

  11. Cross-sectional survey of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from diseased farm livestock in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, T E A; Smith, R P; Hutchinson, J P; Brunton, L A; Pritchard, G; Teale, C J

    2015-09-01

    Between 2005 and 2007, E. coli obtained from clinical diagnostic submissions from cattle, goats, pigs and sheep to government laboratories in England and Wales were tested for sensitivity to 16 antimicrobials. Resistance was most commonly observed against ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Resistance levels varied significantly between species, with isolates from cattle frequently showing the highest levels. Verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) expressed less resistance than non-VTEC. Only 19·3% of non-VTEC and 43·5% of VTEC were susceptible to all antimicrobials, while 47·1% and 30·4%, respectively, were resistant to ⩾5 antimicrobials. The resistance phenotype SSuT was commonly observed, and isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were also identified. We recommend judicious antimicrobial usage in the livestock industry in order to preserve efficacy.

  12. Antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L; Long, M; Huang, Y; Wu, G; Deng, W; Yang, X; Li, B; Meng, Y; Cheng, L; Fan, L; Zhang, H; Zou, L

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to demonstrate the antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Antimicrobial testing was performed according to the standard disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of disinfectants were determined using the agar dilution method. All isolates were screened for the presence of antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance genes and further analysed for genetic relatedness by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results showed that 46·6% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Escherichia coli isolates showed resistance to fewer antimicrobials as panda age increased. Among antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates, the antimicrobial resistance genes blaCTX-M (88·2%) and sul1 (92·3%) were most prevalent. The disinfectant resistance genes emrE, ydgE/ydgF, mdfA and sugE(c) were commonly present (68·2-98·9%), whereas qac and sugE(p) were relatively less prevalent (0-21·3%). The frequencies of resistance genes tended to be higher in E. coli isolated in December than in July, and PFGE profiles were also more diverse in isolates in December. The qacEΔ1 and sugE(p) genes were higher in adolescent pandas than in any other age groups. PFGE revealed that antimicrobial resistance correlated well with sampling time and habitat. This study demonstrated that antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance was common in giant panda-derived E. coli, and the antimicrobial resistance was associated with sampling time and habitat. Escherichia coli could serve as a critical vector in spreading disinfectant and antimicrobial resistance. This is the first study that demonstrated the phenotypic and genetic characterizations of antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance in E. coli isolates from more than 60 giant pandas. Frequent transfer of pandas to other cages may lead to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. The

  13. Antibiotic Resistance Escherichia coli isolated from Faecal of Healthy Human

    OpenAIRE

    , S. Budiarti

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine antibiotic resistant of Escherechia coli as intestinal normal şora, isolated from healthy human. The samples were collected from faeces of new born children, children under 3 and 5years-old, and human adult. Bacteria were isolated at Eosin Methylen Blue solid media followed by biochemistry reaction for physiological E.coli identiŞcation. Antibiotic resistant test was carried out using Kirby-Bauer method. The result showed that 95 % bacterial strai...

  14. Compensation of the Metabolic Costs of Antibiotic Resistance by Physiological Adaptation in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Nadine; Schuurmans, J. Merijn; Brul, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is often associated with metabolic costs. To investigate the metabolic consequences of antibiotic resistance, the genomic and transcriptomic profiles of an amoxicillin-resistant Escherichia coli strain and the wild type it was derived from were compared. A total of 125 amino acid substitutions and 7 mutations that were located resistant cells. However, broad induction and suppression of genes were observed when comparing the expression profiles of resistant and wild-type cells. Expression of genes involved in cell wall maintenance, DNA metabolic processes, cellular stress response, and respiration was most affected in resistant cells regardless of the absence or presence of amoxicillin. The SOS response was downregulated in resistant cells. The physiological effect of the acquisition of amoxicillin resistance in cells grown in chemostat cultures consisted of an initial increase in glucose consumption that was followed by an adaptation process. Furthermore, no difference in maintenance energy was observed between resistant and sensitive cells. In accordance with the transcriptomic profile, exposure of resistant cells to amoxicillin resulted in reduced salt and pH tolerance. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in E. coli is accompanied by specifically reorganized metabolic networks in order to circumvent metabolic costs. The overall effect of the acquisition of resistance consists not so much of an extra energy requirement, but more a reduced ecological range. PMID:23716056

  15. prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of escherichia coli

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Carbapenems however remain the drugs of choice against the strains investigated as reported in a related study (9). This study reveals that a significant proportion of isolates from wounds and burns are highly multidrug resistance. The burn patients are particularly predisposed to different infections which ...

  16. Antibiotic resistant Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To characterise and investigate antimicrobial resistance of Esherichia coli and salmonella strains isolated from indigenous Gallus gallus in a leading slaughterhouse/market outlet in Nairobi-Kenya. Design: A repeated cross sectional study and based on random sampling was used. Setting: The study was carried ...

  17. Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Properties in Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined E. coli resistance to commonly used antibiotics together with their virulence properties in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. A total of 137 E. coli isolates from cases of urinary tract infection were tested for their sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics and possession of virulence factors using standard methods.

  18. A role for Tn6029 in the evolution of the complex antibiotic resistance gene loci in genomic island 3 in enteroaggregative hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piklu Roy Chowdhury

    Full Text Available In enteroaggregative hemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EAHEC O104 the complex antibiotic resistance gene loci (CRL found in the region of divergence 1 (RD1 within E. coli genomic island 3 (GI3 contains blaTEM-1, strAB, sul2, tet(AA, and dfrA7 genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim respectively. The precise arrangement of antibiotic resistance genes and the role of mobile elements that drove the evolutionary events and created the CRL have not been investigated. We used a combination of bioinformatics and iterative BLASTn searches to determine the micro-evolutionary events that likely led to the formation of the CRL in GI3 using the closed genome sequences of EAHEC O104:H4 strains 2011C-3493 and 2009EL-2050 and high quality draft genomes of EAHEC E. coli O104:H4 isolates from sporadic cases not associated with the initial outbreak. Our analyses indicate that the CRL in GI3 evolved from a progenitor structure that contained an In2-derived class 1 integron in a Tn21/Tn1721 hybrid backbone. Within the hybrid backbone, a Tn6029-family transposon, identified here as Tn6029C abuts the sul1 gene in the 3'-Conserved Segment (-CS of a class 1 integron generating a unique molecular signature that has only previously been observed in pASL01a, a small plasmid found in commensal E. coli in West Africa. From this common progenitor, independent IS26-mediated events created two novel transposons identified here as Tn6029D and Tn6222 in 2011C-3493 and 2009EL-2050 respectively. Analysis of RD1 within GI3 reveals IS26 has played a crucial role in the assembly of regions within the CRL.

  19. Vegetables and Restaurant Salads as a Reservoir for Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Distribution of Virulence Factors, O-Serogroups, and Antibiotic Resistance Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerian, Amir; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Emad, Pardis

    2016-07-01

    Close contact of vegetables with soil, polluted water, and animal manure and unsanitary conditions during processing of restaurant salads led us to study the distribution of virulence factors, O-serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties in Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from vegetables and salads. Samples of vegetables and salad (n = 420) were collected and evaluated for the presence of E. coli using culture and a PCR assay. Total prevalence of E. coli in studied samples was 49.5%. E. coli was found in 49.6% of vegetable samples and 49% of salad samples. Leek and traditional salad had the highest incidence of E. coli. Significant differences in the incidence of E. coli were found between the hot and cold seasons. Of the 149 E. coli isolates from vegetable samples, 130 (87%) were STEC, and of the 59 E. coli isolates from salad samples, 50 (84%) were STEC. The most commonly detected virulence factors were stx1 and eaeA. A significant difference was found between the frequency of the attaching and effacing and the enterohemorrhagic E. coli subtypes. Serogroups O26 (46% of isolates), O157 (14%), O121 (10%), and O128 (9%) were the most commonly detected serogroups among the STEC strains. The tetA, sul1, aac(3)-IV, dfrA1, blaSHV, and CITM antibiotic resistance genes were found in 96, 47.7, 90, 51, 27, and 93% of isolates, respectively. The highest levels of resistance were found against ampicillin (96.6% of isolates), tetracycline (87%), and gentamicin (90%). This study shows the importance of vegetables and salads as potential sources of E. coli infection.

  20. Antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Stedt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of antibiotic resistant faecal indicator bacteria from humans and food production animals has increased over the last decades. In Europe, resistance levels in Escherichia coli from these sources show a south-to-north gradient, with more widespread resistance in the Mediterranean region compared to northern Europe. Recent studies show that resistance levels can be high also in wildlife, but it is unknown to what extent resistance levels in nature conform to the patterns observed in human-associated bacteria. Methods: To test this, we collected 3,158 faecal samples from breeding gulls (Larus sp. from nine European countries and tested 2,210 randomly isolated E. coli for resistance against 10 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. Results: Overall, 31.5% of the gull E. coli isolates were resistant to ≥1 antibiotic, but with considerable variation between countries: highest levels of isolates resistant to ≥1 antibiotic were observed in Spain (61.2% and lowest levels in Denmark (8.3%. For each tested antibiotic, the Iberian countries were either the countries with the highest levels or in the upper range in between-country comparisons, while northern countries generally had a lower proportion of resistant E. coli isolates, thereby resembling the gradient of resistance seen in human and food animal sources. Conclusion: We propose that gulls may serve as a sentinel of environmental levels of antibiotic resistant E. coli to complement studies of human-associated microbiota.

  1. Mathematical Model of Plasmid-Mediated Resistance to Ceftiofur in Commensal Enteric Escherichia coli of Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Victoriya V.; Lanzas, Cristina; Lu, Zhao; Gröhn, Yrjö Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in food animals may contribute to antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animals and humans. Commensal bacteria of animal intestine may serve as a reservoir of resistance-genes. To understand the dynamics of plasmid-mediated resistance to cephalosporin ceftiofur in enteric commensals of cattle, we developed a deterministic mathematical model of the dynamics of ceftiofur-sensitive and resistant commensal enteric Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the absence of and during parenteral therapy with ceftiofur. The most common treatment scenarios including those using a sustained-release drug formulation were simulated; the model outputs were in agreement with the available experimental data. The model indicated that a low but stable fraction of resistant enteric E. coli could persist in the absence of immediate ceftiofur pressure, being sustained by horizontal and vertical transfers of plasmids carrying resistance-genes, and ingestion of resistant E. coli. During parenteral therapy with ceftiofur, resistant enteric E. coli expanded in absolute number and relative frequency. This expansion was most influenced by parameters of antimicrobial action of ceftiofur against E. coli. After treatment (>5 weeks from start of therapy) the fraction of ceftiofur-resistant cells among enteric E. coli, similar to that in the absence of treatment, was most influenced by the parameters of ecology of enteric E. coli, such as the frequency of transfer of plasmids carrying resistance-genes, the rate of replacement of enteric E. coli by ingested E. coli, and the frequency of ceftiofur resistance in the latter. PMID:22615803

  2. Resistance among Escherichia coli to sulphonamides and other antimicrobials now little used in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, David C; Livermore, David M; Papa, Iro; Hall, Lucinda M C

    2005-11-01

    We investigated whether sulphonamide resistance in Escherichia coli remained prevalent in 2004, 9 years since the formal introduction of a UK prescribing restriction on co-trimoxazole. Resistance to other agents no longer in common use was also examined. Consecutive urinary E. coli isolates were obtained at the diagnostic microbiology laboratory of the Royal London Hospital from January to March 2004. The presence of the sulphonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2 and sul3, and the class I integrase gene, int1, were determined by PCR. Of the 391 E. coli isolates recovered in 2004, 45.5% were sulphonamide-resistant compared with 46.0% in 1999 and 39.7% in 1991. The sul2 gene remained the most prevalent sulphonamide resistance determinant, present in 81% of resistant isolates in 2004 compared with 79% and 67% in 1999 and 1991, respectively; 28% of resistant isolates carried both sul1 and sul2 genes; sul3 was not found. Resistance to streptomycin also remained common, whereas resistance to chloramphenicol and kanamycin had decreased since 1999. Sulphonamide resistance in E. coli persists undiminished despite the prolonged withdrawal of this antibiotic in the UK; resistance to streptomycin also seems stable whilst that to chloramphenicol and kanamycin is declining.

  3. Antibiotic resistance and plasmid carriage among Escherichia coli isolates from chicken meat in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin Tin Myaing; Saleha, A.A.; Arifah, A.K.; Raha, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from 131 raw chicken meat samples were tested for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics. Plasmids were isolated from many samples and their DNA molecular weight calculated. An 81.7% plasmid occurrence rate was observed among the isolates, ranging from 0 to 8 in number and with sizes from 1.2 to 118.6 MDa. Plasmids were detected in 93.8% of E. coIi isolates resistant to all 12 antibiotics, and in 90.5% of E. coli isolates resistant to 11. Three (2.8%) isolates harboured 8 plasmids and were resistant to all 12 antibiotics. Antibiotic resistant genes in bacteria are usually carried in extrachromosomal DNA and it is postulated that E. coli with a high number of plasmids possesses wider resistance to antibiotics. (author)

  4. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Talebiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%, Erythromycin (71.70%, Oxytetracycline (43.40%, Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%, Enrofloxacin (37.74%, Florfenicol (35.85%, Chlortetracycline (33.96%, Doxycycline (16.98%, Difloxacin (32.08%, Danofloxacin (28.30%, Chloramphenicol (20.75%, Ciprofloxacin (7.55%, and Gentamicin (5.66%. This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances.

  5. Contribution of AcrAB-ToIC to multidrug resistance in an Escherichia coli sequence type 131 isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, Sabine; Vavra, Martina; Schweigger, Tobias M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kern, Winfried V.

    Drug efflux by resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type transporters, such as AcrAB-ToIC of Escherichia can, is an important resistance mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria; however, its contribution to multidrug resistance (MDR) in clinical isolates is poorly defined. We inactivated acrB of a

  6. Effects of in-feed chlortetracycline prophylaxis of beef cattle on animal health and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TETr) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) E. coli. We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal h...

  7. Virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance, and plasmid content of Escherichia coli isolated in swine commercial farms

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,M.M.; Drescher,G.; Maboni,F; Weber,S.S.; Schrank,A.; Vainstein,M.H.; Schrank,I.S.; Vargas,A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolates were evaluated. A total of 80 E. coli isolates were evaluated, being 64 from clinical samples (intestinal content and fragments of organs from diarrheic piglets), seven from feces of clinically healthy piglets and sows, and nine environmental samples (five from facilities, two from feed, one from insect, and one from waste). Molecular characterization was performed by PCR detection of fimbriae and toxin genes...

  8. Lytic phages obscure the cost of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Hall, Alex R

    2015-01-01

    The long-term persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria depends on their fitness relative to other genotypes in the absence of drugs. Outside the laboratory, viruses that parasitize bacteria (phages) are ubiquitous, but costs of antibiotic resistance are typically studied in phage-free experimental conditions. We used a mathematical model and experiments with Escherichia coli to show that lytic phages strongly affect the incidence of antibiotic resistance in drug-free conditions. Under phage parasitism, the likelihood that antibiotic-resistant genetic backgrounds spread depends on their initial frequency, mutation rate and intrinsic growth rate relative to drug-susceptible genotypes, because these parameters determine relative rates of phage-resistance evolution on different genetic backgrounds. Moreover, the average cost of antibiotic resistance in terms of intrinsic growth in the antibiotic-free experimental environment was small relative to the benefits of an increased mutation rate in the presence of phages. This is consistent with our theoretical work indicating that, under phage selection, typical costs of antibiotic resistance can be outweighed by realistic increases in mutability if drug resistance and hypermutability are genetically linked, as is frequently observed in clinical isolates. This suggests the long-term distribution of antibiotic resistance depends on the relative rates at which different lineages adapt to other types of selection, which in the case of phage parasitism is probably extremely common, as well as costs of resistance inferred by classical in vitro methods. PMID:25268496

  9. Iodometric determination of ampicillin in proprietary capsules | Ejele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of ampicillin in ampicillin capsule preparations purchased in Owerri main market, Imo State of Nigeria, was determined using the iodometric titration method. The results showed that the ampicillin concentrations in the capsules contained between 250 and 260 mg/cap of ampicillin trihydrate. Statistical ...

  10. u-CARE: user-friendly Comprehensive Antibiotic resistance Repository of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Saurav B; Uttam, Vishwas; Verma, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    Despite medical advancements, Escherichia coli-associated infections remain a major public health concern and although an abundant information about E. coli and its antibiotic resistance mechanisms is available, no effective tool exists that integrates gene and genomic data in context to drug resistance, thus raising a need to develop a repository that facilitates integration and assimilation of factors governing drug resistance in E. coli. User-friendly Comprehensive Antibiotic resistance Repository of Escherichia coli (u-CARE) is a manually curated catalogue of 52 antibiotics with reported resistance, 107 genes, transcription factors and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) involved in multiple drug resistance of this pathogen. Each gene page provides detailed information about its resistance mechanisms, while antibiotic page consists of summary, chemical description and structural descriptors with links to external public databases like GO, CDD, DEG, Ecocyc, KEGG, Drug Bank, PubChem and UniProt. Moreover, the database integrates this reductive information to holistic data such as strain-specific and segment-specific pathogenic islands and operons. In addition, the database offers rich user interface for the visualisation and retrieval of information using various search criteria such as sequence, keyword, image and class search. u-CARE is aimed to cater to the needs of researchers working in the field of antimicrobial drug resistance with minimal knowledge of bioinformatics. This database is also intended as a guide book to medical practitioners to avoid use of antibiotics against which resistance has already been reported in E. coli. The database is available from: http://www.e-bioinformatics.net/ucare. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Emergence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli of Animal Origin Spreading in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnik, David; Clermont, Olivier; Guillard, Thomas; Launay, Adrien; Danilchanka, Olga; Pons, Stéphanie; Diancourt, Laure; Lebreton, François; Kadlec, Kristina; Roux, Damien; Jiang, Deming; Dion, Sara; Aschard, Hugues; Denamur, Maurice; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Schwarz, Stefan; Tenaillon, Olivier; Andremont, Antoine; Picard, Bertrand; Mekalanos, John; Brisse, Sylvain; Denamur, Erick

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the great concern about the impact of human activities on the environment, we studied 403 commensal Escherichia coli/Escherichia clade strains isolated from several animal and human populations that have variable contacts to one another. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a decrease of diversity 1) in strains isolated from animals that had an increasing contact with humans and 2) in all strains that had increased antimicrobial resistance. A specific B1 phylogroup clonal complex (CC87, Institut Pasteur schema nomenclature) of animal origin was identified and characterized as being responsible for the increased antimicrobial resistance prevalence observed in strains from the environments with a high human-mediated antimicrobial pressure. CC87 strains have a high capacity of acquiring and disseminating resistance genes with specific metabolic and genetic determinants as demonstrated by high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping. They are good mouse gut colonizers but are not virulent. Our data confirm the predominant role of human activities in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in the environmental bacterial strains and unveil a particular E. coli clonal complex of animal origin capable of spreading antimicrobial resistance to other members of microbial communities. PMID:26613786

  12. An 11-year analysis of the prevalent uropathogens and the changing pattern of Escherichia coli antibiotic resistance in 38,530 community urinary tract infections, Dublin 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, I M; Manecksha, R P; McCullagh, E; Ahmad, S; O'Kelly, F; Flynn, R; McDermott, T E D; Murphy, P; Grainger, R; Fennell, J P; Thornhill, J A

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential for evidence-based empirical antibiotic prescribing, and a cutoff point of 20% has been suggested as the level of resistance at which an agent should no longer be used empirically. We sought to identify the changing incidence of causative uropathogens over an 11-year period. We also examined the trends in antibiotic resistance encountered in both the pooled urine samples and those where the causative organism was Escherichia coli. A retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial resistance within the positive community urine isolates over the 11-year period, 1999 to 2009, in a single Dublin teaching hospital was performed. In total 38,530 positive urine samples processed at our laboratory originated in the community of which 23,838 (56.7%) had E. coli as the infecting organism. The prevalence of E. coli has been increasing in recent years in community UTIs with 70.4% of UTIs in the community caused by E.coli in 2009. Ampicillin and trimethoprim were the least-active agents against E. coli with mean 11-year resistance rates of 60.8 and 31.5%, respectively. Significant trends of increasing resistance over the 11-year period were identified for trimethoprim, co-amoxyclav, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Ciprofloxacin remains a reasonable empirical antibiotic choice in this community with an 11-year resistance rate of 10.6%. Higher antibiotic resistance rates were identified in the male population and in children. Resistance rates to commonly prescribed antibiotics are increasing significantly. This data will enable evidence-based empirical prescribing which will ensure more effective treatment and lessen the emergence of resistant uropathogens in the community.

  13. Evaluation of resistance gene transfer from heat-treated Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Devendec, Laëtitia; Jouy, Eric; Kempf, Isabelle

    2018-04-02

    Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli may be present in various foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of heat treatment, simulating food preparation, on the possibility of antimicrobial resistance genes being transferred from E. coli cells. The study was performed on antimicrobial-resistant E. coli cells in suspension in a sterile saline solution. The stability of resistance genes and the possibility of their transfer by transformation or conjugation were analyzed. Results showed that antimicrobial-resistant E. coli cells managing to survive after a few minutes at 60 °C retained their antimicrobial resistance. No plasmid could be transferred by conjugation from antimicrobial-resistant E. coli cells heated to 60 °C for ten or more minutes. Twelve electroporation experiments were performed using a bacterial suspension heated to 70 °C for 30 min. Genes coding for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, tetracycline or sulfonamides were transferred to an E. coli DH5α recipient on two occasions. In conclusion we showed that heat-treated E. coli may occasionally transfer resistance genes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Colistin and Other Critical Antimicrobials on Pig and Chicken Farms in Southern Vietnam and Its Association with Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa M.; Nguyen, Cuong V.; Nguyen, Trung V.; Nguyen, Men T.; Thai, Hieu Q.; Ho, Mai H.; Thwaites, Guy; Ngo, Hoa T.; Baker, Stephen; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health problem, and emerging semi-intensive farming systems in Southeast Asia are major contributors to the AMR burden. We accessed 12 pig and chicken farms at key stages of production in Tien Giang Province, Vietnam, to measure antimicrobial usage and to investigate the prevalence of AMR to five critical antimicrobials (β-lactams, third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and polymyxins) and their corresponding molecular mechanisms among 180 Escherichia coli isolates. Overall, 94.7 mg (interquartile range [IQR], 65.3 to 151.1) and 563.6 mg (IQR, 398.9 to 943.6) of antimicrobials was used to produce 1 kg (live weight) of chicken and pig, respectively. A median of 3 (out of 8) critical antimicrobials were used on pig farms. E. coli isolates exhibited a high prevalence of resistance to ampicillin (97.8% and 94.4% for chickens and pigs, respectively), ciprofloxacin (73.3% and 21.1%), gentamicin (42.2% and 35.6%), and colistin (22.2% and 24.4%). The prevalence of a recently discovered colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, was 19 to 22% and had strong agreement with phenotypic colistin resistance. We conducted plasmid conjugation experiments with 37 mcr-1 gene-positive E. coli isolates and successfully observed transfer of the gene in 54.0% of isolates through a plasmid of approximately 63 kb, consistent with one recently identified in China. We found no significant correlation between total use of antimicrobials at the farm level and AMR. These data provide additional insight into the role of mcr-1 in colistin resistance on farms and outline the dynamics of phenotypic and genotypic AMR in semi-intensive farming systems in Vietnam. IMPORTANCE Our study provides accurate baseline information on levels of antimicrobial use, as well as on the dynamics of phenotypic and genotypic resistance for antimicrobials of critical importance among E. coli over the different stages of production in emerging pig and

  15. Use of Colistin and Other Critical Antimicrobials on Pig and Chicken Farms in Southern Vietnam and Its Association with Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhung T; Nguyen, Hoa M; Nguyen, Cuong V; Nguyen, Trung V; Nguyen, Men T; Thai, Hieu Q; Ho, Mai H; Thwaites, Guy; Ngo, Hoa T; Baker, Stephen; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health problem, and emerging semi-intensive farming systems in Southeast Asia are major contributors to the AMR burden. We accessed 12 pig and chicken farms at key stages of production in Tien Giang Province, Vietnam, to measure antimicrobial usage and to investigate the prevalence of AMR to five critical antimicrobials (β-lactams, third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and polymyxins) and their corresponding molecular mechanisms among 180 Escherichia coli isolates. Overall, 94.7 mg (interquartile range [IQR], 65.3 to 151.1) and 563.6 mg (IQR, 398.9 to 943.6) of antimicrobials was used to produce 1 kg (live weight) of chicken and pig, respectively. A median of 3 (out of 8) critical antimicrobials were used on pig farms. E. coli isolates exhibited a high prevalence of resistance to ampicillin (97.8% and 94.4% for chickens and pigs, respectively), ciprofloxacin (73.3% and 21.1%), gentamicin (42.2% and 35.6%), and colistin (22.2% and 24.4%). The prevalence of a recently discovered colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, was 19 to 22% and had strong agreement with phenotypic colistin resistance. We conducted plasmid conjugation experiments with 37 mcr-1 gene-positive E. coli isolates and successfully observed transfer of the gene in 54.0% of isolates through a plasmid of approximately 63 kb, consistent with one recently identified in China. We found no significant correlation between total use of antimicrobials at the farm level and AMR. These data provide additional insight into the role of mcr-1 in colistin resistance on farms and outline the dynamics of phenotypic and genotypic AMR in semi-intensive farming systems in Vietnam. Our study provides accurate baseline information on levels of antimicrobial use, as well as on the dynamics of phenotypic and genotypic resistance for antimicrobials of critical importance among E. coli over the different stages of production in emerging pig and poultry production

  16. The in vitro fitness cost of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli varies with the growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of stressful growth conditions on the fitness cost of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli BJ4 caused by chromosomal mutations and plasmid acquisition. The fitness cost of chromosomal streptomycin resistance increased...... significantly when the bacteria were grown under all stress conditions tested, while the cost in 1/3 Luria–Bertani was not significantly changed in a streptomycin+rifampicin mutant. The increase in the fitness cost depended in a nonregular manner on the strain/stress combination. The fitness cost of plasmid......-encoded resistance on R751 did not differ significantly, and was generally less under stressful growth conditions than in rich media. The fitness cost associated with R751 with the multiple drug resistance cassette from Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 increased significantly only under stressful conditions at low p...

  17. Intracellular polyamine pools, oligopeptide-binding protein A expression, and resistance to aminoglycosides in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BR Acosta

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of intracellular free polyamine (putrescine and spermidine pools in multiple resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics was investigated among in vitro selected kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli J53 mutants expressing diminished oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA levels and/or defective ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity. The results suggest that diminished OppA content, but not defective ODC activity expression, increased the relative concentration of free spermidine as compared to the wild type strain. Moreover, by adding exogenous polyamines or polyamine synthesis inhibitors to cultures with different mutant strains, a direct relationship between the intracellular OppA levels and resistance to kanamycin was revealed. Collectively these results further suggest a complex relation among OppA expression, aminoglycoside resistance and polyamine metabolism.

  18. Association Between Tetracycline Consumption and Tetracycline Resistance in Escherichia coli from Healthy Danish Slaughter Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Houe, Hans; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2009-01-01

    the intestinal tract of healthy pigs and patterns of tetracycline Consumption in the herds of origin, together with other risk factors. Data oil antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial consumption, and pig herd demographics were obtained from different Danish surveillance programs. Descriptive statistics were......It has been recognized that exposure to antimicrobial agents can exert a selective pressure for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between the probability of isolating a tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli isolate from...... Susceptibility status were number of produced animals in the year and year of sampling. Other antimicrobial consumption risk factors, Such as number of prescriptions and amount prescribed, although not included in the final model, presented indirect impact in the tetracycline resistance probability. From...

  19. Cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from farm-workers and pigs in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Son T T; Bortolaia, Valeria; Thi, Nhat T

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may be transmitted between farm workers and livestock. This study aimed to determine and compare the prevalence and the genetic determinants of cefotaxime-resistant and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in faecal isolates from workers and pigs at 100 farms....... RESULTS Antimicrobial usage was widespread and included classes regarded of critical or high importance in human medicine. Dosages were 0.5-2 times higher than recommended and antimicrobials were often administered right until slaughter. Prevalence of CTX-resistant E. coli was 86% in farm workers and 89......% in pigs. In 76% of farms, CTX-resistant E. coli were shared by pigs and farm workers. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected from pigs and workers at 66 and 69 farms, respectively. The ESBL phenotype was mainly mediated by CTX-M and to a lesser extent by TEM. Occurrence of blaCTX-M was similar in E. coli...

  20. Clonality, virulence and antimicrobial resistance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from Mirzapur, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chattaway, Marie Anne; Day, Michaela; Mtwale, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the virulence and antimicrobial resistance in association with common clonal complexes (CCs) of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) isolated from Bangladesh. The aim was to determine whether specific CCs were more likely to be associated with putative...... virulence genes and/or antimicrobial resistance.Methodology. The presence of 15 virulence genes (by PCR) and susceptibility to 18 antibiotics were determined for 151 EAEC isolated from cases and controls during an intestinal infectious disease study carried out between 2007-2011 in the rural setting...... between the presence of virulence or antimicrobial resistance genes in isolates of EAEC from cases versus controls. However, when stratified by clonal complex (CC) one CC associated with cases harboured more virulence factors (CC40) and one CC harboured more resistance genes (CC38) than the average...

  1. Genetic Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli and Cryptic Clades in Birds with Diverse Human Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Pi, Hongfei; Vangchhia, Belinda; Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Johnson, James R; Gordon, David M

    2015-08-01

    The manner and extent to which birds associate with humans may influence the genetic attributes and antimicrobial resistance of their commensal Escherichia communities through strain transmission and altered selection pressures. In this study, we determined whether the distribution of the different Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups and cryptic clades, the occurrence of 49 virulence associated genes, and/or the prevalence of resistance to 12 antimicrobials differed between four groups of birds from Australia with contrasting types of human association. We found that birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas had similar Escherichia communities. The Escherichia communities of backyard domestic poultry were phylogenetically distinct from the Escherichia communities sourced from all other birds, with a large proportion (46%) of poultry strains belonging to phylogenetic group A and a significant minority (17%) belonging to the cryptic clades. Wild birds sampled from veterinary and wildlife rehabilitation centers (in-care birds) carried Escherichia isolates that possessed particular virulence-associated genes more often than Escherichia isolates from birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas. The Escherichia isolates from both the backyard poultry and in-care birds were more likely to be multidrug resistant than the Escherichia isolates from wild birds. We also detected a multidrug-resistant E. coli strain circulating in a wildlife rehabilitation center, reinforcing the importance of adequate hygiene practices when handling and caring for wildlife. We suggest that the relatively high frequency of antimicrobial resistance in the in-care birds and backyard poultry is due primarily to the use of antimicrobials in these animals, and we recommend that the treatment protocols used for these birds be reviewed. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli from preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duse, Anna; Waller, Karin Persson; Emanuelson, Ulf; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Persson, Ylva; Bengtsson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate calf and farm factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in the feces of preweaned dairy calves in Sweden. In particular, we investigated the effects of feeding calves colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials. The secondary objective was to describe the prevalence of resistant E. coli in feces of preweaned dairy calves in Sweden. Fecal samples from 3 calves, aged 7 to 28d, from 243 farms were analyzed for the within-sample prevalence of E. coli resistant to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and cefotaxime using selective agars supplemented with antimicrobials. In addition, resistance to 12 antimicrobials was tested in one randomly selected E. coli isolate per calf. Information was collected from the farmers via questionnaires regarding the use of colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials as calf feed and other uses of antimicrobials in the herd. Multivariable zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of various risk factors for shedding of resistant E. coli. Escherichia coli resistant to streptomycin, nalidixic acid, or cefotaxime were isolated from 90, 49, and 11% of the calves, respectively. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial was found in a random isolate of E. coli from 48% of the calves. Feeding colostrum from cows treated with antimicrobials at drying off did not affect the prevalence of resistant E. coli. In contrast, feeding milk from cows treated with antimicrobials during lactation resulted in significantly more nalidixic acid- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli than when such milk was discarded; no significant effect was seen for other resistance traits. Furthermore, an interaction was found between feeding milk from cows treated with antimicrobials and use of fluoroquinolones in cows. In general, the prevalence of resistance was lower for older calves and calves on small farms. Other factors

  3. Pathotyping and antibiotic resistance of porcine enterovirulent Escherichia coli strains from Switzerland (2014-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P; Gobeli, S; Perreten, V

    2017-07-01

    A total of 131 porcine E. coli were isolated in 2014 and 2015 from the gut of 115 pigs raised in Switzerland and suffering from diarrhea. The isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance, serotypes, virulence factors and genetic diversity. Serotypes were assigned by agglutination tests and virulence genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the measurement of the MIC of 14 antibiotics and by the detection of the corresponding genes using microarray and PCR approaches. Genetic diversity was determined by repetitive palindromic PCR (rep- PCR) revealing a heterogenous population. Half of the E. coli isolates possessing virulence factors could not be assigned to any of the 19 serotypes tested, but contained toxins and adhesins similarly to the sero-typable E. coli isolates. The most prevalent E. coli serotypes found were K88ac (18%), O139:K82 (6%), O141:K85ac (5%), O108:K`V189` (5%), O119:K`V113` (3%) and O157:K`V17` (2%). The combination of toxins EAST-1, STb and LT-I and adhesin F4 characterizing ETEC was the most frequent. The shigatoxin Stx2e (STEC) and intimin Eae (EPEC) were also detected, but less frequently. Seventy percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 29% were resistant to more than 3 antibiotics. Isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline (50%) associated to resistance genes tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C), sulfamethoxazole (49%) [sul1, sul2 and sul3], trimethoprim (34%) [dfr], nalidixic acid (29%), ampicillin (26%) [blaTEM-1], gentamicin (17%) [aac(3) -IIc, aac(3) -IVa and aac(3) -VIa], chloramphenicol (17%) [catAI and catAIII], and ciprofloxacin (8%) [mutations in GyrA (S83L) and ParC (S80I)]. All isolates were susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, colistin and tigecycline. Pathogenic E. coli isolates from pigs in Switzerland could frequently not be assigned to a known serotype even if they contained diarrhea-causing virulence factors. They

  4. Temporal interplay between efflux pumps and target mutations in development of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Renu; Swick, Michelle C; Ledesma, Kimberly R; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Ming; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Tam, Vincent H

    2012-04-01

    The emergence of resistance presents a debilitating change in the management of infectious diseases. Currently, the temporal relationship and interplay between various mechanisms of drug resistance are not well understood. A thorough understanding of the resistance development process is needed to facilitate rational design of countermeasure strategies. Using an in vitro hollow-fiber infection model that simulates human drug treatment, we examined the appearance of efflux pump (acrAB) overexpression and target topoisomerase gene (gyrA and parC) mutations over time in the emergence of quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. Drug-resistant isolates recovered early (24 h) had 2- to 8-fold elevation in the MIC due to acrAB overexpression, but no point mutations were noted. In contrast, high-level (≥ 64× MIC) resistant isolates with target site mutations (gyrA S83L with or without parC E84K) were selected more readily after 120 h, and regression of acrAB overexpression was observed at 240 h. Using a similar dosing selection pressure, the emergence of levofloxacin resistance was delayed in a strain with acrAB deleted compared to the isogenic parent. The role of efflux pumps in bacterial resistance development may have been underappreciated. Our data revealed the interplay between two mechanisms of quinolone resistance and provided a new mechanistic framework in the development of high-level resistance. Early low-level levofloxacin resistance conferred by acrAB overexpression preceded and facilitated high-level resistance development mediated by target site mutation(s). If this interpretation is correct, then these findings represent a paradigm shift in the way quinolone resistance is thought to develop.

  5. Multi-drug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli and its treatment by Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Jie; Yuan, Jiu-Yun; Wu, Wei-Kang; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Ze-Liang

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the resistance and virulence profiles of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and its treatment by Chinese medicine (CM) Fuzheng Qingre Lishi Formula (, FQLF). UPEC strains were isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) patients. Patient sensitivities to 17 antibiotics were tested by the disk diffusion method. Virulence genes were screened by plolymerase chain reaction. A mouse model was constructed using a multi-drug resistant and virulent UPEC strain and treated with FQLF or the antibiotic imipenem. The treatment efficacy was evaluated by bacterial clearance from urine and the urinary organs. A total of 90 UPEC strains were collected, and 94.4% of the isolates were resistant to at least 1 antibiotic. Approximately 66.7% of the UPEC strains were multi-drug resistant. More than one virulence gene was found in 85.6% of the isolates. The extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-positive strains were more resistant than the negative ones. The virulence gene number was positively correlated with the resistance number (PUPEC10. Treatment with either FQLF or antibiotics significantly cleared bacteria from the mouse urine after 14 days. In the untreated control, the bacteria lasted for 28 days. FQLF treatment of the UTI mouse model greatly reduced the bacterial number in the kidney and bladder, but could not completely clear the bacteria. Multi-drug resistance is common among UPEC isolates, and the resistance is positively related with virulence. FQLF could treat UPEC UTIs, but could not completely clear the bacteria from the host.

  6. Fitness tradeoffs of antibiotic resistance in extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basra, Prabh; Alsaadi, Ahlam; Bernal-Astrain, Gabriel; O'Sullivan, Michael Liam; Hazlett, Bryn; Clarke, Leah Marie; Schoenrock, Andrew; Pitre, Sylvain; Wong, Alex

    2018-02-07

    Evolutionary trade-offs occur when selection on one trait has detrimental effects on other traits. In pathogenic microbes, it has been hypothesized that antibiotic resistance trades off with fitness in the absence of antibiotic. While studies of single resistance mutations support this hypothesis, it is unclear whether trade-offs are maintained over time, due to compensatory evolution and broader effects of genetic background. Here, we leverage natural variation in 39 extra-intestinal clinical isolates of Escherichia coli to assess trade-offs between growth rates and resistance to fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin antibiotics. Whole genome sequencing identifies a broad range of clinically relevant resistance determinants in these strains. We find evidence for a negative correlation between growth rate and antibiotic resistance, consistent with a persistent trade-off between resistance and growth. However, this relationship is sometimes weak, and depends on the environment in which growth rates are measured. Using in vitro selection experiments, we find that compensatory evolution in one environment does not guarantee compensation in other environments. Thus, even in the face of compensatory evolution and other genetic background effects, resistance may be broadly costly, supporting the use of drug restriction protocols to limit the spread of resistance. Furthermore, our study demonstrates the power of using natural variation to study evolutionary trade-offs in microbes. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuvi, G M; Schwarz, S; Ombui, J N; Mitema, E S; Kehrenberg, C

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the genetic basis of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in 30 Escherichia coli isolates from food animals in Kenya and the role of plasmids in the spread of the resistance. Seven of the 29 streptomycin-resistant isolates harbored both the strA and strB genes. Twenty-one of isolates had the strA, strB, and aadA1 genes. The strA gene was disrupted by a functional trimethoprim gene, dfrA14 in 10 of the 21 isolates harboring the three streptomycin resistance genes. Physical linkage of intact strA and sul2 genes was found in two different plasmids from four isolates. Linkage of cassette-borne aadA1 and dfrA1 genes in class 1 integrons was found in two of the isolates. Chloramphenicol resistance was due to the gene catA1 in all the chloramphenicol resistant isolates. The strB, strA, and catA1 genes were transferable by conjugation and this points to the significance of conjugative resistance plasmids in the spread and persistence of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in food animals in Kenya.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Paul D

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial usage is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in both veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens and compare these data with isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in Jamaica. Results Eighty-two E. coli strains isolated from faecal samples of broiler chickens and urine and wound specimens of hospitalized patients were analyzed by agar disc diffusion to determine their susceptibility patterns to 11 antimicrobial agents. Tetracycline resistance determinants were investigated by plasmid profiling, transformations, and amplification of plasmid-borne resistance genes. Tetracycline resistance occurred at a frequency of 82.4% in avian isolates compared to 43.8% in human isolates. In addition, among avian isolates there was a trend towards higher resistance frequencies to kanamycin and nalidixic acid (p E. coli. Tetracycline resistance was mediated by efflux genes tetB and/or tetD. Conclusion The present study highlights the prevalence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among healthy broiler chickens in Jamaica, possibly associated with expression of tetracycline resistance. While there did not appear to be a common source for multiple drug resistance in the strains from avian or human origin, the genes encoding resistance are similar. These results suggest that genes are disseminated in the environment and warrant further investigation of the possibility for avian sources acting as reservoirs for tetracycline resistance.

  9. Baicalin inhibits Escherichia coli isolates in bovine mastitic milk and reduces antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q Y; Yuan, F W; Liang, T; Liang, X C; Luo, Y R; Jiang, M; Qing, S Z; Zhang, W M

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of baicalin on Escherichia coli in vitro and the effects of baicalin treatment on antimicrobial resistance of the E. coli isolates. Through isolation, purification, and identification, a total of 56 E. coli strains were isolated from 341 mastitic milk samples. The study of inhibition effect of baicalin on the E. coli strains in vitro was focused on permeability and morphology of the isolates using an alkaline phosphatase kit and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the resistance spectrum of the isolates to the common antimicrobial agents was tested at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of baicalin by the agar dilution method. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were amplified by PCR before and after incubation with baicalin. The results revealed that baicalin has certain inhibitory effects on the isolates in vitro. The alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity was significantly increased from 1.246 to 2.377 U/100 mL, and the surface of E. coli was concave and shriveled. Analysis of the resistance spectrum and PCR amplification showed that, after administration with baicalin, the sensitivity of most strains to the selected antimicrobial agents was enhanced. Strikingly, the drug-resistant genes from 71.43% (40/56) of these isolates were found to have drug-resistant genes to different extents. Altogether, the current study confirmed both the inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli in vitro and the reduction of antimicrobial resistance by baicalin. This is the first comprehensive study to report on baicalin, a traditional Chinese medicine that acts on E. coli isolated from the mastitic milk samples. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Class 1 and 2 integrons, sul resistance genes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Dongjiang River, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Haochang; Ying Guangguo; Tao Ran; Zhang Ruiquan; Zhao Jianliang; Liu Yousheng

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility, detection of sul gene types and presence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons and gene cassettes using PCR assays were investigated in 3456 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 38 sampling sites of the Dongjiang River catchment in the dry and wet seasons. 89.1% of the isolates were resistant and 87.5% showed resistance to at least three antibiotics. sul2 was detected most frequently in 89.2% of 1403 SXT-resistant isolates. The presence of integrons (class 1 and 2) was frequently observed (82.3%) while no class 3 integron was found. In these integrons, 21 resistance genes of 14 gene cassette arrays and 10 different families of resistance genes were identified. Three gene cassette arrays, aac(6')-Ib-cr-aar-3-dfrA27-aadA16, aacA4-catB3-dfrA1 and aadA2-lnuF, were detected for the first time in surface water. The results showed that bacterial resistance in the catchment was seriously influenced by human activities, especially discharge of wastewater. Highlights: ► Antibiotic resistance was investigated for a river catchment of southern China. ► 87.5% of E coli isolates showed resistance to at least three antibiotics. ► The presence of integrons (class 1 and 2) was frequently observed (82.3%). ► Bacterial resistance in the catchment was seriously influenced by human activities. - Bacterial resistance to antibiotics in a catchment is related to the discharge of wastewater into the aquatic environment.

  11. Shiga (Vero-toxin producing Escherichia coli isolated from the hospital foods; virulence factors, o-serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ranjbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the presence of the weak, diabetic and immunosuppressive patients in hospitals, hospital foods should have a high quality and safety. Cooking a lot of foods higher than daily requirement, storage of cooked foods in an inappropriate condition and presence of nurses and servants in distribution of food to patients are the main reasons caused contamination of hospital foods. Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the common cause of food poisoning in hospitals. The present research was carried out to study the distribution of virulence factors, O-serogroups and antibiotic resistance properties in STEC strains recovered from Iranian hospital food samples. Methods Five-hundred and eighty raw and cooked food samples were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. E. coli-positive strains were subjected to PCR and disk diffusion method. Results Thirty-nine out of 580 (6.72% hospital food samples were contaminated with E. coli. Raw (20% and cooked meat (6% were the most commonly contaminated samples. Raw samples had the higher prevalence of E. coli (P <0.01. Samples which were collected in the summer season had the highest prevalence of bacteria (64.10%. Significant difference was seen between the prevalence of EHEC and AEEC subtypes (P <0.01. The most commonly detected virulence factors in both EHEC and AEEC subtypes were stx1 and eae. The most commonly detected serogroups were O26 (43.75% and O157 (25% and there were no positive results for O103, O145, O91, O113 and O128 serogroups. Aac (3-IV (100%, CITM (100% and tetA (62.50% were the most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes. STEC strains harbored the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (93.75%, gentamycin (93.75%, tetracycline (87.50% and ciprofloxacin (81.25%. All of the STEC strains were resistant to at least 3 antibiotics, while the prevalence of resistance against more than 12 antibiotics were 12.50%. Conclusions High

  12. Antibacterial activity of natural spices on multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shahedur; Parvez, Anowar Khasru; Islam, Rezuanul; Khan, Mahboob Hossain

    2011-03-15

    Spices traditionally have been used as coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives and medicine in Bangladesh. The present work aimed to find out the antimicrobial activity of natural spices on multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates. Anti-bacterial potentials of six crude plant extracts (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa, Coriandrum sativum, Piper nigrum and Citrus aurantifolia) were tested against five Escherichia coli isolated from potable water sources at kushtia, Bangladesh. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to undiluted lime-juice. None of them were found to be susceptible against the aqueous extracts of garlic, onion, coriander, pepper and ginger alone. However, all the isolates were susceptible when subjected to 1:1:1 aqueous extract of lime, garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with lime (11 mm). Natural spices might have anti-bacterial activity against enteric pathogens and could be used for prevention of diarrheal diseases. Further evaluation is necessary.

  13. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Miguel E.; Molina, Roberto C.; Diaz, Waldo A.; Pradenas, Gonzalo A.; Vasquez, Claudio C.

    2009-01-01

    Potassium tellurite (K 2 TeO 3 ) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. We previously reported that the lpdA gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, we show that expression of A. caviae ST aceE, aceF, and lpdA genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, respectively, results in tellurite resistance and decreased levels of tellurite-induced superoxide in Escherichia coli. In addition to oxidative damage resulting from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target. These results allow us to widen our vision regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial tellurite resistance by correlating tellurite toxicity and key enzymes of aerobic metabolism.

  14. Multiple antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli from a tropical rain forest stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, C.E.; Alvarez, H.J.; Ortiz, N.; Bisbal, M.; Arias, W.; Baerga, C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Biology; Hazen, T.C. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.

    1988-12-31

    High densities of fecal coliforms were obtained from a pristine site and sewage contaminated site in a tropical rain forest watershed in Puerto Rico. Confirmation of fecal coliform isolates as Escherichia coli was significantly lower than for temperate waters. Antibiotic resistance and multiple antibiotic resistance were common for isolates at both sites; however, the site receiving sewage effluent had a greater proportion of multiple antibiotic resistant isolates. R. plasmids were recovered from 4 MAR isolates, 2 from each site. All recovered plasmids were approximately 1 kilobase. The recovered plasmid were also capable of transforming E. coli HB101 in vitro. The high concentrations of enterobacteriaceae, small R-plasmid size, R-plasmid transformability, and long term survival of fecal origin bacteria in tropical freshwater environments give increasing importance to adequate sewage treatment, and better indicator monitoring methods for tropical areas.

  15. Contamination of Canadian private drinking water sources with antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Brenda L; Louie, Marie; Salvadori, Marina I; McEwen, Scott A; Neumann, Norman; Sibley, Kristen; Irwin, Rebecca J; Jamieson, Frances B; Daignault, Danielle; Majury, Anna; Braithwaite, Shannon; Crago, Bryanne; McGeer, Allison J

    2013-06-01

    Surface and ground water across the world, including North America, is contaminated with bacteria resistant to antibiotics. The consumption of water contaminated with antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been associated with the carriage of resistant E. coli in people who drink it. To describe the proportion of drinking water samples submitted from private sources for bacteriological testing that were contaminated with E. coli resistant to antibiotics and to determine risk factors for the contamination of these water sources with resistant and multi-class resistant E. coli. Water samples submitted for bacteriological testing in Ontario and Alberta Canada were tested for E. coli contamination, with a portion of the positive isolates tested for antimicrobial resistance. Households were invited to complete questionnaires to determine putative risk factors for well contamination. Using multinomial logistic regression, the risk of contamination with E. coli resistant to one or two classes of antibiotics compared to susceptible E. coli was higher for shore wells than drilled wells (odds ratio [OR] 2.8) and higher for farms housing chickens or turkeys (OR 3.0) than properties without poultry. The risk of contamination with multi-class resistant E. coli (3 or more classes) was higher if the properties housed swine (OR 5.5) or cattle (OR 2.2) than properties without these livestock and higher if the wells were located in gravel (OR 2.4) or clay (OR 2.1) than in loam. Housing livestock on the property, using a shore well, and having a well located in gravel or clay soil increases the risk of having antimicrobial resistant E. coli in E. coli contaminated wells. To reduce the incidence of water borne disease and the transmission of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, owners of private wells need to take measures to prevent contamination of their drinking water, routinely test their wells for contamination, and use treatments that eliminate bacteria. Copyright

  16. Densities and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from marine waters and beach sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Vanessa da Costa; Zampieri, Bruna Del Busso; Ballesteros, Eliete Rodrigues; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is a rising problem all over the world. Many studies have showed that beach sands can contain higher concentration of microorganisms and represent a risk to public health. This paper aims to evaluate the densities and resistance to antimicrobials of Escherichia coli strains, isolated from seawater and samples. The hypothesis is that microorganisms show higher densities in contaminated beach sands and more antimicrobial resistance than the water column. Density, distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria E. coli were evaluate in seawater and sands from two recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. At the beach with higher degree of pollution (Gonzaguinha), water samples presented the highest densities of E. coli; however, higher frequency of resistant strains was observe in wet sand (71.9 %). Resistance to a larger number of antimicrobial groups was observe in water (betalactamics, aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifampicins, and tetracyclines) and sand (betagalactamics and aminoglycosids). In water samples, highest frequencies of resistance were obtain against ampicilin (22.5 %), streptomycin (15.0 %), and rifampicin (15.0 %), while in sand, the highest frequencies were observe in relation to ampicilin (36.25 %) and streptomycin (23.52 %). At the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat, highest densities of E. coli and higher frequency of resistance were obtain in wet and dry sand (53.7 and 53.8 %, respectively) compared to water (50 %). Antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from water and sand only occurred against betalactamics (ampicilin and amoxicilin plus clavulanic acid). The frequency and variability of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in marine recreational waters and sands were related to the degree of fecal contamination in this environment. These results show that water and sands from beaches with a high index of fecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens

  17. Sucralose Increases Antimicrobial Resistance and Stimulates Recovery of Escherichia coli Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yilin; Li, Rongyan; Jiang, Mingshan; Wang, Xiuhong

    2017-07-01

    Because of heavy use of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become of great concern. The effect of some widely used food additives such as sucralose on bacteria in the gut and the environment has also drawn increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the interaction between antimicrobials and sucralose impacting antimicrobial resistance and mutation of Escherichia coli (E. coli). To examine antimicrobial resistance and mutation frequency, different subinhibitory concentrations of sucralose were added to cultures of E.coli BW25113 that were then treated with antimicrobials, oxolinic acid, or moxifloxacin. Then the E.coli were assayed for bacterial survival and recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Pre-treatment of E.coli BW25113 with 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sucralose increased the survival rate in oxolinic acid or moxifloxacin. A 1/3 MIC of sucralose increased rifampicin-resistant mutation rate of E.coli BW25113 after 72 h, while rifampicin-resistant mutation rate was increased when co-treated with 1/8 MIC, 1/4 MIC, 1/3 MIC sucralose, and oxolinic acid after 24 h. Sucralose can increase the antimicrobial resistance and mutation frequency of E.coli to some antimicrobials.

  18. Evolution of Escherichia coli rifampicin resistance in an antibiotic-free environment during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Verdugo, Alejandra; Gaut, Brandon S; Tenaillon, Olivier

    2013-02-22

    Beneficial mutations play an essential role in bacterial adaptation, yet little is known about their fitness effects across genetic backgrounds and environments. One prominent example of bacterial adaptation is antibiotic resistance. Until recently, the paradigm has been that antibiotic resistance is selected by the presence of antibiotics because resistant mutations confer fitness costs in antibiotic free environments. In this study we show that it is not always the case, documenting the selection and fixation of resistant mutations in populations of Escherichia coli B that had never been exposed to antibiotics but instead evolved for 2000 generations at high temperature (42.2°C). We found parallel mutations within the rpoB gene encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase. These amino acid substitutions conferred different levels of rifampicin resistance. The resistant mutations typically appeared, and were fixed, early in the evolution experiment. We confirmed the high advantage of these mutations at 42.2°C in glucose-limited medium. However, the rpoB mutations had different fitness effects across three genetic backgrounds and six environments. We describe resistance mutations that are not necessarily costly in the absence of antibiotics or compensatory mutations but are highly beneficial at high temperature and low glucose. Their fitness effects depend on the environment and the genetic background, providing glimpses into the prevalence of epistasis and pleiotropy.

  19. Resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolated from pigfarmers and abattoir workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsten, R.; London, N.; van den Bogaard, A.; Stobberingh, E.

    1994-01-01

    Faecal samples collected from three populations of healthy adult volunteers (290 pigfarmers, 316 abattoir workers, 160 (sub)urban residents) living in the south of The Netherlands were analysed for the prevalence and degree of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli. Significant differences in prevalence of resistance to amoxicillin, neomycin, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were observed. The pigfarmers showed the highest percentages of resistance and the (sub)urban residents the lowest. In contrast no significant differences in high degrees of resistance were observed, except for neomycin. Although both pigfarmers and abattoir workers have regular contact with pigs differences in prevalences of resistance were observed. However, because abattoir workers with intensive and less intensive pig(carcass) contact did not show significant differences, this is probably not the only important source of resistant E. coli in pigfarmers. The high antibiotic use by pigfarmers (5%) and abattoir workers (8%) than by (sub)urban residents (0%) did not result in significantly different resistance percentages. PMID:8062879

  20. Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in migratory birds inhabiting remote Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Hernandez, Jorge; Tyrlöv, Veronica; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Atterby, Clara; Järhult, Josef D.; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    We explored the abundance of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli among migratory birds at remote sites in Alaska and used a comparative approach to speculate on plausible explanations for differences in detection among species. At a remote island site, we detected antibiotic-resistant E. coli phenotypes in samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), a species often associated with foraging at landfills, but not in samples collected from black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a more pelagic gull that typically inhabits remote areas year-round. We did not find evidence for antibiotic-resistant E. coli among 347 samples collected primarily from waterfowl at a second remote site in western Alaska. Our results provide evidence that glaucous-winged gulls may be more likely to be infected with antibiotic-resistant E. coli at remote breeding sites as compared to sympatric black-legged kittiwakes. This could be a function of the tendency of glaucous-winged gulls to forage at landfills where antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections may be acquired and subsequently dispersed. The low overall detection of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in migratory birds sampled at remote sites in Alaska is consistent with the premise that anthropogenic inputs into the local environment or the relative lack thereof influences the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among birds inhabiting the area.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of F4+ Escherichia coli isolated from Swine in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, A; Bonilauri, P; Dottori, M; Gherpelli, Y; Biasi, G; Merialdi, G; Maioli, G; Martelli, P

    2015-02-01

    Four-hundred and forty-two F4+ pathogenic Escherichia coli were isolated in a period of 10 years (2002-2011), from pigs that were suffering from diarrhoea belonging to Italian swine herds. The strains were analysed for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials using the disc diffusion method. During the study period, a statistically significant proportion of isolates resistant to enrofloxacin (14.5-89.3%), marbofloxacin (5.4-60.7%), flumequine (49.1-92.9%), danofloxacin (21.6-80%), florfenicol (9.8-64.3%), thiamphenicol (50-92%) and cefquinome (3.8-44%) was recorded. An increase in resistance (not statistically significant) to gentamicin (63.6-85.7%), apramycin (61.8-82.1%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (75-89.3%), tetracycline (97-100%) and erythromycin (92.4-100%) was also observed. Based on antimicrobial multiresistance, the strains were collected into three groups: I. resistant to 2-5 antimicrobials; II. resistant to 6-8 antimicrobials; III. resistant to 9-12 antimicrobials. The number of isolates belonging to the first group showed a statistically significant decrease (P resistance (P resistance. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Markov Networks of Collateral Resistance: National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Surveillance Results from Escherichia coli Isolates, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Love

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR is an important component of public health. Antimicrobial drug use generates selective pressure that may lead to resistance against to the administered drug, and may also select for collateral resistances to other drugs. Analysis of AMR surveillance data has focused on resistance to individual drugs but joint distributions of resistance in bacterial populations are infrequently analyzed and reported. New methods are needed to characterize and communicate joint resistance distributions. Markov networks are a class of graphical models that define connections, or edges, between pairs of variables with non-zero partial correlations and are used here to describe AMR resistance relationships. The graphical least absolute shrinkage and selection operator is used to estimate sparse Markov networks from AMR surveillance data. The method is demonstrated using a subset of Escherichia coli isolates collected by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System between 2004 and 2012 which included AMR results for 16 drugs from 14418 isolates. Of the 119 possible unique edges, 33 unique edges were identified at least once during the study period and graphical density ranged from 16.2% to 24.8%. Two frequent dense subgraphs were noted, one containing the five β-lactam drugs and the other containing both sulfonamides, three aminoglycosides, and tetracycline. Density did not appear to change over time (p = 0.71. Unweighted modularity did not appear to change over time (p = 0.18, but a significant decreasing trend was noted in the modularity of the weighted networks (p < 0.005 indicating relationships between drugs of different classes tended to increase in strength and frequency over time compared to relationships between drugs of the same class. The current method provides a novel method to study the joint resistance distribution, but additional work is required to unite the underlying biological and genetic

  3. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in surface water of Taihu Lake Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song He; Lv, Xiaoyang; Han, Bing; Gu, Xiucong; Wang, Pei Fang; Wang, Chao; He, Zhenli

    2015-08-01

    The rapid development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) has been of concern worldwide. In this study, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated in antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from surface water samples (rivers, n = 17; Taihu Lake, n = 16) and from human, chicken, swine, and Egretta garzetta sources in the Taihu Basin. E. coli showing resistance to at least five drugs occurred in 31, 67, 58, 27, and 18% of the isolates from surface water (n = 665), chicken (n = 27), swine (n = 29), human (n = 45), and E. garzetta (n = 15) sources, respectively. The mean multi-antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of surface water samples (0.44) was lower than that of chicken (0.64) and swine (0.57) sources but higher than that of human (0.30) and E. garzetta sources (0.15). Ten tetracycline, four sulfonamide, four quinolone, five β-lactamase, and two streptomycin resistance genes were detected in the corresponding antibiotic-resistant isolates. Most antibiotic-resistant E. coli harbored at least two similar functional ARGs. Int-I was detected in at least 57% of MAR E. coli isolates. The results of multiple correspondence analysis and Spearman correlation analysis suggest that antibiotic-resistant E. coli in water samples were mainly originated from swine, chicken, and/or human sources. Most of the ARGs detected in E. garzetta sources were prevalent in other sources. These data indicated that human activities may have contributed to the spread of ARB in the aquatic environment.

  4. Antibiotic resistance is linked to carriage of papC and iutA virulence genes and phylogenetic group D background in commensal and uropathogenic Escherichia coli from infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, N; Wold, A E; Adlerberth, I

    2017-04-01

    P fimbriae, enabling adherence to colonic and urinary epithelium, and aerobactin, an iron sequestering system, are both colonization factors in the human colon and virulence factors for urinary tract infection. The colonic microbiota is suggested to be a site suitable for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. We investigated whether phenotypic resistance to antibiotics in commensal and uropathogenic Escherichia coli from infants and young children is associated with carriage of virulence genes and to phylogenetic group origin and, in the case of fecal strains, to persistence in the gut and fecal population levels. The commensal strains (n = 272) were derived from a birth cohort study, while the urinary isolates (n = 205) were derived from outpatient clinics. Each strain was assessed for phenotypic antibiotic resistance and for carriage of virulence genes (fimA, papC, sfaD/E, hlyA, iutA, kfiC, and neuB), phylogenetic group (A, B1, B2, or D), and markers of particular virulent clones (CGA-D-ST69, O15:H1-D-ST393, and O25b:H4-B2-ST131). Resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim was most prevalent. Multivariate analysis showed that resistance to any antibiotic was significantly associated with carriage of genes encoding P fimbriae (papC) and aerobactin (iutA), and a phylogenetic group D origin. Neither fecal population numbers nor the capacity for long-term persistence in the gut were related to antibiotic resistance among fecal strains. Our study confirms the importance of phylogenetic group D origin for antibiotic resistance in E. coli and identifies the virulence genes papC and iutA as determinants of antibiotic resistance. The reason for the latter association is currently unclear.

  5. Associations Between Multidrug Resistance, Plasmid Content, and Virulence Potential Among Extraintestinal Pathogenic and Commensal Escherichia coli from Humans and Poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Logue, Catherine M.; Johnson, James R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Sherwood, Julie S.; Barnes, H. John; DebRoy, Chitrita; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M.; Obata-Yasuoka, Mana; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) among enteric bacteria presents a serious challenge to the treatment of bacterial infections in humans and animals. Recent studies suggest that avian Escherichia coli commonly possess the ability to resist multiple antimicrobial agents,

  6. The Prevalence of acrA and acrB Genes Among Multiple-Drug Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated From Patients With UTI in Milad Hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infectious diseases and nosocomial infections worldwide, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli is the primary cause of UTI. Due to increased antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR UPEC clones, the treatment of UTI is difficult. The occurrence of MDR in E. coli has been attributed to the AcrAB-TolC complex of efflux pumps. Objectives The aim of this study was to complete a frequency evaluation of acrA and acrB genes among UPEC MDR strains isolated from patients with UTI who were admitted to Milad hospital in Tehran. Methods For 123 UPEC strains that were isolated and diagnosed from the urine samples of patients using biochemical tests, antibiotic susceptibility was carried out using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Isolates that were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent in three or more of the categories were considered to be MDR. The presence and frequency of acrA and acrB genes was determined using PCR. Results The rates of antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, cefalotin, tetracycline, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole were 82.9%, 78.1%, 61.1%, 49.5%, 38.2%, 30.2%, 26.1%, 42.2%, and 60.1%, respectively. The isolates were most sensitive to nitrofurantoin (95.9%, gentamicin (77.2%, and amikacin (71.5%. A total of 78% of the isolates were MDR. The frequency of the acrA gene was 82.90%, the acrB gene was 95.90% and acrA + acrB was 95.90%. There was no significant difference between acrA and acrB frequency relating to bacterial antibiotic resistance. Conclusions Our results showed that ways to control the treatment of UTI for the prevention of MDR occurrence should be sought. For a better study of efflux pumps, a comprehensive and detailed study regarding the presence of efflux pumps gees is required.

  7. Multidrug resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamases genes among Escherichia coli from patients with urinary tract infections in Northwestern Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujnah, Abubaker A; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Sabri, Mohamed A M; El-Mohammady, Hanan; Khalek, Rania A; Ghenghesh, Khalifa S

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) and emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) that mediate resistance to β-lactam drugs among Escherichia coli and other uropathogens have been reported worldwide. However, there is little information on the detection of ESBLs genes in E. coli from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Arab countries using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in Libya such information is lacking. All patients attending Zawiya Teaching Hospital in Zawiya city between November 2012 and June 2013 suspected of having UTIs and from whom midstream urine samples were taken as part of the clinical workup were included in this prospective study. Samples were examined for uropathogens by standard bacteriological procedures. VITEK-2 automated microbiology system was used to identify the isolated uropathogens and determine the susceptibility of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates to antimicrobials. In addition, phenotypically ESBLs-positive E. coli isolates were tested for ESBLs genes by PCR. The present study enrolled 1,790 patients with UTIs. Uropathogens were found in 371 (20.7%) urine specimens examined. Mixed pathogens were detected in two specimens with 373 total pathogens isolated. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were the predominant uropathogens at 55.8% (208/373) and 18.5% (69/373), respectively. Other pathogens were detected in 25.7% (96/373) of urine samples. Of the E. coli and Klebsiella spp. tested, 69.2 and 100% were resistant to ampicillin, 6.7 and 33.3% to ceftriaxone, and 23.1 and 17.4% to ciprofloxacin, respectively. MDR (resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial groups) was found in 69 (33.2%) of E. coli and in 29 (42%) of Klebsiella spp. isolates. ESBLs were detected phenotypically in 14 (6.7%) of E. coli and in 15 (21.7%) of Klebsiella spp. isolates. Thirteen out of the 14 phenotypically ESBL-positive E. coli were positive for ESBL genes by PCR. bla TEM gene was detected in seven isolates, bla OXA gene in 10 isolates and bla CTX

  8. Transmissible Plasmids and Integrons Shift Escherichia coli Population Toward Larger Multiple Drug Resistance Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartono, Suhartono; Savin, Mary C; Gbur, Edward E

    2018-04-01

    Transmissible plasmids and integrons may play important roles in the persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria throughout aquatic environment by accumulating antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). Class 1 and class 2 integron (intI), mobilization (mob), sulfamethoxazole resistance (sul), and trimethoprim resistance (dfr) genes were PCR-amplified and confirmed through DNA sequencing following plasmid extraction from 139 antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli. E. coli had previously been recovered from wastewater treatment plant effluent and receiving stream water in Northwest Arkansas and isolates had expressed resistance to one to six antibiotics. Almost half of the total isolates (47%) carried putatively transmissible plasmids with mob F12 gene as the most frequently detected mobilization gene. When two or three mob genes were detected per isolate, there was a significant shift in the population toward larger multiple drug resistance (MDR) number. Class 1 and/or 2 integrons were prevalent (46%), and the presence of integron significantly shifted the isolate population toward larger MDR number. More isolates carried single or coexistence of two or three sul genes (99.3%), and single or a combination up to five dfr genes (89.3%) than had exhibited in vitro resistance to the respective antibiotics. These findings indicate not only the role of the wastewater treatment effluent and the stream environment in coaccumulation of ARG with transmissible plasmids and integrons in multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli populations but also suggest that density of sul and dfr resistance genes within an isolate may serve as a biomarker for mobile MDR in general.

  9. Effects of chlortetracycline and copper supplementation on antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agga, G E; Scott, H M; Amachawadi, R G; Nagaraja, T G; Vinasco, J; Bai, J; Norby, B; Renter, D G; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D

    2014-06-01

    Feed-grade chlortetracycline (CTC) and copper are both widely utilized in U.S. pig production. Cluster randomized experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of CTC and copper supplementation in weaned pigs on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among fecal Escherichia coli. Four treatment groups: control, copper, CTC, or copper plus CTC were randomly allocated to 32 pens with five pigs per pen. Fecal samples were collected weekly from three pigs per pen for six weeks. Two E. coli isolates per fecal sample were tested for phenotypic and genotypic resistance against antibiotics and copper. Data were analyzed with multilevel mixed effects logistic regression, multivariate probit analysis and discrete time survival analysis. CTC-supplementation was significantly (99% [95% CI=98-100%]) associated with increased tetracycline resistance compared to the control group (95% [95% CI=94-97%]). Copper supplementation was associated with decreased resistance to most of the antibiotics tested, including cephalosporins, over the treatment period. Overall, 91% of the E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) (resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial classes). tetA and blaCMY-2 genes were positively associated (Ppigs exhibited high levels of antibiotic resistance, with diverse multi-resistant phenotypic profiles. The roles of copper supplementation in pig production, and pco-mediated copper resistance among E. coli in particular, need to be further explored since a strong negative association of pco with both tetA and blaCMY-2 points to opportunities for selecting a more innocuous resistance profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Béla

    2013-01-01

    After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of Escherichia coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development, and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms, and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence) among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these “bad genes” in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR) commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the

  11. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli from Tagus estuary (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anabela; Santos, André; Tacão, Marta; Alves, Artur; Henriques, Isabel; Correia, António

    2013-09-01

    Fecal pollution of surface waters is a current world-wide public health concern and may contribute for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. The Tagus estuary located in the south of Portugal is one of the largest wetlands in the west coast of Europe. In this study, water samples were collected from seven stations with different anthropic pressures along the estuary and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Escherichia coli isolates (n=350) were typed by REP-PCR. Representatives of each REP profile (n=220) were evaluated phenotypically for resistance to 17 antibiotics and characterized in terms of phylogenetic group. Resistant isolates were screened for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (tet(A), tet(B), sul1, sul2, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aacA4-cr, bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(CMY-like), bla(IMP), bla(VIM)) and integrase genes (intI1 and intI2). The highest antibiotic resistance prevalence was observed for streptomycin and tetracycline followed by β-lactams and sulphonamides. Among E. coli isolates, 65.16% were resistant to at least one of the 17 antibiotics tested and approximately 19% were multiresistant. In our E. coli population phylo-groups A and D were predominant and characterized by higher prevalence of the antibiotic resistance. intI1 and intI2 genes were found in 12% of the isolates with prevalence of class 1 integrons. A strong correlation between the prevalence of integrons and multiresistance was observed. Differences in terms of antibiotic resistance between phylogenetic groups and between sampling sites were statistically significant. The results demonstrate a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance among E. coli circulating in the Tagus estuary with emphasis on the occurrence of resistance to last-resort antibiotics and on the high incidence of multiresistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transferability of antimicrobial resistance from multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from cattle in the USA to E. coli and Salmonella Newport recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate conjugative transfer of cephalosporin resistance among (n=100) strains of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli (MDRE) to Salmonella Newport and E. coli DH5-alpha recipients. To accomplish this, phenotypic and genotypic profiles were determined for MDRE, ...

  13. Prevalence and Mechanism of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Swine Feces in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yoon Sung; Shin, Sook; Park, Yong Ho; Park, Kun Taek

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence and fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance mechanisms in Escherichia coli isolated from swine fecal samples. E. coli isolates were collected from 171 (72.2%) of 237 swine fecal samples. Of these, 59 isolates (34.5%) were confirmed as FQ-resistant E. coli by the disk diffusion method. Of the FQ-resistant isolates, three major FQ resistance mechanisms were investigated. Of the 59 isolates, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were detected in 9 isolates (15.3%). Efflux pump activity was found in 56 isolates (94.9%); however, this was not correlated with the increased FQ resistance measured by determining the MIC. Point mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions were the main cause of FQ resistance. All 59 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates had mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions; of these 59 isolates, all (100%) had mutations in gyrA, 58 (98.3%) had mutations in parC, 22 (37.3%) had mutations in parE, and none had mutations in gyrB. The predominant mutation type was double mutation in gyrA (Ser83Leu plus mutation in aspartic acid 87), and all FQ-resistant isolates (except one) that had mutations in parC or parE also had double mutations in gyrA. Importantly, the frequencies of multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli were significantly higher in the high ciprofloxacin MIC group in this study. Compared with previous studies in Korea, the prevalence of FQ resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes had increased considerably in swine. Although the use of FQ as a feed additive is prohibited in Korea, use for self-treatment and therapeutic purposes has been increasing, which may be responsible for the higher FQ resistance rate observed in this study. Therefore, prudent use of FQ on animal farms is warranted to reduce the evolution of FQ-resistant bacteria in the animal industry.

  14. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanisms in an Escherichia coli Isolate, HUE1, Without Quinolone Resistance-Determining Region Mutations

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    Toyotaka eSato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone resistance can cause major clinical problems. Here, we investigated fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in a clinical Escherichia coli isolate, HUE1, which had no mutations quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. HUE1 demonstrated MICs that exceeded the breakpoints for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and norfloxacin. HUE1 harbored oqxAB and qnrS1 on distinct plasmids. In addition, it exhibited lower intracellular ciprofloxacin concentrations and higher mRNA expression levels of efflux pumps and their global activators than did reference strains. The genes encoding AcrR (local AcrAB repressor and MarR (MarA repressor were disrupted by insertion of the transposon IS3-IS629 and a frameshift mutation, respectively. A series of mutants derived from HUE1 were obtained by plasmid curing and gene knockout using homologous recombination. Compared to the MICs of the parent strain HUE1, the fluoroquinolone MICs of these mutants indicated that qnrS1, oqxAB, acrAB, acrF, acrD, mdtK, mdfA, and tolC contributed to the reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone in HUE1. Therefore, fluoroquinolone resistance in HUE1 is caused by concomitant acquisition of QnrS1 and OqxAB and overexpression of AcrAB−TolC and other chromosome-encoded efflux pumps. Thus, we have demonstrated that QRDR mutations are not absolutely necessary for acquiring fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli.

  15. Efficient recovery of fluoroquinolone-susceptible and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains from frozen samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Santana, Evelyn; Lee, Abby; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Babson, Andrew; Perencevich, Eli N; Harris, Anthony D; Smith, Catherine A; Maslow, Joel

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples.

  16. Ampicillin potentials as Corrosion Inhibitor: fukui function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental study was carried out using gravimetric and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methods of monitoring corrosion while the computational study was carried out using quantum chemical approach via Hyperchem program suit. The results obtained showed that various concentrations of ampicillin ...

  17. Chloramphenicol- and tetracycline-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) exhibit reduced virulence potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcic Erjavec, Marjanca; Rijavec, Matija; Krizan-Hergouth, Veronika; Fruth, Angelika; Zgur-Bertok, Darja

    2007-11-01

    It is well documented that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates resistant to nalidixic acid have reduced virulence potential. Our goal was to assess whether UPEC isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline and streptomycin also exhibit reduced virulence potential. Among 110 human UPEC isolates, the prevalences of the virulence factors fimH, papC, papGII, papGIII, sfa/focDE, afa, hlyA, cnf1, usp, ibeA, fyuA, iroN, iucD, ireA, and K1 and K5 capsules as well as of pathotypes, phylogenetic groups, O antigens and a pathogenicity island (PAI) marker were compared between chloramphenicol-, tetracycline-, streptomycin- and, as a control, nalidixic acid-resistant and -susceptible strains. Our findings show that among human UPEC isolates, not only nalidixic acid-resistant but also chloramphenicol- and tetracycline-resistant isolates have reduced virulence potential compared with susceptible strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a statistically significant reduction in virulence traits among chloramphenicol- and tetracycline-resistant isolates.

  18. Evolution of Resistance to Continuously Increasing Streptomycin Concentrations in Populations of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Fabrizio; Rinaldi, Conrad; Sajorda, Dannah Rae; Dykhuizen, Daniel E

    2015-12-14

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become one of the defining problems in modern biology. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial therapy threatens to eliminate one of the pillars of the practice of modern medicine. Yet, in spite of the importance of this problem, only recently have the dynamics of the shift from antibiotic sensitivity to resistance in a bacterial population been studied. In this study, a novel chemostat method was used to observe the evolution of resistance to streptomycin in a sensitive population of Escherichia coli, which grew while the concentration of antibiotic was constantly increasing. The results indicate that resistant mutants remain at a low frequency for longer than expected and do not begin to rise to a high frequency until the antibiotic concentrations are above the measured MIC, creating a "lull period" in which there were few bacterial cells growing in the chemostats. Overall, mutants resistant to streptomycin were found in >60% of the experimental trial replicates. All of the mutants detected were found to have MICs far above the maximum levels of streptomycin to which they were exposed and reached a high frequency within 96 h. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Antibiotic resistance and integrons in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC

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    Rocío Colello

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans (HUS. Cattle are the main reservoir of STEC and transmission to humans occurs through contaminated food and water. Antibiotics are used in pig production systems to combat disease and improve productivity and play a key role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes to the bacteria. Integrons have been identified in resistant bacteria allowing for the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. STEC strains isolated from humans and animals have developed antibiotic resistance. In our laboratory, 21 non-157 STEC strains isolated from pigs were analyzed to detect class 1 and 2 integrons by PCR. Eight carried integrons, 7 of them harbored intl2. In another study 545 STEC strains were also analyzed for the presence of intl1 and intl2. Strains carrying intl1 belonged to isolates from environment (n = 1, chicken hamburger (n = 2, dairy calves (n = 4 and pigs (n = 8. Two strains isolated from pigs harbored intl2 and only one intl1/intl2, highlighting the presence of intl2 in pigs. The selection for multiresistant strains may contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens and facilitate the spreading of the mobile resistance elements to other bacteria.

  20. Stress resistance of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis is modulated by auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repar, J; Šućurović, S; Zahradka, K; Zahradka, D; Ćurković-Perica, M

    2013-11-01

    Two bacterial species, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, were exposed to different auxins to examine possible effects of these substances on bacterial stress tolerance. Bacterial resistance to UV irradiation, heat shock, and streptomycin was assessed with and without previous exposure to the following auxins: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Escherichia coli and B. subtilis cultures pretreated with any of the 3 auxins survived UV irradiation better than the untreated cultures. Also, B. subtilis cultures pretreated with IBA or NAA survived prolonged heat exposure better than the untreated cultures, while IAA pretreatment had no effect on heat shock survival. In contrast, auxin pretreatment rendered E. coli more sensitive to heat shock. Escherichia coli cultures pretreated with auxins were also more sensitive to streptomycin, while auxin pretreatment had no effect on sensitivity of B. subtilis to streptomycin. These results show that auxins may either enhance or reduce bacterial tolerance to different stressors, depending on the bacterial species and the type and level of the stress. Auxins usually had similar effects on the same bacterial species in cases when the same type and level of stress were applied.

  1. Synergistic effect of eugenol with Colistin against clinical isolated Colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strains

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    Yi-ming Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial infections have become more challenging to treat due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Combined antibiotics prove to be a relatively effective method to control such resistant strains. This study aim to investigate synergistic activity of eugenol combined with colistin against a collection of clinical isolated Escherichia coli (E.coli strains, and to evaluate potential interaction. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI of the bacteria were determined by disk diffusion assay, broth microdilution method and checkerboard assay, respectively. The mcr-1 mRNA expression was measured by Real-time PCR. To predict possible interactions between eugenol and MCR-1, molecular docking assay was taken. Results For total fourteen strains including eight colistin-resistant strains, eugenol was determined with MIC values of 4 to 8 μg/mL. Checkerboard dilution test suggested that eugenol exhibited synergistic activity when combined with colistin (FICI ranging from 0.375 to 0.625. Comparison analysis of Real-time PCR showed that synergy could significantly down-regulate expression of mcr-1 gene. A metal ion coordination bond with catalytic zinc atom and a hydrogen bond with crucial amino acid residue Ser284 of MCR-1 were observed after molecular docking, indicating antibacterial activity and direct molecular interactions of eugenol with MCR-1 protein. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that eugenol exhibited synergistic effect with colistin and enhanced its antimicrobial activity. This might further contribute to the antibacterial actions against colistin-resistant E.coli strains. Graphical abstract Synergistic effect of eugenol with colistin against colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates.

  2. Dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of finishing pigs after ciprofloxacin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Xu, Chang-Wen; Zeng, Bo; Xia, Qing-Qing; Zhang, An-Yun; Lei, Chang-Wei; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Cheng, Han; Wang, Hong-Ning

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli resistance to quinolones has now become a serious issue in large-scale pig farms of China. It is necessary to study the dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of pigs after antimicrobial administration. Here, we present the hypothesis that the emergence of resistance in pigs requires drug accumulation for 7 days or more. To test this hypothesis, 26 pigs (90 days old, about 30 kg) not fed any antimicrobial after weaning were selected and divided into 2 equal groups: the experimental (EP) group and control (CP) group. Pigs in the EP group were orally treated daily with 5 mg ciprofloxacin/kg of body weight for 30 days, and pigs in the CP group were fed a normal diet. Fresh feces were collected at 16 time points from day 0 to day 61. At each time point, ten E. coli clones were tested for susceptibility to quinolones and mutations of gyrA and parC. The results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin increased 16-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin administration for 3 days and decreased 256-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin withdrawal for 26 days. GyrA (S83L, D87N/ D87Y) and parC (S80I) substitutions were observed in all quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) clones with an MIC ≥8 µg/ml. This study provides scientific theoretical guidance for the rational use of antimicrobials and the control of bacterial resistance.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in clinical Escherichia coli isolated from companion animals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Sugiyono; Jordan, David; Mitchell, Tahlia; Wong, Hui San; Abraham, Rebecca J; Kidsley, Amanda; Turnidge, John; Trott, Darren J; Abraham, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major public health concern to both humans and animal health. While the frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinical E. coli is monitored regularly in human medicine, current frequency of AMR in companion animals remains unknown in Australia. In this study we conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and where possible, determined potential risk factors for MDR infection among 883 clinical Escherichia coli isolated from dogs (n=514), cats (n=341) and horses (n=28). AST was undertaken for 15 antimicrobial agents according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and interpreted using epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) as well as CLSI veterinary and human clinical breakpoints. The AST revealed complete absence of resistance to carbapenems while resistance to amikacin was observed at a low level in isolates from dogs (1.6%) and cats (1.5%) compared to horses (10.7%). Among dog isolates, resistance to fluoroquinolones ranged from 9.1%-9.3% whereas among cat isolates, it ranged from 3.2%-5%. Among dog isolates, the proportion showing a 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC) non-wild type phenotype was significantly higher (Presistance was 18.1%, 11.7% and 42.9% in dog, cat and horse isolates, respectively. Risk factor analysis revealed that MDR E. coli isolated from UTI were positively associated with chronicity of infection and previous antimicrobial treatment. Dogs and cats with chronic UTI that had been previously treated with antimicrobials were eight times and six times more likely to be infected with MDR E. coli compared to dogs and cats with non-chronic UTI, and no history of antimicrobial treatment, respectively. This study revealed that pre-existing disease condition and prior antimicrobial use were the major risks associated with UTI with MDR E. coli in companion animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Induction of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Strains after Adaptation to Disinfectant Commonly Used on Farms in Vietnam

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    Nguyen T. Nhung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, commercial disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs are commonly used in pig and poultry farms to maintain hygiene during production. We hypothesized that sustained exposure to sub-bactericidal concentrations of QAC-based disinfectants may result in increased levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR among Enterobacteriacea due to the increase of efflux pump expression. To test this hypothesis we exposed six antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli (E. coli and six antimicrobial-susceptible non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS isolates to increasing concentrations of a commonly used commercial disinfectant containing a mix of benzalkonium chloride and glutaraldehyde. Over the 12-day experiment, strains exhibited a significant change in their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the disinfectant product (mean increase of 31% (SD ± 40 (p = 0.02, paired Wilcoxon test. Increases in MIC for the disinfectant product were strongly correlated with increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone for all antimicrobials (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.71–0.83, all p < 0.01. The greatest increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone were observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, and the smallest for gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. The treatment of 155 representative E. coli isolates from farmed and wild animals in the Mekong Delta (Vietnam with phenyl-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAβN, a generic efflux pump inhibitor, resulted in reductions in the prevalence of AMR ranging from 0.7% to 3.3% in these organisms, indicating a small contribution of efflux pumps on the observed prevalence of AMR on farms. These results suggest that the mass usage of commercial disinfectants, many of which contain QACs, is potentially a contributing factor on the generation and maintenance of AMR in animal production in Vietnam.

  5. Clonality, virulence and antimicrobial resistance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from Mirzapur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaway, Marie Anne; Day, Michaela; Mtwale, Julia; White, Emma; Rogers, James; Day, Martin; Powell, David; Ahmad, Marwa; Harris, Ross; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Wain, John; Jenkins, Claire; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the virulence and antimicrobial resistance in association with common clonal complexes (CCs) of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) isolated from Bangladesh. The aim was to determine whether specific CCs were more likely to be associated with putative virulence genes and/or antimicrobial resistance. The presence of 15 virulence genes (by PCR) and susceptibility to 18 antibiotics were determined for 151 EAEC isolated from cases and controls during an intestinal infectious disease study carried out between 2007-2011 in the rural setting of Mirzapur, Bangladesh (Kotloff KL, Blackwelder WC, Nasrin D, Nataro JP, Farag TH et al.Clin Infect Dis 2012;55:S232-S245). These data were then analysed in the context of previously determined serotypes and clonal complexes defined by multi-locus sequence typing. Overall there was no association between the presence of virulence or antimicrobial resistance genes in isolates of EAEC from cases versus controls. However, when stratified by clonal complex (CC) one CC associated with cases harboured more virulence factors (CC40) and one CC harboured more resistance genes (CC38) than the average. There was no direct link between the virulence gene content and antibiotic resistance. Strains within a single CC had variable virulence and resistance gene content indicating independent and multiple gene acquisitions over time. In Bangladesh, there are multiple clonal complexes of EAEC harbouring a variety of virulence and resistance genes. The emergence of two of the most successful clones appeared to be linked to either increased virulence (CC40) or antimicrobial resistance (CC38), but increased resistance and virulence were not found in the same clonal complexes.

  6. Enhanced Survival of Rifampin- and Streptomycin-Resistant Escherichia coli Inside Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Paulo; Gülereşi, Daniela; Proença, João; Gordo, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria is an increasing global problem. Even though mutations causing resistance usually incur a fitness cost in the absence of antibiotics, the magnitude of such costs varies across environments and genomic backgrounds. We studied how the combination of mutations that confer resistance to rifampin (Rif(r)) and streptomycin (Str(r)) affects the fitness of Escherichia coli when it interacts with cells from the immune system, i.e., macrophages (Mϕs). We found that 13 Rif(r) Str(r) doubly resistant genotypes, of the 16 tested, show a survival advantage inside Mϕs, indicating that double resistance can be highly beneficial in this environment. Our results suggest that there are multiple paths to acquire multiple-drug resistance in this context, i.e., if a clone carrying Rif(r) allele H526 or S531 acquires a second mutation conferring Str(r), the resulting double mutant has a high probability of showing increased survival inside Mϕs. On the other hand, we found two cases of sign epistasis between mutations, leading to a significant decrease in bacterial survival. Remarkably, infection of Mϕs with one of these combinations, K88R+H526Y, resulted in an altered pattern of gene expression in the infected Mϕs. This indicates that the fitness effects of resistance may depend on the pattern of gene expression of infected host cells. Notwithstanding the benefits of resistance found inside Mϕs, the Rif(r) Str(r) mutants have massive fitness costs when the bacteria divide outside Mϕs, indicating that the maintenance of double resistance may depend on the time spent within and outside phagocytic cells. Copyright © 2016 Durão et al.

  7. Identification and network of outer membrane proteins regulating streptomysin resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Xu, Wen-Jiao; Lin, Xiang-Min; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2008-09-01

    Bacterial Outer membrane (OM) proteins involved in antibiotic resistance have been reported. However, little is known about the OM proteins and their interaction network regulating streptomycin (SM) resistance. In the present study, a subproteomic approach was utilized to characterize OM proteins of Escherichia coli with SM resistance. TolC, OmpT and LamB were found to be up-regulated, and FadL, OmpW and a location-unknown protein Dps were down-regulated in the SM-resistant E. coli strain. These changes at the level of protein expression were validated using Western blotting. The possible roles of the altered proteins involved in the SM resistance were investigated using genetic modified strains with the deletion of these altered genes. It is found that decreased and elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations and survival capabilities of the gene deleted strains and their resistant strains, Delta tolC, Delta ompT, Delta dps, Delta tolC-R, Delta ompT-R, Delta dps-R and Delta fadL-R, were correlated with the changes of TolC, OmpT, Dps and FadL at the protein expression levels detected by 2-DE gels, respectively. The results may suggest that these proteins are the key OM proteins and play important roles in the regulation of SM resistance in E. coli. Furthermore, an interaction network of altered OM proteins involved in the SM resistance was proposed in this report. Of the six altered proteins, TolC may play a central role in the network. These findings may provide novel insights into mechanisms of SM resistance in E. coli.

  8. Amdinocillin (Mecillinam) Resistance Mutations in Clinical Isolates and Laboratory-Selected Mutants of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulin, Elisabeth; Sundqvist, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Amdinocillin (mecillinam) is a β-lactam antibiotic that is used mainly for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The objectives of this study were to identify mutations that confer amdinocillin resistance on laboratory-isolated mutants and clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and to determine why amdinocillin resistance remains rare clinically even though resistance is easily selected in the laboratory. Under laboratory selection, frequencies of mutation to amdinocillin resistance varied from 8 × 10−8 to 2 × 10−5 per cell, depending on the concentration of amdinocillin used during selection. Several genes have been demonstrated to give amdinocillin resistance, but here eight novel genes previously unknown to be involved in amdinocillin resistance were identified. These genes encode functions involved in the respiratory chain, the ribosome, cysteine biosynthesis, tRNA synthesis, and pyrophosphate metabolism. The clinical isolates exhibited significantly greater fitness than the laboratory-isolated mutants and a different mutation spectrum. The cysB gene was mutated (inactivated) in all of the clinical isolates, in contrast to the laboratory-isolated mutants, where mainly other types of more costly mutations were found. Our results suggest that the frequency of mutation to amdinocillin resistance is high because of the large mutational target (at least 38 genes). However, the majority of these resistant mutants have a low growth rate, reducing the probability that they are stably maintained in the bladder. Inactivation of the cysB gene and a resulting loss of cysteine biosynthesis are the major mechanism of amdinocillin resistance in clinical isolates of E. coli. PMID:25583718

  9. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Aperce

    Full Text Available The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P < 0.02. Although the mechanism by which menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria.

  10. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance in 36 E. coli isolated from waste, litter, soil and water samples collected from poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria. Methodology: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of the isolates were determined using the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute and resistance genes detected by PCR. Results: A total of 30 isolates (94%) showed resistance to more than one antimicrobial. Percentage resista...

  11. The prevalence of the OqxAB amongst olaquindox-resistant multidrug efflux pump Escherichia coli in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Sørensen, S.J.; Jørgensen, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    to olaquindox as well as resistance to other antimicrobials like chloramphenicol. In this study, 10 of the 556 (1.8%) previously isolated Escherichia coli strains were shown to have an MIC >= 64 mu g/ml olaquindox. In nine of the ten strains, the oqxA gene was detected. Sequencing of an internal fragment of oqx...... strains. Furthermore, horizontal transfer of olaquindox resistance from three olaquindox-resistant isolates was achieved using an olaquindox-sensitive E. coli as recipient....

  12. Influence of mutations in some structural genes of heat-shock proteins on radiation resistance of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbenko, V.N.; Kuznetsova, L.V.; Bikineeva, E.G.; Kalinin, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    Lethal effects of γ-irradiation were studied in Escherichia coli strains with normal repair genotype and in radiation-resistant Gam r strains, both carrying additional mutations in the structural genes dnaK, grpE, groES or groEL. The null mutation ΔdnaK52::Cm r enhanced radiation sensitivity of wild-type cells and abolished the effect of heat induced rediation-resistance (ETIRR) and elevated radiation resistance of the Gam r strains

  13. Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 with enhanced resistance to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbenko, V.N.; Akhmedov, A.T.; Kalinin, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    By means of one-dimensional electrophoresis, it is shown that in radiation-resistant Gam 444 ad Gam 445 mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 high-molecular weight heat shock proteins are hyperproduced at 32-37 deg C and are induced more intensively during heat shock (in comparison to the parental) wild-tupe strain AB parallel 57). When the missense htp R15 mutation of the positive regulatory htpR gene for heat shock proteins was introduced by transduction into genome of the Gam 444 mutant, its enhanced radiation-resistance disappeared but could not be restored upon introduction of pKV3 plasmid bearing the htpR, gene. These data show that heat shock Protens are participating in the enhanced radioresistance of Gam mutants

  14. Quinolone- and ß-lactam-resistance in Escherichia coli from Danish and Italian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne

    Quinolone- and ß-lactam-resistance in Escherichia coli from Danish and Italian broiler flocks Valeria Bortolaia1, Luca Guardabassi1, Magne Bisgaard1, Marcello Trevisani2, Anders Miki Bojesen1   1Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1870...... Frederiksberg C, Denmark 2Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica Veterinaria e Patologia Animale, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università di Bologna, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy   The prevalence of quinolone- and ß-lactam-resistant E. coli was investigated among broiler flocks in Denmark and Italy. In Denmark......, sock samples were collected from 10 parent flocks and 10 offspring flocks, according to the procedure currently used for the surveillance of Salmonella in the EU. Samples were enriched in McConkey broth and streaked on McConkey agar plates added with nalidixic acid (32 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (2 µg...

  15. Relation between tetR and tetA expression in tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetracyclines are among the most used antibiotics in livestock worldwide. Resistance is widely disseminated in Escherichia coli, where it is generally mediated by tetracycline efflux pumps, such as TetA. Expression of tetracycline efflux pumps is tightly controlled by the repressor Tet......R, which has been shown to be tetracycline-responsive at sub-MIC tetracycline concentrations. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing tetracycline concentrations on the growth of TetA-producing E. coli, and to determine how expression of tetA and tetR related to each other...... in different growth phases in the presence of tetracycline. Results: A tetracycline resistant E. coli strain containing tetA and tetR on the chromosome was constructed and cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of tetracycline. Expression of tetR and tetA was measured at four time points...

  16. Antimicrobial-resistant faecal Escherichia coli in wild mammals in central Europe: multiresistant Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases in wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Literak, I.; Dolejska, Monika; Radimersky, T.

    2010-01-01

    mg l-1 of cefotaxime. From plates with positive growth, one isolate was recovered and identified as E. coli. Susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was tested using the disk diffusion method. Resistance genes, class 1 and 2 integrons and gene cassettes were detected in resistant isolates by polymerase......(TEM-52b). The bla(CTX-M-1) genes were carried on approx. 90 kb IncI1 conjugative plasmids. Conclusions: Antibiotic-resistant E. coli occured in populations of wild mammals in various prevalences. Significance and Impact of the Study: Wild mammals are reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant E. coli including......Aims: To determine the presence of antibiotic-resistant faecal Escherichia coli in populations of wild mammals in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Methods and Results: Rectal swabs or faeces collected during 2006-2008 from wild mammals were spread on MacConkey agar and MacConkey agar containing 2...

  17. Genotyping and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli O157 originating from cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbaut, Katrijn; Houf, Kurt; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Zutter, Lieven

    2011-06-01

    During a Escherichia coli O157 prevalence study on cattle farms, 324 E. coli O157 isolates were collected from 68 out of 180 cattle farms. All isolates harbored the eaeA gene and the enterohemolysin (ehxA) gene. The majority of the strains only contained vtx2 (245 isolates), the combination of vtx1 and vtx2 was detected in 50 isolates, and in 29 isolates none of the vtx genes was present. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed that at a similarity level of 98% the isolates grouped into 83 different genotypes, 76 of which were only detected on one farm. Twenty-two out of the 68 positive farms harbored isolates belonging to more than one PFGE type, with a maximum of four different PFGE types. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 10 antimicrobial agents were determined on a subset of 116 isolates, that is, one isolate per positive age category per farm. Acquired resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was detected in 18 isolates and within a farm, only one resistance pattern was observed. All these 18 isolates were resistant toward streptomycin, and 16 of them also showed resistance toward sulfisoxazole. Six isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents.

  18. Genetic characterization of blaNDM-harboring plasmids in carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Sugawara

    Full Text Available The bacterial enzyme New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase hydrolyzes almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are drugs of last resort for severe bacterial infections. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that carry the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaNDM, poses a serious threat to public health. In this study, we genetically characterized eight carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. The eight isolates belonged to five multilocus-sequence types and harbored multiple antimicrobial-resistance genes, resulting in resistance against nearly all of the antimicrobial agents tested, except colistin and fosfomycin. Nine plasmids harboring blaNDM genes were identified from these isolates. Multiple blaNDM genes were found in the distinct Inc-replicon types of the following plasmids: an IncA/C2 plasmid harboring blaNDM-1 (n = 1, IncX3 plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 2 or blaNDM-7 (n = 1, IncFII plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 1 or blaNDM-5 (n = 3, and a multireplicon F plasmid harboring blaNDM-5 (n = 1. Comparative analysis highlighted the diversity of the blaNDM-harboring plasmids and their distinct characteristics, which depended on plasmid replicon types. The results indicate circulation of phylogenetically distinct strains of carbapenem-resistant E. coli with various plasmids harboring blaNDM genes in the hospital.

  19. Genetic characterization of blaNDM-harboring plasmids in carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yo; Akeda, Yukihiro; Sakamoto, Noriko; Takeuchi, Dan; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Hagiya, Hideharu; Yamamoto, Norihisa; Nishi, Isao; Yoshida, Hisao; Okada, Kazuhisa; Zin, Khwar Nyo; Aye, Mya Mya; Tomono, Kazunori; Hamada, Shigeyuki

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial enzyme New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase hydrolyzes almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are drugs of last resort for severe bacterial infections. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that carry the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaNDM, poses a serious threat to public health. In this study, we genetically characterized eight carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. The eight isolates belonged to five multilocus-sequence types and harbored multiple antimicrobial-resistance genes, resulting in resistance against nearly all of the antimicrobial agents tested, except colistin and fosfomycin. Nine plasmids harboring blaNDM genes were identified from these isolates. Multiple blaNDM genes were found in the distinct Inc-replicon types of the following plasmids: an IncA/C2 plasmid harboring blaNDM-1 (n = 1), IncX3 plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 2) or blaNDM-7 (n = 1), IncFII plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 1) or blaNDM-5 (n = 3), and a multireplicon F plasmid harboring blaNDM-5 (n = 1). Comparative analysis highlighted the diversity of the blaNDM-harboring plasmids and their distinct characteristics, which depended on plasmid replicon types. The results indicate circulation of phylogenetically distinct strains of carbapenem-resistant E. coli with various plasmids harboring blaNDM genes in the hospital.

  20. Acquisition of Carbapenem Resistance by Plasmid-Encoded-AmpC-Expressing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Ria; Wattel, Agnes A; Arenas, Jesús; Goessens, Wil H F; Tommassen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Although AmpC β-lactamases can barely degrade carbapenems, if at all, they can sequester them and prevent them from reaching their targets. Thus, carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae can result from AmpC production and simultaneous reduction of antibiotic influx into the periplasm by mutations in the porin genes. Here we investigated the route and genetic mechanisms of acquisition of carbapenem resistance in a clinical E. coli isolate carrying bla CMY-2 on a plasmid by selecting for mutants that are resistant to increasing concentrations of meropenem. In the first step, the expression of OmpC, the only porin produced in the strain under laboratory conditions, was lost, leading to reduced susceptibility to meropenem. In the second step, the expression of the CMY-2 β-lactamase was upregulated, leading to resistance to meropenem. The loss of OmpC was due to the insertion of an IS1 element into the ompC gene or to frameshift mutations and premature stop codons in this gene. The bla CMY-2 gene was found to be located on an IncIγ plasmid, and overproduction of the CMY-2 enzyme resulted from an increased plasmid copy number due to a nucleotide substitution in the inc gene. The clinical relevance of these genetic mechanisms became evident from the analysis of previously isolated carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates, which appeared to carry similar mutations. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Association of Antibiotic Resistance in Agricultural Escherichia coli Isolates with Attachment to Quartz▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Soupir, Michelle L.; Zwonitzer, Martha; Huss, Bridgette; Jarboe, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Surface water can be contaminated by bacteria from various sources, including manure from agricultural facilities. Attachment of these bacteria to soil and organic particles contributes to their transport through the environment, though the mechanism of attachment is unknown. As bacterial attachment to human tissues is known to be correlated with antibiotic resistance, we have investigated here the relationship between bacterial attachment to environmental particles and antibiotic resistance in agricultural isolates. We evaluated 203 Escherichia coli isolates collected from swine facilities for attachment to quartz, resistance to 13 antibiotics, and the presence of genes encoding 13 attachment factors. The genes encoding type I, EcpA, P pili, and Ag43 were detected, though none was significantly related to attachment. Quartz attachment was positively and significantly (P quartz in agricultural isolates. We propose that this may be due to encoding by the responsible genes on a mobile genetic element. Further exploration of the relationship between antibiotic resistance and attachment to environmental particles will improve the understanding and modeling of environmental transport processes, with the goal of preventing human exposure to antibiotic-resistant or virulent microorganisms. PMID:21821756

  2. Epidemiology of Multidrug Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Iran: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadifar, Shima; Moghoofei, Mohsen; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Sedighi, Mansour; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Miri, Ali

    2017-01-24

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in humans. It is primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which has a high multidrug resistance (MDR). In consideration of the prevalence of MDR-UPEC strains, the aims of the present study were to systematically review the published data about the prevalence rate of MDR-UPEC from different parts of Iran and to establish the overall relative frequency (RF) of these strains in Iran. We searched several databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, IranMedex, and Iranian Scientific Information Database by using the following keywords: "Escherichia coli", "multidrug resistant", "MDR", "urinary tract infections", "UTI", "uropathogenic". and "Iran". Articles or abstracts that reported the prevalence of MDR-UPEC were included in this review. We found 15 articles suitable for inclusion in this study. A pooled estimation of 10,247 UPEC strains showed that 49.4% (95% confidence interval = 48.0-50.7%) of the stranis were MDR positive. The RF of MDR-UPEC in different studies varied from 10.5% to 79.2% in the Kashan and Hamedan provinces, respectively. According to the results of the present study, the RF of MDR-UPEC in Iran is high. Thus, measures should be taken to keep the emergence and transmission of these strains to a minimum.

  3. Characterization and antimicrobial resistance analysis of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from Italian turkey flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanardi, Davide; Lupini, Caterina; Pesente, Patrizia; Rossi, Giulia; Ortali, Giovanni; Catelli, Elena

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in a finishing turkey commercial farm, carrying out longitudinal surveys involving 3 consecutive flocks. The diversity and the distribution of the E. coli strains detected during colisepticemia outbreaks were examined. The strains were isolated, serogrouped, assessed for the presence of virulence-associated genes, typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and antimicrobial resistance analysis was then carried out. Escherichia coli O78 and O2 were predominantly found. Moreover, based on the somatic antigens used in the study, strains were recovered that were nontypeable. On one occasion, an E. coli O111 strain was found in turkeys. The E. coli isolates differed in terms of antibiotic resistance and RAPD profile. All strains possessed the virulence genes that enabled them to be considered APEC. Strains not only differed between flocks, but also within the same flock. These findings point out the importance of addressing colibacillosis therapy on the basis of a sensitivity test.

  4. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in the beef jerky production line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernanda Pereira; Voloski, Flávia Liége Schütz; Ramires, Tassiana; Haubert, Louise; Reta, Giulia Giugliani; Mondadori, Rafael Gianella; Silva, Wladimir Padilha da; Conceição, Rita de Cássia Dos Santos da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal

    2017-05-01

    Intense manipulation during beef jerky production increases the possibility of contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. This study evaluated the contamination by thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., on processing surfaces and raw materials during beef jerky production, as well as in the final product. Thermotolerant coliforms were found on all surfaces tested and in the raw material. Escherichia coli was identified in 6.7% of the surface samples, while Salmonella spp. was found in 3.3% of the surface samples and 8.6% of raw material samples. Virulence genes were detected in Salmonella spp. isolates. One Salmonella spp. isolate was resistant to sulfonamide, while one E. coli isolate was multiresistant, including the presence of resistance genes sul2, strA, strB, tetA and tetB. The presence of coliforms demonstrates failings in hygienic-sanitary procedures. The presence of pathogenic microorganisms causing foodborne diseases in the production line indicates persistent contamination in the production plant. Although the drying process applied to beef jerky should guarantee the safety of the final product, the presence of multiresistant pathogenic microorganisms, presenting virulence genes, should be a matter of concern. Because beef jerky is a ready-to-eat product, a failure in the production process may cause such microorganisms to pose a public health risk. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Some Like It Hot: Heat Resistance ofEscherichia coliin Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Gänzle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Heat treatment and cooking are common interventions for reducing the numbers of vegetative cells and eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in food. Current cooking method requires the internal temperature of beef patties to reach 71°C. However, some pathogenic Escherichia coli such as the beef isolate E. coli AW 1.7 are extremely heat resistant, questioning its inactivation by current heat interventions in beef processing. To optimize the conditions of heat treatment for effective decontaminations of pathogenic E. coli strains, sufficient estimations, and explanations are necessary on mechanisms of heat resistance of target strains. The heat resistance of E. coli depends on the variability of strains and properties of food formulations including salt and water activity. Heat induces alterations of E. coli cells including membrane, cytoplasm, ribosome and DNA, particularly on proteins including protein misfolding and aggregations. Resistant systems of E. coli act against these alterations, mainly through gene regulations of heat response including EvgA, heat shock proteins, σ E and σ S , to re-fold of misfolded proteins, and achieve antagonism to heat stress. Heat resistance can also be increased by expression of key proteins of membrane and stabilization of membrane fluidity. In addition to the contributions of the outer membrane porin NmpC and overcome of osmotic stress from compatible solutes, the new identified genomic island locus of heat resistant performs a critical role to these highly heat resistant strains. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on heat resistance of E. coli , to better understand its related mechanisms and explore more effective applications of heat interventions in food industry.

  6. Some Like It Hot: Heat Resistance of Escherichia coli in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Gänzle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Heat treatment and cooking are common interventions for reducing the numbers of vegetative cells and eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in food. Current cooking method requires the internal temperature of beef patties to reach 71°C. However, some pathogenic Escherichia coli such as the beef isolate E. coli AW 1.7 are extremely heat resistant, questioning its inactivation by current heat interventions in beef processing. To optimize the conditions of heat treatment for effective decontaminations of pathogenic E. coli strains, sufficient estimations, and explanations are necessary on mechanisms of heat resistance of target strains. The heat resistance of E. coli depends on the variability of strains and properties of food formulations including salt and water activity. Heat induces alterations of E. coli cells including membrane, cytoplasm, ribosome and DNA, particularly on proteins including protein misfolding and aggregations. Resistant systems of E. coli act against these alterations, mainly through gene regulations of heat response including EvgA, heat shock proteins, σE and σS, to re-fold of misfolded proteins, and achieve antagonism to heat stress. Heat resistance can also be increased by expression of key proteins of membrane and stabilization of membrane fluidity. In addition to the contributions of the outer membrane porin NmpC and overcome of osmotic stress from compatible solutes, the new identified genomic island locus of heat resistant performs a critical role to these highly heat resistant strains. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on heat resistance of E. coli, to better understand its related mechanisms and explore more effective applications of heat interventions in food industry. PMID:27857712

  7. Differential epigenetic compatibility of qnr antibiotic resistance determinants with the chromosome of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María B Sánchez

    Full Text Available Environmental bacteria harbor a plethora of genes that, upon their horizontal transfer to new hosts, may confer resistance to antibiotics, although the number of such determinants actually acquired by pathogenic bacteria is very low. The founder effect, fitness costs and ecological connectivity all influence the chances of resistance transfer being successful. We examined the importance of these bottlenecks using the family of quinolone resistance determinants Qnr. The results indicate the epigenetic compatibility of a determinant with the host genome to be of great importance in the acquisition and spread of resistance. A plasmid carrying the widely distributed QnrA determinant was stable in Escherichia coli, whereas the SmQnr determinant was unstable despite both proteins having very similar tertiary structures. This indicates that the fitness costs associated with the acquisition of antibiotic resistance may not derive from a non-specific metabolic burden, but from the acquired gene causing specific changes in bacterial metabolic and regulatory networks. The observed stabilization of the plasmid encoding SmQnr by chromosomal mutations, including a mutant lacking the global regulator H-NS, reinforces this idea. Since quinolones are synthetic antibiotics, and since the origin of QnrA is the environmental bacterium Shewanella algae, the role of QnrA in this organism is unlikely to be that of conferring resistance. Its evolution toward this may have occurred through mutations or because of an environmental change (exaptation. The present results indicate that the chromosomally encoded Qnr determinants of S. algae can confer quinolone resistance upon their transfer to E. coli without the need of any further mutation. These results suggest that exaptation is important in the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

  8. Risk of resistance related to antibiotic use before admission in patients with community-acquired bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Steffensen, Flemming Hald

    1999-01-01

    %), Streptococcus pneumoniae (23%) Staphylococcus aureus (10%). Of the 575 isolates of E. coli, 425 (74%), 432 (75%) and 518 (90%) were susceptible to ampicillin, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, respectively. Previous antibiotic prescriptions were strongly associated with resistance to ampicillin, sulphonamides...... and trimethoprim in E. coli. The association was less pronounced for S. aureus and enteric rods other than E. coli. Antibiotic prescriptions within the last 3 months predicted antibiotic resistance, and this should be taken into account when selecting empirical antibiotic therapy of severe community...... admission and to 37% during the 6 months. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics within 30 days were ampicillin (28%), penicillin G (27%), sulphonamides and/or trimethoprim (16%) and macrolides (14%). The most frequent blood isolates were Escherichia coli (33%), other Enterobacteriaceae 8...

  9. Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase genes in extensively drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from a patient in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveenkittiporn, Wantana; Kerdsin, Anusak; Chokngam, Sukanya; Bunthi, Charatdao; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Gregory, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    We reported a case of Escherichia coli with colistin resistance and an extensively drug-resistant phenotype. Molecular analysis revealed that the isolate carried mcr-1 and multiple β-lactamase genes includingbla NDM1 , bla CTX-M-15 , bla TEM1 , and bla CMY-2 . This is the first report of a clinical mcr-1 isolate in Thailand highlighting the urgent need for a comprehensive antimicrobial resistance containment strategy to prevent further spread. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Vancomycin-Susceptible, Ampicillin-Intermediate Enterococcus faecium Strain D344RRF

    OpenAIRE

    Garc?a-Solache, M?nica; Rice, Louis B.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen, causing a substantial health burden due to high resistance to antibiotics and its ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we present the draft genome of vancomycin-susceptible, ampicillin-intermediate strain D344RRF, a rifampicin/fusidic acid-resistant and commonly used laboratory strain, which is useful in studying the transfer of antibiotic resistance.

  11. 21 CFR 522.90c - Ampicillin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin sodium. 522.90c Section 522.90c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ampicillin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution constituted from ampicillin sodium...

  12. Sex- and age-specific trends in antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli urinary isolates from outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Jessina C; Elman, Miriam R; Bearden, David T; Smith, David H

    2013-02-22

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections treated in ambulatory care settings, however the epidemiology differs by age and sex. The incidence of UTI is far greater in females than males, and infection in pediatric patients is more often due to anatomical abnormalities. The purpose of this research was to describe age- and sex-specific trends in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli from ambulatory primary care patients in a regional health maintenance organization. Clinical microbiology data were collected for all urine cultures from patients with visits to primary care clinics in a regional health maintenance organization between 2005 and 2010. The first positive culture for E. coli tested for antibiotic susceptibilities per patient per year was included in the analysis dataset. The frequency of susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was calculated for male and female patients. The Cochrane-Mantel-Haenzel test was used to test for differences in age-stratified susceptibility to each antibiotic between males and females. A total of 43,493 E. coli isolates from 34,539 unique patients were identified for study inclusion. After stratifying by age, E. coli susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin differed significantly between males and females. However, the magnitude of the differences was less than 10% for all strata except amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptibility in E. coli isolated from males age 18-64 compared to females of the same age. We did not observe clinically meaningful differences in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among E. coli isolated from males versus females. These data suggest that male sex alone should not be used as an indication for empiric use of second-line broad-spectrum antibiotic agents

  13. Concerning Increase in Antimicrobial Resistance in Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Young Animals during 1980-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirila, Flore; Tabaran, Alexandra; Fit, Nicodim; Nadas, George; Mihaiu, Marian; Tabaran, Flaviu; Cătoi, Cornel; Reget, Oana Lucia; Dan, Sorin Daniel

    2017-09-27

    This study was conducted in order to assess the antimicrobial resistance patterns of E. coli isolated from young animals affected between 1980 and 2016. The selected isolates for this study (n=175) carried stx 1 /stx 2 genes and the most prevalent type of pathogenic E. coli found belonged to serogroup O101, antigen (K99)-F41 positive. All STEC-positive isolates were tested for susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials. Multidrug resistance (MDR) increased from 11% during the 1980s to 40% between 2000 and 2016. Resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin was the most frequent co-resistance phenotype (37%). Co-resistance to tetracycline and sulfonamide was found in 21% of E. coli isolates, while the MDR pattern to tetracycline, sulfonamide, and streptomycin was observed in 12% of the strains tested. Only 8% of isolates were co-resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin, and sulfonamide. The most common resistance genes found were those encoding for tetracycline, sulphonamides, and streptomycin, with 54% (n=95) of the tested isolates containing at least one of the genes encoding tetracycline resistance. A total of 87% of E. coli that tested positive for tetracycline (tetA, tetB, and tetC) and sulphonamide (sul1) resistance genes were isolated between 2000 and 2016. A large number of isolates (n=21) carried int1 and a nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that all class 1 integron gene cassettes carried sul1, tet, and dfrA1 resistance genes. An increase was observed in the level of resistance to antimicrobials in Romania, highlighting the urgent need for a surveillance and prevention system for antimicrobial resistance in livestock in Eastern Europe.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli on household and small-scale chicken farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.T.; Carrique-Mas, J.J.; Ngo, T.H; Ho, H.M.; Ha, T.T.; Campbell, J.I.; Nguyen, T.N.; Hoang, N.N.; Pham, V.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hardon, A.; Thai, Q.H.; Schultsz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli isolates on household and small-scale chicken farms, common in southern Vietnam, and to investigate the association of antimicrobial resistance with farming practices and antimicrobial usage. Methods:

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli on household and small-scale chicken farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, Nguyen Vinh; Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Thi Hoa, Ngo; Mai, Ho Huynh; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Campbell, James I; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Nhung, Hoang Ngoc; Van Minh, Pham; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Hardon, Anita; Hieu, Thai Quoc; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli isolates on household and small-scale chicken farms, common in southern Vietnam, and to investigate the association of antimicrobial resistance with farming practices and antimicrobial usage. METHODS:

  16. A study of the in vitro interaction of cotrimoxazole and ampicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic interactions were recorded by the antibiotics against Staph. aureus and S. typhi while indifferent interaction occurred with P. aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa however, showed resistance to the two antibiotics when they were used alone. The implication is that cotrimoxazole and ampicillin can be used in combination ...

  17. Characterization of chloramphenicol resistance in beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli associated with diarrhea in neonatal swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Kenneth M; White, David G; McDermott, Patrick F; Zhao, Shaohua; Gaines, Stuart; Maurer, John J; Nisbet, David J

    2002-02-01

    Ninety beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates associated with diarrhea in neonatal pigs from multiple farms in Oklahoma were investigated for known associated disease serotypes, virulence factors, ribotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes. Fifteen different serotypes were observed, with 58% of isolates belonging to groups that produce one of three major enterotoxins: O149, O147, and O139. Thirty percent of the swine E. coli isolates possessed a combination of F4 fimbriae and the heat-labile toxin and heat-stable toxin B enterotoxins. Seventy-three percent of the E. coli isolates were resistant to five or more antibiotics. Interestingly, 53% of swine E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to chloramphenicol (CHL), an antibiotic whose use in food animals has been prohibited in the United States since the mid-1980s. The cmlA gene, which encodes a putative CHL efflux pump, was detected by PCR in 47 of the 48 CHL-resistant isolates, and 4 of these also possessed the cat2 gene, which encodes a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. The one CHL-resistant isolate that did not contain either cmlA or cat-2 possessed the flo gene, which confers resistance to both florfenicol and CHL. To determine whether CHL-resistant swine E. coli isolates represented dissemination of a clonal strain, all 90 isolates were analyzed by ribotyping. Seventeen distinct E. coli ribogroups were identified, with CHL resistance observed among the isolates in all except one of the major ribogroups. The identification of the cmlA gene among diverse hemolytic enterotoxigenic E. coli strains demonstrates its broad dissemination in the swine production environment and its persistence even in the absence of CHL selection pressure.

  18. Zoonotic Potential and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli in Neonatal Calves in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpiérrez, Ana; Bado, Inés; Oliver, Martín; Acquistapace, Sofía; Etcheverría, Analía; Padola, Nora Lía; Vignoli, Rafael; Zunino, Pablo

    2017-09-27

    Escherichia coli is one of the main etiological agents of neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). The objective of this study was to assess the presence of virulence genes, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms in E. coli associated with NCD in Uruguay. PCR was used to assess the presence of intimin, Shiga-like toxin, and stable and labile enterotoxin genes. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and oxyimino-cephalosporins was estimated on Müller-Hinton agar plates. Further antibiotic disc-diffusion tests were performed to assess bacterial multi-resistance. The presence of PMQR, ESBL, MCR-1, and integron genes was evaluated. Isolates were typed using ERIC-PCR, and 20 were selected for MLST, adhesion to Hep-2 cells, in vitro biofilm formation, and eukaryotic cytotoxicity. The prevalence of ETEC genes was lower than 3% in each case (estA and elt). Six isolates were EPEC (eae+) and 2 were EHEC/STEC (eae+/stx1+). The results of a diversity analysis showed high genetic heterogenicity among isolates. Additionally, different sequence types, including ST10, ST21, and ST69, were assigned to selected isolates. Thirty-six percent (96/264) of the isolates were fluoroquinolone-resistant, with 61/96 (63.5%) being multidrug-resistant. Additionally, 6 were oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant. The qnrB, qnrS1, and bla CTX-M-14 genes were detected, whereas no isolates carried the mcr-1 gene. Isolates had the ability to adhere to Hep-2 cells and form biofilms. Only 1 isolate expressed toxins in vitro. E. coli from NCD cases in Uruguay are very diverse, potentially virulent, and may interact with eukaryotic cells. Zoonotic potential, together with resistance traits and the presence of horizontal transfer mechanisms, may play a significant role in infections caused by these microorganisms.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Commensal Escherichia coli Isolated from Broiler Chickens in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltai, Nahla O; Abdfarag, Elmoubasher A; Al-Romaihi, Hamad; Wehedy, Eman; Mahmoud, Mahmoud H; Alawad, Osama K; Al-Hajri, Mohammed M; Al Thani, Asmaa A; Yassine, Hadi M

    2018-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a growing public health concern worldwide, and it is a top health challenge in the 21st century. AR among Enterobacteriaceae is rapidly increasing, especially in third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Further, strains carrying mobilized colistin resistance ( mcr) genes 1 and 2 have been isolated from humans, food-producing animals, and the environment. The uncontrolled use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is a major factor in the generation and spread of AR. No studies have been done to evaluate AR in the veterinary sector of Qatar. This study aimed at establishing primary baseline data for the prevalence of AR among food-producing animals in Qatar. Fecal samples (172) were obtained from two broiler farms and one live bird market in Qatar, and 90 commensal Escherichia coli bacteria were isolated and subjected to susceptibility testing against 16 clinically relevant antibiotics by using the E-test method. The results found that 81 (90%) of 90 isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, 14 (15.5%) of 90 isolates were colistin resistant, 2 (2.2%) of 90 isolates were extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers, and 2 (2.2%) of 90 isolates were multidrug resistant to four antibiotic classes. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli and colistin-resistant isolates were confirmed by using double-disc susceptibility testing and PCR, respectively. Such a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli could be the result of a long application of antibiotic treatment, and it is an indicator of the antibiotic load in food-producing animals in Qatar. Pathogens carrying AR can be easily transmitted to humans through consumption of undercooked food or noncompliance with hygiene practices, mandating prompt development and implementation of a stewardship program to control and monitor the use of antibiotics in the community and agriculture.

  20. The serum resistome of a globally disseminated multidrug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Minh-Duy; Peters, Kate M; Sarkar, Sohinee; Lukowski, Samuel W; Allsopp, Luke P; Gomes Moriel, Danilo; Achard, Maud E S; Totsika, Makrina; Marshall, Vikki M; Upton, Mathew; Beatson, Scott A; Schembri, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli ST131 is a globally disseminated, multidrug resistant clone responsible for a high proportion of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. The rapid emergence and successful spread of E. coli ST131 is strongly associated with antibiotic resistance; however, this phenotype alone is unlikely to explain its dominance amongst multidrug resistant uropathogens circulating worldwide in hospitals and the community. Thus, a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underpin the fitness of E. coli ST131 is required. In this study, we employed hyper-saturated transposon mutagenesis in combination with multiplexed transposon directed insertion-site sequencing to define the essential genes required for in vitro growth and the serum resistome (i.e. genes required for resistance to human serum) of E. coli EC958, a representative of the predominant E. coli ST131 clonal lineage. We identified 315 essential genes in E. coli EC958, 231 (73%) of which were also essential in E. coli K-12. The serum resistome comprised 56 genes, the majority of which encode membrane proteins or factors involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. Targeted mutagenesis confirmed a role in serum resistance for 46 (82%) of these genes. The murein lipoprotein Lpp, along with two lipid A-core biosynthesis enzymes WaaP and WaaG, were most strongly associated with serum resistance. While LPS was the main resistance mechanism defined for E. coli EC958 in serum, the enterobacterial common antigen and colanic acid also impacted on this phenotype. Our analysis also identified a novel function for two genes, hyxA and hyxR, as minor regulators of O-antigen chain length. This study offers novel insight into the genetic make-up of E. coli ST131, and provides a framework for future research on E. coli and other Gram-negative pathogens to define their essential gene repertoire and to dissect the molecular mechanisms that enable them to survive in the bloodstream and cause disease.

  1. Clonal group distribution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli among humans and companion animals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platell, Joanne L; Cobbold, Rowland N; Johnson, James R; Trott, Darren J

    2010-09-01

    To determine the phylogenetic group distribution and prevalence of three major globally disseminated clonal groups [clonal group A (CGA) and O15:K52:H1, associated with phylogenetic group D, and sequence type ST131, associated with phylogenetic group B2] among fluoroquinolone-resistant extra-intestinal Escherichia coli isolates from humans and companion animals in Australia. Clinical extra-intestinal fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates were obtained from humans (n = 582) and companion animals (n = 125), on Australia's east coast (October 2007-October 2009). Isolates were tested for susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents, and for phylogenetic group, O type and clonal-group-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms by PCR. The fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were typically resistant to multiple agents (median of four). Analysis revealed that clonal group ST131 accounted for a large subset of the human isolates (202/585, 35%), but for a much smaller proportion of the companion animal isolates (9/125, 7.2%; P resistant extra-intestinal E. coli isolates from humans are represented by three major globally disseminated clonal groups, predominantly ST131, which by contrast is comparatively rare among fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli from companion animals. In conjunction with Australia's ban on fluoroquinolone use in livestock, these results argue against a major domestic food animal or companion animal source for fluoroquinolone-resistant extra-intestinal E. coli among humans in Australia. However, both humans and companion animals are involved in the intercontinental emergence and dissemination of ST131.

  2. Escherichia coli Population Structure and Antibiotic Resistance at a Buffalo/Cattle Interface in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercat, Mathilde; Clermont, Olivier; Massot, Méril; Ruppe, Etienne; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Miguel, Eve; Valls Fox, Hugo; Cornelis, Daniel; Andremont, Antoine; Denamur, Erick; Caron, Alexandre

    2015-12-28

    At a human/livestock/wildlife interface, Escherichia coli populations were used to assess the risk of bacterial and antibiotic resistance dissemination between hosts. We used phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques to describe the structure and the level of antibiotic resistance of E. coli commensal populations and the resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage of sympatric African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and cattle populations characterized by their contact patterns in the southern part of Hwange ecosystem in Zimbabwe. Our results (i) confirmed our assumption that buffalo and cattle share similar phylogroup profiles, dominated by B1 (44.5%) and E (29.0%) phylogroups, with some variability in A phylogroup presence (from 1.9 to 12%); (ii) identified a significant gradient of antibiotic resistance from isolated buffalo to buffalo in contact with cattle and cattle populations expressed as the Murray score among Enterobacteriaceae (0.146, 0.258, and 0.340, respectively) and as the presence of tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, and amoxicillin-resistant subdominant E. coli strains (0, 5.7, and 38%, respectively); (iii) evidenced the dissemination of tetracycline, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin resistance genes (tet, dfrA, and blaTEM-1) in 26 isolated subdominant E. coli strains between nearby buffalo and cattle populations, that led us (iv) to hypothesize the role of the human/animal interface in the dissemination of genetic material from human to cattle and toward wildlife. The study of antibiotic resistance dissemination in multihost systems and at anthropized/natural interface is necessary to better understand and mitigate its multiple threats. These results also contribute to attempts aiming at using E. coli as a tool for the identification of pathogen transmission pathway in multihost systems. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. [Current antibiotic resistance profile of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains and therapeutic consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bouamri, M C; Arsalane, L; Kamouni, Y; Yahyaoui, H; Bennouar, N; Berraha, M; Zouhair, S

    2014-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a very common reason for consultation and prescription in current practice. Excessive or inappropriate use of antibiotics in treating urinary tract infections is responsible for the emergence and spread of multiresistant uropathogenic bacteria. To evaluate the isolation frequency and antibiotic resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated at the Marrakech region. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of three years (from 1st January 2010 to 31 December 2012). It included all non-redundant uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated in the microbiology laboratory of the Avicenne hospital of Marrakech, Morocco. During this study, 1472 uropathogenic enterobacteriaceae were isolated including 924 non-repetitive E. coli strains, an overall isolation frequency of 63%. Antibiotic resistance of isolated E. coli strains showed resistance rates to amoxicillin (65%), sulfamethoxazole-triméthropime (55%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (43%), ciprofloxacin (22%), gentamicin (14%), nitrofurans (11%), amikacin (8%) and fosfomycin (7%). The number of E. coli strains resistant to C3G by ESBL production was 67, an average frequency of 4.5% of all isolated uropathogenic enterobacteria. The associated antibiotic resistance in the case of ESBL-producing E. coli were 82% for ciprofloxacin, 76% for sulfamethozole trimethoprim, 66% for gentamicin and 56% for amikacin. No resistance to imipenem was recorded for the isolated E. coli strains, which represents an imipenem sensitivity of 100%. Antibiotic resistance of uropathogenic E. coli strains limits treatment options and therefore constitutes a real public health problem. The regular updating of antibiotic susceptibility statistics of E. coli strains allows a better adaptation of the probabilistic antibiotic therapy to local epidemiological data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Salmonella in Ontario smallholder chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebert, L; Martz, S-L; Janecko, N; Deckert, A E; Agunos, A; Reid, A; Rubin, J E; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2018-02-01

    Surveillance is an important component of an overall strategy to address antimicrobial resistant bacteria in food animals and the food chain. The poultry market has many points of entry into the Canadian food chain, and some production practices are underrepresented in terms of surveillance. For example, pathogen carriage and antimicrobial resistance surveillance data are limited in smallholder chicken flocks raised for slaughter at provincially inspected abattoirs. In Canada, antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from commercial broiler chicken flocks, slaughtered at federally inspected abattoirs, is monitored by the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). The objective of this study was to establish baseline information of antimicrobial resistance presence in E. coli and Salmonella isolated from smallholder flocks in Ontario, utilizing CIPARS collection and isolation methodologies, and to compare findings with CIPARS federally inspected abattoir data from Ontario, Canada. Five chickens per flock were sampled from 205 smallholder flocks. Of 1,025 samples, the E. coli prevalence was 99% (1,022/1,025), and 47% (483/1,022) of positive E. coli isolates were resistant to one or more of the 14 antimicrobials. Furthermore, as compared to results reported for the CIPARS commercial flocks, E. coli isolates from smallholder flocks had significantly lower resistance prevalence to six of 14 individual antimicrobials. Recovery of E. coli did not differ between federally inspected and provincially inspected flocks. Salmonella prevalence at the bird level in smallholder flocks was 0.3% (3/1,025), significantly lower (p ≪ 0.0001, 95% CI 0.080%-0.86%) than federally inspected commercial flocks. The overall differences found between the commercial and smallholder flocks may be explained by differences in poultry husbandry practices and hatchery sources. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  5. Screening of extracts of algae from Baja California Sur, Mexico as reversers of the antibiotic resistance of some pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Riosmena Rodríguez, Rafael; Martínez Díaz, Sergio Francisco; Zermeño Cervantes, Lina Angélica; Murillo-Álvarez, Jesús Iván; Muñoz Ochoa, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Sixty ethanol extracts of marine flora of Baja California Sur (Mexico) were screened to evaluate the reversing effect of the bacterial resistance to antibiotics in combination with a sublethal concentration of ampicillin or erythromycin. The activity was assayed by using a modification of the classical agar-diffusion method against 3 resistant, pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC BAA196), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC BAA42), and Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC BAA946). From the 60 ethanol...

  6. Characterization of Multidrug Resistant ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Hospitals in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Ting Lim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Escherichia coli that produce extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and are multidrug resistant (MDR poses antibiotic management problems. Forty-seven E. coli isolates from various public hospitals in Malaysia were studied. All isolates were sensitive to imipenem whereas 36 were MDR (resistant to 2 or more classes of antibiotics. PCR detection using gene-specific primers showed that 87.5% of the ESBL-producing E. coli harbored the blaTEM gene. Other ESBL-encoding genes detected were blaOXA, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M. Integron-encoded integrases were detected in 55.3% of isolates, with class 1 integron-encoded intI1 integrase being the majority. Amplification and sequence analysis of the 5′CS region of the integrons showed known antibiotic resistance-encoding gene cassettes of various sizes that were inserted within the respective integrons. Conjugation and transformation experiments indicated that some of the antibiotic resistance genes were likely plasmid-encoded and transmissible. All 47 isolates were subtyped by PFGE and PCR-based fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, repetitive extragenic palindromes (REPs, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC. These isolates were very diverse and heterogeneous. PFGE, ERIC, and REP-PCR methods were more discriminative than RAPD in subtyping the E. coli isolates.

  7. Susceptibility of multidrug resistant enterotoxigenic escherichia coli to saponin extract from phyllanthus niruri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajibade, V.A.; Famurewa, O.

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli were isolated from 140 samples of blood, urine, stool and water made up of 15.7%, 42.9% and 30.0% and 25.7% respectively. From the samples, 71.9% enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), 14.3% enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 7.1% enterohemorrhagic E. coil (EHEC) and 7.1% enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) occurred as diarrheagenic E. coli. Of the ETEC (240) isolates tested for susceptibility to eight conventional antibiotics. 110 (46.0%) showed resistance to all the tested antimicrobial agents. However, of the resistant strains; 24 (22.0%) were multidrug resistant. These were tested against 3.0 mg/mL of saponin extract from phyllanthus niruri and 13 (55.0%) of these were susceptible to the saponin. The antimicrobial activities of saponin from P. niruri are of interest since the crude extract was effective at concentration of 3.0 mg/ml to multiple resistant isolates of EEC. (author)

  8. Small noncoding RNA GcvB is a novel regulator of acid resistance in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ye

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low pH environment of the human stomach is lethal for most microorganisms; but not Escherichia coli, which can tolerate extreme acid stress. Acid resistance in E. coli is hierarchically controlled by numerous regulators among which are small noncoding RNAs (sncRNA. Results In this study, we individually deleted seventy-nine sncRNA genes from the E. coli K12-MG1655 chromosome, and established a single-sncRNA gene knockout library. By systematically screening the sncRNA mutant library, we show that the sncRNA GcvB is a novel regulator of acid resistance in E. coli. We demonstrate that GcvB enhances the ability of E. coli to survive low pH by upregulating the levels of the alternate sigma factor RpoS. Conclusion GcvB positively regulates acid resistance by affecting RpoS expression. These data advance our understanding of the sncRNA regulatory network involved in modulating acid resistance in E. coli.

  9. Phylogenetic group, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli associated with bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongxia; Liu, Gang; Liu, Wenjun; Liu, Yong; Ali, Tariq; Chen, Wei; Yin, Jinhua; Han, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Escherichia coli is an important pathogen involved in the etiology of bovine mastitis. A total of 70 E. coli isolates recovered from clinical and subclinical mastitis samples were characterized with respect to their phylogenic group, virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility. Based on the presence of the specific genes chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2, these isolates were found to belong to three different groups: group A(25), group B1(41) and group D(4). Twenty-five (35.7%) isolates harbored at least one virulence gene, and the most prevalent virulence genes were f17A, irp2, astA, iucD and colV. The irp2-coding gene was more often detected in group A than in group B1 isolates; in contrast, colV was identified more often in group B1 isolates. The majority of isolates (87.1%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial compound. Forty-seven isolates (67.1%) were resistant to streptomycin, and those from group B1 were more resistant to streptomycin than isolates from group A. The latter feature was supported by the distribution of streptomycin resistance genes observed in group B1 compared to group A. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Myo-inositol improves the host’s ability to eliminate balofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-hai; Zhang, Bing-wen; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-xian

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant mechanisms are associated with fitness costs. However, why antibiotic-resistant bacteria usually show increasing adaptation to hosts is largely unknown, especially from the host’s perspective. The present study reveals the host’s varied response to balofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli (BLFX-R) using an integrated proteome and metabolome approach and identifies myo-inositol and phagocytosis-related proteins as crucial biomarkers. Originally, macrophages have an optimal attractive preference to BLFX-S due to more polarization of BLFX-S than BLFX-R, which renders faster elimination to BLFX-S than BLFX-R. The slower elimination to BLFX-R may be reversed by exogenous myo-inositol. Primarily, myo-inositol depolarizes macrophages, elevating adherence to both BLFX-S and BLFX-R. Since the altered adherence is equal to both strains, the myo-inositol-treated macrophages are free of the barrier to BLFX-R and thereby promote phagocytosis of BLFX-R. This work provides a novel strategy based on metabolic modulation for eliminating antibiotic-resistant bacteria with a high degree of host adaptation. PMID:26030712

  11. Presence of disinfectant resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from retail meats in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Likou; Meng, Jianghong; McDermott, Patrick F; Wang, Fei; Yang, Qianru; Cao, Guojie; Hoffmann, Maria; Zhao, Shaohua

    2014-10-01

    To examine the distribution of all genes known to be responsible for resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), and their association with resistance to QACs and other antimicrobials, in Escherichia coli recovered from retail meats. A total of 570 strains of E. coli isolated from US retail meats in 2006 were screened for the presence of 10 QAC resistance genes [qacE, qacEΔ1, qacF, qacG, emrE, sugE(c), sugE(p), mdfA and ydgE/ydgF]. The MICs of six common disinfectants were determined using an agar dilution method. Possible associations between the presence of the gene and bacterial resistance to QACs and antimicrobials were investigated. emrE, sugE(c), mdfA and ydgE/ydgF were commonly present (77.2%-100%) in the E. coli isolates, but qac and sugE(p) were less prevalent (0.4%-22.3%). emrE-mdfA-sugE(c)-ydgE/F was the most common QAC resistance gene profile. A significant association was found between antimicrobial resistance and the presence of sugE(p) and qacEΔ1 (P resistant E. coli isolates tended to contain more diverse combinations of disinfectant resistance genes than susceptible ones. All isolates showed reduced susceptibility to five of six disinfectants compared with the control strains. Higher MICs were generally associated with the presence of qac and sugE(p) genes. The QAC resistance genes were commonly present among E. coli isolated from retail meats, and the qac and sugE(p) genes were highly associated with multidrug resistance phenotypes. Using QACs in the food industry may not be as effective as expected and could provide selection pressure for strains with acquired resistance to other antimicrobials. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. The Analysis of Escherichia Coli Resistance in Urine Culture and in Antibiograms as Requested by Emergency Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Yavuz; Yazici, Vesile; Ayhan, Harun; Gencer, Emin Gokhan; Halhalli, Huseyin Cahit; Karakayali, Onur; Gunaydin, Yahya Kemal

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance of infectious and non-infectious E. coli species in order to increase the success of empirical antibiotic treatment in urinary system infections. The antibiotic susceptibility of 464 E. coli strains that were isolated from urine samples of patients who visited Derince Training and Research Hospital Emergency Department between January 1 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively evaluated from records. The antibiogram results were classified as susceptible, moderately susceptible or resistant. Moderately susceptible strains were assumed to be resistant. Bacterial proliferation was seen in 563 (28.1%) of the 1998 urine cultures tested. One hundred and twelve cultures could not be evaluated due to contamination, and there was no proliferation in 1323 cultures. E. coli strains were isolated in 464 (82.4%) of the cultures in which proliferation was seen. Three hundred and sixty seven (79%) of the patients were female, 97 (21%) were male, and the mean age of all of the patients was 41.1±24.1 years (min: 1, max: 90). The antibiograms of the E. coli strains revealed that meropenem had the lowest resistance (0%), while ampicillin-sulbactam had the highest resistance (36.8%). In this study, we investigated the antibiotic resistance of E. coli strains isolated from urine cultures in our region. Future studies, perhaps similar to this one, can be performed in the future to increase the success of treatments.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN STRAINS OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM FOOD SOURCES