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Sample records for amphisbaenidae squamata amphisbaenia

  1. Sistema respiratório de Amphisbaena vermicularis e Amphisbaena microcephala (Squamata, Amphisbaenia, Amphisbaenidae)

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    Maria Eliana C. Navega-Gonçalves; José Roberto M. C. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    A morfologia macro e microscópica da traqueia e pulmões de Amphisbaena vermicularis Wagler, 1824 e Amphisbaena microcephala (Wagler, 1824), assim como a ultraestrutura das câmaras respiratórias, foram descritas pela primeira vez neste estudo. A traqueia não se ramifica e seu segmento caudal, situado entre os pulmões, foi denominado brônquio. O pulmão esquerdo é alongado, saculiforme e unicameral, com parênquima faveolar na porção cranial e trabecular, na porção caudal. Câmaras respiratórias e...

  2. Ontogenetic allometry constrains cranial shape of the head-first burrowing worm lizard Cynisca leucura (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipsley, Christy A; Rentinck, Marc-Nicolas; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Müller, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Amphisbaenians are fossorial, predominantly limbless squamate reptiles with distinct cranial shapes corresponding to specific burrowing behaviors. Due to their cryptic lifestyles and the scarcity of museum specimens, little is known of their intraspecific variation, particularly regarding cranial osteology. This represents a critical lack of information, because the majority of morphological investigations of squamate relationships are based on cranial characters. We investigated cranial variation in the West African Coast Worm Lizard Cynisca leucura, a round-headed member of the Amphisbaenidae. Using geometric morphometric analyses of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans, we found that cranial osteology of C. leucura is highly conserved, with the majority of shape changes occurring during growth as the cranium becomes more slender and elongate, accompanied by increasing interdigitation among the dermal roofing bones. Elements of the ventral portion of the cranium remain loosely connected in adults, possibly as a protective mechanism against repeated compression and torsion during burrow excavation. Intraspecific variation was strongly correlated with size change from juveniles to adults, indicating a dominant role of ontogenetic allometry in determining cranial shape. We found no evidence of sexual dimorphism, either during growth or among adults. Given the fossorial habits of C. leucura, we hypothesize that cranial allometry is under strong stabilizing selection to maintain adequate proportions for head-first digging, thereby constraining the ability of individuals to respond to differing selection pressures, including sexual selection and variation in diet or microhabitat. For species in which digging imposes less mechanical stress (e.g., in softer sand), allometric associations during growth may be weakened, allowing changes to the ontogenetic trajectory and subsequent morphological traits. Such developmental dissociation between size and shape, known

  3. Nova espécie de Bronia Gray, 1845, do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae

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    Carolina Castro-Mello

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronia saxosa, sp. n., localidade tipo UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, Estado do Tocantins, difere das demais espécies de Bronia Gray, 1865, principalmente por possuir nasais pequenas separadas pela rostral. A nova espécie possui 4 poros, 253-272 anéis corporais, 17-21 anéis caudais, 18-24/1621 segmentos em um anel no meio do corpo.Bronia saxosa, sp. n. from the state of Tocantins, Brasil, (Hydroelectric Dam Luis Eduardo Magalhães, 09°45'S, 48°21'W, a cerrado area, differs from the remainining species of the genus mainly by having small nasals scutes separated by the rostral. It has (82 specimens 4 preanal pores, 253-272 body annuli, 17-21 tail annuli and 18-24/16-21 segments to a midbody annulus.

  4. Subterranean ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae as prey of fossorial reptiles (Reptilia, Squamata: Amphisbaenidae in Central Brazil

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    Flávia de Araújo Esteves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ant diversity observed in stomach contents of fossorial reptiles was compared to the subterranean ant richness collected using traditional and modern techniques of ant collections. We analyzed the alimentary tract of 64 specimens of amphisbaenians (4 Amphisbaena alba, 10 A. fuliginosa, 25 A. vermicularis, and 25 Leposternon infraorbitale collected during the fauna rescue for the construction of Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam in the Tocantins River (from 1992 to 1997, in Minaçu County, Goiás, Brazil. We found only five ant species present in the stomach contents, all belonging to the army ants subfamily Ecitoninae. In contrast, the traditional techniques for subterranean ants' collection are far more efficient than the exam of fossorial reptile's stomach contents, collecting a much richer and diverse ant fauna. The exclusive occurrence of army ants in the alimentary tract of these fossorial reptiles suggests that they trace the chemical trails laid by the ants while moving inside and over the soil. Further, the occurrence of the epigaeic army ants Eciton and Labidus in the stomach contents suggests that amphisbaenians may forage on the soil surface as well.A diversidade de formigas no conteúdo estomacal de répteis fossoriais foi comparada à riqueza de formigas subterrâneas coletadas com o uso de técnicas tradicionais e modernas para sua coleta. Analisamos o trato alimentar de 64 espécimes de anfisbenídeos (4 Amphisbaena alba, 10 A. fuliginosa, 25 A. vermicularis e 25 Leposternon infraorbitale coletados durante o resgate da fauna para a construção da represa da Hidroelétrica da Serra da Mesa no Rio Tocantins (de 1992 a 1997, na cidade de Minaçu, Goiás, Brasil. Encontramos apenas cinco espécies de formigas presentes nos conteúdos estomacais aqui examinados, todas pertencentes à subfamília das formigas-de-correição, Ecitoninae. Ao contrário, as técnicas tradicionais de coleta de formigas subterrâneas são muito mais eficientes que o exame dos conteúdos estomacais de répteis fossoriais, coletando uma fauna muito mais rica e diversa de formigas. A ocorrência exclusiva de formigas-de-correição no trato alimentar destes répteis fossoriais sugere que eles seguem trilhas químicas deixadas pelas formigas à medida que se elas movimentam no interior e sobre o solo. Ainda, a ocorrência das formigas-de-correição epigéicas Eciton e Labidus nos conteúdos estomacais analisados sugere que os anfisbenídeos podem também forragear na superfície do solo.

  5. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil.

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    Costa, Henrique C; Resende, Flávia C; Teixeira, Mauro; Dal Vechio, Francisco; Clemente, Cinara A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains. PMID:26131637

  6. Sexual dimorphism in Amphisbaena nigricauda (Reptilia, Squamata, Amphisbaenidae from Southeastern Brazil

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    Francco A. N. de Souza e Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaena nigricauda Gans, 1966 is a small, poorly known amphisbaenid endemic to the restinga of the states of Espírito Santo and Bahia, Brazil. We analyze 178 specimens collected in Vitória municipality, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, to investigate whether this species show sexual dimorphism in pre-cloacal pores and in morphological characters. Sex was determined by a ventral incision and direct inspection of gonads. A PCA analysis was performed to generate a general body size measurement. A T test and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test were used to assess whether this species show sexual dimorphism on five morphometric and five meristic characters, respectively. Sex could not be determined in 36 specimens because they were mutilated in the posterior portion of their bodies. The diagnosis of the species is redefined based on this sample size: the smallest number of body annuli changes from 222 to 192, the number of dorsal and ventral segments in an annulus in the middle of the body changes to 9-11/13-16 (instead of 10/16, and the autotomic tail annulus lies between annulus 7-10 (instead of 6-9. The number of tail annuli remained within the known range of variation of the species (19-24. None of the 80 females analyzed showed pre-cloacal pores, whereas within males 59 out of 62 specimens displayed four and two specimens displayed five pre-cloacal pores. A single male did not possess pre-cloacal pores, but showed irregular scales on its cloacal region. Sex-based difference based on presence or absence of pre-cloacal pores as well as males with wider head was seen in other Neotropical amphisbaenids. However, a pattern of body size differences between males and females has not been identified so far in the few amphisbaenid species studied in this regard. Further studies on this taxonomic group are still needed to elucidate the existence of general patterns of sexual dimorphism and to identify the selective pressures driving these patterns.

  7. A second note on the geographical differentiation of Amphisbaena fuliginosa L., 1758 (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae, with a consideration of the forest refuge model of speciation

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    VANZOLINI PAULO EMILIO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographical differentiation of Amphisbaena fuliginosa L. is studied with basis on 220 specimens from 99 definite and 2 generic localities, ranging from Panamá to Puno in Peru and Goiás in Brasil. The pattern found is considered to support Vanzolini's 1951 scheme of five subspecies, defined by color pattern and by four meristic characters, and differentiated in consequence of Quaternary paleoecological events. Recent developments relating to models of differentiation in Quaternary tropical South America are briefly considered.

  8. Variaciones dentarias en Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae)

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    Brizuela, Santiago; Albino, Adriana M.

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen los diferentes tipos morfológicos de dientes observados en una muestra osteológica de 26 ejemplares de Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae). En el maxilar y el dentario se reconocen dientes unicuspidados y multicuspidados o romos, dentro de los cuales se aprecian subtipos que varían en el tamaño y la robustez de los dientes, la curvatura, el grado de definición de las cúspides y la compresión labiolingual. Excepcionalmente se observan dientes pentacuspidados. L...

  9. Herpetofauna of the Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil. VIII. Amphisbaena arda sp. nov., a fulliginosa-like checkered patterned Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae.

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    Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaena arda sp. nov. is described based on a specimen obtained at Mocambo do Vento, on the left bank of the São Francisco river, Bahia state, Brazil. A. arda is a medium size amphisbaenian with a checkered black and white color pattern similar to the one present in the fuliginosa group but differing from that by having a lighter pigmentation, an uniformly white ventral surface, and by several other important morphological characters. A. arda is similar to Amphisbaena vermicularis in meristic characters currently used to assist amphisbaenian identification but can be separated from it by its color pattern, its flatter cephalic shields, and by the more ventral position of the nostril.

  10. Un caso de puesta comunal en Kentropyx lagartija (Squamata: Teiidae

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    Tulli, María José

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Los casos de puestas comunales y de puestas coloniales han sido mencionados para varios grupos de Squamata (Graves y Duvall, 1995. Se define como puesta comunal a la deposición no incidental de huevos de dos o más hembras de una especie que utilizan una única cavidad (Espinoza y Lobo, 1996. En una puesta colonial, en cambio, los nidos son construidos de manera adyacente y los huevos generalmente no son depositados en la misma cavidad. Esta última estrategia de oviposición es más frecuente en aves que en lagartijas (Rand, 1967; Wiewandt, 1982; Mora, 1989; Burger, 1993; Espinoza y Lobo, 1996; Krysko et al., 2003. Entre los Teiidae sólo se conoce el caso de puesta comunal de Kentropyx calcarata (Magnusson y Lima, 1984.

  11. A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes

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    Pyron, R. Alexander; Burbrink, Frank T.; Wiens, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The extant squamates (>9400 known species of lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse and conspicuous radiations of terrestrial vertebrates, but no studies have attempted to reconstruct a phylogeny for the group with large-scale taxon sampling. Such an estimate is invaluable for comparative evolutionary studies, and to address their classification. Here, we present the first large-scale phylogenetic estimate for Squamata. Results The estimated phylogeny contains 4161 species...

  12. Hydroalcoholic extracts of Vellozia squamata: study of its nanoemulsions for pharmaceutical or cosmetic applications

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    Frederico J. O. Quintão

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Some species of plants are notable for the wide range of biologically active constituents in their tissues. Chemical and pharmacological studies of Vellozia squamata Pohl, Velloziaceae, popularly known in Brasil as "canela-de-ema" are scarce, but showed the presence of di-and triterpenoid that may be of scientific interest. In the present study the hydroalcoholic extracts from leafs and stems of V. squamata were submitted to phytochemical prospection to identify the principal groups of constituents, and the antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH method. The hydroethanolic extracts presented higher antioxidant activity. Thus, nanoemulsion formulations were prepared using the method of phase inversion. Accelerated stability tests, such as heat stress and centrifugation were made, and physical and chemical properties of the nanoemulsions were established. Stable formulations were obtained from both extracts from leafs and stems. By the results was possible to establish the potential application of hydroalcoholic extracts from V. squamata in development of products with antioxidant properties and demonstrate a promising pharmaceutical product.

  13. Variaciones dentarias en Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae)

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    Brizuela, Santiago; Albino, Adriana María

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen los diferentes tipos morfológicos de dientes observados en una muestra osteológica de 26 ejemplares de Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae). En el maxilar y el dentario se reconocen dientes unicuspidados y multicuspidados o romos, dentro de los cuales se aprecian subtipos que varían en el tamaño y la robustez de los dientes, la curvatura, el grado de definición de las cúspides y la compresión labiolingual. Excepcionalmente se observan dientes pentacuspidados. L...

  14. Predation of Hemidactylus mabouia (Squamata: Gekkonidae by Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae in northeastern Brazil

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    Romana Aguiar Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We reported the predation record of the exotic lizard Hemidactylus mabouia by the native bird Guira guira in a perianthropic forest patch in Fortaleza municipality, Ceará state, northeastern Brazil. RESUMO: Predação de Hemidactylus mabouia (Squamata: Gekkonidae por Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae no nordeste do Brasil. Nós relatamos o registro de predação do lagarto exótico Hemidactylus mabouia pela ave nativa Guira guira em um fragmento florestal periantrópico no município de Fortaleza, estado do Ceará, nordeste do Brasil.

  15. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata

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    Huang, Li-Si; He, Fei; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-yong; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2), dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediyl))bis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylene))dicarbamate (3), obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5), and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5α,6β,7β-aromadendrane (6), (−)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5β,6α,7α-aromadendrane (7), (−)-4α,10β-aromadendranediol (8), (+)-4β,10β-aromadendranediol (9) were obtained from the South China Sea gorgonian coral Melitodes squamata Nutting. ...

  16. Alteration of bioluminescence in Amphipholis squamata (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) by heavy metals contamination: a field study

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    Deheyn, D; Jangoux, M.; Warnau, M.

    2000-01-01

    The ophiuroid Amphipholis squamata (Echinodermata) is a bioluminescent species whose light production varies with physico-chemical parameters of the medium. Individuals collected in the bay of Portman along a gradient of heavy metal contamination show different patterns of light production: the ones from the highest contaminated area showing a bioluminescence weaker and slower than those from the lowest contaminated area. Individuals that were transferred for 3 days from the lowest to the hig...

  17. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata.

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    Huang, Li-Si; He, Fei; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2), dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediyl))bis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylene))dicarbamate (3), obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5), and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5α,6β,7β-aromadendrane (6), (-)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5β,6α,7α-aromadendrane (7), (-)-4α,10β-aromadendranediol (8), (+)-4β,10β-aromadendranediol (9) were obtained from the South China Sea gorgonian coral Melitodes squamata Nutting. Compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 were new, and their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 6 and 7 contained a taurine group that was rarely found in marine natural compounds, and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity. The possible biosynthesis routes of 1-5 were conjectured. PMID:22423284

  18. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata

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    Li-Si Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2, dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediylbis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylenedicarbamate (3, obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5, and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5α,6β,7β-aromadendrane (6, (−-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5β,6α,7α-aromadendrane (7, (−-4α,10β-aromadendranediol (8, (+-4β,10β-aromadendranediol (9 were obtained from the South China Sea gorgonian coral Melitodes squamata Nutting. Compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 were new, and their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 6 and 7 contained a taurine group that was rarely found in marine natural compounds, and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity. The possible biosynthesis routes of 1–5 were conjectured.

  19. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Elaphe anomala (Squamata Colubridae).

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    Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wen-Ge

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Elaphe anomala (Squamata: Colubridae) is first determined using long PCR. It is a circular molecule of 17,164 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 2 control regions (CRI and CRII). The gene order and nucleotide composition of E. anomala are very similar with E. schrenckii. Mitochondrial genomes analyses based on the NJ method yield phylogenetic tree of 17 species snakes of Colubridae. Species E. anomala, E. schrenckii, E. bimaculata and E. davidi seemed to have formed a monophyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100%) except E. poryphyracea. Oligodon ningshaanensis and Thermophis zhaoermii are special species. The molecular data presented here provide a useful tool for setting the stage for further studies. PMID:26057014

  20. Nuevos registros de squamata (reptilia para el pleistoceno superior del norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Federico Agnolin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo son reportados ejemplares de diversos taxones de reptiles escamados fósiles procedentes de la base de la Formación Luján (Pleistoceno Superior, en la localidad fosilífera de Merlo, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Entre los ejemplares registrados se reconoce el primer registro fósil para el género y especie Anops kingii (Amphisbaenidae; asimismo se reporta la presencia de especies indeterminadas de los géneros Homonota (Gekkonidae y Liolaemus (Liolaemidae. La asociación conjunta de estos tres taxones hoy en día no se encuentra representada en el norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires, siendo la región geográficamente más cercana en donde encuentran una superposición en su distribución el Partido de Balcarce, ubicado en el extremo Sureste de la provincia y alejado unos 600 kilómetros al sur de la localidad fosilífera de Merlo. La presencia conjunta de estos tres reptiles se encuentra de acuerdo con la posible existencia de un pulso árido y frío, tal como ha sido propuesto con anterioridad para porción más inferior del Pleistoceno Superior en la provincia de Buenos Aires.

  1. Colour varieties as sibling species in the polychromatic ophiuroid Amphipholis squamata (Echinodermata): evidence from inheritance of body colour and luminescence characters

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    Deheyn, D; Jangoux, M.

    1999-01-01

    Individuals of Amphipholis squamata from two colour varieties (beige and black) that differ strongly in luminescence performance, were collected from the field and raised in aquaria through three subsequent generations. The ophiuroid is a brooding species and a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Progeny from mature isolated adults and from pairs of adults of the same or of different colour varieties were scored for their characters of body colour and luminescence. Both characters change with age of ...

  2. Type specimens of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) re-examined, with new evidence after more than a century of confusion

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    Cardwell, Michael D.; Gotte, Steve W.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Gilmore, Ned; Poindexter, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The original description of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) was published in 1861 by Robert Kennicott, who did not identify a type specimen or a type locality. We review the history of specimens purported to be the type(s) and various designations of type locality. We provide evidence that ANSP 7069 (formerly one of two specimens of USNM 5027) is the holotype and that the appropriate type locality is Fort Buchanan, near present-day Sonoita, in Santa Cruz County, Arizona.

  3. THE ENDANGERED SPECIES Aristelliger georgeensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae IN RONCADOR CAY, COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

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    Mateo LÓPEZ-VICTORIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aristelliger georgeensis, previously known to occur in the Yucatan peninsula (Mexico, the coasts and islands from Belize and Honduras, and the oceanic islands of Colombia in the Caribbean (San Andres, Providence and Saint Catalina was registered for the first time in Roncador Cay, a flat and small island of coralline origin, located in the southwest of the Caribbean. Being considered as an endangered species at the national level, the new locality for this gecko constitutes an opportunity for its conservation. Some topics regarding the possible origins of this new population are discussed. This new locality represents the eastern most documented record of this species so far.La especie amenazada Aristelliger georgeensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae en el Cayo Roncador, Caribe colombianoAristelliger georgeensis, previamente conocido de la península de Yucatán (México, las costas e islas de Belice y Honduras y de las islas oceánicas de Colombia en el Caribe (San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, fue registrado por primera vez en el Cayo Roncador, una isla plana y pequeña de origen coralino, ubicada en el suroccidente del Caribe. Siendo considerada como una especie amenazada a nivel nacional, la nueva localidad para este geco constituye una oportunidad para su conservación. Se discuten algunos tópicos relacionados con el posible origen de esta nueva población. Esta nueva localidad representa el registro documentado más al Este para la especie. 

  4. Record length, mass, and clutch size in the nonindigenous Burmese Python, Python bivittatus Kuhl 1820 (Squamata: Pythonidae), in Florida

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    Krysko, Kenneth L.; Hart, Kristen M.; Smith, Brian J.; Selby, Thomas H.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Coutu, Nicholas T.; Reichart, Rebecca M.; Nuñez, Leroy P.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Snow, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    The Burmese Python, Python bivittatus Kuhl 1820 (Squamata: Pythonidae), is indigenous to northern India,east to southern China, and south to Vietnam and a few islands in Indonesia (Barker and Barker 2008, Reed and Rodda 2009). This species has been introduced since at least 1979 in southern Florida, USA, where it likely began reproducing and became established during the 1980s (Meshaka et al. 2000, Snowet al. 2007b,Kraus 2009, Krysko et al. 2011, Willson et al. 2011). Python bivittatus has been documented in Florida consuming a variety of mammals and birds, and the American Alligator(Alligator mississippiensis) (Snowet al. 2007a, 2007b; Harvey et al. 2008; Rochford et al. 2010b; Holbrook and Chesnes 2011), many of which are protected species. Herein, we provide details on two of the largest known wild P. bivittatus in Florida to date, including current records on length,mass,clutch size, and diet.

  5. Dimorfismo sexual de Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata: Teiidae en el sur del Estado de México, México Sexual dimorphism of Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata: Teiidae in the south of the State of Mexico, Mexico

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    MAGDALENA AGUILAR-MORENO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El dimorfismo sexual es una característica extendida en lacertilios y se relaciona con la adecuación de los individuos. En este estudio se analizó si Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata presenta dimorfismo sexual al sur del Estado de México, México, especialmente en relación a su forma corporal altamente conservada dentro de la familia Teiidae. La población estudiada habita a 1500 msnm. Se utilizaron individuos adultos que fueron capturados y liberados durante estudios ecológicos. Para cada individuo se registró la longitud hocico-cloaca, el peso corporal, largo de la cabeza, ancho de la cabeza, alto de la cabeza, longitud del fémur y distancia interaxilar. Los análisis realizados indicaron que los machos fueron más grandes en longitud hocico-cloaca y peso; además presentaron dimensiones más grandes en cabeza y fémur que hembras de la misma longitud hocico-cloaca. La distancia interaxilar fue mayor en hembras que en machos de la misma longitud hocico-cloaca. El dimorfismo sexual de A. costata costata puede explicarse por selección sexual y selección por fecundidad.Sexual dimorphism is a widespread characteristic in lizards, and it has been related to the individual fitness. Sexual dimorphism was investigated in Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata to the south of the State of Mexico, Mexico, relating to its body proportions highly similar within the Teiidae. Study area was located at 1500 m. Adult individuals from mark-recapture study were used. Morphometric characteristics were measured in individuals of A. costata costata: snout-vent length, mass, head length, head width, head height, femur length and interlimb length. Males were larger than females for SVL and mass. At the same body, males had longer heads and femur and shorter interlimb length than did conspecific females. The sexual dimorphism of A. costata costata can be explained by selection sexual selection and fecundity selection.

  6. Pterygosomatid mites of a new species group ligare (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae: Pterygosoma) parasitizing tree iguanas (Squamata: Liolaemidae: Liolaemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfer, Monika; González Acuña, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A new species group, ligare, is established within the subgenus Pterygosoma (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae: Pterygosoma) based on an analysis of female morphology. This group includes 6 newly described species--all from Liolaemus spp. (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from Chile: P. ligare sp. nov., P. formosus sp. nov., P. ovata sp. nov., and P. levissima sp. nov. from Liolaemuspictus; P chilensis sp. nov. from L. chilensis, and P. cyanogasteri sp. nov. from L. cyanogaster. The ligare species group differs from other mites of the subgenus Pterygosoma by the presence of the movable cheliceral digit without a basal spur, solenidion Ω of the palp tarsus, anterior mid-dorsal setae, large number of setae (about 200-300 pairs) on the lateral and the posterior parts of the idiosomal dorsum and the lateral parts of the idiosomal venter, by the idiosomal hypertrichy of ventro-median setae vm, setae 3a located outside of coxal fields II, the absence of setae 4b, the presence of paired setae tc and vs on tarsi III-IV, 5 setae on tibiae II-IV, 4 or 5 setae on genua I, II, 3 setae on genua III-IV, 5 setae on femur I, 5 or 4 setae on femur II and 3 setae on femur III. A key to females of the new species group is provided. Pterygosoma patagonica Dittmar de la Cruz, Morando and Avila, 2004 insufficiently described but showing most characterisitcs of ligare group is considered as nomen dubium. PMID:26185849

  7. Autocrine and paracrine Shh signaling are necessary for tooth morphogenesis, but not tooth replacement in snakes and lizards (Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrigan, Gregory R; Richman, Joy M

    2010-01-01

    Here we study the role of Shh signaling in tooth morphogenesis and successional tooth initiation in snakes and lizards (Squamata). By characterizing the expression of Shh pathway receptor Ptc1 in the developing dentitions of three species (Eublepharis macularius, Python regius, and Pogona vitticeps) and by performing gain- and loss-of-function experiments, we demonstrate that Shh signaling is active in the squamate tooth bud and is required for its normal morphogenesis. Shh apparently mediates tooth morphogenesis by separate paracrine- and autocrine-mediated functions. According to this model, paracrine Shh signaling induces cell proliferation in the cervical loop, outer enamel epithelium, and dental papilla. Autocrine signaling within the stellate reticulum instead appears to regulate cell survival. By treating squamate dental explants with Hh antagonist cyclopamine, we induced tooth phenotypes that closely resemble the morphological and differentiation defects of vestigial, first-generation teeth in the bearded dragon P. vitticeps. Our finding that these vestigial teeth are deficient in epithelial Shh signaling further corroborates that Shh is needed for the normal development of teeth in snakes and lizards. Finally, in this study, we definitively refute a role for Shh signaling in successional dental lamina formation and conclude that other pathways regulate tooth replacement in squamates. PMID:19850027

  8. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae.

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    Emanuel Tschopp

    Full Text Available Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata. Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  9. A survey of neonicotinoid use and potential exposure to northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) in the Rolling Plains of Texas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Peper, Steven T; Dunham, Nicholas R; Kumar, Naveen; Kistler, Whitney; Almas, Sadia; Presley, Steven M; Kendall, Ronald J

    2016-06-01

    Northern bobwhite (quail) (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) populations have declined dramatically in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma (USA). There is rising concern about potential toxicity of neonicotinoids to birds. To investigate this concern, the authors examined crops of 81 northern bobwhite and 17 scaled quail to determine the presence or absence of seeds treated with 3 neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam). No treated seeds were found in the 98 crops examined. Liver samples from all 98 quail were collected and analyzed for neonicotinoid residues. Analysis revealed very low concentrations of neonicotinoids within the quail liver samples. The results suggest there is little to no risk of direct toxicity to quail from neonicotinoids. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1511-1515. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26565740

  10. GEOGRAPHIC BODY SIZE AND SHAPE VARIATION IN A MAINLAND Anolis (SQUAMATA: DACTYLOIDAE FROM NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA (COLOMBIA

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    Marta Lucia Calderón- Espinosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO JA X-NONE Anolis auratus is a widely distributed species, from Costa Rica in Central America, through northern South America, includingColombia, Venezuela, northern Brazil, Surinam and the Guyanas. In Colombia, its widespread distribution across different life zones suggests that these lizards occupy different environments and exhibit different microhabitat use in different geographic areas. On the other hand, some observations suggest that this species prefers open areas, selecting grasslands over brushy areas, and thus, an alternative hypothesis is that microhabitat use is similar among different populations. In Anolis, body variables related to locomotion (body size and shape define structural microhabitat use, so two distinct patterns could be expected in this species: conservative or highly variable body size and shape throughout the species distribution. To test thesepredictions, we characterized geographic variation in morphometric traits of this species in Colombia. Females and males were similar in body size, but exhibited differences in some variables related to body shape. These characteristics also varied among males and females from different regions, suggesting heterogeneous use of structural microhabitat, between sexes and among populations. As an alternative, phylogenetic divergence among populations could also account for the observed differences. Absence of ecological and phylogenetic data limits our ability to identify the underlying causes of this pattern. However, we provide a general framework to explore hypotheses about evolution of body size and shape in this species.Variación geográfica en tamaño y forma corporalen un Anolis (Squamata: Dactyloidae continentaldel noroeste de Suramérica (ColombiaRESUMENAnolis auratus se distribuye desde Costa Rica en Centro América, el norte de Sur América, incluyendo Colombia, Venezuela, norte de Brasil, Surinam y las Guyanas. En

  11. Phylogenetic relationships among amphisbaenian reptiles based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-19

    Complete mitochondrial genomic sequences are reported from 12 members in the four families of the reptile group Amphisbaenia. Analysis of 11,946 aligned nucleotide positions (5,797 informative) produces a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. The family Rhineuridae is basal and Bipedidae is the sister taxon to the Amphisbaenidae plus Trogonophidae. Amphisbaenian reptiles are surprisingly old, predating the breakup of Pangaea 200 million years before present, because successive basal taxa (Rhineuridae and Bipedidae) are situated in tectonic regions of Laurasia and nested taxa (Amphisbaenidae and Trogonophidae) are found in Gondwanan regions. Thorough sampling within the Bipedidae shows that it is not tectonic movement of Baja California away from the Mexican mainland that is primary in isolating Bipes species, but rather that primary vicariance occurred between northern and southern groups. Amphisbaenian families show parallel reduction in number of limbs and Bipes species exhibit parallel reduction in number of digits. A measure is developed for comparing the phylogenetic information content of various genes. A synapomorphic trait defining the Bipedidae is a shift from the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement to the derived state of trnE and nad6. In addition, a tandem duplication of trnT and trnP is observed in B. biporus with a pattern of pseudogene formation that varies among populations. The first case of convergent rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome among animals demonstrated by complete genomic sequences is reported. Relative to most vertebrates, the Rhineuridae has the block nad6, trnE switched in order with cob, trnT, trnP, as they are in birds.

  12. Estado actual del registro de escamados extinguidos de América del Sur y sus implicancias paleoambientales

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    Albino, Adriana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The record of the South American fossil Squamata extends from the Late Cretaceous to the Holocene. The recorded families are Iguanidae s.l., Teiidae, Gekkonidae, ?Scincidae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Aniliidae, Colubridae and Viperidae Dinilysiidae from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia and Palaeopheidae from the Late Eocene of Ecuador are the only known extinct recorded families. The families distribution during the Cretaceous and most of the Tertiary apparently was more extensive than at present, due to more generalized subtropical climatic conditions. The geological events during the Cenozoic would have caused climatic and environmental changes that would have favoured the appeareance of new adaptative types and the restriction in the distribution of many forms.

  13. Desplazamientos de la iguana verde, Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae durante la estación seca en La Palma, Veracruz, México

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    Jorge E Morales-Mávil

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Usamos radiotransmisores para determinar los desplazamientos de la iguana verde (Iguana iguana en el periodo de anidación (febrero-julio en La Palma, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México (18°33’ N, 95°03’ W. Las iguanas fueron radiolocalizadas entre 23 y 30 ocasiones, principalmente en árboles (56 % entre 3-9 m; sólo 4 % fueron localizadas en el suelo. El tamaño del ámbito hogareño de machos y de hembras fue similar (9 158.06±3 025.3 m² vs. 6 591.24±4 001.1 m², respectivamente; t= 0.51, p>0.05. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre la LHC y el ámbito hogareño (r= 0.76, gl= 7, pDisplacements of the green iguana (Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae during the dry season in La Palma, Veracruz, Mexico. The green iguana (Iguana iguana is said to be primarily sedentary, although the females travel long distances to nest. Displacement patterns must be known to help predict the effects of environmental disturbance on iguanas’ survival. We studied nesting season (February-July movements in La Palma, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico (18°33’ N, 95°03’ W. Individual movements and activity were monitored by radio tracking. The transmitters were implanted surgically in eight adult iguanas (four males and four females. Snout vent length (SVL was used to determine the relationship between size of the body and size of home range. To estimate the size of home range, three or more points were used. Minimum convex polygons estimates of home range were calculated with McPAAL. The iguanas were radio-located between 23 and 30 occasions, mainly in trees (56 % between 3-9 m; only 4 % were localized under a height of 3 m (forest floor. The occupation area mean was larger for males (9 158.06±3 025.3m² vs. 6 591.24±4 001.1 m² although the differences were not significant (t= 0.51, p>0.05. SVL was correlated with home range (r= 0.76; gl= 7; p<0.05. Breeding males defended their home range vigorously against other adult males. We observed one

  14. Bothrops sanctaecrucis Hoge 1966 (Squamata: Viperidae

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    Miranda Calle, Alejandro Bruno

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seis ejemplares de la especie Bothrops sanctaecrucis presentes en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz- Bolivia fueron examinados y comparados con sus congéneres (Tabla 1. Departamento de Cochabamba, Provincia Carrasco, Sección Quinta, Municipio Puerto Villarroel, Localidad Yuquis, 16º47’00.0"S, 64º56’50.0"O; 216 msnm. (CBF 673 Fecha de colecta: 11 mayo 1988. Colector: K.H. Redford. (200 mm LHC, 31.4 mm LCC. (CBF 776 Fecha de colecta: abril 1991. Colector: Allyn Maclean Sterman. (481.8 mm LHC, 85.8 mm LCC. Ambos individuos fueron colectados en la ecoregión Bosque Amazónico Preandino (Ibisch et al., 2003, y evaluados por Harvey et al. (2005. Departamento del Beni, Provincia General José Ballivián, Sección Segunda, Municipio San Borja, Localidad Quiquibey, 15º22’30.8"S, 67º06’17.4"O; 300 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 28 noviembre 1989. Colector: Efraín Peñaranda. Colectado en la ecoregión Bosque Amazónico Subandino (Ibisch et al., 2003. (CBF 814. Individuo con 921.8 mm LHC, 159.8 mm LCC. Departamento del Beni, Provincia Moxos, Sección Primera, Municipio San Ignacio, Localidad Oromomo, 16º01’58.7"S, 66º11’12.5"O; 250 msnm. (CBF 1009 Fecha de colecta: 17 mayo 1992. Colectores: Sergio Otazú y Fernando Guerra. (552.2 mm LHC, 119.0 mm LCC. (CBF 1023 Fecha de colecta: 18 mayo 1992. Colectores: Sergio Otazú y Fernando Guerra. (997.0 mm LHC, 151.4 mm LCC. Ambos individuos fueron colectados en la ecoregión Bosque Amazónico Subandino (Ibisch et al., 2003, y evaluados por Harvey et al. (2005. Ambos ejemplares corresponden a la localidad tipo de la especie descrita por Hoge (1966. Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Nor Yungas, Sección Primera, Municipio Coroico, Lo calidad Bajo Hornuni (Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Cotapata, 16º12’54.4"S, 67º53’09.8"O; 1935 msnm. Sin fecha de colecta. Colector: Amira Apaza. Colectado en la ecoregión Yungas (Ibisch et al., 2003. (CBF 3359. Individuo con 843.4 mm LHC, 92.6 mm LCC.

  15. Phylogeny of Neotropical Cercosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Lobos, Simón E; Venegas, Pablo J

    2015-12-01

    Among Neotropical lizards, the geographically widespread gymnophthalmid Cercosaura as currently defined includes lowland and highland taxa from Panama to Argentina, with some species occurring in the northern Andes. In this study we analyze three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, ND4) and one nuclear (c-mos) gene using Bayesian methods to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among most species of Cercosaura based on a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis that also includes a large sample of other taxa within Cercosaurini. The phylogenetic tree obtained in this paper shows that Cercosaura as currently defined is not monophyletic. Two species from the northern Andes (C. dicra and C. vertebralis) are nested within Pholidobolus, which has been formerly recognized as a major radiation along the Andes of Ecuador and Colombia. Therefore, Cercosaura has probably not diversified in the northern Andes, although the phylogenetic position of C. hypnoides from the Andes of Colombia remains unknown. Tree topology and genetic distances support both recognition of C. ocellata bassleri as a distinct species, C. bassleri, and recognition of C. argula and C. oshaughnessyi as two different species. In the interest of promoting clarity and precision regarding the names of clades of gymnophthalmid lizards, we propose a phylogenetic definition of Cercosaura. PMID:26256641

  16. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758 (Squamata: Iguanidae

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    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre, 11º58'15.7"S, 68º00'22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores: Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero. Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre de Dios.

  17. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758) (Squamata: Iguanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF), La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre, 11º58'15.7"S, 68º00'22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores: Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero. Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre ...

  18. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses. PMID:27399970

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of a gecko and the phylogeneticposition of the Middle Eastern teratoscincus keyserlingii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Fong, Jonathan J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Shafiei,Soheila; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-04-22

    Sqamate reptiles are traditionally divided into six groups: Iguania, Anguimorpha, Scincomorpha, Gekkota (these four are lizards), Serpentes (snakes), and Amphisbaenia (the so-called worm lizards). Currently there are complete mitochondrial genomes from two representatives of the Iguania (Janke et al., 2001; Kumazawa, 2004), three from the Anguimorpha (Kumazawa, 2004; Kumazawa and Endo, 2004), two from the Scincomorpha (Kumazawa and Nishida, 1999; Kumazawa, 2004), two from Serpentes (Kumazawa et al., 1998; Kumazawa, 2004) and 12 from Amphisbaenia (Macey et al., 2004). The only traditional group of Squamata from which a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced is the Gekkota. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus keyserlingii, a Middle Eastern representative of the Gekkota. The gekkonid lizard genus Teratoscincus is distributed throughout the deserts of central and southwest Asia as shown in figure 1, with five species currently recognized (Macey et al. 1997a, 1999b). Included in this figure are the positions of mountain ranges discussed in the text; see also figure 1 in Macey et al. (1999b). Two species, T. bedriagai and T. microlepis, are restricted to Southwest Asia south of the Kopet Dagh and Hindu Kush in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (Anderson, 1999). Two species are found in the deserts of western China and Mongolia, with T. przewalskii occurring in the Taklimakan and lowland Gobi deserts, and T. roborowskii restricted to the Turpan Depression. The fifth species, T. scincus, is sometimes considered to be restricted to the Caspian Basin in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Alternatively, Teratoscincus populations in Southwest Asia, primarily on the Iranian Plateau, situated directly north of the Arabian Plate, are sometimes considered to be a subspecies of T. scincus or, otherwise, to constitute a sixth species, T. keyserlingii. Macey et al. (1999b) assessed the phylogenetic

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Sinovipera sichuanensis (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Liu, Qin; Zhong, Guanghui; Xiao, Rong; Fang, Min; Guo, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Sinovipera sichuanensis is one of the Asian green pit vipers with less concern. It is endemic to China and only known in Hejiang, Sichuan Province and Jiangkou, Guizhou Province. In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome and characterize each partition. The complete mitochondrial genome is 17 225 bp in length containing 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 control regions and 22 tRNAs. We use Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods to infer the phylogenetic relationship of S. sichuanensis. Both BI and ML analyses strongly support that S. sichuanensis is independent from the other two Asian green pit vipers. PMID:26406352

  1. Liolaemus puna Lobo y Espinoza, 2004 (Squamata: Liolaemidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguayo, Rodrigo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available República de Bolivia, Departamento de Potosí, Provincia Nor Chichas, camino al volcán Chorolque (20º50'57" S, 66º02'40" O; 4.800 msnm. Fecha de colección: 27 enero 2007. Col.: Daniela Rivera. Colección de vertebrados del Centro de Biodiversidad y Genética (CBG 392-393, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Dos ejemplares hembras adultas (45,9 y 40,2 mm de LHC, respectivamente.

  2. A Review of Sex Determining Mechanisms in Geckos (Gekkota: Squamata)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, T.

    2010-01-01

    Geckos are a species-rich clade of reptiles possessing diverse sex determining mechanisms. Some species possess genetic sex determination, with both male and female heterogamety, while other species have temperature-dependent sex determination. I compiled information from the literature on the taxonomic distribution of these sex determining mechanisms in geckos. Using phylogenetic data from the literature, I reconstructed the minimum number of transitions among these sex determining mechanism...

  3. Two new species of Atractus from Colombia (Reptilia, Squamata, Dipsadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Gunther; Kieckbusch, Max

    2014-01-01

    We describe two new species of Atractus from Colombia: one from the Serrania de la Lindosa, south of San José de Guaviare in the province Guaviare, and another from Punta de Betin in the province Magdalena, close to the Caribbean coast. The first new species differs from all congeners by having a combination of 17 smooth dorsal scale rows; loreal present, approximately as long as high; temporals 1+2; seven supralabials; seven infralabials; five maxillary teeth; four gular scale rows; four pre-ventrals; 187 ventrals in single male; 29/31 subcaudals in single male; dorsum of body with longitudinal stripes; venter uniformly dark gray. The second new species differs from all congeners by having a combination of 17 smooth dorsal scale rows; loreal absent; temporals 1+2; seven supralabials; six or seven infralabials; eight maxillary teeth; three gular scale rows; three pre-ventrals; 146 ventrals in single male; 31/32 subcaudals in single male; dorsum of body and tail reddish brown with paired, occasionally slightly alternating lateral vertical cream blotches, approximately one dorsal scale broad, not contacting in vertebral region; venter cream with reddish brown blotches, forming two parallel series on anterior body and a checkered pattern on the rest of body. PMID:25544086

  4. Gymnophthalmus speciosus (hallowell 1861) (squamata, gymnophthalmidae) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta información actualizada de la especie del lagarto colombianoGymnophthalmus speciosus, su descripción, diagnosis, distribución en el paísy algunos aspectos generales de su ecología; estos datos están acompañados deesquemas de la morfología externa y tablas que muestran la variación de los caracteresmerísticos y morfométricos entre machos y hembras. Se encontró que G. speciosuspresenta variación de coloración caudal ontogenética y que el número de escamasdel medio cuerpo varía entre...

  5. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron mic...

  6. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Di Giacomo

    Full Text Available Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i widely occur in erythrocytes, ii are polarized, and iii seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation.

  7. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758) (Squamata: Iguanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Kirigin, Alvaro J.

    2011-01-01

    Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF), La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera,Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre,11º58’15.7"S, 68º00’22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores:Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero.Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre de Dios. (CBF-...

  8. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26367118

  9. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.

    2011-01-01

    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  10. A new species of Anolis lizard (Squamata, Iguania from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Poe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Anolis is described from western Panama and eastern Costa Rica. Populations of the new form were previously allocated to A. chocorum. However, the new species differs from A. chocorum in characters of color pattern, scalation and proportion.

  11. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Cristina Macedo; Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Teresa Cristina Sauer Ávila-Pires; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetolog...

  12. Nomenclature of African species of the genus Stenodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2013-01-01

    The statuses of proposed nomina of the North African species of the genus Stenodactylus have been revised based on the study of their original descriptions and the examination of their name-bearing types. Important nomenclatural actions proposed include the designation of a lectotype for the nomen Stenodactylus guttatus ensuring continuity of the prevailing usage of S. petrii, and the proposal of maintaining prevailing usage of Stenodactylus sthenodactylus by applying to the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature to set aside the existing name-bearing type and replace it with a neotype corresponding with that usage. PMID:26167591

  13. Low rate of interchromosomal rearrangements during old radiation of gekkotan lizards (squamata: gekkota)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Martina; Trifonov, V. A.; Rens, M.; Koubová, M.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Kratochvíl, L.

    Singapore : HGM, 2013. [ Human Genome Meeting/ International Congress of Genetics. 13.04.2013-18.04.2013, Singapore] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : gekkotan lizards Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. First occurrence of Mosasauridae (Squamata in the Maastrichtian (latest Cretaceous of Alicante (Valencia Community, Eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardet, Nathalie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the mosasaurid genus Prognathodon is known worldwide during the latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian, we report here its first occurrence in the Eastern area of the Iberian Peninsula. It was previously known from coeval levels of the Basque Country. The specimen from Castalla (Alicante corresponds to a pterygoid tooth. Though it cannot be precisely determined at the specific level, the tooth belongs to a Prognathodon species with 'slender' teeth such as P. compressidens, P. sectorius and P. mosasauroides, all known in the Campanian-Maastrichtian of Europe, or P. kianda from the Maastrichtian of Angola.Aunque el genero de mosasaurio Prognathodon esta conocido mundialmente durante el Cretácico final (Campaniense-Maastrichtiense, damos a conocer su primera occurencia en el Levante Español. Previamente ya se conocía en niveles contemporáneos del País Vasco. El especimen de Castalla corresponde a un diente del pterigoides. Aunque no se puede identificar a nivel especifico, el diente pertenece a una especie de Prognathodon con dientes 'delgados' como P. compressidens, P. sectorius y P. mosasauroides, del Campaniense-Maastrichtiense de Europa, o P. kianda del Maastrichtiense de Angola.

  15. Two new species of Japalura (Squamata: Agamidae) from the Hengduan Mountain Range, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Kai; JIANG, Ke; ZOU, Da-Hu; YAN, Fang; ZOU, Da-Hu; Cameron, D.SILER; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the agamid species, Japalura flaviceps, was recognized to have the widest geographic distribution among members of the genus occurring in China, from eastern Tibet to Shaanxi Province. However, recent studies restricted the distribution of J. flaviceps to the Dadu River valley only in northwestern Sichuan Province, suggesting that records of J. flaviceps outside the Dadu River valley likely represent undescribed diversity. During two herpetofaunal surveys in 2013 and 2015, eight and 12 specimens of lizards of the genus Japalura were collected from the upper Nujiang (=Salween) Valley in eastern Tibet, China, and upper Lancang (=Mekong) Valley in northwestern Yunnan, China, respectively. These specimens display a unique suite of diagnostic morphological characters. Our robust comparisons of phenotype reveal that these populations can be distinguished readily from J. flaviceps and all other recognized congeners. Herein, we describe the two Japalura lineages as new species, Japalura laeviventris sp. nov. and Japalura iadina sp. nov.. In addition, we provide updated conservation assessments for the new species as well as imperiled congeners according to the IUCN criteria for classification, discuss the importance of color patterns in the diagnosis and description of species in the genus Japalura, and discuss directions for future taxonomic studies of the group. PMID:26828033

  16. Morphology of dental bones and teeth of selected representatives of the subfamily Anguinae (Squamata, Anguidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is focused on the comparative morphology of dental bones and teeth of all genuses of the subfamily Anguinae. The research did not show any relevant difference, which would serve as the basis for the return use of the original generic names. (authors)

  17. Sex Chromosomes and Karyotype of the (Nearly) Mythical Creature, the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, M.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2014), e104716. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : determining mechanisms * lizards * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  18. Taxonomic identity of two enigmatic aquatic snake populations (Squamata: Homalopsidae: Cerberus and Homalopsis) from southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Olivier S G; Sumontha, Montri

    2016-01-01

    In their revision of the homalopsid genus Homalopsis Kuhl & Van Hasselt, Murphy et al. (2012) resurrected H. semizonata Blyth, 1855 and noted that ''Frith (1977) reported on two Homalopsis from Phuket, Thailand with 40 and 42 dorsal scale rows, and 159 and 162 ventrals-scale counts within the range of H. semizonata which is found along the same coast, about 900 km to the north''. Murphy et al. (2012), however, did not list H. semizonata from Thailand, and on their species' distribution map they indicated an interrogation mark along the southern coast of Myanmar and the southwestern coast of peninsular Thailand. It should be noted that Murphy et al. (2012) misread Frith: while one of the two specimens reported by Frith was indeed from Phuket (''from the rocky edge of a stream torrent in good forest east of Thalang, central Phuket Island''), the other was from ''Klong Nakha, 80 kilometeres [sic] south of Ranong in lowland rain forest with some clearings and dwellings'', thus in Ranong Province, closer to the border with Myanmar. Nabhitabhata et al. (2004) recognized a single Homalopsis species in Thailand, H. buccata, which they listed for numerous provinces, including Phuket, based on Frith's (1977) record. Among the two Homalopsis species recognized to occur in Thailand by Nabhitabhata and Chan-ard (2005), H. buccata and H. nigroventralis, none was recorded by them from Phuket Province, but H. buccata was listed from, among others, the neighbouring provinces of Phang-Nga and Ranong. Chuaynkern & Chuaynkern (2012) recognized the same two species, and listed H. buccata from, among others, the provinces of Phang-Nga, Phuket and Ranong. Cox et al. (2012) listed three Homalopsis for Thailand (H. buccata, H. mereljcoxi and H. nigroventralis), and indicated that H. mereljcoxi is the species occurring, a.o., in Phang-Nga, Phuket and Ranong provinces. Wallach et al. (2014) noted that H. semizonata lives in southern Myanmar near sea level, but also that it ''possibly occurs in Phuket''. Chan-ard et al. (2015), in their field guide whose reptile taxonomy is largely outdated (Pauwels & Grismer 2015), recognized only Homalopsis nigroventralis and H. buccata and the map for the latter indicates its presence in Phuket and Phang-Nga provinces. In the most recent synthesis on the family Homalopsidae, Murphy & Voris (2014) made however no mention of the possibility that H. semizonata occurs in Thailand. Because of the lack of voucher material, the identity of the Homalopsis living on the Indian Ocean coastal area of Thailand has thus remained poorly understood so far. PMID:27394821

  19. A nesting of vipers: Phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Viperidae (Squamata: Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Peppin, Lindsay; Pook, Catharine E; Walker, Daniel E

    2008-11-01

    Despite their medical interest, the phylogeny of the snake family Viperidae remains inadequately understood. Previous studies have generally focused either on the pitvipers (Crotalinae) or on the Old World vipers (Viperinae), but there has been no comprehensive molecular study of the Viperidae as a whole, leaving the affinities of key taxa unresolved. Here, we infer the phylogenetic relationships among the extant genera of the Viperidae from the sequences of four mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, NADH subunit 4, 16S and 12S rRNA). The results confirm Azemiops as the sister group of the Crotalinae, whereas Causus is nested within the Viperinae, and thus not a basal viperid or viperine. Relationships among the major clades of Viperinae remain poorly resolved despite increased sequence information compared to previous studies. Bayesian molecular dating in conjunction with dispersal-vicariance analysis suggests an early Tertiary origin in Asia for the crown group Viperidae, and rejects suggestions of a relatively recent, early to mid-Tertiary origin of the Caenophidia. PMID:18804544

  20. Acanthosaura phuketensis (Squamata: Agamidae), a new long-horned tree agamid from southwestern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Olivier S G; Sumontha, Montri; Kunya, Kirati; Nitikul, Awat; Samphanthamit, Phamon; Wood, Perry L; Grismer, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new lowland forest-dwelling species of the genus Acanthosaura from Phuket Island and the Phuket mountain range in southwestern Thailand. Acanthosaura phuketensis sp. nov., the 11th species in the genus, seems most closely related to A. crucigera from Myanmar and western Thailand and A. cardamomensis from the Cardamom Mountains, but can be differentiated from them by a combination of morphological and coloration characteristics. This new discovery stresses the importance of preserving the last forest patches remaining on Phuket Island, home to three other squamate endemics. PMID:26624111

  1. Female heterogamety in Madagascar chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae: Furcifer): differentiation of sex and neo-sex chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovatsos, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, M.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 13196 (2015). ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : determining mechanisms * telomeric repeats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  2. A taxonomic revision of the Phrynosoma douglasii species complex (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanucci, Richard R

    2015-01-01

    Short-horned lizards (Phrynosoma douglasii species complex) occur throughout the inter-montane West and Great Plains of western North America. The comparative morphology and color pattern variation of short-horned lizards was studied in 3,174 specimens. Multivariate analyses of 20 morphological and color-pattern characters were applied to 977 specimens, and univariate statistics were summarized for 52 samples totaling 1,134 specimens. The results of the morphological data analyses support the recognition of P. douglasii (Bell 1828) as a distinct species, and the resurrection of P. brevirostris Girard 1858a and P. ornatissimum Girard 1858a as species distinct from P. hernandesi Girard 1858a. Two new species allied to P. brevirostris are described: P. bauri sp. nov. from the eastern plains of Colorado and northeastern New Mexico, southeastern Wyoming and southwestern Nebraska south of the North Platte River, and P. diminutum sp. nov. endemic to the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. The Mexican taxon brachycercum Smith 1942 is reassigned as a subspecies of P. ornatissimum, based on non-discrete character differences and overall morphometric similarity. The ranges of P. hernandesi and P. ornatissimum broadly overlap in central New Mexico, the former taxon occupying the coniferous forests of disjunct mountain ranges, the latter occuring in the surrounding desert grasslands. Principal components analysis has revealed morphological evidence of hybridization where the two taxa meet, generally within ecotones between montane forest associations and grasslands. Principal components analysis has also revealed a high level of morphological variability in populations occurring in the Colorado Plateau region of northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, extreme southwestern Colorado and adjacent Utah. The evidence suggests that these populations arose through past hybridization between the two species. The taxon ornatum Girard 1858b, although sharing several traits with P. brevirostris, is morphologically close to P. hernandesi. It is regarded as a stabilized population of hybrid origin, but treated taxonomically as a subspecies of P. hernandesi. The taxonomic arrangement in this study, with the exception of P. douglasii, is largely discordant with the proposed taxonomy from a previously published study based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data. PMID:26624023

  3. Report of a bite by the South American colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii latirostris (Squamata: Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Peichoto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the bite of Philodryas olfersii latirostris Cope, 1862, a 29-year-old male herpetologist developed localized and burning pain, and minimal bleeding from the puncture marks of posterior maxillary teeth, which subsided rapidly. The victim developed no other local signs or symptoms. After few days the victim presented persistent severe rotatory dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. On examination his hearing was normal. Neurological exam was otherwise normal. The patient had acute vertiginous symptoms but had no associated neurological signs. Computed tomography did not show abnormality. A diagnosis of labyrinthine syndrome was made. It was treated conservatively, and the patient recovered uneventfully. It was assumed as an effect of ophitoxemia. This case may be regarded as an unusual presentation of systemic envenoming following a human bite by Philodryas olfersii latirostris.

  4. Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) preys on the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, S; Ardiles, K; Figueroa, R A; González-Acuña, D

    2013-02-01

    Philodryas chamissonis, the Chilean long-tailed snake, is a diurnal predator mainly of Liolaemus lizards, but also of amphibians, birds, rodents and juvenile rabbits. Dromiciops gliroides (Colocolo opossum) is an arboreal marsupial endemic of temperate rainforest of southern South America. Little information is available about this marsupial's biology and ecology. Here we report the predation of one Colocolo opossum by an adult female P. chamissonis in a mixed Nothofagus forest, composed mainly by N. dombeyi, N. glauca and N. alpina trees, in the "Huemules de Niblinto" National Reserve, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Since these two species have different activity and habitat use patterns, we discuss how this encounter may have occurred. Although it could just have been an opportunistic event, this finding provides insights into the different components of food chains in forest ecosystems of Chile. PMID:23644784

  5. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia:Squamata:Varanidae) in North American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendyk, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    In zoos, life expectancy-the average lifespan of individuals within a population, and longevity-the maximum lifespan within a population, can be useful parameters for evaluating captive husbandry and animal welfare. Using life history and demographic data derived from regional studbooks, this study examined life expectancy and longevity in a total of 782 wild-caught (WC) and captive-bred (CB) varanid lizards of seven species maintained in North American zoos since 1926. The average lifespans for WC and CB animals were 6.3 ± 0.3 and 9.3 ± 0.4 years, respectively, with CB males living significantly longer than females (P = 0.009). A total of 26.4% of WC and 22.5% of CB animals experienced mortality during their first 2 years in captivity, with mortality during this period greatest among Varanus rudicollis and V. prasinus. A positive correlation was observed between life expectancy and adult body mass in captive-bred individuals (r = 0.981; P = 0.002). Wild-caught females with a history of successful reproduction had a significantly greater average lifespan than non-reproducing females (P zoos. In light of these findings, several husbandry-related factors which may be affecting the welfare and lifespans of varanids in zoos are identified and discussed. This study also highlights the utility of demographic and life history data in captive animal management, and offers a general framework for future herpetological studies of a similar nature. PMID:25503984

  6. The relationship between perch type and aggressive behavior in the lizard Norops polylepis (Squamata: Dactyloidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Randall R. Jiménez; Jorengeth Abad Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    The intensity of aggression against intruders by owners of a territory has been related to the type of resources available to an individual within its territory. The influence of perch-site characteristics on aggressive behavior of resident male Norops polylepis in presence of an intruder male was investigated in this study. At each perch site, pairwise encounters were conducted in which the aggressive behavior of resident males was recorded, along with the diameter of the perch and the numbe...

  7. Characterization of the Frictional Response of Squamata Shed Skin in Comparison to Human skin

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Aal, H A

    2010-01-01

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined rubbing response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its behavior according to the evolution of sliding conditions. Inspirations for such designs are frequently encountered in natural species. In particular, and from a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a Python regius snake. The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional re...

  8. A new species of the genus Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826 (Squamata: Colubridae) from coastal southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilieva, Anna B

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Oligodon from the coastal area of Binh Chau-Phuoc Buu Nature Reserve, Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, southern Vietnam, is described. Oligodon arenarius sp. nov. is distinguishable from all other species by the unique combination of the following characters: medium size; 17 dorsal scale rows; 6-8 maxillary teeth, the posterior three being enlarged; head scalation lacking a loreal but usually including a presubocular; divided nasal; two postoculars; 131-144 ventrals; 36-60 subcaudals; unforked hemipenis, without spines or obvious papillae; sexual dimorphism displayed in the number of subcaudals (36-40 in females, 58-60 in males) and a relative tail length, tails being quite long in males (TaL/TL = 0.26-0.28) and moderate in females (TaL/TL = 0.13-0.17); head coloration pattern including ocular band, temporal bands and chevron-shaped mark on nape; dorsal coloration without distinct pattern, uniform or with dark speckling; ventrals pinkish in life, immaculate. To date, this species appear to be endemic to Vietnam. PMID:26701520

  9. A new species of the genus Opisthotropis Gunther, 1872 (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae) from Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-huan; Sung, Yik-hei; Chan, Bosco Pui-Lok

    2013-01-01

    A new natricid snake of the genus Opisthotropis Gunther, 1872, Opisthotropis laui sp. nov., is described from Mt. Gudou, Jiangmen City, Guangdong Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the combination of the following characters: dorsal scales weakly keeled throughout, in 25:23:23 rows; 10 supralabials; 11 infralabials; two internasals, longer than wide, not touching the loreal; one loreal, not touching the eye; one preocular; two postoculars; one anterior temporal scale; 152 ventrals; 53 subcaudals; body and tail dark olive above, with light yellow crossbars. PMID:26213766

  10. A new species of the genus Opisthotropis Günther, 1872 from northern Laos (Squamata: Natricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teynié, Alexandre; Lottier, Anne; David, Patrick; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Vogel, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    Two specimens, a male and a female, of the genus Opisthotropis Günther, 1872 were collected in a karst formation of northern Louangphabang (or Luang Prabang) Province, North Laos. These specimens are assigned to the genus Opisthotropis on the basis of their morphology, dentition and cephalic scalation. However, they differ from all other known species of Opisthotropis by a combination of the following characters: (1) 21-19 scale rows on the fore part of the body, (2) 17 scale rows at midbody, (3) 22/23 maxillary teeth, (4) 177-181 ventrals, (5) 1 loreal on each side, in contact with internasal, (6) 7 supralabials, 4th entering orbit, (7) dorsum dark bronze-brown, with upper part of dorsum darker than lateral sides, without bands or crossbars, and (8) chin and throat blackish-brown with a sharp, transversal limit with the ventral colour crossing the posterior part of the throat. As a consequence, these specimens are here referred to a new species, Opisthotropis durandi spec. nov. The new species is compared with other species of the genus, especially the most similar species O. spenceri Smith, 1918 and O. atra Günther, 1872, the type species of the genus. An updated key to the genera Opisthotropis is provided. Opisthotropis durandi spec. nov. represents the first confirmed record of a species of Opisthotropis sensu stricto from Laos and it is the 108th snake species currently recorded from the Lao People's Democratic Republic. PMID:24871413

  11. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Squamata: Scincidae from a montane atlantic rainforest area in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira, Rogério L.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns aspectos da ecologia (principalmente reprodução e dieta do lagarto scincídeo Mabuya agilis foram estudados com base em amostras mensais realizadas de dezembro de 1997 a abril de 1999 em uma área de floresta tropical serrana no estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil. Dos 197 espécimes coletados, 82 eram machos, 110 eram fêmeas, e o resto não pôde ser corretamente sexado. Lagartos variaram em comprimento rostro-coacal de 30 a 96 mm e foram sexualmente dimórficos em tamanho, com fêmeas atingindo maiores tamanhos que machos. A menor fêmea grávida mediu 54.0 mm. O tamanho da ninhada para 49 fêmeas grávidas variou de 2 a 9 (média = 5.7 e esteve positiva e significativamente relacionado ao tamanho dos lagartos. As presas dominantes na dieta de M. agilis foram baratas, ortópteros e aranhas. A população de M. agilis aqui estudada diferiu de outras populações conspecíficas previamente estudadas em hábitats de «restinga» nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, sendo que os indivíduos crescem a tamanhos maiores e a fecundidade é mais alta, possivelmente devido a uma maior disponibilidade de alimento no hábitat de floresta tropical serrana Some aspects of the ecology (mainly reproduction and diet of the skink Mabuya agilis were studied based on monthly samples taken from December 1997 to April 1999 at a montane rainforest area in Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Of 197 collected specimens, 82 were males, 110 were females, and the rest could not be properly sexed. Lizards varied in snout-vent length (SVL from 30 to 96 mm and were sexually dimorphic in size, with females growing larger than males. The smallest gravid female measured 54.0 mm in SVL. Litter size of 49 gravid females varied from 2 to 9 (mean= 5.7 and was positively and significantly related to lizard SVL. The dominant prey items in the diet of M. agilis were cockroaches, orthopterans and spiders. The population of M. agilis here studied differed from other conspecific populations previously studied in «restinga» habitats from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo states in that individuals grow to larger sizes and fecundity is higher, possibly because of a higher food availability in the montane rainforest habitat.

  12. The development of the skull of the Egyptian Cobra Naja h. haje (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraqi R Khannoon

    Full Text Available The study of craniofacial development is important in understanding the ontogenetic processes behind morphological diversity. A complete morphological description of the embryonic skull development of the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje, is lacking and there has been little comparative discussion of skull development either among elapid snakes or between them and other snakes.We present a description of skull development through a full sequence of developmental stages of the Egyptian cobra, and compare it to other snakes. Associated soft tissues of the head are noted where relevant. The first visible ossification centres are in the supratemporal, prearticular and surangular, with slight ossification visible in parts of the maxilla, prefrontal, and dentary. Epiotic centres of ossification are present in the supraoccipital, and the body of the supraoccipital forms from the tectum posterior not the tectum synoticum. The venom glands are visible as distinct bodies as early at stage 5 and enlarge later to extend from the otic capsule to the maxilla level with the anterior margin of the eye. The gland becomes more prominent shortly before hatching, concomitant with the development of the fangs. The tongue shows incipient forking at stage 5, and becomes fully bifid at stage 6.We present the first detailed staging series of cranial development for the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje. This is one of the first studies since the classical works of G. de Beer and W. Parker that provides a detailed description of cranial development in an advanced snake species. It allows us to correct errors and misinterpretations in previous accounts which were based on a small sample of specimens of uncertain age. Our results highlight potentially significant variation in supraoccipital formation among squamates and the need for further research in this area.

  13. Status and diversity of snakes (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes at the Chittagong University Campus in Chittagong, Bangladesh

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    M. F. Ahsan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the status and diversity of snakes of the Chittagong University Campus (CUC between September 2013 and December 2014, and on preserved snake specimens of museums of CUC (Department of Zoology, University of Chittagong; Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong; and Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong.  Thirty-six species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families (Typhlopidae, Pythonidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae were recorded from CUC during the study period. Colubridae comprised the highest (24 species i.e., 66.67% number of species and Pythonidae the lowest (1 species. Checkered Keelback Xenochrophis piscator was the most common snake and the rarest was the Bengalese Kukri Snake Oligodon dorsalis belonging to the family Colubridae.  Among venomous snakes Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus was the most common snake and Black Krait Bungarus niger was the most rare.  Their status in CUC has been assessed. 

  14. Natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii (Squamata, Leiosauridae in southern Brazilian Atlantic forest

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    Ricardo Rautenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.

  15. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Elaphe davidi (Squamata: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunzhu; Mu, Yanshuang; Kong, Qingran; Xie, Guilin; Guo, Zirong; Zhao, Shuai

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Elaphe davidi is analyzed and presented for the first time in this work. The genome was 17,117 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 control region. The overall base composition is A (35.4%), C (25.2%), T (27.0%), and G (12.4%). The base compositions present clearly the A-T skew, which was most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. Mitochondrial genomes analyses based on MP, ML, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees, indicating a close phylogenetic affinity of the 12 Colubridae species. Two major phyletic lineages were present in Colubridae. A clade included the six species (Dinodon semicarinatus, E. poryphyracea, Oocatochus rufodorsatus, Orthriophis taeniurus, E. bimaculata and E. davidi) of subfamily Colubrinae except for Oligodon ningshaanensis. Another clade (Hypsiglena chlorophaea, H. unaocularus, H. torquata and Imantodes cenchoa) included Thermophis zhaoermii and O. ningshaanensis as the sister taxon to Colubrinae. The genus Elaphe, Dinodon, Oocatochus and Orthriophis formed a monophyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100 %) in all examinations. PMID:25806578

  16. A new species of Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker, 1860 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Pulau Enggano, southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Riyanto, Awal; Iskandar, Djoko T; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2014-01-01

    A new species of gekkonid lizard Hemiphyllodactylus engganoensis sp. nov. from Pulau Enggano, southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia is differentiated from all other congeners by having the unique combination of a maximum SVL of 37.3 mm; six chin scales; no enlarged postmentals; five circumnasal scales; three or four scales between the supranasals; 12 supralabials; 24 dorsal scales; 15 ventral scales; a lamellar hand formula of 4554 or 4454; a lamellar foot formula of 4555; four subdigital lamellae on the first finger; four or five subdigital lamellae on the first toe; a continuous, femoroprecloacal pore series of 42; five cloacal spurs in males; no enlarged subcaudal scales; no dark postorbital stripes or striping on body; small dark blotches on dorsum; a yellowish postsacral mark bearing anteriorly projecting arms; and a pigmented caecum and gonads. Hemiphyllodactylus engganoensis sp. nov. is part of the speciose H. typus group. PMID:24989761

  17. Three new species of Pseudocalotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from southern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Michael B; Hamidy, Amir; Kurniawan, Nia; Shaney, Kyle; Smith, Eric N

    2014-01-01

    We describe three new species of Pseudocalotes from the Bukit Barisan Range of southern Sumatra, Indonesia. Pseudocalotes cybelidermus, P. guttalineatus, and P. rhammanotus differ from most congeners in having serrate dorsal crests that extend to the base of the tail and a dorsolateral series of enlarged heavily keeled scales. In these new species, subdigital lamellae of Toe III have prominent preaxial keels and lack or have greatly reduced postaxial keels. In contrast, P. rhammanotus resembles P. tympanistriga by having bicarinate subdigital lamellae at the base of Toe III. Like most congeners, these new species appear to be restricted to humid forests above 1000 m. We report several new morphological characters for Pseudocalotes and discuss their diagnostic value. Future systematic studies of this genus should assess presence/absence of interparietals, four different kinds of modified scales on the neck, a dorsolateral series of heavily keeled scales, and unicarinate lamellae under the distal phalanges of most fingers and toes. Our comparisons among congeners demonstrate the diagnostic value of width of the gap between the nuchal and dorsal crests and frequency data for contact between the nasal and supralabials and between the postmentals and infralabials. Finally, we discuss variation in morphology of subdigital lamellae at the base of Toe III and describe new conditions intermediate between the serrate fringe of most Indochinese species and the bicarinate lamellae of the P. tympanistriga.  PMID:25082037

  18. Helmintos oxiuridae parasitos de Iguana iguana (Squamata, Lacertilia, Iguanidae procedentes do Brasil

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    P. Breves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on nematode fauna occurring in wild iguanas (Iguana iguana from Brazilian Northeast (Alagoas and Maranhão and Central-west (Goiás and Mato Grosso areas were presented. Six adult iguanas, three males and three females, were necropsied and the digestive system removed to examination. All the iguana specimens were heavily parasitized. The helminths diagnosed were: Ozolaimus cirratus in the cecum and colon of five iguanas; Ozolaimus megatyphlon in cecum, colon and rectum of three iguanas; and Alaeuris vogelsangi in the small intestine, cecum, colon and rectum of five animals. Two larvae of Ozolaimus sp. were recovered from the pyloric region of the stomach of one iguana. The three diagnosed species of nematodes were reported for the first time in the Brazilian Central-West region.

  19. Osteologia do neurocrânio de Iguana iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano C. Lima; Kleber F. Pereira; Augusto S. Abe; Antonio Sebben

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O crânio representa o segmento com conspícuas adaptações que, nos lagartos, podem ser conservativas ou impulsionadas por pressões seletivas. Objetivando subsidiar o conhecimento morfológico dos répteis, fornecemos uma descrição detalhada dos ossos que formam o neurocrânio de Iguana iguana iguana com base na análise de três esqueletos secos de espécimes adultos. O crânio da referia espécie possui características basais entre os lagartos sem o fechamento das aberturas cranianas e format...

  20. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the dry season, which can result in habitat loss and territorial displacement of individuals. PMID:23342515

  1. Helmintos oxiuridae parasitos de Iguana iguana (Squamata, Lacertilia, Iguanidae) procedentes do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    P. Breves; M. Porto; A. Pissinatti; Luz, D.; R.C. Menezes

    2011-01-01

    The results of a study on nematode fauna occurring in wild iguanas (Iguana iguana) from Brazilian Northeast (Alagoas and Maranhão) and Central-west (Goiás and Mato Grosso) areas were presented. Six adult iguanas, three males and three females, were necropsied and the digestive system removed to examination. All the iguana specimens were heavily parasitized. The helminths diagnosed were: Ozolaimus cirratus in the cecum and colon of five iguanas; Ozolaimus megatyphlon in cecum, colon and rectum...

  2. Osteologia do neurocrânio de Iguana iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae

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    Fabiano C. Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O crânio representa o segmento com conspícuas adaptações que, nos lagartos, podem ser conservativas ou impulsionadas por pressões seletivas. Objetivando subsidiar o conhecimento morfológico dos répteis, fornecemos uma descrição detalhada dos ossos que formam o neurocrânio de Iguana iguana iguana com base na análise de três esqueletos secos de espécimes adultos. O crânio da referia espécie possui características basais entre os lagartos sem o fechamento das aberturas cranianas e formato geral triangular. As estruturas ósseas que formam a base craniana apresentam muitas fusões, principalmente no assoalho. Na face caudal o exoccipital e o opistótico estão fundidos e formam o otoccipital, que contribui para a formação dos terços laterais do côndilo occipital. A parte central do côndilo é formada pelo supraoccipital. Fusões e estruturas esqueléticas presentes em Iguana são similares aos demais lagartos. Não foram descritas autapomorfias no neurocrânio para esta espécie.

  3. Ecological trap for Cnemidophorus ocellifer Spix 1825 (Squamata: Teiidae during removal of vegetation

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    Lucas Bezerra de Mattos Brito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals must anticipate future conditions according to current environmental clues. When habitats are rapidly modified, these signs may not reflect the actual environmental quality, leading to a decreased fitness of an individual and its population. During an activity of faunal rescue and scaring away in the coast of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, evidence of an ecological trap for the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer was observed. We suggest some actions which can minimize the impact of vegetation removal activities on lizards, such as: i better planning before proceeding with deforestation; and ii capture and release of lizards in appropriate locations.

  4. Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (Squamata, Dactyloidae) of the Cerrado hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Werneck, Fernanda P; Giugliano, Lilian G; Santos, Marcella G; Fenker, Jéssica; Sousa, Lucas; D'Angiolella, Annelise B; Dos Santos, Adriana R; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Dorado-Rodrigues, Tainá F; Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group. PMID:26385121

  5. Cariotipo y región organizadora del nucleolo en Teius teyou (Daudin, 1802 (Squamata: Teiidae

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    Hernando, Alejandra

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Teius teyou (Daudin, 1982 from Formosa and Chaco, Argentina, were citologically analyzed. A karyotype characterized by 54 chromosomes and 2 pairs of ribosomal chromosomes were identified.

  6. What makes the heart of Boa constrictor (Squamata: Boidae beat faster?

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    João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Body size is highly correlated with metabolism, which in turn influences physiological rates such as heart rate. In general, heart rate is negatively influenced by the size of animal's body, but there is insufficient data corroborating this pattern in snakes. This study evaluated how body size affects heart rate in captive Boa constrictor Linnaeus, 1758. We measured the heart rate of 30 snakes using digital palpation and evaluated how this rate is influenced by body mass and sex using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA. The heart rate of the snakes was 58.8 ± 6.7 bpm (beats per minute. Body size, estimated as log-transformed body mass, negatively influenced heart rate (F1,28 = 10.27, p = 0.003, slope = -0.00004, R2 = 0.27, but sex had no effect (F1,27 = 0.07, p = 0.80. In conclusion, this result corroborates the negative relationship between body size and heart rate for snakes and reinforces the influence of related metabolic characteristics, such as body size, on the physiological parameters of snakes.

  7. Morphological and molecular identification of ticks infesting Boa constrictor (Squamata, Boidae) in Manaus (Central Brazilian Amazon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Leonardo Costa; Craveiro, Adriana Bentes; Mendes, Márcia Cristina; Chiesorin Neto, Laerzio; Silveira, Ronis Da

    2014-01-01

    The Boa constrictor is one of the world's largest vertebrate carnivores and is often found in urban areas in the city of Manaus, Brazil. The morphological identification of ticks collected from 27 snakes indicated the occurrence of Amblyomma dissimile Koch 1844 on all individuals sampled. In contrast, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch was found on only two snakes. An analysis of the 16S rRNA molecular marker confirmed the morphological identification of these ectoparasites. PMID:25517537

  8. What makes the heart of Boa constrictor (Squamata: Boidae) beat faster?

    OpenAIRE

    João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues; Roberta da Rocha Braga; Thaís Helena Alencar Ferreira; Estéfanni de Castro Pinheiro; Géssica dos Santos Araújo; Diva Maria Borges-Nojosa

    2015-01-01

    Body size is highly correlated with metabolism, which in turn influences physiological rates such as heart rate. In general, heart rate is negatively influenced by the size of animal's body, but there is insufficient data corroborating this pattern in snakes. This study evaluated how body size affects heart rate in captive Boa constrictor Linnaeus, 1758. We measured the heart rate of 30 snakes using digital palpation and evaluated how this rate is influenced by body mass and sex using Analysi...

  9. The Terminal and Vomeronasal Nerves of Montpellier Snake, Malpolon monspessulana (Colubridae, Ophidia, Squamata

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    Omar A. R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The montpellier snake, Malpolon monspessulana, used in the current work in order to study the nervi terminalis and vomeronasalis. The vomeronasal organ or Jacobson’s organ is a part of the olfactory apparatus. This organ is innervated by the terminal and vomeronasal nerves. These nerves emerge from the sensory epithelium of Jacobson’s organ simultaneously. The bundles of the terminal and vomeronasal nerves traverse together the cavity of the nasal capsule in their way to the brain. These nerves bear scattered ganglionic cells which represent the ganglion terminale. They leave the capsule through the foramen olfactorium advehens. The terminal and vomeronasal nerves are connected with the olfactory nerve and enter the olfactory formation of the forebrain.

  10. Feeding ecology of the pygmy gecko Coleodactylus natalensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Carolina M. C. A. Lisboa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the feeding ecology of a population of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999, an endemic gecko of Atlantic Forest fragments in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Lizards (N = 49 were collected manually through active search in the four habitats of Parque Estadual Dunas de Natal, type locality of the species. In the laboratory, we measured the lizards and registered the number of consumed prey items identified to Order, its dimensions and frequencies. We also collected samples of leaf litter in each habitat to determine prey availability. Females were significantly larger than males, but head size did not differ between the sexes. The most important prey categories in the diet of C. natalensis based on number, volume and frequency were Isopoda and Araneae. Prey categories with highest importance indices in the diet were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Gryllidae. The diets of adult males and females were similar with respect to prey size, but differed qualitatively, mainly due to the larger trophic spectrum of females. We found some variations on trophic niche breadths and food preferences of lizards between habitats, but in general niche breadths were intermediate, and the most elected prey categories were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Thysanoptera. High electivities for Isoptera and Gryllidae occurred only in the open habitats (restinga and dunes, and for Mantodea in the forested habitats (high and low forest. Collembola was consumed in the same proportion of the environment, and Acarina and Formicidae had negative values of electivity, indicating rejection. We conclude that the population studied seems to have a selective diet, preferring relatively large prey items that are less abundant in the leaf litter, and possibly avoiding potentially toxic prey.

  11. Molecular phylogenetics, species diversity, and biogeography of the Andean lizards of the genus Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Noemí; Padial, José M; Chaparro, Juan C; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; De la Riva, Ignacio

    2012-12-01

    The family Gymnophthalmidae comprises ca. 220 described species of Neotropical lizards distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. It includes 36 genera, among them Proctoporus, which contains six currently recognized species occurring across the yungas forests and wet montane grasslands of the Amazonian versant of the Andes from central Peru to central Bolivia. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships and species limits of Proctoporus and closely related taxa by analyzing 2121 base pairs of mitochondrial (12S, 16S, and ND4) and nuclear (c-mos) genes. Our taxon sampling of 92 terminals includes all currently recognized species of Proctoporus and 15 additional species representing the most closely related groups to the genus. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses recovered a congruent, fully resolved, and strongly supported hypothesis of relationships that challenges previous phylogenetic hypotheses and classifications, and biogeographic scenarios. Our main results are: (i) discovery of a strongly supported clade that includes all species of Proctoporus and within which are nested the monotypic Opipeuter xestus (a genus that we consider a junior synonym of Proctoporus), and two species of Euspondylus, that are therefore transferred to Proctoporus; (ii) the paraphyly of Proctoporus bolivianus with respect to P. subsolanus, which is proposed as a junior synonym of P. bolivianus; (iii) the detection of seven divergent and reciprocally monophyletic lineages (five of them previously assigned to P. bolivianus) that are considered confirmed candidate species, which implies that more candidate species are awaiting formal description and naming than currently recognized species in the genus; (iv) rejection of the hypothesis that Proctoporus diversified following a south to north pattern parallel to the elevation of the Andes; (v) species diversity in Proctoporus is the result of in situ diversification through vicariance in the grasslands of the high Andes, with at least five dispersals contributing to montane forest species. PMID:22982151

  12. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Si Huang; Fei He; Hui Huang; Xiao-Yong Zhang; Shu-Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2), dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediyl))bis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylene))dicarbamate (3), obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5), and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5α,6β,7β-aromadendrane (6), (−)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5β,6α,7α-aromadendrane (7), (−)-4α,10β-aromadendranediol (8), (+)-4β,10β-aromadendrane...

  13. Reporte de Hepatozoon sp. en Corallus hortulanus (Squamata: Boidae para Guaviare‚ Colombia -resumen-

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    L P González-Camacho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatozoon spp. pertenecientes a la familia Hemogregarinidae son los hemoparásitos más abundantes en serpientes reportados a nivel mundial. Su identificación se realiza con base en parámetros morfológicos de los gamontes en sangre periférica del hospedero vertebrado. Corallus hortulanus‚ es distribuida ampliamente en el Neotrópico‚ habita de 1-2 metros sobre el suelo en áreas arbóreas con alta humedad‚ se alimenta de aves‚ reptiles y anfibios. Estos últimos han sido implicados como hospederos intermedios en el ciclo de transmisión de Hepatozoon spp.‚ los cuales se infectan al ingerir dípteros con formas infectivas. Otros invertebrados también han sido implicados como hospederos definitivos de Hepatozoon spp. como garrapatas‚ sanguijuelas‚ ácaros‚ piojos o pulgas. Un individuo de C. hortulanus fue capturado en zona boscosa aprox. a 10 km de San José del Guaviare‚ Colombia. La muestra se obtuvo por corte de hígado‚ se realizaron tres extendidos sanguíneos los cuales se colorearon con Giemsa‚ y se observaron microscópicamente para determinación de la parasitemia‚ análisis morfológico y morfométrico. La parasitemia se cuantificó como el número de parásitos en 10000 glóbulos rojos (100 campos ópticos analizados a1000X. Para el conocimiento de los autores este es el primer reporte de infección‚ en esta especie. Los gamontes de Hepatozoon sp.‚ poseen forma elongada‚ curva‚ núcleo compacto‚ cápsula conspicua‚ con citoplasma azul y granulaciones dispersas. El 50,3% de los gamontes presentan el núcleo con apariencia de bandas‚ que han sido señalados como formas inmaduras. La infección se presenta tanto en eritrocitos como en leucocitos‚ en los primeros provoca desplazamiento lateral del núcleo y aumento de tamaño‚ siendo común la infección con más de un parásito en la misma célula (12.69%. La parasitemia en C. hortulanus fue de 22,2%. A pesar de que muchos reportes refieren que la infección por Hepatozoon sp.‚ no causa alteraciones clínicas evidentes‚ una alta parasitemia como la encontrada‚ podría estar causando anemias hemolíticas y afectando la supervivencia del hospedero. Por cuanto seguimientos a largo plazo también como caracterización de ciclo esporogonico y patología de Hepatozoon spp. en estos hospederos‚ son deseables.

  14. Pygidial secretions ofPasimachus subsulcatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) deter predation byEumeces inexpectatus (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witz, B W; Mushinsky, H R

    1989-03-01

    The carabid beetlePasimachus subsulcatus is an abundant ground-dwelling insect in west central Florida that exudes a powerful mucous membrane irritant when disturbed. This secretion can be sprayed over 10 cm from the abdominal tip. The southeastern five-lined skink,Eumeces inexpectatus, is an abundant insectivorous lizard sympatric withPasimachus. We assessed the availability ofPasimachus toEumeces and found it to be within the foraging microenvironment of the lizard. Analysis ofEumeces gut contents and field feeding trials indicate thatPasimachus are not ingested by the lizard, yet arthropods of comparable size and exoskeletal thickness are ingested. The movement response ofEumeces to isolatedPasimachus secretion constituents, conducted in a modified Y-maze laboratory experiment, was used to assess the repellent capabilities of the secretion.Eumeces are consistently repelled byPasimachus secretion constituents, indicating that the beetle is protected chemically from the lizard. PMID:24271904

  15. A new species of Dixonius (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Phu Quy Island, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botov, Andreas; Phung, Trung My; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Bauer, Aaron M; Brennan, Ian G; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of Dixonius on the basis of five specimens from Phu Quy Island, Binh Thuan Province, in southern Vietnam. The new species can be distinguished from congeners based on molecular and morphological differences. Diagnostic features are: small size (SVL up to 44 mm); 7 or 8 supralabials; 11 or 12 rows of keeled tubercles on dorsum; 21-23 ventral scale rows; 5 or 6 precloacal pores in males; a canthal stripe running from rostrum through the eye and terminating behind the head; second pair of postmentals about one third to one half size of first pair; ground color of dorsum brown, with one or two rows of light yellow or orange spots in one or two rows along flanks, and irregular bands or a reticulated network of dark marks on dorsum. This is the fifth species of Dixonius known to occur in Vietnam. PMID:26624650

  16. Two new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the karst forest of Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Pham, Anh Van; Ngo, Hai Ngoc; Hoang, Chung Van; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We describe two new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus on the basis of a new reptile collection from the limestone karst forest of Hoa Binh Province, northwestern Vietnam. Cyrtodactylus otai sp. nov. from Hang Kia-Pa Co Nature Reserve and Cyrtodactylus bobrovi sp. nov. from Ngoc Son-Ngo Luong Nature Reserve can be distinguished from each other and from their congeners by their genetic distinction and morphological differences in number of precloacal pores, femoral scales, ventral scales, lamellae, subcaudals and dorsal tubercle arrangement, as well as in size and color pattern. In phylogenetic analyses, both new species are nested in a clade containing taxa from northwestern and northcentral Vietnam and northern Laos, i.e., C. bichnganae and C. cf. martini from northwestern Vietnam, C. puhuensis from northcentral Vietnam, and C. spelaeus, C. vilaphongi, and C. wayakonei from northern Laos. PMID:26250040

  17. Low rate of interchromosomal rearrangements during old radiation of gekkotan lizards (Squamata: Gekkota)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Trifonov, V. A.; Rens, W.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2015), s. 299-309. ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : genome evolution * geckos * chromosome painting * karyotype evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.478, year: 2014

  18. A new species of Thecadactylus from Sint Maarten, Lesser Antilles (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae

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    Gunther Koehler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Thecadactylus from the Caribbean island of Sint Maarten. The new species differs from all other species in the genus bya distinct dorsal pattern of numerous irregular but sharply deliminated black spots and blotches on an otherwise almost patternless background.

  19. Sex chromosomes and karyotype of the (nearly) mythical creature, the Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha) encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal to human beings. We uncovered homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome. The sex chromosomes are morphologically similar to the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of monitor lizards (Varanidae). If the sex chromosomes of helodermatids and varanids are homologous, female heterogamety may be ancestral for the whole Anguimorpha group. Moreover, we found that the karyotype of the Gila monster consists of 2n = 36 chromosomes (14 larger metacentric chromosomes and 22 acrocentric microchromosomes). 2n = 36 is the widely distributed chromosomal number among squamates. In his pioneering works representing the only previous cytogenetic examination of the family Helodermatidae, Matthey reported the karyotype as 2n = 38 and suggested a different chromosomal morphology for this species. We believe that this was probably erroneously. We also discovered a strong accumulation of telomeric sequences on several pairs of microchromosomes in the Gila monster, which is a trait documented relatively rarely in vertebrates. These new data fill an important gap in our understanding of the sex determination and karyotype evolution of squamates. PMID:25119263

  20. Sex chromosomes and karyotype of the (nearly mythical creature, the Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae.

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    Martina Johnson Pokorná

    Full Text Available A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal to human beings. We uncovered homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome. The sex chromosomes are morphologically similar to the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of monitor lizards (Varanidae. If the sex chromosomes of helodermatids and varanids are homologous, female heterogamety may be ancestral for the whole Anguimorpha group. Moreover, we found that the karyotype of the Gila monster consists of 2n = 36 chromosomes (14 larger metacentric chromosomes and 22 acrocentric microchromosomes. 2n = 36 is the widely distributed chromosomal number among squamates. In his pioneering works representing the only previous cytogenetic examination of the family Helodermatidae, Matthey reported the karyotype as 2n = 38 and suggested a different chromosomal morphology for this species. We believe that this was probably erroneously. We also discovered a strong accumulation of telomeric sequences on several pairs of microchromosomes in the Gila monster, which is a trait documented relatively rarely in vertebrates. These new data fill an important gap in our understanding of the sex determination and karyotype evolution of squamates.

  1. Postcranial Anatomy of the Mesozoic Dalinghosaurus (Squamata):Evidence from a New Specimen of Western Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shu'an; JI Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The postcranial skeleton of a new specimen of the long-tailed lizard Dalinghosaurus longidigitus was excavated from the Yixian Formation in Lingyuan, western Liaoning. The new specimen provides more anatomical information about this species, especially about the anterior dorsal vertebrae, shoulder girdle and forelimbs. This lizard can be included within the clade Scleroglossa by its 27 or more presacrals, moderately long pubis, and gently notched distal end of tibia. But the detailed systematic position for this taxon remains undetermined. The features of the much longer hind limbs and pes compared with forelimbs and manus, metatarsal IV longer than III, pedal phalanges robust, and penultimate phalanx not longer than other phalanges etc. suggest that this lizard was a running and ground swelling animal.

  2. Molecular cytogenetic map of the central bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Squamata: Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M J; O'Meally, D; Sarre, S D; Georges, A; Ezaz, T

    2013-07-01

    Reptiles, as the sister group to birds and mammals, are particularly valuable for comparative genomic studies among amniotes. The Australian central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is being developed as a reptilian model for such comparisons, with whole-genome sequencing near completion. The karyotype consists of 6 pairs of macrochromosomes and 10 pairs microchromosomes (2n = 32), including a female heterogametic ZW sex microchromosome pair. Here, we present a molecular cytogenetic map for P. vitticeps comprising 87 anchor bacterial artificial chromosome clones that together span each macro- and microchromosome. It is the first comprehensive cytogenetic map for any non-avian reptile. We identified an active nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on the sub-telomeric region of 2q by mapping 18S rDNA and Ag-NOR staining. We identified interstitial telomeric sequences in two microchromosome pairs and the W chromosome, indicating that microchromosome fusion has been a mechanism of karyotypic evolution in Australian agamids within the last 21 to 19 million years. Orthology searches against the chicken genome revealed an intrachromosomal rearrangement of P. vitticeps 1q, identified regions orthologous to chicken Z on P. vitticeps 2q, snake Z on P. vitticeps 6q and the autosomal microchromosome pair in P. vitticeps orthologous to turtle Pelodiscus sinensis ZW and lizard Anolis carolinensis XY. This cytogenetic map will be a valuable reference tool for future gene mapping studies and will provide the framework for the work currently underway to physically anchor genome sequences to chromosomes for this model Australian squamate. PMID:23703235

  3. A new Bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Mekongga Mountains, South East Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Kurniati, Hellen; Engilis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We describe Cyrtodactylus hitchi sp. nov., a new species of Bent-toed Gecko from montane forests in the Mekongga Mountains, South East Sulawesi, Indonesia. Although we cannot speculate about relationships, morphologically it shares several traits with C. batik, a large species known only from Mount Tompotika near the tip of Sulawesi's Eastern Peninsula. The following unique combination of characters distinguishes it from all other congeners: absence of precloacal groove, absence of precloacal and femoral pores, absence of enlarged femoral scales, no abrupt contact between large and small postfemoral scales, 18-20 lamellae under the fourth toes, and transversely enlarged, median subcaudal scales arranged in a single row. PMID:27394851

  4. Temporal and ontogenetic variation in the escape response of Ameiva festiva (Squamata, Teiidae

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    Lattanzio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors have been shown to affect lizard escape behavior (flight initiation distance or FID, the distance between predator and prey when the prey initiates escape. Patterns of daily activity, such as foraging or movement behavior, vary with respect to time of day, supporting that escape responses may vary temporally as well. However, there remains scant information regarding the effects of time of day on FID. During peak activity, FID may decrease due to increased cost of giving up resources (e.g., prey or potential mates. An alternative hypothesis is that FID may increase because lizard activity in general may serve to alert a predator in advance of its approach. A lizard in this scenario may be favored to flee sooner rather than later. Moreover, juvenile and adult lizards of multiple species may differ in behavioral, ecological, and morphological traits that could influence escape decisions. I tested the effects of time of day (in 30-min intervals and age (juvenile or adult on the FID of a tropical whiptail lizard, Ameiva festiva in Costa Rica. I found that A. festiva escape responses varied with time of day such that in general, their FID decreased throughout the day. In addition, I observed a peak in FID from mid to late-morning that matches published estimates of peak activity times for A. festiva. Overall, juvenile A. festiva initiated an escape response sooner than adults, which may be related to differences in perceived risk associated with differences in size and predator experience between the two age groups. I conclude that escape responses may be contingent on both the activity level of the animal at the time of approach and its age.

  5. High frequency of pauses during intermittent locomotion of small South American gymnophthalmid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae

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    Elizabeth Höfling

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the locomotor behavior of two closely-related species of Gymnophthalmini lizards, Vanzosaura rubricauda and Procellosaurinus tetradactylus, that was imaged under laboratory conditions at a rate of 250 frames/s with a high-speed video camera (MotionScope PCI 1000 on four different substrates with increasing degrees of roughness (smooth perspex, cardboard, glued sand, and glued gravel. Vanzosaura rubricauda and P. tetradactylus are both characterized by intermittent locomotion, with pauses occurring with high frequency and having a short duration (from 1/10 to 1/3 s, and taking place in rhythmic locomotion in an organized fashion during all types ofgaits and on different substrates. The observed variations in duration and frequency of pauses suggest that in V. rubricauda mean pause duration is shorter and pause frequency is higher than in P. tetradactylus. The intermittent locomotion observed in V.rubricauda and P. tetradactylus imaging at 250 frames/s is probably of interest for neurobiologists. In the review of possible determinants, the phylogenetic relationships among the species of the tribe Gymnophthalmini are focused. Keywords: .

  6. The demography of the lizard Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a highly seasonal Neotropical savanna

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    Helga C. Wiederhecker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The demography of a population of Tropidurus torquatus was studied from March 1996 until December 1998, in the Cerrado biome of the Central Brazil, using the method of capture and recapture. Population size, number of incoming individuals in the population, and age structure varied seasonally, reflecting the reproductive cycle of the species. The instantaneous rate of population increase did not differ from zero throughout the study. In general, the permanence rate of juveniles and adults were low, indicating a large turnover of individuals in the population, with a maximum life expectancy of three years. The sex-ratio among adults was biased toward females. Since no bias was observed among juveniles and there was no difference in adults permanence between sexes, we suggestet that the biased adult sex-ratio resulted from a lower permanence of males during a short ontogenetic period, when secondary sexual characteristics develop. When compared to T. itambere, the studied population of T. torquatus attained a higher density and a greater female bias in the sex-ratio. In general, the studied population presented characteristics that, according to life history theory, should be associated with early age at maturity and polyginy: short life expectancy, high population turnover, and female biased sex-ratios.

  7. Defense behavior and tail loss in the endemic lizard Eurolophosaurus nanuzae (Squamata, Tropiduridae from southeastern Brazil

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    Conrado A. B. Galdino

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Defense behavior of the endemic tropidurid lizard Eurolophosaurus nanuzae was studied in an area of rocky outcrops at Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Tail loss aspects of this species were also studied in lizards from three populations (Diamantina, Serra do Cipó, and Serro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Lizards relied primarily on crypsis to avoid detection by predators. Secondary defense strategies involved a complex set of behaviors. Mean maximum distance of flight was 1.68 ± 1.70 m. When captured,individuals attempted to flee, lifted the tail, produced distress calls, discharged the cloacal contents, waived their tails, and bit. Frequency of tail autotomy was 13.2% (n = 53 in Diamantina, 11.9% (n = 42 in Serra do Cipó, and 4.1% (n = 49 in Serro. Tail autotomy frequency did not differ among the three populations (X2 = 3.3, DF =2, p = 0.19. Tail autotomy did not vary between the years of the study (X2 = 1.32, p = 0.35 and did not differ between males and females among the studied populations.

  8. Morphology and ecology of sibon snakes (Squamata: Dipsadidae from two forests in Central America

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    Todd R. Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical measurements, abundance, and ecological observations were recorded for Sibon annulatus,S. argus, S. longifrens, and S. nebulatus at two Neotropical habitats: a lowland swamp forest in Costa Rica and a montane cloud forest in Panama. Fourty-four and 58 adult snakes were recorded from Costa Rica and Panama, respectively. Differences in morphology and body condition showed minimal significant differences among species from both geographical locations. Observations of feeding, reproduction, abundance, distribution and a new size record for S. annulatus are discussed.

  9. Phylogeny and biogeography of the most diverse clade of South American gymnophthalmid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Cercosaurinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Lobos, Simón E; Venegas, Pablo J; Chávez, Germán; Aguirre-Peñafiel, Vanessa; Zurita, Daniel; Echevarría, Lourdes Y

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 50% of the diversity of the speciose Neotropical lizard clade Gymnophthalmidae is nested within the subclade Cercosaurinae. The taxonomy of Cercosaurinae lizards has been historically confusing because many diagnostic characters of those clades traditionally ranked as genera do not represent true diagnostic apomorphies. Even though molecular phylogenies of several 'genera' have been presented in the last few years, some of them remain poorly sampled (e.g., Anadia, Echinosaura, Potamites, Riama). In this paper we present a more comprehensive phylogeny of Cercosaurinae lizards with emphasis on Andean taxa from Ecuador and Peru, as well as a time-calibrated phylogeny with reconstruction of ancestral areas. Our analysis includes 52% of all recognized species of Cercosaurinae (67 species) and 1914 characters including three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. We find that Anadia, Echinosaura, Euspondylus, Potamites, Proctoporus, and Riama are not monophyletic: the Tepuian Anadia mcdiarmidi is not sister to Andean species of Anadia; Echinosaura sulcarostrum is not included in the same clade formed by other species of Echinosaura and their more recent common ancestor; Teuchocercus is nested within Echinosaura; species of Euspondylus included in this study are nested within Proctoporus; Riama laudahnae is included in Proctoporus; and Potamites is paraphyletic and split in two separate clades, one of which we name Gelanesaurus, also a new genus-group name. Within Potamites, P. ecpleopus is paraphyletic, and P. strangulatus strangulatus and P. strangulatus trachodus are recognized as two distinct species. We also identify three unnamed clades (i.e., not nested within any of the recognized 'genera') from Andean populations in Ecuador and Peru. The estimated age of the clade Cercosaurinae (∼60Ma) corresponds to the early stages of the northern Andes. Even though the distribution of the most recent common ancestor of Cercosaurinae remains equivocal, our analysis shows that these lizards colonized and radiated along the northern Andes before reaching the central Andes in Peru. Finally, we present phylogenetic definitions for some of the recovered clades to promote a clear and precise classification of Cercosaurinae lizards. PMID:26975692

  10. A misunderstood new gecko of the genus Hemidactylus from Socotra Island, Yemen (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae

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    Roberto Sindaco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new endemic gecko of the genus Hemidactylus is described from Socotra Island (Yemen. It is a rupicolous species characterized by: medium-large size (SVL up to 60 mm, back with large trihedral, raised, strongly keeled tubercles intermixed with small granular scales, males with 6-10 preanal pores arranged in two short rows separated by 2-3 scales. In East Africa, Arabia, the Middle East and India the only other tuberculated Hemidactylus with preanal pores arranged on two separate rows is the Somali H. granchii Lanza, 1978, which differs for the comparatively deeper and shorter head, the nostril separated from the first upper labial, less preanal pores, less upper and lower labials, more tubercles at midbody and more lamellae under the inner toe.

  11. Morphogenesis of the Acrosomal Vesicle During Spermiogenesis in the House Gecko Ptyodactylus hasselquisti (Squamata, Reptilia

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    O.A. Al-Dokhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the morphogenesis of the acrosomal vesicle during spermiogenesis in the lizard Ptyodactylus hasselquisti. Five adult male lizards were captured during the period of sexual activity (April and May, 2005 from old houses in the city of Riyadh (25 10' N, 46 50' E, Saudi Arabia. Ultrastructural examination revealed proliferation and hypertrophy of Golgi complex elements as the initial event in formation of the acrosomal vesicle. Numerous small vesicles were released from Golgi complex and then coalesced to form a large proacrosomal vesicle which later attached to the proximal surface of spermatid nucleus. A proximal concavity appeared in the spermatid nucleus to completely lodge the acrosomal vesicle, then the spermatid nucleus with the lodged vesicle were transported to be directly apposed to the spermatid plasmalemma. This was associated with the appearance of a single acrosomal granule at the vesicle base. Subsequently, the progressively pushed acrosomal vesicle was flattened on the proximal nuclear surface. Some acrosomal vesicle deformities were also illustrated. The successive morphogenetic stages of the acrosomal vesicle were discussed in comparison with that reported in the previous studies concerned with spermiogenesis in other reptile species.

  12. The oogenic cycle of the Caspian bent-toed gecko, Cyrtopodion caspium (Squamata: Gekkonidae in Iran

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    Vida Hojati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caspian bent-toed gecko, Cyrtopodion caspium, is one of the commonest lizards in northern Iran. It is nocturnal, anthropophile and oviparous. In this study, the reproductive cycle of this species was studied by focusing on oogenesis, from April 5 to October 20, 2011. In total, 70 adult females were obtained from Mazandaran, one of the northern provinces of Iran where the climate is temperate. Ovaries were removed and processed for histological and morphometric studies. The results show that oocyte growth starts in late April and ends in August. Mating starts in spring, especially at the beginning of May, with oviposition occurring from late May to mid August. Females lay 1-2 eggs per clutch with the possibility of producing a secondary clutch later in the season. Maximum reproductive activity occurs in May and peaks in June. There was no significant difference between right and left side of reproductive system. With oogenesis occurring from April through July, C. caspium follows an oogenic cycle typical for temperate species.

  13. Conquering Brazil: the invasion by the exotic gekkonid lizard Hemidactylus mabouia (Squamata in Brazilian natural environments

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    Carlos Frederico D. Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review the records regarding occurrence of Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau De Jonnès, 1818 in Brazil, looking for records of the species in natural habitats, in order to assess the present status of this gecko as an exotic or invasive alien species in the country. We surveyed the available records of H. mabouia living in natural conditions, considering secondary data obtained from the literature, supplemented with original field records obtained by the authors during fieldwork. We found a total of 36 records in the literature and/or field records reporting the occurrence of H. mabouia in natural habitats in 36 different localities in 13 Brazilian states. The states presenting a higher number of records were Rio de Janeiro (seven, Bahia, São Paulo (six, and Espírito Santo (five different areas. We show that the invasion of Brazilian natural habitats by H. mabouia has taken place for some decades. Presently we have consistent records that it has invaded natural habitats in 13 Brazilian states. This suggests thatit is important to start monitoring H. mabouia in order to measure the rate and effectiveness of its establishment in natural habitats in Brazil and also to evaluate the potential negative effects of this invasion on sympatric species.

  14. Dietary analysis of Homonota darwini (Squamata: Gekkoni-dae in Northern Patagonia

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    Marcelo E. KUN, Carla PIANTONI, John D. KRENZ, Nora R. IBARGÜENGOYTÍA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigated the diet of the southernmost gecko in the world, Homonota darwini. Fifty-three specimens were captured during spring and summer in four locations in Patagonia, Argentina. The stomach contents of the specimens were identified, and we found that prey consisted of six main groups: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera and Araneae, and the adults and larvae of moth Lepidoptera. Lepidoptera was the major dietary component. The presence of ants and moths as common prey suggests an ambush feeding strategy. In spring, females consumed more ants than males although no other dietary differences between males and females were evident. We found nine geckos with empty stomachs and six parasitized by nematodes. Presence of empty stomachs corroborates previous observations of other nocturnal geckos and non-gecko lizards. Reduced foraging success of nocturnal lizards could be due to difficulty in prey detection due to dim light, reduced or erratic activity of insect prey at night, or shorter activity times of geckos relative to diurnal success. Sex and season were not associated with the incidence of empty stomachs. Principal component analysis showed that four food alternatives correlated with season. The constraint of nocturnality, coupled with low night-time temperatures restricting feeding to only a few hours after sunset, appear to have caused a generality of diet which may limit energy acquisition. We conclude that H. darwini is an arthropod generalist and likely an ambush forager, as are many other nocturnal gekkonids [Current Zoology 56 (4: 406–410, 2010].

  15. A new species of lizard of the genus Eublepharis (Squamata: Eublepharidae from India

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    Zeeshan A. Mirza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new species of the genus Eublepharis from the Satpura Hills in central India. The new species closely resembles E. fuscus, but can be differentiated from it by the following suite of characters: SVL 125–130 mm; dome shaped tubercles lacking keels arranged in ~20 rows on dorsum, inter-tubercular space greater than width of a tubercle; 46–48 ocular fringe scales, three pale bands between the nuchal loop and caudal constriction; medial subdigital lamellae smooth; 13–14 preanal pores, which may be interrupted medially by a single poreless scale. Description of the new species sheds light on the limited knowledge of Eublepharis in India. We provided in identification key to the species of the genus Eublepharis.

  16. Feeding ecology of the pygmy gecko Coleodactylus natalensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina M. C. A. Lisboa; Raul F. D. Sales; Eliza M. X. Freire

    2012-01-01

    We studied the feeding ecology of a population of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999, an endemic gecko of Atlantic Forest fragments in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Lizards (N = 49) were collected manually through active search in the four habitats of Parque Estadual Dunas de Natal, type locality of the species. In the laboratory, we measured the lizards and registered the number of consumed prey items identified to Order, its dimensions and frequencies. We also co...

  17. Morphological and molecular identification of ticks infesting Boa constrictor (Squamata, Boidae in Manaus (Central Brazilian Amazon

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    Leonardo Costa Fiorini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Boa constrictor is one of the world's largest vertebrate carnivores and is often found in urban areas in the city of Manaus, Brazil. The morphological identification of ticks collected from 27 snakes indicated the occurrence of Amblyomma dissimile Koch 1844 on all individuals sampled. In contrast, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch was found on only two snakes. An analysis of the 16S rRNA molecular marker confirmed the morphological identification of these ectoparasites.

  18. Nitrogen excretion during embryonic development of the green iguana, Iguana iguana (Reptilia; Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, M R; Taylor, E W; Abe, A S

    2012-10-01

    Development within the cleidoic egg of birds and reptiles presents the embryo with the problem of accumulation of wastes from nitrogen metabolism. Ammonia derived from protein catabolism is converted into the less toxic product urea or relatively insoluble uric acid. The pattern of nitrogen excretion of the green iguana, Iguana iguana, was determined during embryonic development using samples from allantoic fluid and from the whole homogenized egg, and in hatchlings and adults using samples of blood plasma. Urea was the major excretory product over the course of embryonic development. It was found in higher concentrations in the allantoic sac, suggesting that there is a mechanism present on the allantoic membrane enabling the concentration of urea. The newly hatched iguana still produced urea while adults produced uric acid. The time course of this shift in the type of nitrogen waste was not determined but the change is likely to be related to the water relations associated with the terrestrial habit of the adult. The green iguana produces parchment-shelled eggs that double in mass during incubation due to water absorption; the eggs also accumulate 0.02 mM of urea, representing 82% of the total measured nitrogenous residues that accumulate inside the allantois. The increase in egg mass and urea concentration became significant after 55 days of incubation then were unchanged until hatching. PMID:22710252

  19. Variabilidad poblacional en el género Kentropyx (Squamata: Teiidae del Norte argentino

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    Tedesco, María E.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability of population of Kentropyx from northern Argentina was studied using characters of lepidosis and coloration. A subspecific taxonomic level, Kentropyx viridistriga lagartija is proposed for Kentropyx lagartija, considering this subspecies a western form of the eastern one Kentropyx viridistriga viridistriga.

  20. Individual Growth Rates of Nikolsky’s Viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Squamata, Viperidae

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    Bondarenko Z. S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Capture-mark-recapture data was used to infer growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Vedmederja, Grubant et Rudaeva, 1986, in the Eastern Ukraine. We have found that growth rate is negatively correlated with age. The difference in growth rates before maturation is not significant between different sexes. Growth rates decrease rapidly after maturation in males and females, however adult males retain significantly higher average growth rates. There is large dispersion of growth rates in the group of adult females, which is caused, probably, by alteration of complete arrest of growth in the years with reproduction and more intensive growth in the years without it. Asymptotic snout-ventral length estimated after Von Bertalanffy model was 680 mm in females and 630 mm in males. Females mature after fifth and males mature after fourth hibernation. The larger females in vipers can not be the result of higher growth rates in females, but are the outcome of a combination of other factors including different maturation time and size (older and being larger, and, perhaps, longer life span due to lower mortality. Growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper in the nature are higher than in other species in the group of small Eurasian vipers.

  1. Natural history of Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon (Squamata, Xenosauridae), a Knob-scaled Lizard from Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    JULIO A LEMOS-ESPINAL; Smith, Geoffrey R.

    2005-01-01

    We made observations on the natural history of a population of the lizard Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon from Oaxaca, Mexico. Females were larger than males (SVL). Most lizards were found completely inside rock crevices. Mean body temperature was 20.3°C. Body temperature wasrelated primarily to substrate temperature. Body temperature was not influenced by any crevice characteristic. Based on abdominal palpation, the size at maturity for females appears to be 117-119 mm SVL. Sex ratio did not dif...

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Schlegel's Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hun; Park, Jaejin; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Lee, Heon-Joo; Kim, Ja-Kyeong; Park, Daesik

    2016-09-01

    We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Gekko japonicus, whose status as an endemic or invasive species is currently under debate in Korea. The total genome size is 16 544 bp and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 non-coding regions. The A + T content of the genome is 55.8% (A, 31.2%; C, 29.4%; T, 24.6%; G, 14.9%). Phylogenetic analysis shows that G. japonicus has a close phylogenetic relationship with both G. swinhonis and G. chinensis. Our result will facilitate further genetic studies of this species to ascertain its species status. PMID:26366825

  3. Histological and morphological observations on tongue of Scincella tsinlingensis (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The histology and morphology characteristics of the tongue in Scincella tsinlingensis were studied by light and electronic microscopy. Under light microscopy, the tongue consists of tip, lingual body and radix in sequence. Numerous lingual papillae widely distribute on the surface of the dorsal and ventral flanks in the tongue, in addition to some regions of the tip. The papillae's surface is covered with the epithelial layer. The lamina propria and dense connective tissue are distinct existing under the epithelial layer. There are many lingual glands spread over the lamina propria. Tongue muscle is developed and composed of distinct intrinsic muscle, hyoglossus and genioglossus. By scanning electron microscopy, at higher magnification, the epithelial cells of the dorsal surface in the divaricate tongue tips show numerous microvilli, micro-ridges and micro-pores. The surface of dorsal side of the papillae in lingual body is covered with abundant of micro-ridges and taste bud lacuna. On the surface of the papillae in radix, micro-facets and micro-ridges are compactly distributed, as well as scattered mucilage-pores. The lingual epithelium is divided into four layers observed by the transmission electron microscope. Cells of basal layer are irregularly elliptical in shape, with sparse organelles in the cytoplasm. The deep intermediate layer is not always distinct. Small numbers of organelles are scattered into the cytoplasm. The cells of the superficial intermediate layer gradually flatten, as do their nuclei. The cytoplasm contains many keratohyalin granules. Cell membranes are formed processes around cells and joined by abundant desmosomes to the cell membranes of adjacent cells. The cells located on the extreme free-surface side of the keratinized layer have fallen off. The basal lamina is intercalated between the basal layer and the lamina propria. The lamina propria of lingual body contains lingual gland. A large part of the cytoplasm is occupied by mucus granules which located in the distal part of the cell. The connective tissue contains myelinated nerve fibers, vessel and muscle cells. PMID:26421715

  4. A new species of Hemidactylus from Lake Turkana, Northern Kenya (Squamata: Gekkonidae

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    Roberto Sindaco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Hemidactylus is described on the basis of two specimens (an adult male and an adult female collected in 2005 in rocky and sandy habitat of the semiarid climatic region on the eastern shore of Lake Turkana (Kenya. It is a medium-sized Hemidactylus (SVL from 40 to 50 mm distinguished from all other species by a unique combination of characters. The back is covered by large, trihedral, strongly keeled tubercles, intermixed with a few small, irregular shaped granules, forming 14 quite regular transverse rows from axilla to groin; nostrils contact the rostral, first supralabial, 1 enlarged internasal and 2-3 postnasals; the dorsal half of the rostral scale is divided longitudinally; there are 6 lamellae under the first toe and 10 under the 4th toe; male with 8 precloacal pores; female without pores. The dorsal colour pattern is very distinctive, consisting of four transverse bands, bordered with dark margins. The types are housed in the Herpetological Collections of the Museo di Storia Naturale of the University of Pavia and in the National Museums of Kenya (Nairobi.

  5. A new species of Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parasitizing Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata from northeastern Argentina Una especie nueva de Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parásita de Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata del noreste de Argentina

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    Lía Inés Lunaschi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae from a Spiny Lava Lizard, Tropidurus spinulosus, collected in Chaco Province, Argentina, is described. This is the second species of Mathevotaenia described from Neotropical reptiles. The new species is mainly characterized by having a relatively small strobila, 24 mm in total length, with about 100 craspedote proglottids, and 19-24 testes per proglottid. Among the South American species of Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis is most similar to the new species by having similar body length and number of testes, but the major differences between both species include the size of suckers, neck, proglottids, testes and egg capsules, and the shape of the genital atrium and ovary (with 10-13 lobules on each side in M. argentinensis,, and 4-7 lobules in M. chaquensis n. sp.. A key to the species of the South American members of the Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946 is presented.Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae es descrita parasitando al lagarto de los quebrachales, Tropidurus spinulosus, procedente de la Provincia del Chaco, Argentina. Esta es la segunda especie de Mathevotaenia descrita parasitando reptiles Neotropicales. La nueva especie está caracterizada principalmente por tener un estróbilo relativamente pequeño, 24 mm de largo, con aproximadamente 100 proglótides craspedotas y 19-24 testículos por proglótide. Entre las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis es la más semejante a la nueva especie por presentar similar longitud del cuerpo y número de testículos, pero difieren en el tamaño de las ventosas, cuello, proglótides, testículos y huevos. Además difieren en la forma del atrio genital y del ovario (10-13 lóbulos a cada lado enM. argentinensis vs. 4-7 lóbulos en M. chaquensis n. sp.. Se presenta una clave para la determinación de las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946.

  6. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MABUYA BERENGERAE, MABUYA PERGRAVIS (SQUAMATA: SCINCIDAE Y CONIOPHANES ANDRESENSIS (SQUAMATA: COLUBRIDAE Y EVALUACIÓN DE SU ESTADO DE AMENAZA EN LAS ISLAS DE SAN ANDRÉS Y PROVIDENCIA, COLOMBIA

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    JOSÉ RANCES CAICEDO-PORTILLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta nueva información sobre la taxonomía, la distribución y la historia natural de los lagartos Mabuya berengerae y M. pergravis; así como de la serpiente Coniophanes andresensis, tres especies endémicas y poco conocidas de las islas de San Andrés y Providencia, las cuales se creían muy raras e incluso extintas. A pesar del poco tiempo de estudio en las islas, se evidenció que los lagartos no son raros, encontrándose hasta ocho ejemplares cada media hora. La evaluación del estado de conservación según los parámetros de la IUCN para las tres especies, clasifica a M. berengerae y M. pergravis como especies casi amenazadas (NT y a C. andresensis como una especie en peligro crítico de extinción (CR. La pequeña área de distribución geográfica, el impacto antrópico y la introducción de especies exóticas pueden ser las principales causas de la disminución de la población de C. andresensis. Se analizaron algunos caracteres taxonómicos en M. berengerae (hasta ahora conocida de un solo ejemplar, encontrándose ciertas discrepancias que hacen necesaria su redefinición. Se recomienda realizar programas de investigación básica, conservación y educación, así como proteger los hábitats naturales de las islas.

  7. Two new species of Parapharyngodon (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae from the enigmatic Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus (Squamata: Bipedidae Dos especies nuevas de Parapharyngodon (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae de los enigmáticos Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus (Squamata: Bipedidae

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    Francisco Agustín Jiménez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Parapharyngodon collected from Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus are herein described. Parapharyngodon lamothei n. sp. was collected from the 4-toed worm lizard Bipes canaliculatus from southern Mexico. It is unique in possessing 6 lips, a gubernaculum, a fringed cloacal lip, and a single medial papilla in addition to 3 paired papillae. Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp., was collected from the 3-toed worm lizard Bipes tridactylus, and it is characterized by having 3 bilobed lips, a simple cloaca, a relatively long spicule, and by possessing 3 pairs of caudal papillae. These are the third and fourth species of the genus recorded in Mexico.En este trabajo se describen 2 especies del género Parapharyngodon: Parapharyngodon lamothei n. sp. y Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp., recolectadas del intestino de los bipédidos Bipes canaliculatus y Bipes tridactylus, respectivamente. La primera se caracteriza por poseer 6 labios, gubernáculo, labio cloacal ornamentado y las papilas caudales distribuidas en 3 pares y 1 papila sencilla media ventral inmediatamente postcloacal. Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp. se diferencia por poseer 3 labios lobulados, por su estructura cloacal lisa y por presentar 3 pares de papilas caudales en el caso de los machos.

  8. A new forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunya, Kirati; Sumontha, Montri; Panitvong, Nonn; Dongkumfu, Wuttipong; Sirisamphan, Thana; Pauwels, Olivier S G

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new forest-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. is characterized by a maximum known SVL of 87.3 mm; 18 to 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 34 to 37 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including four to six pitted (female) or pore-bearing (male) scales on each femur separated by a diastema from five pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal scales; no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and three to five irregular beige dorsal bands between limb insertions. The discovery of a new reptile endemic to Doi Inthanon reinforces the high importance of this mountain in terms of biodiversity conservation. PMID:25661232

  9. Suivi du Gecko Phelsuma serraticauda (Squamata : Gekkonidae dans la région Atsinanana, dans l’Est de Madagascar

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    Karen L. M. Freeman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RÉSUMÉCette étude a été effectuée sur le Gecko Phelsuma serraticauda durant les mois d’octobre et décembre 2008 dans 57 sites dans l’est et nord-est de Madagascar. Elle a pour objectifs de déterminer l’aire de distribution dans l’est de Madagascar et l’utilisation d’habitat de cette espèce pour sa conservation et son utilisation durable. La plupart des observations des individus sur les plantes sont sur le cocotier Cocos nucifera (84,3 % et le fruit de pain Artocarpus altilis (4,9 %, avec 8,3 % sur le mur d’une maison en bois. Le nombre de P. serraticauda varie entre un et cinq par biotope avec une moyenne de 2,6 ± 0,2 pour l’ensemble des plantes et de 1,7 ± 0,4 pour les maisons. Parmi les 29 pieds de cocotier, 34 % sont occupés chacun par un seul individu mâle ou femelle, 14 % par deux femelles, 10 % par deux mâles, 10 % par un mâle et une femelle, et 10 % par deux mâles et une femelle. Le nombre moyen de mâle a été 1,06 ± 0,20 et 1,00 ± 0,15 pour la femelle. Sur les quatre maisons visitées, trois sont occupées chacune par une femelle et la dernière par trois mâles et deux femelles. Le nombre moyen de mâles a été 0,75 ± 0,75 et de 1,25 ± 0,25 pour les femelles. Phelsuma serraticauda est rarement trouvé sur des eucalyptus, Artocarpus heterophyllus et autres palmiers. Cette espèce n’est pas recensée dans la forêt humide de basse altitude d’Analalava, à la périphérie de la forêt littorale d’Antetezana et dans la plantation de Ravenala madagascariensis. L’analyse des matières fécales a montré que l’espèce se nourrit principalement d’araignées, coléoptères, hyménoptères, hémiptères et de leurs larves. Elle est sympatrique avec P. lineata et P. quadriocellata. La collecte de P. serraticauda dans la nature est allouée avec une autorisation légale et suivant le quota fixé par la CITES. Des cas de collecte illicite qui constitue une menace pour l’espèce de P. serraticauda, sont notés pendant cette étude. Compte tenu de l’état actuel des populations de P. serraticauda et de l’absence de mesures de conservation, un système de monitoring et un site de conservation pour cette espèce devraient être mis en place de toute urgence. Cette étude est la première réalisée sur cette espèce dans son état sauvage pour mieux comprendre ses besoins en termes d’habitat et les mesures de conservation à long terme de l’espèce. ABSTRACTThe diurnal gecko Phelsuma serraticauda has a restricted range in eastern and northeastern Madagascar. A study was under­taken in 57 sites mostly in Ivoloina and its surroundings areas in October (phase 1 and December (phase 2 2008. The main objectives were to elucidate the distribution area in the east of Madagascar and to determine the habitat use of P. serrati­cauda to help ensure its conservation and sustainable use. Most of the observations on plants were from coconut tree Cocos nucifera (84.3 % and breadfruit Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae, 4.9 %, with 8.3 % from houses. The number of P. serraticauda per biotope varied between one and five with means of 2.6 ± 0.2 for all plants and 1.7 ± 0.4 for the houses. Among the 29 coconut trees, 34 % were each occupied by one male or female, 14 % by two females, 10 % by two males, 10 % by one male and one female, 10 % by two males and one female. The mean number of male of P. serraticauda on the coconut trees was 1.06 ± 0.20 and 1.00 ± 0.15 for female. Among the four analysed houses, three were occupied by one female and one by three males and two females. The mean number of male P. serraticauda on the houses was 0.75 ± 0.75 and 1.25 ± 0.25 for female. Phelsuma serraticauda was also found infrequently on Eucalyptus sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, and other palm trees such as Dypsis sp. This species of gecko was not recorded in the humid forest of Analalava, in the edge of the Antetezana littoral forest, and in the vast plantation of Ravenala madagascariensis situated in the surrounding areas of Ivoloina. Results from fae­cal analysis showed that P. serraticauda prey mostly on spiders, coleopterans and hymenopterans, hemipterans and their larvae. Phelsuma serraticauda was found sympatrically with P. lineata and P. quadriocellata. The collection of this species in the wild is allowed with legal authorization and with respect to the quotas fixed by CITES. We have noted cases of illegal collection of P. serraticauda during this study. The trade constitutes a threat for this gecko. Its populations are fragmented and are also threatened by habitat loss. Bearing in mind the lack of current conservation measures and the present state of the populations of P. serraticauda, a monitoring system and a conservation site for this species should be urgently established. This study is the first on this species in the wild and constitutes the beginning of many studies needed to better understand its habitat require­ments and to ensure the long term survival of the species.

  10. Validation and Application of Skeletochronology for Age Determination of the Ryukyu Ground Gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata:Eublepharidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takaki KURITA; Mamoru TODA

    2013-01-01

    Skeletochronology is a method commonly used for estimating the age of amphibians and reptiles in the wild. However, the number of lines of arrested growth (LAGs) does not necessarily relfect age in some species. We validated the applicability of this method to an endangered eublepharid gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae, then inferred its longevity and age structures in wild populations. We classiifed young geckos into three groups using previously published data for early growth:Group 1 contained hatchlings before the ifrst winter, Group 2 contained hatchlings after the ifrst win-ter, and Group 3 included yearlings after the second winter. LAG numbers in these groups were then compared. All individuals in Group 1 possessed a single LAG, which was considered as a hatching line. Most individuals in Groups 2 and 3 possessed one and two additional LAGs, respectively (LAG1 and LAG2), corroborating the notion that LAGs are formed annually. A few geckos exhibited fewer LAGs than expected. Analysis of variations in LAG and marrow cavity diameter demonstrated that in animals with fewer LAGs, endosteal resorption or fusion of hatching line and LAG1 had occurred. LAG2 was never lost by endosteal resorption and was identiifable by its diameter. Thus, the age of adult geckos could be determined by counting LAGs outward from LAG2. Application of this method to wild populations re-vealed that the longevity of this species is not less than 83 months, but that almost all individuals in fragmented habitats die before 50 months, suggesting lower population sustainability in such habitats.

  11. Phylogeny, biogeography, and evolution of two Mediterranean snakes, Malpolon monspessulanus and Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Squamata, Colubridae), using mtDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Pleguezuelos, J M

    2006-08-01

    Variation in 815bp of mitochondrial DNA from two gene fragments (300bp of cytochrome b and 395-515bp of 12S rRNA) for 26 Malpolon monspessulanus, and cytochrome b for a further 21 individuals, indicates that this species originated in the Maghreb area of Northwest Africa. Here, an estimated 3.5-6Mya, it divided into the western M. m. monspessulanus, and an eastern clade including M. m. insignitus and M. m. fuscus. The very limited genetic differentiation between Maghreb and Southwest European populations of this form suggests that it arrived in the Iberian Peninsula only recently. Population genetics and demographic tests indicate subsequent expansion in this area around 83,000-168,000 year ago. Because present populations of Malpolon arrived recently, mid-Pliocene and at least some Pleistocene fossils of the genus Malpolon in Southwest Europe are probably derived from an earlier invasion from the Maghreb, possibly as early as the end of the Miocene period, 5.3-5.9Mya, when there was a temporary land bridge across the site of the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea desiccated. The descendants of this earlier invasion must have eventually become extinct, perhaps during one of the Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast to the western M. m. monspessulanus, the greater genetic divergence found in the eastern clade of M. monspessulanus suggests that it dispersed at an earlier date and probably over a longer period, spreading eastwards through northern Libya and Egypt to Syria, Iraq, and Iran, and around the Mediterranean Sea through Turkey into the Aegean archipelagos and the Balkan peninsula. The western and eastern units of M. monspessulanus have different dorsal color pattern, differences in skull structure and exhibit an 8.4% uncorrected genetic divergence in the combined gene fragments investigated here. It is consequently recommended that they should be treated as separate species: M. monspessulanus (sensu stricto) and Malpolon insignitusstat. nov., the latter including the subspecies Malpolon insignitus fuscuscomb. nov. The same combined mitochondrial gene fragments used in Malpolon were investigated in 20 individuals of Hemorrhois hippocrepis, and of cytochrome b alone in a further 17. They indicate that this species also originated in the Maghreb and again invaded the Iberian Peninsula quite recently. Some of the most recent invasions of the Iberian Peninsula by reptiles and amphibian taxa could probably be anthropogenic in origin. Some other species including M. monspessulanus and H. hippocrepis, may have crossed naturally, by "hopping" across the Strait of Gibraltar via temporary islands on the shallowest parts that were exposed during sea-level fall associated with Pleistocene glaciations. PMID:16679033

  12. Report of a bite by the South American colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii latirostris (Squamata: Colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    María Elisa Peichoto; Jorge Abel Céspedez; Juan Antonio Pascual

    2007-01-01

    Following the bite of Philodryas olfersii latirostris Cope, 1862, a 29-year-old male herpetologist developed localized and burning pain, and minimal bleeding from the puncture marks of posterior maxillary teeth, which subsided rapidly. The victim developed no other local signs or symptoms. After few days the victim presented persistent severe rotatory dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. On examination his hearing was normal. Neurological exam was otherwise normal. The patient had ...

  13. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863 (Squamata: Dipsadidae in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  14. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863) (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho; Luciano Leandro Plombon

    2014-01-01

    Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae) occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  15. Pentastomid infection in Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824) (Squamata: Colubridae) in a caatinga of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W O; Guedes, T B; Freire, E M X; Vasconcellos, A

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between pentastomids and two Colubridae species, Phillodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824), were investigated in the federal government's reserve Estação Ecológica do Seridó (ESEC, Seridó) situated at lat 6 degrees 35'-40' S and long 37 degrees 15'-20 W in the municipality of Serra Negra do Norte, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil and run by IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Resources). Throughout 2005, 26 specimens of snakes, 13 of P. nattereri and 13 of O. aeneus were collected. After anatomical dissection and laboratorial examination of the snakes respiratory tracts, P. nattereri was found to be parasitized by two species of pentastomids: Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922 with a prevalence of 30.8% and a mean intensity of infection of 51.5 +/- 32.7 (range 3-147), and Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1863) which had a prevalence of 7.7% and a mean intensity of infection of 1.0. Only one female of O. aeneus was found to be infected by C. tetrapoda, with a prevalence of 7.7% and mean intensity of infection of 2.0. There was no significant relationship between size of snout-vent length (SVL) and intensity of infection in the specimens investigated here. The two individuals of P. nattereri infected by more than 40 specimens of pentastomids had their lungs completely infected including the pulmonary peritoneum and trachea. It is noteworthy that the hosts had their lung tissues partially destroyed with apparent haemorrhage, and the trabecular structure of their lungs was also destroyed. The contrasting rates of infection estimated here may be related to differences in foraging strategies, in diet, and habitat selection carried out by individuals of P. nattereri and O. aeneus. PMID:18470397

  16. Comparative cytogenetics of two species of ground skinks: Scincella assata and S. cherriei (Squamata: Scincidae: Lygosominae from Chiapas, Mexico

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    Riccardo Castiglia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard karyotypes of two species of the genus Scincella, S. assata and S. cherriei, both from Chiapas State, Mexico, were described for the first time. The diploid chromosome number was 28 in S. assata, whereas 30 in S. cherriei. The karyotypes of the two species, while differing in the number of microchromosomes, 14-15 in S. assata and 16-17 in S. cherriei, share four pairs of large metacentric, two pairs of medium-sized metacentric, and one particular pair (number 7 of chromosomes. Female S. assata carries chromosome pair 7 composed of two identical medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes. This chromosome pair is heteromorphic in males of both species, i.e., one component of the pair is similar to the homomorphic chromosomes 7 of the S. assata female, while the other is nearly one-half the size of its counterpart and resembles a microchromosome. The homology of such externally different elements is deducted from the presence of an asymmetric bivalent in spermatocytes at diplotene-diakinesis. Female S. cherriei was not available. We suspect that the two Scincella species possess an XY sex determination system, as previously reported for the North American congeneric species, S. lateralis.

  17. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the Liolaemus rothi complex and a new species of lizard from Auca Mahuida Volcano (Squamata: Liolaemini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Luciano Javier; Olave, Melisa; Perez, Cristian Hernan Fulvio; Perez, Daniel Roberto; Morando, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    A new species of lizard of the genus Liolaemus from Neuquén Province, western Argentina, is described. The new species is a member of the Liolaemus rothi species complex, and mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data show it as sister taxon of the clade composed of (L. hermannunezi (L. tromen + L. loboi)), differing in size, squamation, coloration, and sexual dimorphism from the other species of this group. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. has a dark body coloration with series of notched blotches on the dorsum, with bright spots, and a very iridescent yellow-green coloration in natural light. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. is found only in the Auca Mahuida volcano and is terrestrial, dwelling on the stony slopes with sandy soil between 1300 m and the volcano summit. PMID:24614465

  18. The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae: current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities

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    Carlos F. D. Rocha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

  19. A new species of Gekko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tà Kóu Nature Reserve, Binh Thuan Province, Southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Van Tri, Ngo; Gamble, Tony

    2010-01-01

    A new species of Gekko Laurenti is described from Ta Kou Mountain, an isolated granitic peak in Ta Kou Nature Reserve, Ham Thuan Nam district, Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. The species is distinguished from its congeners by its moderate size, with snout to vent length (SVL) reaching a maximum 107.0 mm; dorsal pattern of 5–8 white vertebral blotches between the nape and sacrum and 6–8 pairs of short white bars on the flanks; 11–14 precloacal pores in males; 14–17 longitudinal rows of ...

  20. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata) del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Brizuela; Marcos M. Cenizo; Daniel A. Tassara

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province). The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds). The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for th...

  1. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Santiago Brizuela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province. The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds. The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for the family Anguidae exhumed in Argentina.

  2. Combined next-generation sequencing and morphology reveal fine-scale speciation in Crocodile Skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Tribolonotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmeyer, Eric N; Austin, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing has vast potential to revolutionize the fields of phylogenetics and population genetics through its ability to collect genomic scale data sets of thousands of orthologous loci. Despite this potential, other types of data (e.g. morphology, ecology) remain important, particularly for studies endeavouring to delimit species. Here, we integrate next-generation sequencing with morphology to examine divergence between populations of Tribolonotus pseudoponceleti on the islands of Buka and Bougainville in the Solomon Archipelago. We used the Ion Torrent PGM to collect over 648 Mbp of sequence data for 12 samples, representing 1526 loci recovered from all samples, and 3342 were recovered from at least six samples. Genetic structure analyses strongly support the distinctiveness of these two populations, and Bayes factor delimitations decisively select speciation between Buka and Bougainville. Principal components and discriminant function analyses reveal concordant morphological divergence. Finally, demographic analyses via diffusion approximation and approximate Bayesian computation prefer a complex model of mid-Pleistocene divergence with migration, and a later decrease or cessation of migration and population size shift, suggesting a scenario in which migration was enabled by Pleistocene merging of these two islands, and limited when isolated by higher sea levels. Further analysis of four Sanger sequenced loci in IMa2 had limited power to distinguish among models including and excluding migration, but resulted in similar population size and divergence time estimates, although with much broader confidence intervals. This study represents a framework for how next-generation sequencing and morphological data can be combined and leveraged towards validating putative species and testing demographic scenarios for speciation. PMID:25470077

  3. Unusual soft-tissue preservation of a crocodile lizard (Squamata, Shinisauria) from the green river formation (Eocene) and shinisaur relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jack L; Head, Jason J; Carrano, Matthew T

    2014-03-01

    We describe an unusual squamate fossil from the Green River Formation (Uintan, Eocene) from the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, USA. The new specimen, USNM PAL 540708, is a small fossil squamate skin lacking skeletal elements. It is preserved as a part and counterpart in fine-grained limestone. Recovery of a fossil organism's skin (not a shed, but a true skin) is unusual and is most often accompanied by bone preservation. Phylogenetic analysis of a combined morphology (phenotype) and genetic data set reveals that USNM PAL 540708 is a shinisaur and reaffirms that shinisaurs are more closely related to varanids than to Xenosaurus. Shinisaur fossils are very rare, with only three species having been described (Dalinghosaurus longidigitus, Bahndwivici ammoskius, and Merkurosaurus ornatus). Despite differences in the relative size of scales, the new fossil demonstrates that shinisaurs have remained unchanged in the distribution of scales and patterns of scale size during the Cenozoic. This, paired with the osteological similarity between another Green River fossil (Bahndwivici ammoskius) demonstrates considerable overall conservatism within shinisaurs over the past 50 million years. PMID:24482393

  4. A new genus and species of xenodermatid snake (Squamata: Caenophidia: Xenodermatidae) from northern Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teynié, Alexandre; David, Patrick; Lottier, Anne; Le, Minh Duc; Vidal, Nicolas; Nguyen, Truong Quang

    2015-01-01

    A male snake collected in Louangphabang Province and a second specimen observed in Houaphan Province, North Laos, share morphological characters with the Asian genus Fimbrios Smith, 1921, including erected edges on the first supra- and infralabial scales, but differ in the following morphological characters: fewer dorsal scale rows (25-27 vs. 30-33), fewer maxillary teeth (27 vs. 30-35), posterior teeth progressively slightly enlarged, and especially the correspondence of two dorsal scale rows per ventral plate throughout the body (i.e. the first dorsal scale row made of a small scale above the fore part of a ventral, followed by a much larger scale above its hind part), a condition known only in Xenodermus Reinhardt, 1836. As the Laotian specimens differ in morphological characters from other genera and species in the family Xenodermatidae, and on the basis of molecular analyses showing a large genetic divergence from the genus Fimbrios (p-distance ≥14.7 %, mitochondrial COI gene), we place these specimens in a new genus, Parafimbrios gen. nov., and describe them as a new species, Parafimbrios lao sp. nov. Besides the characters mentioned above, the new species is diagnosed by a combination of the following ones: small, strongly keeled dorsal scales; rostral and first four supra- and infralabials with raised, erected edges; horizontal tissue ridges above the rostral; loreal single, large, elongate; ventral scales 177-189; subcaudals 55-56, undivided; dorsal colour purplish-grey, neck with a broad, very pale grey collar reaching downwards the pale grey colour of the venter. The morphological characters of the new genus are compared with those of the genera Fimbrios Smith, 1921, Xenodermus Reinhardt, 1836, Stoliczkaia Jerdon, 1870, Achalinus Peters, 1869, and Xylophis Beddome, 1878. A key to the genera Achalinus, Fimbrios and Parafimbrios gen. nov. is provided. Parafimbrios laos spec. nov. is the 111th snake species currently recorded from Laos. PMID:25781800

  5. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrastro, L; Ely, I

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of a species' diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard's diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, "sit-and-wait" or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often. PMID:26132010

  6. Comparative Studies on Sperm Ultrastructure of Three Gecko Species, Gekko japonicus, Gekko chinensis and Hemidactylus bowrigii (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangli HAO; Liangliang PAN; Zhouxi FANG; Yongpu ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first description of the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of Gekko japonicus, Gekko chinensis and Hemidactylus bowrigii for further understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of Gekkonidae. Mature spermatozoa of the three species differ in the occurrence and shape of epinuclear electron-lucent zone, nuclear space, neck cylinder and mitochondria. G. japonicus and G. chinensis have similar spermatozoan ultrastructure while H. bowrigii differs from these two species. In addition, these three species have neck cylinder with mitochondria in neck region and dense bodies arranged in grid with mitochondria in the midpiece, which may be the autapomorphies of the family Gekkonidae. Statistical analyses reveal that:total length of the spermatozoa was signiifcantly different between G. japonicus and G. chinensis, as well as between G. japonicus and H. bowrigii (F2,57=23.66, P<0.0001);G. japonicus and H. bowrigii differ in head length (F2,43=4.64, P<0.05) and the width of nuclear base (F2,22=3.97, P<0.05). In addition, the midpiece length (F2,33=23.66, P<0.01) of the spermatozoa was signiifcantly different between H. bowrigii and G. japonicus, and also between H. bowrigii and G. chinensis. Lengths of perforatorium, acrosomal complex and nuclear rostrum and the width of nuclear shoulder are similar in all three species. Our results indicated that the sperm ultrastructure contained intra and intergeneric variabilities which is helpful for better understanding their genetic relationships.

  7. Thermal biology, activity, and population parameters of Cnemidophorus vacariensis (Squamata, Teiidae, a lizard endemic to southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Caruccio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the following aspects of the biology of a population of Cnemidophorus vacariensis Feltrim & Lema, 2000 during the four seasons: thermal biology, relationship with the thermal environment, daily and seasonal activity, population structure and growth rate. Cnemidophorus vacariensis is restricted to rocky outcrops of the "campos de cima da serra" grasslands on the Araucaria Plateau, southern Brazil, and is currently listed as regionally and nationally threatened with extinction. Data were collected from October 2004 through September 2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Sampling was conducted randomly from 08:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. The capture-mark-recapture method was employed. The lizards were captured by hand, and their cloacal temperature, sex, snout-ventral length (SVL, mass, and the temperature of their microhabitat (substrate temperature and air temperature were recorded. Individuals were then marked by toe-clipping and released at the site of capture. Body temperatures were obtained for 175 individuals, activity data for 96 individuals, and data on population structure and growth for 59 individuals. All data were obtained monthly, at different times of the day. Cnemidophorus vacariensis average body temperature was 23.84ºC, ranging between 9.6 and 38.2ºC. Temperatures ranged between 21 and 29ºC. The correlation between external heat sources, substrate and air were positive and significant and there was a greater correlation between lizard's temperature and the temperature of the substrate (tigmothermic species. The relatively low body temperatures of individuals are associated with the climate of their environment (altitude up to 1,400 m, with large variations in temperature throughout the day and the year, and low temperatures in winter. The average body temperature observed for C. vacariensis was low when compared with that of phylogenetically related species, suggesting that the thermal biology of this species reflects adaptations to the temperate region where it lives. The monthly rates of activity of lizards were related to monthly variations in the ambient temperatures. Our data suggest that the daily and seasonal activity of C. vacariensis result from the interaction between two factors: changes in the environment temperature and the relationship between individuals and their thermal environment. The population structure of C. vacariensis varied throughout the study period, with maximum biomass in January and maximum density in February (recruitment period. The sex ratio diverged from the expected 1:1. The growth analysis showed a negative relationship between the growth rate of individuals and the SVL, revealing that young individuals grow faster than adults, a typical pattern for short-lived species. The population studied showed a seasonal and cyclical variation associated with the reproductive cycle. The life strategy of C. vacariensis seems to include adaptations to the seasonal variations in temperature, typical of its environment.

  8. A new microendemic species of Tropidurus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from southern Brazil and revalidation of Tropidurus catalanensis Gudynas & Skuk, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Tobias Saraiva; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    The South American and cis-andean lizard genus Tropidurus has a complex taxonomic history. Most species were recently described and previous revisions included few specimens from the southern part of the continent. Tropidurus torquatus has the broadest geographic distribution in the genus and several morphological and ecological differences were described within its distribution. We analyzed the geographic variation in external morphological characters of Tropidurus torquatus, including large number of samples from southern Brazil. Tropidurus catalanensis is revalidated and Tropidurus imbituba sp. nov., with a restrict distribution in the southern coast of Brazil, is described. The new species is distinguished from Tropidurus catalanensis by the number of dorsal scales. It can be distinguished from T. catalanensis and T. torquatus by a distinct orange ventral coloration in adults, which can reach the lateral portion of the body in adult males. Our analysis also suggests that at least two other undescribed species could be recognized under the name Tropidurus torquatus in southeastern and central Brazil. PMID:25232619

  9. Garnia karyolytica n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemosporina: Garniidae), a blood parasite of the Brazilian lizard Thecodactylus rapicaudus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; Naiff, R D

    1999-09-01

    Development of meronts and gametocytes of Garnia karyolytica nov. sp., is described in erythrocytes of the neotropical forest gecko Thecodactylus rapicaudus from Pará State, north Brazil. Meronts are round to subspherical and predominantly polar in position: forms reaching 12.0 x 10.0 microns contain from 20-28 nuclei. Macrogametocytes and microgametocytes are predominantly elongate, lateral in the erythrocyte and average 16.6 x 6.3 microns and 15.25 x 6.24 microns respectively. Occasional spherical forms of both sexes occur in a polar or lateropolar position. All stages of development are devoid of malarial pigment. They have a progressively lytic effect on the host-cell nucleus, particularly the mature gametocytes, which enlarge and deform the erythrocyte. Possible vector(s) of garniid parasites are considered, and phlebotomine sandflies are high on the list of suspects. PMID:10511968

  10. The Diet and Sexual Differences of the Caspian Bent-Toed Gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius (Squamata: Gekkonidae, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Hojati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caspian bent-toed gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius, is one of the most common nocturnal lizards of Iran with widespread distribution especially in the northern provinces. This research was done in order to study the diet and sexual dimorphism of this species in Sari County from 5 May to 20 October. During this research, 40 specimens of them including 20 males and 20 females were studied for diet and 140 specimens including 70 adult males and 70 adult females were studied for sexual dimorphism. Prey items identified were insects that belong to 15 species of 8 families and 6 orders. The most common prey items were Culex pipiens and Musca domestica. There is no significant difference between diets of males and females. Results show that the adult males in addition of having the apparent femoral and preanal pores are heavier than females and have larger body, head, and tail length.

  11. Reproductive cycles and reproductive strategies among populations of the Rose-bellied Lizard Sceloporus variabilis (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) from central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Elizalde, Raciel; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio

    2016-03-01

    Species with wide distribution, generally show variations in life history characteristics, which can be attributed to environmental causes. In this study, we analyzed the reproductive cycle and reproductive characteristics from three populations (Atlapexco, San Pablo Tetlapayac, and Santa Catarina) of the lizard Sceloporus variabilis from central Mexico. The specific goal of this study was to evaluate life history characteristics such as reproductive period extent, SVL (snout-vent length) at sexual maturity, clutch size, egg mass and volume, and RCM (relative clutch mass). The San Pablo Tetlapayac population showed a larger clutch size, RCM, egg mass, and a smaller SVL, body mass and reproductive period (January-September), as well as egg volume than the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations. Reproductive cycle and reproductive characteristics were more similar between the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations. Differences found in the population of San Pablo Tetlapayac with respect to the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations could be attributed to environmental variations where lizard populations occur. Differences in the reproductive period and reproductive characteristics in each population could be the result of both historical (phylogenetic; e.g., reproductive mode) and nonhistorical (environmental; e.g., temperature, food availability) causes. This study showed that populations of the same species are under different selection pressures, and these affect the reproductive characteristics of populations. Our results also indicate that long-term and targeted studies on predation, use and selection of food, are needed to determine the causes of these variations in populations of S. variabilis. PMID:26929815

  12. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) III: a new species from Tablas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Drew R; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Feller, Kathryn D; Ashford, Alissa; Kouri, Josh; Nguyen, Daniel; Shauberger, Kathryn; Sheatsley, Kyra; Winfrey, Claire; Wong, Rachel; Sanguila, Marites B; Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the diversity of Philippine amphibians and reptiles have resulted in the continued description of cryptic species. Species formerly thought to range across multiple recognized faunal regions are now considered to be assemblages of multiple unique species, each restricted to a single faunal region. This pattern continues to hold true when considering Philippine skinks of the genus Brachymeles. Recent studies have resulted in the description of numerous unique species with many exhibiting various degrees of digit loss or limb reduction, as well as suggesting that unique lineages are still present in the B. bonitae Complex. In this paper, we describe a new species of fossorial skink within this species complex from Tablas Island based on collections made nearly 50 years ago. Although no genetic data are available for the new species, examinations of morphological data (qualitative traits, meristic counts, and mensural measurements) support its distinction from all other members of the genus. Brachymeles dalawangdaliri sp. nov. is differentiated from other members of the genus based on a suite of unique phenotypic characteristics, including a small body size (SVL 66.0-80.9 mm), bidactyl fore-limbs, digitless, unidactyl, or bidactyl hind limbs, a high number of presacral vertebrae (49), the absence of auricular openings, and distinct dorsal head scale patterns. The description of the new species increases the diversity of endemic vertebrates recognized to occur in the Romblon Island Group in the central Philippines. PMID:27395650

  13. A new species of kukri snake (Squamata: Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Le, Son Hong; Murphy, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new kukri snake, Oligodon condaoensis sp. nov., from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam based on the morphological characters of four specimens. It differs from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: medium size in adults (total length up to 552 mm); 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows; deeply forked hemipenes without spines and papillae, extending to subcaudal 13 or 14; 11-13 maxillary teeth, the posterior three being enlarged; cloacal plate undivided; head scalation complete; nasal divided; presubocular absent; 168-176 ventrals; 33-37 subcaudals; overall dorsal coloration dark gray, faint body stripes present or absent; and ventral coloration cream to dark gray without rectangular blotches. We also provide a list of 43 species of amphibians and terrestrial reptiles recorded from Con Dao Islands. PMID:27470803

  14. Evolution around the Red Sea: Systematics and biogeography of the agamid genus Pseudotrapelus (Squamata: Agamidae) from North Africa and Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamar, Karin; Scholz, Sebastian; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Meiri, Shai; Schmitz, Andreas; Wilms, Thomas; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Since the Oligocene, regions adjacent to the Red Sea have experienced major environmental changes, from tectonic movements and continuous geological activity to shifting climatic conditions. The effect of these events on the distribution and diversity of the regional biota is still poorly understood. Agamid members of the genus Pseudotrapelus are diurnal, arid-adapted lizards distributed around the Red Sea from north-eastern Africa, across the mountains and rocky plateaus of the Sinai and Arabian Peninsulas northwards to Syria. Despite recent taxonomic work and the interest in the group as a model for studying biogeographic and diversity patterns of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia, its taxonomy is poorly understood and a comprehensive phylogeny is still lacking. In this study, we analyzed 92 Pseudotrapelus specimens from across the entire distribution range of the genus. We included all known species and subspecies, and sequenced them for mitochondrial (16S, ND4 and tRNAs) and nuclear (MC1R, c-mos) markers. This enabled us to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus, using gene trees, species trees and coalescent-based methods for species delimitation. Our results revealed Pseudotrapelus as a monophyletic genus comprised of two major clades and six independently evolving lineages. These lineages correspond to the five currently recognized species and a sixth lineage relating to the synonymized P. neumanni. The subspecific validity of P. sinaitus werneri needs further assessment as it does not form a distinct cluster relative to P. s. sinaitus. The onset of Pseudotrapelus diversification is estimated to have occurred in Arabia during the late Miocene. Radiation has likely resulted from vicariance and dispersal events due to the continued geological instability, sea level fluctuations and climatic changes within the region. PMID:26772670

  15. Atlas de Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae. Anatomía externa, osteología y bibliografía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero, Ricardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Los lagartos que en Argentina se conocen como "iguana roja" o "caraguay" pertenecen al género Tupinambis, uno de los saurios de mayor talla del continente; tienen importancia económica, tanto por su cuero como por su carne. Se reconocen seis especies actuales, que se distribuyen en América del Sur desde Colombia hasta el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina (Cei, 1993. Por su amplia distribución y abundancia son utilizados como animales de laboratorio por lo que es importante el conocimiento detallado de su anatomía. Es por ello que aquí presentamos en un Atlas fotográfico la morfología externa y osteología de Tupinambis rufescens.

  16. Atlas de Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae). Anatomía externa, osteología y bibliografía

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Ricardo; Abdala, Virginia; Moro, Silvia; Gallardo, Gabriela

    2004-01-01

    Los lagartos que en Argentina se conocen como "iguana roja" o "caraguay" pertenecen al género Tupinambis, uno de los saurios de mayor talla del continente; tienen importancia económica, tanto por su cuero como por su carne. Se reconocen seis especies actuales, que se distribuyen en América del Sur desde Colombia hasta el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina (Cei, 1993). Por su amplia distribución y abundancia son utilizados como animales de laboratorio por lo que es importante el conocimiento det...

  17. Karyological characterization of the endemic Iberian rock lizard, Iberolacerta monticola (Squamata, Lacertidae): insights into sex chromosome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, V; Giovannotti, M; Naveira, H; Nisi Cerioni, P; González-Tizón, A M; Caputo Barucchi, V; Galán, P; Olmo, E; Martínez-Lage, A

    2014-01-01

    Rock lizards of the genus Iberolacerta constitute a promising model to examine the process of sex chromosome evolution, as these closely related taxa exhibit remarkable diversity in the degree of sex chromosome differentiation with no clear phylogenetic segregation, ranging from cryptic to highly heteromorphic ZW chromosomes and even multiple chromosome systems (Z1Z1Z2Z2/Z1Z2W). To gain a deeper insight into the patterns of karyotype and sex chromosome evolution, we performed a cytogenetic analysis based on conventional staining, banding techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization in the species I. monticola, for which previous cytogenetic investigations did not detect differentiated sex chromosomes. The karyotype is composed of 2n = 36 acrocentric chromosomes. NORs and the major ribosomal genes were located in the subtelomeric region of chromosome pair 6. Hybridization signals of the telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)n were visualized at the telomeres of all chromosomes and interstitially in 5 chromosome pairs. C-banding showed constitutive heterochromatin at the centromeres of all chromosomes, as well as clear pericentromeric and light telomeric C-bands in several chromosome pairs. These results highlight some chromosomal markers which can be useful to identify species-specific diagnostic characters, although they may not accurately reflect the phylogenetic relationships among the taxa. In addition, C-banding revealed the presence of a heteromorphic ZW sex chromosome pair, where W is smaller than Z and almost completely heterochromatic. This finding sheds light on sex chromosome evolution in the genus Iberolacerta and suggests that further comparative cytogenetic analyses are needed to understand the processes underlying the origin, differentiation and plasticity of sex chromosome systems in lacertid lizards. PMID:24296524

  18. A new species of Spauligodon (Nematoda; Oxyuroidea; Pharyngodonide) and other Helminths in Ptychozoon Kuhli (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from East Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Lee Grismer, L

    2016-06-01

    Spauligodon geckonis sp. nov. from the intestines of Ptychozoon kuhli (Gekkonidae) from East Malaysia is described and illustrated. Spauligodon geckonis sp. nov. represents the 52nd species assigned to the genus and the third species from the Oriental Region. The new species is separated from congeners by the unique combination of aspinose filamentous tail and spicule in the male and spinose filamentous tail and fusiform, two knobbed eggs in the female. Gravid individuals 3 species of Nematoda, Meteterakis singaporensis, Physalopteroides grismeri, and Skrjabinelazia machidai, as well as larvae assignable to the Ascaridae were also found. PMID:27078659

  19. Vulnerability to climate warming of Liolaemus pictus (Squamata, Liolaemidae), a lizard from the cold temperate climate in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, Erika Leticia; Fernández, Jimena Beatriz; Ibargüengoytía, Nora Ruth

    2016-02-01

    The vulnerability of populations and species to global warming depends not only on the environmental temperatures, but also on the behavioral and physiological abilities to respond to these changes. In this sense, the knowledge of an organism's sensitivity to temperature variation is essential to predict potential responses to climate warming. In particular, it is interesting to know how close species are to their thermal limits in nature and whether physiological plasticity is a potential short-term response to warming climates. We exposed Liolaemus pictus lizards, from northern Patagonia, to either 21 or 31 °C for 30 days to compare the effects of these treatments on thermal sensitivity in 1 and 0.2 m runs, preferred body temperature (T pref), panting threshold (T pant), and critical minimum temperature (CTMin). Furthermore, we measured the availability of thermal microenvironments (operative temperatures; T e) to measure how close L. pictus is, in nature, to its optimal locomotor performance (T o) and thermal limits. L. pictus showed limited physiological plasticity, since the acclimation temperature (21 and 31 °C) did not affect the locomotor performance nor did it affect T pref, the T pant, or the CTMin. The mean T e was close to T o and was 17 °C lower than the CTMax. The results suggest that L. pictus, in a climate change scenario, could be vulnerable to the predicted temperature increment, as this species currently lives in an environment with temperatures close to their highest locomotor temperature threshold, and because they showed limited acclimation capacity to adjust to new thermal conditions by physiological plasticity. Nevertheless, L. pictus can run at 80 % or faster of its maximum speed across a wide range of temperatures near T o, an ability which would attenuate the impact of global warming. PMID:26679700

  20. Resolving the higher-order phylogenetic relationships of the circumtropical Mabuya group (Squamata: Scincidae): An out-of-Asia diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Benjamin R; Metallinou, Margarita; Weinell, Jeffrey L; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2016-09-01

    Despite an abundance of phylogenetic studies focused on intrageneric relationships of members of the Mabuya group, the intergeneric relationships have remained difficult to resolve. The most-persistent unresolved regions of the phylogeny of the group include: (1) the placement of the Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with respect to the Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis and its taxonomic status; (2) the phylogenetic position of the Cape Verdean Chioninia within the larger Mabuya group; (3) support for the placement of Dasia with respect to the entire group; and (4) the phylogenetic placement of Eutropis novemcarinata with respect to other Eutropis and Dasia. In this study, we include representatives of all these taxa as well as African Eumecia and Neotropical Mabuya. We seek to address these phylogenetic and systematic issues by generating a well-resolved and supported phylogeny for the Mabuya group as a whole that can be used to develop a stable taxonomy and reconstruct the geographic patterns of diversification within the group. To meet these goals, we built a large multi-locus dataset of 11 markers (nine nuclear and two mitochondrial), and performed concatenated and species tree analyses to generate a well-supported phylogeny for the group. Statistical topology tests reject the monophyly of Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis, and to reflect monophyly we place the Middle-Eastern species into a previously described genus, Heremites. Cape-Verdean Chioninia are resolved as the strongly supported sister-group to Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis. Monophyly of the Southeast-Asian genera, Eutropis and Dasia, is not supported, with a clade composed of Dasia+Eutropis novemcarinata more closely related to the rest of the Mabuya group than to the remaining Eutropis. The phylogenetic position of E. novemcarinata renders Eutropis polyphyletic, and we therefore describe and place E. novemcarinata into a new monotypic genus, Toenayar, to preserve monophyly among the genera. In light of these novel findings, we review and discuss the historical biogeography of the entire Mabuya group. PMID:27246101

  1. A new green anole lizard of the "Dactyloa" clade (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from the Magdalena river valley of Colombia .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Julián A; Hurtado-Gómez, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Anolis from the Magdalena river valley in Colombia. The new species is morphologically similar to Anolis ibanezi and A. chocorum, but differs in body and dewlap color, and head scalation. We performed an exploratory multivariate analysis based on 15 morphological characteristics of the new species and A chocorum and found that differences between both species are mainly associated with head dimensions. A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters suggests that the new species is nested within the "Dactyloa" clade of Anolis. Finally, we discuss phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical affinities based in its distribution.  PMID:24872178

  2. [Displacements of the green iguana (Iguana iguana) (Squamata: Iguanidae) during the dry season in La Palma, Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Mávil, Jorge E; Vogt, Richard C; Gadsden-Esparza, Héctor

    2007-06-01

    The green iguana (Iguana iguana) is said to be primarily sedentary, although the females travel long distances to nest. Displacement patterns must be known to help predict the effects of environmental disturbance on iguanas' survival. We studied nesting season (February-July) movements in La Palma, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico (18 degrees 33' N, 95 degrees 03' W). Individual movements and activity were monitored by radio tracking. The transmitters were implanted surgically in eight adult iguanas (four males and four females). Snout vent length (SVL) was used to determine the relationship between size of the body and size of home range. To estimate the size of home range, three or more points were used. Minimum convex polygons estimates of home range were calculated with McPAAL. The iguanas were radio-located between 23 and 30 occasions, mainly in trees (56% between 3-9 m); only 4% were localized under a height of 3 m (forest floor). The occupation area mean was larger for males (9,158.06+/-3,025.3 m2 vs. 6,591.24+/-4,001.1 m2) although the differences were not significant (t= 0.51, p>0.05). SVL was correlated with home range (r= 0.76; gl= 7; p<0.05). Breeding males defended their home range vigorously against other adult males. We observed one separate male home range and large portions of overlap between the sexes. The home range generally formed a conglomerate of polygons and only two had linear shapes along the river: apparently iguanas use the riparian vegetation for foraging. The females display two strategies for nesting: 1) moving to the sandy area near the sea or, 2) laying eggs near the river, in loam. Iguanas responded to habitat fragmentation and reduction by modifying their nesting strategy. PMID:19069782

  3. A new species of Homonota (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) endemic to the hills of Paraje Tres Cerros, Corrientes Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajade, Rodrigo; Etchepare, Eduardo Gabriel; Falcione, Camila; Barrasso, Diego Andrés; Alvarez, Blanca Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The genus Homonota comprises nine South American species of terrestrial and nocturnal lizards. Homonota lizards lack the femoral pores typical of other South American Phyllodactylidae, and their infradigital lamellas are not expanded. We here describe a new species, Homonota taragui sp. nov., exclusively found on a small group of three hills up to 179 meters above sea level in central eastern Corrientes Province, Argentina. The new species differs from other Homonota species by a combination of characters, including: a well-marked dorsal, reticulate, dark pattern contrasting with a lighter colored background; small, star-shaped chromatophores on the abdomen; the post-orbital region of the head covered by granular scales; the dorsal and anterior regions of the thighs covered by keeled scales interspersed with cycloid scales; and the internasal scale in contact with rostral scales. The conservation status of Homonota taragui sp. nov. may be vulnerable, due to its localized endemism with populations on three small hills surrounded by intense agricultural and livestock activity. Two endemic plant species are known from these hills, and this new lizard represents the first endemic animal species. PMID:26240903

  4. Home-range size and overlap within an introduced population of the Cuban Knight Anole, Anolis equestris (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Richards

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the spatial relationships of terrestrial lizards, but arboreal species remain poorly studiedbecause they are difficult to observe. The conventional view of home-range size and overlap among territorial, polygynous species of lizards is that: (1 male home ranges are larger than those of females; (2 male home ranges usually encompass, or substantiallyoverlap, those of several females; and (3 male home-range overlap varies but often is minimal, but female home ranges frequently overlap extensively. However, the paucity of pertinent studies makes it difficult to generalize these patterns to arboreal lizards. Weinvestigated home-range size and overlap in the arboreal Knight Anole, Anolis equestris, and compared our findings to published home-range data for 15 other species of Anolis. Using radiotelemetry and mark-recapture/resight techniques, we analyzed the home rangesof individuals from an introduced population of Knight Anoles in Miami, Florida. The home ranges of both sexes substantially overlapped those of the same- and different-sex individuals. In addition, male and female home ranges did not differ significantly, an unusual observation among lizard species. If one compares both male and female home ranges to those of other Anolis species, Knight Anoles have significantly larger home ranges, except for two species for which statistical comparisons were not possible. Our results suggest that home ranges and sex-specific spatial arrangements of canopy lizards may differ from those of more terrestrial species.

  5. Expression of phenotypic plasticity in hatchlings of the lizard Calotes versicolor (Squamata: Agamidae: influence of nest moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashri A. Shanbhag

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Calotes versicolor breed from late May to early October. The breeding activity begins with the onset of the southwest monsoon. The eggs laid in early breeding season experience more wet conditions than those of the late breeding season. We studied the influence of nest moisture levels on the phenotypic traits of hatchlings by burying the eggs in 5-cm-deep sand nests with ~50%(wet nest or ~20% (relatively dry nest moisture to simulate nesting conditions of early and late breeding seasons. A group of eggs were subjected to standard laboratory incubation procedure in which eggs are half-buried in the moist sand and the other half exposed to air. Hatching time and hatchling body size varied with the treatment. The eggs from dry nests hatched later and hatchlings were the biggest but possessed least amount of residual yolk compared to those of 'wet nest' and also 'lab incubated' groups. In these hatchlings head and limb sizes were significantly larger than that of the other two groups. The findings show: (1 a developmental plasticity in the lizard, (2 that under low moist conditionslarger body size is preferred, and (3 that the trade-off between somatic growth of embryos and future energy reserves (residual yolk of hatchlings is influenced by the soil moisture in C. versicolor.

  6. Circumstantial evidences for mimicry of scorpions by the neotropical gecko Coleodactylus brachystoma (Squamata, Gekkonidae in the Cerrados of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuber Albuquerque Brandão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few records of invertebrates mimicry by reptiles. In the Cerrados of central Brazil, the small Coleodactylus brachystoma is an endemic species common in the islands and margins of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam reservoir. When cornered, this lizard folds the tail over the body exposing the pale-orange ventral surface. Lizard behavior, tail length and color pattern confer to this lizard a strong resemblance with syntopic buthid scorpions Rhopalurus agamenon, Tytius matogrossensis, and Anantheris balzani. Lizards and scorpions share the same tail color, size, and shape. Ecologically, they use the same microhabitats, are exposed to the same potential predators, and present similar behaviors when threatened.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Panaspis and Afroablepharus skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) in the savannas of sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Maria F; Bauer, Aaron M; Branch, William R; Schmitz, Andreas; Conradie, Werner; Nagy, Zoltán T; Hibbitts, Toby J; Ernst, Raffael; Portik, Daniel M; Nielsen, Stuart V; Colston, Timothy J; Kusamba, Chifundera; Behangana, Mathias; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Greenbaum, Eli

    2016-07-01

    African snake-eyed skinks are relatively small lizards of the genera Panaspis and Afroablepharus. Species allocation of these genera frequently changed during the 20th century based on morphology, ecology, and biogeography. Members of these genera occur primarily in savanna habitats throughout sub-Saharan Africa and include species whose highly conserved morphology poses challenges for taxonomic studies. We sequenced two mitochondrial (16S and cyt b) and two nuclear genes (PDC and RAG1) from 76 Panaspis and Afroablepharus samples from across eastern, central, and southern Africa. Concatenated gene-tree and divergence-dating analyses were conducted to infer phylogenies and biogeographic patterns. Molecular data sets revealed several cryptic lineages, with most radiations occurring during the mid-Miocene to Pliocene. We infer that rifting processes (including the formation of the East African Rift System) and climatic oscillations contributed to the expansion and contraction of savannas, and caused cladogenesis in snake-eyed skinks. Species in Panaspis and Afroablepharus used in this study, including type species for both genera, formed a monophyletic group. As a result, the latter genus should be synonymized with the former, which has priority. Conservatively, we continue to include the West African species P. breviceps and P. togoensis within an expanded Panaspis, but note that they occur in relatively divergent clades, and their taxonomic status may change with improved taxon sampling. Divergence estimates and cryptic speciation patterns of snake-eyed skinks were consistent with previous studies of other savanna vertebrate lineages from the same areas examined in this study. PMID:27118179

  8. Redescription of Parapharyngodon micipsae (Seurat 1917) (Nematoda Pharyngodonidae) from the new host Tarentola parvicarinata Joger 1980 (Squamata Gekkonidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašová, Š.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hodová, I.; Koubek, Petr; Koubková, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2009), s. 243-255. ISSN 0394-6975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : parasite * Nematoda * gecko * Senegal * West Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.706, year: 2009

  9. Record of the Indo-Pacific Slender Gecko Hemiphyllodactylus typus (Squamata: Sauria: Gekkonidae from the Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Chandramouli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Hemiphyllodactylus typus in the Andaman archipelago is confirmed based on fresh collections from two different sites namely Mt. Harriet National Park and Long Island. The veracity of an earlier report of this species from the Andaman Islands is discussed and revalidated.

  10. A new lizard species of the Phymaturus patagonicus group (Squamata: Liolaemini) from northern Patagonia, Neuquén, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Andrea González; Pérez, Cristian Hernán Fulvio; Minoli, Ignacio; Morando, Mariana; Avila, Luciano Javier

    2016-01-01

    The integrative taxonomy framework allows developing robust hypotheses of species limits based on the integration of results from different data sets and analytical methods. In this work, we test a candidate species hypothesis previously suggested based on molecular data, with geometric and traditional morphometrics analyses (multivariate and univariate). This new lizard species is part of the Phymaturus patagonicus group (payuniae clade) that is distributed in Neuquén and Mendoza provinces (Argentina). Our results showed that Phymaturus rahuensis sp. nov. differs from the other species of the payuniae clade by a higher number of midbody scales, and fewer supralabials scales, finger lamellae and toe lamellae. Also, its multidimensional spaces, both based on continuous lineal variables and geometric morphometrics (shape) characters, do not overlap with those of the other species in this clade. The results of the morphometric and geometric morphometric analyses presented here, coupled with previously published molecular data, represent three independent lines of evidence that support the diagnosis of this new taxon. PMID:27395232

  11. Sex determination in Madagascar geckos of the genus Paroedura (Squamata: Gekkonidae): are differentiated sex chromosomes indeed so evolutionary stable?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubová, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, M.; Farkačová, K.; Altmanová, M.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2014), s. 441-452. ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : sex chromosomes * heterochromatin * reptiles * sex determination * FISH * ITSs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.478, year: 2014

  12. Gastrointestinal nematodes of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from a semi-arid region of north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, L A; Avila, R W; Ribeiro, S C; Almeida, W O; da Silva, R J

    2013-12-01

    The tropidurid lizard Tropidurus hispidus has a wide distribution in South America. However, knowledge about its helminth fauna is patchy and has been reported for only a few localities along its range of distribution. This study presents data on helminth fauna composition and parameters of infection for a population of T. hispidus from an area within the Brazilian Caatinga biome (semi-arid physiognomy). We found five nematode species within the gastrointestinal tract of lizards: Parapharyngodon sceleratus (Pharyngodonidae); Physaloptera lutzi, Physaloptera retusa and Physalopteroides venancioi (Physalopteridae); and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae). The overall prevalence was 84.2% and the mean intensity of infection was 8.5 ± 1.1. The body size of adult male lizards influenced positively the intensity of infection. The infracommunities of nematodes presented an intermediate aggregated distribution (discrepancy index; D= 0.519) and a depauperate nematode fauna. The presence of generalist parasite species has contributed to an increase in the overall richness of the component community. This sampled host population presented the highest prevalence of parasites compared with other studies on T. hispidus, but their relatively low richness can be related to the disturbed environment of the study area. PMID:23069649

  13. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Neotropical skink genus Mabuya Fitzinger (Squamata: Scincidae) with emphasis on Colombian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Calderón-Espinosa, Martha L; Miralles, Aurélien; Crawford, Andrew J; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the phylogenetic and geographical history of Neotropical lineages requires having adequate geographic and taxonomic sampling across the region. However, Colombia has remained a geographical gap in many studies of Neotropical diversity. Here we present a study of Neotropical skinks of the genus Mabuya, reptiles that are difficult to identify or delimit due to their conservative morphology. The goal of the present study is to propose phylogenetic and biogeographic hypotheses of Mabuya including samples from the previously under-studied territory of Colombia, and address relevant biogeographic and taxonomic issues. We combined molecular and morphological data sampled densely by us within Colombia with published data representing broad sampling across the Neotropical realm, including DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and cytochrome b) and three nuclear genes (Rag2, NGFB and R35). To evaluate species boundaries we employed a general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model applied to the mitochondrial data set. Our results suggest that the diversity of Mabuya within Colombia is higher than previously recognized, and includes lineages from Central America and from eastern and southern South America. The genus appears to have originated in eastern South America in the Early Miocene, with subsequent expansions into Central America and the Caribbean in the Late Miocene, including at least six oceanic dispersal events to Caribbean Islands. We identified at least four new candidate species for Colombia and two species that were not previously reported in Colombia. The populations of northeastern Colombia can be assigned to M. zuliae, while specimens from Orinoquia and the eastern foothills of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia correspond to M. altamazonica. The validity of seven species of Mabuya sensu lato was not supported due to a combination of three factors: (1) non-monophyly, (2) <75% likelihood bootstrap support and <0.95 Bayesian posterior probability, and (3) GMYC analysis collapsing named species. Finally, we suggest that Mabuya sensu stricto may be regarded as a diverse monophyletic genus, widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. PMID:26234274

  14. Thermal ecology of the lizard Sceloporus gadoviae (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) in a semiarid region of southern Puebla, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo A. Woolrich-Piña; JULIO A LEMOS-ESPINAL; Smith, Geoffrey R.; Luis Oliver-López; Felipe Correa-Sánchez; Tizoc A. Altamirano-Álvarez; Raymundo Montoya-Ayala

    2012-01-01

    We studied the thermal ecology of the lizard Sceloporus gadoviae from Puebla, Mexico. Mean body temperature (Tb) was 31.5 ± 0.3˚C. A multiple regression suggested that Tb was affected by substrate temperature and solar insolation, and minimally affected by ambient temperature (Ta), sex, and body size. However, body temperature was higher in females than males, and higher in gravid females than non-gravid females. We also found significant differences in Tbs of lizards occupying microhabitats ...

  15. A new species of karst-dwelling bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khammouane Province, central Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from Khammouane Province, central Laos based on morphological features and molecular data. Morphologically, Cyrtodactylus bansocensis sp. nov. is differentiated from other congeners by a unique combination of the following characters: medium size, SVL reaching 74.0 mm; dorsal pattern consisting of four light transverse bands between limb insertions; supranasals in contact with each other; dorsal tubercles at midbody in 14-15 irregular rows; lateral folds present without interspersed tubercles; ventral scales between ventrolateral folds 34-35; precloacal and femoral pores in males 34, separated by four poreless scales in the male holotype and in a continuous row in the male paratype; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales present; postcloacal tubercles 5-7 on each side; dorsal tubercles present at tail base; and subcaudal scales transversely enlarged. Molecular analyses revealed the new species to be closely related to Cyrtodactylus rufford, which is also found in Khammouane Province. PMID:27395993

  16. Boletín de la AHA | Volumen 2 | Número 1-3

    OpenAIRE

    Asociación Herpetológica Argentina (AHA)

    1985-01-01

    - Resúmenes de los trabajos presentados en la II Reunión de Comunicaciones Herpetológicas: -- Un nuevo anfibio para la provincia de Mendoza (Argentina): Ceratophrys cranwelli Barrio (Anura, Leptodactylidae); Enrique Richard -- El cariotipo de Amphisbaena munoai y comentarios sobre la meiosis en los Amphisbaenidae; Gabriel Skuk -- Histología del tracto digestivo de Lilaemus multimaculatus (Dumeril y Bibron, 1837); Viviana C. Devincenti, Lía Goldemberg y José M. Chani -- Estudio...

  17. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa; Eliza Maria Xavier Freire

    2010-01-01

    Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  18. Siphlophis compressus (Daudin, 1803) (Squamata: Dipsadidae): First records for the Atlantic forest north of the São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Ubiratan; Gomes De Lima, Marcelo; Vilela, Bruno; Skuk, Gabriel Omar

    2011-01-01

    Brazil, Alagoas State. Municipality of Murici: Fazenda Bananeira (9° 16' S, 35° 59' W; 550 m, Datum: SAD69). Collection data: 4 November 1994, Col.: Eliza Maria Xavier Freire & others. Deposited in the herpetological collection of the Museum of Natural History, Federal University of Alagoas (MUFAL). MUFAL 1773, adult female (SVL [snout–vent length]: 338 mm, HW [head width]: 7.9 mm, TL [tail length]: 100.1 mm, SVL/ TL: 0.30).

  19. Reproducción y variación de grupos de tamaño en una población de Liolaemus koslowskyi (Squamata: Liolaemini)

    OpenAIRE

    Martori, Ricardo; Aun, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    El patrón reproductivo, la tasa de crecimiento y la supervivencia son las principales características de la historia de vida de los organismos, el tamaño o edad en que un individuo adquiere su madurez sexual, el tamaño de la puesta y la fenología reproductiva inciden sobre el reclutamiento y por lo tanto sobre la estabilidad poblacional. Se seleccionaron diferentes ambientes representativos del área de estudio, unas para realizar la extracción de las muestras reproductivas y otras para la obs...

  20. The snake assemblage (Squamata: Serpentes) of a Cerrado-Caatinga transition area in Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Francílio da Silva Rodrigues; Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente

    2011-01-01

    This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS), pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT), and incidental encounters (IE). During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/ob...

  1. Molecular data reveal spatial and temporal patterns of diversification and a cryptic new species of lowland Stenocercus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 (Squamata: Tropiduridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mauro; Prates, Ivan; Nisa, Carolina; Silva-Martins, Nathalia Suzan Camarão; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies have uncovered biogeographic patterns and the associated diversification processes of Neotropical wet forest taxa, yet the extensive open and drier biomes have received much less attention. In the Stenocercus lizard radiation, restricted sampling and phylogenetic information have limited inferences about the timing, spatial context, and environmental drivers of diversification in the open and dry lowland settings of eastern and southern South America. Based on new DNA sequence data of previously unsampled species, we provide an updated historical biogeographic hypothesis of Stenocercus. We infer phylogenetic relationships, estimate divergence times, and track ancestral distributions, asking whether cladogenetic events within the genus correlate to reported shifts in South American landscapes during the past 30millionyears, focusing in the open and drier areas. To examine correlations between genetic and ecological divergence, we extracted environmental data from occurrence records and estimated climatic envelopes occupied by lowland taxa. Our results suggest that Stenocercus began to diversify around the South American Midwest by the late Oligocene. We recovered two main lowland and two main Andean clades within the genus; within both Andean clades, most cladogenetic events date back to the Miocene, synchronously with the most intense phase of Andean uplift. In the western clade of lowland Stenocercus, species ranges and divergence times are consistent with major landscape shifts at the upper Guaporé and Paraguay River basins as a result of Andean orogeny, suggesting vicariant speciation. By contrast, in the 'horned' lowland clade, we find evidence that dispersal and ecological differentiation have shaped species divergences and current ranges in the Brazilian Cerrado, Caatinga, Pampas and Atlantic Forest, possibly under a vanishing refuge scenario. Lastly, our phylogenetic results indicate two divergent clades within the formerly recognized taxon S. sinesaccus, and further evaluation of morphological data corroborates the existence of a distinct, new species of Stenocercus, here described. The new taxon occurs in the Chapada dos Parecis massif in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia. PMID:26432394

  2. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Townsend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to B. lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas.

  3. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis) from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H.; Medina-Flores, Melissa; Wilson, Larry David; Jadin, Robert C.; Austin, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by having 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to Bothriechis lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas. PMID:23794885

  4. Microanatomical and Histological Features in the Long Bones of Mosasaurine Mosasaurs (Reptilia, Squamata) – Implications for Aquatic Adaptation and Growth Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Houssaye; Johan Lindgren; Rodrigo Pellegrini; Lee, Andrew H.; Damien Germain; Polcyn, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During their evolution in the Late Cretaceous, mosasauroids attained a worldwide distribution, accompanied by a marked increase in body size and open ocean adaptations. This transition from land-dwellers to highly marine-adapted forms is readily apparent not only at the gross anatomic level but also in their inner bone architecture, which underwent profound modifications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present contribution describes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the...

  5. The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus; Squamata: Varanidae) as a sentinel species for lead and cadmium contamination in sub-Saharan wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Berny, Philippe, E-mail: p.berny@vetagro-sup.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile (France); Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, F-69622, Villeurbanne (France); Buffrenil, Vivian de [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 48, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, Departement Histoire de la Terre, UMR 7207 CR2P (France)

    2011-10-15

    Wetland pollution is a matter of concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Though regularly exploited, the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), a large amphibious lizard, is not threatened. This work aims at assessing the value of this varanid as a sentinel species in surveys of environmental contamination by metals. Lead and cadmium quantifications were performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bone, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle in 71 monitors from three unevenly polluted sites in Mali and Niger, plus a reference site. The effects of sex, size and fat reserves as well as factors related to the sampling strategy (tissue sampled, sampling site) were studied with a mixed linear model. Metal contamination is moderate at the four sites but clear differences nevertheless occur. Lead levels are generally maximal in bone, with a gender-independent median value 320 ng.g{sup -1}. Median cadmium concentrations never exceed 70.2 ng.g{sup -1} in females (kidney) and 57.5 ng.g{sup -1} in males (intestine). Such levels should have no detrimental effects on the monitors. Lead and cadmium levels in muscles are generally below 200 and 20 ng.g{sup -1}, respectively, and should provoke no health hazard to occasional consumers of monitor meat. Metal organotropisms are consistent with those observed in other studies about Squamates: for lead: bone > [kidney, intestine, liver] > muscle in males and [bone, kidney] > [intestine, liver] > muscle in females; for cadmium: [liver, intestine, kidney] > [bone, muscle] for both genders. Females are more contaminated, especially in their kidneys. In this tissue, median values in ng.g{sup -1} are 129.7 and 344.0 for lead and 43.0 and 70.2 for cadmium, for males and females, respectively. Nile monitors can reveal subtle differences in local pollution by metals; moreover, the spatial resolution of the pollution indication that they give seems to be very sharp. The practical relevance of this new tool is thus validated.

  6. The snake assemblage (Squamata: Serpentes of a Cerrado-Caatinga transition area in Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francílio da Silva Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS, pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT, and incidental encounters (IE. During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/observer and 6,468 days/trap were used, respectively. We estimated 23 species of snakes for the locality, although only 19 species were recorded. Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 10, Liophis poecilogyrus (Schlegel, 1837 (n = 9, Liophis viridis Günther, 1862 (n = 8 and Thamnodynastes sp. (n = 8 were the most abundant species. Terrestrial, cryptozoic, and diurnal snakes predominated in the assemblage (Boidae = 2 species, Dipsadidae = 12, Colubridae = 2, Elapidae = 1, Viperidae = 2. The results indicate that the fauna of the locality is similar with that of other open formations, especially the Caatinga, corroborating previous floristic studies. Comparisons between snake assemblages analyzed by different authors suggest structural differences between the assemblages of the Cerrado and the Caatinga, contradicting the hypothesis of mixed composition of fauna in these biomes.

  7. Reproducción y variación de grupos de tamaño en una población de Liolaemus koslowskyi (Squamata: Liolaemini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El patrón reproductivo, la tasa de crecimiento y la supervivencia son las principales características de la historia de vida de los organismos, el tamaño o edad en que un individuo adquiere su madurez sexual, el tamaño de la puesta y la fenología reproductiva inciden sobre el reclutamiento y por lo tanto sobre la estabilidad poblacional. Se seleccionaron diferentes ambientes representativos del área de estudio, unas para realizar la extracción de las muestras reproductivas y otras para la observación de la dinámica poblacional. Se obtuvieron 12 muestras reproductivas desde el mes de octubre de 1998 al mes de febrero de 2000, durante ese período se estudiaron 413 hembras, x= 55,48; (35-65, ds = 4,08 y 472 machos, x = 57,75; (42-69, ds = 4,66. La proporción de sexos fue similar, el macho reproductivo más pequeño medió 46 mm, la hembra con folículos yemados más pequeña midió 47 mm, se puedo registrar la presencia de los folículos yemados desde octubre a enero, los huevos en oviducto desde noviembre a febrero, no hay evidencia de más de una postura por temporada. La fecundación se produce durante noviembre, coincidiendo con los valores máximos de los volúmenes testiculares, se observó una correlación negativa entre la actividad reproductiva y el ciclo de cuerpos grasos en ambos sexos, los huevos fueron puestos a partir de diciembre y los primeros neonatos se observaron a partir de enero. Se apreció una leve correlación negativa entre la tasa de crecimiento individual y el tamaño del lagarto, Durante el período de estudio se realizaron 2199 avistajes y se estimó la proporción de cada grupo de tamaño para cada mes, se destacó el mes de enero por la presencia de 15% de individuos recién nacidos, la mayor tasa de actividad en la parcela correspondió a enero, febrero y marzo de 1999, disminuyendo en el otoño y registrando una suspensión de actividad en junio y julio, se observó una menor tasa de actividad en el segundo verano. The reproductive pattern, the rate of growth and the survival are the main characteristics of the life history of organisms, the size or age in that an individual acquires his sexual maturity, the size of the maturity and the reproductive fenology affect the recruitment and therefore the stability of the populational size. Different representative sites of the study area were selected, to carry out the extraction of the reproductive samples and for the observation of the populational dynamics, 12 samples were obtained from October 1998 to February 2000, during that period 413 females were studied, x = 55.48; (35-65 ds = 4.08 and 472 males, x = 57.75; (42-69 ds = 4.66. The proportion of sexes was similar, the smallest reproductive male measured 46 mm, the smallest female with vitelogenic follicles measured 47 mm. The presence of vitelogenic follicles was observed from October to January, eggs in oviduct from November to February, there were no evidence of more than one clutch per season, and fecundation takes place during the month of November, coinciding the maximum values of the testicular volumes. Negative correlation between the reproductive activity and the cycle of fat bodies was observed in both sexes, the eggs are laid from December and the first hatchlings are observed in January. There was a negative correlation between the rate of individual growth and the size of the lizard. During the period of study 2199 lizards where observed and the proportion of each size group was calculated for every month, in January 15% of recently born individuals were observed in the site, the highest activity rate in the site corresponded to January, February and March of 1999, diminishing in autumn and no activity was registered in June and July. The second season presented less activity than the first one.

  8. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae from a transitional forest in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivanildo P. Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855 in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate, but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing the effect of the substrate temperature. Males and females differed significantly in perch height use above ground (males perched higher but the sexes did not differ in the trunk perimeter used. Gonatodes humeralis tended to use the larger tree trunks available in its environment and selected trunks with deeper leaf litter at the base. It is hypothesized that choosing tree trunks with deeper leaf litter is a defensive behavior against predation.

  9. Ontogeny of pronounced female-biased sexual size dimorphism in the Malaysian cat gecko (Aeluroscalabotes felinus: Squamata: Eublepharidae): a test of the role of testosterone in growth regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubička, Lukáš; Golinski, Alison; John-Alder, Henry; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-07-01

    Species differences in the effect of male gonadal androgens on male growth are considered a possible mechanism allowing shifts in magnitude and even direction of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in squamate reptiles. According to the bipotential growth regulation hypothesis, the androgen testosterone (T) enhances male growth in species with male-biased SSD and conversely inhibits male growth in males of female-larger species. In the present study, we describe the ontogeny of the pronounced female-biased SSD and report the effect of T on growth via hormonal manipulations in males and females of the Malaysian cat gecko (Aeluroscalabotes felinus). In accord with the predictions of the bipotential growth regulation hypothesis, growth was inhibited by replacement of T in castrated males. Additionally, exogenous T inhibited growth of females to male-typical levels. Nevertheless, male castration alone did not significantly affect growth, contrary to the prediction of the bipotential growth regulation hypothesis, which contradicts the generality of this hypothesis. Application of exogenous T to females can interfere with normal ovarian function. Therefore, although not directly tested in this study, we suggest that ovarian effects on the ontogeny of SSD in A. felinus are consistent with our results. The development of SSD is a function of differential growth between the sexes, and potential sex-specific growth regulation in both males and females should be taken into account as possible proximate mechanisms responsible for SSD. PMID:23545460

  10. Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae with descriptions of three new species from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Aguilar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Species delimitation studies based on integrative taxonomic approaches have received considerable attention in the last few years, and have provided the strongest hypotheses of species boundaries. We used three lines of evidence (molecular, morphological, and niche envelopes to test for species boundaries in Peruvian populations of the Liolaemus walkeri complex. Our results show that different lines of evidence and analyses are congruent in different combinations, for unambiguous delimitation of three lineages that were “hidden” within known species, and now deserve species status. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that L. walkeri, L. tacnae and the three new species are strongly separated from other species assigned to the alticolor-bibronii group. Few conventional morphological characters distinguish the new species from closely related taxa and this highlights the need to integrate other sources of data to erect strong hypothesis of species limits. A taxonomic key for known Peruvian species of the subgenus Lioalemus is provided.

  11. Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae) with descriptions of three new species from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Aguilar; Perry Wood; Juan Carlos Cusi; Alfredo Guzman; Frank Huari; Mikael Lundberg; Emma Mortensen; César Ramirez; Daniel Robles; Juana Suarez; Andres Ticona; Victor Vargas; Pablo J. Venegas; Jack Sites

    2013-01-01

    Species delimitation studies based on integrative taxonomic approaches have received considerable attention in the last few years, and have provided the strongest hypotheses of species boundaries. We used three lines of evidence (molecular, morphological, and niche envelopes) to test for species boundaries in Peruvian populations of the Liolaemus walkeri complex. Our results show that different lines of evidence and analyses are congruent in different combinations, for unambiguous delimitatio...

  12. Microanatomical and histological features in the long bones of Mosasaurine mosasaurs (Reptilia, Squamata--implications for aquatic adaptation and growth rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Houssaye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During their evolution in the Late Cretaceous, mosasauroids attained a worldwide distribution, accompanied by a marked increase in body size and open ocean adaptations. This transition from land-dwellers to highly marine-adapted forms is readily apparent not only at the gross anatomic level but also in their inner bone architecture, which underwent profound modifications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present contribution describes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the internal organization (microanatomy and tissue types and characteristics (histology of propodial and epipodial bones in one lineage of mosasauroids; i.e., the subfamily Mosasaurinae. By using microanatomical and histological data from limb bones in combination with recently acquired knowledge on the inner structure of ribs and vertebrae, and through comparisons with extant squamates and semi-aquatic to fully marine amniotes, we infer possible implications on mosasaurine evolution, aquatic adaptation, growth rates, and basal metabolic rates. Notably, we observe the occurrence of an unusual type of parallel-fibered bone, with large and randomly shaped osteocyte lacunae (otherwise typical of fibrous bone and particular microanatomical features in Dallasaurus, which displays, rather than a spongious inner organization, bone mass increase in its humeri and a tubular organization in its femora and ribs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dominance of an unusual type of parallel-fibered bone suggests growth rates and, by extension, basal metabolic rates intermediate between that of the extant leatherback turtle, Dermochelys, and those suggested for plesiosaur and ichthyosaur reptiles. Moreover, the microanatomical features of the relatively primitive genus Dallasaurus differ from those of more derived mosasaurines, indicating an intermediate stage of adaptation for a marine existence. The more complete image of the various microanatomical trends observed in mosasaurine skeletal elements supports the evolutionary convergence between this lineage of secondarily aquatically adapted squamates and cetaceans in the ecological transition from a coastal to a pelagic lifestyle.

  13. Sea ice meiofauna abundance in coastal fast ice off Barrow, Alaska, with a focus on Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta), July 12, 2005 - April 4, 2006 (NODC Accession 0064869)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fast ice along the Alaskan coastline forms in November/December and reaches a thickness of 1.5-1.8m by April. Break-up usually occurs between late June and...

  14. First assessment on the molecular phylogeny of Anatololacerta (Squamata, Lacertidae) distributed in Southern Anatolia: insights from mtDNA and nDNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Kamil; Kankılıç, Tolga; Güçlü, Özgür; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Lymberakis, Petros; Poulakakis, Nikos; Ilgaz, Çetin

    2016-05-01

    The genus Anatololacerta (Lacertidae) occurs mainly in Anatolia (western and southern Turkey) and on the Aegean islands Samos, Ikaria, and Rhodos. Although its taxonomy has long been debated and is currently nascent, three morphological species have been attributed to this genus: Anatololacerta anatolica, Anatololacerta oertzeni, and Anatololacerta danfordi. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of A. oertzeni and Anatololacerta danfordi based on both mitochondrial and nuclear markers (16S rRNA and cmos). In total, 34 Anatololacerta specimens were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. Our results supported the presence of four well-supported lineages: two belongs to A. oertzeni and two to A. danfordi. The temporal diversification of these lineages probably started with the divergence of the first A. oertzeni lineage from western Antalya at 7.9 Mya. The other two major splits may have occurred in early Pliocene (4.4 Mya: the divergence of the second A. oertzeni from A. danfordi) and in late Pliocene (2.7 Mya: the divergence of the two lineages of A. danfordi). The phylogeographical scenario suggests that the major diversification events (from late Miocene to late Pliocene) could be related with climatic oscillations (such as the late Miocene aridification and the Messinian Salinity Crisis) and tectonic movements (such as the uplift of the central Taurus mountain). PMID:25489775

  15. Phylogeography of the ocellated skink Chalcides ocellatus (Squamata, Scincidae), with the use of mtDNA sequences: a hitch-hiker's guide to the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilios, P; Kyriazi, P; Poulakakis, N; Kumlutaş, Y; Ilgaz, C; Mylonas, M; Lymberakis, P

    2010-02-01

    We analyze geographic genetic variation in C. ocellatus to evaluate the influences of major climatic, paleogeographic and anthropogenic factors in its biogeographic history. Ninety four specimens from 61 populations were collected across all of its geographical range and analyzed based on partial mitochondrial sequences (cyt b, 12S, and ND1). Our results demonstrate that an ancestral form of C. ocellatus, which expanded in northwestern Africa at the end of Miocene, diverged in at least three separate evolutionary lineages approximately 4.57Ma: C. humilis spread south of the Sahara, while the other two (C. ocellatus sensu stricto) were restricted in the coastal North African region. The complicated history of the ocellated skink is a result of multiple vicariant phenomena followed by multiple active or passive dispersals. The Messinian salinity crisis and the re-flooding of the Mediterranean basin, the climatic transition from Middle to Upper Pliocene, and the hyperarid phase of the Sahara, affected the distribution and diversification of C. ocellatus, while in historical times it was introduced in the central Mediterranean islands and eastern Mediterranean region from Tunisia and Cyrenaica, respectively. PMID:19765663

  16. Variación morfológica de la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis rodecki (Squamata: Teiidae): implicaciones evolutivas y de conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra P. Elizalde-Rocha; Fausto R. Méndez-de la Cruz; J. Fernando Méndez-Sánchez; Gisela Granados-González; Oswaldo Hernández-Gallegos

    2008-01-01

    La divergencia post-formación se ha utilizado para el reconocimiento de nuevas especies partenogenéticas. Actualmente, la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis rodecki McCoy y Maslin 1962 es reconocida como una sola especie, que se originó de un híbrido partenogenético. Estudios previos han encontrado divergencia genética, en coloración y en características de historia de vida entre una población continental (Puerto Juárez) y una insular (Isla Contoy) en Quintana Roo, México. Se llevó a cabo...

  17. Reproducción y dieta de una población de Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata, Scincidae en Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Aun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron estudiados los aspectos reproductivos y la dieta de Mabuya dorsivittata, una especie de lagarto vivíparo de la localidad de Alto Alegre (Córdoba. La hembra de menor tamaño, con folículos yemados midió de LHC 41 mm. El tamaño de la camada varió entre 5 – 10 embriones por hembra. Los machos de menor tamaño con espermatozoos en los testículos midieron de LHC 31 mm. Hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el peso de las gónadas versus el estadio reproductivo (b= 0,524, R= 0,254, P< 0,001. En los machos hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el volumen testicular y el estadio reproductivo (R2= 0,851, b= 0,929, P< 0,002. El incremento de cuerpos grasos en hembras y machos se relacionó con el periodo de gestación, especialmente en las hembras, decreciendo en las últimas fases, indicando un costo energético alto en los últimos meses del crecimiento embrionario. En cuanto a la dieta, las hembras se alimentaron principalmente de Araneae (suelo como ítem fundamental, y de Scarabeidae, Araneae (otras y Acridiidae como ítem secundario y los machos se alimentaran de Isopoda, Acridiidae y Araneae (otras como ítem fundamental y de Tettigonidae como ítem secundario. Hubo diferencias significativas en la selección trófica entre sexos.

  18. Variación intraespecífica en Phalotris matogrossensis y P. tricolor: una evaluación de sus caracteres diagnósticos (Squamata: Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacciali Sosa, Pier

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalotris matogrossensis es una especie del grupo tricolor, descrita recientemente en base a ejemplares procedentes de Brasil y Paraguay. Se diferencia claramente de P. cuyanus y P. mertensi por la coloración y algunos detalles de la lepidosis corporal, y según la bibliografía de P. tricolor por la mayor longitud del anillo cervical blanco respecto al negro en P. matogrossensis, siendo el negro mucho mayor en P. tricolor. Los resultados del presente trabajo demuestran que este carácter no debe ser tomado tan estrictamente como diagnóstico ya que se encontraron grandes variaciones en los ejemplares revisados. Las diferencias encontradas aquí que mejor sirven para diferenciar entre ambas especies son: 1 la coloración de la mandíbula, oscura o al menos manchada en P. tricolor y siempre inmaculada en P. matogrossensis; 2 la longitud del anillo negro respecto a la proporción total del cuerpo, que en P. tricolor resulta mayor que en P. matogrossensis sin solapamiento de valores; y 3 el color dorsal, ya que P. tricolor en ocasiones presenta manchas o líneas interrumpidas en el dorso, en contraste con la coloración totalmente inmaculada del dorso de P. matogrossensis. Además se dan algunos datos acerca de las afinidades biogeográficas de ambas especies en Paraguay. Phalotris matogrossensis is a species belonging to the tricolor group that was recently described from specimens collected in Brazil and Paraguay. This species can be easily distinguished from P. cuyanus and P. mertensi by its coloration and some traits of the body pholidosis and, after bibliography, from P. tricolor by the reduced black and longer white cervical ring. The results of this work shows that this character should not to be treated as diagnostic as great variation was found among the specimens examined. Characters that better differentiate between the two species: 1 mandible coloration, dark or at least spotted in P. tricolor but always clear in P. matogrossensis; 2 the length of the black ring with respect to the total body length, which is greater in P. tricolor and does not overlap with results for P. matogrossensis; and 3 the dorsal color, P. tricolor sometimes showing spots or interrupted stripes on the dorsum, in contrast to the uniform coloration of P. matogrossensis. Some data regarding the biogeographic affinities of both species in Paraguay are also provided.

  19. Régime alimentaire du grand gecko vert de Madagascar, Phelsuma grandis Gray, 1870 sur l'île de La Réunion (Squamata : Gekkonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dervin, Sébastien; Baret, Samuel; Penin, Lucie; Sanchez, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Phelsuma grandis Gray, 1870 est un gecko introduit sur l'île de La Réunion. Le régime alimentaire de ce reptile, considéré comme invasif, a été étudié afin d'évaluer la menace qu'il pourrait représenter pour la faune indigène. Le contenu stomacal de 171 individus a été analysé. À La Réunion, P. grandis se nourrit principalement d'Arthropodes. Les ressources végétales occupent également une part non négligeable de son alimentation et il consomme régulièrement d'autres espèces de geckos. P. gra...

  20. Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and two new species of lizards from Brazilian Amazonia, with nomenclatural comments on the taxonomy of Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Guarino R; Hoogmoed, Marinus S; Cannatella, David C; Cassimiro, José; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Pellegrino, Kátia C M; Salerno, Patricia; Souza, Sergio Marques De; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new genus and two new species of gymnophthalmid lizards based on specimens collected from Brazilian Amazonia, mostly in the "arc of deforestation". The new genus is easily distinguished from other Gymnophthalmidae by having very wide, smooth, and imbricate nuchals, arranged in two longitudinal and 6-10 transverse rows from nape to brachium level, followed by much narrower, strongly keeled, lanceolate, and mucronate scales. It also differs from all other Gymnophthalmidae, except Iphisa, by the presence of two longitudinal rows of ventrals. The new genus differs from Iphisa by having two pairs of enlarged chinshields (one in Iphisa); posterior dorsal scales lanceolate, strongly keeled and not arranged in longitudinal rows (dorsals broad, smooth and forming two longitudinal rows), and lateral scales keeled (smooth). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data indicate the new species form a clade that is most closely related to Iphisa. We also address several nomenclatural issues and present a revised classification of Gymnophthalmidae. PMID:26623733

  1. Atlas de Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: teiidae) : Anatomía externa, osteología y bibliografía

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Ricardo; Abdala de Aredez, Virginia; Moro, Silvia Alejandra

    2004-01-01

    Los lagartos que en Argentina se conocen como «iguana roja» o «caraguay» pertenecen al género Tupinambis, uno de los saurios de mayor talla del continente; tienen importancia económica, tanto por su cuero como por su carne. Se reconocen seis especies actuales, que se distribuyen en América del Sur desde Colombia hasta el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina (Cei, 1993). Por su amplia distribución y abundancia son utilizados como animales de laboratorio por lo que es importante el conocimiento det...

  2. Differentiation of sex chromosomes and karyotypic evolution in the eye-lid geckos (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae), a group with different modes of sex determination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, M.; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Kratochvíl, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2010), s. 748-748. ISSN 0967-3849. [19th International Colloquium on animal cytogenetics and gene mapping. 06.06.-09.06.2010, Krakow] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sex chromosome s * karyotypic evolution * eye-lid geckos Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  3. Differentiation of sex chromosomes and karyotypic evolution in the eye-lid geckos (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae), a group with different modes of sex determination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, M.; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Rens, W.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2010), s. 809-820. ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GP206/06/P282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : reptile cytogenetics * FISH * neo-sex hromosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.130, year: 2010

  4. Anatomía visceral de Feylinia grandisquamis (Squamata: Scincidae. Comparaciones con otros escamados de patrón corporal semejante

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    Díaz Gómez, Juan Manuel

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Feylinia grandisquamis es un síncido africano caracterizado por contar con el cuerpo alargado y las extremidades ausentes. En el presente trabajo se describe en detalle la anatomía de las vísceras de Feylinia grandisquamis, y algunos aspectos de su variación intraespecífica. Los resultados se comparan con otro género de Scincidae (Anomalopus y representantes de grandes grupos de escamados que exhiben patrones corporales semejantes (Lialis burtonis, Amphisbaena darwinii, Boa constrictor, Ophiodes striatus, Anguis fragilis. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: a determinar la morfología de las vísceras de Feylinia; b los aspectos de su variación intraespecífica; c discutir convergencias y paralelismos con Saurios, Anfisbénidos y Ofidios. Feylinia grandisquamis is an African Scincid characterized for a snakeshaped body and total absence of limbs. In this work the visceral anatomy of Feylinia grandisquamis is described, as well as aspects of its intraspecific variation. The results are compared with another scincid (Anomalopus and representatives of other Squamate groups with similar body plans (Lialis burtonis, Amphisbaena darwinii, Boa constrictor, Ophiodes striatus, Anguis fragilis. The objectives were: a To determine the visceral anatomy of Feylinia; b The aspects of its intraespecific variation; and c Discuss convergences and parallelisms with possible occurrence in Lizards, Amphisbaenids and Ophidia.

  5. Anatomía visceral de Feylinia grandisquamis (Squamata: Scincidae). Comparaciones con otros escamados de patrón corporal semejante

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Gómez, Juan Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Feylinia grandisquamis es un síncido africano caracterizado por contar con el cuerpo alargado y las extremidades ausentes. En el presente trabajo se describe en detalle la anatomía de las vísceras de Feylinia grandisquamis, y algunos aspectos de su variación intraespecífica. Los resultados se comparan con otro género de Scincidae (Anomalopus) y representantes de grandes grupos de escamados que exhiben patrones corporales semejantes (Lialis burtonis, Amphisbaena darwinii, Boa constrictor, Ophi...

  6. Anatomía visceral de Feylinia grandisquamis (Squamata: scincidae) : Comparaciones con otros escamados de patrón corporal semejante

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Gómez, Juan Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Feylinia grandisquamis es un síncido africano caracterizado por contar con el cuerpo alargado y las extremidades ausentes. En el presente trabajo se describe en detalle la anatomía de las vísceras de Feylinia grandisquamis, y algunos aspectos de su variación intraespecífica. Los resultados se comparan con otro género de Scincidae (Anomalopus) y representantes de grandes grupos de escamados que exhiben patrones corporales semejantes (Lialis burtonis, Amphisbaena darwinii, Boa constrictor, Ophi...

  7. Prevalence of enterobacteriaceae in Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae) from a captive facility in Central Brazil, with a profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa de Moraes Carvalho; Ayrton Klier Péres Júnior; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Valéria de Sá Jayme

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the presence of enterobacteriaceae in Tegu Lizards (Tupinambis merianae)from a captive facility in central Brazil. From a total of 30 animals, 10 juveniles and 20 adults (10 males, 10 females), 60 samples were collected, in two periods separated by 15 days. The samples were cultivated in Xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar (XLT4) and MacConkey agar. The Salmonella enterica were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 78 bacteria was isolated, of wich 27 were ...

  8. Liolaemus carlosgarini and Liolaemus riodamas (Squamata: Liolaemidae), two new species of lizards lacking precloacal pores, from Andean areas of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Damien; Núñez, Herman; Scolaro, José Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Most of the lizards of the Liolaemus genus present precloacal pores in males, with few exceptions in species of the lineomaculatus and neuquensis groups, and in the elongatus-kriegi complex. The elongatus-kriegi complex, belonging to the Liolaemus (sensu stricto) subgenus, is composed of medium sized, saxicolous, viviparous and insectivorous or omnivorous lizards, distributed between the Andean and Patagonian zones of Chile and Argentina. We reviewed the taxonomic history of this group, and we describe two new species, Liolaemus carlosgarini, found in the vicinity of the Maule Lagoon, in the Maule Region, Chile, and Liolaemus riodamas, described from the population that was originally designated as Liolaemus cf ceii, from Las Damas River, near the Termas del Flaco locality, in the Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins Region, thereby based on this research L. ceii is eliminated from the species belonging to Chile. Both species have as a diagnostic character the absence of precloacal pores, and we suggest here their presumptive systematic relationships in Liolaemus. We analyzed ten species of Liolaemus, in order to perform a phylogenetic analysis based on external morphology, using mostly squamation and morphometric characters. The analysis was performed using PAUP, with the Maximum Parsimony criterion. In addition, through diaphanisation, we studied and described the osteology of the new species. We conclude that species lacking precloacal pores do not form a monophyletic group, and that constructing a phylogeny using only external morphology, at least for this group of reptiles, is insufficient to establish solid phyletic relationships. Other sort of characters should complement the morphological ones. PMID:26131484

  9. A revision of the Oligodon taeniatus (Günther, 1861) group (Squamata: Colubridae), with the description of three new species from the Indochinese Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. David; G. Vogel; J. van Rooijen

    2008-01-01

    The group of Asian colubrid species morphologically similar to Oligodon taeniatus (Günther, 1861), previously containing only O. taeniatus, Oligodon mouhoti (Günther, 1864) and Oligodon barroni (Smith, 1916), is revised on the basis of variation in external morphology and dentition of 175 specimens.

  10. Desplazamientos de la iguana verde, Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae) durante la estación seca en La Palma, Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E. MORALES-MÁVIL; Richard C Vogt; Héctor Gadsden-Esparza

    2007-01-01

    Usamos radiotransmisores para determinar los desplazamientos de la iguana verde (Iguana iguana) en el periodo de anidación (febrero-julio) en La Palma, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México (18°33’ N, 95°03’ W). Las iguanas fueron radiolocalizadas entre 23 y 30 ocasiones, principalmente en árboles (56 % entre 3-9 m); sólo 4 % fueron localizadas en el suelo. El tamaño del ámbito hogareño de machos y de hembras fue similar (9 158.06±3 025.3 m² vs. 6 591.24±4 001.1 m², respectivamente; t= 0.51, p>0.05)....

  11. Establishing a New Species Encephalitozoon pogonae for the Microsporidian Parasite of Inland Bearded Dragon Pogona vitticeps Ahl 1927 (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Yuliya Y; Sakaguchi, Kanako; Paulsen, Daniel B

    2016-07-01

    The microsporidium parasitizing Inland Bearded Dragons Pogona vitticeps, and developing primarily in macrophages within foci of granulomatous inflammation of different organs, is described as a new species Encephalitozoon pogonae. Establishing the new species was based on sequencing the ITS-SSUrDNA region of the ribosomal gene and consequent SSUrDNA-inferred phylogenetic analyses, as well as on comparison of pathogenesis, host specificity, and ultrastructure among Encephalitozoon species and isolates. The new species is closely related to E. lacertae and E. cuniculi. Analysis of the literature suggests that this microsporidium has been reported previously as an unidentified microsporidian species or isolate of E. cuniculi and may represent a common infection in bearded dragons. All stages of E. pogonae develop in parasitophorous vacuoles. Uninucleate spores on methanol-fixed smears measured 2.1 × 1.1 μm, range 1.7-2.6 × 0.9-1.7 μm; on ultrathin sections spores measured 0.8-1.1 × 1.8-2.2 μm. Ultrastructural study revealed 3-6 polar filament coils, a mushroom-shaped polar disk, and a polar sac embracing half of the volume occupied by the lamellar polaroplast. In activated spores, polar filament everted eccentrically. The overall morphology and intracellular development of E. pogonae were similar to other Encepahalitozoon spp. We also review the existing data on microsporidia infecting reptiles. PMID:26785360

  12. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae

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    Sartorello R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva store Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and that the purinergic agonist ATP triggers a rapid and transient increase of [Ca2+]c by mobilization of the cation from internal stores. We also reported the ability of the second messenger IP3 to discharge the ER calcium pool of the ER. Here we characterize the purinoceptor present in the cytoplasmic membrane of the RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva by the selective use of ATP analogues and pyrimidine nucleotides. The nucleotides UTP, UDP, GTP, and ATPgammaS triggered a dose-dependent response, while interestingly 2MeSATP, 2ClATP, alpha, ß-ATP, and ADP failed to do so in a 1- to 200-µm con- centration. The EC50 obtained for the compounds tested was 41.77 µM for UTP, 48.11 µM for GTP, 53.11 µM for UDP, and 30.78 µM for ATPgammaS. The present data indicate that the receptor within the RBCs of Ameiva ameiva is a P2Y4-like receptor due to its pharmacological similarity to the mammalian P2Y4 receptor.

  13. A metapopulation of the lizard Anguis fragilis (Squamata: Anguidae on a local scale in Dorset, Great Britain, as indicated by spatial distribution and movement

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    Thomas Haley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A metapopulation is a group of spatially structured populations, consisting of distinct units (subpopulations that are separated by space or barriers, and connected by dispersal movements. Evidence derived from Gaussian finite-mixture models and dispersal events suggests that slow-worms may exist in a metapopulation. The Gaussian finite-mixture models showed that slow-worms are aggregated into individual subpopulations; the movement data revealed that males are more likely to migrate than females and that they have the ability to travel sufficiently far to bridge subpopulations. Therefore, the evidence supports the metapopulation theory and that slow-worms exist in multiple small subpopulations instead of one large homogenous population.

  14. Clima, distribución geográfica y viviparismo en especies de Liolaemus (Reptilia; Squamata: cuando las hipótesis se ponen a prueba

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    Félix B. Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de los reptiles, dada su dependencia de la temperatura, puede verse restringida en función del clima. En particular, se han planteado tres hipótesis que vinculan el clima con la distribución y el viviparismo en las especies de reptiles: i hipótesis de clima variable, ii hipótesis del clima frío e iii hipótesis de manipulación materna. Entre las lagartijas de Sudamérica las especies del género Liolaemus se distribuyen tanto en ambientes cálidos como fríos y más del 50 % de ellas son vivíparas. En este trabajo estudiamos 47 especies de Liolaemus, tomando datos climáticos de sus sitios de colecta, su temperatura de preferencia (Tpref, el coeficiente de variación de la misma (CV y los límites de tolerancia térmica (TT. Nuestros resultados no apoyan la hipótesis de clima variable, aunque ésta ha sido sustentada en estudios anteriores. Se encontró relación entre viviparismo y altitud, pero no entre viviparismo y las variables térmicas ambientales. Finalmente, las especies vivíparas de Liolaemus mostraron un comportamiento termorregulador más preciso que las especies ovíparas, reforzando la hipótesis de manipulación materna.

  15. Deep divergence and structure in the Tropical Oceanic Pacific: a multilocus phylogeography of a widespread gekkonid lizard (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Gehyra oceanica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonione, Maria A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Zhu, Catherine; Moritz, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Aim The islands of the Tropical Oceanic Pacific (TOP) host both local radiations and widespread, colonizing species. The few phylogeographical analyses of widespread species often point to recent human-aided expansions through the Pacific, suggesting that the communities are recently assembled. Here we apply multilocus data to infer biogeographical history of the gekkonid lizard, Gehyra oceanica, which is widespread, but for which prior analyses suggested a pre-human history and in situ diversification. Location Tropical Oceanic Pacific. Methods We generated a data set including mtDNA and diagnostic SNPs for 173 individuals of G. oceanica spanning Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. For a subset of these individuals, we also sequenced nuclear loci. From these data, we performed maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to reveal major clades. We also performed Bayesian clustering analyses and coalescence–based species delimitation tests to infer the number of species in this area. Results We found evidence for six independent evolutionary lineages (candidate species) within G. oceanica that diverged between the Pliocene and the early Pleistocene, with high diversity through northern Melanesia, and pairing of northern Melanesian endemic taxa with widespread lineages across Micronesia and Polynesia. Main conclusions The islands of northern Melanesia not only have unrecognized diversity, but also were the source of independent expansions of lineages through the more remote northern and eastern Pacific. These results highlight the very different evolutionary histories of island faunas on remote archipelagos versus those across Melanesia and point to the need for more intensive studies of fauna within Melanesia if we are to understand the evolution of diversity across the tropical Pacific.

  16. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  17. Genetic diversity of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Gekko gecko Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in Southeast Asia determined with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

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    Watee Kongbuntad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Red-spotted tokay geckos, Gekko gecko, are distributed mainly in Southeast Asia. They are a traditional Chinese medicine, with the massive hunting for exports dramatically decreasing their numbers. Information on the genetic diversity of these geckos in Southeast Asia is very limited. This study aims to explore intrapopulation and interpopulation genetic variation and the genetic structure of 16 populations collected from different localities in Thailand, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Relatively high genetic diversity occurred at both the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels. Genetic differentiation with FST values ranging between 0.006–0.892 was found. Five distinct genetic groups of the red-spotted tokay populations could be classified. A group of populations from northern Thailand showed the highest genetic differentiation from the other groups. Moreover, there was a substantial genetic subdivision depending on the genetic groups with FCT=0.664 and FSC=0.185. This genetic structure is related to geographical distribution and distance between populations, R2=0.5614, p<0.001. Our findings of pronounced genetic structuring and the concomitant conservation genetic consequences if further population loss occurs mean that management actions should therefore focus on the conservation of all of the main sites where tokay geckos still occur.

  18. Reproduction in a gecko assemblage (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae in the Marañon Region (Peru and comments on the largest gecko in the New World

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    Janina Aurich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction is described for four phyllodactylid geckos, Phyllopezus maranjonensis, Phyllodactylus delsolari, P. thompsoni and P. reissii from the upper Marañon Valley, Peru. Observations were made between March and May 2010 and voucher specimens, already housed in the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK, were X-rayed to check for gravid females. Gravid female P. maranjonensis, P. delsolari and P. reissii contain two eggs, whereas P. thompsoni produces a single egg that is deposited in leaf litter or crevices of stone walls. It is likely that females of all of these species produce multiple clutches in one year; the reproductive period seems to be extended in at least two species. Furthermore, measurements of numerous specimens of all four species are presented herein, revealing that Phyllopezus maranjonensis is the largest species of New World geckos.

  19. Microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes at different stages of heteromorphism and heterochromatinization in two lizard species (Squamata: Eublepharidae: Coleonyx elegans and Lacertidae: Eremias velox)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, L.; Kejnovský, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2011), s. 90-96. ISSN 1471-2156 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/10/0930 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : repeated dna-sequences * Y-chromosome * determining mechanisms Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.475, year: 2011

  20. A new, recently extinct subspecies of the Kuroiwa’s Leopard Gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata: Eublepharidae, from Yoronjima Island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan

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    Yasuyuki Nakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new subspecies of the eublepharid gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae, is described on the basis of fragmentary bones recovered from a midden on Yoronjima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. It differs from the other conspecific subspecies in having a unique combination of osteological character states: in particular, the maxilla contains a posteriorly extended maxillary shelf and a scarcely inclined lateral wall above the posterior tooth row, and the frontal contains a widened anterior section and a laterally overhanging anterior part of lateral prefrontal facet, both of which differentiate this new subspecies from the morphologically most similar G. k. kuroiwae. The new subspecies, endemic to Yoronjima Island, may have gone extinct, together with several other amphibians and reptiles on the island — most likely due to human-related deforestation and increased predation pressure from introduced weasels.

  1. The first cytogenetic description of Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839 from Northern Sardinia reveals the highest diploid chromosome number among sphaerodactylid geckos (Sphaerodactylidae, Squamata

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    Ekaterina Gornung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of a sphaerodactylid gecko Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839 was assembled for the first time in this species. It is made of 2n = 42 gradually decreasing in size chromosomes, the highest chromosome number so far acknowledged in the family Sphaerodactylidae. The second chromosome pair of the karyotype appears slightly heteromorphic in the male individual. Accordingly, FISH with a telomeric probe revealed an uneven distribution of telomeric repeats on the two homologues of this pair, which may be indicative of an XY sex-determination system in the species, to be further investigated.

  2. A ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosome System in the Thick-Tailed Gecko (Underwoodisaurus milii; Squamata: Gekkota: Carphodactylidae), a Member of the Ancient Gecko Lineage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Martina; Rens, W.; Rovatsos, M.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 3 (2014), s. 190-196. ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : interstitial telometric signals * lizard * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.561, year: 2014

  3. Microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes at different stages of heteromorphism and heterochromatinization in two lizard species (Squamata: Eublepharidae: Coleonyx elegans and Lacertidae: Eremias velox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochvíl Lukáš

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accumulation of repetitive sequences such as microsatellites during the differentiation of sex chromosomes has not been studied in most squamate reptiles (lizards, amphisbaenians and snakes, a group which has a large diversity of sex determining systems. It is known that the Bkm repeats containing tandem arrays of GATA tetranucleotides are highly accumulated on the degenerated W chromosomes in advanced snakes. Similar, potentially homologous, repetitive sequences were found on sex chromosomes in other vertebrates. Using FISH with probes containing all possible mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide sequences and GATA, we studied the genome distribution of microsatellite repeats on sex chromosomes in two lizard species (the gecko Coleonyx elegans and the lacertid Eremias velox with independently evolved sex chromosomes. The gecko possesses heteromorphic euchromatic sex chromosomes, while sex chromosomes in the lacertid are homomorphic and the W chromosome is highly heterochromatic. Our aim was to test whether microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes corresponds to the stage of their heteromorphism or heterochromatinization. Moreover, because the lizards lie phylogenetically between snakes and other vertebrates with the Bkm-related repeats on sex chromosomes, the knowledge of their repetitive sequence is informative for the determination of conserved versus convergently evolved repetitive sequences across vertebrate lineages. Results Heteromorphic sex chromosomes of C. elegans do not show any sign of microsatellite accumulation. On the other hand, in E. velox, certain microsatellite sequences are extensively accumulated over the whole length or parts of the W chromosome, while others, including GATA, are absent on this heterochromatinized sex chromosome. Conclusion The accumulation of microsatellite repeats corresponds to the stage of heterochromatinization of sex chromosomes rather than to their heteromorphism. The lack of GATA repeats on the sex chromosomes of both lizards suggests that the Bkm-related repeats on sex chromosomes in snakes and other vertebrates evolved convergently. The comparison of microsatellite sequences accumulated on sex chromosomes in E. velox and in other eukaryotic organisms suggests that historical contingency, not characteristics of particular sequences, plays a major role in the determination of which microsatellite sequence is accumulated on the sex chromosomes in a particular lineage.

  4. Radiation, multiple dispersal and parallelism in the skinks, Chalcides and Sphenops (Squamata: Scincidae), with comments on Scincus and Scincopus and the age of the Sahara Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Geniez, Ph; Roca, J; Mateo, J A

    2008-03-01

    Phylogenetic analysis using up to 1325 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 179 specimens and 30 species of Chalcides, Sphenops, Eumeces, Scincopus and Scincus indicates that Sphenops arose twice independently within Chalcides. It is consequently synonymized with that genus. Chalcides in this broader sense originated in Morocco, diversifying into four main clades about 10 Ma, after which some of its lineages dispersed widely to cover an area 40 times as large. Two separate lineages invaded the Canary Islands and at least five main lineages colonized southern Europe. At least five more spread across northern Africa, one extending into southwest Asia. Elongate bodies with reduced limbs have evolved at least four times in Chalcides, mesic 'grass-swimmers' being produced in one case and extensive adaptation to life in loose desert sand in two others. In clade, Chalcides striatus colonized SW Europe from NW Africa 2.6 Ma and C. chalcides mainland Italy 1.4 Ma, both invasions being across water, while C. c. vittatus reached Sardinia more recently, perhaps anthropogenically, and C. guentheri spread 1200km further east to Israel. C. minutus is a composite, with individuals from the type locality forming a long independent lineage and the remaining ones investigated being most closely related to C. mertensi. In the Northern clade, C. boulengeri and C. sepsoides spread east through sandy habitats north of the Sahara about 5 Ma, the latter reaching Egypt. C. bedriagai invaded Spain around the same time, perhaps during the Messinian period when the Mediterranean was dry, and shows considerable diversification. Although it is currently recognized as one species, the C. ocellatus clade exhibits as much phylogenetic depth as the other main clades of Chalcides, having at least six main lineages. These have independently invaded Malta and Sardinia from Tunisia and also southwest Arabia C. o. humilis appears to have spread over 4000 km through the Sahel, south of the Sahara quite recently, perhaps in the Pleistocene. In the Western clade of Chalcides, C. delislei appears to have dispersed in a similar way. There were also two invasions of the Canary Islands: one around 5 Ma by C. simonyi, and the other about 7 Ma by the ancestor of C. viridanus+C. sexlineatus. C. montanus was believed to be related to C. lanzai of the Northern clade, but in the mtDNA tree it is placed within C. polylepis of the Western clade, although this may possibly be an artifact of introgression. The Eumeces schneideri group, Scincopus and Scincus form a clade separate from Chalcides. Within this clade, the geographically disjunct E. schneideri group is paraphyletic. One of its members, E. algeriensis is the sister taxon to Scincopus, and Scincus may also be related to these taxa. The phylogeny suggests Scincopus entered desert conditions in Africa, up to 9.6 Ma and the same may have been true of Scincus up to 11.7 Ma. Scincus appears to have diversified and spread into Arabia around 6 Ma. Dates of origin and divergence of these skinks, desert Chalcides and other squamates agree with recent geological evidence that the Sahara is at least 5-7 My old. The subspecies Chalcides viridanus coeruleopunctatus is upgraded to the species level as C. coeruleopunctatus stat nov., on the basis of its large genetic divergence from C. v. viridanus. PMID:18276164

  5. The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus; Squamata: Varanidae) as a sentinel species for lead and cadmium contamination in sub-Saharan wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetland pollution is a matter of concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Though regularly exploited, the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), a large amphibious lizard, is not threatened. This work aims at assessing the value of this varanid as a sentinel species in surveys of environmental contamination by metals. Lead and cadmium quantifications were performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bone, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle in 71 monitors from three unevenly polluted sites in Mali and Niger, plus a reference site. The effects of sex, size and fat reserves as well as factors related to the sampling strategy (tissue sampled, sampling site) were studied with a mixed linear model. Metal contamination is moderate at the four sites but clear differences nevertheless occur. Lead levels are generally maximal in bone, with a gender-independent median value 320 ng.g-1. Median cadmium concentrations never exceed 70.2 ng.g-1 in females (kidney) and 57.5 ng.g-1 in males (intestine). Such levels should have no detrimental effects on the monitors. Lead and cadmium levels in muscles are generally below 200 and 20 ng.g-1, respectively, and should provoke no health hazard to occasional consumers of monitor meat. Metal organotropisms are consistent with those observed in other studies about Squamates: for lead: bone > [kidney, intestine, liver] > muscle in males and [bone, kidney] > [intestine, liver] > muscle in females; for cadmium: [liver, intestine, kidney] > [bone, muscle] for both genders. Females are more contaminated, especially in their kidneys. In this tissue, median values in ng.g-1 are 129.7 and 344.0 for lead and 43.0 and 70.2 for cadmium, for males and females, respectively. Nile monitors can reveal subtle differences in local pollution by metals; moreover, the spatial resolution of the pollution indication that they give seems to be very sharp. The practical relevance of this new tool is thus validated.

  6. The phylogenetic position of Lygodactylus angularis and the utility of using the 16S rDNA gene for delimiting species in Lygodactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Castiglia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The African genus Lygodactylus Gray, is composed of roughly 60 species of diurnal geckos that inhabit tropical and temperate Africa, Madagascar, and South America. In this study, we assessed the phylogenetic position of L. angularis, for which molecular data were so far lacking, by means of sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene. We also compared intraspecific vs. interspecific genetic divergences using an extended data set (34 species, 153 sequences, to determine whether a fragment of this gene can be useful for species identification and to reveal the possible existence of new cryptic species in the genus. The analysis placed L. angularis in a monophyletic group together with members of “fischeri” and “picturatus” groups. Nevertheless, the independence of the “angularis” lineage is supported by the high genetic divergence. Comparison of intraspecific vs. interspecific genetic distances highlights that, assuming an equal molecular rate of evolution among the studied species for the used gene, the threshold value useful for recognising a candidate new species can be tentatively placed at 7%. We identified four species that showed an intraspecific divergence higher than, or close to, the 7% threshold: L. capensis (8.7%, L. gutturalis (9.3%, L. madagascariensis (6.5% and L. picturatus (8.1%. Moreover, two species, L. mombasicus and L. verticillatus, are paraphyletic in terms of gene genealogy. Thus, the study shows that a short fragment of the 16S rDNA gene can be an informative tool for species-level taxonomy in the genus Lygodactylus.

  7. The phylogenetic position of Lygodactylus angularis and the utility of the 16S rDNA gene for delimiting species in Lygodactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae

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    Riccardo Castiglia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The African genus Lygodactylus Gray, is composed of about 60 species of diurnal geckos inhabiting tropical and temperate Africa, Madagascar and South America. In this paper we analysed, by means of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene, the phylogenetic position of one species for which molecular data are lacking, L. angularis. Moreover, we compared the intraspecific vs interspecific genetic divergence using an extended dataset (37 species, 160 haplotypes, to determine whether a fragment of the same gene can be useful for species identification and to reveal the possible presence of new cryptic species in the genus. Lygodactylus angularis resulted in a monophyletic group together with members of the “fisheri” group and of the “picturatus” group. Nevertheless, the independence of the “angularis” lineage is supported by the high genetic divergence. Comparison of intraspecific vs interpecific genetic distances highlights that the threshold values useful for recognising a candidate new species can be tentatively placed at 7%. We identified four species that showed an intraspecific divergence higher than or near the 7% threshold: L. capensis (8.7%, L. gutturalis (9.3%, L. madagascariensis (6.5% and L. picturatus (8.1%. Moreover two species, L. mombasicus and L. verticillatus are paraphyletic in terms of gene genealogy. This study shows that a short fragment of the 16S rDNA gene can be an informative tool for species-level taxonomy in the genus Lygodactylus.

  8. Ecological observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India

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    S.K. Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 were undertaken in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India during the monsoons (July following quadrat sampling that was time-constrained. The study revealed that the area is one of the preferable habitats for the species. A population analysis showed that the relative abundance of the subadults was higher, followed by juveniles and adults during the study period. The beginning of activity of the lizards was found to vary over the study period depending on prevailing weather conditions. The activity pattern was bimodal, except across rain events. The study revealed two important ecological findings about these lizards; complete sealing of burrow during rains which differed from partial sealing on normal days and complete diurnal cycle of body colour changes during the monsoon. Feeding was the predominant activity of this lizard followed by basking, resting and chasing each other. The adult lizards were found to be strictly herbivorous, in spite of an abundance of insects available in the area during the period. Subadults and juveniles were found to eat both plant parts, as well as insects. Microhabitat use such as inside grass clumps was found to be higher followed by barren ground, under shade and on stones.

  9. Gender differences in seasonal movement of dice snakes in Histria, southeastern Romania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kärvemo, S.; Carlsson, M.; Tudor, M.; Sloboda, M.; Mihalca, A. D.; Ghira, I.; Bel, L.; Modrý, David

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, 20 September 2011 (2011), s. 245-254. ISSN 0934-6643 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Squamata * Natrix tessellata * dice snake * seasonal movements * activity patterns * sex ratio Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  10. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758): registro de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña; Rafael García de Quevedo-Machain; Jorge Alfredo Tovar-Ramos; Jesús Aarón Curiel-Beltrán

    2014-01-01

    Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de iguana verde o Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae) de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012), con talla de 43 cm y peso de 60 g.

  11. Contrasting evolutionary histories of the legless lizards slow worms (Anguis) shaped by the topography of the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jablonski, D.; Jandzik, D.; Mikulíček, P.; Džukić, G.; Ljubisavljević, K.; Tzankov, N.; Jelić, D.; Thanou, E.; Moravec, J.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 99 (2016), s. 99. ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anguidae * Squamata * phylogeography * biogeography * speciation * contact zones * microrefugia * Balkan mountains Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.368, year: 2014

  12. Problematika chovu jedovatých ještěrů

    OpenAIRE

    Bubeník, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    This thesis primarily deals with keeping venomous reptiles Squamata and the summary of literature that confirms the presence of poison glands in Squamata lizards. The first part collected information on the toxicity of individual lizards. Toxins are classified according to several criteria: the origin of the poison, special effects and scope. This section is ended description of antidotes. The second part collected information on the breed of poisonous lizards, breeding problems, classi...

  13. Experimental introduction of Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae in Praia das Neves, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: a descriptive study 18 years later Introdução experimental de Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae em Praia das Neves, Espírito Santo, Brasil: um estudo descritivo 18 anos depois

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    Ana Hermínia B. Soares

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the results of the introduction into Praia das Neves, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, of Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, a lizard species threatened with extinction. Since there are few studies that evaluate how species establish and adapt to new environments, it is useful to assess to what extent the introduction of a critically endangered species into an area similar to where it originally occurred can help reduce its decline in number of individuals and avoid its possible extinction. This study presents the first results of an ongoing monitoring survey set up after the experimental introduction. We analyze how the introduced population uses space and food and we compare these characteristics to that of the original population at Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro state. We also compare morphological measurementss of specimens from both populations. Both make similar use of the microhabitat, but there are differences in their diets. We recommend that the introduced population, potential competitors, predators, parasites, and the habitat characteristics continue to be monitored, so as to insure that this species will not become a threat to Praia das Neves beach community.Esse artigo examina o resultado da introdução, em Praia das Neves, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, de Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, uma espécie de lagarto ameaçada de extinção. Como existem poucos estudos que avaliam como espécies estabelecem-se e adaptam-se a novos ambientes, é útil conhecer em que extensão a introdução de uma espécie criticamente em perigo em uma área similar àquela onde ocorria naturalmente pode ajudar a reduzir seu declínio em número de indivíduos e evitar sua possível extinção. Esse estudo apresenta os primeiros resultados de um monitoramento em andamento, iniciado depois da introdução experimental. Analisamos o uso do espaço pela população introduzida e sua alimentação, e comparamos essas características com a da população original em Barra de Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Também comparamos as medidas morfológicas das duas populações. Ambas fazem uso similar do microhabitat, mas há diferenças nas suas dietas. Recomendamos que a população introduzida e seus competidores potenciais, predadores e parasitos, e as características do habitat continuem a ser monitorados, para garantir que essa espécie não se torne uma ameaça à comunidade de Praia das Neves.

  14. Use of sleeping perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae in the fragmented tropical rainforest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico Uso de perchas para dormir por la lagartija Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae en el bosque tropical fragmentado de Los Tuxtlas, México

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    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of nocturnal perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis is described. Bimonthly surveys were made throughout a year in small fragments and continuous tropical rainforest areas at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Twenty three juvenile individuals and 7 adults were recorded sleeping during the sampling time (18:00 - 23:00 h.. All individuals were found on leaves of plants of 14 species. Perch height ranged from 41.0 to 140.5 cm (mean: 90.1 cm juveniles; 80.6 cm adults and the most frequent sleeping position observed was with the body oriented along the longitudinal axis of the leaf and the head facing the stem of the plant. This apparently vulnerable position can permit the perception of external stimuli such as proximity of predators; although, eco-physiological factors may also influence selection of sleeping perch sites.Se describe el uso de perchas nocturnas por parte de la lagartija Anolis uniformis. Durante un año se ralizaron muestreos bimensuales en fragmentos pequeños y áreas continuas de bosque tropical perennifolio en Los Tuxtlas, México. Se registraron 23 individuos juveniles y 7 adultos durmiendo durante las horas de muestreo (18:00 a 23:00 hrs. Todos los individuos fueron encontrados en hojas de plantas pertenecientes a 14 especies. La altura de las perchas varió entre 41.0 y 140.5 cm (promedio: 90.1 cm juveniles; 80.6 cm adultos y la posición más frecuente de las lagartijas al dormir fue con el cuerpo extendido a lo largo del eje longitudinal de la hoja y la cabeza dirigida hacia el tallo de la planta. Esta posición, aparentemente vulnerable, puede permitir la percepción de estímulos externos como la aproximación de depredadores; sin embargo, factores eco-fisiológicos pueden también influir en la selección de sitios para dormir.

  15. Use of sleeping perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae) in the fragmented tropical rainforest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico Uso de perchas para dormir por la lagartija Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae) en el bosque tropical fragmentado de Los Tuxtlas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán; Víctor Hugo Reynoso

    2010-01-01

    The use of nocturnal perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis is described. Bimonthly surveys were made throughout a year in small fragments and continuous tropical rainforest areas at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Twenty three juvenile individuals and 7 adults were recorded sleeping during the sampling time (18:00 - 23:00 h.). All individuals were found on leaves of plants of 14 species. Perch height ranged from 41.0 to 140.5 cm (mean: 90.1 cm juveniles; 80.6 cm adults) and the most frequent sleeping p...

  16. Ecología del crecimiento de una lagartija del género Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae en la Reserva de la Biosfera, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México Growth ecology of a lizard of the genus Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae from the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México

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    J. GASTÓN ZAMORA-ABREGO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos el crecimiento corporal de una nueva especie de lagartija endémica del género Xenosaurus Peters, ubicada en la Reserva de la Biósfera, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. Se estimaron las tasas de crecimiento corporal y se analizaron a partir de los modelos de crecimiento de Von Bertalanffy, logístico por longitud y logístico por peso. Para describir el patrón de crecimiento de estas lagartijas, utilizamos el modelo logístico por longitud debido a que fue el modelo que tuvo el mejor ajuste a las tasas observadas de crecimiento corporal. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras en el parámetro característico de crecimiento ni en la talla asintótica proyectada. Por lo tanto, se construyó una sola curva de crecimiento para ambos sexos. Los machos alcanzan la madurez sexual a los 24 meses, mientras que las hembras lo hacen hasta los 37 meses. Las tasas de crecimiento independientes de la talla no fueron estadísticamente diferentes entre años (2001, 2002 y 2003, ni entre estaciones (estación húmeda y seca. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la variación en el crecimiento corporal de esta especie, no es causada exclusivamente por las variaciones ambientales, sino más bien por una compleja combinación de factores ambientales y bases genéticas.We analyzed variation in body growth of a new lizard species of the genus Xenosaurus Peters that is endemic to the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. We calculated body growth rates and analyzed them by means of the Von Bertalanffy, logistic-by-length, and logistic-by-weight growth models. We used the logistic-by-length model to describe the growth pattern of these lizards because this model provided the best fit to the observed body growth rates. No significant differences were found between males and females in the characteristic growth parameter or in the projected asymptotic size. Therefore, a single growth curve was constructed for both sexes. Males reach maturity at 24 months, whereas females at 37 months. Size-independent growth rates were not statistically different among years (2001, 2002 and 2003 or between season (wet and dry season. Our results suggest that variation in body growth of this species is not caused exclusively by environmental variation, but rather by a complex combination of environmental and genetic factors.

  17. Variation in parental investment and relative clutch mass of the spiny-tail iguana, Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae in central México Variación en la inversión parental y masa relativa de la nidada en la iguana de cola espinosa Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae en el centro de México

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    Rubén Castro-Franco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured the length, width, volume, and weight of 871 freshly laid eggs of 28 clutches of Ctenosaura pectinata. The iguanas were obtained from a tropical dry forest area in central Mexico. The relative clutch mass was related positively to the average egg weight but not to average egg volume. Unlike what usually occurs in lizards, where the body length strongly predicts egg production, in C. pectinata clutch size and egg size were not correlated with female weight or snout-vent length. Observed differences revealed variation in the weight-size of the egg within an individual clutch. Therefore, there is not an optimization of the egg in the studied population of Ctenosaura, as usually occurs in small lizards. This variation associated with reproduction takes place in the middle of the dry season, and may be interpreted as an adaptation to facilitate the adjustment of different phenotypes in environments with extreme drought.Medimos la longitud, amplitud, volumen, y peso de 871 huevos recién puestos de 28 nidadas de Ctenosaura pectinata. Las iguanas fueron obtenidas en un área de bosque tropical seco en el centro de México. La masa relativa de la nidada estuvo relacionada positivamente con el peso promedio de los huevos pero no con el volumen promedio del huevo. A diferencia de lo que ocurre usualmente en lagartijas, donde la longitud del cuerpo determina la producción de huevos, en C. pectinata el tamaño de la puesta y el tamaño del huevo no se correlacionan con el peso y tamaño de las hembras. Las diferencias observadas revelan variación en el tamaño y peso de los huevos dentro de las puestas individuales. En consecuencia, no hay una optimización del huevo en la población estudiada de Ctenosaura, como usualmente ocurre en lagartijas de tamaño pequeño. Esta variación asociada con la reproducción tiene lugar a mitad de la estación seca, y puede ser interpretada como una adaptación para facilitar el ajuste de diferentes fenotipos en ambientes con sequía extrema.

  18. Reproducción y variación de grupos de tamaño en una población de Liolaemus koslowskyi (Squamata: liolaemini)

    OpenAIRE

    Martori, Ricardo; Aun, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    El patrón reproductivo, la tasa de crecimiento y la supervivencia son las principales características de la historia de vida de los organismos, el tamaño o edad en que un individuo adquiere su madurez sexual, el tamaño de la puesta y la fenología reproductiva inciden sobre el reclutamiento y por lo tanto sobre la estabilidad poblacional. Se seleccionaron diferentes ambientes representativos del área de estudio, unas para realizar la extracción de las muestras reproductivas y otras para la obs...

  19. Cryptic speciation within Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) (Squamata: Pareatidae), the description of a new species from Peninsular Malaysia, and the resurrection of A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jude, 1923) from Sumatra: an integrative taxonomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, Ariel I; Wood, Perry L; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Greer, Lee F; Ahmad, Norhayati; Grismer, L Lee

    2013-01-01

    A review of the taxonomic status of the Asian Slug Snake, Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) based on an integrative taxonomic approach using molecular, morphological, color pattern, and ecological data indicate it is composed of three well supported monophyletic lineages: (1) Pulau Tioman and Fraser's Hill, Pahang and Bukit Larut, Perak; Peninsular Malaysia; (2) its sister lineage from Northern Sumatra; and (3) the remaining basal lineage from Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, we consider the high sequence divergence (6.3%-10.2%) between these lineages (especially in areas of sympatry) and discrete differences in their morphology, color pattern, and microhabitat preference as evidence they are not conspecific. As such, we resurrect the name A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jeude, 1923) for the Sumatra populations, restrict the name A. vertebralis to the populations from Pulau Tioman, Genting Highlands, Fraser's Hill, Gunung Benom, and Bukit Larut that contain terrestrial, banded adults; and consider A. lasgalenensis sp. nov. to be restricted to the populations from Fraser's Hill, Cameron Highlands, and Bukit Larut that contain arboreal, unbanded adults. PMID:26266316

  20. Infestación Ectoparásitaria en la lagartija Anolis antonii (Squamata: Dactyloidae en dos Hábitat con Diferente Grado de Perturbación -resumen-

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    Cristian A Gallego-Carmona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la fragmentación del hábitat y la conversión de ambientes naturales en tierras agrícolas ha cobrado gran importancia en la parasitología de especies silvestres. Las perturbaciones en los hábitats naturales pueden influir en la distribución y/o abundancia de los ectoparásitos‚ así como en las interacciones parasito-hospedero y los patrones de infestación. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la carga ectoparasitaria de la lagartija Anolis antonii en una franja de bosque secundario y en un área cultivada (Musa sp. en el departamento del Tolima‚ Colombia. Se realizaron simultáneamente muestreos de búsqueda libre entre las 7:00 y las 18:00 horas en los dos hábitats. Los individuos fueron capturados manualmente y para cada uno se registró: el sexo‚ número y posición de los ectoparásitos‚ longitud hocico-cloaca‚ altura y diámetro de percha‚ peso y lesiones asociadas a la presencia de ectoparásitos. En los dos hábitats se hallaron individuos inmaduros pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae como parásitos de Anolis antonii. En el cultivo se presentó una prevalencia de infestación del 47‚05% (n=102 donde los machos presentaron la mayor prevalencia‚ seguidos por las hembras y los juveniles (machos=27‚ hembras=12‚ juveniles= 9. En el bosque se presentó una prevalencia de infestación del 17‚74% (n=124 donde las hembras y los juveniles presentaron la misma prevalencia‚ seguidos por los machos (hembras=9‚ juveniles=9‚ machos=4. En el cultivo‚ el 92‚59% de los machos infestados presentaron ectoparásitos en el saco gular y el 11,11% presentó lesiones asociadas a ectoparásitos en esta área. La intensidad de infestación no presentó diferencias significativas entre los hábitats. Se utilizaron análisis de regresión lineal entre el tamaño‚ peso y altura de percha de las lagartijas con respecto a la intensidad de infestación; sin embargo‚ no se presentaron relaciones significativas. Aunque no se identificaron variables determinantes en el patrón de infestación de Anolis antonii en ninguno de los hábitats‚ se reportó una alta prevalencia en los machos del área cultivada‚ así como lesiones que podrían limitar la funcionalidad del saco gular.

  1. A Paleoautoecologia de Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior &Marques, 1997 (Lepidosauria, Squamata Basal da Formação Santana, Aptiano da Bacia do Araripe Cretáceo Inferior do Nordeste do Brasil).

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Castro Bonfim-Júnior; Oscar Rocha-Barbosa

    2006-01-01

    Tijubina pontei is a basal lizard found in the Crato Member, SantanaFormation, Lower Cretaceous (Aptian), Brazil. It is considered a sister group of Huehuecuetzpalli mixtetus, the only basal lizard previously known, found in Mexico. The paleoautoecology of T. pontei is compatible with a terrestrial animal, omnivorous, which could eventually occupy other ecological niches. Based on their dentition and ecomorphology, their behaviour could be a combination of active forager or a “sit-and-wait” o...

  2. A Paleoautoecologia de Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior &Marques, 1997 (Lepidosauria, Squamata Basal da Formação Santana, Aptiano da Bacia do Araripe Cretáceo Inferior do Nordeste do Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Castro Bonfim-Júnior

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tijubina pontei is a basal lizard found in the Crato Member, SantanaFormation, Lower Cretaceous (Aptian, Brazil. It is considered a sister group of Huehuecuetzpalli mixtetus, the only basal lizard previously known, found in Mexico. The paleoautoecology of T. pontei is compatible with a terrestrial animal, omnivorous, which could eventually occupy other ecological niches. Based on their dentition and ecomorphology, their behaviour could be a combination of active forager or a “sit-and-wait” one. It could even perform bipedal locomotion. Comparing T. pontei with Liolaemus lutzae, an extantbrazilian lizard, we find many characters and morphological similarities. This suggests that the L. lutzae habits could be extrapolated to the paleoenvironment of T. pontei which, probably, lived in a sandy habitat, with a vegetation that could support variations in salinity and high temperatures.

  3. Chromosomal evolution in the Brazilian geckos of the genus Gymnodactylus (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) from the biomes of Cerrado, Caatinga and Atlantic rain forest: evidence of Robertsonian fusion events and supernumerary chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, K C M; dos Santos, R M L; Rodrigues, M T; Laguna, M M; Amaro, R C; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomes of the South American geckos Gymnodactylus amarali and G. geckoides from open and dry areas of the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes in Brazil, respectively, were studied for the first time, after conventional and AgNOR staining, CBG- and RBG-banding, and FISH with telomeric sequences. Comparative analyses between the karyotypes of open areas and the previously studied Atlantic forest species G. darwinii were also performed. The chromosomal polymorphisms detected in populations of G. amarali from the states of Goiás and Tocantins is the result of centric fusions (2n = 38, 39 and 40), suggesting a differentiation from a 2n = 40 ancestral karyotype and the presence of supernumerary chromosomes. The CBG- and RBG-banding patterns of the Bs are described. G. geckoides has 40 chromosomes with gradually decreasing sizes, but it is distinct from the 2n = 40 karyotypes of G. amarali and G. darwinii due to occurrence of pericentric inversions or centromere repositioning. NOR location seems to be a marker for Gymnodactylus, as G. amarali and G. geckoides share a medium-sized subtelocentric NOR-bearing pair, while G. darwinii has NORs at the secondary constriction of the long arm of pair 1. The comparative analyses indicate a non-random nature of the Robertsonian rearrangements in the genus Gymnodactylus. PMID:20215729

  4. Sexual differences in size and shape of the Mosor rock lizard [Dinarolacerta mosorensis (Kolombatović, 1886] (squamata: lacertidae: A case study of the Lovćen mountain population (Montenegro

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    Ljubisavljević Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual differences in size and shape of the Mosor rock lizard, Dinarolacerta mosorensis (Kolombatović, 1886, from Lovćen Mountain (Montenegro were examined on the basis of the intersex variation pattern of nine morphometric, eight pholidotic, and four qualitative traits. Sexual dimorphism was apparent for all morphometric characters except snout-vent length, while scalation and dorsal pattern exhibited small differences between sexes. The value of the sexual size difference (SSD index based on snout-vent length was 1.028. The sex-specific allometric slopes for head dimensions and interlimb distance significantly diverged. Head dimensions, especially head height, showed strong positive allometry in males, while interlimb distance was the only character which showed positive allometry in females. Generally, males had significantly greater body size than females. This was true of all body measurements except interlimb distance. The influence of sexual and natural selection on the examined traits is discussed.

  5. The phylogenetic position of Lygodactylus angularis and the utility of using the 16S rDNA gene for delimiting species in Lygodactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Castiglia; Flavia Annesi

    2011-01-01

    The African genus Lygodactylus Gray, is composed of roughly 60 species of diurnal geckos that inhabit tropical and temperate Africa, Madagascar, and South America. In this study, we assessed the phylogenetic position of L. angularis, for which molecular data were so far lacking, by means of sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene. We also compared intraspecific vs. interspecific genetic divergences using an extended data set (34 species, 153 sequences), to determine whether a fra...

  6. Partial revision of Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Grand Caribbean Region, with the description of two new species and a key to species recorded in the area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado Blas, V.H.

    2006-01-01

    Five Scolelepis species from the Gulf of Mexico and Western Atlantic Ocean are reported and certain species previously synonymized with Scolelepis (S.) squamata are revised. Four species are reinstated: S. (S.) goodbodyi (Jones, 1962), S. (S.) minuta (Treadwell, 1939), S. (S.) acuta (Treadwell, 1914

  7. I popolamenti zoobentonici litorali dei fondi mobili di un sito ad elevato impatto antropico: il golfo di Manfredonia, Italia.

    OpenAIRE

    Scirocco, Tommaso; Casolino, Giovanni; Fabbrocini, Adele; D'Adamo, Raffaele

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted on the benthic macrofauna of the Manfredonia Gulf (Adriatic sea). This site is dominated by bivalves (35%), whose dominant species was Lucunella divaricata (43%) and Corbula gibba (28%), considered as indicators of environmental instability. The most abundant species was the Ophiuroidea Amphiphopolis squamata (29.2%). Homogeneity of spatial distribution was assessed by cluster analysis.

  8. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758: registro de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de iguana verde o Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012, con talla de 43 cm y peso de 60 g.

  9. Notes on the herpetofauna of western Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagy, Z. T.; Kusamba, C.; Collet, M.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2013), s. 413-419. ISSN 2071-5773 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anura * checklist * mangroves * Mayombe * Squamata * Testudines Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.herpetologynotes.seh-herpetology.org/Volume6_PDFs/Nagy_HerpetologyNotes_volume6_pages413-419.pdf

  10. Reptiles de zonas bajas de Yacopí (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Arias Rafael Ángel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un inventario de reptiles que ocurren por debajo de 1.000 m en el municipio de Yacopí, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se registraron 47 especies (26 Sauria, 19 Serpentes, un Amphisbaenia y un Testudinata, la familia y género más ricos fueron Colubridae y Anolis. La riqueza entre Sauria y  Serpentes fue diferente a la que se encuentra en el país. La fauna se agrupó según su distribución en dos tipos:  Trasandino (al oeste de la cordillera Oriental y Amplio (tanto al este como al oeste de la misma cordillera, los Saurios fueron más numerosos en el primero y las Serpentes en el segundo. Se encontró que la mayoría de reptiles se distribuye entre 0 y 2.000 m.

  11. Mesozoic marine reptile palaeobiogeography in response to drifting plates

    OpenAIRE

    Bardet, Nathalie; Falconnet, Jocelyn; Fischer, Valentin; Houssaye, Alexandra; Jouve, Stéphane; Pereda-Superbiola, Xavier; Perez-García, Adan; Rage, Jean-Claude; Vincent, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    During the Mesozoic, various groups of reptiles underwent a spectacular return to an aquatic life, colonizing most marine environments. They were highly diversified both systematically and ecologically, and most were the largest top-predators of the marine ecosystems of their time. The main groups were Ichthyosauria, Sauropterygia, Thalattosauria, and several lineages of Testudinata, Crocodyliformes, Rhynchocephalia and Squamata. Here we show that the palaeobiogeographical distribution of the...

  12. Tikiguania and the antiquity of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Mark N.; Skinner, Adam; Lee, Michael S. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Tikiguania estesi is widely accepted to be the earliest member of Squamata, the reptile group that includes lizards and snakes. It is based on a lower jaw from the Late Triassic of India, described as a primitive lizard related to agamids and chamaeleons. However, Tikiguania is almost indistinguishable from living agamids; a combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data places it with draconines, a prominent component of the modern Asian herpetofauna. It is unlikely that ...

  13. Digestibility of agro-industrial byproducts in 200 and 300-g Nile tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula de Souza Ramos; Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga; João Sérgio Oliveira Carvalho; Sérgio José Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and gross energy (GE) of the following agro-industrial byproducts: cassava leaf (Manihot esculenta), mesquite bean (Prosopis juliflora), cotton (Gossypium species), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), soursop (Annona squamata) and African oil palm cake (Elaeis guineensis) for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish from two weight classes (200±11 and 300±32 g) were stocked...

  14. Feeding ecology of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Squamata, Tropiduridae in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil Ecologia alimentar de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Sauria, Tropiduridae em duas áreas com diferentes níveis de conservação na Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. G. de Carvalho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effects of habitat disturbance on the feeding ecology of two local populations of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 in restinga habitats on Ilha da Marambaia, Southeastern Brazil. Both populations presented a relatively diverse diet and differ in the number (D Max = 0.22, DF = 2, p = 0.00 and volume of prey consumed (D Max = 0.82, DF = 2, p = 0.00. Ants were the most frequent and numerous preys in both areas, and plant matter and coleopterans were the most important alimentary items in volume. The population from the disturbed area presented a larger niche breadth for number of prey items consumed (Bi num = 3.06 and volume (Bi vol = 2.98, when compared to the other population (Bj num = 2.44, Bj vol = 1.52. Niche overlap was higher for number of items consumed between the populations (Oij num = 0.82 but lower for volume (Oij vol = 0.05. Our data suggest dietary differences between the two lizard populations, and these differences may be associated with environmental modifications. Our main hypothesis to explain the dietary differences is based in the Optimal Foraging Theory. However, the alimentary behavior, and consequently the diet of these lizards, seems to be constrained phylogenetically, with a pattern that may have evolved in the ancestor of all iguanids.Comparamos os efeitos da degradação ambiental sobre a ecologia alimentar de duas populações de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 em áreas de restinga da Ilha da Marambaia, sudeste do Brasil. Ambas as populações apresentaram dieta relativamente diversa e deferiram em número (D Max = 0,22; DF = 2; p = 0,00 e volume de presas consumidas (D Max = 0,82; DF = 2; p = 0,00. Formigas foram os itens mais freqüentes e numerosos em ambas as áreas, e material vegetal e coleópteros os mais importantes em volume. A população da área perturbada apresentou maior largura de nicho alimentar para número de presas consumidas (Bi num = 3,06 e volume (Bi vol = 2,98, quando comparada à outra população (Bj num = 2,44; Bj vol = 1,52. A sobreposição de nicho foi mais marcante para o número de itens consumidos entre as populações (Oij num = 0,82 e menos marcante para volume (Oij vol = 0,05. Nossos dados sugerem diferenças nas dietas entre as duas populações de lagartos, e estas diferenças parecem estar associadas à degradação ambiental. Nossa principal hipótese para explicar as diferenças nas dietas embasa-se na Teoria do Forrageamento Ótimo. Entretanto, o comportamento alimentar, e conseqüentemente a dieta dos lagartos, mostrarem-se limitadas filogeneticamente, com um padrão que pode ter evoluído no ancestral de todos os iguanídeos.

  15. Novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, C. E.; Favrot, C.; Ackermann, M.; Gull, J; Vetsch, E.; Tobler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota). This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1). It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF) frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF s...

  16. Novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Gull Jessica; Ackermann Mathias; Favrot Claude; Lange Christian E; Vetsch Elisabeth; Tobler Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Papillomaviruses (PVs) are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota). This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1). It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF) frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The...

  17. Venómica. Mecanismos moleculares y evolutivos de la diversificación estructural de la familia de las disintegrinas

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez Gómez, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Serpientes y lagartos forman el orden de los reptiles escamosos (Squamata). La composición proteica de los venenos refleja el hecho de que éstos se originaron en etapas tempranas de la evolución de los reptiles escamosos, por reclutamiento y transformación por evolución acelerada de un número reducido de proteínas endogenas. Los venenos de los vipéridos poseen un arsenal de proteínas capaces de degradar la matriz extracelular e interferir en la cascada de coagulación, el sistema hemostático y...

  18. Molecular and functional approaches to understand the natural history of snake short disintegrins

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz-Soler, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El grupo Reptilia, consta de aves y reptiles no aviares. Los reptiles son uno de los grupos de organismos vivos más notables, desde el punto de vista ecológico y evolutivo, que han colonizado la mayor parte del planeta. La mayor diversidad de los reptiles no aviares (96,4%) se concentra en Squamata (lagartos y serpientes). Por otra parte, tortugas y cocodrilos representan el 3,4% y el 0,2%, respectivamente (reptile-database.org) (Uetz and Hošek 2015). En la figura 1 (p.7) se...

  19. Los reptiles del Delta del Orinoco, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, César; Señaris, josefa; Rivas, Gilson

    2004-01-01

    Como resultado de cinco años (1992-1997) de exploraciones herpetológicas, revisiones bibliográficas y examen de museos nacionales, se presenta un análisis taxonómico, ecológico y biogeográfico preliminar de los reptiles del delta del río Orinoco, Estado Delta Amacuro. Se reconocen 70 especies de reptiles agrupados en tres órdenes, 22 familias y 53 géneros. El orden Squamata es el más diverso, con dominancia de las serpientes de la familias Colubridae y Boidae, y los lagartos de las familias G...

  20. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758): registro de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Cupul Magaña, Fabio Germán; García de Quevedo-Machain, Rafael; Tovar-Ramos, Jorge Alfredo; Curiel-Beltrán, Jesús Aarón

    2014-01-01

    Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae) o iguana verde de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012), con talla (punta del hocico a punta de la cola) de 43 cm y peso de 60 g. El ejemplar fue capturado por el tercer autor durante la última semana de septiembre del 2012 sobre la rama de un árbol de guamuchilillo, Pithecellobium lanceolatum (Willd.) Benth., en las inmediaciones de la zona centro de la mancha urbana de Puerto Va...

  1. Reptiles in municipality of Duque de Caxias, Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

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    Rodrigo de Oliveira Lula Salles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Duque de Caxias municipality is located in the Fluminense lowland, Rio de Janeiro state, in the Ombrophilous Atlantic Rain Forest domain. The local herpetofauna was widely studied in the 40’s, but a general list of the species for the municipality was never made. From August 2006 to October 2009, we carried out field expeditions, searching for and collecting reptiles mainly at night time. Besides the visual active search method, we also verified records of species in scientific literature and of specimens housed in zoological collections. Altogether, 53 species of reptiles of the Orders Crododylia, Squamata and Testudines occur within the borders of Duque de Caxias municipality.

  2. Molecular evolution of HoxA13 and the multiple origins of limbless morphologies in amphibians and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singarete, Marina E.; Grizante, Mariana B.; Milograna, Sarah R.; Nery, Mariana F.; Kin, Koryu; Wagner, Günter P.; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Developmental processes and their results, morphological characters, are inherited through transmission of genes regulating development. While there is ample evidence that cis-regulatory elements tend to be modular, with sequence segments dedicated to different roles, the situation for proteins is less clear, being particularly complex for transcription factors with multiple functions. Some motifs mediating protein-protein interactions may be exclusive to particular developmental roles, but it is also possible that motifs are mostly shared among different processes. Here we focus on HoxA13, a protein essential for limb development. We asked whether the HoxA13 amino acid sequence evolved similarly in three limbless clades: Gymnophiona, Amphisbaenia and Serpentes. We explored variation in ω (dN/dS) using a maximum-likelihood framework and HoxA13sequences from 47 species. Comparisons of evolutionary models provided low ω global values and no evidence that HoxA13 experienced relaxed selection in limbless clades. Branch-site models failed to detect evidence for positive selection acting on any site along branches of Amphisbaena and Gymnophiona, while three sites were identified in Serpentes. Examination of alignments did not reveal consistent sequence differences between limbed and limbless species. We conclude that HoxA13 has no modules exclusive to limb development, which may be explained by its involvement in multiple developmental processes. PMID:26500429

  3. A gravid lizard from the Cretaceous of China and the early history of squamate viviparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Evans, Susan E.

    2011-09-01

    Although viviparity is most often associated with mammals, roughly one fifth of extant squamate reptiles give birth to live young. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the trait evolved more than 100 times within Squamata, a frequency greater than that of all other vertebrate clades combined. However, there is debate as to the antiquity of the trait and, until now, the only direct fossil evidence of squamate viviparity was in Late Cretaceous mosasauroids, specialised marine lizards without modern equivalents. Here, we document viviparity in a specimen of a more generalised lizard, Yabeinosaurus, from the Early Cretaceous of China. The gravid female contains more than 15 young at a level of skeletal development corresponding to that of late embryos of living viviparous lizards. This specimen documents the first occurrence of viviparity in a fossil reptile that was largely terrestrial in life, and extends the temporal distribution of the trait in squamates by at least 30 Ma. As Yabeinosaurus occupies a relatively basal position within crown-group squamates, it suggests that the anatomical and physiological preconditions for viviparity arose early within Squamata.

  4. Molecular characterization of thyroid hormone receptors from the leopard gecko, and their differential expression in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaho, Yoh-Ichiro; Endo, Daisuke; Park, Min Kyun

    2006-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play crucial roles in various developmental and physiological processes in vertebrates, including squamate reptiles. The effect of THs on shedding frequency is interesting in Squamata, since the effects on lizards are quite the reverse of those in snakes: injection of thyroxine increases shedding frequency in lizards, but decreases it in snakes. However, the mechanism underlying this differential effect remains unclear. To facilitate the investigation of the molecular mechanism of the physiological functions of THs in Squamata, their two specific receptor (TRalpha and beta) cDNAs, which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, were cloned from a lizard, the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. This is the first molecular cloning of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) from reptiles. The deduced amino acid sequences showed high identity with those of other species, especially in the C and E/F domains, which are characteristic domains in nuclear hormone receptors. Expression analysis revealed that TRs were widely expressed in many tissues and organs, as in other animals. To analyze their role in the skin, temporal expression analysis was performed by RT-PCR, revealing that the two TRs had opposing expression patterns: TRalpha was expressed more strongly after than before skin shedding, whereas TRbeta was expressed more strongly before than after skin shedding. This provides good evidence that THs play important roles in the skin, and that the roles of their two receptor isoforms are distinct from each other. PMID:16849843

  5. A new hypothesis of squamate evolutionary relationships from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Ted M.; Larson, Allan; Louis, Edward; Macey, J. Robert

    2004-05-19

    Squamate reptiles serve as model systems for evolutionary studies of a variety of morphological and behavioral traits, and phylogeny is crucial to many generalizations derived from such studies. Specifically, the traditional dichotomy between Iguania and Scleroglossa has been correlated with major evolutionary shifts within Squamata. We present a molecular phylogenetic study of squamates using DNA sequence data from the nuclear genes RAG-1 and c-mos and the mitochondrial ND2 region, sampling all major clades and most major subclades. Monophyly of Iguania, Anguimorpha, and almost all currently recognized squamate families is strongly supported. However, monophyly is rejected for Scleroglossa, Varanoidea, and several other higher taxa, and Iguania is highly nested within Squamata. Limblessness evolved independently in snakes, dibamids, and amphisbaenians, suggesting widespread morphological convergence or parallelism in limbless, burrowing forms. Amphisbaenians are the sister group of lacertids, and snakes are grouped with iguanians and anguimorphs. Dibamids diverged early in squamate evolutionary history. Xantusiidae is the sister taxon of Cordylidae. Studies of functional tongue morphology and feeding mode have found significant differences between Scleroglossa and Iguania, and our finding of a nonmonophyletic Scleroglossa and a highly nested Iguania suggest that similar states evolved separately in Sphenodon and Iguania, and that jaw prehension is the ancestral feeding mode in squamates.

  6. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  7. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Silva, W; Oliveira, R M; Gonzaga, A F N; Pinto, K C; Poli, F C; Bilce, T M; Penhacek, M; Wronski, L; Martins, J X; Junqueira, T G; Cesca, L C C; Guimarães, V Y; Pinheiro, R D

    2015-08-01

    The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity. PMID:26691094

  8. Distribuição altitudinal e simpatria das aves do gênero Drymophila Swainson (Passeriformes, Thamnophilidae na Mata Atlântica Elevational distribution and sympatry of birds of the genus Drymophila Swainson (Passeriformes, Thamnophilidae in the Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Rajão

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram descritas e analisadas as distribuições altitudinais das seis espécies de Drymophila Swainson, 1824, endêmicas da Mata Atlântica e identificados e discutidos os casos de simpatria. Para isso, foram usados dois conjuntos de dados, um em escala local (a Serra dos Órgãos, um segmento da Serra do Mar no Estado do Rio de Janeiro e outro em escala regional (Mata Atlântica. Os registros e as altitudes na Serra dos Órgãos foram obtidos diretamente no campo enquanto que os dados da Mata Atlântica foram obtidos principalmente a partir de exemplares depositados em museus de história natural. Os dois conjuntos de dados mostraram um padrão similar de distribuição altitudinal das espécies: D. squamata (Lichtenstein, 1823 e D. ferruginea (Temminck, 1822 nas menores altitudes, D. malura (Temminck, 1825, D. ochropyga (Hellmayr, 1906 e D. rubricollis (Bertoni, 1901 com limites altitudinais semelhantes entre si e intermediários em relação às demais espécies e D. genei (Filippi, 1847, restrita às maiores altitudes. A maior parte das localidades na Mata Atlântica e pontos de observação na Serra dos Órgãos apresenta apenas uma ou duas espécies. Isso sugere que, embora possam ocorrer nas mesmas áreas ou localidades, as espécies tendem a se excluir. Drymophila squamata e D. malura foram as espécies que menos vezes ocorreram em simpatria proporcionalmente, nas duas escalas de análise. A simpatria entre as espécies irmãs D. ochropyga-D. genei e D. ferruginea-D. rubricollis ocorreu em localidades nas Serras do Mar e da Mantiqueira, sempre em faixas altitudinais estreitas, nunca superiores a 300 m de intervalo.The elevational distribution of Atlantic forest Drymophila Swainson, 1824 was analyzed and sympatry cases were identified and discussed. Two data sets were used, one with local scale data (a portion of Serra do Mar called Serra dos Órgãos, in Rio de Janeiro state and other with regional scale data (Atlantic forest. The Serra

  9. Development and Characterization of Nine Microsatellites for an Endangered Tree, Pinus wangii (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Dou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Pinus wangii is an endemic and endangered species in southwestern China, and microsatellite primers were developed to characterize its genetic diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences Containing repeats (FIASCO protocol, nine sets of microsatellite primers were developed in P. wangii. One population with 26 individuals of P. wangii, as well as 11 individuals each for two congeneric species, P. taiwanensis and P. squamata, were used to test their polymorphism and transferability. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to seven with an average of 3.7, and the observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.91 and 0 to 0.75, respectively. Conclusions: We developed nine sets of polymorphic microsatellite loci that are suitable for investigating genetic diversity and population structure of P. wangii, and these markers may be useful for other Pinus species.

  10. Biochemical Characterization, Action on Macrophages, and Superoxide Anion Production of Four Basic Phospholipases A2 from Panamanian Bothrops asper Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Quintero Rueda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae is the most important venomous snake in Central America, being responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents. Four basic PLA2s (pMTX-I to -IV were purified from crude venom by a single-step chromatography using a CM-Sepharose ion-exchange column (1.5 × 15 cm. Analysis of the N-terminal sequence demonstrated that pMTX-I and III belong to the catalytically active Asp49 phospholipase A2 subclass, whereas pMTX-II and IV belong to the enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2s-like subclass. The PLA2s isolated from Panama Bothrops asper venom (pMTX-I, II, III, and IV are able to induce myotoxic activity, inflammatory reaction mainly leukocyte migration to the muscle, and induce J774A.1 macrophages activation to start phagocytic activity and superoxide production.

  11. Histology of the Skin of Three Limbless Squamates Dwelling in Mesic and Arid Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed A; Daza, Juan D; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha E

    2016-07-01

    The skin of limbless squamates has an increased contact with the substrate compared with limbed counterparts. Comparatively, the contact with the substrate is intensified in fossorial species, where the whole circumference of the body interacts with the soil during underground locomotion. Although fossoriality in Squamata, specifically lizards and snakes, has been studied ecologically and morphologically (e.g., osteological changes), not enough detail is yet available regarding changes in organs critical for underground lifestyle such as the skin. Here we used histological and microscopical techniques (scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) to uncover the structural detail of the epidermis and dermis in three limbless reptiles, the amphisbaenian Diplometopon zarudnyi, and two snakes, Indotyphlops braminus (Typhlopidae) and Cerastes cerastes (Viperidae). The skin of these taxa shows pronounced morphological diversity, which is likely associated to different environmental and functional demands upon these reptiles. Anat Rec, 299:979-989, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27111253

  12. Tribological Analysis of Ventral Scale Structure in a Python Regius in Relation to Laser Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-aal, Hisham A

    2013-01-01

    Laser Texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a Laser Textured Surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to...

  13. The Origin, Early History and Diversification of Lepidosauromorph Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Susan E.; Jones, Marc E. H.

    The reptilian group Lepidosauria diversified through the Mesozoic, survived the end-Cretaceous extinction relatively unscathed, and has more than 7,000 living species. Although originally constituted as a "waste-bin" for non-archosaurian diapsids, modern definitions limit Lepidosauria to its two constituent groups, Rhynchocephalia and Squamata, and their most recent common ancestor. To date, the earliest known lepidosaurs are from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Europe and India, but their derived morphology provides indirect evidence of a longer, unrecorded, history. Rhynchocephalians and squamates probably diverged in the Early-Middle Triassic, and new material from the Early Triassic of Poland sheds some light on their common ancestor. The roots of Lepidosauria may extend into the Palaeozoic, but there are critical gaps in the fossil record.

  14. New data on Pleistocene and Holocene herpetofauna of Marie Galante (Blanchard Cave, Guadeloupe Islands, French West Indies): Insular faunal turnover and human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailon, S.; Bochaton, C.; Lenoble, A.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents the herpetofaunal remains collected from Blanchard Cave (Marie-Galante, Guadeloupe Archipelago). This site has yielded the oldest stratigraphic layers (around 40,000 BP) of the island, along with data concerning the herpetofaunal biodiversity of the island from the Late Pleistocene to pre-Columbian and modern times. The study of these fossil remains reveals the presence of at least 11 amphibian and squamata taxa (Eleutherodactylus cf. martinicensis, Iguana sp., Anolis ferreus, Leiocephalus cf. cuneus, Thecadactylus cf. rapicauda, cf. Capitellum mariagalantae, Ameiva sp., cf. Antillotyphlops, Boa sp., Alsophis sp. and Colubridae sp. 2) during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene on Marie-Galante Island and provides new evidence concerning extinction times and the introduced or native status of taxa. This study also reveals that this bone assemblage is the result of diverse accumulation processes and provides new morphological data on the past herpetofauna of Marie-Galante.

  15. First description of the nymph and larva of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae), parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent reexamination of collection lots stored in the United States National Tick Collection revealed adult specimens of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae) reared from field-collected nymphs, which allowed us to associate field-collected unidentified nymphs and larvae with this species. Nymphs of D. compactus can be easily distinguished from those of other congeneric species by the shape of the scutum and spiracular plate, the hypostome dentition, and the size of the spurs on the coxae. Larvae of this species can be distinguished by the shape and sculpture of the scutum, the shape of basis capituli, the absence of auriculae, and the size of the spurs on coxae II and III. Both nymphs and larvae feed mostly on various species of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae). Considerably fewer nymphs and larvae were found on murid rodents (Rodentia: Muridae), domestic dogs (Carnivora: Canidae), and a snake (Squamata: Colubridae). PMID:27095664

  16. Novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Jessica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Papillomaviruses (PVs are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota. This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1. It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF sequence showed the highest percentage of sequence identities to human PV5 (57.9% and Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus PV1 (55.4%, thus, establishing a new clade. According to phylogenetic analysis, the MsPV1 genome clusters with PVs of mammalian rather than sauropsid hosts.

  17. Novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian E; Favrot, Claude; Ackermann, Mathias; Gull, Jessica; Vetsch, Elisabeth; Tobler, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota). This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1). It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF) frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF sequence showed the highest percentage of sequence identities to human PV5 (57.9%) and Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus) PV1 (55.4%), thus, establishing a new clade. According to phylogenetic analysis, the MsPV1 genome clusters with PVs of mammalian rather than sauropsid hosts. PMID:21910860

  18. Biochemical characterization, action on macrophages, and superoxide anion production of four basic phospholipases A2 from Panamanian Bothrops asper snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Aristides Quintero; Rodríguez, Isela González; Arantes, Eliane C; Setúbal, Sulamita S; Calderon, Leonardo de A; Zuliani, Juliana P; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2013-01-01

    Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) is the most important venomous snake in Central America, being responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents. Four basic PLA2s (pMTX-I to -IV) were purified from crude venom by a single-step chromatography using a CM-Sepharose ion-exchange column (1.5 × 15 cm). Analysis of the N-terminal sequence demonstrated that pMTX-I and III belong to the catalytically active Asp49 phospholipase A2 subclass, whereas pMTX-II and IV belong to the enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2s-like subclass. The PLA2s isolated from Panama Bothrops asper venom (pMTX-I, II, III, and IV) are able to induce myotoxic activity, inflammatory reaction mainly leukocyte migration to the muscle, and induce J774A.1 macrophages activation to start phagocytic activity and superoxide production. PMID:23509779

  19. 赣南脐橙园蜘蛛优势种群发生动态及相关气象因子分析%Population Dynamics of Dominant Spider Species in Gannan Navel Orange Orchards and Affecting Meteorological Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗育发; 钟八莲

    2012-01-01

    13 families and 38 species of spiders were found in Gannan navel orange orchards. The dominant species in tree canopies were Hylyphantes graminicola, Clubiona deletrix and Tetrag-natha squamata. Two main peaks of H. Graminicola population appeared from May to June, and from September to October. C. deletrix population was peaked from July to October, and significantly reduced from February to March. The peak of T. Squamata population was observed in April and December whereas the smallest population was observed from June to September. Hylyphantes graminicola and Pirata subpiraticus were the dominant spider species on the ground of the orchards. The main peaks of H. Graminicola population appeared in June and October. The population of P. subpiraticus peaked in March and bottomed in December. There was a significant positive correlation between the seasonal changes in the populations of H. graminicola and C. deletrix in navel orange canopies and the average temperatures and sunshine hours. In contrast, a significant negative correlation was found between the seasonal changes in the population of T. squamata and the average temperatures. There were very significant positive correlations between the seasonal variations in the population of P. subpiraticus on the ground of navel orange orchards and the relative humidity and precipitation.%在江西省赣州市章贡区蟠龙镇一个集中连片面积达32 hm2且管理粗放的11年生“纽荷尔”脐橙园调查发现,脐橙园蜘蛛分属13科38种.脐橙园树冠层蜘蛛优势种有3种:草间钻头蛛Hylyphantes graminicola 全年以5-6月及9-10月的发生数量最大;斑管巢蛛Clubiona deletrix 在7-9月发生量较大,2-3月的数量明显减少;鳞纹蟏蛸Tetragnatha squamata在4月和11-12月的种群数量较多,6-9月较少见到.脐橙园地面层蜘蛛优势种有2种:草间钻头蛛的季节消长同样具有两个高峰期,但时间跨度较短,仅在6月和10

  20. Role of macrofauna on benthic oxygen consumption in sandy sediments of a high-energy tidal beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Céline; Lavesque, Nicolas; Anschutz, Pierre; Bachelet, Guy; Lecroart, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Sandy beaches exposed to tide and waves are characterized by low abundance and diversity of benthic macrofauna, because of high-energy conditions. This is the reason why there are few studies on benthic communities living in such highly dynamic environments. It has been shown recently that tidal sandy beaches may act as biogeochemical reactors. Marine organic matter that is supplied in the sand during each flood tide is efficiently mineralized through aerobic respiration. In order to quantify the role of macrofauna in the whole beach benthic respiration, we studied the macrofauna and the pore water oxygen content of an exposed sandy beach (Truc Vert, SW of France) during four seasons in 2011. The results showed that macrofauna was characterised by a low number of species of specialized organisms such as the crustaceans Eurydice naylori and Gastrosaccus spp. and the polychaetes Ophelia bicornis and Scolelepis squamata. The distribution and abundance of macrofauna were clearly affected by exposure degree and emersion time. The combined monitoring of benthic macrofauna and pore waters chemistry allowed us to estimate (1) the macrofauna oxygen uptake, calculated with a standard allometric relationship using biomass data, and (2) the total benthic oxygen uptake, calculated from the oxygen deficit measured in pore waters. This revealed that benthic macrofauna respiration represented a variable but low (consumption. This suggests that oxygen was mainly consumed by microbial respiration.

  1. New host records for Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) from Grussaí restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lúcio André; Winck, Gisele Regina; Almeida-Santos, Marlon; Telles, Felipe Bottona da Silva; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Amblyomma rotundatum Koch is a parthenogenetic tick usually associated with reptiles and amphibians. However, relatively few studies on occurrences of ticks in wild reptile populations in Brazil have been produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of ticks associated with reptile species in the Grussaí restinga, in the municipality of São João da Barra, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between December 2010 and January 2011, 131 individuals belonging to nine species of reptiles of the order Squamata were sampled: the lizards Tropidurus torquatus (n = 51), Hemidactylus mabouia (n = 25), Mabuya agilis (n = 30), Mabuya macrorhyncha (n = 6), Cnemidophorus littoralis (n = 5) and Ameiva ameiva (n = 10); and the snakes Philodryas olfersii (n = 2), Oxyrhopus rhombifer (n = 1) and Micrurus corallinus (n = 1). The only tick species found to be associated with any of the reptiles sampled was A. rotundatum. One adult female was detected on one individual of the lizard A. ameiva, one nymph on one individual of the lizard T. torquatus and four nymphs on one individual of the snake P. olfersii. This study is the first record of parasitism of A. rotundatum involving the reptiles T. torquatus and P. olfersii as hosts. Our results suggest that in the Grussaí restinga habitat, A. rotundatum may use different species of reptiles to complete its life cycle. PMID:23070450

  2. cDNA-derived amino-acid sequence of a land turtle (Geochelone carbonaria) beta-chain hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, S; Meza, A N; Saad, S T; Ogo, S H; Costa, F F

    1997-06-01

    The cDNA sequence encoding the turtle Geochelone carbonaria beta-chain was determinated. The isolation of hemoglobin mRNA was based on degenerate primers' PCR in combination with 5'- and 3'-RACE protocol. The full length cDNA is 615 bp with the ATG start codon at position 53 and TGA stop codon at position 495; The AATAAA polyadenylation signal is found at position 599. The deduced polypeptyde contains 146 amino-acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence shares 83% identity with the beta-globin of a related specie, the aquatic turtle C. p. belli. Otherwise, identity is higher when compared with chicken beta-Hb (80%) than with other reptilian orders (Squamata, 69%, and Crocodilia, 61%). Compared with human HbA, there is 67% identity, and at least three amino acid substitutions could be of some functional significance (Glu43 beta-->Ser, His116 beta-->Thr and His143 beta-->Leu). To our knowledge this represents the first cDNA sequence of a reptile globin gene described. PMID:9238523

  3. Persistent effect of incubation temperature on stress-induced behavior in the Yucatan banded gecko (Coleonyx elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnik, Marian; Albrechtová, Jana; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2011-02-01

    Although variability in behavioral traits within animal populations is well documented, the mechanisms maintaining that variability are still insufficiently known. In this study, we examined whether differences in thermal environment during egg incubation can permanently organize nonsocial behavior across different contexts and situations in a lizard species. We incubated eggs of the Yucatan banded gecko, Coleonyx elegans (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae) at 3 constant temperatures (26, 28, and 30 °C) and raised juveniles separately under the same conditions until adulthood. We then subjected them to 3 behavioral tests within 2 different contexts: an open-field test and a test of antipredator behavior (stressful context) as well as a test of feeding behavior (nonstressful context). Individuals of both sexes incubated at 30 °C were consistently less active and showed lower frequencies of several stereotypic behaviors in the stressful contexts than did individuals incubated at 26 and 28 °C. The test of feeding behavior revealed no significant effect of incubation temperature on geckos' behavior. Thus, our study demonstrates that developmental plasticity may play an important role in producing variability in stress-induced behavior in lizards. PMID:21244135

  4. Tribological analysis of the ventral scale structure in a Python regius in relation to laser textured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the Python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a laser textured surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to efficient function of a rubbing deterministic surface, are already optimized in the reptile. We further show that optimization in reptilian surfaces is based on synchronizing surface form, textures and aspects to condition the frictional response. Mimicking reptilian surfaces, we argue, may form a design methodology potentially capable of generating advanced deterministic surface constructs capable of efficient tribological function. (paper)

  5. Characterization of pituitary growth hormone and its receptor in the green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Carranza, Martha; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) has been studied in most vertebrate groups; however, only a few studies have been carried out in reptiles. Little is known about pituitary hormones in the order Squamata, to which the green iguana (gi) belongs. In this work, we characterized the hypophysis of Iguana iguana morphologically. The somatotrophs (round cells of 7.6-10 μm containing 250- to 300-nm secretory granules where the giGH is stored) were found, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, exclusively in the caudal lobe of the pars distalis, whereas the lactotrophs were distributed only in the rostral lobe. A pituitary giGH-like protein was obtained by immuno-affinity chromatography employing a heterologous antibody against chicken GH. giGH showed molecular heterogeneity (22, 44, and 88 kDa by SDS-PAGE/Western blot under non-reducing conditions and at least four charge variants (pIs 6.2, 6.5, 6.9, 7.4) by isoelectric focusing. The pituitary giGH cDNA (1016 bp), amplified by PCR and RACE, encodes a pre-hormone of 218 aa, of which 190 aa correspond to the mature protein and 28 aa to the signal peptide. The giGH receptor cDNA was also partially sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the amino acid sequences of giGH and giGHR homologs in vertebrates suggest a parallel evolution and functional relationship between the GH and its receptor. PMID:24769041

  6. Análises morfométricas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis (Annelida: Spionidae no litoral do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Características morfológicas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis De Blainville, 1828 foram analisadas utilizando-se análise morfométrica com o ojetivo foi avaliar se essas espécies podem ser discriminadas através da utilização de dados morfométricos. Além disso, foram fornecidos novos caracteres que possam ser utilizados para uma reavaliação da taxonomia do gênero. A análise baseada nas variáveis canônicas revelou que S. chilensis, S. goodbodyi e S. squamata são mais similares entre si, quanto a forma, do que com S. acuta. Os caracteres mais significativos para a discriminação das quatro espécies foram o comprimento da brânquia, o comprimento da base do palpo até o vigésimo setígero, o comprimento e a largura do prostômio e a largura e o comprimento do setígero 5 e 20. Destes, destacam-se o formato das brânquias e do prostômio, pois vem sendo utilizados como caracteres diagnósticos em estudos taxonômicos do gênero.

  7. Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae. PMID:26067293

  8. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  9. Transfer of metals from crude oil impacted soils to some native wetland species, the Niger-delta, Nigeria: Implications for phytoremediation potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunkunle Clement O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wetland species growing naturally in the surrounding of two crude oil facilities were sampled and screened for their phytoremediation potentials for zinc, lead, nickel, chromium and cadmium in soil. Concentrations of metals in the root and shoot samples of the wetland species alongside the rhizosphere soil were determined. Metal accumulation in wetland species exceeded the permissible limits, but it was still within phytotoxic thresholds except for chromium. The use of a bioconcentration factor and a transfer factor to screen the wetland species for phytoremediation potentials identified six out of the eight studied species as multi-elemental phytostabilizers of metals in soil. In addition, five of the eight wetland species displayed potentials for phytoextraction of metal, though there was no multi-elemental phytoextractor among the wetland species. Paspalum vaginatum, Andropogon tectorum and Kyllinga squamata portend potential abilities to phytoextract nickel. In addition, Setaria longiseta and Pteridium aquilinum also showed strong potential to phytoextract lead and cadmium respectively from soil. This screening assessment is hoped to be useful in the applications of a cost-effective green technology to remediate heavy metals in contaminated soil.

  10. Review of the effusus group of the Lanternfly genus Pyrops Spinola, 1839, with one new species and notes on trophobiosis (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Constant

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The species group effusus of the genus Pyrops Spinola, 1839 is reviewed and the nomenclatural history of the genus Pyrops is briefly summarized. One new species from eastern Borneo, Pyrops synavei sp. nov., is described. P. gunjii (Satô & Nagai, 1994 stat. nov. is proposed as a valid species instead of a subspecies of P. whiteheadi (Distant, 1889. P. maquilinganus (Baker, 1925 is removed from the effusus group and placed back into the candelaria group. P. cyanirostris (Guérin-Méneville, 1845 is removed from the group and not attributed to any of the currently defined species groups. An illustrated key to the species of the group with the addition of P. intricatus (Walker, 1857 and a distribution map are given. The effusus group is restricted to Borneo and adjacent Laut Island and presently contains 4 species: P. effusus (Distant, 1891, P. gunjii (Satô & Nagai, 1994 stat.nov., P. synavei sp. nov. and P. whiteheadi (Distant, 1889. Trophobiosis observations with the gecko Gehyra mutilata (Wiegmann, 1835 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae and two species of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea, one Dorylaea sp. and an unidentified species of Pseudophyllodromiinae, are reported and illustrated for P. whiteheadi; observation with a cockroach, Dorylaea sp., is reported for P. intricatus.

  11. New host records for Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae from Grussaí restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Novos registros de hospedeiros para Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae da restinga de Grussaí, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio André Viana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma rotundatum Koch is a parthenogenetic tick usually associated with reptiles and amphibians. However, relatively few studies on occurrences of ticks in wild reptile populations in Brazil have been produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of ticks associated with reptile species in the Grussaí restinga, in the municipality of São João da Barra, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between December 2010 and January 2011, 131 individuals belonging to nine species of reptiles of the order Squamata were sampled: the lizards Tropidurus torquatus (n = 51, Hemidactylus mabouia (n = 25, Mabuya agilis (n = 30, Mabuya macrorhyncha (n = 6, Cnemidophorus littoralis (n = 5 and Ameiva ameiva (n = 10; and the snakes Philodryas olfersii (n = 2, Oxyrhopus rhombifer (n = 1 and Micrurus corallinus (n = 1. The only tick species found to be associated with any of the reptiles sampled was A. rotundatum. One adult female was detected on one individual of the lizard A. ameiva, one nymph on one individual of the lizard T. torquatus and four nymphs on one individual of the snake P. olfersii. This study is the first record of parasitism of A. rotundatum involving the reptiles T. torquatus and P. olfersii as hosts. Our results suggest that in the Grussaí restinga habitat, A. rotundatum may use different species of reptiles to complete its life cycle.Amblyomma rotundatum Koch é um carrapato partenogenético geralmente associado a répteis e anfíbios. Entretanto existem relativamente poucos estudos sobre a ocorrência de carrapatos em populações silvestres de répteis no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a presença de carrapatos associados às espécies de répteis em uma comunidade na restinga de Grussaí, município de São João da Barra, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Foram amostradas, entre os meses de dezembro de 2010 e janeiro de 2011, 131 indivíduos pertencentes a nove espécies de répteis da ordem Squamata: lagartos

  12. 基于matK基因的松属白皮松组分子系统发育分析%Molecular Phylogeny of Section Parrya of Pinus (Pinaceae) Based on Chloroplast matK Gene Sequence Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇; 李德铢

    2004-01-01

    基于matK基因对松属(Pinus L.)白皮松组(sect.Parrya Myre)进行了分子系统发育分析.白皮松组为一个并系类群,因为白松组的成员与该组(包括越南的扁叶松(P.krempfii Lecomte))的亚洲成员形成一个强烈支持的分支(靴带值92%).在这个分支中,白松组的3个代表种形成一个稳定的单系,而白皮松组的亚洲成员之间系统发育关系不明确.扁叶松和西藏白皮松(P. gerardiana Wall.ex D.Don)聚在一起,但只有61%的支持率.虽然在以前4个cpDNA基因序列分析时五针白皮松(P.squamata X.W.Li)与白皮松(P.bungeana Zucc.ex Loud.)和西藏白皮松形成一个单系,但在本文的分析中三者的关系不明确.在邻接树和多数一致简约树上,北美的白皮松组成员形成一个支持率低的分支.北美的subsect.Balfourianae Engelm.亚组(包括P.aristata Engelm.)是一个单系,但支持率较低.美洲另外两个亚组subsect.Cembroides Englem.和subsect.Rzedowskianae Carv.的组间和组内关系不确定,它们在严格一致简约树上形成一个多歧分支.%The molecular phylogenetics of sect. Parrya Myre of Pinus L. was analyzed based on chloroplast matKgene sequence data. The section was resolved as paraphyletic because members of the sect. Strobus were nested within a clade composed by the Asian members of the sectio n, including the Vietnamese P. krempfii Lecomte, which was strongly supported with a bootstrap value of 92%. In this topology, the three sampled species of sect. Strobus formed a strongly supported monophyletic group,while their relationships of Asian species of sect. Parrya were not clear. P. krempfii was grouped with P.gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don with low bootstrap support. The relationships among the Asian members of the sect. Parrya, i.e.P. bungeana Zucc. ex Loud., P. gerardiana and the recently described endangered pine, P.squamata X. W. Li, was not resolved, although the monophyly of the three pines was strongly supported in the

  13. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph D.; Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes. ??2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Molecular characterization of the leopard gecko POMC gene and expressional change in the testis by acclimation to low temperature and with a short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Park, Min Kyun

    2004-08-01

    The gene for proopiomelanocortin (POMC), a common precursor of malanotropins, corticotropin, and beta-endorphin, was isolated and analyzed in the squamata species, the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. Leopard gecko POMC (lgPOMC) cDNA is composed of 1299bp, excluding the poly(A) tail, and encodes 270 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the same structural organization as that of other species and displayed identity with those of other vertebrates: 68% with mud turtles, 57/57% with African clawed frog A/B, 53% with chickens, and 45% with mice. In a phylogenic tree, the lgPOMC clustered with the sequences of the mud turtle POMC and python POMC. The lgPOMC gene comprises three exons and two introns and this structure is consistent with humans, rats, mice, African clawed frog and zebrafish. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the lgPOMC mRNA was expressed only in the whole brain, pituitary, and gonads. To analyze in more detail, a competitive assay system to quantify the expression levels of POMC mRNA was established. We measured the POMC mRNA expression levels in the leopard gecko testes following transfer from a condition of 29 degrees C, 16L/8D to 18 degrees C, 10L/14D over 6 weeks. This 6-week acclimation increased the POMC mRNA expression levels significantly. This suggests that the leopard gecko POMC-derived peptides play a role in the mediation of the effect of environmental factors on reproduction. PMID:15242753

  15. Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus Mitochondrial Population Genomics Reveals Structure, Divergence, and Evidence for Heteroplasmy.

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    Yvette A Halley

    (Callipepla squamata as being explanatory factors for the two bobwhite maternal lineages observed. Instead, our analyses support the supposition that two diverged maternal lineages have survived from pre-expansion to post-expansion population(s, with the segregation of some slightly deleterious nonsynonymous mutations.

  16. XROMM analysis of rib kinematics during lung ventilation in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Moritz, Sabine; Ritter, Dale A

    2016-02-01

    The three-dimensional rotations of ribs during breathing are typically described as bucket-handle rotation about a dorsoventrally oriented axis, pump-handle rotation about a mediolateral axis, and caliper rotation about a rostrocaudal axis. In amniotes with double-headed ribs, rib motion is constrained primarily to one degree-of-freedom (DOF) rotation about an axis connecting the two rib articulations. However, in Squamata, the ribs are single headed and the hemispherical costovertebral joints permit rotations with three DOF. In this study, we used X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM ) to quantify rib rotation during deep breathing in four green iguanas. We found that rib rotation was strongly dominated by bucket-handle rotation, thus exhibiting nearly hinge-like motion, despite the potential for more complex motions. The vertebral and sternal segments of each rib did not deform measurably during breathing, but they did move relative to each other at a thin, cartilaginous intracostal joint. While standing still and breathing deeply, four individual iguanas showed variability in their rib postures, with two breathing around a highly inflated posture, and two breathing around a posture with the ribs folded halfway back. Bucket-handle rotations showed clear rostrocaudal gradients, with rotation increasing from the third cervical to the first or second dorsal rib, and then decreasing again caudally, a pattern that is consistent with the intercostal muscles in the rostral intercostal spaces being the primary drivers of inspiration. The constrained, primarily bucket-handle rotations observed here during breathing do not help to explain the evolution of permissive, hemispherical costovertebral joints in squamates from the more constrained, double-headed rib articulations of other amniotes. PMID:26596531

  17. Chromosome size-correlated and chromosome size-uncorrelated homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences in New World quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Tsuruta, Yuri; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Atsushi; Nishida, Chizuko; Griffin, Darren K; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Ono, Tamao; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-04-01

    Many families of centromeric repetitive DNA sequences isolated from Struthioniformes, Galliformes, Falconiformes, and Passeriformes are localized primarily to microchromosomes. However, it is unclear whether chromosome size-correlated homogenization is a common characteristic of centromeric repetitive sequences in Aves. New World and Old World quails have the typical avian karyotype comprising chromosomes of two distinct sizes, and C-positive heterochromatin is distributed in centromeric regions of most autosomes and the whole W chromosome. We isolated six types of centromeric repetitive sequences from three New World quail species (Colinus virginianus, CVI; Callipepla californica, CCA; and Callipepla squamata, CSQ; Odontophoridae) and one Old World quail species (Alectoris chukar, ACH; Phasianidae), and characterized the sequences by nucleotide sequencing, chromosome in situ hybridization, and filter hybridization. The 385-bp CVI-MspI, 591-bp CCA-BamHI, 582-bp CSQ-BamHI, and 366-bp ACH-Sau3AI fragments exhibited tandem arrays of the monomer unit, and the 224-bp CVI-HaeIII and 135-bp CCA-HaeIII fragments were composed of minisatellite-like and microsatellite-like repeats, respectively. ACH-Sau3AI was a homolog of the chicken nuclear membrane repeat sequence, whose homologs are common in Phasianidae. CVI-MspI, CCA-BamHI, and CSQ-BamHI showed high homology and were specific to the Odontophoridae. CVI-MspI was localized to microchromosomes, whereas CVI-HaeIII, CCA-BamHI, and CSQ-BamHI were mapped to almost all chromosomes. CCA-HaeIII was localized to five pairs of macrochromosomes and most microchromosomes. ACH-Sau3AI was distributed in three pairs of macrochromosomes and all microchromosomes. Centromeric repetitive sequences may be homogenized in chromosome size-correlated and -uncorrelated manners in New World quails, although there may be a mechanism that causes homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences primarily between microchromosomes, which is commonly

  18. Response of benthic macrofauna to an oil pollution: Lessons from the “Prestige” oil spill on the rocky shore of Guéthary (south of the Bay of Biscay, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castège, Iker; Milon, Emilie; Pautrizel, Françoise

    2014-08-01

    The benthic community on the rocky foreshore of Guéthary (France) has been monitored since 2002. The standardized and quantitative monitoring method counts 20 geographically referenced quadrats spread on three littoral zones: upper mediolittoral, lower mediolittoral and infralittoral zones. The setting up of this monitoring occurred when the “Prestige” sunk close to the Finistere Cape in Galicia (Spain). The oil slick following the shipwreck impacted the Guéthary foreshore in early 2003. After the “Prestige” oil spill, the taxonomic richness decreased in the studied area with a loss of 16 species - from 57 in 2002 (before the shipwreck) to 41 species in 2004. Two or 3 years later, taxonomic richness increased to a level observed prior to the oil spill. Along the years, temporal variations in community structure of benthic macrofauna are revealed by detailed analysis. Some polluo-sensitive species disappeared after 2002 and have not reappeared yet (e.g.: Hymeniacidon perlevis). Some others reappeared two or three years after the spill or even later (e.g.: Amphipholis squamata, Botryllus schlosseri, Calliostoma zizyphinum, Echinus esculentus, etc.). Noteworthy changes were found in 2004 driven by the sudden increase in abundance of grazers. The following years, these abundances went back to a stable level. The benthic community seemed to recover almost 5 years later, although a new composition of macrofauna populations was observed. In overall aspect, the complexity of the benthic ecosystem response to oil spills confirms the need of regularly updated baselines to assess the impact of pollutions and more generally to maintain marine biodiversity.

  19. Inference of the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes from comparative gene mapping.

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    Yoshinobu Uno

    Full Text Available Comparative genome analysis of non-avian reptiles and amphibians provides important clues about the process of genome evolution in tetrapods. However, there is still only limited information available on the genome structures of these organisms. Consequently, the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes in tetrapods remain poorly understood. We constructed chromosome maps of functional genes for the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis, the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis, and the Western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis and compared them with genome and/or chromosome maps of other tetrapod species (salamander, lizard, snake, chicken, and human. This is the first report on the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes inferred from comparative genomic analysis of vertebrates, which cover all major non-avian reptilian taxa (Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines. The eight largest macrochromosomes of the turtle and chicken were equivalent, and 11 linkage groups had also remained intact in the crocodile. Linkage groups of the chicken macrochromosomes were also highly conserved in X. tropicalis, two squamates, and the salamander, but not in human. Chicken microchromosomal linkages were conserved in the squamates, which have fewer microchromosomes than chicken, and also in Xenopus and the salamander, which both lack microchromosomes; in the latter, the chicken microchromosomal segments have been integrated into macrochromosomes. Our present findings open up the possibility that the ancestral amniotes and tetrapods had at least 10 large genetic linkage groups and many microchromosomes, which corresponded to the chicken macro- and microchromosomes, respectively. The turtle and chicken might retain the microchromosomes of the amniote protokaryotype almost intact. The decrease in number and/or disappearance of microchromosomes by repeated

  20. Digestibility of agro-industrial byproducts in 200 and 300-g Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Souza Ramos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and gross energy (GE of the following agro-industrial byproducts: cassava leaf (Manihot esculenta, mesquite bean (Prosopis juliflora, cotton (Gossypium species, cocoa (Theobroma cacao, soursop (Annona squamata and African oil palm cake (Elaeis guineensis for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish from two weight classes (200±11 and 300±32 g were stocked in tanks and fed a reference diet plus 30% of one tested byproduct with the addition of 0.1% chromic oxide. The fish were routinely moved to digestibility aquariums for feces collection, in a completely randomized design (n=3. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC values between the two weight classes were similar, but differed between the byproducts for DM, CP and GE. The highest ADC DM, ADC CP and ADC GE for 200-g and 300-g tilapias were, respectively, 0.58 and 0.53; 0.77 and 0.78; 0.66 and 0.62 for the soursop bran and 0.52 and 0.51; 0.77 and 0.80; 0.66 and 0.60 for the palm cake, respectively. The cotton and cocoa bran had the worst results of ADC of DM in two weight ranges (means of 0.34 and 0.37 g/100 g, respectively while the mesquite bean had the lowest ADC of CP and GE, with means of 0.28 and 0.14 g/100 g for 200-g and 300-g tilapias, respectively. The byproducts analyzed may be used in formulating diets for Nile tilapia adults, observing their contributions to the digestibility of nutrients and energy for the species.

  1. TREE RING-BASED SUMMER TEMPERATURE RECONSTRUCTION OVER THE PAST 200 YEARS IN MIYALUO OF WESTERN SICHUAN,CHINA%利用树木年轮宽度资料重建川西米亚罗地区过去200年夏季温度的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗善; 刘国华; 傅伯杰; 张齐兵; 胡婵娟; 罗淑政

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have previously been conducted in Western Sichuan and demonstrated the fidelity of tree-ring records to dendroclimatological research. However, climate variability of this region during past centuries still remains difficult to depict clearly, mainly due to the paucity of the high-resolution paleoclimatic evidence. Using tree-width data of Sabina squamata in Milyaluo, Western Sichuan of China, our objectives are to determine the main climate responses in diameter growth and seek to understand the regional climate variability within this ecological complex area.The study area(31.4° ~31.92°N, 102. 58° ~103.07°E) is situated in Miyaluo forest zone,in the watershed of Zagunao River( one of the major tributaries of the upper Min River). The sample site (31.63'N, 102.96°E) of S. squamata in this study is located in Jiabigou country. In total, we collected 45 cores from 45 living trees of S. squamata in a treeline site(3750m above sea level)at the southern slope side. Samples were dated and processed using basic dendrochronological techniques. A total of 38 increment cores were eventually crossdated and selected for chronology development, whereas seven poor quality cores( not cross-datable at the 99% significant level)were excluded from further analysis. Several statistics were used to identify common patterns of interannual growth variability ,and correlation and response function analyses were used to determine the basic response patterns of radial growth to climate.The result was a robust standard chronology( from 1785 to 2009 A. D. )with strong signal strength back to 1810 A. D., and with variability retained at the multi-decadal scale. Correlation and response analysis revealed that tree growth at this site was mostly governed by temperature in summer( June to July), and temperature from winter to early spring( prior December to current March)played a secondary role in explaining the climate related variance in ring records. In contrast

  2. Term Selecting Research on "Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany" for the Revision of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Subject Headings%《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类主题词修订选词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 刘静; 刘丽红; 董燕; 贾李蓉; 高博; 李海燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study term selecting principles and methods of subject terms in the class of"Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany"for the new edition of TCM Materia Medica Subject Headings;To provide references for the revision.Methods Based on the compiling principles, word frequency of subject headings in TCM database were used as references. MeSH was referred to establish detail rules and regulations for revision of TB class.Results In TB class, 226 subject headings were planned to delete, such as "Apocynum Linn", "Piper betle Linn", "cetacean" and"dolphins";42 subject headings were planned to add, such as "Kalimerisindica", "Actinidiaceae" and "Squamata".Conclusion This revision formulated individual revision principles, proposed solutions for common problems, and basically completed adding and deleting of TB class and frame adjustment.%目的 研究《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类(TB类)主题词选词原则与方法,为其修订提供依据.方法 基于主题词表总体编制原则,以中国中医药数据库主题词标引词频为依据,参考医学主题词表(MeSH),确立TB类主题词修订细则.结果 本次修订拟删除罗布麻属、蒌叶胡椒、鲸目、海豚等226个主题词,拟增加马兰、猕猴桃科、有鳞目等42个主题词.结论 此次修订制定了药用动植物与中药类主题词结合考量等个性化修订原则,对常见问题提出了解决方案,基本完成原TB类主题词的增删及框架的调整.

  3. Reptilian transferrins: evolution of disulphide bridges and conservation of iron-binding center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuraszkiewicz, Justyna; Biczycki, Marian; Maluta, Aleksandra; Martin, Samuel; Watorek, Wiesław; Olczak, Mariusz

    2007-07-01

    known bird homologues. A partially different disulphide bridge pattern was found in the Squamata (snakes and lizards). The possibility of a unique interdomain disulphide bridge was predicted for LtrF. Differences were found in iron-binding centers from those of previously known transferrins. Substitutions were found in the iron-chelating residues of StrF and TtrF and in the synergistic anion-binding residues of NtrF. In snakes, the transferrin (PtrF, HtrF and GtrF) N-lobe "dilysine trigger" occurring in all other known transferrins was not found, which indicates a different mechanism of iron release. PMID:17466466

  4. Bone indicators of grasping hands in lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Grasping is one of a few adaptive mechanisms that, in conjunction with clinging, hooking, arm swinging, adhering, and flying, allowed for incursion into the arboreal eco-space. Little research has been done that addresses grasping as an enhanced manual ability in non-mammalian tetrapods, with the exception of studies comparing the anatomy of muscle and tendon structure. Previous studies showed that grasping abilities allow exploitation for narrow branch habitats and that this adaptation has clear osteological consequences. The objective of this work is to ascertain the existence of morphometric descriptors in the hand skeleton of lizards related to grasping functionality. A morphological matrix was constructed using 51 morphometric variables in 278 specimens, from 24 genera and 13 families of Squamata. To reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to organize the original variables into a simpler system, three PCAs (Principal Component Analyses) were performed using the subsets of (1) carpal variables, (2) metacarpal variables, and (3) phalanges variables. The variables that demonstrated the most significant contributions to the construction of the PCA synthetic variables were then used in subsequent analyses. To explore which morphological variables better explain the variations in the functional setting, we ran Generalized Linear Models for the three different sets. This method allows us to model the morphology that enables a particular functional trait. Grasping was considered the only response variable, taking the value of 0 or 1, while the original variables retained by the PCAs were considered predictor variables. Our analyses yielded six variables associated with grasping abilities: two belong to the carpal bones, two belong to the metacarpals and two belong to the phalanges. Grasping in lizards can be performed with hands exhibiting at least two different independently originated combinations of bones. The first is a combination of a highly elongated centrale

  5. Temporal variation and size class distribution in a hepertological assemblage from Córdoba, Argentina

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    Martori, Ricardo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de la conservación, conocer la abundancia, la diversidad, y los patrones de actividad de un ensamble herpetológico son medulares para comprender la dinámica de la comunidad y el modo de cómo es utilizado el hábitat. En este proyecto propusimos cuatro hipótesis nulas: 1 La frecuencia de captura de cada una de las especies será similar en los dos años relevados. 2 La frecuencia de capturas de cada especie es similar durante los meses estudiados. 3 La actividad de cada especie es similar a la actividad del resto del ensamble. 4 Las proporciones de cada grupo etario de cada especie se mantienen constantes en el tiempo. Durante este estudio fueron colectadas diecinueve especies, diez especies de Amphibia distribuidas en cuatro familias y nueve especies de Squamata distribuidas en siete familias. En hábitats relativamente complicados que poseen una estructura vegetal compleja y presentan patrones de actividad herpetológica irregular, el uso de trampas de caída resulta uno de los pocos métodos eficientes para la evaluación de la actividad de animales terrestres. El uso de trampas de caída es un método efectivo para realizar inventarios herpetológicos pero los resultados deben ser tratados con precaución porque este método captura algunas especies más fácilmente que otras. Los principales resultados obtenidos por este estudio fueron: La hipótesis 1 fue rechazada, para todas las especies exceptuando a Mabuya dorsivittata, que mostró frecuencias de actividad similares en ambos años, la hipótesis 2 también fue rechazada porque todas las especies mostraron significativas diferencias de actividad temporal. Las especies más variables fueron Odontophrynus americanus y Bufo fernandezae; la más constante Pantodactylus schreibersi. La tercera hipótesis fue rechazada para todas las especies salvo Elachistocleis bicolor que presentó un patrón de actividad similar al ensamble. La hipótesis 4 fue rechazada, los

  6. 四川雉鹑育雏早期雌体与幼体夜栖地的选择%Roost Selection by Buff-throated Partridge Females with Chicks during Two Weeks Post Hatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雨; 王彬; 窦亮; 冉江洪; 刘世荣; 李八斤

    2014-01-01

    Studying the roost habitat of young birds is important for determining their adaption to environments and assessing the habitat conservation.The buff-throated partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii is a galliformes species and listed as the category Ⅰ species of nationally protected animals in China.By using the radio-tracking and direct sighting,the roost selection by the females with chicks at early brooding period (with chicks of two week-post-hatch) was investigated.We found that the females with chicks would roost on the ground in the first week (n =3) ; and they started to roost in trees in the second week when chicks developed some abilities of jumping (n =12).The analysis showed the females and chicks preferred Abies squamata-Larix potaninii var.macrocarpa forests.In microhabitat,they selected sites with good tree cover and large degree of slope.Compared to roosts that subsequently selected by all family members,their roosts were characterized by larger tree cover,but smaller tree diameter at breast height and closer distance to the trail.Based on this study,we suggest that the managers should maintain good tree cover in some specific areas and meanwhile protect some small-medium size trees.%开展鸟类幼体夜栖生境的研究,对于确定物种的生存策略并实施生境保护具有重要的参考价值.四川雉鹑Tetraophasis szechenyii是我国Ⅰ级重点保护物种.利用无线电遥测和直接跟踪的方法,对育雏早期(幼体孵化后大约2周内)雌体与幼体的夜栖生境进行研究.研究发现,在幼体孵化后1周内,雌体与幼体夜栖于地上(n=3);在第2周,它们开始上树夜栖(n=12).当树栖时,偏好选择鳞皮冷杉-大果红杉林,并使用乔木盖度和坡度较大的地方.与育雏后期的正常夜栖生境相比,本阶段雌体与幼体的夜栖地的乔木盖度更大,但夜栖树胸径较小且靠近道路.基于本研究,建议在生境保护方面应该维持一定区域的乔木盖度,并适当注意保留一些中小型乔木.

  7. Estudio del placentoma de poblaciones de mabuya con énfasis en el análisis de células invasoras

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    Vieira Samper Simón Halcón

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La viviparidad es un evento que se ha identificado en más de 1.200 especies de reptiles del orden Squamata. Las lagartijas del Nuevo Mundo pertenecientes al género Mabuya tienen el nivel de placentotrofía más especializado que se conozca hasta el momento, presentando una alantoplacenta Tipo IV. Ésta se caracteriza por tener una serie de especializaciones muy similares a las que se encuentran en mamíferos euterianos. Una de ellas es el placentoma, una estructura que se ubica en el polo embrionario de la cámara de incubación, fundamental en el transporte de substancias. Por la relación del corion con el útero y la característica sincitial de este último, la placenta de poblaciones de Mabuya ha sido clasificada como sienepiteliocorial. En este estudio realizado por microscopía óptica de alta resolución y microscopía electrónica de transmisión, el placentoma de cuatro poblaciones de Mabuya sp. mostró una estructura altamente plegada, en la que participan el útero materno y las membranas extraembrionarias compuestas por el corion y el alantoides. En la lámina propia del útero están presentes glándulas de tipo acinar constituidas por
    epitelio cúbico y sin un conducto diferenciable de modo que células de la glándula delimitan una luz a través de la cual sale la secreción. Grupos de células provenientes del corion, de forma y tamaño variable, denominadas células invasivas penetran en el sincitio uterino; las proyecciones citoplasmáticas de estas células alcanzan la lamina propia. Las células invasivas no tienen un curso regular, de modo que en una sección ultrafina solo se observan parcialmente; en algunas áreas, el citoplasma es muy pobre en organelos mientras que en otras se evidencian el núcleo, lisosomas, gránulos de secreción, cisternas de RER y REL, ribosomas, aparato de Golgi y mitocondrias. Se unen por medio de desmosomas, aunque en la mayor parte de su trayectoria, las membranas están estrechamente