WorldWideScience

Sample records for amphisbaenidae squamata amphisbaenia

  1. Biologia reprodutiva comparada de Amphisbaenidae(Squamata, Amphisbaenia) do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia Cristina dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    A biologia reprodutiva dos Amphisbaenia é uma das menos estudadas entre os répteis, havendo na literatura informações sobre o ciclo reprodutivo, dimorfismo sexual e fecundidade de poucas espécies do grupo, além de informações pontuais acerca de oviposturas. A histologia das vias genitais, da mesma forma, foi pouco estudada, tornando difícil uma melhor caracterização dos ciclos de machos e fêmeas. No Brasil são encontradas cerca de um terço das espécie do grupo, distribuídas por regiões com di...

  2. Some coccidial parasites of the lizard Amphisbaena alba (Reptilia: Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Five parasites are described in the lizard Amphisbaena alba (Amphisbaenidae from the state of Pará, North Brazil. Mature oocysts of Choleoeimeria amphisbaenae n. sp., are passed already mature in the faeces. They are ellipsoidal-cylindrical, average 33.7 x 22.8 µm and are devoid of micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar body. The colourless wall is smooth and of 2 layers. The 4 dizoic sporocysts have no Stieda body and average 13 x 9.3 µm. Endogenous stages develop in the epithelial cells of the gall-bladder in the manner described for the genus and may cause extensive tissue damage. Sporulation of Isospora capanemaensis n. sp., is completed 3 days after the oocysts are voided in the faeces. They average 14.8 x 14.5 µm and have no micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar body. The 2 tetrazoic sporocysts are pear-shaped, average 8.6 x 6.6 and have an inconspicuous Stieda body. Endogenous development is in the epithelial cells of the ileum, and heavy infections cause considerable tissue destruction. Multisporocystic oocysts passed in the faeces of one A. alba possibly originated from an invertebrate host ingested by the lizard. A globidium-like cyst in the digestive tract of A. alba measured 105 x 85 µm and contained many hundreds of merozoites. A stained kidney smear of the same lizard revealed the presence of an unidentified parasite producing multinucleate cyst-like stages.

  3. Anatomia visceral comparada de seis espécies de Amphisbaenidae (Squamata: Amphisbaenia Comparison of visceral anatomy of six species of Amphisbaenidae (Squamata: Amphisbaenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliana C. Navega-Gonçalves

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Visceral anatomy of amphisbaenids Amphisbaena vermicularis Wagler, 1824; Anops kingii Bell, 1833; Aulura anomala Barbour, 1914; Bronia bedai Vanzolini, 1991; Cercolophia cuiabana Strüssmann & Carvalho, 2001, and Leposternon microcephalum Wagler, 1824 were comparatively described and the size and the position of the organs in the pleuroperitoneal cavity was established in relation to the ventral scutellation. The main results were: the right lung presents different degrees of size reduction compared to the left lung, being conspicuous only in A. anomala, and L. microcephalum; the limit between small and large intestines is clear due to the presence of a caecum; the right lobe of the liver is larger than the left one, but its length varies within the same species and among species; the right gonad occupies a more cranial position in relation to the left one, in all six studied species; the right ovary is also larger than the left one in all studied specimens, whereas the left testicle can be larger or of the same size as the right one in some specimens; the shape of the testicles varies from elongated, kidney-shaped or oval; kidneys are symmetrically positioned at the caudal portion of the pleuroperitoneal cavity and one kidney can be larger than the other.

  4. Sistema respiratório de Amphisbaena vermicularis e Amphisbaena microcephala (Squamata, Amphisbaenia, Amphisbaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Navega-Gonçalves,Maria Eliana C.; José Roberto M. C. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    A morfologia macro e microscópica da traqueia e pulmões de Amphisbaena vermicularis Wagler, 1824 e Amphisbaena microcephala (Wagler, 1824), assim como a ultraestrutura das câmaras respiratórias, foram descritas pela primeira vez neste estudo. A traqueia não se ramifica e seu segmento caudal, situado entre os pulmões, foi denominado brônquio. O pulmão esquerdo é alongado, saculiforme e unicameral, com parênquima faveolar na porção cranial e trabecular, na porção caudal. Câmaras respiratórias e...

  5. The cell masses in the diencephalon of Amphisbaena darwini heterozonata Burmeister (Amphisbaenia, Squamata, Reptilia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, J C

    1979-01-01

    The cell masses of the diencephalon of Amphisbaena darwini heterozonata are studied and confronted with those of other reptiles, specially with the burrowing ophidian Typhlopidae. The main differences are in the thalamus dorsalis. The amphisbaenids share with the Typhlopidae the absence of the lateral and pretectal geniculate bodies, and share with the squamate reptiles, differing from the typhlopids, the remaining structures of the dorsal thalamus, characterized by the well-developed nucleus rotundus. These features support the idea that the amphisbaenids could be situated within the Squamata at the same level as in Ophidia and Lacertilia. The adaptive processes toward a burrowing behavior have not been the same in amphisbaenids and in the typhlopids. The causes of the dissimilarities of the dorsal thalamus could be related to other sense and non-sense systems apart from the optic. The morphology of the elements of the cell masses has been studied by the Golgi method.

  6. The homology of the pelvic elements of Zygaspis quadrifrons (Squamata: Amphisbaenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urben, Carling C; Daza, Juan D; Cadena, Cristhian; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L

    2014-08-01

    Limb attenuation with element loss has occurred multiple times among the Squamata (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians). Although most of the attention has been focused on the appendicular bones, we found that the pelvic rudiments have been studied less thoroughly and recurring disagreement is common among different authors studying the same species. We studied the osteology of the pelvic region of female and male Zygaspis quadrifrons with high-resolution X-ray computed tomography data. We report an osteological landmark (acetabulum) not previously detected in this taxon, the presence of which has repercussions that call for a reconsideration of the primary homology hypothesis for the identity of these bones in amphisbaenians and other squamates. Finally, we observed that the acetabulum and limb rudiments in amphisbaenians (i.e., the stylopodium when present) are situated medial to the pelvic girdle, contrasting with the large majority of tetrapods where these structures are laterally oriented.

  7. Estado de conservación de la fauna de Sauria y Amphisbaenidae (Reptilia: Squamata de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreira Vidal, Santiago

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa el estado de conservación de la fauna de Sauria y Amphisbaenia del Uruguay, basado en el índice propuesto por Reca et al. (1994, y se aplican las categorías propuestas por Ávila et al. (2000. Se analizaron en total 17 especies, de las cuales se destacan como vulnerables (V Leposternon microcephalum, Anisolepis undulatus, Tropidurus torquatus y Stenocercus azureus, representando el 23,5% de los taxones investigados. La limitación principal detectada en la utilización del índice de Reca es que, dada la carencia de información básica sobre algunas especies, los resultados deben ser re-evaluados de forma constante ante la generación de nuevos conocimientos. Based on the index proposed by Reca et al. (1994, and the categories proposed by Ávila et al. (2000, the conservation status for Sauria and Amphisbaenia from Uruguay is evaluated. Seventeen species were analized, four of them stood out as vulnerable (V Leposternon microcephalum, Anisolepis undulatus, Tropidurus torquatus and Stenocercus azureus, representing the 23.5% of the taxa. The most important constraint detected using Reca's Index, is that due to the lack of basic information about some of the species, the results should be revisited any time new knowledge arises.

  8. Aggregative behaviour in the fossorial lizard Amphisbaena darwinii (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolenc, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present herein observations on A. darwinii made from 2008 to 2011 as part of herpetofaunal inventories in southern Uruguay. Some voucher specimens were accessioned at the herpetological collection of Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Montevideo, Uruguay (MNHN. Specimens of Amphisbaena darwinii were found under stones or abandoned pieces of concrete and metallic sheets in some natural and urban areas. In these associations, specimens were very close to each other, sometimes with their bodies side by side or one above the other/s.

  9. Nova espécie de Bronia Gray, 1845, do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Castro-Mello

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronia saxosa, sp. n., localidade tipo UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, Estado do Tocantins, difere das demais espécies de Bronia Gray, 1865, principalmente por possuir nasais pequenas separadas pela rostral. A nova espécie possui 4 poros, 253-272 anéis corporais, 17-21 anéis caudais, 18-24/1621 segmentos em um anel no meio do corpo.Bronia saxosa, sp. n. from the state of Tocantins, Brasil, (Hydroelectric Dam Luis Eduardo Magalhães, 09°45'S, 48°21'W, a cerrado area, differs from the remainining species of the genus mainly by having small nasals scutes separated by the rostral. It has (82 specimens 4 preanal pores, 253-272 body annuli, 17-21 tail annuli and 18-24/16-21 segments to a midbody annulus.

  10. Sexual dimorphism in Amphisbaena nigricauda (Reptilia, Squamata, Amphisbaenidae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francco A. N. de Souza e Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaena nigricauda Gans, 1966 is a small, poorly known amphisbaenid endemic to the restinga of the states of Espírito Santo and Bahia, Brazil. We analyze 178 specimens collected in Vitória municipality, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, to investigate whether this species show sexual dimorphism in pre-cloacal pores and in morphological characters. Sex was determined by a ventral incision and direct inspection of gonads. A PCA analysis was performed to generate a general body size measurement. A T test and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test were used to assess whether this species show sexual dimorphism on five morphometric and five meristic characters, respectively. Sex could not be determined in 36 specimens because they were mutilated in the posterior portion of their bodies. The diagnosis of the species is redefined based on this sample size: the smallest number of body annuli changes from 222 to 192, the number of dorsal and ventral segments in an annulus in the middle of the body changes to 9-11/13-16 (instead of 10/16, and the autotomic tail annulus lies between annulus 7-10 (instead of 6-9. The number of tail annuli remained within the known range of variation of the species (19-24. None of the 80 females analyzed showed pre-cloacal pores, whereas within males 59 out of 62 specimens displayed four and two specimens displayed five pre-cloacal pores. A single male did not possess pre-cloacal pores, but showed irregular scales on its cloacal region. Sex-based difference based on presence or absence of pre-cloacal pores as well as males with wider head was seen in other Neotropical amphisbaenids. However, a pattern of body size differences between males and females has not been identified so far in the few amphisbaenid species studied in this regard. Further studies on this taxonomic group are still needed to elucidate the existence of general patterns of sexual dimorphism and to identify the selective pressures driving these patterns.

  11. Genomic structure and expression of immunoglobulins in Squamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, David N; Garet, Elina; Estevez, Olivia; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The Squamata order represents a major evolutionary reptile lineage, yet the structure and expression of immunoglobulins in this order has been scarcely studied in detail. From the genome sequences of four Squamata species (Gekko japonicus, Ophisaurus gracilis, Pogona vitticeps and Ophiophagus hannah) and RNA-seq datasets from 18 other Squamata species, we identified the immunoglobulins present in these animals as well as the tissues in which they are found. All Squamata have at least three immunoglobulin classes; namely, the immunoglobulins M, D, and Y. Unlike mammals, however, we provide evidence that some Squamata lineages possess more than one Cμ gene which is located downstream from the Cδ gene. The existence of two evolutionary lineages of immunoglobulin Y is shown. Additionally, it is demonstrated that while all Squamata species possess the λ light chain, only Iguanidae species possess the κ light chain.

  12. A new two-pored species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado, with a key to the two-pored species of Amphisbaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Síria; Gomes, Jerriane O; Silva, Helder Lúcio Rodrigues Da; Cintra, Carlos Eduardo D; Silva, Nelson Jorge Da Jr

    2016-08-03

    A new species of Amphisbaena is described from municipalities of Babaçulândia, State of Tocantins, and Estreito, State of Maranhão, northern Brazilian Cerrado. The new species differs from other two-pored species of the genus, by presenting mainly slender body shape; snout rounded in profile and dorsal view; high number of body annuli (328-342); 12-14 dorsal segments and 14-16 ventral in midbody half-annulus; autotomic site between 9-10th caudal annuli; absence of chevron-shaped anterior dorsal half-annuli; 20-23 caudal annuli; postmalar row absent; and precloacals pores arranged in a continuous series of the precloacal half-annuli. Additionally, we present a key for two-pored species of Amphisbaena.

  13. Variaciones dentarias en Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizuela, Santiago

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen los diferentes tipos morfológicos de dientes observados en una muestra osteológica de 26 ejemplares de Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae. En el maxilar y el dentario se reconocen dientes unicuspidados y multicuspidados o romos, dentro de los cuales se aprecian subtipos que varían en el tamaño y la robustez de los dientes, la curvatura, el grado de definición de las cúspides y la compresión labiolingual. Excepcionalmente se observan dientes pentacuspidados. Los ejemplares pequeños poseen escasos dientes anteriores unicuspidados y bicuspidados, y mayoría de dientes tricuspidados que se desarrollan desde un nivel anterior al de la ubicación del foramen de ingreso al canal alveolar. En individuos de mayor tamaño, el número relativo de dientes unicuspidados y bicuspidados aumenta, alcanzando el nivel del foramen de ingreso al canal alveolar, y los dientes posteriores bicuspidados y tricuspidados presentan tendencia a la molarización. En los ejemplares de talla cercana al máximo, todos los dientes posteriores son romos molariformes. La tendencia a la molarización de los dientes posteriores también se observa, en diferentes grados, en las especies T. duseni, T. rufescens y T. teguixin, sugiriendo estrechas relaciones evolutivas. In this paper, the different morphological types of teeth showed by a sample of 26 specimens of Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae are described. Unicuspid, bicuspid and blunt teeth are recognized in both the maxilla and dentary. Among these tooth types, different subtypes are recognized. They vary in size and built of the teeth, the curvature, the definition of the cusps, and the magnitude of labiolingual compression. Rarely pentacuspid teeth are observed. Small specimens possess few anterior unicuspid and bicuspid teeth, whereas the majority of the tooth row consists of tricuspid teeth developed anteriorly to the foramen entering the alveolar canal. In larger specimens the

  14. Herpetofauna of the Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil. VIII. Amphisbaena arda sp. nov., a fulliginosa-like checkered patterned Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaena arda sp. nov. is described based on a specimen obtained at Mocambo do Vento, on the left bank of the São Francisco river, Bahia state, Brazil. A. arda is a medium size amphisbaenian with a checkered black and white color pattern similar to the one present in the fuliginosa group but differing from that by having a lighter pigmentation, an uniformly white ventral surface, and by several other important morphological characters. A. arda is similar to Amphisbaena vermicularis in meristic characters currently used to assist amphisbaenian identification but can be separated from it by its color pattern, its flatter cephalic shields, and by the more ventral position of the nostril.

  15. PEMATANGAN GONAD INDUK ABALON Haliotis squamata MELALUI PENGELOLAAN PAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Rusdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan hewan yang bersifat herbivora di alam memakan berbagai jenis makroalga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai makroalga sebagai pakan terhadap perkembangan gonad abalon Haliotis squamata. Dalam penelitian ini diterapkan 4 perlakuan pemberian pakan yaitu: (A Gracilaria sp., (B Ulva sp., (C Sargassum sp., (D Kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (rasio 1:1:1. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan. Induk-induk abalon dipelihara dalam 12 buah kontainer plastik berlubang ukuran 0,58 m x 0,39 m x 0,31 m dan ditempatkan dalam sebuah bak semen ukuran 3 m x 2 m x 1 m. Setiap kontainer berisi abalon sebanyak 10 ekor dengan ukuran awal rata-rata panjang cangkang dan bobot masing-masing 58,9±1,37 mm dan 36,1±4,06 g. Pakan diberikan dengan dosis 15%-20% dari bobot biomassa setiap 2 hari sekali. Pergantian air menggunakan sistem sirkulasi dengan debit 5-6 L/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata pertumbuhan bobot mutlak dan laju pertumbuhan bobot harian berbeda nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan. Tingkat kematangan gonad (TKG induk abalon pada hari ke-70 diperoleh TKG-III tertinggi dihasilkan pada perlakuan kombinasi Gracilaria + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (P<0,05. Perlakuan pakan kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. dan Sargassum sp. terlihat lebih sesuai dalam memacu pematangan gonad induk abalon H. squamata.  Abalone is a herbivorous animal which consumes various kinds of macroalgae in the wild. The aim of the study was to study the effects of various kinds of macroalgae on gonadal maturation of abalone, Haliotis squamata. The experiment applied four kinds of macroalgae i.e.: (A Gracilaria sp.; (B Ulva sp.; (C Sargassum sp.; and (D Combination of Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (ratio 1:1:1 as food for abalone broodstock. The experiment was arranged in complete random design with three replications. One cemented tank of 3 m x 2 m x 1 m in

  16. A new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) in Nactus pelagicus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tanna Island, Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Hamilton, Alison M; Austin, Christopher C

    2010-10-01

    Falcaustra tannaensis n. sp. (Ascaridida: Kathlaniidae) from the large intestine of Nactus pelagicus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) is described and illustrated. Falcaustra tannaensis represents the first species from Oceanica to be assigned to the genus and is distinguished from other species of Falcaustra by the distribution pattern of caudal papillae (8 precloacal, 2 adcloacal, 10 postcloacal, and 1 median), length of spicules (2.43-2.68 mm), and presence of a pseudosucker.

  17. Sclerotic rings in mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae: structures and taxonomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momo Yamashita

    Full Text Available Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae were a highly diverse, globally distributed group of aquatic lizards in the Late Cretaceous (98-66 million years ago that exhibited a high degree of adaptation to life in water. To date, despite their rich fossil record, the anatomy of complete mosasaur sclerotic rings, embedded in the sclera of the eyeball, has not been thoroughly investigated. We here describe and compare sclerotic rings of four mosasaur genera, Tylosaurus, Platecarpus, Clidastes, and Mosasaurus, for the first time. Two specimens of Tylosaurus and Platecarpus share an exact scleral ossicle arrangement, excepting the missing portion in the specimen of Platecarpus. Furthermore, the exact arrangement and the total count of 14 ossicles per ring are shared between Tylosaurus and numerous living terrestrial lizard taxa, pertaining to both Iguania and Scleroglossa. In contrast, two species of Mosasaurus share the identical count of 12 ossicles and the arrangement with each other, while no living lizard taxa share exactly the same arrangement. Such a mosaic distribution of these traits both among squamates globally and among obligatorily aquatic mosasaurs specifically suggests that neither the ossicle count nor their arrangement played major roles in the aquatic adaptation in mosasaur eyes. All the mosasaur sclerotic rings examined consistently exhibit aperture eccentricity and the scleral ossicles with gently convex outer side. Hitherto unknown to any squamate taxa, one specimen of Platecarpus unexpectedly shows a raised, concentric band of roughened surface on the inner surface of the sclerotic ring. It is possible that one or both of these latter features may have related to adaptation towards aquatic vision in mosasaurs, but further quantitative study of extant reptilian clades containing both terrestrial and aquatic taxa is critical and necessary in order to understand possible adaptive significances of such osteological features.

  18. Sclerotic Rings in Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae): Structures and Taxonomic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Momo; Konishi, Takuya; Sato, Tamaki

    2015-01-01

    Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae) were a highly diverse, globally distributed group of aquatic lizards in the Late Cretaceous (98–66 million years ago) that exhibited a high degree of adaptation to life in water. To date, despite their rich fossil record, the anatomy of complete mosasaur sclerotic rings, embedded in the sclera of the eyeball, has not been thoroughly investigated. We here describe and compare sclerotic rings of four mosasaur genera, Tylosaurus, Platecarpus, Clidastes, and Mosasaurus, for the first time. Two specimens of Tylosaurus and Platecarpus share an exact scleral ossicle arrangement, excepting the missing portion in the specimen of Platecarpus. Furthermore, the exact arrangement and the total count of 14 ossicles per ring are shared between Tylosaurus and numerous living terrestrial lizard taxa, pertaining to both Iguania and Scleroglossa. In contrast, two species of Mosasaurus share the identical count of 12 ossicles and the arrangement with each other, while no living lizard taxa share exactly the same arrangement. Such a mosaic distribution of these traits both among squamates globally and among obligatorily aquatic mosasaurs specifically suggests that neither the ossicle count nor their arrangement played major roles in the aquatic adaptation in mosasaur eyes. All the mosasaur sclerotic rings examined consistently exhibit aperture eccentricity and the scleral ossicles with gently convex outer side. Hitherto unknown to any squamate taxa, one specimen of Platecarpus unexpectedly shows a raised, concentric band of roughened surface on the inner surface of the sclerotic ring. It is possible that one or both of these latter features may have related to adaptation towards aquatic vision in mosasaurs, but further quantitative study of extant reptilian clades containing both terrestrial and aquatic taxa is critical and necessary in order to understand possible adaptive significances of such osteological features. PMID:25692667

  19. Ovarian histology of the placentotrophic Mabuya mabouya (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Duperly; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Ovarian structure and folliculogenesis of females at different reproductive stages are described for the viviparous placentotrophic lizard Mabuya mabouya. The small ovaries have a thin wall formed by the ovarian epithelium and a thin tunica albuginea. One to two germinal beds that contain numerous oogonia and developing primordial follicles are derived from the ovarian epithelium and are next to the ovarian hilum. The ovarian cortex contains follicles at different stages of development, corpora lutea, and atretic follicles. The yolk nucleus and Balbiani complex were not evident in the ooplasm of previtellogenic follicles. The follicular epithelium of these follicles is polymorphic, as in other species of Squamata, but the larger cells are spherical and monolayered rather than pyriform. The zona radiata of the preovulatory follicles is less developed than in lecithotrophic species. These features suggest a decrease in metabolic and absorptive processes during follicular growth. In preovulatory follicles (1.5-1.8 mm diameter), primordial yolk vacuoles and small cortical granules are deposited in the ooplasm instead of fatty yolk platelets, so that only one stage of vitellogenesis is observed. Polyovular atretic follicles occur in some females. Follicular atresia is minimal for preovulatory follicles, but is more frequent in follicles with polymorphic epithelia. In the corpus luteum, the luteal tissue is formed from granulosa cells and luteolysis occurs during the late gastrula -- late neurula embryonic stages. Thus, the maintenance of gestation from the pharyngula to preparturition stages seems to be related to secretion of extraluteal progesterone, possibly of placental origin. These observed ovarian features are related to the high degree of placental complexity of this species and show that the evolution of advanced placentotrophy in species of this lineage has been accompanied by concomitant changes in ovarian function.

  20. Patrones de osificación en Tupinambis merianae y Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae y patrones generales en Squamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias, Federico

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la variación ontogenética del esqueleto de 13 embriones de Tupinambis merianae y 11 de Tupinambis rufescens, detectándose heterocronías entre ambas especies. Los resultados muestran que los elementos dermales (tanto del cráneo como de la cintura pectoral osifican antes que los elementos condrales, siendo los elementos que forman la mandíbula inferior, el paladar (especialmente los palatinos y los pterigoides y la clavícula los primeros en osificarse, mientras que los elementos del dermatocráneo más tardíos en osificarse son los del arco temporal superior (lacrimal, postorbital, postfrontal. Las principales diferencias en los tiempos de aparición y osificación se producen en algunos huesos del cráneo y en el autopodio (carpo/tarso, pero estas heterocronías no alteran la arquitectura final del esqueleto. Los resultados encontrados son comparados y discutidos con el conocimiento existente sobre otros linajes de Squamata. We describe the ontogenetic variation of skeleton of 13 Tupinambis meriane embryos and 11 Tupinambis rufescens embryos. Furthermore heterochronies in ossification sequence between both species are recorded. Results show that dermal elements (belonging to the skull and the pectoral girdle ossify before the chondral elements, being the elements that constitute the lower jaw, the palate (especially the palatine and the pterygoid, and the clavicle the first ones to ossify. The elements belonging to the dermatocranium which ossify later are the ones of the upper temporal arch (lacrimal, postorbital and postfrontal. The main differences present in timing of onset and ossification are produced in some bones of the skull and of the autopodium (carpus / tarsus; though, these heterochronies do not alter the final structure of the skeleton. Results achieved are compared and discussed with the available knowledge of other squamate lineages.

  1. Spermiogenesis in the imbricate alligator lizard, Barisia imbricata (Reptilia, Squamata, Anguidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin M; Rheubert, Justin L; Touzinsky, Katherine; Hanover, Jessica; Matchett, Caroline L; Granados-González, Gisela; Hernández-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2013-06-01

    Although the events of spermiogenesis are commonly studied in amniotes, the amount of research available for Squamata is lacking. Many studies have described the morphological characteristics of mature spermatozoa in squamates, but few detail the ultrastructural changes that occur during spermiogenesis. This study's purpose is to gain a better understanding of the subcellular events of spermatid development within the Imbricate Alligator Lizard, Barisia imbricata. The morphological data presented here represent the first complete ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis within the family Anguidae. Samples of testes from four specimens collected on the northwest side of the Nevado de Toluca, México, were prepared using standard techniques for transmission electron microscopy. Many of the ultrastructural changes occurring during spermiogenesis within B. imbricata are similar to that of other squamates (i.e., early acrosome formation, chromatin condensation, flagella formation, annulus present, and a prominent manchette). However, there are a few unique characteristics within B. imbricata spermatids that to date have not been described during spermiogenesis in other squamates. For example, penetration of the acrosomal granule into the subacrosomal space to form the basal plate of the perforatorium during round spermatid development, the clover-shaped morphology of the developing nuclear fossa of the flagellum, and the bulbous shape to the perforatorium are all unique to the Imbricate Alligator Lizard. These anatomical character differences may be valuable nontraditional data that along with more traditional matrices (such as DNA sequences and gross morphological data) may help elucidate phylogenetic relationships, which are historically considered controversial within Squamata.

  2. Embryology of the VNO and associated structures in the grass snake Natrix natrix (Squamata: Naticinae): a 3D perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Paweł; Hermyt, Mateusz; Rupik, Weronika

    2017-01-01

    Background Snakes are considered to be vomerolfaction specialists. They are members of one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, Squamata. The vomeronasal organ and the associated structures (such as the lacrimal duct, choanal groove, lamina transversalis anterior and cupola Jacobsoni) of adult lizards and snakes have received much anatomical, histological, physiological and behavioural attention. However, only limited embryological investigation into these structures, constrained to som...

  3. The effect of the dominant polychaete Scolelepis squamata on nematode colonisation in sandy beach sediments: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Tatiana F.; Esteves, André M.; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Vanreusel, Ann

    2011-09-01

    The effect of an abundant sandy beach polychaete, Scolelepis squamata, on the colonisation of defaunated sediments by marine nematodes indicates that sandy beach fauna can be partially controlled by biological interactions within and across size groups. Experimental cores, equipped with windows allowing infaunal colonisation, were filled with defaunated sandy beach sediment containing two different treatments with and without S. squamata. These cores were inserted into microcosms filled with sediment with indigenous meiofauna collected from the field. The treatments were incubated in the laboratory at ambient temperature and salinity for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days, in order to follow the colonisation process of the defaunated sediments by the indigenous nematode fauna over time. Nematodes initially colonised both treatments, with abundances of up to 10% of the densities in the control; after 2 weeks, nematode densities in the cores without S. squamata surpassed the control densities. Nematode assemblages in both treatments were not species rich, and also differed in composition from the natural assemblages. The most successful colonising species, Enoplolaimus litoralis, was rare in the surrounding sediment, suggesting that colonisation was determined by species-specific characteristics such as body size, motility and feeding strategy. Initially the presence of macrofauna did not affect the nematode community composition, but after 2 weeks of the experiment, the presence of the polychaete seemed to facilitate the earlier establishment of non-opportunistic species.

  4. New species of Stenodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Sharqiyah Sands in northeastern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-12-06

    A new species of gecko of the genus Stenodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) is described from the dune desert of Al Sharqiyah Sands in northeastern Oman. Stenodactylus sharqiyahensis sp. nov. is characterized morphologically by its small size, snout shape, webbing between fingers not very extended, relatively short limbs, and scalation. It is genetically distinct in the mitochondrial DNA and the nuclear MC1R gene from Stenodactylus arabicus to which it has previously been referred. The new species seems to have a restricted distribution confined to the Sharqiyah Sands, which remain isolated from other sand deserts in Arabia. In addition, the data presented herein confirm new locality records for Stenodactylus arabicus in the easternmost limit of its distribution range in western central Oman. 

  5. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Si Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2, dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediylbis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylenedicarbamate (3, obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5, and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5α,6β,7β-aromadendrane (6, (−-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5β,6α,7α-aromadendrane (7, (−-4α,10β-aromadendranediol (8, (+-4β,10β-aromadendranediol (9 were obtained from the South China Sea gorgonian coral Melitodes squamata Nutting. Compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 were new, and their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 6 and 7 contained a taurine group that was rarely found in marine natural compounds, and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity. The possible biosynthesis routes of 1–5 were conjectured.

  6. Nuevos registros de squamata (reptilia para el pleistoceno superior del norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Agnolin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo son reportados ejemplares de diversos taxones de reptiles escamados fósiles procedentes de la base de la Formación Luján (Pleistoceno Superior, en la localidad fosilífera de Merlo, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Entre los ejemplares registrados se reconoce el primer registro fósil para el género y especie Anops kingii (Amphisbaenidae; asimismo se reporta la presencia de especies indeterminadas de los géneros Homonota (Gekkonidae y Liolaemus (Liolaemidae. La asociación conjunta de estos tres taxones hoy en día no se encuentra representada en el norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires, siendo la región geográficamente más cercana en donde encuentran una superposición en su distribución el Partido de Balcarce, ubicado en el extremo Sureste de la provincia y alejado unos 600 kilómetros al sur de la localidad fosilífera de Merlo. La presencia conjunta de estos tres reptiles se encuentra de acuerdo con la posible existencia de un pulso árido y frío, tal como ha sido propuesto con anterioridad para porción más inferior del Pleistoceno Superior en la provincia de Buenos Aires.

  7. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic.

  8. STIMULASI PERTUMBUHAN JUVENIL ABALON, Haliotis squamata DENGAN PEMBERIAN HORMON REKOMBINAN IKAN rElGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyah Husnul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Masalah yang paling utama dalam budidaya abalon tropis adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Penggunaan rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone untuk menstimulasi pertumbuhan beberapa spesies ikan sudah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji akselerasi pertumbuhan juvenil abalon tropis, Haliotis squamata setelah diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rekombinan ikan kerapu kertang, Epinephelus lanceolatus pada frekuensi yang berbeda. Ada empat perlakuan frekuensi perendaman rElGH yaitu 4, 9, 16 kali, dan tanpa perendaman (kontrol. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Perendaman dilakukan selama tiga jam, dengan interval waktu empat hari. Kepadatan abalon tropis 100 ekor/L air laut yang mengandung 30 mg rElGH. Wadah untuk perendaman berupa beaker glass yang dilengkapi dengan aerasi. Penelitian dilakukan selama tujuh bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa abalon tropis yang direndam rElGH dengan frekuensi empat kali menghasilkan pertumbuhan bobot tubuh dan panjang cangkang tertinggi dan berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan lainnya (P<0,05. Sintasan abalon tropis yang diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rElGH lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan kontrol. The most crucial problem in tropical abalone aquaculture is the slow growth of the species. Studies investigating the use of rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone for promoting growth have been performed in various species. This research aimed to examine the growth acceleration of tropical abalone, Haliotis squamata juvenile after being treated in different immersion frequencies of recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone (rElGH. There were four treatments of rElGH immersion frequency: 4, 9, 16 times and without rElGH immersion (control. Each treatment was performed in triplicates. Immersion was performed for 3 hours, at 4-day intervals and a density of 100 tropical abalones in 1 L seawater containing 30

  9. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN VARIASI GENETIK ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 HASIL SELEKSI F-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Produksi benih abalon Haliotis squamata skala massal di hatcheri telah berhasil dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali. Permasalahan utama dalam budidaya abalon adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Keadaan tersebut diduga karena pengaruh faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keragaan pertumbuhan dan variasi genetik abalon tumbuh cepat hasil seleksi individu. Hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa pembentukan populasi F-1 mempunyai pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dengan F-1 kontrol. Peningkatan bobot yang dicapai 22,15 g atau 17,93% lebih baik dibandingkan F-1 kontrol. Keragaman genetik F-1 terseleksi yang ditunjukkan dari nilai heterozigositas adalah (Ho. 0,023 terjadi penurunan 21,7% jika dibandingkan F-0. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena hilangnya beberapa allele dalam proses seleksi. Terdapat hubungan antara jumlah heterozigot pada lokus tertentu dengan pertumbuhan abalon. Hasil ini diharapkan dapat mendukung upaya meningkatkan produksi benih yang mempunyai performa fenotipe dan genotipe unggul sehingga dapat mendukung kegiatan budidaya abalon yang berkelanjutan.

  10. THE ENDANGERED SPECIES Aristelliger georgeensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae IN RONCADOR CAY, COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo LÓPEZ-VICTORIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aristelliger georgeensis, previously known to occur in the Yucatan peninsula (Mexico, the coasts and islands from Belize and Honduras, and the oceanic islands of Colombia in the Caribbean (San Andres, Providence and Saint Catalina was registered for the first time in Roncador Cay, a flat and small island of coralline origin, located in the southwest of the Caribbean. Being considered as an endangered species at the national level, the new locality for this gecko constitutes an opportunity for its conservation. Some topics regarding the possible origins of this new population are discussed. This new locality represents the eastern most documented record of this species so far.La especie amenazada Aristelliger georgeensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae en el Cayo Roncador, Caribe colombianoAristelliger georgeensis, previamente conocido de la península de Yucatán (México, las costas e islas de Belice y Honduras y de las islas oceánicas de Colombia en el Caribe (San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, fue registrado por primera vez en el Cayo Roncador, una isla plana y pequeña de origen coralino, ubicada en el suroccidente del Caribe. Siendo considerada como una especie amenazada a nivel nacional, la nueva localidad para este geco constituye una oportunidad para su conservación. Se discuten algunos tópicos relacionados con el posible origen de esta nueva población. Esta nueva localidad representa el registro documentado más al Este para la especie. 

  11. Morphogenesis of extraembryonic membranes and placentation in Mabuya mabouya (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, Adriana; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2003-11-01

    structures and a novel arrangement of extraembryonic membrane morphogenesis for Squamata.

  12. Ultrastructure of the ovarian follicles in the placentotrophic Andean lizard of the genus Mabuya (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simón; de Pérez, Gloria Romero; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2010-06-01

    We studied the ultrastructural organization of the ovarian follicles in a placentotrophic Andean lizard of the genus Mabuya. The oocyte of the primary follicle is surrounded by a single layer of follicle cells. During the previtellogenic stages, these cells become stratified and differentiated in three cell types: small, intermediate, and large globoid, non pyriform cells. Fluid-filled spaces arise among follicular cells in late previtellogenic follicles and provide evidence of cell lysis. In vitellogenic follicles, the follicular cells constitute a monolayered granulosa with large lacunar spaces; the content of their cytoplasm is released to the perivitelline space where the zona pellucida is formed. The oolemma of younger oocytes presents incipient short projections; as the oocyte grows, these projections become organized in a microvillar surface. During vitellogenesis, cannaliculi develop from the base of the microvilli and internalize materials by endocytosis. In the juxtanuclear ooplasm of early previtellogenic follicles, the Balbiani's vitelline body is found as an aggregate of organelles and lipid droplets; this complex of organelles disperses in the ooplasm during oocyte growth. In late previtellogenesis, membranous organelles are especially abundant in the peripheral ooplasm, whereas abundant vesicles and granular material occur in the medullar ooplasm. The ooplasm of vitellogenic follicles shows a peripheral band constituted by abundant membranous organelles and numerous vesicular bodies, some of them with a small lipoprotein core. No organized yolk platelets, like in lecithotrophic reptiles, were observed. Toward the medullary ooplasm, electron-lucent vesicles become larger in size containing remains of cytoplasmic material in dissolution. The results of this study demonstrate structural similarities between the follicles of this species and other Squamata; however, the ooplasm of the mature oocyte of Mabuya is morphologically similar to the ooplasm of

  13. Record length, mass, and clutch size in the nonindigenous Burmese Python, Python bivittatus Kuhl 1820 (Squamata: Pythonidae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysko, Kenneth L.; Hart, Kristen M.; Smith, Brian J.; Selby, Thomas H.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Coutu, Nicholas T.; Reichart, Rebecca M.; Nuñez, Leroy P.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Snow, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    The Burmese Python, Python bivittatus Kuhl 1820 (Squamata: Pythonidae), is indigenous to northern India,east to southern China, and south to Vietnam and a few islands in Indonesia (Barker and Barker 2008, Reed and Rodda 2009). This species has been introduced since at least 1979 in southern Florida, USA, where it likely began reproducing and became established during the 1980s (Meshaka et al. 2000, Snowet al. 2007b,Kraus 2009, Krysko et al. 2011, Willson et al. 2011). Python bivittatus has been documented in Florida consuming a variety of mammals and birds, and the American Alligator(Alligator mississippiensis) (Snowet al. 2007a, 2007b; Harvey et al. 2008; Rochford et al. 2010b; Holbrook and Chesnes 2011), many of which are protected species. Herein, we provide details on two of the largest known wild P. bivittatus in Florida to date, including current records on length,mass,clutch size, and diet.

  14. Dimorfismo sexual de Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata: Teiidae en el sur del Estado de México, México Sexual dimorphism of Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata: Teiidae in the south of the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA AGUILAR-MORENO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El dimorfismo sexual es una característica extendida en lacertilios y se relaciona con la adecuación de los individuos. En este estudio se analizó si Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata presenta dimorfismo sexual al sur del Estado de México, México, especialmente en relación a su forma corporal altamente conservada dentro de la familia Teiidae. La población estudiada habita a 1500 msnm. Se utilizaron individuos adultos que fueron capturados y liberados durante estudios ecológicos. Para cada individuo se registró la longitud hocico-cloaca, el peso corporal, largo de la cabeza, ancho de la cabeza, alto de la cabeza, longitud del fémur y distancia interaxilar. Los análisis realizados indicaron que los machos fueron más grandes en longitud hocico-cloaca y peso; además presentaron dimensiones más grandes en cabeza y fémur que hembras de la misma longitud hocico-cloaca. La distancia interaxilar fue mayor en hembras que en machos de la misma longitud hocico-cloaca. El dimorfismo sexual de A. costata costata puede explicarse por selección sexual y selección por fecundidad.Sexual dimorphism is a widespread characteristic in lizards, and it has been related to the individual fitness. Sexual dimorphism was investigated in Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata to the south of the State of Mexico, Mexico, relating to its body proportions highly similar within the Teiidae. Study area was located at 1500 m. Adult individuals from mark-recapture study were used. Morphometric characteristics were measured in individuals of A. costata costata: snout-vent length, mass, head length, head width, head height, femur length and interlimb length. Males were larger than females for SVL and mass. At the same body, males had longer heads and femur and shorter interlimb length than did conspecific females. The sexual dimorphism of A. costata costata can be explained by selection sexual selection and fecundity selection.

  15. Tupinambis teguixin Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae) : First record for the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Benício, Ronildo Alves; Fonseca, Mariluce Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Tupinambis teguixin Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae). Brazil, state of Piauí, municipality of Barras, (4º14'40" S, 42º17'40" W, 70 m a.s.l.). Collector: Ronildo Alves Benício. In 09 July 2011 at 10:30 an adult specimen (SVL 2750 mm) was caught foraging in an open area with vegetation characteristic of transition Caatinga-Cerrado, and deposited in the Coleção Herpetológica Jorge Jim (CHJJ 0666) of the Laboratório de Ecologia da Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI)–Campus Picos.

  16. A new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) and other helminths in Cyrtodactylus gubaot (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Siler, Cameron D; Brown, Rafe M

    2015-12-01

    Cosmocerca leytensis sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Cyrtodactylus gubaot (Squamata: Gekkonidae) collected on Leyte Island, Philippines is described and illustrated. Cosmocerca leytensis sp. nov. is the 30th species assigned to the genus, the 4th from the Oriental region, and the first from the Philippine Islands. The new species is most similar to those species possessing 4 pairs of plectanes, i.e., C. archeyi, C. australis, C. oroensis, and C sardiniae. Cosmocerca sardiniae lacks lateral alae; C. archeyi, C. australis, C. leytensis sp. nov. and C. oroensis possess lateral alae. Spicule length of C. oroensis is less than 75 μm, while C. archeyi, C. australis, and C. leytensis sp. nov. have spicule lengths greater than 75 μm. Males of C. australis possess 2 pairs of rosette caudal papillae, which are lacking in C. archeyi and C. leytensis sp. nov. Females of C. archeyi posses a conical tail, females of C. leytensis sp. nov. have a rounded posterior end supporting a flexible filament.

  17. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Tschopp

    Full Text Available Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata. Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  18. Autocrine and paracrine Shh signaling are necessary for tooth morphogenesis, but not tooth replacement in snakes and lizards (Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrigan, Gregory R; Richman, Joy M

    2010-01-01

    Here we study the role of Shh signaling in tooth morphogenesis and successional tooth initiation in snakes and lizards (Squamata). By characterizing the expression of Shh pathway receptor Ptc1 in the developing dentitions of three species (Eublepharis macularius, Python regius, and Pogona vitticeps) and by performing gain- and loss-of-function experiments, we demonstrate that Shh signaling is active in the squamate tooth bud and is required for its normal morphogenesis. Shh apparently mediates tooth morphogenesis by separate paracrine- and autocrine-mediated functions. According to this model, paracrine Shh signaling induces cell proliferation in the cervical loop, outer enamel epithelium, and dental papilla. Autocrine signaling within the stellate reticulum instead appears to regulate cell survival. By treating squamate dental explants with Hh antagonist cyclopamine, we induced tooth phenotypes that closely resemble the morphological and differentiation defects of vestigial, first-generation teeth in the bearded dragon P. vitticeps. Our finding that these vestigial teeth are deficient in epithelial Shh signaling further corroborates that Shh is needed for the normal development of teeth in snakes and lizards. Finally, in this study, we definitively refute a role for Shh signaling in successional dental lamina formation and conclude that other pathways regulate tooth replacement in squamates.

  19. A survey of neonicotinoid use and potential exposure to northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) in the Rolling Plains of Texas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Peper, Steven T; Dunham, Nicholas R; Kumar, Naveen; Kistler, Whitney; Almas, Sadia; Presley, Steven M; Kendall, Ronald J

    2016-06-01

    Northern bobwhite (quail) (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) populations have declined dramatically in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma (USA). There is rising concern about potential toxicity of neonicotinoids to birds. To investigate this concern, the authors examined crops of 81 northern bobwhite and 17 scaled quail to determine the presence or absence of seeds treated with 3 neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam). No treated seeds were found in the 98 crops examined. Liver samples from all 98 quail were collected and analyzed for neonicotinoid residues. Analysis revealed very low concentrations of neonicotinoids within the quail liver samples. The results suggest there is little to no risk of direct toxicity to quail from neonicotinoids. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1511-1515. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. First assessment of the endoparasitic nematode fauna of four psammophilous species of Tropiduridae (Squamata: Iguania endemic to north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lambertz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropiduridae (Squamata: Iguania is a lizard taxon widely distributed in the neotropics. Among its representatives, some species are classified as generalists regarding habitat usage. Others exhibit a very restricted and probably relict distribution, and are strongly associated with predominantly sandy and dry habitats. Within this rather ecologically similar than phylogenetically closely related group we examined specimens of Eurolophosaurus amathites, E. divaricatus, Tropidurus hygomi, T. psammonastes for endoparasites. In all four species examined we recorded parasitic nematodes (Nemathelminthes: Nematoda. At least three nematode species were recovered: Parapharyngodon sp., Physaloptera lutzi and Strongyluris oscari, with Ph. lutzi being the most abundant parasite encountered in all lizard species examined. In spite of the hosts’ habitat specialization, these parasites are also found frequently in non-psammophilous tropidurid species as well as in other squamates. Individual species richness per lizard was low, with usually just one species parasitizing at a time. These are the first parasites registered for these tropidurids and constitute a total of six new host records.

  1. Répteis squamata de remanescentes florestais do Campus da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sales, Raul Fernandes Dantas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Inventários faunísticos são fundamentais para o conhecimento da biodiversidade e, conseqüentemente, para o planejamento e tomada de decisões sobre estratégias de conservação. Para conhecer a diversidade e composição dos répteis Squamata, assim como a distribuição das espécies por microhábitat em três fragmentos florestais na área do Campus da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, efetuaram-se excursões quinzenais diurnas, de março a junho de 2008. As buscas ativas foram realizadas ao longo de transecções percorridas aleatoriamente, efetuando-se os registros das espécies, dos microhábitats e do horário de observação. Um total de 92 espécimes, correspondentes a 10 espécies, foi coletados nas três áreas estudadas. A consulta da Coleção Herpetológica da UFRN possibilitou adicionar outras oito espécies, totalizando 18 espécies para o Campus da UFRN. As espécies mais abundantes foram Mabuya heathi, Hemidactylus mabouia e Tropidurus hispidus. O coeficiente de similaridade faunística binário de Sorensen mostrou 59 % de similaridade com os Squamata do Parque Estadual das Dunas do Natal (PEDN, área de conservação contígua com a área estudada. Apesar do grande adensamento urbano, os fragmentos florestais do Campus Central da UFRN abrigam espécies de formações abertas e de áreas florestadas, com destaque para os primeiros registros de Coleodactylus natalensis e de Amphisbaena heathi nessa vegetação relictual, fatos que justificam a preservação desses fragmentos em prol da manutenção destas espécies endêmicas do Rio Grande do Norte. Fauna inventories are crucial for increasing knowledge of biodiversity as well as for planning and conservation strategies. To assess the taxonomic composition and microhabitat distribution of squamate reptiles in three forest fragments on the campus of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, field collections were carried out quarterly from March

  2. Estado actual del registro de escamados extinguidos de América del Sur y sus implicancias paleoambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino, Adriana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The record of the South American fossil Squamata extends from the Late Cretaceous to the Holocene. The recorded families are Iguanidae s.l., Teiidae, Gekkonidae, ?Scincidae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Aniliidae, Colubridae and Viperidae Dinilysiidae from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia and Palaeopheidae from the Late Eocene of Ecuador are the only known extinct recorded families. The families distribution during the Cretaceous and most of the Tertiary apparently was more extensive than at present, due to more generalized subtropical climatic conditions. The geological events during the Cenozoic would have caused climatic and environmental changes that would have favoured the appeareance of new adaptative types and the restriction in the distribution of many forms.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among amphisbaenian reptiles based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-19

    Complete mitochondrial genomic sequences are reported from 12 members in the four families of the reptile group Amphisbaenia. Analysis of 11,946 aligned nucleotide positions (5,797 informative) produces a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. The family Rhineuridae is basal and Bipedidae is the sister taxon to the Amphisbaenidae plus Trogonophidae. Amphisbaenian reptiles are surprisingly old, predating the breakup of Pangaea 200 million years before present, because successive basal taxa (Rhineuridae and Bipedidae) are situated in tectonic regions of Laurasia and nested taxa (Amphisbaenidae and Trogonophidae) are found in Gondwanan regions. Thorough sampling within the Bipedidae shows that it is not tectonic movement of Baja California away from the Mexican mainland that is primary in isolating Bipes species, but rather that primary vicariance occurred between northern and southern groups. Amphisbaenian families show parallel reduction in number of limbs and Bipes species exhibit parallel reduction in number of digits. A measure is developed for comparing the phylogenetic information content of various genes. A synapomorphic trait defining the Bipedidae is a shift from the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement to the derived state of trnE and nad6. In addition, a tandem duplication of trnT and trnP is observed in B. biporus with a pattern of pseudogene formation that varies among populations. The first case of convergent rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome among animals demonstrated by complete genomic sequences is reported. Relative to most vertebrates, the Rhineuridae has the block nad6, trnE switched in order with cob, trnT, trnP, as they are in birds.

  4. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758) (Squamata: Iguanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF), La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre, 11º58'15.7"S, 68º00'22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores: Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero. Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre ...

  5. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  6. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses. PMID:27399970

  7. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonóra Szirovicza

    Full Text Available Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni, nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus, and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi, respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of a gecko and the phylogeneticposition of the Middle Eastern teratoscincus keyserlingii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Fong, Jonathan J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Shafiei,Soheila; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-04-22

    Sqamate reptiles are traditionally divided into six groups: Iguania, Anguimorpha, Scincomorpha, Gekkota (these four are lizards), Serpentes (snakes), and Amphisbaenia (the so-called worm lizards). Currently there are complete mitochondrial genomes from two representatives of the Iguania (Janke et al., 2001; Kumazawa, 2004), three from the Anguimorpha (Kumazawa, 2004; Kumazawa and Endo, 2004), two from the Scincomorpha (Kumazawa and Nishida, 1999; Kumazawa, 2004), two from Serpentes (Kumazawa et al., 1998; Kumazawa, 2004) and 12 from Amphisbaenia (Macey et al., 2004). The only traditional group of Squamata from which a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced is the Gekkota. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus keyserlingii, a Middle Eastern representative of the Gekkota. The gekkonid lizard genus Teratoscincus is distributed throughout the deserts of central and southwest Asia as shown in figure 1, with five species currently recognized (Macey et al. 1997a, 1999b). Included in this figure are the positions of mountain ranges discussed in the text; see also figure 1 in Macey et al. (1999b). Two species, T. bedriagai and T. microlepis, are restricted to Southwest Asia south of the Kopet Dagh and Hindu Kush in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (Anderson, 1999). Two species are found in the deserts of western China and Mongolia, with T. przewalskii occurring in the Taklimakan and lowland Gobi deserts, and T. roborowskii restricted to the Turpan Depression. The fifth species, T. scincus, is sometimes considered to be restricted to the Caspian Basin in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Alternatively, Teratoscincus populations in Southwest Asia, primarily on the Iranian Plateau, situated directly north of the Arabian Plate, are sometimes considered to be a subspecies of T. scincus or, otherwise, to constitute a sixth species, T. keyserlingii. Macey et al. (1999b) assessed the phylogenetic

  9. Three additional lizard (Squamata: Sauria records for Mizoram, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. Lalremsanga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We collected three additional species - Calotes maria, Calotes mystaceus and Ophisaurus gracilis which were not recorded previously from Mizoram. Ophisaurus gracilis (Family Anguidae represents a new family for the state.

  10. Nomenclatural issues in the Psammodromus hispanicus (Squamata: Lacertidae) species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    The Psammodromus hispanicus species group has been recently shown to include three lineages that differ in morphology (San-Jose et al. 2012), have largely parapatric range but exhibit little evidence of historical gene flow (Fitze et al. 2011), leading to the recognition of these three lineages as distinct species (Fitze et al. 2012). The eastern species can be unambiguously associated with the nomen Lacerta edwarsiana Dugès 1829, as the detailed information in Dugès (1829) leaves no doubt that he describes as Lacerta edwarsiana the local member of the P. hispanicus complex, and the type locality is the "bas Languedoc", an area of France equivalent to the lowland parts of the current Languedoc region where the only member of the complex is the eastern lineage. The types of Psammodromus edwarsianus have not been traced as far as I am aware, but given the lack of uncertainty regarding allocation of this nomen to the eastern lineage of the P. hispanicus complex this has no nomenclatural consequence. Two nomenclatural issues remain in this species group however: the aim of this note is to solve them.

  11. Nomenclature of African species of the genus Stenodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2013-01-01

    The statuses of proposed nomina of the North African species of the genus Stenodactylus have been revised based on the study of their original descriptions and the examination of their name-bearing types. Important nomenclatural actions proposed include the designation of a lectotype for the nomen Stenodactylus guttatus ensuring continuity of the prevailing usage of S. petrii, and the proposal of maintaining prevailing usage of Stenodactylus sthenodactylus by applying to the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature to set aside the existing name-bearing type and replace it with a neotype corresponding with that usage.

  12. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  13. Skull anatomy of the miniaturized gecko Sphaerodactylus roosevelti (Squamata: Gekkota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Juan D; Abdala, Virginia; Thomas, Richard; Bauer, Aaron M

    2008-11-01

    A detailed description of the skull and jaw of the gecko Sphaerodactylus roosevelti is presented. The bones are described articulated and isolated with special consideration given to the type of suture among joining elements. S. roosevelti was compared with 109 gekkotan species to evaluate the osteological variation and to find characters for cladistic analysis. Changes in the skull associated with the miniaturization process are discussed within the sphaerodactylid geckos. A noticeable increase of overlapping sutures was observed in the snout of the smallest sphaerodactylids compared to other gekkotans. This pattern is convergent with that in miniaturized pygopodids and may be attributed to adaptations for decreasing mechanical resistance of the cranium during feeding or burrowing. New cranial characters support Sphaerodactylinae as a monophyletic group and should be useful for resolving questions such as their relationship with other gekkotans.

  14. The circumorbital bones of the Gekkota (Reptilia: Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Juan Diego; Bauer, Aaron Matthew

    2010-03-01

    The enormous variation of the orbit in lepidosaurs is better conceptualized in terms of composition and configuration. Broadly, the orbit varies from having totally closed rim to being open posteriorly. Two processes are responsible for changes in the components of the circumorbital series, element loss and fusion. The resulting contacts among elements are the main factors determining orbital configuration. Here, we present a revision of the gekkotan circumorbital bones in the general context of the Lepidosauria. From observations of a sample of 105 species of gekkotans prepared using different techniques, we describe the main changes in the orbit and corroborate the presence or absence of some of the ambiguous elements such as the lacrimal and the jugal. The supraorbital bones of squamates are reviewed and some problems of homology are evaluated using recent phylogenenetic hypothesis.

  15. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  16. Polydactyly in the central pacific gecko, Lepidodactylus sp. (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.M.; Hathaway, S.A.; Fisher, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of naturally occurring polydactyly in a gekkotan lizard. A single individual from Palmyra Atoll exhibited a triplication of digit III of the m hand. No obvious teratogenic sources are present on the atoll and the causal factors of polydactyly in Lepidodactylus sp. remain unknown.

  17. Neuromuscular Activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae Venom in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Carbajal-Saucedo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have examined the neuromuscular activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Mexican coral snake venom (MLV in vertebrate isolated nerve-muscle preparations. In chick biventer cervicis preparations, the MLV induced an irreversible concentration- and time-dependent (1–30 µg/mL neuromuscular blockade, with 50% blockade occurring between 8 and 30 min. Muscle contractures evoked by exogenous acetylcholine were completely abolished by MLV, whereas those of KCl were also significantly altered (86% ± 11%, 53% ± 11%, 89% ± 5% and 89% ± 7% for one, three, 10 and 30 µg of venom/mL, respectively; n = 4; p < 0.05. In mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations, MLV (1–10 µg/mL promoted a slight increase in the amplitude of twitch-tension (3 µg/mL, followed by neuromuscular blockade (n = 4; the highest concentration caused complete inhibition of the twitches (time for 50% blockade = 26 ± 3 min, without exhibiting a previous neuromuscular facilitation. The venom (3 µg/mL induced a biphasic modulation in the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs/min, causing a significant increase after 15 min, followed by a decrease after 60 min (from 17 ± 1.4 (basal to 28 ± 2.5 (t15 and 12 ± 2 (t60. The membrane resting potential of mouse diaphragm preparations pre-exposed or not to d-tubocurarine (5 µg/mL was also significantly less negative with MLV (10 µg/mL. Together, these results indicate that M. laticollaris venom induces neuromuscular blockade by a combination of pre- and post-synaptic activities.

  18. Earliest example of a giant monitor lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack L Conrad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Varanidae is a clade of tiny (600 mm PCL lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis, although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new Varanus from the Mytilini Formation (Turolian, Miocene of Samos, Greece is described. The holotype consists of a partial skull roof, right side of a braincase, partial posterior mandible, fragment of clavicle, and parts of six vertebrae. A cladistic analysis including 83 taxa coded for 5733 molecular and 489 morphological characters (71 previously unincluded demonstrates that the new fossil is a nested member of an otherwise exclusively East Asian Varanus clade. The new species is the earliest-known giant (>600 mm PCL terrestrial lizard. Importantly, this species co-existed with a diverse continental mammalian fauna. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new monitor is larger (longer than 99% of known fossil and living lizards. Varanus includes, by far, the largest limbed squamates today. The only extant non-snake squamates that approach monitors in maximum size are the glass-snake Pseudopus and the worm-lizard Amphisbaena. Mosasauroids were larger, but exclusively marine, and occurred only during the Late Cretaceous. Large, extant, non-Varanus, lizards are limbless and/or largely isolated from mammalian competitors. By contrast, our new Varanus achieved gigantism in a continental environment populated by diverse eutherian mammal competitors.

  19. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.

    2011-01-01

    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  20. Morphological variation in the tropical anole, Anolis casildae (Squamata: Polychrotidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, K E; Roberto Ibáñez, D; Jaramillo, C A; Lips, K R

    2001-06-01

    We describe morphological variation (scalation and coloration) observed among eight individuals of the Panamanian lizard species Anolis casildae. This variation was not observed in the holotype and aids in identification of this recently described species (originally described on the basis of a single, male specimen). This species occurs only in the Reserva Forestal Fortuna (Chiriquí Province) and the adjacent Bosque Protector Palo Seco (Bocas del Toro Province) in western Panama. Anolis casildae can be distinguished from all other Panamanian anole species via six features: (1) two enlarged superciliary scales (the first larger than the second); (2) an anterior nasal scale in contact with the rostral scale or separated from the rostral by one scale; (3) 6-8 sublabial scales to the center of the eye; (4) 3-4 scales between the supraobital semicircles; (5) unique coloration (4-6 oblique brown bands interspersed by blue-outlined yellow patches; dewlap is a dirty cream color with broad yellow scale rows irregularly interspersed with smaller emerald green scales) and (6) A. casildae occurs from 1,050 to 1,400 m in the Cordillera Central. We also compare our natural history observations of A. casildae to a similar large anole, A. frenatus, a species which we believe A. casildae to be closely related.

  1. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Di Giacomo

    Full Text Available Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i widely occur in erythrocytes, ii are polarized, and iii seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation.

  2. Geographic distribution of Psychosaura agmosticha (Rodrigues, 2000 (Squamata, Mabuyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo José Correia Magalhães Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During fauna rescue activities of the integration project of the São Francisco River and other ba sins of the northern part of Northeast Brazil, 39 individuals of Psychosaura agmosticha (Rodrigues, 2000 were collected in the states of Ceará, Paraíba and Pernambuco, located in Northeast Brazil. We compared our recordings with those found in the literature and observed that P. agmosticha can occur in four different phytophysiognomies: sandy dunes of the San Francisco River, shrubby caatinga, arboreal caatinga, and forest remnants and ecotone formations. In spite of the expansion of the known geographic distribution and new records of P. agmosticha, the species retains its character of relictual distribution, due to its occurrence being related to the presence of bromeliads. Furthermore, we suggest that this species is not totally endemic to the caatinga biome.

  3. Allantoplacental ultrastructure of an Andean population of Mabuya (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; De Pérez, Gloria; Carreño-Escobar, J Fernando

    2006-10-01

    Mabuya species are highly matrotrophic viviparous lizards with Type IV epitheliochorial allantoplacenta. The allantoplacenta of an Andean population of this genus, currently assigned to Mabuya sp., possesses specializations related to histotrophic nutrition at the embryonic hemisphere (placentome, paraplacentome, and chorionic areolas), while at the abembryonic hemisphere it has a mixed function: histotrophic transfer (absorptive plaques) and hemotrophic nutrition (gas exchange in respiratory segments). These placental specializations were studied using high-resolution light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and were compared with those found in other squamate reptiles and eutherian mammals. Cytological features of the placentome suggest that this is an important region for nutritional provision; the paraplacentome also shows characteristics for nutrient transfer, especially lipids. Chorionic areolas allow the absorption of glandular products, as well as uterine and chorionic cellular debris produced by lysis of some cells of both epithelia during areola formation. In the absorptive plaques both uterine and chorionic epithelia are firmly attached and their cellular apices exhibit electron-dense granules that could be related to autocrine and paracrine functions. The short interhemal distance found in the respiratory segments confirms their role in gas exchange. A common feature of all regional specializations in the Mabuya sp. allantoplacenta is the presence of lipids in the interacting chorionic and uterine epithelia, suggesting that lipids are transferred throughout the entire embryonic chamber; placental transfer of lipids may be the principal fetal energy and lipid source in this species. In spite of this feature, each one of the specialized areas of the allantoplacenta has different features suggesting particular functions in the transfer of nutrients (as ions, lipids, proteins, amino acids, sugar, water, and gases), and in the possible synthesis of hormones and proteins. The placental complexity observed in this species of Mabuya is greater than in any other reptile, and resembles that of eutherian mammals: Each one of these specializations of the placental membranes in Mabuya sp. is similar to those found among different eutherian mammals, indicating a very impressive evolutionary convergence at the histological and cytological levels between both clades. However, no eutherian mammal species simultaneously displays all of these specializations in the embryonic chamber as does Mabuya sp.

  4. A new rock dwelling Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, B H C K; Bauer, Aaron; Lajmi, Aparna; Agarwal, Ishan; Giri, Varad B

    2015-09-25

    A distinct new species of gecko of the genus Hemidactylus is described from the Kanker district of Chhattisgarh State, east-central India. This large-sized (SVL average 81.33±13.40 to at least 98.0 mm) Hemidactylus is characterized by a dorsum with small granules, intermixed with 10-12 rows of irregularly arranged, slightly larger, rounded, weakly-keeled tubercles at midbody; 10-12 and 13-15 subdigital lamellae on the first and fourth digits, respectively, of both manus and pes; a single enlarged postcloacal tubercle on either side of the tail; 10-12 femoral pores on each thigh separated by 5-8 poreless scales; 12-14 supralabials and 10-12 infralabials.

  5. A new species of Anolis lizard (Squamata, Iguania from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Poe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Anolis is described from western Panama and eastern Costa Rica. Populations of the new form were previously allocated to A. chocorum. However, the new species differs from A. chocorum in characters of color pattern, scalation and proportion.

  6. Esqueleto pré-sacral e sacral dos lagartos teiêdeos (Squamata, Teiidae Pressacral and sacral skeleton of teiids lizards (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Betina Veronese

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the axial skeleton -pressacral and sacral regions - of the nine genera of Teiidae Boulenger, 1885 comprising Ameiva Meyer, 1795, Callopistes Gravenhorst, 1838, Cnemidophorus Wagler, 1830, Crocodilurus Spix, 1825, Dicrodon Duméril & Bibron, 1839, Dracaena Daudin, 1802, Kenlropyx Spix, 1825, Teius Merrem, 1820 and Tupinambis Daudin, 1803 is here analysed under a comparative approach. The study is in a generic levei, and the principal conclusions reter to differences on the total number of vertebrae and some aspects of the ribs, especially their insertion and presence.

  7. Patrones de osificación en Tupinambis merianae y Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae) y patrones generales en Squamata

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Se describe la variación ontogenética del esqueleto de 13 embriones de Tupinambis merianae y 11 de Tupinambis rufescens, detectándose heterocronías entre ambas especies. Los resultados muestran que los elementos dermales (tanto del cráneo como de la cintura pectoral) osifican antes que los elementos condrales, siendo los elementos que forman la mandíbula inferior, el paladar (especialmente los palatinos y los pterigoides) y la clavícula los primeros en osificarse, mientras que los elementos d...

  8. Natural history of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae in a Cerrado region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Dal Vechio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt & Luetken, 1861 is a microteiid lizard widely distributed in the open areas of South America. Little is known about its ecology and reproductive biology. Here, we analyzed aspects of the natural history of a population of M. maximiliani from a Cerrado area in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. Our results suggest that the reproductive activity of M. maximiliani might be seasonal in the Cerrado, since reproductive females were observed only in the dry season, whereas reproductive males were present in both seasons. Vitellogenic follicles and oviductal eggs were found simultaneously in one female, suggesting that females may produce more than one clutch per season. Sexual dimorphism was observed in body shape, and individuals were mainly restricted to a typical savanna physiognomy. The diet consisted of small arthropods, including spiders, crickets and cockroaches as the most important items.

  9. Natural history of Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon (Squamata, Xenosauridae, a Knob-scaled Lizard from Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Lemos-Espinal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We made observations on the natural history of a population of the lizard Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon from Oaxaca, Mexico. Females were larger than males (SVL. Most lizards were found completely inside rock crevices. Mean body temperature was 20.3°C. Body temperature wasrelated primarily to substrate temperature. Body temperature was not influenced by any crevice characteristic. Based on abdominal palpation, the size at maturity for females appears to be 117-119 mm SVL. Sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. We compare the ecology of this population to that of other Xenosaurus.

  10. Autoecology of Dryadosaura nordestina (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae from Atlantic forest fragments in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian A. Garda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Life history parameters such as diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism are crucial to understand ecological and evolutionary forces shaping species traits. Nevertheless, such information is scant in the literature for most Neotropical squamates. Gymnophthalmidae contains over 242 species in 46 genera and includes small-size, mostly terrestrial species, although psamophilic, semi-aquatic, and low vegetation dwellers also occur. Dryadosaura is a monospecific genus - Dryadosaura nordestina Rodrigues et al., 2005 - , occurring in Atlantic Forest areas from Rio Grande do Norte to Northern Bahia, and little is known about its ecology and natural history. We analyzed the species' diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism based on 170 specimens deposited in museum collections. Dryadosaura nordestina is considered generalist and active forager, based on dietary items. Arthropods, especially ants and insect larvae, dominate the diet. The reproductive period shows a peak during the rainy season (May through June, while recruitment occurs from July through November. Males are significantly larger than females, and sexes can also be distinguished based on shape variables: males have higher heads and longer bodies, while body height and width are larger in females.

  11. The rediscovery of the Common Water Monitor Lizard Varanus salvator (Squamata: Varanidae in northern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Sein Lin Oo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On 09 June 2015, a Common Water Monitor Varanus salvator (Laurenti, 1768 was observed and photographed (Image 1 on the campus of Banmaw University, Banmaw (Bhamo, Kachin State, Myanmar (24018’15”N & 97015’52”E.  Subsequently, a second individual was observed 140km to the west at Banmauk, Sagaing Division (24024’N & 95051’E. These two observations are the first records of Varanus salvator from Upper Myanmar since Anderson (1878. It would be interesting to conduct follow-up studies to determine whether this is indeed a relict northern population. 

  12. Baseline values of micronuclei and comet assay in the lizard Tupinambis merianae (Teiidae, Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumburg, Laura G; Poletta, Gisela L; Siroski, Pablo A; Mudry, Marta D

    2012-10-01

    The Micronucleus test (MN) and Comet assay (CA) are currently the most widely used methods that allow the characterization of DNA damage induced by physical and chemical agents in wild species. The continuous expansion of the cultivated areas in Argentina, since the introduction of transgenic crops, mainly soy, in association with the increased use of pesticides, transformed deeply the natural environments where the lizard Tupinambis merianae (tegu lizard) occurs. Despite the fact that reptiles have shown to be excellent bioindicators of environmental contaminants, there is no record of genotoxicity studies in T. merianae. The aim of the present study was to adjust the MN test and CA protocols to be applied in erythrocytes of T. merianae, and determine the baseline values of DNA damage in this species. We used 20 adult lizards (10 males: 10 females) from Estación Zoológica Experimental "Granja La Esmeralda" (Santa Fe, Argentina). Peripheral blood samples were collected from all animals and the MN test and CA applied according to the protocols established for other reptilian species. We test critical parameters of CA protocol (cell density, unwinding and electrophoresis times) using increasing concentrations of H2O2 (10, 25 and 50 μM) as a known genotoxic agent to induce DNA damage. Based on this, we determined the most suitable conditions for the CA in this species: a cell density of 4×10(3) erythrocytes per slide, 10 min of unwinding and 15 min of electrophoresis at 0.90 V/cm approximately. The baseline frequency of micronuclei (BFMN=MN/1000 erythrocytes counted) determined for this species was 0.95±0.27 and the basal damage index (BDI: calculated from 100 comet images classified in arbitrary units)=103.85±0.97. No differences were observed between sexes in the BFMN or BDI (p>0.05), and no relation was found between baseline values and length or weight of the analyzed animals (p>0.05). These results demonstrated the sensitivity of both biomarkers of genotoxicity to be applied in erythrocytes of this species, with baseline values comparable to those reported in other reptilian species. These results allow us to propose the tegu lizard for future in vivo studies to assess the genotoxicity of different agents, including those possibly affecting it in its natural geographic distribution.

  13. Taxonomic identity of two enigmatic aquatic snake populations (Squamata: Homalopsidae: Cerberus and Homalopsis) from southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Olivier S G; Sumontha, Montri

    2016-05-02

    In their revision of the homalopsid genus Homalopsis Kuhl & Van Hasselt, Murphy et al. (2012) resurrected H. semizonata Blyth, 1855 and noted that ''Frith (1977) reported on two Homalopsis from Phuket, Thailand with 40 and 42 dorsal scale rows, and 159 and 162 ventrals-scale counts within the range of H. semizonata which is found along the same coast, about 900 km to the north''. Murphy et al. (2012), however, did not list H. semizonata from Thailand, and on their species' distribution map they indicated an interrogation mark along the southern coast of Myanmar and the southwestern coast of peninsular Thailand. It should be noted that Murphy et al. (2012) misread Frith: while one of the two specimens reported by Frith was indeed from Phuket (''from the rocky edge of a stream torrent in good forest east of Thalang, central Phuket Island''), the other was from ''Klong Nakha, 80 kilometeres [sic] south of Ranong in lowland rain forest with some clearings and dwellings'', thus in Ranong Province, closer to the border with Myanmar. Nabhitabhata et al. (2004) recognized a single Homalopsis species in Thailand, H. buccata, which they listed for numerous provinces, including Phuket, based on Frith's (1977) record. Among the two Homalopsis species recognized to occur in Thailand by Nabhitabhata and Chan-ard (2005), H. buccata and H. nigroventralis, none was recorded by them from Phuket Province, but H. buccata was listed from, among others, the neighbouring provinces of Phang-Nga and Ranong. Chuaynkern & Chuaynkern (2012) recognized the same two species, and listed H. buccata from, among others, the provinces of Phang-Nga, Phuket and Ranong. Cox et al. (2012) listed three Homalopsis for Thailand (H. buccata, H. mereljcoxi and H. nigroventralis), and indicated that H. mereljcoxi is the species occurring, a.o., in Phang-Nga, Phuket and Ranong provinces. Wallach et al. (2014) noted that H. semizonata lives in southern Myanmar near sea level, but also that it ''possibly occurs in Phuket''. Chan-ard et al. (2015), in their field guide whose reptile taxonomy is largely outdated (Pauwels & Grismer 2015), recognized only Homalopsis nigroventralis and H. buccata and the map for the latter indicates its presence in Phuket and Phang-Nga provinces. In the most recent synthesis on the family Homalopsidae, Murphy & Voris (2014) made however no mention of the possibility that H. semizonata occurs in Thailand. Because of the lack of voucher material, the identity of the Homalopsis living on the Indian Ocean coastal area of Thailand has thus remained poorly understood so far.

  14. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pérez-Cembranos

    Full Text Available Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource.

  15. A Tylosaurine Mosasauridae (Squamata from the Late Cretaceous of the Basque-Cantabrian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corral, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An isolated mosasaurid tooth from the Campanian of Alava (Basque Country, previously referred to as cf. Mosasaurus sp., is here reattributed to a tylosaurine. It may belong to Tylosaurus, a nearly cosmopolitan genus known from the Santonian-Maastrichtian. This is the first occurrence of a tylosaurine mosasaurid in the Iberian Peninsula. Moreover, it corresponds to the southernmost occurrence of this clade in the northern margin of the Mediterranean Tethys. ylosaurinae fossils are known from North America, Europe, New Zealand, Antarctica, Africa and Asia, but remain unknown from the southern Mediterranean Tethyan margin and from tropical palaeolatitudes.Un diente aislado de mosasaurio procedente del Campaniense de Álava (País Vasco, previamente asignado a cf. Mosasaurus sp., se atribuye en este trabajo a un tilosaurino. Podría pertenecer a Tylosaurus, un género cuasi cosmopolita del Santoniense-Maastrichtiense. Es la primera cita de un mosasáurido tilosaurino en la Península Ibérica. Además, se trata del registro más meridional de este clado en el margen norte del Tetis mediterráneo. Los Tylosaurinae están representados por fósiles en Norteamérica, Europa, Nueva Zelanda, Antártida, África y Asia, pero carecen de registro en el margen sur del Tetis mediterráneo y en paleolatitudes tropicales.

  16. Characterization of the Frictional Response of Squamata Shed Skin in Comparison to Human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Aal, H. A.; Mansori, M. El

    2010-01-01

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined rubbing response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its behavior according to the evolution of sliding conditions. Inspirations for such designs are frequently encountered in ...

  17. The fourth Bent-toed Gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L

    2015-12-22

    Cyrtodactylus petani sp. nov. is a new species of Bent-toed Gecko from Java, Indonesia that had been masquerading under the name C. fumosus (Müller, 1895). The new species is differentiated from C. fumosus and all its Sundaland congeners by having the following combination of morphological characters: a maximum SVL of 57.2 mm; nine or ten supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; strongly tuberculate body and limbs; 20-25 paravertebral tubercles; 30-35 ventral scales; enlarged precloacal scales; enlarged femoral scales; 17-18 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 31-35 continuous precloacal and femoral pores in males, pores absent in females; no precloacal groove; no enlarged median subcaudals; tubercles on anterior portion of tail; no reticulated pattern on top of head; a blotched dorsal pattern; and no paired, dark, semi-lunar shaped blotches on the nape.

  18. A new species of lizard of the genus Eublepharis (Squamata: Eublepharidae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan A. Mirza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new species of the genus Eublepharis from the Satpura Hills in central India. The new species closely resembles E. fuscus, but can be differentiated from it by the following suite of characters: SVL 125–130 mm; dome shaped tubercles lacking keels arranged in ~20 rows on dorsum, inter-tubercular space greater than width of a tubercle; 46–48 ocular fringe scales, three pale bands between the nuchal loop and caudal constriction; medial subdigital lamellae smooth; 13–14 preanal pores, which may be interrupted medially by a single poreless scale. Description of the new species sheds light on the limited knowledge of Eublepharis in India. We provided in identification key to the species of the genus Eublepharis.

  19. The peak of thermoregulation effectiveness: Thermal biology of the Pyrenean rock lizard, Iberolacerta bonnali (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Zaida; Mencía, Abraham; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-02-01

    We studied, at 2200m altitude, the thermal biology of the Pyrenean rock lizard, Iberolacerta bonnali, in the glacial cirque of Cotatuero (National Park of Ordesa, Huesca, Spain). The preferred thermal range (PTR) of I. bonnali indicates that it is a cold-adapted ectotherm with a narrow PTR (29.20-32.77°C). However, its PTR (3.57°C) is twice as wide as other Iberolacerta lizards, which may be explained by its broader historical distribution. The studied area is formed by a mosaic of microhabitats which offer different operative temperatures, so that lizards have, throughout their entire daily period of activity, the opportunity to choose the most thermally suitable substrates. I. bonnali achieves an effectiveness of thermoregulation of 0.95, which makes it the highest value found to date among the Lacertidae, and one of the highest among lizards. Their relatively wide distribution, their wider PTR, and their excellent ability of thermoregulation, would make I. bonnali lizards less vulnerable to climate change than other species of Iberolacerta. Thanks to its difficult access, the studied area is not visited by a large number of tourists, as are other areas of the National Park. Thus, it is a key area for the conservation of the Pyrenean rock lizard. By shuttling between suitable microhabitats, lizards achieve suitable body temperatures during all day. However, such thermally suitable microhabitats should vary in other traits than thermal quality, such as prey availability or predation risk. Hence, it seems that these not-thermal traits are not constraining habitat selection and thermoregulation in this population. Therefore, future research in this population may study the causes that would lead lizards to prioritize thermoregulation to such extent in this population.

  20. The demography of the lizard Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a highly seasonal Neotropical savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga C. Wiederhecker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The demography of a population of Tropidurus torquatus was studied from March 1996 until December 1998, in the Cerrado biome of the Central Brazil, using the method of capture and recapture. Population size, number of incoming individuals in the population, and age structure varied seasonally, reflecting the reproductive cycle of the species. The instantaneous rate of population increase did not differ from zero throughout the study. In general, the permanence rate of juveniles and adults were low, indicating a large turnover of individuals in the population, with a maximum life expectancy of three years. The sex-ratio among adults was biased toward females. Since no bias was observed among juveniles and there was no difference in adults permanence between sexes, we suggestet that the biased adult sex-ratio resulted from a lower permanence of males during a short ontogenetic period, when secondary sexual characteristics develop. When compared to T. itambere, the studied population of T. torquatus attained a higher density and a greater female bias in the sex-ratio. In general, the studied population presented characteristics that, according to life history theory, should be associated with early age at maturity and polyginy: short life expectancy, high population turnover, and female biased sex-ratios.

  1. Postcranial Anatomy of the Mesozoic Dalinghosaurus (Squamata):Evidence from a New Specimen of Western Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shu'an; JI Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The postcranial skeleton of a new specimen of the long-tailed lizard Dalinghosaurus longidigitus was excavated from the Yixian Formation in Lingyuan, western Liaoning. The new specimen provides more anatomical information about this species, especially about the anterior dorsal vertebrae, shoulder girdle and forelimbs. This lizard can be included within the clade Scleroglossa by its 27 or more presacrals, moderately long pubis, and gently notched distal end of tibia. But the detailed systematic position for this taxon remains undetermined. The features of the much longer hind limbs and pes compared with forelimbs and manus, metatarsal IV longer than III, pedal phalanges robust, and penultimate phalanx not longer than other phalanges etc. suggest that this lizard was a running and ground swelling animal.

  2. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  3. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cembranos, Ana; León, Alicia; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain). We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource.

  4. Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible, site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.

  5. Defense behavior and tail loss in the endemic lizard Eurolophosaurus nanuzae (Squamata, Tropiduridae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado A. B. Galdino

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Defense behavior of the endemic tropidurid lizard Eurolophosaurus nanuzae was studied in an area of rocky outcrops at Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Tail loss aspects of this species were also studied in lizards from three populations (Diamantina, Serra do Cipó, and Serro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Lizards relied primarily on crypsis to avoid detection by predators. Secondary defense strategies involved a complex set of behaviors. Mean maximum distance of flight was 1.68 ± 1.70 m. When captured,individuals attempted to flee, lifted the tail, produced distress calls, discharged the cloacal contents, waived their tails, and bit. Frequency of tail autotomy was 13.2% (n = 53 in Diamantina, 11.9% (n = 42 in Serra do Cipó, and 4.1% (n = 49 in Serro. Tail autotomy frequency did not differ among the three populations (X2 = 3.3, DF =2, p = 0.19. Tail autotomy did not vary between the years of the study (X2 = 1.32, p = 0.35 and did not differ between males and females among the studied populations.

  6. High frequency of pauses during intermittent locomotion of small South American gymnophthalmid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Höfling

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the locomotor behavior of two closely-related species of Gymnophthalmini lizards, Vanzosaura rubricauda and Procellosaurinus tetradactylus, that was imaged under laboratory conditions at a rate of 250 frames/s with a high-speed video camera (MotionScope PCI 1000 on four different substrates with increasing degrees of roughness (smooth perspex, cardboard, glued sand, and glued gravel. Vanzosaura rubricauda and P. tetradactylus are both characterized by intermittent locomotion, with pauses occurring with high frequency and having a short duration (from 1/10 to 1/3 s, and taking place in rhythmic locomotion in an organized fashion during all types ofgaits and on different substrates. The observed variations in duration and frequency of pauses suggest that in V. rubricauda mean pause duration is shorter and pause frequency is higher than in P. tetradactylus. The intermittent locomotion observed in V.rubricauda and P. tetradactylus imaging at 250 frames/s is probably of interest for neurobiologists. In the review of possible determinants, the phylogenetic relationships among the species of the tribe Gymnophthalmini are focused. Keywords: .

  7. A new species of Liolaemus (Reptilia: Squamata: Tropiduridae from Mendoza province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheridge, Richard

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Una nueva especie del complejo Liolaemus darwinii es descrita para el centro de la provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. Se parece más a L. olongasta y L. laurenti en que los machos adultos tienen pigmento negro en el pliegue antehumeral y manchas escapulares que no son agrandadas. Difiere de estas especies en tener un cuerpo adulto menor, un número mayor de escamas en la mitad del cuerpo, una cola más corta y un mayor número de poros precloacales en machos, y un patrón ventral distinto en machos adultos. En el norte de su distribución se encuentra L. darwinii en el norte de la provincia de Mendoza y en la provincia de San Luis, y en el sur en el oeste de la provincia de La Pampa, en el noroeste de la provincia de Neuquén y en la provincia de Río Negro, pero se desconoce si estas poblaciones del norte y del sur de L. darwtnii están separadas por la distribución de la nueva especie. Análisis cladísticos basados en comportamiento, morfología y secuencias de DNA muestran filogenias conflictivas, pero concuerdan en que la nueva especie es un miembro del grupo boulengeri, con afinidades más cercanas a L. darwinii, L. olongasta y L. laurenti. A new species,of the Liolaemus darwinii complex is described from central Mendoza Province, Argentina. It most closely resembles L. olongasta and L. laurenti in that adult males have black pigment in the antehumeral fold and scapular spots that are not enlarged. It differs from these species in having a smaller adult body size, a higher number of midbody scales, a shorter tail, more precloacal pores in males, and a different adult male ventral body pattern. Its range is bordered by L. darwinii on the north in northern Mendoza and San Luis provinces, and on the south in western La Pampa and northwestern Neuquén and Río Negro provinces, but it is unknown whether these northern and southern populations of L. darwinii are separated by the range of the new species. Cladistic analyses based on behaviour, morphology, and DNA sequences yield conflicting phylogenies, but agree that the new species is a member of the boulengeri group, with closest affinities to L. darwinii, L. olongasta, and L. laurenti.

  8. Conquering Brazil: the invasion by the exotic gekkonid lizard Hemidactylus mabouia (Squamata in Brazilian natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico D. Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review the records regarding occurrence of Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau De Jonnès, 1818 in Brazil, looking for records of the species in natural habitats, in order to assess the present status of this gecko as an exotic or invasive alien species in the country. We surveyed the available records of H. mabouia living in natural conditions, considering secondary data obtained from the literature, supplemented with original field records obtained by the authors during fieldwork. We found a total of 36 records in the literature and/or field records reporting the occurrence of H. mabouia in natural habitats in 36 different localities in 13 Brazilian states. The states presenting a higher number of records were Rio de Janeiro (seven, Bahia, São Paulo (six, and Espírito Santo (five different areas. We show that the invasion of Brazilian natural habitats by H. mabouia has taken place for some decades. Presently we have consistent records that it has invaded natural habitats in 13 Brazilian states. This suggests thatit is important to start monitoring H. mabouia in order to measure the rate and effectiveness of its establishment in natural habitats in Brazil and also to evaluate the potential negative effects of this invasion on sympatric species.

  9. Clutch size in populations and species of cnemidophorines (Squamata: Teiidae on the eastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDERLAINE A. MENEZES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed some reproductive aspects of 16 coastal populations, belonging to five lizard species (A. ocellifera, A. abaetensis, A. nativo, A. littoralis and C. lacertoides from different restinga habitats along the eastern coast of Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate to what extent the reproductive aspects vary geographically and among species. For each female, we recorded the number of vitellogenic follicles, size and color of the largest follicle, presence and size of corpora lutea, and number and size of oviductal eggs. Clutch size of almost all coastal populations/species of Ameivula had little variation and most clutches were composed of two eggs. There was a significant relationship between female size and the mean clutch size when females from different species were pooled. Mean egg volume, among species, varied from 420 to 655 mm3. Relative clutch mass varied from 0.129 to 0.159 and did not differ significantly among species. We concluded that the five coastal species studied (four bisexuals and one parthenogenetic had similar reproductive characteristics. Most of them presented multiple clutches, low clutch size and low relative clutch mass, similar to other species in the genus and to unisexual and bisexual species of the Teiidae family.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA Variability within Uromastyx ornata philbyi (Agamidae: Squamata from Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed A. M. Amer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2.4 kbp of mitochondrial DNA was sequenced from 9 individuals of Uromastyx ornata philbyi originating from Taif, Namas, Al-Baha, and Jazan in southwestern Saudi Arabia. The sequenced regions cover eight tRNA genes (tRNAGln, tRNAIle, tRNAMet, tRNATrp, tRNAAla, tRNAAsn, tRNACys, and tRNATyr and two protein-coding genes (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b. U. ornata philbyi had an insertion of 170 bp length between tRNAGln and tRNAIle genes. The first 128 bp of this insertion was similar to the one identified earlier in U. ornata ornata and can be folded into a stem-and-loop structure, which was less stable in U. ornata philbyi than in U. ornata ornata, or the second tRNAGln gene. The next 42 bp of the insertion was unique in U. ornata philbyi and additionally retained a stable stem-and-loop structure. Most base substitutions found in the sequenced genes were synonymous transitions rather than transversions. Tree analyses supported the sister group relationship between the two U. ornata subspecies and divided U. ornata philbyi into two groups: Taif+Namas group in the east of Sarawat and Al-Baha+Jazan group in the west of Sarawat. These molecular data are in agreement with current classification of U. ornata.

  11. Histological and morphological observations on tongue of Scincella tsinlingensis (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The histology and morphology characteristics of the tongue in Scincella tsinlingensis were studied by light and electronic microscopy. Under light microscopy, the tongue consists of tip, lingual body and radix in sequence. Numerous lingual papillae widely distribute on the surface of the dorsal and ventral flanks in the tongue, in addition to some regions of the tip. The papillae's surface is covered with the epithelial layer. The lamina propria and dense connective tissue are distinct existing under the epithelial layer. There are many lingual glands spread over the lamina propria. Tongue muscle is developed and composed of distinct intrinsic muscle, hyoglossus and genioglossus. By scanning electron microscopy, at higher magnification, the epithelial cells of the dorsal surface in the divaricate tongue tips show numerous microvilli, micro-ridges and micro-pores. The surface of dorsal side of the papillae in lingual body is covered with abundant of micro-ridges and taste bud lacuna. On the surface of the papillae in radix, micro-facets and micro-ridges are compactly distributed, as well as scattered mucilage-pores. The lingual epithelium is divided into four layers observed by the transmission electron microscope. Cells of basal layer are irregularly elliptical in shape, with sparse organelles in the cytoplasm. The deep intermediate layer is not always distinct. Small numbers of organelles are scattered into the cytoplasm. The cells of the superficial intermediate layer gradually flatten, as do their nuclei. The cytoplasm contains many keratohyalin granules. Cell membranes are formed processes around cells and joined by abundant desmosomes to the cell membranes of adjacent cells. The cells located on the extreme free-surface side of the keratinized layer have fallen off. The basal lamina is intercalated between the basal layer and the lamina propria. The lamina propria of lingual body contains lingual gland. A large part of the cytoplasm is occupied by mucus granules which located in the distal part of the cell. The connective tissue contains myelinated nerve fibers, vessel and muscle cells.

  12. A preliminary phylogeny of the Palearctic naked-toed geckos (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) with taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Aaron M; Masroor, Rafaqat; Titus-McQuillan, James; Heinicke, Matthew P; Daza, Juan D; Jackman, Todd R

    2013-01-08

    Palearctic naked-toed geckos are a group of gekkonid geckos that range from North Africa to northern India and western China, with their greatest diversity in Iran and Pakistan. Relationships among the constituent genera remain incompletely resolved and the monophyly of key genera remains unverified. Further, competing classifications are in current use and many species have been allocated to different genera by different authors. We used both mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear genes (RAG1, PDC) to explore relationships among representatives of all but one genus in the group (Rhinogecko), including four genera not previously included in phylogenetic analyses (Asiocolotes, Altigekko, Indogekko, and Siwaligekko). Siwaligekko (and presumably other Tibeto-Himalayan species often referred to Cyrtopodion) are more closely related to tropical Asian Cyrtodactylus than to Palearctic naked-toed geckos. Sampled species of Asiocolotes and Altigekko are sister taxa, but both genera are here considered junior subjective synonyms of Altiphylax. Cyrtopodion sensu lato is non-monophyletic; Mediodactylus and Tenuidactylus, which have variably been considered as subgenera or synonyms of Cyrtopodion are both valid genera. Indogekko is embedded within Cyrtopodion and is here treated as a subgenus. Bunopus and Crossobamon are closely related to one-another, and with Agamura are interdigitated among taxa previously assigned to Cyrtopodion. Our data confirm the previous identification of a Saharo-Arabian Stenodactylus/Tropiocolotes/Pseudoceramodactylus clade and verify that Microgecko and Alsophylax are not members of the main clade of Palearctic naked-toed geckos. Osteological differences between Tropiocolotes and Microgecko, formerly treated as congeneric, are discussed and illustrated. The divergence between Cyrtodactylus and the Palearctic naked-toed clade predates the initial collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates, but deeper divergences within both groups are consistent with mountain building in the Himalayas and adjacent ranges as promoting cladogenic events. Miocene divergences within Tenuidactylus are consistent with vicariant speciation caused by uplift events in the Iranian and Transcaspian regions. Taxonomic implications of our phylogenetic results are discussed and a preliminary allocation of all species of padless Palearctic gekkonids to genus is provided.

  13. Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Anatolian lizard Apathya (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapli, Paschalia; Botoni, Dimitra; Ilgaz, Cetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Avcı, Aziz; Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrullah; Fathinia, Behzad; Lymberakis, Petros; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2013-03-01

    Apathya is a lacertid genus occurring mainly in south-east Turkey and its adjacent regions (part of Iran and Iraq). So far two morphological species have been attributed to the genus; A. cappadocica (with five subspecies, A. c.cappadocica, A. c.muhtari, A. c.schmidtlerorum, A. c. urmiana and A. c.wolteri) and A.yassujica. The first species occupies most of the genus' distribution range, while A. yassujica is endemic of the Zagros Mountains. Here, we explored Apathya's taxonomy and investigated the evolutionary history of the species by employing phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches and using both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear markers. The phylogenetic relationships and the genetic distances retrieved, revealed that Apathya is a highly variable genus, which parallels its high morphological variation. Such levels of morphological and genetic differentiation often exceed those between species of other Lacertini genera that are already treated as full species, suggesting the necessity for a taxonomic revision of Apathya. The phylogeographical scenario emerging from the genetic data suggests that the present distribution of the genus was determined by a combination of dispersal and vicariance events between Anatolia and Southwest Asia dating back to the Miocene and continuing up to the Pleistocene. Key geological events for the understanding of the phylogeography of the genus are the movement of the Arabian plate that led to the configuration of Middle East (orogenesis of the mountain ranges of Turkey and Iran) and the formation of Anatolian Diagonal.

  14. Muscle fiber-type variation in lizards (Squamata) and phylogenetic reconstruction of hypothesized ancestral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonine, Kevin E; Gleeson, Todd T; Garland, Theodore

    2005-12-01

    Previously, we found that phrynosomatid lizards, a diverse group common in the southwestern USA, vary markedly in fiber-type composition of the iliofibularis (a hindlimb muscle important in locomotion). Phrynosomatidae comprises three subclades: the closely related sand and horned lizards, and their relatives the Sceloporus group. The variation in muscle fiber-type composition for 11 phrynosomatid species is attributable mainly to differences between the sand- and horned-lizard subclades. Here, we expand the phrynosomatid database with three additional species and compare these results with data collected for 10 outgroup (distantly related) species. Our goal was to determine if the patterns found in Phrynosomatidae hold across a broader phylogenetic range of the extant lizards and to elucidate the evolution of muscle fiber-type composition and related traits. To allow for meaningful comparisons, data were collected from species that are primarily terrestrial and relatively small in size (3.5-65 g body mass). Results indicate that the fiber-type variation observed within the Phrynosomatidae almost spans the range of variation observed in our sample of 24 species from eight families. However, one species of Acanthodactylus (Lacertidae) had a consistent region of large tonic fibers (that did not stain darkly for either succinic dehydrogenase or myosin ATPase activity), a fiber-type only occasionally seen in the other 23 species examined. Many species have a large proportion of either fast-twitch glycolytic (FG; e.g. sand lizards and Aspidoscelis) or fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers (e.g. horned lizards), with the slow-oxidative proportion occupying only 1-17% of the iliofibularis. Importantly, the negative relationship between FG and FOG composition observed in Phrynosomatidae appears to be a characteristic of lizards in general, and could lead to functional trade-offs in aspects of locomotor performance, as has previously been reported for Lacertidae. Reconstruction of ancestral trait values by use of phylogenetically based statistical methods indicates especially large changes in fiber-type composition during the evolution of horned lizards.

  15. Comparative analysis of fiber-type composition in the iliofibularis muscle of phrynosomatid lizards (Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonine, K E; Gleeson, T T; Garland, T

    2001-12-01

    The lizard family Phrynosomatidae comprises three subclades: the closely related sand and horned lizards, and their relatives the Sceloporus group. This family exhibits great variation in ecology, behavior, and general body plan. Previous studies also show that this family exhibits great diversity in locomotor performance abilities; as measured on a high-speed treadmill, sand lizards are exceptionally fast sprinters, members of the Sceloporus group are intermediate, and horned lizards are slowest. These differences are paralleled by differences in relative hindlimb span. To determine if muscle fiber-type composition also varies among the three subclades, we examined the iliofibularis (IF), a hindlimb muscle used in lizard locomotion, in 11 species of phrynosomatid lizards. Using histochemical assays for myosin ATPase, an indicator of fast-twitch capacity, and succinic dehydrogenase, denoting oxidative capacity, we classified fiber types into three categories based on existing nomenclature: fast-twitch glycolytic (FG), fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic (FOG), and slow-twitch oxidative (SO). Sand lizards have a high proportion of FG fibers (64-70%) and a low proportion of FOG fibers (25-33%), horned lizards are the converse (FG fibers 25-31%, FOG fibers 56-66%), and members of the Sceloporus group are intermediate for both FG (41-48%) and FOG (42-45%) content. Hence, across all 11 species %FOG and %FG are strongly negatively correlated. Analysis with phylogenetically independent contrasts indicate that this negative relationship is entirely attributable to the divergence between sand and horned lizards. The %SO also varies among the three subclades. Results from conventional nested ANCOVA (with log body mass as a covariate) indicate that the log mean cross-sectional area of individual muscle fibers differs among species and is positively correlated with body mass across species, but does not differ significantly among subclades. The log cross-sectional area of the IF varies among species, but does not vary among subclades. Conversely, the total thigh muscle cross-sectional area does not vary among species, but does vary among subclades; horned lizards have slimmer thighs. Muscle fiber-type composition appears to form part of a coadapted suite of traits, along with relative limb and muscle sizes, that affect the locomotor abilities of phrynosomatid lizards.

  16. Comparing alignment methods for inferring the history of the new world lizard genus Mabuya (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Alison S; Sites, Jack W; Pellegrino, Katia C M; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2006-03-01

    The rapid increase in the ability to generate molecular data, and the focus on model-based methods for tree reconstruction have greatly advanced the use of phylogenetics in many fields. The recent flurry of new analytical techniques has focused almost solely on tree reconstruction, whereas alignment issues have received far less attention. In this paper, we use a diverse sampling of gene regions from lizards of the genus Mabuya to compare the impact, on phylogeny estimation, of new maximum likelihood alignment algorithms with more widely used methods. Sequences aligned under different optimality criteria are analyzed using partitioned Bayesian analysis with independent models and parameter settings for each gene region, and the most strongly supported phylogenetic hypothesis is then used to test the hypothesis of two colonizations of the New World by African scincid lizards. Our results show that the consistent use of model-based methods in both alignment and tree reconstruction leads to trees with more optimal likelihood scores than the use of independent criteria in alignment and tree reconstruction. We corroborate and extend earlier evidence for two independent colonizations of South America by scincid lizards. Relationships within South American Mabuya are found to be in need of taxonomic revision, specifically complexes under the names M. heathi, M. agilis, and M. bistriata (sensu, M.T. Rodrigues, Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 41 (2000) 313).

  17. Resurrection of Bronchocela burmana Blanford, 1878 for the Green Crested Lizard (Squamata, Agamidae) of southern Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Mulcahy, Daniel G.; Vindum, Jens V.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent fieldwork in southern Tanintharyi revealed the presence of a small Green Crested Lizard in the wet evergreen forest. We generated mtDNA sequence data (ND2) that demonstrates that this population’s nearest relative is Bronchocela rayaensis Grismer et al., 2015 of Pulau Langkawi, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia and Phuket Island. Morphologically the Burmese Bronchocela shares many features with Bronchocela rayaensis, which potentially would make this recently described Thai-Malay species a synonym of Bronchocela burmana Blanford, 1878; however, we interpret the genetic and morphological differences to reflect evolutionary divergence and recommend the recognition of both species.

  18. Molecular systematics and undescribed diversity of Madagascan scolecophidian snakes (Squamata: Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán T; Marion, Angela B; Glaw, Frank; Miralles, Aurélien; Nopper, Joachim; Vences, Miguel; Hedges, S Blair

    2015-11-10

    We provide an updated molecular phylogenetic analysis of global diversity of typhlopid and xenotyphlopid blindsnakes, adding a set of Madagascan samples and sequences of an additional mitochondrial gene to an existing supermatrix of nuclear and mitochondrial gene segments. Our data suggest monophyly of Madagascan typhlopids, exclusive of introduced Indotyphlops braminus. The Madagascar-endemic typhlopid clade includes two species previously assigned to the genus Lemuriatyphlops (in the subfamily Asiatyphlopinae), which were not each others closest relatives. This contradicts a previous study that described Lemuriatyphlops based on a sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene from a single species and found this species not forming a clade with the other Malagasy species included. Based on our novel phylogenetic assessment we include all species in this endemic typhlopid clade in the genus Madatyphlops and in the subfamily Madatyphlopinae and consider Lemuriatyphlops as junior synonym. Within Madatyphlops, we identify several candidate species. For some of these (those in the M. arenarius complex), our preliminary data suggest sympatric occurrence and morphological differentiation, thus the existence of undescribed species. We also comment on the genus-level classification of several non-Madagascan typhlopids. We suggest that African species included in Madatyphlops (Afrotyphlops calabresii, A. cuneirostris, A. platyrhynchus, and Rhinotyphlops leucocephalus) should not be included in this genus. We furthermore argue that recent claims of Sundatyphlops, Antillotyphlops, and Cubatyphlops being "undiagnosable" or "not monophyletic" were based on errors in tree reconstruction and failure to notice diagnostic characters, and thus regard these three genera as valid.

  19. Individual Growth Rates of Nikolsky’s Viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Squamata, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Z. S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Capture-mark-recapture data was used to infer growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Vedmederja, Grubant et Rudaeva, 1986, in the Eastern Ukraine. We have found that growth rate is negatively correlated with age. The difference in growth rates before maturation is not significant between different sexes. Growth rates decrease rapidly after maturation in males and females, however adult males retain significantly higher average growth rates. There is large dispersion of growth rates in the group of adult females, which is caused, probably, by alteration of complete arrest of growth in the years with reproduction and more intensive growth in the years without it. Asymptotic snout-ventral length estimated after Von Bertalanffy model was 680 mm in females and 630 mm in males. Females mature after fifth and males mature after fourth hibernation. The larger females in vipers can not be the result of higher growth rates in females, but are the outcome of a combination of other factors including different maturation time and size (older and being larger, and, perhaps, longer life span due to lower mortality. Growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper in the nature are higher than in other species in the group of small Eurasian vipers.

  20. Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Hutter, Carl R; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Noonan, Brice P; Townsend, Ted M; Sites, Jack W; Reeder, Tod W

    2012-12-23

    Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse groups of terrestrial vertebrates. Recent molecular analyses have suggested a very different squamate phylogeny relative to morphological hypotheses, but many aspects remain uncertain from molecular data. Here, we analyse higher-level squamate phylogeny with a molecular dataset of unprecedented size, including 161 squamate species for up to 44 nuclear genes each (33 717 base pairs), using both concatenated and species-tree methods for the first time. Our results strongly resolve most squamate relationships and reveal some surprising results. In contrast to most other recent studies, we find that dibamids and gekkotans are together the sister group to all other squamates. Remarkably, we find that the distinctive scolecophidians (blind snakes) are paraphyletic with respect to other snakes, suggesting that snakes were primitively burrowers and subsequently re-invaded surface habitats. Finally, we find that some clades remain poorly supported, despite our extensive data. Our analyses show that weakly supported clades are associated with relatively short branches for which individual genes often show conflicting relationships. These latter results have important implications for all studies that attempt to resolve phylogenies with large-scale phylogenomic datasets.

  1. Variabilidad poblacional en el género Kentropyx (Squamata: Teiidae del Norte argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedesco, María E.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability of population of Kentropyx from northern Argentina was studied using characters of lepidosis and coloration. A subspecific taxonomic level, Kentropyx viridistriga lagartija is proposed for Kentropyx lagartija, considering this subspecies a western form of the eastern one Kentropyx viridistriga viridistriga.

  2. A revised key to the lizards of Iran (Reptilia: Squamata: Lacertilia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Reza; Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrullah; Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar; Gharzi, Ahmad

    2017-02-03

    During recent years several lizard taxa have been added to the faunal list of Iran. Descriptions and new records are scattered in different publications in the herpetological literature. We here present species accounts for 152 species belonging to 43 genera and 10 families up to July 2016. The most diverse family is Lacertidae with 9 genera, 49 species and 2 subspecies, followed by Gekkonidae with 13 genera and 43 species, Agamidae with 5 genera, 18 species and 4 subspecies, Scincidae with 7 genera, 18 species and 2 subspecies, Phyllodactylidae with 1 genus and 10 species, Sphaerodactylidae with 2 genera and 4 species, Varanidae with 1 genus, 3 species and 2 subspecies, Uromastycidae with 2 genera and 3 species, Eublepharidae with 1 genus and 3 species, and Anguidae with 2 genera and 2 species. The current paper provides a dichotomous key including all of the currently recognized lizards of Iran.

  3. Divergence of scent pheromones in allopatric populations of Acanthodactylus boskianus (Squamata: Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khannoon, Eraqi R; Lunt, David H; Schulz, Stefan; Hardege, Jörg D

    2013-05-01

    The evolutionary phenomena associated with divergence in chemical signals between populations of the same species help to understand the process of speciation. Animals detect and react to semiochemicals and pheromones used in communication. Comparison between populations of the same species that are geographically isolated from one another allows us to determine the genetic or environmental factors responsible for chemical differentiation. Acanthodactylus boskianus from the east and west of Egypt were used as an example to compare the geographical diversity in chemical fingerprints of this species' femoral gland secretions and its phylogeography. Chemical analysis via GC-MS showed that the two geographically distinct populations' odor fingerprints are quantitatively different despite sharing the same components of the secretions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eastern and western Egyptian populations are genetically distinct and that chemical divergence of these lizards' odor profiles may be an example of signal evolution.

  4. Distinct patterns of desynchronized limb regression in malagasy scincine lizards (squamata, scincidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Miralles

    Full Text Available Scincine lizards in Madagascar form an endemic clade of about 60 species exhibiting a variety of ecomorphological adaptations. Several subclades have adapted to burrowing and convergently regressed their limbs and eyes, resulting in a variety of partial and completely limbless morphologies among extant taxa. However, patterns of limb regression in these taxa have not been studied in detail. Here we fill this gap in knowledge by providing a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of three mitochondrial and four nuclear gene fragments in an extended sampling of Malagasy skinks, and microtomographic analyses of osteology of various burrowing taxa adapted to sand substrate. Based on our data we propose to (i consider Sirenoscincus Sakata & Hikida, 2003, as junior synonym of Voeltzkowia Boettger, 1893; (ii resurrect the genus name Grandidierina Mocquard, 1894, for four species previously included in Voeltzkowia; and (iii consider Androngo Brygoo, 1982, as junior synonym of Pygomeles Grandidier, 1867. By supporting the clade consisting of the limbless Voeltzkowia mira and the forelimb-only taxa V. mobydick and V. yamagishii, our data indicate that full regression of limbs and eyes occurred in parallel twice in the genus Voeltzkowia (as hitherto defined that we consider as a sand-swimming ecomorph: in the Voeltzkowia clade sensu stricto the regression first affected the hindlimbs and subsequently the forelimbs, whereas the Grandidierina clade first regressed the forelimbs and subsequently the hindlimbs following the pattern prevalent in squamates. Timetree reconstructions for the Malagasy Scincidae contain a substantial amount of uncertainty due to the absence of suitable primary fossil calibrations. However, our preliminary reconstructions suggest rapid limb regression in Malagasy scincids with an estimated maximal duration of 6 MYr for a complete regression in Paracontias, and 4 and 8 MYr respectively for complete regression of forelimbs in Grandidierina and hindlimbs in Voeltzkowia.

  5. Distinct Patterns of Desynchronized Limb Regression in Malagasy Scincine Lizards (Squamata, Scincidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miralles, A.; Hipsley, C.A.; Erens, J.; Gehara, M.; Rakotoarison, A.; Glaw, F.; Müller, J.; Vences, M.

    2015-01-01

    Scincine lizards in Madagascar form an endemic clade of about 60 species exhibiting a variety of ecomorphological adaptations. Several subclades have adapted to burrowing and convergently regressed their limbs and eyes, resulting in a variety of partial and completely limbless morphologies among ext

  6. A new species of Bachia (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with pleisomorphic limb morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizirian, D.A.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new species of Bachia from the upper Rio Negro drainage of southeastern Colombia and southern Venezuela. The new taxon is diagnosed by a complement of phalanges that is unique among gymnophthalmid lizards and intermediate relative to other Bachia and closely related genera. Variation in limb osteology among the species of Bachia and close relatives is reported. We discuss the distribution of B. panoplia and the taxonomic status of B. flavescens.

  7. Comparative cranial osteology of fossorial lizards from the tribe Gymnophthalmini (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscito, Juliana G; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2010-11-01

    Squamates (lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians) are represented by a large number of species distributed among a wide variety of habitats. Changes in body plan related to a fossorial habit are a frequent trend within the group and many morphological adaptations to this particular lifestyle evolved convergently in nonrelated species, reflecting adaptations to a similar habitat. The fossorial lifestyle requires an optimal morphological organization for an effective use of the available resources. Skeleton arrangement in fossorial squamates reflects adaptations to the burrowing activity, and different degrees of fossoriality can be inferred through an analysis of skull morphology. Here, we provide a detailed description of the skull morphology of three fossorial gymnophthalmid species: Calyptommatus nicterus, Scriptosaura catimbau, and Nothobachia ablephara.

  8. Cariotipo y región organizadora del nucleolo en Teius teyou (Daudin, 1802) (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando, Alejandra

    1994-01-01

    Specimens of Teius teyou (Daudin, 1982) from Formosa and Chaco, Argentina, were citologically analyzed. A karyotype characterized by 54 chromosomes and 2 pairs of ribosomal chromosomes were identified.

  9. Seasonal spermatogenesis in the Mexican endemic oviparous lizard, Sceloporus aeneus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Gallegos, Oswaldo; Méndez-de la Cruz, Fausto Roberto; Villagrán-SantaCruz, Maricela; Rheubert, Justin L; Granados-González, Gisela; Gribbins, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Oviparous species of Sceloporus exhibit either seasonal or continuous spermatogenesis and populations from high-elevation show a seasonal pattern known as spring reproductive activity. We studied the spermatogenic cycle of a high-elevation (2700 m) population of endemic oviparous lizard, Sceloporus aeneus, that resided south of México, D.F. Histological analyses were performed on the testes and reproductive ducts from individual lizards collected monthly. This population of S. aeneus showed a seasonal pattern of spermatogenesis, with 4 successive phases common in other lizards. These include: 1) Quiescence in August, which contained solely spermatogonia and Sertoli cells; 2) Testicular recrudescence (September-January) when testes became active with mitotic spermatogonia, spermatocytes beginning meiosis, and the early stages of spermiogenesis with spermatids; 3) Maximum testicular activity occurred from March to May and is when the largest spermiation events ensued within the germinal epithelia, which were also dominated by spermatids and spermiogenic cells; 4) Testicular regression in June was marked with the number of all germs cells decreasing rapidly and spermatogonia dominated the seminiferous epithelium. February was a transitional month between recrudescence and maximum activity. The highest sperm abundance in the lumina of epididymides was during maximum testicular activity (March-May). Thus, before and after these months fewer spermatozoa were detected within the excurrent ducts as the testis transitions from recrudescence to maximum activity in February and from maximum activity to quiescence in June. Maximum spermatogenic activity corresponds with warmest temperatures at this study site. This pattern known as spring reproductive activity with a fall recrudescence was similar to other oviparous species of genus Sceloporus. PMID:26413407

  10. The development of the skull of the Egyptian Cobra Naja h. haje (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraqi R Khannoon

    Full Text Available The study of craniofacial development is important in understanding the ontogenetic processes behind morphological diversity. A complete morphological description of the embryonic skull development of the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje, is lacking and there has been little comparative discussion of skull development either among elapid snakes or between them and other snakes.We present a description of skull development through a full sequence of developmental stages of the Egyptian cobra, and compare it to other snakes. Associated soft tissues of the head are noted where relevant. The first visible ossification centres are in the supratemporal, prearticular and surangular, with slight ossification visible in parts of the maxilla, prefrontal, and dentary. Epiotic centres of ossification are present in the supraoccipital, and the body of the supraoccipital forms from the tectum posterior not the tectum synoticum. The venom glands are visible as distinct bodies as early at stage 5 and enlarge later to extend from the otic capsule to the maxilla level with the anterior margin of the eye. The gland becomes more prominent shortly before hatching, concomitant with the development of the fangs. The tongue shows incipient forking at stage 5, and becomes fully bifid at stage 6.We present the first detailed staging series of cranial development for the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje. This is one of the first studies since the classical works of G. de Beer and W. Parker that provides a detailed description of cranial development in an advanced snake species. It allows us to correct errors and misinterpretations in previous accounts which were based on a small sample of specimens of uncertain age. Our results highlight potentially significant variation in supraoccipital formation among squamates and the need for further research in this area.

  11. First Record of Laticauda semifasciata (Reptilia: Squamata: Elapidae: Laticaudinae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park, Jaejin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese sea snake Laticauda semifasciata (Reinwardt in Schlegel, 1837 is newly reported from Korean waters based on three specimens collected from Jeju Island, Korea, in August, September, and November 2015. This is the first time that the genus Laticauda and subfamily Laticaudinae has been reported from Korean waters. The subfamily Laticaudinae has ventrals that are four to five times wider than the adjacent dorsals, which are unlike the ventrals that are similar or up to two times wider than adjacent dorsals in the subfamily Hydrophiinae. Laticauda semifasciata is distinct from other species because it has three prefrontals and its rostrals are horizontally divided into two. As the result of this report, four species (L. semifasciata, Hydrophis (Pelamis platurus, Hydrophis cyanocinctus, and H. melanocephalus of sea snakes have been reported in Korean waters.

  12. Status and diversity of snakes (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes at the Chittagong University Campus in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ahsan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the status and diversity of snakes of the Chittagong University Campus (CUC between September 2013 and December 2014, and on preserved snake specimens of museums of CUC (Department of Zoology, University of Chittagong; Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong; and Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong.  Thirty-six species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families (Typhlopidae, Pythonidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae were recorded from CUC during the study period. Colubridae comprised the highest (24 species i.e., 66.67% number of species and Pythonidae the lowest (1 species. Checkered Keelback Xenochrophis piscator was the most common snake and the rarest was the Bengalese Kukri Snake Oligodon dorsalis belonging to the family Colubridae.  Among venomous snakes Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus was the most common snake and Black Krait Bungarus niger was the most rare.  Their status in CUC has been assessed. 

  13. Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (Squamata, Dactyloidae) of the Cerrado hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Werneck, Fernanda P; Giugliano, Lilian G; Santos, Marcella G; Fenker, Jéssica; Sousa, Lucas; D'Angiolella, Annelise B; Dos Santos, Adriana R; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Dorado-Rodrigues, Tainá F; Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group.

  14. Helmintos oxiuridae parasitos de Iguana iguana (Squamata, Lacertilia, Iguanidae procedentes do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Breves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on nematode fauna occurring in wild iguanas (Iguana iguana from Brazilian Northeast (Alagoas and Maranhão and Central-west (Goiás and Mato Grosso areas were presented. Six adult iguanas, three males and three females, were necropsied and the digestive system removed to examination. All the iguana specimens were heavily parasitized. The helminths diagnosed were: Ozolaimus cirratus in the cecum and colon of five iguanas; Ozolaimus megatyphlon in cecum, colon and rectum of three iguanas; and Alaeuris vogelsangi in the small intestine, cecum, colon and rectum of five animals. Two larvae of Ozolaimus sp. were recovered from the pyloric region of the stomach of one iguana. The three diagnosed species of nematodes were reported for the first time in the Brazilian Central-West region.

  15. The effects of early experience on subsequent feeding responses in the Tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Squamata : Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, F

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of early feeding experiences on subsequent responses to prey in the tegu, Tupinambis teguixin. Five-day old lizards were exposed to the odors of various prey and control substances on cotton-tipped applicators with the tongue-flick attack score (TFAS) chosen as the dependent variable. Each lizard was exposed to four stimuli: two controls (deionised water and cologne), and extracts from a mouse Mus musculus, and a lizard Ameiva ameiva, in a repeated measures, randomized block design, receiving one stimulus training session / day over a 40-day period. Tongue-flicks directed toward the applicator were counted over a 1 min period as well as the amount of time that elapsed from the first tongue flick to any bite that may have occurred. Live neonatal mice (but not A. ameiva), offered on a weekly basis, were used as a food source for tegus over a 10-month period. After 10 months, tegus were exposed to applicators containing control odors as well as those containing extracts from mice and lizards (A. ameiva). Mouse extracts elicited significantly higher TFAS as compared to those elicited by A. ameiva or control odors, suggesting that prey odors encountered in the environment shortly after hatching can influence prey preferences by these lizards later in life. These results also indicate that tegu lizards can learn to use specific odor cues associated with naturally occurring prey as releasers for subsequent hunting behaviors.

  16. Differential staining and microchromosomal variation in karyotypes of four Brazilian species of Tupinambinae lizards (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rodrigo Marques Lima; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado

    2008-11-01

    Kayotypes of four neotropical teiid lizard species (Tupinambinae) were herein studied after conventional as well as silver staining and CBG-banding: Crocodilurus amazonicus (2n = 34), Tupinambis teguixin (2n = 36), Tupinambis merianae and Tupinambis quadrilineatus (2n = 38). The karyological data for T. quadrilineatus as well as those obtained using differential staining for all species were unknown until now. The karyotypes of all species presented 12 macrochromosomes identical in morphology, but differed in the number of microchromosomes: 22 in C. amazonicus, 24 in T. teguixin and 26 in T. quadrilineatus and T. merianae. The Ag-NOR located at the secondary constriction at the distal end of pair 2 is shared by all species, contrasting with the variability observed for this character in species of the related Teiinae. CBG-banding revealed a species-specific pattern in T. quadrilineatus with conspicuous interstitial C-blocks at the proximal region of the long arm of pair 4 and the whole heterochromatic short arm of pair 6. The karyological data reported here corroborates the relationship hypothesis obtained for Tupinambis based on molecular characters. T. teguixin presents the putative ancestral karyotype for the genus with 2n = 36 whereas T. merianae and T. quadrilineatus exhibit 2n = 38, due to an additional pair of microchromosomes.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of geckos of the genus Nactus and their relatives (Squamata: Gekkonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Jackman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to investigate relationships within the gekkonid genus Nactus and between Nactus and other gekkonid genera. Nuclear (RAG-1, PDC and mitochondrial (ND2 data provide strong support for conflicting patterns of relationship among bisexual New Guinean species of Nactus and the unisexual oceanic form N. pelagicus. This may be explained by an ancient mitochondrial introgression event between N. sphaerodactylodes and N. vankampeni, a recent selective sweep of mitochondrial DNA throughout N. vankampeni, and gene conflict stemming from the hybrid event that gave rise to N. pelagicus. Strong support from all data partitions is obtained for the sister group relationship of Nactus to a clade consisting of the Australian Heteronotia and the Southeast Asian Dixonius. Putative synapomorphies of the Nactus/Heteronotia/Dixonius clade include the reduction of the second phalanx of digit IV of the manus and the presence of regular rows of keeled (sometimes multicarinate dorsal tubercles on the dorsum. Nactus and Heteronotia both include parthenogenetic species formed via hybridogenesis. This is rare among geckos, and vertebrates in general, and at some level may also be synapomorphic. Dixonius is not known to have any all-female species, but “D. siamensis” consists of multiple chromosome “races” that mirror morphologically cryptic, but karyotypically distinct, species in the other two genera. The strong support for the Nactus/Heteronotia/Dixonius clade demonstrates that the leaf-toed digital morphology of Dixonius has evolved multiple times within the Gekkonidae and suggests that superficial digital morphology may be misleading with respect to gekkonid suprageneric relationships.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gloydius intermedius (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunzhu; Zhao, Shuai; Li, Cheng; Dou, Huashan

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Gloydius intermedius is analyzed and presented for the first time. The genome was 17, 226 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 control region. The overall base composition was A (32.4%), C (28.8%), T (25.9%), and G (12.9%). The base compositions clearly presented the A-C skew, which was most obvious in the protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of G. intermedius. Mitochondrial genome analyses based on MP, ML, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees, indicating a close phylogenetic affinity of the 13 Crotalinae species. It appeared that no less than two major phyletic lineages were present in Crotalinae. The main clades within the Crotalinae supported are: A clade including the Protobothrops. A clade (G. brevicaudus, G. ussuriensis, G. intermedius, G. saxatilis) with the Ovophis appeared as the sister taxon to Protobothrops and was supported by bootstrap values of 88%. The four Gloydius species formed a paraphyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100 %) in all examinations.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships and limb loss in sub-Saharan African scincine lizards (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Alison S; Bauer, Aaron M; Sites, Jack W

    2003-12-01

    Skinks are the largest family of lizards and are found worldwide in a diversity of habitats. One of the larger and more poorly studied groups of skinks includes members of the subfamily Scincinae distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan African scincines are one of the many groups of lizards that show limb reduction and loss, and the genus Scelotes offers an excellent opportunity to look at limb loss in a phylogenetic context. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed for a total of 52 taxa representing all subfamilies of skinks as well as other Autarchoglossan families using sequence from six gene regions including; 12S, 16S, and cytochrome b (mitochondrial), as well as alpha-Enolase, 18S, and C-mos (nuclear). The family Scincidae is recovered as monophyletic and is the sister taxon to a (Cordylidae+Xantusiidae) clade. Within skinks the subfamily Acontinae is monophyletic and sister group to all remaining skinks. There is no support for the monophyly of the subfamilies Lygosominae and Scincinae, but sub-Saharan African scincines+Feylinia form a well supported monophyletic group. The monophyly of Scelotes is confirmed, and support is found for two geographic groups within the genus. Reconstructions of ancestral states for limb and digital characters show limited support for the reversal or gain of both digits and limbs, but conservative interpretation of the results suggest that limb loss is common, occurring multiple times throughout evolutionary history, and is most likely not reversible.

  20. Morphology and ecology of sibon snakes (Squamata: Dipsadidae from two forests in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical measurements, abundance, and ecological observations were recorded for Sibon annulatus,S. argus, S. longifrens, and S. nebulatus at two Neotropical habitats: a lowland swamp forest in Costa Rica and a montane cloud forest in Panama. Fourty-four and 58 adult snakes were recorded from Costa Rica and Panama, respectively. Differences in morphology and body condition showed minimal significant differences among species from both geographical locations. Observations of feeding, reproduction, abundance, distribution and a new size record for S. annulatus are discussed.

  1. Snakes of the genus Oxyrhopus (Colubridae: Squamata in Colombia: taxonomy and geographic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Lynch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Oxyrhopus occur in Colombia, one (O. leucomelas of which is Andean and the other three occur in lowlands. No geographic variation was detected in O. occipitalis but there is marked geographic variation in color pattern and scutellation for the widely distributed O. petola. Recognition of subspecies within O. petola is possible but appears to obscure more than it illuminates. The snake previously reported as O. melanogenys or O. aff. melanogenys is diagnosed as a previously unrecognized species.Cuatro especies del género Oxyrhopus se encuentran en Colombia. De las cuatro especies, una (O. leucomelas es una especie andina y las otras tres son especies de las tierras bajas. Variación geográfica no fue detecta en O. occipitalis pero mucha variación se encuentra en O. petola, en términos de patrón y de conteos de escamas. Se posible de reconocer subespecies pero tal reconocimiento oscura mas que ilumina. La serpiente conocida antes como O. melanogenys o O. aff. melanogenys está descrita como especie nueva.

  2. Temporal germ cell development strategy during continuous spermatogenesis within the montane lizard, Sceloporus bicanthalis (Squamata; Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin; Anzalone, Marla; Collier, Matthew; Granados-González, Gisela; Villagrán-Santa Cruz, Maricela; Hernández-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2011-10-01

    Sceloporus bicanthalis is a viviparous lizard that lives at higher elevations in Mexico. Adult male S. bicanthalis were collected (n = 36) from the Nevado de Toluca, Mexico (elevation is 4200 m) during August to December, 2007 and January to July, 2008. Testes were extracted, fixed in Trumps, and dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol. Tissues were embedded, sectioned (2 μm), stained, and examined via a light microscope to determine the spermatogenic developmental strategy of S. bicanthalis. In all months examined, the testes were spermiogenically active; based on this, plus the presence of sperm in the lumina of seminiferous tubules, we inferred that S. bicanthalis had year-round or continuous spermatogenesis, unlike most reptiles that occupy a temperate or montane habitat. It was recently reported that seasonally breeding reptiles had a temporal germ cell development strategy similar to amphibians, where germ cells progress through spermatogenesis as a single population, which leads to a single spermiation event. This was much different than spatial development within the testis of other derived amniotes. We hypothesized that germ cell development was temporal in S. bicanthalis. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether reptiles that practice continuous spermatogenesis have a mammalian-like spatial germ cell development, which is different than the typical temperate reptile exhibiting a temporal development. In the present study, S. bicanthalis had a temporal development strategy, despite its continuous spermatogenic cycle, making them similar to tropical anoles.

  3. Characterization of the Frictional Response of Squamata Shed Skin in Comparison to Human skin

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Aal, H A

    2010-01-01

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined rubbing response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its behavior according to the evolution of sliding conditions. Inspirations for such designs are frequently encountered in natural species. In particular, and from a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a Python regius snake. The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional re...

  4. Habitat use in eight populations of Sceloporus grammicus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) from the Mexican Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyte-Manrique, A; Hernández-Salinas, U; Ramírez-Bautista, A; Mata-Silva, V; Marshall, J C

    2016-10-13

    Studies on habitat use have often helped explain observed variation in morphology, behavior, and reproductive characteristics among populations within a single species. Here we analyze morphological and ecological characteristics of individuals from the Sceloporus grammicus species complex from seven different localities (El Cerezo: CER, Pachuca: PAC, Huichapan: HUI, Emiliano Zapata: EZA, San Miguel Regla: SMR, La Mojonera: LMJ, and La Manzana: LMZ) in the state of Hidalgo, and one locality (Cahuacán) in the State of México. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that females from PAC, EZA, LMZ, HUI, SMR, and CAH populations use similar microhabitats characterized mostly by bare soil; while females from LMJ and CER use microhabitats characterized primarily by vegetation and rocks. Females were observed through twelve different types of perches. With regard to perch height use, the CCA showed that females from PAC, LMJ, LMZ, SMR, CER, and CAH populations were correlated with height to nearest perch (HNP), while the rest of the females were not related to any perch use variable. On the other hand, the CCA showed that males from PAC, LMJ and CAH were characterized by microhabitats with higher vegetal coverage, while males from LMZ and CER used microhabitats composed of bare soil, but males from HUI and SMR populations used microhabitats composed chiefly of bare soil and rocks. With respect to perch height use, the CCA showed that males from PAC, LMJ, EZA, and LMZ were correlated with DNP, but the rest of the males were not correlated with any perch use variables. Males were observed in nine different perch types. Morphologically the males were larger than the females in all morphological variables analyzed. Moreover, in both sexes the SVL is positively correlated with all morphological variables, and although slopes and ordinate of the origin of all morphological variables were larger in males than females, the ANCOVAs indicated that there is no increase in the morphological variables with increasing SVL between sexes. Our results suggest that variation in habitat use and morphology among populations is an adaptive response (phenotypic plasticity) to the environmental conditions where these populations of S. grammicus occur. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Insights into Himalayan biogeography from geckos: a molecular phylogeny of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ishan; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R; Karanth, K Praveen

    2014-11-01

    The India-Asia collision profoundly influenced the climate, topography and biodiversity of Asia, causing the formation of the biodiverse Himalayas. The species-rich gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus is an ideal clade for exploring the biological impacts of the India-Asia collision, as previous phylogenetic hypotheses suggest basal divergences occurred within the Himalayas and Indo-Burma during the Eocene. To this end, we sampled for Cyrtodactylus across Indian areas of the Himalayas and Indo-Burma Hotspots and used three genes to reconstruct relationships and estimate divergence times. Basal divergences in Cyrtodactylus, Hemidactylus and the Palaearctic naked-toed geckos were simultaneous with or just preceded the start of the India-Asia collision. Diversification within Cyrtodactylus tracks the India-Asia collision and subsequent geological events. A number of geographically concordant clades are resolved within Indo-Burmese Cyrtodactylus. Our study reveals 17 divergent lineages that may represent undescribed species, underscoring the previously undocumented diversity of the region. The importance of rocky habitats for Cyrtodactylus indicates the Indo-Gangetic flood plains and the Garo-Rajmahal Gap are likely to have been important historical barriers for this group.

  6. Transplacental nutrient transfer during gestation in the Andean lizard Mabuya sp. (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; Rueda, Elkin Darío; Stashenko, Elena

    2011-02-01

    Mabuya skinks have the most specialized allantoplacenta and the greatest degree of placentotrophy known among the Reptilia. Their recently ovulated eggs are microlecithal (1-2 mm) and lack fatty yolk platelets; thus, virtually all of the nutrients for embryonic development must pass across the placenta. We quantified the net uptake of nutrients during gestation in an Andean population of Mabuya and compared these results with other matrotrophic skinks and eutherian mammals. Total dry and wet masses, ash and organic content, ions (calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron), lipids (cholesterol, vitamin E and fatty acids in the major lipid classes-triacylglycerol, phospholipids, cholesteryl ester, free fatty acids), nitrogen (an index of protein) were measured during the different developmental stages throughout gestation, and in neonates. A significant net uptake of inorganic and organic matter was found. This uptake begins slowly during early gestation but accelerates during the last third of gestation when the growth of the embryo is maximal and the allantoplacenta has developed its greatest complexity. The drastic reduction of egg size in this clade is related to the great reduction in the contribution of lecithotrophic nutrients to the embryo, an obligatory placentotrophy from early developmental stages, and the highest placental complexity known in the Reptilia. All of these features converge with features found in eutherian mammals.

  7. Phylogeny of the Asian Eutropis (Squamata: Scincidae) reveals an 'into India' endemic Indian radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Roy, Aniruddha; Singh, Mewa; Srinivasulu, C; Karanth, K Praveen

    2012-06-01

    Recent generic rearrangement of the circumtropical distributed skink genus 'Mabuya' has raised a lot of debate. According to this molecular phylogeny based rearrangement, the tropical Asian members of this genus have been assigned to Eutropis. However, in these studies the Asian members of 'Mabuya' were largely sampled from Southeast (SE) Asia with very few species from Indian subcontinent. To test the validity of this assignment and to determine the evolutionary origin of Indian members of this group we sequenced one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes from most of the species from the Indian subregion. The nuclear and mitochondrial trees generated from these sequences confirmed the monophyly of the tropical Asian Eutropis. Furthermore, in the tree based on the combined mitochondrial and nuclear dataset an endemic Indian radiation was revealed that was nested within a larger Asian clade. Results of dispersal-vicariance analysis and molecular dating suggested an initial dispersal of Eutropis from SE Asia into India around 5.5-17 million years ago, giving rise to the extant members of the endemic Indian radiation. This initial dispersal was followed by two back dispersals from India into SE Asia. We also discuss the relationships within the endemic Indian radiation and its taxonomic implications.

  8. Geographic distribution model for Mabuya agmosticha (Squamata: Scincidae in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul F.D. Sales

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical lizard Mabuya agmosticha Rodrigues, 2000 is a habitat-specialist of thorny bromeliads in rocky outcrops of northeastern Brazil. Its distribution in the Caatinga Domain is most likely relictual. In recent years, new surveys conducted in northeastern Brazil have revealed new records of the species in the Caatinga and also in the Atlantic Forest Domain. In this study, we add four new records for M. agmosticha, extending its known geographic range in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba. In addition, we investigated the potential geographical distribution of the species using ecological niche modeling (ENM, which combines the available occurrence records with environmental variables. Our model revealed a continuous range of areas with suitable climatic conditions for the species, from the state of Rio Grande do Norte to the northeast portion of the state of Bahia, plus some relictual distribution spots, mainly in the states of Bahia, Pernambuco, Ceará and western Rio Grande do Norte. Based on the model, we suggest that the distribution of M. agmosticha is continuous on a large geographic scale. On a smaller spatial scale, however, it is clear that its distribution is clumped, reflecting its specialist habits associated with rupicolous bromeliads.

  9. Morphological variation in the allantoplacenta within the genus Mabuya (squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Francisca; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2008-09-01

    The type IV allantoplacenta has been described for the New World tropical scincids lizards of the genus Mabuya; it possesses the greatest morphological complexity known among viviparous squamates. Although a common morphological pattern has been observed in the few species of this lineage in which the allantoplacental morphology has been studied, some morphological variations may be present among species and populations. Here, we report morphological variation of the allantoplacenta of twelve populations of the genus Mabuya distributed in different geographical areas in northern South America using light microscopy. It is found that all the populations/species conserve a general arrangement of the placental structures. In the embryonic hemisphere there are a placentome, paraplacentome, and chorionic areolas; these structures are related to histotrophic nutrition. At the abembryonic hemisphere, there are absorptive plaques for histotrophic transfer and respiratory segments for gas exchange. However, in some populations some distinctive features in the placentome were found. The presence in the uterine syncytium of non syncytialized columnar cell groups, and invasive cells and apical projections of the chorionic cells directed toward the uterine syncytium, constitute a localized endotheliochorial placenta. Likewise, variations found in the abembryonic region include a greater morphological complexity, such as the folded and delimited absorptive plaques, and highly folded regions at the abembryonic pole (folded respiratory segments integrated with folded absorptive plaques). These specializations allow a larger surface for the passage of nutrients and respiratory exchange. Replication and the regionalized differentiation of the absorptive plaques were probably instrumental in the emergence of specialized structures for nutrient transport such as the placentome and the different types of absorptive plaques. These developmental processes appear to underlie the evolution of the placental complexity within thegenus Mabuya by the morphological variation of serial homologous structures.

  10. Seasonal spermatogenic cycle and morphology of germ cells in the viviparous lizard Mabuya brachypoda (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe, Mari Carmen

    2012-11-01

    We describe seasonal variations of the histology of the seminiferous tubules and efferent ducts of the tropical, viviparous skink, Mabuya brachypoda, throughout the year. The specimens were collected monthly, in Nacajuca, Tabasco state, Mexico. The results revealed strong annual variations in testicular volume, stages of the germ cells, and diameter and height of the epithelia of seminiferous tubules and efferent ducts. Recrudescence was detected from November to December, when initial mitotic activity of spermatogonia in the seminiferous tubules were observed, coinciding with the decrease of temperature, photoperiod and rainy season. From January to February, early spermatogenesis continued and early primary and secondary spermatocytes were developing within the seminiferous epithelium. From March through April, numerous spermatids in metamorphosis were observed. Spermiogenesis was completed from May through July, which coincided with an increase in temperature, photoperiod, and rainfall. Regression occurred from August through September when testicular volume and spermatogenic activity decreased. During this time, the seminiferous epithelium decreased in thickness, and germ cell recruitment ceased, only Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were present in the epithelium. Throughout testicular regression spermatocytes and spermatids disappeared and the presence of cellular debris, and scattered spermatozoa were observed in the lumen. The regressed testes presented the total suspension of spermatogenesis. During October, the seminiferous tubules contained only spermatogonia and Sertoli cells, and the size of the lumen was reduced, giving the appearance that it was occluded. In concert with testis development, the efferent ducts were packed with spermatozoa from May through August. The epididymis was devoid of spermatozoa by September. M. brachypoda exhibited a prenuptial pattern, in which spermatogenesis preceded the mating season. The seasonal cycle variations of spermatogenesis in M. brachypoda are the result of a single extended spermiation event, which is characteristic of reptilian species.

  11. Interembryonic regions of the uterus of the viviparous lizard Mabuya brachypoda (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Aranzábal, Mari Carmen; Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Guillette, Louis J

    2006-04-01

    Analysis of the structure and physiology of the uterine incubation chambers of viviparous squamates has provided insight concerning adaptations for gestation. However, the literature addressing the biology of the interembryonic regions of the uterus is very limited, presumably because it has been assumed that this area has little role in the development and support of embryos in viviparous squamates. This study was undertaken to examine the histology of the interembryonic regions of Mabuya brachypoda, a viviparous lizard with microlecithal ova and consequently substantial matrotrophic activity. The incubation chambers are oval, distended zones of the uterus, adjacent to the interembryonic regions. The wall of the interembryonic regions includes: mucosa, formed by a cuboidal or columnar epithelium with ciliated and nonciliated cells, and a lamina propria of vascularized connective tissue containing abundant acinar glands; myometrial smooth muscle consisting of inner circular and outer longitudinal layers; and serosa. The segment of the interembryonic region adjacent to the incubation chamber forms a transitional segment that displays folds of the mucosa that protrude into the uterine lumen. The limit of the incubation chamber is well defined by the long mucosal folds of the transitional segment. Long and thin extensions of extraembryonic membranes are present in the lumen of the transitional segment, outside of the incubation chamber region. The presence of abundant uterine glands and extraembryonic membranes in the interembryonic regions during gestation suggests uterine secretory activity and histotrophic transfer of nutrients to embryos in these regions.

  12. Ultrastructure and wear patterns of the ventral epidermis of four snake species (Squamata, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marie-Christin G; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-10-01

    Snakes are limbless tetrapods highly specialized for sliding locomotion. This locomotion leads to the skin being exposed to friction loads, especially on the ventral body side, which leads to wear. It is presumed that snakes therefore have specific optimizations for minimizing abrasion. Scales from snakes with habitat, locomotor and/or behavior specializations have specific gradients in material properties that may be due to different epidermal architecture. To approach this issue we examined the skin of Lampropeltis getula californiae (terrestrial), Epicrates cenchria cenchria (generalist), Morelia viridis (arboreal), and Gongylophis colubrinus (burrowing) with a focus on (i) the ultrastructure of the ventral epidermis and (ii) the qualitative abrasion pattern of the ventral scales. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed variations in the structure, thickness, layering, and material composition of the epidermis between the species. Furthermore, SEM and white light interferometer images of the scale surface showed that the abrasion patterns differed, even when the snakes were reared on the same substrate. These data support the idea that (i) a specific gradient in material properties may be due to a variation in epidermis architecture (thickness/ultrastructure) and (ii) this variation may be an optimization of material properties for specific ways of life.

  13. Postnatal development of the skull of Dinilysia patagonica (Squamata-stem Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanferla, Agustín; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S

    2014-03-01

    The snake skull represents a profound transformation of the ancestral squamate cranium in which dermal skull roof bones were integrated with the braincase, in a manner convergent with that which occurred during the origin of mammals. However, the ontogeny of snake characters at the origin of the clade has until now been inaccessible. Here we describe a postnatal ontogenetic series of the Late Cretaceous stem snake Dinilysia patagonica and compare it to that of extant lizards and snakes. Comparative analysis indicates notable ontogenetic changes, including advanced state of ossification, isometric growth of the otic capsule, fusion of the stylohyal to the quadrate, and great posterior elongation of the supratemporal. Of these transformations, the unfused condition of braincase bones and the retention of a large otic capsule in adults are examples of paedomorphic and peramorphic processes, respectively. Some ontogenetic transformations detected, in particular those present in middle ear, skull roof and suspensorium, are strikingly similar to those present in extant snakes. Nevertheless, Dinilysia retains a lizard-like paroccipital process without an epiphyseal extremity, and a calcified epiphysis that caps the sphenoccipital tubercle. Finally, the integration of the dermal skull roof with the braincase is similar to that seen in mammals with regard to the overall closure of the braincase, but the two evolutionary and developmental modules appear less integrated in snakes in that the parietal bone of the dermal skull roof progressively overlaps the supraoccipital of the chondrocranial braincase.

  14. Scratch resistance of the ventral skin surface in four snake species (Squamata, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marie-Christin G; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-04-01

    Snakes are limbless tetrapods highly specialized for sliding locomotion on various substrates. Their skin is constantly exposed to high friction forces, which promotes abrasion. Snake skin has material and surface specializations, presumably optimized for friction and abrasion resistance. We found that different snake species living in different habitats have different abrasion patterns and hypothesized that this correlates with specific epidermal architecture and surface topography. To test this hypothesis artificial scratches, under controlled load conditions, were created on the ventral skin material (epidermis) of four snake species adapted to different habitats: Lampropeltis getula californiae (stony and sandy soil substrates), Epicrates cenchria cenchria (trees, soil and water), Morelia viridis (trees), and Gongylophis colubrinus (burrowing in sand). Abrasion appearance on the skin surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy and white light interferometry. The material failure was different between the species, which we attribute to differences in the epidermis' response to the same abrasive challenge. We also discuss abrasion resistance mechanisms and the correlation with the different ultrastructure and surface microstructure.

  15. A novel species of Euspondylus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes Mountains of central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Tiffany M; Adams, Grant

    2015-10-21

    The South American gymnophthalmid genus Euspondylus is distributed from Venezuela through Peru, with its highest diversity occurring in Peru. Euspondylus paxcorpus sp. nov. is a new species from Junín, Peru possessing prefrontal scales and represented by 60 specimens. The new species differs from all other species by the combination of four supraoculars with supraocular/supraciliary fusion, 5-7 occipitals, a single palpebral scale, five supralabials and infralabials, quadrangular dorsal scales with low keels arranged in transverse series only, 40-45 in a longitudinal count and 22-28 in a transverse count, 12 rows of ventrals in a transverse count and 23-25 in a longitudinal count, and no sexual dimorphism in coloration. The discovery of E. paxcorpus increases the known number of Euspondylus species to 13. Because the coloration patterns of the specimens were greatly different after preservation in alcohol, caution should be used when identifying Euspondylus species from museum specimens.

  16. A new small karst-dwelling species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Bauer, Aaron M; Yudha, Donan Satria

    2014-04-07

    A new small karst-dwelling species of the genus Cyrtodactylus is described from East Java and Special Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus semiadii sp. nov. is a small species (SVL to 47.1 mm in females, 42.1 mm in males) distinguished from all other congeners by unique characters combination: short, robust, cylindrical tail, indistinct ventrolateral folds, absence of precloacal groove, absence of enlarged femoral scales, absence of precloacal and femoral pores and lack of enlarged median subcaudal scales. It is the third member of the genus recorded from Java. 

  17. Origin and clonal diversity of the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki (Squamata: Teiidae: chromosomal evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma L. Manríquez-Morán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the karyotypes of individuals of two different populations of Aspidoscelis rodecki to investigate the origin andchromosomal diversity of this unisexual lizard. The karyotype of A. rodecki has a diploid number of 50 chromosomes, and exhibits a marked structural heteromorphism. The unique arrangement seems to have originated by Todd´s fission after the origin of parthenogenesis(hybridization between A. angusticeps and A. deppii. This pattern was observed in two populations of the species, which is endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula.

  18. The presence of Abronia oaxacae (Squamata: Anguidae in tank bromeliads in temperate forests of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI. Cruz-Ruiz

    Full Text Available The presence of lizards in bromeliads has been widely documented. Nevertheless, the possibility of some type of preference or specificity among lizards for particular bromeliad species has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aims to document the presence of Abronia oaxacae in six species of tank bromeliads found in pine forests, pine-live oak forests, and live oak groves during both the rainy season and the dry season. Three adult individuals of Abronia oaxacae were collected; one in a Tillandsia violácea (pine-live oak forest, one in a T. calothyrsus (live oak grove, and one in a T. prodigiosa (live oak grove. All three specimens were collected in sampling efforts carried out during the dry season. The results of the present study suggest that A. oaxacae shows no preference for a single, specific bromeliad species, although it does have a certain preference for a few select species. The presence of A. oaxacae in bromeliads during the dry season could be related to the cooler, moister microhabitat that these plants represent.

  19. Fine Structure of the Epididymal Sperm of the Snake Eryx jayakari (Squamata, Reptilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Z. Al-Onazee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastucture of the snake Eryx jayakari (E. jayakari mature sperm has not been published. Therefore, the present study was conducted to elucidate the sperm ultrastructure of this species in comparison with that of other reptilian species. The present investigation has shown that mature spermatozoa of Eryx jayakari are filiform in shape averaging 45 m (mean of 10 in length with a curved head measuring 9 m. The acrosomal complex, which involves the acrosomal cap and subacrosomal material, measures 2.5 m. The nucleus is 6.5 m in length, the neck approximates 1 m and the tail (midpiece, principal piece and endpiece is maximally 35 m in length. The different tail pieces vary in diameter, being the largest at the midpiece (0.66 m, diminished at the principal piece (0.36 m and the least at the endpiece (0.25 m. The midpiece, the longest tail piece, is composed of mitochondrial and fibrous sheaths encircling the microtubular axoneme. The mitochondria are rod-shaped having linear cristae but no dense bodies interrupt their arrangement. The principal tail piece consists of the microtubular axoneme surrounded by the fibrous sheath. The endpiece involves only an axoneme enveloped within the plasmalemma of the spermatozoon. The present findings were discussed in relation to other relevant studies. It was concluded that the general ultrastucture of the E. jayakari spermatozoon conforms to that reported to be typical of squamates.

  20. Wound Myiasis Due to Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Persian Horned Viper, Pseudocerastes persicus (Squamata: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dehghani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of myiasis due to Musca domestica describes in Pseudocerastes persicus for the first time. The snake was found in Bari Karafs, Kashan, Iran, with a lesion on its body. Fourteen live larvae of M. domestica removed from its wound. This is the first report of a new larval habitat of M. domestica.

  1. Resurrection of Bronchocela burmana Blanford, 1878 for the Green Crested Lizard (Squamata, Agamidae of southern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Zug

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent fieldwork in southern Tanintharyi revealed the presence of a small Green Crested Lizard in the wet evergreen forest. We generated mtDNA sequence data (ND2 that demonstrates that this population’s nearest relative is Bronchocela rayaensis Grismer et al., 2015 of Pulau Langkawi, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia and Phuket Island. Morphologically the Burmese Bronchocela shares many features with B. rayaensis, which potentially would make this recently described Thai-Malay species a synonym of Bronchocela burmana Blanford, 1878; however, we interpret the genetic and morphological differences to reflect evolutionary divergence and recommend the recognition of both species.

  2. The relationship between perch type and aggressive behavior in the lizard Norops polylepis (Squamata: Dactyloidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall R. Jiménez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of aggression against intruders by owners of a territory has been related to the type of resources available to an individual within its territory. The influence of perch-site characteristics on aggressive behavior of resident male Norops polylepis in presence of an intruder male was investigated in this study. At each perch site, pairwise encounters were conducted in which the aggressive behavior of resident males was recorded, along with the diameter of the perch and the number of nearby perches. Aggressive behavior of resident males increased on larger perches and to some extent in areas having greater density of nearby saplings. Potential explanations for the high aggressive behavior of N. polylepis on broad perches with high number of neighboring saplings are explored.

  3. Structural habitat use by the Many-scaled Anole, Anolis polylepis (Squamata: Polychrotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D. Barquero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lizards of the genus Anolis are commonly used as models for several ecological studies. Nevertheless, some aspects of their ecology have not been studied and information reported previously for several species must be reanalyzed. The aim of this study is to examine the structural habitat use in a population of the Many-scaled Anole, Anolis polylepis, with the purpose of comparing our results with the information reported previously for this species. Most of the captured individuals were on stems and we did not find any differences in the structural habitat use among sex/age classes. We found differences for perch height among individuals shedding their skin regarding those that are not. We also detected differences among our results and the information reported previously for this species. Such differences could be due to intrinsic factors of each population, such as the proportion of individuals that were molting their skin in a specific time. More studies with greater sample sizes and to a longer term are required to clearly understand the influence of these factors in the habitat use of A. polylepis and other anoline lizards.

  4. Resurrection of Anolis ustus Cope, 1864 from synonymy with Anolis sericeus Hallowell, 1856 (Squamata, Dactyloidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Tufiño, José Daniel; de Oca, Adrián Nieto-Montes; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Gray, Levi N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, based on a morphological analysis, the resurrection of the name Anolis ustus Cope 1864, is proposed for populations from the Yucatán Peninsula (Campeche, Yucatán, and Quintana Roo, Mexico, and Belize), formerly referred as Anolis sericeus Hallowell, 1856. Anolis ustus differs from Anolis sericeus by its mean snout-vent length and number of gorgetal scales in males, in tibia length and head width in females, and dorsal and ventral scales for both sexes. In addition, Anolis ustus has a small dewlap of similar size between males and females, whereas in Anolis sericeus males have a dewlap much larger than that of the females. These characteristics allow Anolis ustus to be identified within the Anolis sericeus complex. In this study, a description of the characteristics of the hemipenis is also provided, and its importance in the taxonomy of Anolis is discussed. PMID:27829791

  5. A new species of Hemidactylus from Lake Turkana, Northern Kenya (Squamata: Gekkonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sindaco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Hemidactylus is described on the basis of two specimens (an adult male and an adult female collected in 2005 in rocky and sandy habitat of the semiarid climatic region on the eastern shore of Lake Turkana (Kenya. It is a medium-sized Hemidactylus (SVL from 40 to 50 mm distinguished from all other species by a unique combination of characters. The back is covered by large, trihedral, strongly keeled tubercles, intermixed with a few small, irregular shaped granules, forming 14 quite regular transverse rows from axilla to groin; nostrils contact the rostral, first supralabial, 1 enlarged internasal and 2-3 postnasals; the dorsal half of the rostral scale is divided longitudinally; there are 6 lamellae under the first toe and 10 under the 4th toe; male with 8 precloacal pores; female without pores. The dorsal colour pattern is very distinctive, consisting of four transverse bands, bordered with dark margins. The types are housed in the Herpetological Collections of the Museo di Storia Naturale of the University of Pavia and in the National Museums of Kenya (Nairobi.

  6. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Squamata: Scincidae from a montane atlantic rainforest area in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira, Rogério L.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns aspectos da ecologia (principalmente reprodução e dieta do lagarto scincídeo Mabuya agilis foram estudados com base em amostras mensais realizadas de dezembro de 1997 a abril de 1999 em uma área de floresta tropical serrana no estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil. Dos 197 espécimes coletados, 82 eram machos, 110 eram fêmeas, e o resto não pôde ser corretamente sexado. Lagartos variaram em comprimento rostro-coacal de 30 a 96 mm e foram sexualmente dimórficos em tamanho, com fêmeas atingindo maiores tamanhos que machos. A menor fêmea grávida mediu 54.0 mm. O tamanho da ninhada para 49 fêmeas grávidas variou de 2 a 9 (média = 5.7 e esteve positiva e significativamente relacionado ao tamanho dos lagartos. As presas dominantes na dieta de M. agilis foram baratas, ortópteros e aranhas. A população de M. agilis aqui estudada diferiu de outras populações conspecíficas previamente estudadas em hábitats de «restinga» nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, sendo que os indivíduos crescem a tamanhos maiores e a fecundidade é mais alta, possivelmente devido a uma maior disponibilidade de alimento no hábitat de floresta tropical serrana Some aspects of the ecology (mainly reproduction and diet of the skink Mabuya agilis were studied based on monthly samples taken from December 1997 to April 1999 at a montane rainforest area in Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Of 197 collected specimens, 82 were males, 110 were females, and the rest could not be properly sexed. Lizards varied in snout-vent length (SVL from 30 to 96 mm and were sexually dimorphic in size, with females growing larger than males. The smallest gravid female measured 54.0 mm in SVL. Litter size of 49 gravid females varied from 2 to 9 (mean= 5.7 and was positively and significantly related to lizard SVL. The dominant prey items in the diet of M. agilis were cockroaches, orthopterans and spiders. The population of M. agilis here studied differed from other conspecific populations previously studied in «restinga» habitats from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo states in that individuals grow to larger sizes and fecundity is higher, possibly because of a higher food availability in the montane rainforest habitat.

  7. Temporal and ontogenetic variation in the escape response of Ameiva festiva (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattanzio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors have been shown to affect lizard escape behavior (flight initiation distance or FID, the distance between predator and prey when the prey initiates escape. Patterns of daily activity, such as foraging or movement behavior, vary with respect to time of day, supporting that escape responses may vary temporally as well. However, there remains scant information regarding the effects of time of day on FID. During peak activity, FID may decrease due to increased cost of giving up resources (e.g., prey or potential mates. An alternative hypothesis is that FID may increase because lizard activity in general may serve to alert a predator in advance of its approach. A lizard in this scenario may be favored to flee sooner rather than later. Moreover, juvenile and adult lizards of multiple species may differ in behavioral, ecological, and morphological traits that could influence escape decisions. I tested the effects of time of day (in 30-min intervals and age (juvenile or adult on the FID of a tropical whiptail lizard, Ameiva festiva in Costa Rica. I found that A. festiva escape responses varied with time of day such that in general, their FID decreased throughout the day. In addition, I observed a peak in FID from mid to late-morning that matches published estimates of peak activity times for A. festiva. Overall, juvenile A. festiva initiated an escape response sooner than adults, which may be related to differences in perceived risk associated with differences in size and predator experience between the two age groups. I conclude that escape responses may be contingent on both the activity level of the animal at the time of approach and its age.

  8. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. II. Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-02

    I present distribution data of all geckos (Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae and Sphaerodactylidae) known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 19 species, belonging to nine genera. This represents six more taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 23,094 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums. Most species (68.4%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia. As a whole, three taxa are widespread in Amazonia, two are restricted to eastern Amazonia, two to western Amazonia, three to northern Amazonia (either widespread or restriced to parts of the Guiana region), one to southern Amazonia, one to southwestern Amazonia, and three to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Additionally, four species have unique distributions and four species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in the area of endemism of Guiana, one in Inambari, and one in Tapajós.

  9. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2016-12-09

    We present distribution data of all Anguidae, Scincidae, and Teiidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 29 species-level taxa, belonging to 14 genera. This represents 11 more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families in this area. Data were based on literature and 46,806 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~55%) are endemic to Amazonia. Except for Ameiva ameiva, that is present in several environments and domains, non-endemic species are either associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, occupying similar environments outside Amazonia, gallery forests within the Cerrado, or present disjunct populations in the Atlantic Forest. As a whole, six taxa are widespread in Amazonia, four are restricted to eastern Amazonia, four to western Amazonia, three to southwestern Amazonia, one to northern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, two species present apparently more restricted, unique distributions. Only three species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in AE Guiana and one in AE Inambari.

  10. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A.; Puas, German I.; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus. PMID:27920609

  11. A new Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khanh Hoa Province, southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nicole; Phung, Trung My; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Ziegler, Thomas

    2014-04-07

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from southern Vietnam, based on morphological and molecular datasets. Cyrtodactylus cucdongensis sp. nov. is described on the basis of seven specimens collected from Cuc Dong Cape, Khanh Hoa Province. The new species can be distinguished from the remaining bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: maximum SVL 65.9 mm; 16-19 dorsal tubercle rows; 41-44 ventral scales at midbody; 5 or 6 precloacal pores in males, 4-6 pitted precloacal scales in females; no femoral pores; 6-13 enlarged precloacal scales; 5-9 enlarged femoral scales; no transversally enlarged subcaudals; dorsal pattern consisting of irregular dark bands. This is the 33rd species of Cyrtodactylus known from Vietnam.

  12. Two new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the karst forest of Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Pham, Anh Van; Ngo, Hai Ngoc; Hoang, Chung Van; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-07-13

    We describe two new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus on the basis of a new reptile collection from the limestone karst forest of Hoa Binh Province, northwestern Vietnam. Cyrtodactylus otai sp. nov. from Hang Kia-Pa Co Nature Reserve and Cyrtodactylus bobrovi sp. nov. from Ngoc Son-Ngo Luong Nature Reserve can be distinguished from each other and from their congeners by their genetic distinction and morphological differences in number of precloacal pores, femoral scales, ventral scales, lamellae, subcaudals and dorsal tubercle arrangement, as well as in size and color pattern. In phylogenetic analyses, both new species are nested in a clade containing taxa from northwestern and northcentral Vietnam and northern Laos, i.e., C. bichnganae and C. cf. martini from northwestern Vietnam, C. puhuensis from northcentral Vietnam, and C. spelaeus, C. vilaphongi, and C. wayakonei from northern Laos.

  13. Natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii (Squamata, Leiosauridae in southern Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rautenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.

  14. The presence of Abronia oaxacae (Squamata: Anguidae) in tank bromeliads in temperate forests of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ruiz, G I; Mondragón, D; Santos-Moreno, A

    2012-05-01

    The presence of lizards in bromeliads has been widely documented. Nevertheless, the possibility of some type of preference or specificity among lizards for particular bromeliad species has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aims to document the presence of Abronia oaxacae in six species of tank bromeliads found in pine forests, pine-live oak forests, and live oak groves during both the rainy season and the dry season. Three adult individuals of Abronia oaxacae were collected; one in a Tillandsia violácea (pine-live oak forest), one in a T. calothyrsus (live oak grove), and one in a T. prodigiosa (live oak grove). All three specimens were collected in sampling efforts carried out during the dry season. The results of the present study suggest that A. oaxacae shows no preference for a single, specific bromeliad species, although it does have a certain preference for a few select species. The presence of A. oaxacae in bromeliads during the dry season could be related to the cooler, moister microhabitat that these plants represent.

  15. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the dry season, which can result in habitat loss and territorial displacement of individuals.

  16. Two new species of Parapharyngodon (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae from the enigmatic Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus (Squamata: Bipedidae Dos especies nuevas de Parapharyngodon (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae de los enigmáticos Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus (Squamata: Bipedidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Agustín Jiménez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Parapharyngodon collected from Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus are herein described. Parapharyngodon lamothei n. sp. was collected from the 4-toed worm lizard Bipes canaliculatus from southern Mexico. It is unique in possessing 6 lips, a gubernaculum, a fringed cloacal lip, and a single medial papilla in addition to 3 paired papillae. Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp., was collected from the 3-toed worm lizard Bipes tridactylus, and it is characterized by having 3 bilobed lips, a simple cloaca, a relatively long spicule, and by possessing 3 pairs of caudal papillae. These are the third and fourth species of the genus recorded in Mexico.En este trabajo se describen 2 especies del género Parapharyngodon: Parapharyngodon lamothei n. sp. y Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp., recolectadas del intestino de los bipédidos Bipes canaliculatus y Bipes tridactylus, respectivamente. La primera se caracteriza por poseer 6 labios, gubernáculo, labio cloacal ornamentado y las papilas caudales distribuidas en 3 pares y 1 papila sencilla media ventral inmediatamente postcloacal. Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp. se diferencia por poseer 3 labios lobulados, por su estructura cloacal lisa y por presentar 3 pares de papilas caudales en el caso de los machos.

  17. A new species of Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parasitizing Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata from northeastern Argentina Una especie nueva de Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parásita de Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata del noreste de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Inés Lunaschi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae from a Spiny Lava Lizard, Tropidurus spinulosus, collected in Chaco Province, Argentina, is described. This is the second species of Mathevotaenia described from Neotropical reptiles. The new species is mainly characterized by having a relatively small strobila, 24 mm in total length, with about 100 craspedote proglottids, and 19-24 testes per proglottid. Among the South American species of Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis is most similar to the new species by having similar body length and number of testes, but the major differences between both species include the size of suckers, neck, proglottids, testes and egg capsules, and the shape of the genital atrium and ovary (with 10-13 lobules on each side in M. argentinensis,, and 4-7 lobules in M. chaquensis n. sp.. A key to the species of the South American members of the Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946 is presented.Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae es descrita parasitando al lagarto de los quebrachales, Tropidurus spinulosus, procedente de la Provincia del Chaco, Argentina. Esta es la segunda especie de Mathevotaenia descrita parasitando reptiles Neotropicales. La nueva especie está caracterizada principalmente por tener un estróbilo relativamente pequeño, 24 mm de largo, con aproximadamente 100 proglótides craspedotas y 19-24 testículos por proglótide. Entre las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis es la más semejante a la nueva especie por presentar similar longitud del cuerpo y número de testículos, pero difieren en el tamaño de las ventosas, cuello, proglótides, testículos y huevos. Además difieren en la forma del atrio genital y del ovario (10-13 lóbulos a cada lado enM. argentinensis vs. 4-7 lóbulos en M. chaquensis n. sp.. Se presenta una clave para la determinación de las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946.

  18. Redescubrimiento de mabuya berengerae, mabuya pergravis (squamata: scincidae) y coniophanes andresensis (squamata: colubridae) y evaluación de su estado de amenaza en las islas de san andrés y providencia, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta nueva información sobre la taxonomía, la distribución y la historia natural de los lagartos Mabuya berengerae y M. pergravis; así como de la serpiente Coniophanes andresensis, tres especies endémicas y poco conocidas de las islas de San Andrés y Providencia, las cuales se creían muy raras e incluso extintas. A pesar del poco tiempo de estudio en las islas, se evidenció que los lagartos no son raros, encontrándose hasta ocho ejemplares cada media hora. La evaluación del estado de c...

  19. Habitat use, daily activity periods, and thermal ecology of Ameiva ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza M. X. Freire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the use of spatial, temporal, and thermal resources by the Neotropical lizard Ameiva ameiva during rainy and dry seasons in a caatinga (xerophilous open forests environment in northeasternBrazil. Lizards used the vegetation habitats and microhabitats in the ground, but never were seen in the rocky habitat. Adults usually used the arboreal-shrubby habitat, whereas juveniles were sighted more often in the shrubby-herbaceous habitat. Ontogenetic differences in spatial use seem to be linked to different thermal needs between age groups owing to differences in body size. Body temperatures were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults. Most teiid species have elevated body temperatures, usually above 37oC, and are active during the hottest times of day, as was observed for A. ameiva in this study. Seasonality influenced habitat use and daily activity periods of adults, but not body temperatures. We verified annual fluctuations in adult abundance, with a decline of active lizards in the dry season; this phenomenon may be related to aestivation and/or increased mortality rate during the driest months.

  20. Thermal ecology of the lizard Sceloporus gadoviae (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) in a semiarid region of southern Puebla, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo A. Woolrich-Piña; Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; GEOFFREY R. SMITH; Luis Oliver-López; Felipe Correa-Sánchez; Tizoc A. Altamirano-Álvarez; Raymundo Montoya-Ayala

    2012-01-01

    We studied the thermal ecology of the lizard Sceloporus gadoviae from Puebla, Mexico. Mean body temperature (Tb) was 31.5 ± 0.3˚C. A multiple regression suggested that Tb was affected by substrate temperature and solar insolation, and minimally affected by ambient temperature (Ta), sex, and body size. However, body temperature was higher in females than males, and higher in gravid females than non-gravid females. We also found significant differences in Tbs of lizards occupying microhabitats ...

  1. Diet, microhabitat use, and thermal preferences of Ptychoglossus bicolor (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae in an organic coffee shade plantation in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime M. Anaya-Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ptychoglossus bicolor is a small gymnophthalmid lizard distributed in the Magdalena Valley of Colombia. We studied ecological features of diet, microhabitat use, and thermal preferences of a population found in an organic coffee shade plantation at the Cordillera Oriental of the Colombian Andes. The studied population had a diet composed predominantly of isopods. The Relative Importance Index of isopods was 98.8%; there were no significant monthly differences in the full stomach content and volume of isopods eaten during the sampling year, neither between rainy and dry seasons. A large number of lizards were found active in the leaf-litter, buried around coffee tree roots, and under or in rotting logs. Lizard body temperature was positively correlated with substrate temperature and air temperature; sex differences in body temperature were not significant. At the studied locality we did not find lizards out of the coffee fields. Our results suggested that these lizards successfully cope with the conditions offered by the organic coffee areas as a result of the cultivation system. Thus, this population might be vulnerable to any modification of the habitat that changes microhabitat availability and abundance of isopods.Ptychoglossus bicolor es un pequeño lagarto de la familia Gymnophthalmidae, que habita el valle del Río Magdalena de Colombia. Se estudiaron las características ecológicas de la dieta, uso de microhábitat y preferencias termales de una población que habita una plantación de café orgánico bajo sombra en la Cordillera Oriental colombiana. La dieta en esta población está dominada por isópodos. El Índice Valor de Importancia Relativa fue del 98.8% y no hubo diferencias mensuales significativas en el contenido estomacal y el volumen de isópodos consumidos durante el año, ni tampoco entre las estaciones de lluvia y seca. Un gran número de lagartos fueron encontrados activos entre la hojarasca, enterrados junto a las raíces de los árboles y bajo o dentro de troncos en descomposición. La temperatura corporal estuvo positivamente correlacionada con las temperaturas del suelo y del aire y no hubo diferencias significativas en temperatura corporal entre los sexos. En esta localidad no encontramos lagartos fuera de los campos de cultivo de café. Nuestros resultados sugieren que estos lagartos sobrellevan exitosamente las condiciones ofrecidas por los cafetales orgánicos como resultado del sistema de cultivo. Así, esta población podría ser vulnerable a cualquier modificación del hábitat que cambie la disponibilidad de microhábitats y la abundancia de isópodos.

  2. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrastro, L; Ely, I

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of a species' diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard's diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, "sit-and-wait" or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often.

  3. Restinga lizards (Reptilia: Squamata at the Imbassaí Preserve on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Couto-Ferreira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the diversity of lizard species at the Imbassaí Preserve, located in the Mata de São João municipality, on the northern coast of Bahia region, Brazil, with special attention to the threatened and endemic species. We present the main results on richness and abundance, from a long term monitoring program and especially from the period between November 2008 and June 2010. We applied the visual search method associated with pitfall traps and random encounters, on a 200m linear transect, in four different vegetation habitats. We detected 26 lizard species, distributed in 19 genera of 10 families. The study reveals a high diversity area for lizards, within the restinga ecosystem along the northern coast line, and therefore contributes to the knowledge of the herpetofauna on the northern coast of the Bahia region, as well as to future management and monitoring programs.

  4. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo B. Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825, as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation on lepidopteran larvae, coleopteran larvae and adults, and orthopteran nymphs and adults occurred in the wet season; however, hymenopterans/Formicidae were the most important prey items. The number of food items was similar between lizard species in both seasons; however the overlap for number of prey was smaller in the wet season. Preys ingested by T. hispidus during the wet season were also larger than those consumed by T. semitaeniatus. Seasonal comparisons of foraging intensity between the two species differed, mainly in the wet season, when T. hispidus exhibited less movement and fewer attacks on prey, and more time spent stationary if compared to T. semitaeniatus. Although both lizards are sit-and-wait foragers, T. semitaeniatus is more active than T. hispidus. The diet and foraging behavior of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus overlap under limiting conditions during the dry season, and are segregative factors that may contribute to the coexistence of these species in the wet season.

  5. Note on the diet of Ameiva edracantha (Squamata, Teiidae in Cerros de Amotape National Park, Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Jordán

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Ameiva edracantha Bocourt 1874, a terrestrial diurnal teiid lizard distributed in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador is described for the first time. Stomach contents of fifteen individuals collected from quebrada La Angostura were analyzed. Lepidopteran larvae, coleopterans, orthopterans and spiders were the dominant preys in the lizard’s diet. Snout-vent length and head length, width and height were not correlated to prey length, width and volume. Other parameters such as profitability and prey target selection could be involved in prey selection by A. edracantha.

  6. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Verrastro

    Full Text Available Knowledge of a species’ diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard’s diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, “sit-and-wait” or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often.

  7. Lizard Wears Shades. A Spectacled Sphenomorphus (Squamata: Scincidae), from the Sacred Forests of Mawphlang, Meghalaya, North-east India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Roy, Aniruddha; Das, Indraneil; Bauer, Aaron M; Tron, Ronald K Lyngdoh; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    A new species of lygosomatine scincid lizard is described from the sacred forests of Mawphlang, in Meghalaya, northeastern India. Sphenomorphus apalpebratus sp. nov. possesses a spectacle or brille, an unusual feature within the Scincidae, and a first for the paraphyletic genus Sphenomorphus. The new species is compared with other members of the genus to which it is here assigned, as well as to members of the lygosomatine genera Lipinia and Scincella from mainland India, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and southeast Asia, to which it also bears resemblance. The new taxon is diagnosable in exhibiting the following combination of characters: small body size (SVL to 42.0 mm); moveable eyelids absent; auricular opening scaleless, situated in a shallow depression; dorsal scales show a line of demarcation along posterior edge of ventral pes; midbody scale rows 27-28; longitudinal scale rows between parietals and base of tail 62-64; lamellae under toe IV 8-9; supraoculars five; supralabials 5-6; infralabials 4-5; subcaudals 92; and dorsum golden brown, except at dorsal margin of lateral line, which is lighter, with four faintly spotted lines, two along each side of vertebral row of scales, that extend to tail base. The new species differs from its congeners in the lack of moveable eyelids, a character shared with several distantly related scincid genera.

  8. The intestinal helminth community of the spiny-tailed lizard Darevskia rudis (Squamata, Lacertidae) from northern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, V; Jorge, F; Ilgaz, Ç; Kumlutaş, Y; Durmuş, S H; Carretero, M A

    2016-03-01

    Populations of the lizard Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886) from northern Anatolia were examined for intestinal parasites in adult specimens. One cestode, Nematotaenia tarentolae López-Neyra, 1944 and four nematode species, Spauligodon saxicolae Sharpilo, 1962, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni Li, 1934, Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) and Strongyloides darevskyi Sharpilo, 1976, were found. Three of these nematodes, S. saxicolae, S. hoffmanni and S. darevskyi are suggested to be part of a module in the network of Darevskia spp. and their parasites. Only one, S. darevskyi, was identified as a Darevskia spp. specialist. The very low infection and diversity parameters are indicative of the depauperate helminth communities found in this lacertid lizard, falling among the lowest within the Palaearctic saurians. Nevertheless these values are higher than those found in parthenogenetic Darevskia spp. Interpopulation variation in the intensity of S. saxicolae and N. tarentolae is attributable to local changes in ecological conditions. On the other hand, parasite abundance and richness increased in the warmer localities, while the effect of lizard sex and size on infection was negligible. The structure of these helminth communities in D. rudis are compared with those observed in other European lacertid lizards.

  9. Hemipenes in females of the Mexican viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata (Squamata: Anguidae): an example of heterochrony in sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Rubio-Morales, Beatriz; Piña-Amado, José Juan; Luis, Juana

    2015-01-01

    The sexual development of saurians follows a similar pattern to that described for other amniotes. Changes in the timing or sequence of development events are known as heterochrony. We describe the pattern of sexual development in the viviparous Mexican lizard Barisia imbricata and report heterochrony in the regression of hemipenes in this lizard. We collected gestating females; some lizards were subjected to partial hysterectomy and the embryos were processed using routine histological technique to assess gonadal development; the remaining embryos were used to assess the development of hemipenes. Other pregnant females were kept in captivity in individual terraria until the time of delivery. All neonates were sexed by eversion of hemipenes and some of their body characteristics were recorded. Several neonates were sacrificed and processed to establish gonadal histology and the young of the remaining litters were maintained in captivity to observe the fate of the hemipenes in both sexes. Gonadal development began at embryonic stage 33 and the hemipenes were visible at the same stage. In the neonates, the ovary contained oogonias and ovarian follicles, whereas the testicles showed testicular cords. All neonates had hemipenes and sex could only be established through direct observation of the reproductive ducts and gonadal histology. The hemipenes regression in the females begins after approximately 7 months of postnatal development and concludes at about 15 months of age. We think that the delayed regression of the hemipenes reflects evolutionary differences among reptiles and may be an indication of a stage in the evolutionary process of this species.

  10. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Brizuela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province. The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds. The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for the family Anguidae exhumed in Argentina.

  11. Expression of phenotypic plasticity in hatchlings of the lizard Calotes versicolor (Squamata: Agamidae: influence of nest moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashri A. Shanbhag

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Calotes versicolor breed from late May to early October. The breeding activity begins with the onset of the southwest monsoon. The eggs laid in early breeding season experience more wet conditions than those of the late breeding season. We studied the influence of nest moisture levels on the phenotypic traits of hatchlings by burying the eggs in 5-cm-deep sand nests with ~50%(wet nest or ~20% (relatively dry nest moisture to simulate nesting conditions of early and late breeding seasons. A group of eggs were subjected to standard laboratory incubation procedure in which eggs are half-buried in the moist sand and the other half exposed to air. Hatching time and hatchling body size varied with the treatment. The eggs from dry nests hatched later and hatchlings were the biggest but possessed least amount of residual yolk compared to those of 'wet nest' and also 'lab incubated' groups. In these hatchlings head and limb sizes were significantly larger than that of the other two groups. The findings show: (1 a developmental plasticity in the lizard, (2 that under low moist conditionslarger body size is preferred, and (3 that the trade-off between somatic growth of embryos and future energy reserves (residual yolk of hatchlings is influenced by the soil moisture in C. versicolor.

  12. Circumstantial evidences for mimicry of scorpions by the neotropical gecko Coleodactylus brachystoma (Squamata, Gekkonidae in the Cerrados of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuber Albuquerque Brandão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few records of invertebrates mimicry by reptiles. In the Cerrados of central Brazil, the small Coleodactylus brachystoma is an endemic species common in the islands and margins of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam reservoir. When cornered, this lizard folds the tail over the body exposing the pale-orange ventral surface. Lizard behavior, tail length and color pattern confer to this lizard a strong resemblance with syntopic buthid scorpions Rhopalurus agamenon, Tytius matogrossensis, and Anantheris balzani. Lizards and scorpions share the same tail color, size, and shape. Ecologically, they use the same microhabitats, are exposed to the same potential predators, and present similar behaviors when threatened.

  13. Two newly recognized species of Hemidactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smíd, Jiří; Moravec, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Gvoždík, Václav; Nasher, Abdul Karim; Busais, Salem M; Wilms, Thomas; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A recent molecular phylogeny of the Arid clade of the genus Hemidactylus revealed that the recently described H. saba and two unnamed Hemidactylus species from Sinai, Saudi Arabia and Yemen form a well-supported monophyletic group within the Arabian radiation of the genus. The name 'Hemidactylus saba species group' is suggested for this clade. According to the results of morphological comparisons and the molecular analyses using two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (cmos, mc1r, rag1, rag2) genes, the name Hemidactylus granosus Heyden, 1827 is resurrected from the synonymy of H. turcicus for the Sinai and Saudi Arabian species. The third species of this group from Yemen is described formally as a new species H. ulii sp. n. The phylogenetic relationships of the members of 'Hemidactylus saba species group' are evaluated and the distribution and ecology of individual species are discussed.

  14. Dragons in the mist: three new species of Pseudocalotes Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae) from the sky island archipelago of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Quah, Evan S H; Wood, Perry L Jr; Anuar, Shahrul; Muin, Abdul; Davis, Hayden R; Murdoch, Matthew L; Grismer, Jesse L; Cota, Michael; Cobos, Anthony J

    2016-07-07

    An integrative taxonomic analysis is used to delimit and describe three new species of Pseudocalotoes from the sky island archipelago of the Banjaran (=mountain range) Titiwangsa of Peninsular Malaysia. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov., from Fraser's Hill, Pahang is basal to the sister species P. larutensis from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Banjaran Bintang and the new species P. rhaegal sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a flat rostrum; seven postrostrals; an interparietal; 11 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one scale between the rostral and nasal; nine supralabials; eight infralabials; 10 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; five or six sublabials; five or six chinshields; 47 smooth, wide, gular scales; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; enlarged upper and lower posttemporals; a single enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; three large scales bordering the dorsal margin of the ear opening; large pretympanic scales; eight scales in the nuchal crest not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the tip of the tail; keeled and non-plate-like scales on flanks; 51 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on third toe enlarged and spinose; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.52; HL/SVL 0.31; no elbow or knee patches; and a male dewlap color of lime-green bearing a central yellow spot. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. is differentiated from all other Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a convex rostrum; 6-8 postrostrals; an interparietal; nine or 10 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one or two scales between the rostral and nasal scales; eight or nine supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; 11 or 12 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; four or five chinshields; 40-45 smooth, wide, gular scales; no transverse gular fold; a weak antehumeral fold; three or four enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; no large scales bordering the upper margin of the ear opening or in the pretympanic region; 6-8 enlarged nuchal crest scales not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the base of the tail; weakly keeled, non-plate-like scales on the flanks; 52-58 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19-21 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 22-26 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third enlarged and rounded; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.50-0.54; HL/SVL 0.28-0.30; no elbow or knee patches; and female dewlap color yellow bearing a purple base. The analyses also indicated that the new species, P. viserion sp. nov. from Genting Highlands, Pahang in the southern section of the Banjaran Titiwangsa is the sister species of P. flavigula from Cameron Highlands 121 km to the north and can be separated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of three postrostrals; 10 circumorbitals; four or five canthals; 5-7 superciliaries; rostral and nasals in contact; supralabials contacting the nasal; six or seven supralabials; six or seven infralabials; two or three postmentals; 47 or 48 smooth, flat, gular scales; three chinshields; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; 7-9 nuchal crest scales lacking gaps and not extending beyond midbody; weakly keeled and plate-like scales on the flanks; 35-38 midbody scales; ventrals smaller than dorsals; 22 or 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 26 or 27 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third toe not modified; subdigital scales not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.62; no white marking below the eye; dewlap in males yellow; and no elbow or knee patches. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. most likely occurs in syntopy with P. flavigula in Tanah Rata at Cameron Highlands and its discovery adds to a growing body of literature detailing the recent descriptions of several new, upland, closely related, sympatric species in Peninsular Malaysia. Another new population referred to here as Pseudocalotes sp. nov. from the Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Betong District, Yala Province, Thailand is discussed. The discovery and description of these three new Pseudocalotes from the upland regions of Peninsular Malaysia continues to underscore the remarkably high herpetological diversity and ecological complexity in this sky island archipelago that is still underestimated, unappreciated, and unprotected.

  15. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    Se investigó la capacidad de los extractos de las hojas de Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, Satureja viminea y de la raíz de Uncaria tomentosa para inhibir el edema inducido por el veneno de Bothrops asper por métodos pletismométricos. Los grupos de ratas fueron inyectados intraperitonealmente con varias dosis de cada extracto y una hora mas tarde se inyectó veneno por vía subcutánea en la pata trasera derecha de la rata. Se evaluó el edema en distintos i...

  16. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J

    2006-06-01

    We tested the capacity of leaf (Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, and Satureja viminea) and root (Uncaria tomentosa) extracts to inhibit edema induced by Bothrops asper snake venom. Edema-forming activity was studied plethysmographically in the rat hind paw model. Groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with various doses of each extract and, one hour later, venom was injected subcutaneously in the right hind paw. Edema was assessed at various time intervals. The edematogenic activity was inhibited in those animals that received an injection U. tomentosa, C. nutans or L. speciosa extract. The extract of U. baccifera showed a slight inhibition of the venom effect. Extract from S. viminea and, to a lesser extent that of U. leptuphylla, induced a pro-inflammatory effect, increasing the edema at doses of 250 mg/kg at one and two hours.

  17. [Home range of Aspidoscelis cozumela (Squamata: Teiidae): a parthenogenetic lizard microendemic to Cozumel Island, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Gallegos, Oswaldo; López-Moreno, Ana Esthela; Méndez-Sánchez, José Fernando; Rheubert, Justin Lloyd; Méndez-de la Cruz, Fausto Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Home range is defined as the area within which an individual moves to acquire resources necessary to increase their fitness and may vary inter and intra-specifically with biotic and abiotic factors. This study details the home range of the parthenogenic lizard, Aspidoscelis cozumela, an active forager microendemic to Cozumel Island, México, with high preference for open sand beaches. The home range of A. cozumela was compared with other species of Aspidoscelis (gonochoric and parthenogenetic) and other lizards that occupy coastal habitats. Furthermore, the biotic and abiotic factors that may influence home range were analyzed. This study was conducted in the beach located on the East side of the island (area of 4,000 M2) that is composed primarily of halophyte vegetation with high levels of sunlight. From 1999 to 2001, nine samples were taken which included the dry, rainy, "nortes", and breeding seasons. During each sampling, capture-mark-recapture techniques were conducted and the date, time of day, and snout-vent length (SVL) were recorded to the nearest millimeter. Individuals were located in the study area using a bi-coordinate reference using 10 x 10 m subdivisions of the habitat. Home range and home range overlap were calculated using the convex polygon method in McPaal and home range/SVL correlation was tested using Pearson's correlation. To calculate females home range, three or more recaptures were considered. A total of 20 home ranges that averaged 45.1 ± 14.0 m2 were obtained and no correlation between SVL and home range size was detected (p = 0.9229, n = 20). However, removing individuals with outlier home ranges (females with home ranges > 100 m2, n = 2) resulted in a positive correlation with SVL (r = 0.61, p = 0.0072, n = 18). A 22.9 ± 5.7% overlap in home range was also detected. The small home range of A. cozumela represents the smallest home range within the Aspidoscelis genus recorded to date (including both parthenogenetic and gonochoric species) and contrasts the theoretical predictions of broad home ranges for widely foraging species. Thermoregulatory benefits and a high population density may explain the small home range of A. cozumela. Although this species is highly adapted to the environmental conditions present on the open sand beaches, anthropogenic effects on these habitats by the development of tourism infrastructure may jeopardize their existence on Cozumel Island.

  18. Off the scale: a new species of fish-scale gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Geckolepis) with exceptionally large scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, Mark D; Daza, Juan D; Köhler, Jörn; Vences, Miguel; Glaw, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The gecko genus Geckolepis, endemic to Madagascar and the Comoro archipelago, is taxonomically challenging. One reason is its members ability to autotomize a large portion of their scales when grasped or touched, most likely to escape predation. Based on an integrative taxonomic approach including external morphology, morphometrics, genetics, pholidosis, and osteology, we here describe the first new species from this genus in 75 years: Geckolepis megalepissp. nov. from the limestone karst of Ankarana in northern Madagascar. The new species has the largest known body scales of any gecko (both relatively and absolutely), which come off with exceptional ease. We provide a detailed description of the skeleton of the genus Geckolepis based on micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) analysis of the new species, the holotype of G. maculata, the recently resurrected G. humbloti, and a specimen belonging to an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) recently suggested to represent G. maculata. Geckolepis is characterized by highly mineralized, imbricated scales, paired frontals, and unfused subolfactory processes of the frontals, among other features. We identify diagnostic characters in the osteology of these geckos that help define our new species and show that the OTU assigned to G. maculata is probably not conspecific with it, leaving the taxonomic identity of this species unclear. We discuss possible reasons for the extremely enlarged scales of G. megalepis in the context of an anti-predator defence mechanism, and the future of Geckolepis taxonomy.

  19. A new species of kukri snake (Squamata: Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Le, Son Hong; Murphy, Robert W

    2016-07-20

    We describe a new kukri snake, Oligodon condaoensis sp. nov., from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam based on the morphological characters of four specimens. It differs from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: medium size in adults (total length up to 552 mm); 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows; deeply forked hemipenes without spines and papillae, extending to subcaudal 13 or 14; 11-13 maxillary teeth, the posterior three being enlarged; cloacal plate undivided; head scalation complete; nasal divided; presubocular absent; 168-176 ventrals; 33-37 subcaudals; overall dorsal coloration dark gray, faint body stripes present or absent; and ventral coloration cream to dark gray without rectangular blotches. We also provide a list of 43 species of amphibians and terrestrial reptiles recorded from Con Dao Islands.

  20. Validation and Application of Skeletochronology for Age Determination of the Ryukyu Ground Gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata:Eublepharidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takaki KURITA; Mamoru TODA

    2013-01-01

    Skeletochronology is a method commonly used for estimating the age of amphibians and reptiles in the wild. However, the number of lines of arrested growth (LAGs) does not necessarily relfect age in some species. We validated the applicability of this method to an endangered eublepharid gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae, then inferred its longevity and age structures in wild populations. We classiifed young geckos into three groups using previously published data for early growth:Group 1 contained hatchlings before the ifrst winter, Group 2 contained hatchlings after the ifrst win-ter, and Group 3 included yearlings after the second winter. LAG numbers in these groups were then compared. All individuals in Group 1 possessed a single LAG, which was considered as a hatching line. Most individuals in Groups 2 and 3 possessed one and two additional LAGs, respectively (LAG1 and LAG2), corroborating the notion that LAGs are formed annually. A few geckos exhibited fewer LAGs than expected. Analysis of variations in LAG and marrow cavity diameter demonstrated that in animals with fewer LAGs, endosteal resorption or fusion of hatching line and LAG1 had occurred. LAG2 was never lost by endosteal resorption and was identiifable by its diameter. Thus, the age of adult geckos could be determined by counting LAGs outward from LAG2. Application of this method to wild populations re-vealed that the longevity of this species is not less than 83 months, but that almost all individuals in fragmented habitats die before 50 months, suggesting lower population sustainability in such habitats.

  1. Single large or several small? The influence of prey size on feeding performance of Philodryas nattereri (Squamata: Serpentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Catunda Pereira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the energetic return and feeding time on Philodryas nattereri kept in captivity. Snakes were fed biweekly for 60 days (four feeding trials, in two different feeding treatments (single and multiple prey items. The energetic return revealed no significant difference between the feeding treatments; however, we found a negative relationship between snake size and prey handling time during a feed using multiple prey items. In P. nattereri, when large preys are as easy to find as small ones, there seems to be no difference in energetic return.

  2. A new species of Stenocercus (Squamata, Iguania from central-western Brazil with a key to Brazilian Stenocercus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Torres-Carvajal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Stenocercus from central-western Brazil differs from other Stenocercus by the following combination of characters: head and body scales strongly keeled, posthumeral and postfemoral mite pockets absent, nostrils laterally oriented, supraciliary scales not enlarged or projected, and caudal fracture planes absent. Morphologically, the new species more closely resembles S. prionotus and S. caducus. The latter species has been reported in Brazil based on misidentified specimens from Mato Grosso that correspond to the new species described herein. However, it is very likely that S. caducus occurs in Brazil because it has been reported from geographically close areas. Therefore, I recognize seven species of Stenocercus from Brazil and provide a dichotomous key to assist in the identification of specimens.

  3. Comparative cytogenetics of two species of ground skinks: Scincella assata and S. cherriei (Squamata: Scincidae: Lygosominae from Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Castiglia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard karyotypes of two species of the genus Scincella, S. assata and S. cherriei, both from Chiapas State, Mexico, were described for the first time. The diploid chromosome number was 28 in S. assata, whereas 30 in S. cherriei. The karyotypes of the two species, while differing in the number of microchromosomes, 14-15 in S. assata and 16-17 in S. cherriei, share four pairs of large metacentric, two pairs of medium-sized metacentric, and one particular pair (number 7 of chromosomes. Female S. assata carries chromosome pair 7 composed of two identical medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes. This chromosome pair is heteromorphic in males of both species, i.e., one component of the pair is similar to the homomorphic chromosomes 7 of the S. assata female, while the other is nearly one-half the size of its counterpart and resembles a microchromosome. The homology of such externally different elements is deducted from the presence of an asymmetric bivalent in spermatocytes at diplotene-diakinesis. Female S. cherriei was not available. We suspect that the two Scincella species possess an XY sex determination system, as previously reported for the North American congeneric species, S. lateralis.

  4. A new species of Gekko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tà Kóu Nature Reserve, Binh Thuan Province, Southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Tony

    2010-01-01

    A new species of Gekko Laurenti is described from Ta Kou Mountain, an isolated granitic peak in Ta Kou Nature Reserve, Ham Thuan Nam district, Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. The species is distinguished from its congeners by its moderate size, with snout to vent length (SVL) reaching a maximum 107.0 mm; dorsal pattern of 5–8 white vertebral blotches between the nape and sacrum and 6–8 pairs of short white bars on the flanks; 11–14 precloacal pores in males; 14–17 longitudinal rows of smooth dorsal tubercles; and 18–20 broad lamellae beneath the fourth toe. Gekko takouensis sp. nov. is the second endemic gekkonid discovered in the Ta Kou Nature Reserve, Cyrtodactylus takouensis Ngo & Bauer being the first. PMID:21547000

  5. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Neotropical skink genus Mabuya Fitzinger (Squamata: Scincidae) with emphasis on Colombian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Calderón-Espinosa, Martha L; Miralles, Aurélien; Crawford, Andrew J; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the phylogenetic and geographical history of Neotropical lineages requires having adequate geographic and taxonomic sampling across the region. However, Colombia has remained a geographical gap in many studies of Neotropical diversity. Here we present a study of Neotropical skinks of the genus Mabuya, reptiles that are difficult to identify or delimit due to their conservative morphology. The goal of the present study is to propose phylogenetic and biogeographic hypotheses of Mabuya including samples from the previously under-studied territory of Colombia, and address relevant biogeographic and taxonomic issues. We combined molecular and morphological data sampled densely by us within Colombia with published data representing broad sampling across the Neotropical realm, including DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and cytochrome b) and three nuclear genes (Rag2, NGFB and R35). To evaluate species boundaries we employed a general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model applied to the mitochondrial data set. Our results suggest that the diversity of Mabuya within Colombia is higher than previously recognized, and includes lineages from Central America and from eastern and southern South America. The genus appears to have originated in eastern South America in the Early Miocene, with subsequent expansions into Central America and the Caribbean in the Late Miocene, including at least six oceanic dispersal events to Caribbean Islands. We identified at least four new candidate species for Colombia and two species that were not previously reported in Colombia. The populations of northeastern Colombia can be assigned to M. zuliae, while specimens from Orinoquia and the eastern foothills of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia correspond to M. altamazonica. The validity of seven species of Mabuya sensu lato was not supported due to a combination of three factors: (1) non-monophyly, (2) <75% likelihood bootstrap support and <0.95 Bayesian posterior probability, and (3) GMYC analysis collapsing named species. Finally, we suggest that Mabuya sensu stricto may be regarded as a diverse monophyletic genus, widely distributed throughout the Neotropics.

  6. Suivi du Gecko Phelsuma serraticauda (Squamata : Gekkonidae dans la région Atsinanana, dans l’Est de Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. M. Freeman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RÉSUMÉCette étude a été effectuée sur le Gecko Phelsuma serraticauda durant les mois d’octobre et décembre 2008 dans 57 sites dans l’est et nord-est de Madagascar. Elle a pour objectifs de déterminer l’aire de distribution dans l’est de Madagascar et l’utilisation d’habitat de cette espèce pour sa conservation et son utilisation durable. La plupart des observations des individus sur les plantes sont sur le cocotier Cocos nucifera (84,3 % et le fruit de pain Artocarpus altilis (4,9 %, avec 8,3 % sur le mur d’une maison en bois. Le nombre de P. serraticauda varie entre un et cinq par biotope avec une moyenne de 2,6 ± 0,2 pour l’ensemble des plantes et de 1,7 ± 0,4 pour les maisons. Parmi les 29 pieds de cocotier, 34 % sont occupés chacun par un seul individu mâle ou femelle, 14 % par deux femelles, 10 % par deux mâles, 10 % par un mâle et une femelle, et 10 % par deux mâles et une femelle. Le nombre moyen de mâle a été 1,06 ± 0,20 et 1,00 ± 0,15 pour la femelle. Sur les quatre maisons visitées, trois sont occupées chacune par une femelle et la dernière par trois mâles et deux femelles. Le nombre moyen de mâles a été 0,75 ± 0,75 et de 1,25 ± 0,25 pour les femelles. Phelsuma serraticauda est rarement trouvé sur des eucalyptus, Artocarpus heterophyllus et autres palmiers. Cette espèce n’est pas recensée dans la forêt humide de basse altitude d’Analalava, à la périphérie de la forêt littorale d’Antetezana et dans la plantation de Ravenala madagascariensis. L’analyse des matières fécales a montré que l’espèce se nourrit principalement d’araignées, coléoptères, hyménoptères, hémiptères et de leurs larves. Elle est sympatrique avec P. lineata et P. quadriocellata. La collecte de P. serraticauda dans la nature est allouée avec une autorisation légale et suivant le quota fixé par la CITES. Des cas de collecte illicite qui constitue une menace pour l’espèce de P. serraticauda, sont notés pendant cette étude. Compte tenu de l’état actuel des populations de P. serraticauda et de l’absence de mesures de conservation, un système de monitoring et un site de conservation pour cette espèce devraient être mis en place de toute urgence. Cette étude est la première réalisée sur cette espèce dans son état sauvage pour mieux comprendre ses besoins en termes d’habitat et les mesures de conservation à long terme de l’espèce. ABSTRACTThe diurnal gecko Phelsuma serraticauda has a restricted range in eastern and northeastern Madagascar. A study was under­taken in 57 sites mostly in Ivoloina and its surroundings areas in October (phase 1 and December (phase 2 2008. The main objectives were to elucidate the distribution area in the east of Madagascar and to determine the habitat use of P. serrati­cauda to help ensure its conservation and sustainable use. Most of the observations on plants were from coconut tree Cocos nucifera (84.3 % and breadfruit Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae, 4.9 %, with 8.3 % from houses. The number of P. serraticauda per biotope varied between one and five with means of 2.6 ± 0.2 for all plants and 1.7 ± 0.4 for the houses. Among the 29 coconut trees, 34 % were each occupied by one male or female, 14 % by two females, 10 % by two males, 10 % by one male and one female, 10 % by two males and one female. The mean number of male of P. serraticauda on the coconut trees was 1.06 ± 0.20 and 1.00 ± 0.15 for female. Among the four analysed houses, three were occupied by one female and one by three males and two females. The mean number of male P. serraticauda on the houses was 0.75 ± 0.75 and 1.25 ± 0.25 for female. Phelsuma serraticauda was also found infrequently on Eucalyptus sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, and other palm trees such as Dypsis sp. This species of gecko was not recorded in the humid forest of Analalava, in the edge of the Antetezana littoral forest, and in the vast plantation of Ravenala madagascariensis situated in the surrounding areas of Ivoloina. Results from fae­cal analysis showed that P. serraticauda prey mostly on spiders, coleopterans and hymenopterans, hemipterans and their larvae. Phelsuma serraticauda was found sympatrically with P. lineata and P. quadriocellata. The collection of this species in the wild is allowed with legal authorization and with respect to the quotas fixed by CITES. We have noted cases of illegal collection of P. serraticauda during this study. The trade constitutes a threat for this gecko. Its populations are fragmented and are also threatened by habitat loss. Bearing in mind the lack of current conservation measures and the present state of the populations of P. serraticauda, a monitoring system and a conservation site for this species should be urgently established. This study is the first on this species in the wild and constitutes the beginning of many studies needed to better understand its habitat require­ments and to ensure the long term survival of the species.

  7. Cariotipo y región organizadora del núcleo en Teius teyou (Daudin, 1802) (Squamata: teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando, Alejandra B.

    1994-01-01

    Specimens of Teius teyou (Daudin, 1982) from Formosa and Chaco, Argentina, were citologically analyzed. A karyotype characterized by 54 chromosomes and 2 pairs of ribosomal chromosomes were identified. Asociación Herpetológica Argentina

  8. Photographic evidence of interspecies mating in geckos of the Lepidodactylus lugubris unisexual-bisexual complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, Donald W.; Cianchini, Carlos; Taborosi, Danko; Fisher, Robert N.; Bauer, Aaron; Ineich, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    An interspecies mating between unisexual Lepidodactylus lugubris and a male of the bisexual Lepidodactylus moestus was photographed by Carlos Cianchini on Kosrae [Island], FSM, at 18:15 h on 22 August 2013 (Figure 1). The mating pair was on a window frame inside a house at Pukusruk Wan village (05°21'01" N, 163°00'41" E, elev. 28 m a.s.l.) on the northeastern side of the island. This is the first direct evidence of mating between these two species.

  9. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae in the southern amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW. Ávila

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  10. Does gestation or feeding affect the body temperature of the golden lancehead, Bothrops insularis (Squamata: Viperidae under field conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael P. Bovo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects physiological performance in reptiles and, therefore, body temperature (Tb control is argued to have an important adaptive value. Alterations in Tb due to transient changes in physiological state, as during digestion or gestation, are often linked to the potential benefits of a more precise Tb regulation. However, such thermoregulatory responses in nature remain controversial, particularly for tropical snakes. Herein, we measured Tb of the golden lanceheads, Bothrops insularis (Amaral, 1921, at Queimada Grande Island, southeastern Brazil, to test for alteration in selected body temperatures associated with feeding or gestation. We found no evidence that postprandial or gravid snakes selected for higher Tb indicating that, under natural conditions, body temperature regulation in B. insularis apparently encompasses other ecological factors beyond physiological state per se.

  11. Uso nocturno de perchas en dos especies de Anolis (Squamata: Polychrotidae en un bosque Andino de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Molina Zuluaga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio registramos el uso de sitios para dormir por Anolis "anoriensis" y Anolis mariarum en un bosque montano al norte de la Cordillera Central de Colombia, con el objetivo de examinar la ocurrencia de segregación espacial entre ellas. Además, estimamos la disponibilidad de perchas en ambos sitios. Anolis mariarum durmió con mayor frecuencia en arbustos (51% que en otros tipos de perchas (arboles, helechos, herbáceas, y lo hizo en proporción similar a su disponibilidad. Anolis "anoriensis" utilizó de manera diferencial los tipos de percha en los dos sitios muestreados, dependiendo de la presencia/ausencia de la otra especie. Esta variación en la selección de los arbustos por A. "anoriensis" sugiere la existencia de competencia entre ambas especies cuando ocurren sintópicamente.In this study we recorded the use of sleeping site by Anolis "anoriensis" and Anolis mariarum in two study sites located in the montane forest of the extreme northern of Cordillera Central, Colombia. We also tested the occurrence of spatial segregation between the two species. Furthermore, we estimated perch availability in both study sites. Anolis mariarum slept more frequently on shrubs (51% than other kinds of perches (ferns, herbs, trees, but did so in proportion to their availability. Anolis "anoriensis" used different kinds of perches in each site, depending on the presence/absence of A. mariarum. Such variation in response to shrubs as sleeping perches by A. "anoriensis" suggests the existence of competition between the species when they are in syntopy.

  12. The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae: current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. D. Rocha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

  13. A new phasmid gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from the Arnhem Plateau: more new diversity in rare vertebrates from northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Parkin, Tom

    2014-10-22

    The Arnhem Plateau is a rugged expanse of sandstone escarpment in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics with a highly endemic biota. Here we describe a new species of small spinifex dwelling Strophurus (phasmid gecko) that also appears to be endemic to this region. Strophurus horneri sp. nov. can be diagnosed from all congeners by aspects of size, coloration and scalation. Even with the description of this new species, however, levels of morphological and genetic diversity within Strophurus from the stone country of the Northern Territory suggest additional divergent lineages are present. A number of recent studies have now provided preliminary evidence of evolutionary diversity within the Arnhem Plateau, but data remains scant and almost nothing is known about how topography and historical processes have shaped the endemic biota of this region. 

  14. Out of the deep: cryptic speciation in a Neotropical gecko (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) revealed by species delimitation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Fabricius M C B; Bosque, Renan J; Cassimiro, José; Colli, Guarino R; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Santos, Marcella G; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2014-11-01

    Levels of biodiversity in the Neotropics are largely underestimated despite centuries of research interest in this region. This is particularly true for the Cerrado, the largest Neotropical savanna and a formally recognized biodiversity hotspot. Molecular species delimitation methods have become essential tools to uncover cryptic species and can be notably robust when coupled with morphological information. We present the first evaluation of the monophyly and cryptic speciation of a widespread Cerrado endemic lizard, Gymnodactylus amarali, using phylogenetic and species-trees methods, as well as a coalescent-based Bayesian species delimitation method. We tested whether lineages resulting from the analyses of molecular data are morphologically diagnosed by traditional meristic scale characters. We recovered eight deeply divergent molecular clades within G. amarali, and two additional ones from seasonally dry tropical forest enclaves between the Cerrado and the Caatinga biomes. Analysis of morphological data statistically corroborated the molecular delimitation for all groups, in a pioneering example of the use of support vector machines to investigate morphological differences in animals. The eight G. amarali clades appear monophyletic and endemic to the Cerrado. They display several different properties used by biologists to delineate species and are therefore considered here as candidates for formal taxonomic description. We also present a preliminary account of the biogeographic history of these lineages in the Cerrado, evidence for speciation of sister lineages in the Cerrado-Caatinga contact, and highlight the need for further morphological and genetic studies to assess cryptic diversity in this biodiversity hotspot.

  15. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alvarado

    Full Text Available Abstract Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884 was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845. This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812 on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM of the specimens are given.

  16. GEOGRAPHIC BODY SIZE AND SHAPE VARIATION IN A MAINLAND Anolis (SQUAMATA: DACTYLOIDAE FROM NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA L. CALDERÓN-ESPINOSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anolis auratus se distribuye desde Costa Rica en Centro América, el norte de Sur América, incluyendo Colombia, Venezuela, norte de Brasil, Surinam y las Guyanas. En Colombia, su amplia distribución en distintas zonas de vida sugiere que estos lagartos ocupan distintos ambientes, y por tanto, posiblemente exhiben variación geográfica en el uso de microhabitat. Por otra parte, algunas observaciones sugieren que estos lagartos prefieren zonas abiertas, seleccionando pastizales y por tanto, una hipótesis alternativa es que usan el mismo microhabitat en toda su distribución. En Anolis, las variables corporales relacionadas con el movimiento (tamaño y forma corporal definen el uso del microhabitat, así que pueden esperarse dos patrones en esta especie: tamaño y forma corporal conservativos o altamente variables a lo largo de su distribución. Caracterizamos la variación geográfica en variables morfométricas de esta especie en Colombia. Hembras y machos mostraron tamaño corporal similar, pero fueron distintos en la forma del cuerpo. La forma corporal varía también en machos y hembras de distintas regiones, sugiriendo un uso heterogéneo del microhabitat estructural. Como alternativa, la divergencia filoge- nética entre poblaciones podría explicar las diferencias obser- vadas. La ausencia de datos ecológicos y filogenéticos para la especie limita las hipótesis sobre causas de este patrón. Provee- mos un marco general para explorar hipótesis que expliquen la evolución de tamaño y forma corporal en esta especie.

  17. Resolving the higher-order phylogenetic relationships of the circumtropical Mabuya group (Squamata: Scincidae): An out-of-Asia diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Benjamin R; Metallinou, Margarita; Weinell, Jeffrey L; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2016-09-01

    Despite an abundance of phylogenetic studies focused on intrageneric relationships of members of the Mabuya group, the intergeneric relationships have remained difficult to resolve. The most-persistent unresolved regions of the phylogeny of the group include: (1) the placement of the Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with respect to the Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis and its taxonomic status; (2) the phylogenetic position of the Cape Verdean Chioninia within the larger Mabuya group; (3) support for the placement of Dasia with respect to the entire group; and (4) the phylogenetic placement of Eutropis novemcarinata with respect to other Eutropis and Dasia. In this study, we include representatives of all these taxa as well as African Eumecia and Neotropical Mabuya. We seek to address these phylogenetic and systematic issues by generating a well-resolved and supported phylogeny for the Mabuya group as a whole that can be used to develop a stable taxonomy and reconstruct the geographic patterns of diversification within the group. To meet these goals, we built a large multi-locus dataset of 11 markers (nine nuclear and two mitochondrial), and performed concatenated and species tree analyses to generate a well-supported phylogeny for the group. Statistical topology tests reject the monophyly of Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis, and to reflect monophyly we place the Middle-Eastern species into a previously described genus, Heremites. Cape-Verdean Chioninia are resolved as the strongly supported sister-group to Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis. Monophyly of the Southeast-Asian genera, Eutropis and Dasia, is not supported, with a clade composed of Dasia+Eutropis novemcarinata more closely related to the rest of the Mabuya group than to the remaining Eutropis. The phylogenetic position of E. novemcarinata renders Eutropis polyphyletic, and we therefore describe and place E. novemcarinata into a new monotypic genus, Toenayar, to preserve monophyly among the genera. In light of these novel findings, we review and discuss the historical biogeography of the entire Mabuya group.

  18. An addition to the endemic Indian radiation of Eutropis: Phylogenetic position of Eutropis dissimilis Hallowell (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Roy, Aniruddha; Deepak, V; Sidharthan, Chinta; Barley, Anthony J; Karanth, K Praveen

    2015-10-01

    Skinks of the genus Eutropis represent one of the most widespread and speciose lizard groups in tropical Asia. Numerous recent studies have utilized a variety of genes and methods to reconstruct the phylogeny of these lizards, however these studies have not resolved the placement of one of the widely distributed Eutropis Fitzinger, E. dissimilis. We have sequenced a specimen of E. dissimilis from the type locality and our result suggests that it is part of the Indian radiation of Eutropis and not related to African Trachylepis Fitzinger or Southeast Asian Dasia Gray as previously suggested. Furthermore, we report that the sequence of E. dissimilis used in an earlier study of the once cosmopolitan genus 'Mabuya' may have been erroneously identified and appears to be a sequence of E. novemcarinata. We also demonstrate that the evolution of a clear lower eyelid, which was considered a synapomorphy for the sister genus Trachylepis, has arisen multiple times in Eutropis.

  19. Os répteis da área de Carajás, Pará, Brasil (Squamata). I.

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Francisco Paiva do; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer de; Cunha, Osvaldo Rodrigues da

    1987-01-01

    Os estudos spbre a herpetofauna de Carajás têm continuidade com a contribuição presente. Registramos aqui as espécies de cobras e lagartos coletadas entre outubro de 1984 e maio de 1986 e que não foram citadas em Cunha, Nascimento e Ávila-Pires (1985), as quais representam 13 novos registros de ofídios e 4 lagartos para a região, incluindo uma nova espécie de Gonatodes. A maioria dos ofídios é própria à Amazônia e regiões limítrofes, o mesmo ocorrendo com os lagartos: a presença de Colobosaur...

  20. Os répteis da área de Carajás, Pará, Brasil (Squamata). II.

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Francisco Paiva do; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer de; Cunha, Osvaldo Rodrigues da

    1987-01-01

    Os estudos sobre a herpetofauna de Carajás têm continuidade com a contribuição presente. Registramos aqui as espécies de cobras e lagartos coletadas entre outubro de 1984 e maio de 1986 e que não foram citadas em Cunha, nascimento & Ávila-Pires (1985), as quais representam 13 novos registros de ofídios e 4 lagartos para a região, incluindo uma nova espécie de Gonatodes. A maioria dos ofídios é própria à Amazônia e regiões limítrofes, o mesmo ocorrendo com os lagartos: a presença de Colobosaur...

  1. Pentastomid infection in Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824) (Squamata: Colubridae) in a caatinga of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W O; Guedes, T B; Freire, E M X; Vasconcellos, A

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between pentastomids and two Colubridae species, Phillodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824), were investigated in the federal government's reserve Estação Ecológica do Seridó (ESEC, Seridó) situated at lat 6 degrees 35'-40' S and long 37 degrees 15'-20 W in the municipality of Serra Negra do Norte, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil and run by IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Resources). Throughout 2005, 26 specimens of snakes, 13 of P. nattereri and 13 of O. aeneus were collected. After anatomical dissection and laboratorial examination of the snakes respiratory tracts, P. nattereri was found to be parasitized by two species of pentastomids: Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922 with a prevalence of 30.8% and a mean intensity of infection of 51.5 +/- 32.7 (range 3-147), and Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1863) which had a prevalence of 7.7% and a mean intensity of infection of 1.0. Only one female of O. aeneus was found to be infected by C. tetrapoda, with a prevalence of 7.7% and mean intensity of infection of 2.0. There was no significant relationship between size of snout-vent length (SVL) and intensity of infection in the specimens investigated here. The two individuals of P. nattereri infected by more than 40 specimens of pentastomids had their lungs completely infected including the pulmonary peritoneum and trachea. It is noteworthy that the hosts had their lung tissues partially destroyed with apparent haemorrhage, and the trabecular structure of their lungs was also destroyed. The contrasting rates of infection estimated here may be related to differences in foraging strategies, in diet, and habitat selection carried out by individuals of P. nattereri and O. aeneus.

  2. Atlas de Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae. Anatomía externa, osteología y bibliografía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero, Ricardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Los lagartos que en Argentina se conocen como "iguana roja" o "caraguay" pertenecen al género Tupinambis, uno de los saurios de mayor talla del continente; tienen importancia económica, tanto por su cuero como por su carne. Se reconocen seis especies actuales, que se distribuyen en América del Sur desde Colombia hasta el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina (Cei, 1993. Por su amplia distribución y abundancia son utilizados como animales de laboratorio por lo que es importante el conocimiento detallado de su anatomía. Es por ello que aquí presentamos en un Atlas fotográfico la morfología externa y osteología de Tupinambis rufescens.

  3. Atlas de Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae). Anatomía externa, osteología y bibliografía

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Ricardo; Abdala,Virginia; Moro,Silvia; Gallardo, Gabriela

    2004-01-01

    Los lagartos que en Argentina se conocen como "iguana roja" o "caraguay" pertenecen al género Tupinambis, uno de los saurios de mayor talla del continente; tienen importancia económica, tanto por su cuero como por su carne. Se reconocen seis especies actuales, que se distribuyen en América del Sur desde Colombia hasta el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina (Cei, 1993). Por su amplia distribución y abundancia son utilizados como animales de laboratorio por lo que es importante el conocimiento det...

  4. Vulnerability to climate warming of Liolaemus pictus (Squamata, Liolaemidae), a lizard from the cold temperate climate in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, Erika Leticia; Fernández, Jimena Beatriz; Ibargüengoytía, Nora Ruth

    2016-02-01

    The vulnerability of populations and species to global warming depends not only on the environmental temperatures, but also on the behavioral and physiological abilities to respond to these changes. In this sense, the knowledge of an organism's sensitivity to temperature variation is essential to predict potential responses to climate warming. In particular, it is interesting to know how close species are to their thermal limits in nature and whether physiological plasticity is a potential short-term response to warming climates. We exposed Liolaemus pictus lizards, from northern Patagonia, to either 21 or 31 °C for 30 days to compare the effects of these treatments on thermal sensitivity in 1 and 0.2 m runs, preferred body temperature (T pref), panting threshold (T pant), and critical minimum temperature (CTMin). Furthermore, we measured the availability of thermal microenvironments (operative temperatures; T e) to measure how close L. pictus is, in nature, to its optimal locomotor performance (T o) and thermal limits. L. pictus showed limited physiological plasticity, since the acclimation temperature (21 and 31 °C) did not affect the locomotor performance nor did it affect T pref, the T pant, or the CTMin. The mean T e was close to T o and was 17 °C lower than the CTMax. The results suggest that L. pictus, in a climate change scenario, could be vulnerable to the predicted temperature increment, as this species currently lives in an environment with temperatures close to their highest locomotor temperature threshold, and because they showed limited acclimation capacity to adjust to new thermal conditions by physiological plasticity. Nevertheless, L. pictus can run at 80 % or faster of its maximum speed across a wide range of temperatures near T o, an ability which would attenuate the impact of global warming.

  5. Evolution around the Red Sea: Systematics and biogeography of the agamid genus Pseudotrapelus (Squamata: Agamidae) from North Africa and Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamar, Karin; Scholz, Sebastian; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Meiri, Shai; Schmitz, Andreas; Wilms, Thomas; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Since the Oligocene, regions adjacent to the Red Sea have experienced major environmental changes, from tectonic movements and continuous geological activity to shifting climatic conditions. The effect of these events on the distribution and diversity of the regional biota is still poorly understood. Agamid members of the genus Pseudotrapelus are diurnal, arid-adapted lizards distributed around the Red Sea from north-eastern Africa, across the mountains and rocky plateaus of the Sinai and Arabian Peninsulas northwards to Syria. Despite recent taxonomic work and the interest in the group as a model for studying biogeographic and diversity patterns of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia, its taxonomy is poorly understood and a comprehensive phylogeny is still lacking. In this study, we analyzed 92 Pseudotrapelus specimens from across the entire distribution range of the genus. We included all known species and subspecies, and sequenced them for mitochondrial (16S, ND4 and tRNAs) and nuclear (MC1R, c-mos) markers. This enabled us to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus, using gene trees, species trees and coalescent-based methods for species delimitation. Our results revealed Pseudotrapelus as a monophyletic genus comprised of two major clades and six independently evolving lineages. These lineages correspond to the five currently recognized species and a sixth lineage relating to the synonymized P. neumanni. The subspecific validity of P. sinaitus werneri needs further assessment as it does not form a distinct cluster relative to P. s. sinaitus. The onset of Pseudotrapelus diversification is estimated to have occurred in Arabia during the late Miocene. Radiation has likely resulted from vicariance and dispersal events due to the continued geological instability, sea level fluctuations and climatic changes within the region.

  6. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-08

    I present distribution data of all Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae and Tropiduridae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 40 species-level taxa, belonging to 11 genera. This represents four more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 41,243 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian musea, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (62.5%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa are widespread in Amazonia, one is restricted to eastern Amazonia, three to western Amazonia, five to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), two to northwestern Amazonia, one to southern Amazonia, nine to southwestern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Five species have unique distributions and five species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates). The first herpetological gazetteer for the Brazilian Amazonia with about 3,600 georeferenced localities was also produced.

  7. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the Liolaemus rothi complex and a new species of lizard from Auca Mahuida Volcano (Squamata: Liolaemini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Luciano Javier; Olave, Melisa; Perez, Cristian Hernan Fulvio; Perez, Daniel Roberto; Morando, Mariana

    2013-01-21

    A new species of lizard of the genus Liolaemus from Neuquén Province, western Argentina, is described. The new species is a member of the Liolaemus rothi species complex, and mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data show it as sister taxon of the clade composed of (L. hermannunezi (L. tromen + L. loboi)), differing in size, squamation, coloration, and sexual dimorphism from the other species of this group. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. has a dark body coloration with series of notched blotches on the dorsum, with bright spots, and a very iridescent yellow-green coloration in natural light. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. is found only in the Auca Mahuida volcano and is terrestrial, dwelling on the stony slopes with sandy soil between 1300 m and the volcano summit.

  8. The Diet and Sexual Differences of the Caspian Bent-Toed Gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius (Squamata: Gekkonidae, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Hojati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caspian bent-toed gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius, is one of the most common nocturnal lizards of Iran with widespread distribution especially in the northern provinces. This research was done in order to study the diet and sexual dimorphism of this species in Sari County from 5 May to 20 October. During this research, 40 specimens of them including 20 males and 20 females were studied for diet and 140 specimens including 70 adult males and 70 adult females were studied for sexual dimorphism. Prey items identified were insects that belong to 15 species of 8 families and 6 orders. The most common prey items were Culex pipiens and Musca domestica. There is no significant difference between diets of males and females. Results show that the adult males in addition of having the apparent femoral and preanal pores are heavier than females and have larger body, head, and tail length.

  9. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  10. A new species of pine anole from the Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, Mexico (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae: Anolis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Gunther; Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo; Petersen, Claus Bo P; de La Cruz, Fausto R Mendez

    2014-01-09

    We describe the new species Anolis peucephilus sp. nov. from the Pacific versant of southern Mexico. Anolis peucephilus differs from all congeners by having a combination of (1) smooth ventral scales; (2) usually a patch of three greatly enlarged supraocular scales; (3) extremely short hind legs, longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening, ratio shank length/snout-vent length 0.18-0.21; (4) circumnasal usually in contact with first supralabial; and (5) a large yellowish orange dewlap in males and a very small to small white dewlap in females. In external morphology, A. peucephilus is most similar to A. omiltemanus from which it differs by having even shorter hind legs with the longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening (versus usually to ear opening, occasionally to slightly beyond ear opening or to a point between shoulder and ear opening in A. omiltemanus), a slightly larger dewlap in females, to 64 mm2 (versus to 41 mm2 in A. omiltemanus), the circumnasal usually in contact with the first supralabial (versus those scales separated by the presence of a subnasal in A. omiltemanus), and 4-6 internasal scales in the new species (versus usually 6-7 in A. omiltemanus). Furthermore, A. peucephilus differs from A. omiltemanus in hemipenial morphology (no finger-like processus on asulcate side in A. peucephilus versus such a processus present in A. omiltemanus). Also, in a preliminary molecular genetic analysis of the mitochondrial CO1 gene fragment, A. peucephilus has a genetic distance of 11.5% from A. omiltemanus. Anolis peucephilus was collected at night while the lizards were sleeping in pine trees, 2-10 m above the ground.

  11. Home-range size and overlap within an introduced population of the Cuban Knight Anole, Anolis equestris (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Richards

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the spatial relationships of terrestrial lizards, but arboreal species remain poorly studiedbecause they are difficult to observe. The conventional view of home-range size and overlap among territorial, polygynous species of lizards is that: (1 male home ranges are larger than those of females; (2 male home ranges usually encompass, or substantiallyoverlap, those of several females; and (3 male home-range overlap varies but often is minimal, but female home ranges frequently overlap extensively. However, the paucity of pertinent studies makes it difficult to generalize these patterns to arboreal lizards. Weinvestigated home-range size and overlap in the arboreal Knight Anole, Anolis equestris, and compared our findings to published home-range data for 15 other species of Anolis. Using radiotelemetry and mark-recapture/resight techniques, we analyzed the home rangesof individuals from an introduced population of Knight Anoles in Miami, Florida. The home ranges of both sexes substantially overlapped those of the same- and different-sex individuals. In addition, male and female home ranges did not differ significantly, an unusual observation among lizard species. If one compares both male and female home ranges to those of other Anolis species, Knight Anoles have significantly larger home ranges, except for two species for which statistical comparisons were not possible. Our results suggest that home ranges and sex-specific spatial arrangements of canopy lizards may differ from those of more terrestrial species.

  12. Antifungal and Insecticidal Activity from Two Juniperus Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils of two Tibetan Junipers Juniperus saltuaria and J. squamata var. fargesii (Cupressaceae) were obtained by distilling dried leaves and branches using a Clevenger apparatus. Sixty-seven compounds from J. saltuaria and 58 compounds from J. squamata var. fargesii were identified by gas c...

  13. Boletín de la AHA | Volumen 2 | Número 1-3

    OpenAIRE

    Asociación Herpetológica Argentina (AHA)

    1985-01-01

    - Resúmenes de los trabajos presentados en la II Reunión de Comunicaciones Herpetológicas: -- Un nuevo anfibio para la provincia de Mendoza (Argentina): Ceratophrys cranwelli Barrio (Anura, Leptodactylidae); Enrique Richard -- El cariotipo de Amphisbaena munoai y comentarios sobre la meiosis en los Amphisbaenidae; Gabriel Skuk -- Histología del tracto digestivo de Lilaemus multimaculatus (Dumeril y Bibron, 1837); Viviana C. Devincenti, Lía Goldemberg y José M. Chani -- Estudio...

  14. Genetic diversity of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Gekko gecko Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in Southeast Asia determined with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watee Kongbuntad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Red-spotted tokay geckos, Gekko gecko, are distributed mainly in Southeast Asia. They are a traditional Chinese medicine, with the massive hunting for exports dramatically decreasing their numbers. Information on the genetic diversity of these geckos in Southeast Asia is very limited. This study aims to explore intrapopulation and interpopulation genetic variation and the genetic structure of 16 populations collected from different localities in Thailand, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Relatively high genetic diversity occurred at both the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels. Genetic differentiation with FST values ranging between 0.006–0.892 was found. Five distinct genetic groups of the red-spotted tokay populations could be classified. A group of populations from northern Thailand showed the highest genetic differentiation from the other groups. Moreover, there was a substantial genetic subdivision depending on the genetic groups with FCT=0.664 and FSC=0.185. This genetic structure is related to geographical distribution and distance between populations, R2=0.5614, p<0.001. Our findings of pronounced genetic structuring and the concomitant conservation genetic consequences if further population loss occurs mean that management actions should therefore focus on the conservation of all of the main sites where tokay geckos still occur.

  15. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from a transitional forest in Maranhao, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Jivanildo P.; Andréa Ricci-Lobão; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855) in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate), but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing th...

  16. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae from a transitional forest in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivanildo P. Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855 in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate, but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing the effect of the substrate temperature. Males and females differed significantly in perch height use above ground (males perched higher but the sexes did not differ in the trunk perimeter used. Gonatodes humeralis tended to use the larger tree trunks available in its environment and selected trunks with deeper leaf litter at the base. It is hypothesized that choosing tree trunks with deeper leaf litter is a defensive behavior against predation.

  17. Influences of sex, ontogeny and body size on the thermal ecology of Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata, Liolaemidae) in a restinga remnant in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Carneiro, Thiago; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Variations in body temperature (Tb) of lizards can be partially explained by intrinsic factors such as sex, ontogeny and body size. Liolaemus lutzae is a lizard species restricted to restingas in the Brazilian coast in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Herein, we studied sexual dimorphism and influences of sex, ontogeny, and body size to the Tb of L. lutzae. Adult males were larger than adult females, probably due to both intersexual selection and intra-sexual selection. There was intersexual difference in lizards' Tb (males hotter than females), but Tb did not differ after factored out for the effects of body size. The mean Tb of juvenile lizards was higher than that of adults after factored out for the effect of body mass. It is possible that adults may have excluded juveniles from microhabitats with better thermal regimes. Also, this might have occurred due to requirements of juveniles to maintain high growth rates. Forage searching for prey by juveniles also exposes them to high environmental temperatures. Juveniles also may have higher Tb than co-specific adults (relative to body mass) to favor prey capture. In absolute values, adult lizards tended to use microhabitats with lower temperatures than that used by juveniles, possibly to avoid risks of overheating and death. Body temperature and snout-vent length were positively related, as well as body temperature and body mass, presumably caused by the thermal inertia of the bodies (trend of a body to resist to changes in its temperature). Intrinsic factors such as sex, ontogeny and body size can affect the thermal ecology of L. lutzae, despite coastal habitat features to which they are exposed also influences the body temperature of active lizards in restinga habitats.

  18. Scale Morphology and Micro-Structure of Monitor Lizards (Squamata: Varanidae: Varanus spp.) and their Allies: Implications for Systematics, Ecology, and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklitsch, Yannick; Böhme, Wolfgang; Koch, André

    2016-08-17

    We analysed scale morphology and micro-structure from five different body regions using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) across all nine recognized subgenera of the monitor lizard genus Varanus including 41 different species investigated. As far as we are aware, this qualitative visual technique was applied by us for the first time to most monitor lizard species and probably also to the primary outgroup and sister species Lanthanotus borneensis. A comprehensive list of 20 scalation characters each with up to seven corresponding character states was established and defined for the five body regions sampled. For the phylogenetic approach, parsimony analyses of the resulting morphological data matrix as well as Bremer and bootstrap support calculations were performed with the software TNT. Our results demonstrate that a variety of micro-ornamentations (i.e., ultra- or micro-dermatoglyphics) as seen in various squamate groups is hardly present in monitor lizards. In several species from six out of nine subgenera, however, we found a honeycomb-shaped micro-structure of foveate polygons. Two further samples of Euprepiosaurus Fitzinger, 1843 exhibit each another unique microscopic structure on the scale surface. Notably, the majority of species showing the honeycombed ultra-structure inhabit arid habitats in Australia, Africa and the Middle East. Therefore, it can be inferred that this microscopic scalation feature, which has also been identified in other desert dwelling lizard species, is taxonomically and ecologically correlated with a xeric habitat type in varanids, too. In addition, the systematic affiliation of V. spinulosus, an endemic monitor lizard species from the Solomon Islands with an extraordinary scale shape, is discussed in the light of current hypotheses about its phylogenetic position within the Varanidae. Due to its unique scalation characteristics, in combination with other morphological evidence, a new monotypic subgenus, Solomonsaurus subgen. nov., is erected for this enigmatic monitor lizard species. Furthermore, we propose a taxonomic splitting of the morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous subgenus Euprepiosaurus comprising the Pacific or mangrove and the tree monitor lizards, respectively, again based on the SEM data. Thus, for the members of the highly arboreal V. prasinus species group erection of a new subgenus, Hapturosaurus subgen. nov., is justified based on the autapomorphic scale shape in concert with further morphological, phylogenetic and ecological evidence. In addition, V. reisingeri originally described as a distinct species is considered conspecific with the wide-spread V. prasinus due to joint synapormorphic features in the ventral scale micro-structure. Consequently, V. prasinus is (again) rendered polytypic with the taxon reisingeri being assigned subspecies status here.        In conclusion, the established scalation characters allow discrimination of single species even among closely-related Varanus species, such as the members of the V. indicus species group. Together with a recently published identification key for Southeast Asian monitor lizards based on macroscopic phenotypic characters (Koch et al. 2013), the SEM-pictures of the present study may serve as additional references for the microscopic identification of CITES-relevant monitor lizard skins and products, respectively.

  19. A review of Cordylus machadoi (Squamata: Cordylidae) in southwestern Angola, with the description of a new species from the Pro-Namib desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Edward L; Ceríaco, Luis M P; Bandeira, Suzana; Valerio, Hilaria; Bates, Michael F; Branch, William R

    2016-01-07

    The girdled lizard genus Cordylus is represented in Angola by two species, Cordylus angolensis and C. machadoi, separated from their nearest congeners by over 700 km. Here we describe a new species, Cordylus namakuiyus sp. nov., endemic to the arid lowlands west of the southern Angolan escarpment. Phylogenetic analysis using three mitochondrial and eight nuclear genes shows that the low-elevation forms and the proximate, high-elevation species C. machadoi are genetically divergent and reciprocally monophyletic, and together form the earliest diverging lineage of the northern Cordylus clade. Morphological data, collected using computed tomography and traditional techniques (scalation and morphology), identify consistent phenotypic differences between these high- and low-elevation species and allows for a detailed description of the osteology and osteodermal arrangements of the new species. A series of 50 specimens, collected during the 1925 Vernay expedition to southwestern Angola and housed at the American Museum of Natural History, are assigned to the new species, although the identity of Cordylus from northern Namibia remains ambiguous and requires further investigation.

  20. Species on the rocks: Systematics and biogeography of the rock-dwelling Ptyodactylus geckos (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) in North Africa and Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Červenka, Jan; Crochet, Pierre-André; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Wilms, Thomas; Geniez, Philippe; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Brito, José C; Carranza, Salvador

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the diversity of species in the Palearctic and the processes that have generated it is still weak for large parts of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia. Reptiles are among their most remarkable representatives, with numerous groups well adapted to the diverse environments. The Ptyodactylus geckos are a strictly rock-dwelling genus with homogeneous morphology distributed across mountain formations and rocky plateaus from the western African ranges in Mauritania and the Maghreb to the eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, with an isolated species in southern Pakistan. Here, we use a broad sampling of 378 specimens, two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (c-mos, MC1R, ACM4, RAG2) markers in order to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus and place its diversification in a temporal framework. The results reveal high levels of intraspecific variability, indicative of undescribed diversity, and they do not support the monophyly of one species (P. ragazzii). Ptyodactylus species are allopatric across most of their range, which may relate to their high preference for the same type of structural habitat. The onset of their diversification is estimated to have occurred in the Late Oligocene, while that of several deep clades in the phylogeny took place during the Late Miocene, a period when an increase in aridification in North Africa and Arabia initiated.

  1. Variación diaria de la temperatura corporal en dos especies de lagartos nocturnos (Squamata, Gekkonidae, Homonota con comentarios sobre el uso de refugios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, Félix B.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poco es lo que se conoce sobre la variación de la temperatura corporal de lagartos nocturnos. Se sabe que algunos lagartos nocturnos termorregulan durante el día. El tamaño corporal y el comportamiento, a su vez, pueden estar relacionados con la inercia térmica. Individuos de Homonota borelli y H. darwini fueron expuestos a tres situaciones, a refugios cálidos (la temperatura nunca fue menor a los 34 ºC, b refugios con una temperatura inferior a los 28-30 ºC, y c se les permitió escoger entre cada una de las opciones anteriores. La temperatura corporal en general y el patrón diario fueron similares en ambas especies siendo más altas durante el día. Cuando los lagartos eligieron los refugios, se observaron diferencias entre las especies, H. borelli usó más los refugios con fuente de calor en tanto que H. darwini usó refugios sin fuente de calor. El tamaño corporal y la distribución geográfica podrían estar relacionados con las diferencias observadas. Very little is known about diel variation in body temperature among nocturnal lizards. Some nocturnal lizards thermoregulate during the day, and body size plus behaviour may be related to the amount of thermal inertia. Lizards of the species Homonota borelli and H. darwini were either exposed to three different situations a a heated retreat site (never below than 34 º C, b a retreat with a temperature lower than 28-30 º C, and c where lizards were allowed to choose between a warm or a cool retreat. Body temperatures and diel pattern were similar for both species. Body temperatures were higher during the day. When lizards choose for retreats, differences were observed, H. darwini preferred cool retreats, whereas H. borelli used the warmer ones. Body size, coloration and geographic distribution may be related to the different patterns observed.

  2. Road kills of the endemic snake Perrotet’s Shieldtail Plectrurus perrotetii, Dumeril, 1851 (Reptilia: Squamata: Uropeltidae in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Santhoshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven road killed specimens of Plectrurus perrotetii were recorded in Emerald and its surrounding areas in the Nilgiris. Among the road kills, fourteen of them were females, seven were males and six are juveniles. Among the road kill female specimens of this species, it was observed that seven were gravid with fully developed young. Three to six developing young ones were observed

  3. Deep divergence and structure in the Tropical Oceanic Pacific: a multilocus phylogeography of a widespread gekkonid lizard (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Gehyra oceanica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonione, Maria A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Zhu, Catherine; Moritz, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Aim The islands of the Tropical Oceanic Pacific (TOP) host both local radiations and widespread, colonizing species. The few phylogeographical analyses of widespread species often point to recent human-aided expansions through the Pacific, suggesting that the communities are recently assembled. Here we apply multilocus data to infer biogeographical history of the gekkonid lizard, Gehyra oceanica, which is widespread, but for which prior analyses suggested a pre-human history and in situ diversification. Location Tropical Oceanic Pacific. Methods We generated a data set including mtDNA and diagnostic SNPs for 173 individuals of G. oceanica spanning Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. For a subset of these individuals, we also sequenced nuclear loci. From these data, we performed maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to reveal major clades. We also performed Bayesian clustering analyses and coalescence–based species delimitation tests to infer the number of species in this area. Results We found evidence for six independent evolutionary lineages (candidate species) within G. oceanica that diverged between the Pliocene and the early Pleistocene, with high diversity through northern Melanesia, and pairing of northern Melanesian endemic taxa with widespread lineages across Micronesia and Polynesia. Main conclusions The islands of northern Melanesia not only have unrecognized diversity, but also were the source of independent expansions of lineages through the more remote northern and eastern Pacific. These results highlight the very different evolutionary histories of island faunas on remote archipelagos versus those across Melanesia and point to the need for more intensive studies of fauna within Melanesia if we are to understand the evolution of diversity across the tropical Pacific.

  4. The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus; Squamata: Varanidae) as a sentinel species for lead and cadmium contamination in sub-Saharan wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Berny, Philippe, E-mail: p.berny@vetagro-sup.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile (France); Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, F-69622, Villeurbanne (France); Buffrenil, Vivian de [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 48, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, Departement Histoire de la Terre, UMR 7207 CR2P (France)

    2011-10-15

    Wetland pollution is a matter of concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Though regularly exploited, the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), a large amphibious lizard, is not threatened. This work aims at assessing the value of this varanid as a sentinel species in surveys of environmental contamination by metals. Lead and cadmium quantifications were performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bone, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle in 71 monitors from three unevenly polluted sites in Mali and Niger, plus a reference site. The effects of sex, size and fat reserves as well as factors related to the sampling strategy (tissue sampled, sampling site) were studied with a mixed linear model. Metal contamination is moderate at the four sites but clear differences nevertheless occur. Lead levels are generally maximal in bone, with a gender-independent median value 320 ng.g{sup -1}. Median cadmium concentrations never exceed 70.2 ng.g{sup -1} in females (kidney) and 57.5 ng.g{sup -1} in males (intestine). Such levels should have no detrimental effects on the monitors. Lead and cadmium levels in muscles are generally below 200 and 20 ng.g{sup -1}, respectively, and should provoke no health hazard to occasional consumers of monitor meat. Metal organotropisms are consistent with those observed in other studies about Squamates: for lead: bone > [kidney, intestine, liver] > muscle in males and [bone, kidney] > [intestine, liver] > muscle in females; for cadmium: [liver, intestine, kidney] > [bone, muscle] for both genders. Females are more contaminated, especially in their kidneys. In this tissue, median values in ng.g{sup -1} are 129.7 and 344.0 for lead and 43.0 and 70.2 for cadmium, for males and females, respectively. Nile monitors can reveal subtle differences in local pollution by metals; moreover, the spatial resolution of the pollution indication that they give seems to be very sharp. The practical relevance of this new tool is thus validated.

  5. Integrating early detection with DNA barcoding: species identification of a non-native monitor lizard (Squamata: Varanidae) carcass in Mississippi, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Hopken, Matthew W.; Steen, David A.; Falk, Bryan G.; Piaggio, Antoinette J.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of invasive species is critical to increasing the probability of successful management. At the primary stage of an invasion, invasive species are easier to control as the population is likely represented by just a few individuals. Detection of these first few individuals can be challenging, particularly if they are cryptic or otherwise characterized by low detectability. The engagement of members of the public may be critical to early detection as there are far more citizen s on the landscape than trained biologists. However, it can be difficult to assess the credibility of public reporting, especially when a diagnostic digital image or a physical specimen in good condition are lacking. DNA barcoding can be used for verification when morphological identification of a specimen is not possible or uncertain (i.e., degraded or partial specimen). DNA barcoding relies on obtaining a DNA sequence from a relatively small fragment of mitochondrial DNA and comparing it to a database of sequences containing a variety of expertly identified species. He rein we report the successful identification of a degraded specimen of a non-native, potentially invasive reptile species (Varanus niloticus) via DNA barcoding, after discovery and reporting by a member of the public.

  6. So far away, yet so close: strong genetic structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae, a species with restricted geographic distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica F Felappi

    Full Text Available The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings.

  7. A metapopulation of the lizard Anguis fragilis (Squamata: Anguidae on a local scale in Dorset, Great Britain, as indicated by spatial distribution and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Haley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A metapopulation is a group of spatially structured populations, consisting of distinct units (subpopulations that are separated by space or barriers, and connected by dispersal movements. Evidence derived from Gaussian finite-mixture models and dispersal events suggests that slow-worms may exist in a metapopulation. The Gaussian finite-mixture models showed that slow-worms are aggregated into individual subpopulations; the movement data revealed that males are more likely to migrate than females and that they have the ability to travel sufficiently far to bridge subpopulations. Therefore, the evidence supports the metapopulation theory and that slow-worms exist in multiple small subpopulations instead of one large homogenous population.

  8. Variación intraespecífica en Phalotris matogrossensis y P. tricolor: una evaluación de sus caracteres diagnósticos (Squamata: Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacciali Sosa, Pier

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalotris matogrossensis es una especie del grupo tricolor, descrita recientemente en base a ejemplares procedentes de Brasil y Paraguay. Se diferencia claramente de P. cuyanus y P. mertensi por la coloración y algunos detalles de la lepidosis corporal, y según la bibliografía de P. tricolor por la mayor longitud del anillo cervical blanco respecto al negro en P. matogrossensis, siendo el negro mucho mayor en P. tricolor. Los resultados del presente trabajo demuestran que este carácter no debe ser tomado tan estrictamente como diagnóstico ya que se encontraron grandes variaciones en los ejemplares revisados. Las diferencias encontradas aquí que mejor sirven para diferenciar entre ambas especies son: 1 la coloración de la mandíbula, oscura o al menos manchada en P. tricolor y siempre inmaculada en P. matogrossensis; 2 la longitud del anillo negro respecto a la proporción total del cuerpo, que en P. tricolor resulta mayor que en P. matogrossensis sin solapamiento de valores; y 3 el color dorsal, ya que P. tricolor en ocasiones presenta manchas o líneas interrumpidas en el dorso, en contraste con la coloración totalmente inmaculada del dorso de P. matogrossensis. Además se dan algunos datos acerca de las afinidades biogeográficas de ambas especies en Paraguay. Phalotris matogrossensis is a species belonging to the tricolor group that was recently described from specimens collected in Brazil and Paraguay. This species can be easily distinguished from P. cuyanus and P. mertensi by its coloration and some traits of the body pholidosis and, after bibliography, from P. tricolor by the reduced black and longer white cervical ring. The results of this work shows that this character should not to be treated as diagnostic as great variation was found among the specimens examined. Characters that better differentiate between the two species: 1 mandible coloration, dark or at least spotted in P. tricolor but always clear in P. matogrossensis; 2 the length of the black ring with respect to the total body length, which is greater in P. tricolor and does not overlap with results for P. matogrossensis; and 3 the dorsal color, P. tricolor sometimes showing spots or interrupted stripes on the dorsum, in contrast to the uniform coloration of P. matogrossensis. Some data regarding the biogeographic affinities of both species in Paraguay are also provided.

  9. Isolation, characterization, cloning and expression of an alpha-neurotoxin from the venom of the Mexican coral snake Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; López-Vera, Estuardo; Bénard-Valle, Melisa; Smith, Eric N; Zamudio, Fernando; de Roodt, Adolfo R; Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    A new member of short chain α-neurotoxic protein family from venom of the Mexican coral snake, Micrurus laticollaris, was characterized. This protein, named MlatA1, possesses 61 amino acids with 8 conserved cysteine residues, sharing 30-91% sequence identity with other fully sequenced Micrurus toxins. MlatA1 (LD50i.v. = 0.064 mg/kg) antagonizes with both fetal and adult nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) as well as α-7 neuronal nAChR in a dose-dependent way. Specific rabbit anti-Mlat serum (titer higher than 18,000) does not show any protective ability against this toxin, nevertheless it was able to recognize protein bands in six out of twelve Micrurus venoms showing the existence of two distinct antigenic groups for α-neurotoxins in North American coral snakes species. The MlatA1 gene was cloned and used to produce recombinant toxin (rMlatA1) that was recognized by rabbit anti-native toxin but was depleted of toxic activity.

  10. Análisis comparativo de la composición de tres comunidades de Squamata de la Sierra Grande de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The differences and similarities of lizard assemblages can be explaned by historical or ecological factors or by the interaction of both. To examine these hypothesis we selected three communities with similar environmental influences in the Sierra Grande de Córdoba (Argentina. The sites selected where: Villa Las Rosas (31°56', 65°03', dep. San Javier on the west side of the Sierra, Tanti (310,22, 64°36' dep. Punilla on the east side of the Sierra and Achiras (33°10', 64°59' dep. Rio Cuarto on the southem extreme of the Sierra. All these sites have more than eight species of lizards. The diversity of each site is described and the novelties, sustitutions and absences for each locality are discussed and compared with three external communities. A phylogenetic hypothesis of the species involved in this study is need to resolve the biogeographic problems.

  11. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Townsend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to B. lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas.

  12. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis) from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H; Medina-Flores, Melissa; Wilson, Larry David; Jadin, Robert C; Austin, James D

    2013-01-01

    A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by having 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to Bothriechis lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas.

  13. Microendemicity in the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates with the description of two new species of geckos of the genus Asaccus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Carranza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE is the highest mountain range in Eastern Arabia. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals with strong Indo-Iranian affinities. Among vertebrates, the rock climbing nocturnal geckos of the genus Asaccus represent the genus with the highest number of endemic species in the Hajar Mountains. Recent taxonomic studies on the Zagros populations of Asaccus have shown that this genus is much richer than it was previously thought and preliminary morphological and molecular data suggest that its diversity in Arabia may also be underestimated. Methods A total of 83 specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus (including specimens of the two new species described herein, six other Asaccus species from the Hajar and the Zagros Mountains and two representatives of the genus Haemodracon were sequenced for up to 2,311 base pairs including the mitochondrial 12S and cytb and the nuclear c-mos, MC1R and ACM4 genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches and the former method was also used to calibrate the phylogenetic tree. Haplotype networks and phylogenetic trees were inferred from the phased nuclear genes only. Sixty-one alcohol-preserved adult specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus from the northern Hajar Mountains were examined for 13 morphometric and the five meristic variables using multivariate methods and were also used to diagnose and describe the two new species. Results The results of the molecular and morphological analyses indicate that the species originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus is, in fact, an assemblage of three different species that started diversifying during the Mid-Miocene. The molecular phylogenies consistently recovered the Hajar endemic A. montanus as sister taxon to all the other Asaccus species included in the analyses, rendering the Arabian species of Asaccus polyphyletic. Discussion Using this integrative approach we have uncovered a very old diversification event that has resulted in a case of microendemicity, where three morphologically and ecologically similar medium-sized lizard species coexist in a very short and narrow mountain stretch. Asaccus caudivolvulus is restricted to a small coastal area of the UAE and at risk from heavy development, while the two new species described herein are widely distributed across the northern tip of the Hajar Mountains and seem to segregate in altitude when found in close proximity in the Musandam Peninsula (Oman. Similarly to other integrative analyses of Hajar reptiles, this study highlights the high level of diversity and endemicity of this arid mountain range, underscoring its status as one of the top hotspots of reptile diversity in Arabia.

  14. GROW-OUT OF ABALONE Haliotis squamata IN FLOATING CAGES FED DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF SEAWEED AND WITH REDUCTION OF STOCKING DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is a herbivore marine animal which feeds on seaweed. Abalone culture has a good prospect in terms of price, market share and simple culture technique. Thus, a study was conducted with the aim of finding out an effective and efficient abalone culture technique in terms of feed use and density. In this study, a 42 cm diameter plastic container with a 22 cm height was used. Three vertically arranged containers were used as the experimental group which were put into a net box and hung onto a raft so that the containers were placed in a 4 m depth below the sea surface. The juvenile of abalones being used came from a hatchery production that has been adapted to cages environment with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. feed. The initial density of abalones was 450 for each container, with the initial weight of 2.6-3.2 g and the 2.5-2.7 cm shell lengths. The abalones were fed with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. seaweeds with different Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportions, i.e. 100/0% (A; 80/20% (B; and 60/40% (C as the treatments. Each treatment consisted of two replications. After three months of rearing period, densities of abalones were reduced to be 190 for each experimental unit. Weight and shell length of abalones were measured every month by measuring 25 abalone samples from each experimental unit. The result of the experiment showed that the increase in the Ulva sp. proportion in the feed increased the growth of abalones and decreased the feed conversion. Feeding with Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportion of 60%/40% allowed the best growth of abalones. The decrease of abalone density in the experimental unit after three months of rearing also produced an increase in their growth.

  15. Prevalence of enterobacteriaceae in Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae from a captive facility in Central Brazil, with a profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Moraes Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the presence of enterobacteriaceae in Tegu Lizards (Tupinambis merianaefrom a captive facility in central Brazil. From a total of 30 animals, 10 juveniles and 20 adults (10 males, 10 females, 60 samples were collected, in two periods separated by 15 days. The samples were cultivated in Xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar (XLT4 and MacConkey agar. The Salmonella enterica were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 78 bacteria was isolated, of wich 27 were from juveniles of T. merianae, 30 from adult males and 21 from adult females. Salmonella enterica was the most frequent bacteria followed by Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sakasakii, Kluivera sp., Citrobacter amalonaticus, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter diversus, Yersinia frederiksenii, Serratia odorifera, and Serratia liquefaciens. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae and houtenae showed resistance to cotrimoxazole, and serum Salmonella enterica Worthington showed resistance to tetracycline and gentamicin. Salmonella enterica Panama and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae showed intermediate sensitivity to cotrimoxazole. In addition to Enterobacteriaceae in the Tegu lizard, pathogenic serotypes of S. enterica also occur, and their antimicrobial resistance was confirmed.

  16. Reproducción y variación de grupos de tamaño en una población de Liolaemus koslowskyi (Squamata: Liolaemini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El patrón reproductivo, la tasa de crecimiento y la supervivencia son las principales características de la historia de vida de los organismos, el tamaño o edad en que un individuo adquiere su madurez sexual, el tamaño de la puesta y la fenología reproductiva inciden sobre el reclutamiento y por lo tanto sobre la estabilidad poblacional. Se seleccionaron diferentes ambientes representativos del área de estudio, unas para realizar la extracción de las muestras reproductivas y otras para la observación de la dinámica poblacional. Se obtuvieron 12 muestras reproductivas desde el mes de octubre de 1998 al mes de febrero de 2000, durante ese período se estudiaron 413 hembras, x= 55,48; (35-65, ds = 4,08 y 472 machos, x = 57,75; (42-69, ds = 4,66. La proporción de sexos fue similar, el macho reproductivo más pequeño medió 46 mm, la hembra con folículos yemados más pequeña midió 47 mm, se puedo registrar la presencia de los folículos yemados desde octubre a enero, los huevos en oviducto desde noviembre a febrero, no hay evidencia de más de una postura por temporada. La fecundación se produce durante noviembre, coincidiendo con los valores máximos de los volúmenes testiculares, se observó una correlación negativa entre la actividad reproductiva y el ciclo de cuerpos grasos en ambos sexos, los huevos fueron puestos a partir de diciembre y los primeros neonatos se observaron a partir de enero. Se apreció una leve correlación negativa entre la tasa de crecimiento individual y el tamaño del lagarto, Durante el período de estudio se realizaron 2199 avistajes y se estimó la proporción de cada grupo de tamaño para cada mes, se destacó el mes de enero por la presencia de 15% de individuos recién nacidos, la mayor tasa de actividad en la parcela correspondió a enero, febrero y marzo de 1999, disminuyendo en el otoño y registrando una suspensión de actividad en junio y julio, se observó una menor tasa de actividad en el segundo verano. The reproductive pattern, the rate of growth and the survival are the main characteristics of the life history of organisms, the size or age in that an individual acquires his sexual maturity, the size of the maturity and the reproductive fenology affect the recruitment and therefore the stability of the populational size. Different representative sites of the study area were selected, to carry out the extraction of the reproductive samples and for the observation of the populational dynamics, 12 samples were obtained from October 1998 to February 2000, during that period 413 females were studied, x = 55.48; (35-65 ds = 4.08 and 472 males, x = 57.75; (42-69 ds = 4.66. The proportion of sexes was similar, the smallest reproductive male measured 46 mm, the smallest female with vitelogenic follicles measured 47 mm. The presence of vitelogenic follicles was observed from October to January, eggs in oviduct from November to February, there were no evidence of more than one clutch per season, and fecundation takes place during the month of November, coinciding the maximum values of the testicular volumes. Negative correlation between the reproductive activity and the cycle of fat bodies was observed in both sexes, the eggs are laid from December and the first hatchlings are observed in January. There was a negative correlation between the rate of individual growth and the size of the lizard. During the period of study 2199 lizards where observed and the proportion of each size group was calculated for every month, in January 15% of recently born individuals were observed in the site, the highest activity rate in the site corresponded to January, February and March of 1999, diminishing in autumn and no activity was registered in June and July. The second season presented less activity than the first one.

  17. Reproducción y dieta de una población de Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata, Scincidae en Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Aun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron estudiados los aspectos reproductivos y la dieta de Mabuya dorsivittata, una especie de lagarto vivíparo de la localidad de Alto Alegre (Córdoba. La hembra de menor tamaño, con folículos yemados midió de LHC 41 mm. El tamaño de la camada varió entre 5 – 10 embriones por hembra. Los machos de menor tamaño con espermatozoos en los testículos midieron de LHC 31 mm. Hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el peso de las gónadas versus el estadio reproductivo (b= 0,524, R= 0,254, P< 0,001. En los machos hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el volumen testicular y el estadio reproductivo (R2= 0,851, b= 0,929, P< 0,002. El incremento de cuerpos grasos en hembras y machos se relacionó con el periodo de gestación, especialmente en las hembras, decreciendo en las últimas fases, indicando un costo energético alto en los últimos meses del crecimiento embrionario. En cuanto a la dieta, las hembras se alimentaron principalmente de Araneae (suelo como ítem fundamental, y de Scarabeidae, Araneae (otras y Acridiidae como ítem secundario y los machos se alimentaran de Isopoda, Acridiidae y Araneae (otras como ítem fundamental y de Tettigonidae como ítem secundario. Hubo diferencias significativas en la selección trófica entre sexos.

  18. Cryptic, Sympatric Diversity in Tegu Lizards of the Tupinambis teguixin Group (Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae) and the Description of Three New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowers, Michael J.; Lehtinen, Richard M.; Charles, Stevland P.; Colli, Guarino R.; Peres, Ayrton K.; Hendry, Catriona R.; Pyron, R. Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita). Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympatric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists. PMID:27487019

  19. Addition of Ptyas nigromarginata (Blyth, 1854) (Squamata:Colubridae) to the Snake Fauna of Thailand with Preliminary Remarks on Its Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gernot VOGEL; Sjon HAUSER

    2013-01-01

    The first record of Ptyas nigromarginata (Blyth, 1854) from Thailand and a new record from China are reported. Literature and internet sources were searched for previous records of this species to establish its geographic and altitudinal distributions in Asia. The distribution in India was adapted to the new state division of the northern part of the country. The results show that the species almost exclusively occurs in hill evergreen and montane forests of the Himalayan foothills and mountain ranges continuous with it, at altitudes of 1000-2300 m above sea level.

  20. A preliminary assessment of the Nactus pelagicus species group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in New Guinea and a new species from the Admiralty Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    The Slender-toed Geckos (Nactus) currently have four recognized species in New Guinea, and these species divide into two sister clades: a pelagicus clade and a vankampeni clade (Heinicke et al. 2010). The latter contains three dwarf species. The former consists of five bisexual populations, of which numerous New Guinea populations are uncharacterized nomenclaturally and lumped under the epithet ‘pelagicus.’ This report and description of a new species of the pelagicus group from Manus Island in the Admiralty Islands encourages us to offer a preliminary assessment of morphology and diversity in New Guinea ‘pelagicus’ populations.

  1. Three new karst-dwelling Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata; Gekkoniade) from Peninsular Thailand and the phylogenetic placement of C. punctatonuchalis and C. vandeventeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Perry Lee; Grismer, L Lee; Aowphol, Anchalee; Aguilar, César A; Cota, Micheal; Grismer, Marta S; Murdoch, Matthew L; Sites, Jack W

    2017-01-01

    Three new species of Rock Geckos Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov., C. phangngaensis sp. nov., and C. thachanaensis sp. nov. of the chanthaburiensis and siamensis groups are described from the Thai portion of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. These new species are distinguished from all other species in their two respective groups based on a unique combination of morphological characteristics, which is further supported by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2). Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the chanthaburiensis group by having a smaller maximum SVL 38 mm, 13 paravertebral tubercles, enlarged femoral scales, no caudal bands, and a 19.5-23.0% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). Cnemaspis phangngaensis sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the siamensis group by having the unique combination of 10 infralabial scales, four continuous pore-bearing precloacal scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, lacking tubercles on the lower flanks, having ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly present, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paraveterbral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudals, and a 8.8-25.2% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). Cnemaspis thachanaensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species in the siamensis group by having 10 or 11 supralabial scales 9-11 infralabial scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paravertebral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudal scales, lacking a single enlarged subcaudal scale row, lacking postcloaclal tubercles in males, the presence of an enlarged submetatarsal scale at the base if the 1st toe, and a 13.4-28.8% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). The new phylogenetic analyses place C. punctatonuchalis and C. vandeventeri in the siamensis group with C. punctatonuchalis as the sister species to C. huaseesom and C. vandeventeri as the sister species to C. siamensis, corroborating previous hypotheses based on morphology. The discovery of three new karst-dwelling endemics brings the total number of nominal Thai Cnemaspis species to 15 and underscores the need for continued field research in poorly known areas of the Thai-Malay Peninsula, especially those that are threatened and often overlooked as biodiversity hot spots.

  2. Three new karst-dwelling Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata; Gekkoniade from Peninsular Thailand and the phylogenetic placement of C. punctatonuchalis and C. vandeventeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Lee Wood Jr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Rock Geckos Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov., C. phangngaensis sp. nov., and C. thachanaensis sp. nov. of the chanthaburiensis and siamensis groups are described from the Thai portion of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. These new species are distinguished from all other species in their two respective groups based on a unique combination of morphological characteristics, which is further supported by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2. Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the chanthaburiensis group by having a smaller maximum SVL 38 mm, 13 paravertebral tubercles, enlarged femoral scales, no caudal bands, and a 19.5–23.0% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2. Cnemaspis phangngaensis sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the siamensis group by having the unique combination of 10 infralabial scales, four continuous pore-bearing precloacal scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, lacking tubercles on the lower flanks, having ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly present, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paraveterbral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudals, and a 8.8–25.2% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2. Cnemaspis thachanaensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species in the siamensis group by having 10 or 11 supralabial scales 9–11 infralabial scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paravertebral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudal scales, lacking a single enlarged subcaudal scale row, lacking postcloaclal tubercles in males, the presence of an enlarged submetatarsal scale at the base if the 1st toe, and a 13.4–28.8% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2. The new phylogenetic analyses place C. punctatonuchalis and C. vandeventeri in the siamensis group with C. punctatonuchalis as the sister species to C. huaseesom and C. vandeventeri as the sister species to C. siamensis, corroborating previous hypotheses based on morphology. The discovery of three new karst-dwelling endemics brings the total number of nominal Thai Cnemaspis species to 15 and underscores the need for continued field research in poorly known areas of the Thai-Malay Peninsula, especially those that are threatened and often overlooked as biodiversity hot spots.

  3. Variación estacional de la dieta de Liolaemus wiegmanii (Squamata: Tropiduridae en un agroecosistema del sur de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aun, Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el espectro trófico de Liolaemus weigmannii, procedente de Laguna Oscura, Departamento Río Cuarto (33°50'S y 64°50'W, Córdoba, Argentina. Se analizaron la composición y diversidad alimentaria mediante el análisis de los contenidos estomacales. Se concluye que la dieta consiste principalmente de insectos, predominando las hormigas como las presas mas abundantes y frecuentes pero las larvas y langostas son las que aportan casi la mitad del volumen ingerido. Estacionalmente se observa que tanto en numerosidad como en frecuencia el item presa más importante a lo largo de todas las estaciones es Formicidae, excepto para las hembras de la segunda primavera que consumieron principalmente dípteros. A partir del otoño del segundo año de estudio, otras presas además de las hormigas, fueron importantes los coreidos, arañas, larvas y las langostas. Se observaron algunas diferencias de consumo entre sexos. Seasonal variation in the diet of Liolaemus wiegmannii from Laguna Oscura, Departamento Río Cuarto (33°50'S 64°50'W, Córdoba Argentina was studied during two seasons. The composition, diversity and preference of the diet were studied from stomach contents. The most numerous and frequent prey during all periods were ants, except females during the second spring preferred fijes. Larvae and locusts represented almost the 50 of the volume of the stomach content. During the second year other prey where consumed frequently including Correidae, spiders, larvae and small locusts. Some differences where observed between sexes.

  4. External morphology and osteology of Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886), with a taxonomic revision of the Pontic and Small-Caucasus populations (Squamata: Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Oscar; Ilgaz, Çetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Avci, Aziz; Üzüm, Nazan

    2013-01-01

    A broad sample of Darevskia rudis from the main part of its range was reviewed with regard to external morphology (discriminant, UPGMA, MST and ANOVA analyses) and osteology. Darevskia bithynica is raised to species rank, with two subspecies: D. b. bithynica and D. b. tristis. The other subspecies are fairly similar (D. r. rudis being the most different). Two singular populations are described as subspecies: D. r. mirabilis ssp. nov. from Kaçkar Mountains, geographically adjoins the otherwise different D. r. bischoffi and D. r. bolkardaghica ssp. nov., which is geographically isolated but that seems to be very closely related to D. r. obscura.

  5. Diversidade de anfíbios e répteis Squamata na região do baixo rio Purus, Amazônia Central, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Waldez,Fabiano; Menin,Marcelo; Vogt,Richard Carl

    2013-01-01

    A região do baixo rio Purus na Amazônia Central - Brasil representa uma área de relevante interesse para conservação de anfíbios e répteis. No entanto, há pouca informação disponível sobre estes grupos taxonômicos para áreas de florestas de terra firme e florestas de várzea, principais paisagens nesta região. Nesse estudo, realizamos uma amostragem ampla em esforço e área, em dois períodos: 2004-2005 e 2009-2010. Utilizamos técnicas complementares eficientes na amostragem da herpetofauna em f...

  6. Diversidade de anfíbios e répteis Squamata na região do baixo rio Purus, Amazônia Central, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Waldez Silva Guimarães; Marcelo Menin; Richard Carl Vogt

    2013-01-01

    A região do baixo rio Purus na Amazônia Central – Brasil representa uma área de relevante interesse para conservação de anfíbios e répteis. No entanto, há pouca informação disponível sobre estes grupos taxonômicos para áreas de florestas de terra firme e florestas de várzea, principais paisagens nesta região. Nesse estudo, realizamos uma amostragem ampla em esforço e área, em dois períodos: 2004-2005 e 2009-2010. Utilizamos técnicas complementares eficientes na amostragem da herpetofauna em f...

  7. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  8. Variación morfológica de la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis rodecki (Squamata: Teiidae): implicaciones evolutivas y de conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra P. Elizalde-Rocha; Fausto R. Méndez-de la Cruz; J. Fernando Méndez-Sánchez; Gisela Granados-González; Oswaldo Hernández-Gallegos

    2008-01-01

    La divergencia post-formación se ha utilizado para el reconocimiento de nuevas especies partenogenéticas. Actualmente, la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis rodecki McCoy y Maslin 1962 es reconocida como una sola especie, que se originó de un híbrido partenogenético. Estudios previos han encontrado divergencia genética, en coloración y en características de historia de vida entre una población continental (Puerto Juárez) y una insular (Isla Contoy) en Quintana Roo, México. Se llevó a cabo...

  9. The snake assemblage (Squamata: Serpentes of a Cerrado-Caatinga transition area in Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francílio da Silva Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS, pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT, and incidental encounters (IE. During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/observer and 6,468 days/trap were used, respectively. We estimated 23 species of snakes for the locality, although only 19 species were recorded. Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 10, Liophis poecilogyrus (Schlegel, 1837 (n = 9, Liophis viridis Günther, 1862 (n = 8 and Thamnodynastes sp. (n = 8 were the most abundant species. Terrestrial, cryptozoic, and diurnal snakes predominated in the assemblage (Boidae = 2 species, Dipsadidae = 12, Colubridae = 2, Elapidae = 1, Viperidae = 2. The results indicate that the fauna of the locality is similar with that of other open formations, especially the Caatinga, corroborating previous floristic studies. Comparisons between snake assemblages analyzed by different authors suggest structural differences between the assemblages of the Cerrado and the Caatinga, contradicting the hypothesis of mixed composition of fauna in these biomes.

  10. [Efferent projections of "classical" peptidergic neurons of the neurosecretory system of the telencephalon in reptiles (Scincus scincus L. and Chalcides ocellatus Forskal; Lacertilia, Squamata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoheisel, G; Petter, H

    1990-01-01

    In both species of lacertilian reptiles investigated, the peptidergic hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus project with efferents to the telencephalon, to caudal parts of the brain, and to the spinal cord. The marked system of efferents of the "classic" peptidergic neurosecretory nuclei to the telencephalon was mapped. The unlabeled peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemical procedure revealed at the light microscopical level neurophysin- respectively mesotocin- or vasotocin-containing exohypothalamic fibres in the septal area, in subcortical regions (ventral striatum and hypopallium), and in all layers of the cortical areas (medial, dorsal and lateral cortex). Within the different parts of the brain, there seems to be a characteristically quantitative ratio of the mesotocin and vasotocin fibres. The terminals of the exohypothalamic fibres contact perikarya and processes of neurons of the target regions intimately. In a selected area, peptidergic synapses could be demonstrated at the electron microscopical level using an ultrahistochemical method. It is assumed that the nonapeptides mentioned are released from the fibre terminals and then act as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators influencing different brain functions.

  11. Cryptic, Sympatric Diversity in Tegu Lizards of the Tupinambis teguixin Group (Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae) and the Description of Three New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C; Jowers, Michael J; Lehtinen, Richard M; Charles, Stevland P; Colli, Guarino R; Peres, Ayrton K; Hendry, Catriona R; Pyron, R Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita). Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympatric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists.

  12. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartorello R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva store Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and that the purinergic agonist ATP triggers a rapid and transient increase of [Ca2+]c by mobilization of the cation from internal stores. We also reported the ability of the second messenger IP3 to discharge the ER calcium pool of the ER. Here we characterize the purinoceptor present in the cytoplasmic membrane of the RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva by the selective use of ATP analogues and pyrimidine nucleotides. The nucleotides UTP, UDP, GTP, and ATPgammaS triggered a dose-dependent response, while interestingly 2MeSATP, 2ClATP, alpha, ß-ATP, and ADP failed to do so in a 1- to 200-µm con- centration. The EC50 obtained for the compounds tested was 41.77 µM for UTP, 48.11 µM for GTP, 53.11 µM for UDP, and 30.78 µM for ATPgammaS. The present data indicate that the receptor within the RBCs of Ameiva ameiva is a P2Y4-like receptor due to its pharmacological similarity to the mammalian P2Y4 receptor.

  13. Homonota fasciata Duméril y Bibron, 1839 (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Corrientes (República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcione, Camila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron, 1839. República Argentina, Provincia de Corrientes, Departamento Bella Vista, Cuarta Sección, Colonia Progreso, Loma Sur, Toropí (28°35'55" S; 59°03'38" W (Figura 1. Colectores: Eduardo Etchepare, María del Rosario Ingaramo, Camila Falcione y Roberto Aguirre. 05 de abril de 2011. Se colectaron 4 ejemplares adultos (2 machos y 2 hembras y 1 juvenil, depositados en la Colección Herpetológica de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNEC-11212, UNNEC-11213, UNNEC- 11214, UNNEC-11215 y UNNEC-11216.

  14. El Ututo chaqueño Phyllopezus pollicaris (Spix 1825 (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Jujuy (República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgos Gallardo, Freddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available República Argentina, Jujuy; Departamento Santa Bárbara, Paraje Finca Fachine (23º 35' 55.98" S; 64º 13' 46.09" O 324 m s.n.m. Colector: Freddy Burgos. Depositado en la colección herpetológica del Laboratorio de Genética Evolutiva, Instituto de Biología Subtropical, UNaM-CONICET, Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. Macho adulto (LGE 02633.

  15. Clima, distribución geográfica y viviparismo en especies de Liolaemus (Reptilia; Squamata: cuando las hipótesis se ponen a prueba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix B. Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de los reptiles, dada su dependencia de la temperatura, puede verse restringida en función del clima. En particular, se han planteado tres hipótesis que vinculan el clima con la distribución y el viviparismo en las especies de reptiles: i hipótesis de clima variable, ii hipótesis del clima frío e iii hipótesis de manipulación materna. Entre las lagartijas de Sudamérica las especies del género Liolaemus se distribuyen tanto en ambientes cálidos como fríos y más del 50 % de ellas son vivíparas. En este trabajo estudiamos 47 especies de Liolaemus, tomando datos climáticos de sus sitios de colecta, su temperatura de preferencia (Tpref, el coeficiente de variación de la misma (CV y los límites de tolerancia térmica (TT. Nuestros resultados no apoyan la hipótesis de clima variable, aunque ésta ha sido sustentada en estudios anteriores. Se encontró relación entre viviparismo y altitud, pero no entre viviparismo y las variables térmicas ambientales. Finalmente, las especies vivíparas de Liolaemus mostraron un comportamiento termorregulador más preciso que las especies ovíparas, reforzando la hipótesis de manipulación materna.

  16. A new species of Bachia Gray, 1845 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Eastern Brazilian Cerrado, and data on its ecology, physiology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mauro; Recoder, Renato Sousa; Camacho, Agustín; De Sena, Marco Aurélio; Navas, Carlos Arturo; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2013-02-19

    A new species of Bachia of the bresslaui group, Bachia geralista sp. nov., is described from Planalto dos Gerais, an old and partially dissected plateau extending along the Cerrados of Bahia, Minas Gerais and Tocantins states, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to B. bresslaui, with which it has been confused; however head scalation resembles other species from sandy spots within the Cerrado (B. psamophila and B. oxyrhina). Like in B. psamophila and B. oxyrhina, the shovel-shaped snout of the new species is highly prominent, a typical trait of psammophilous habits in other gymnophthalmids. The examination of specimens of B. bresslaui from several populations within the Cerrado revealed great variation among localities, leading to the reidentification of a specimen from Utiariti, Mato Grosso, previously referred to in the literature as the second record of B. bresslaui, as the recently described B. didactyla, suggesting that cryptic diversity might remain still undiscovered within this genus in the Cerrado. Despite occurring in a relatively open Cerrado, thermal physiology of Bachia geralista sp. nov. restricts its occurrence to shaded microhabitats within this habitat.

  17. Effect of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae) leaf extract combined with anti-venom serum on experimental Crotalus durissus (Squamata: Viperidae) envenomation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Nogueira, Rosa Maria Barilli; Sakate, Michiko; Laposy, Cecília Braga; da Motta, Yudney Pereira; Sangiorgio, Fabíola; David, Heloísa Costa; Nabas, João Marcelo

    2009-12-01

    Crotalic envenomation represents the highest number of deaths when compared to other snakebite envenomations of medical interest. Crotalic venom has important characteristics such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and clotting and hemolytic action. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory aspects of Crotalus durissus terrificus experimental envenomation in Wistar rats treated with antivenom and the aqueous extract of the plant Mikania glomerata. The animals were divided into three groups: Group C (control); Group VS-venom and antivenom; Group VSM-venom, antivenom and aqueous extract of M. glomerata. Crotalic poison caused clinical and laboratory alterations in Wistar mice. Significant clinical alterations were: temperature decrease, edema in the venom inoculated member, sedation and a locomotion decrease in groups VS and VSM when compared with group C. A faster recovery from sedation was observed only for animals of group VSM when compared to VS. There was an increase in the number of leukocytes, neutrophils and creatine kinase in the VS and VSM groups, compared to group C. Wistar rats showed a high resistance to crotalic venom. Additional studies with different doses, time of treatment, different administration methods and histopathological and immunological studies are necessary to understand the action of M. glomerata in crotalic accidents.

  18. Radiation, multiple dispersal and parallelism in the skinks, Chalcides and Sphenops (Squamata: Scincidae), with comments on Scincus and Scincopus and the age of the Sahara Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Geniez, Ph; Roca, J; Mateo, J A

    2008-03-01

    Phylogenetic analysis using up to 1325 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 179 specimens and 30 species of Chalcides, Sphenops, Eumeces, Scincopus and Scincus indicates that Sphenops arose twice independently within Chalcides. It is consequently synonymized with that genus. Chalcides in this broader sense originated in Morocco, diversifying into four main clades about 10 Ma, after which some of its lineages dispersed widely to cover an area 40 times as large. Two separate lineages invaded the Canary Islands and at least five main lineages colonized southern Europe. At least five more spread across northern Africa, one extending into southwest Asia. Elongate bodies with reduced limbs have evolved at least four times in Chalcides, mesic 'grass-swimmers' being produced in one case and extensive adaptation to life in loose desert sand in two others. In clade, Chalcides striatus colonized SW Europe from NW Africa 2.6 Ma and C. chalcides mainland Italy 1.4 Ma, both invasions being across water, while C. c. vittatus reached Sardinia more recently, perhaps anthropogenically, and C. guentheri spread 1200km further east to Israel. C. minutus is a composite, with individuals from the type locality forming a long independent lineage and the remaining ones investigated being most closely related to C. mertensi. In the Northern clade, C. boulengeri and C. sepsoides spread east through sandy habitats north of the Sahara about 5 Ma, the latter reaching Egypt. C. bedriagai invaded Spain around the same time, perhaps during the Messinian period when the Mediterranean was dry, and shows considerable diversification. Although it is currently recognized as one species, the C. ocellatus clade exhibits as much phylogenetic depth as the other main clades of Chalcides, having at least six main lineages. These have independently invaded Malta and Sardinia from Tunisia and also southwest Arabia C. o. humilis appears to have spread over 4000 km through the Sahel, south of the Sahara quite recently, perhaps in the Pleistocene. In the Western clade of Chalcides, C. delislei appears to have dispersed in a similar way. There were also two invasions of the Canary Islands: one around 5 Ma by C. simonyi, and the other about 7 Ma by the ancestor of C. viridanus+C. sexlineatus. C. montanus was believed to be related to C. lanzai of the Northern clade, but in the mtDNA tree it is placed within C. polylepis of the Western clade, although this may possibly be an artifact of introgression. The Eumeces schneideri group, Scincopus and Scincus form a clade separate from Chalcides. Within this clade, the geographically disjunct E. schneideri group is paraphyletic. One of its members, E. algeriensis is the sister taxon to Scincopus, and Scincus may also be related to these taxa. The phylogeny suggests Scincopus entered desert conditions in Africa, up to 9.6 Ma and the same may have been true of Scincus up to 11.7 Ma. Scincus appears to have diversified and spread into Arabia around 6 Ma. Dates of origin and divergence of these skinks, desert Chalcides and other squamates agree with recent geological evidence that the Sahara is at least 5-7 My old. The subspecies Chalcides viridanus coeruleopunctatus is upgraded to the species level as C. coeruleopunctatus stat nov., on the basis of its large genetic divergence from C. v. viridanus.

  19. Geographic distribution and parturition of mabuya arajara Rebouças-Spieker, 1981 (Squamata, sauria, scincidae) from Ceará, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Mabuya arajara Rebouças-Spieker, 1981 has been considered an endemic species from the southern of state of Ceará, restricted to the Deciduous Dry Forests in the slopes of Plateau of Araripe (Chapada do Araripe). Here, we present an updated distributional map for the species and demonstrate that its range is not restricted as formerly believed. In addition, we had an opportunity to observe a gravid female and we describe aspects regarding parturition and number of offspring for the species.

  20. A molecular and morphological characterization of Oliver's parrot snake, Leptophis coeruleodorsus (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae) with the description of a new species from Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C; Charles, Stevland P; Lehtinen, Richard M; Koeller, Krista L

    2013-01-01

    Currently, two snake species of the genus Leptophis occur in Trinidad and Tobago. One, L. stimsoni, is endemic to Trinidad's Northern Range and known from relatively few specimens. The second is the diurnal, arboreal, brightly colored parrot snake Leptophis coeruleodorsus Oliver. It was originally described based on 23 specimens from Trinidad, Tobago, and four locations in northern Venezuela but remains poorly known. It was later assigned as a subspecies of Leptophis ahaetulla; a widespread, polytypic species. Here we compare 11 specimens of the L. ahaetulla Group using DNA sequences from two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and 16S, 1,383 bp total) from island and mainland populations, report on the variation in the morphology of 54 museum specimens of Leptophis a. coeruleodorsus; describe the previously undescribed holotype of L. coeruleodorsus Oliver, and restrict its type locality. Additionally, we describe a new species of Leptophis from the island of Tobago that can be distinguished from L. coeruleodorsus on the basis of snout shape, upper labial architecture, elongated prefrontal scales, and ventral scale counts. The new Leptophis raises the number of endemic Tobago amphibians and reptiles to 11 taxa.

  1. Ecological observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 were undertaken in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India during the monsoons (July following quadrat sampling that was time-constrained. The study revealed that the area is one of the preferable habitats for the species. A population analysis showed that the relative abundance of the subadults was higher, followed by juveniles and adults during the study period. The beginning of activity of the lizards was found to vary over the study period depending on prevailing weather conditions. The activity pattern was bimodal, except across rain events. The study revealed two important ecological findings about these lizards; complete sealing of burrow during rains which differed from partial sealing on normal days and complete diurnal cycle of body colour changes during the monsoon. Feeding was the predominant activity of this lizard followed by basking, resting and chasing each other. The adult lizards were found to be strictly herbivorous, in spite of an abundance of insects available in the area during the period. Subadults and juveniles were found to eat both plant parts, as well as insects. Microhabitat use such as inside grass clumps was found to be higher followed by barren ground, under shade and on stones.

  2. Ecología de Phyllodactylus angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae de la Reserva Nacional de Paracas, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se desconocen muchos aspectos de la ecología de Phyllodactylus angustidigitus (Dixon & Huey 1970 y P. gerrhopygus (Weigmann, 1834. En el presente trabajo investigamos algunos aspectos del nicho de P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus en la Reserva Nacional de Paracas (RNP. Se evaluó y comparó la distribución, uso de hábitats (nicho espacial, horarios de actividad (nicho temporal y dieta (nicho trófico de estas dos especies de gecónidos. Adicionalmente, se estimó la oferta de recursos alimentarios mediante el uso de trampas pit-fall. Phyllodactylus angustidigitus estuvo presente en la mayoría de las localidades evaluadas, y fue registrado en los hábitats de desierto y lomas. Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus fue registrado únicamente en la Península de Paracas y en el oasis de Sta. Cruz, en los hábitats de desierto, lomas y oasis. Ambas especies fueron registradas en actividad sólo en horarios nocturnos. La dieta de P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus estuvo caracterizada principalmente por el consumo de insectos. Ambas especies presentaron dietas de tipo generalistas, debido a la amplitud del nicho trófico, y oportunistas, debido a la semejanza en la composición de sus dietas con la oferta estimada de recursos alimentarios en el medio ambiente. Las dietas de ambas especies fueron semejantes. Adicionalmente, la cercanía filogenética entre P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus producen semejanzas en el nicho espacial (uso de hábitats, temporal (horarios de actividad, y en sus dietas. Estas importantes similitudes en el uso de los recursos del medio, pueden derivar en una potencial competencia por los recursos de su medio ambiente entre estos gecónidos simpátricos. La información proporcionada en este trabajo demuestra la necesidad de diseñar una adecuada estrategia para garantizar el estado de conservación de P. angustidigitus.

  3. A new species of lizard genus Enyalius (Squamata, Leiosauridae from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil, with a key to species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of lizard genus Enyalius is described from Fazenda Caraibas, municipality of Mucugê, state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, in the northern portion of the Serra do Espinhaço. It is characterized by an almost straight canthal ridge, a distinctive enlarged subocular, ventral scales and infradigital lamellae smooth, tail length varying between 2.02-2.18 times snout-vent length, 54-63 vertebral scales between occiput and base of tail, 144-167 paravertebral scales between occiput and base of tail, 44-47 transverse rows of ventrals between posterior level of forelimbsand anterior level of hindlimbs, 52-66 scales at mid-body between middle of venter and crest, 17-18 and 25-28 infradigital lamellae, respectively under Finger IV and Toe IV, 23-27 scales along dorsal surface of tibia, and 33-40 gular scales between mental and collar. The new species is sexually dichromatic with males being brightly colored with a series of six very conspicuous transverse wide black dorsal bands on body separated by deep orange light areas and females dull colored with a pattern of irregular dark or light brown longitudinal stripes. The new species was obtained at Serra do Sincorá, state of Bahia, Brazil, in low, thin, and dense semidecidual forests situated around 1000m altitude, near the headwaters of the Rio Paraguaçu. Character distribution in Enyalius is discussed, the presently recognized subspecies of Enyalius catenatus are elevated to full species status and a key to the current species of Enyalius is presented.

  4. Body location and tail regeneration effects on osteoderms morphology-are they useful tools for systematic, paleontology, and skeletochronology in diploglossine lizards (squamata, anguidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Corentin; De Buffrenil, Vivian; Lemoine, Michel; Bailon, Salvador; Ineich, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Although diploglossine osteoderms were mentioned in several systematic and paleontological studies, their morphological variability in single specimens or within species remains paradoxically undescribed. This is mainly the effect of the lack of attention paid hitherto to the morphological and histological characteristics of the tail osteoderms. This study demonstrated that a previously undescribed morphological variability exists in these osteoderms, especially in those resulting from tail regeneration. Indeed, regenerated osteoderms display a plesiomorphic anguid morphology that was previously considered to be absent in Diploglossinae. We also provide the first histological description of diploglossine osteoderms and new information about the obvious differences in growth dynamic between regenerated and nonregenerated osteoderms. These new data raise questions about the usefulness of diploglossine osteoderms in systematic, paleontological, and skeletochronological studies. Our study shows that the exact position on the trunk or on a regenerated or nonregenerated tail of each studied osteoderm must be known in order to avoid mistakes related to their important interspecies and intraspecies variability.

  5. Atlas de Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: teiidae) : Anatomía externa, osteología y bibliografía

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Ricardo; Abdala de Aredez, Virginia; Moro, Silvia Alejandra

    2004-01-01

    Los lagartos que en Argentina se conocen como «iguana roja» o «caraguay» pertenecen al género Tupinambis, uno de los saurios de mayor talla del continente; tienen importancia económica, tanto por su cuero como por su carne. Se reconocen seis especies actuales, que se distribuyen en América del Sur desde Colombia hasta el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina (Cei, 1993). Por su amplia distribución y abundancia son utilizados como animales de laboratorio por lo que es importante el conocimiento det...

  6. Predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae) by the curl-crested jay Cyanocorax cristatellus (Aves, Corvidae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França; Vívian da Silva Braz

    2009-01-01

    Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris by the Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus in a Cerrado area of the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, central Brazil, thus increasing knowledge of the diet of this bird species.

  7. Predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae by the curl-crested jay Cyanocorax cristatellus (Aves, Corvidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris by the Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus in a Cerrado area of the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, central Brazil, thus increasing knowledge of the diet of this bird species.

  8. Predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae) by the curl-crested jay Cyanocorax cristatellus (Aves, Corvidae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    França, Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues; Braz, Vívian da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris by the Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus in a Cerrado area of the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, central Brazil, thus increasing knowledge of the diet of this bird species. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p243Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation ...

  9. Histology of tooth attachment tissues and plicidentine in Varanus (Reptilia: Squamata), and a discussion of the evolution of amniote tooth attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Erin E; Caldwell, Michael W; Lamoureux, Denis O; Budney, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Few recent studies have examined the histological basis for tooth attachment in squamates. In the past few years, a surge of interest in this topic has led to the intriguing suggestion that the major tissues derived from the tooth germ (enamel, dentine, cementum and alveolar bone), are conservative and are present in all amniotes. In this study, we describe the histology and development of the tooth attachment complex in Varanus rudicollis, the rough-neck monitor. We provide the first published evidence for the role of cementum and alveolar bone in tooth attachment in varanoid lizards. In Varanus, cementum is deposited on the external surface of the tooth root as well as at the base of the tooth, where it plays a role in the attachment of the tooth to the jawbone. Alveolar bone is also involved in tooth ankylosis. Our results support the hypothesis that the major tooth germ tissues are found in all amniotes. We provide insights into the structure and development of plicidentine, defined as infolding of the dentine around the tooth base. This feature is unique to varanoids among extant tetrapods and is the third tissue implicated in tooth attachment in Varanus. Plicidentine develops asymmetrically along the labial-lingual axis of a tooth. Varanus is characterized by the presence of both primary and higher-order lamellae, which anastomose to form a honeycomb-like surface that then interacts with the more basal attachment tissues.

  10. Phylogenomics and species delimitation in the knob-scaled lizards of the genus Xenosaurus (Squamata: Xenosauridae) using ddRADseq data reveal a substantial underestimation of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Montes de Oca, Adrián; Barley, Anthony J; Meza-Lázaro, Rubi N; García-Vázquez, Uri O; Zamora-Abrego, Joan G; Thomson, Robert C; Leaché, Adam D

    2017-01-01

    Middle American knob-scaled lizards of the genus Xenosaurus are a unique radiation of viviparous species that are generally characterized by a flattened body shape and a crevice-dwelling ecology. Only eight species of Xenosaurus, one of them with five subspecies (X. grandis), have been formally described. However, species limits within Xenosaurus have never been examined using molecular data, and no complete phylogeny of the genus has been published. Here, we used ddRADseq data from all of the described and potentially undescribed taxa of Xenosaurus to investigate species limits, and to obtain a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus. We analyzed the data using a variety of phylogenetic models, and were able to reconstruct a well-resolved and generally well-supported phylogeny for this group. We found Xenosaurus to be composed of four major, allopatric clades concordant with geography. The first and second clades that branch off the tree are distributed on the Atlantic slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental and are composed of X. mendozai, X. platyceps, and X. newmanorum, and X. tzacualtipantecus and an undescribed species from Puebla, respectively. The third clade is distributed from the Atlantic slopes of the Mexican Transvolcanic Belt in west-central Veracruz south to the Pacific slopes of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero and Oaxaca, and is composed of X. g. grandis, X. rectocollaris, X. phalaroanthereon, X. g. agrenon, X. penai, and four undescribed species from Oaxaca. The last clade is composed of the four taxa that are geographically closest to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (X. g. arboreus, X. g. rackhami, X. g. sanmartinensis, and an undescribed species from Oaxaca). We also utilized a variety of molecular species delimitation approaches, including analyses with GMYC, PTP, BPP, and BFD(∗), which suggested that species diversity in Xenosaurus is at least 30% higher than currently estimated.

  11. Análise da variação longitudinal do esqueleto axial em Serpentes (Squamata) empregando ferramentas de morfometria geométrica

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio de Andrade Machado

    2010-01-01

    As cobras são um grupo de vertebrados extremamente bem sucedido. Apesar da aparente simplicidade, elas conseguiram ocupar uma grande diversidade de habitats. O esqueleto axial das serpentes apresenta relação com vários aspectos da vida que puderam ter tido influência direta em seu sucesso evolutivo. Além disso, a forma dos elementos vertebrais possui valor taxonômico, fato que desperta particular interesse, visto que a maior parte do registro fóssil deste grupo é constituído por elementos ver...

  12. Sea ice meiofauna abundance in coastal fast ice off Barrow, Alaska, with a focus on Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta), July 12, 2005 - April 4, 2006 (NODC Accession 0064869)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fast ice along the Alaskan coastline forms in November/December and reaches a thickness of 1.5-1.8m by April. Break-up usually occurs between late June and...

  13. Molecular phylogeny, species limits, and biogeography of the Brazilian endemic lizard genus Enyalius (Squamata: Leiosauridae): an example of the historical relationship between Atlantic Forests and Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Bertolotto, Carolina Elena Viña; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Freire, Eliza Maria Xavier; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado

    2014-12-01

    The endemic Brazilian Enyalius encompasses a diverse group of forest lizards with most species restricted to the Atlantic Forest (AF). Their taxonomy is problematic due to extensive variation in color pattern and external morphology. We present the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus based on 2102 bp of the mtDNA (cyt-b, ND4, and 16S) and nuclear (c-mos) regions, uncovering all previously admitted taxa (9 spp). Different methods of tree reconstruction were explored with Urostrophus vautieri, Anisolepis grilli and A. longicauda as outgroups. The monophyly of Enyalius and its split into two deeply divergent clades (late Oligocene and early Miocene) is strongly supported. Clade A assembles most lineages restricted to south and southeastern Brazil, and within it Enyalius brasiliensis is polyphyletic; herein full species status of E. brasiliensis and E. boulengeri is resurrected. Clade B unites the Amazonian E. leechii as sister-group to a major clade containing E. bilineatus as sister-group to all remaining species from northeastern Brazil. We detected unrecognized diversity in several populations suggesting putative species. Biogeographical analyses indicate that Enyalius keeps fidelity to shadowed forests, with few cases of dispersal into open regions. Ancient dispersal into the Amazon from an AF ancestor may have occurred through northeastern Brazil.

  14. Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and two new species of lizards from Brazilian Amazonia, with nomenclatural comments on the taxonomy of Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Guarino R; Hoogmoed, Marinus S; Cannatella, David C; Cassimiro, José; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Pellegrino, Kátia C M; Salerno, Patricia; Souza, Sergio Marques De; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-08-18

    We describe a new genus and two new species of gymnophthalmid lizards based on specimens collected from Brazilian Amazonia, mostly in the "arc of deforestation". The new genus is easily distinguished from other Gymnophthalmidae by having very wide, smooth, and imbricate nuchals, arranged in two longitudinal and 6-10 transverse rows from nape to brachium level, followed by much narrower, strongly keeled, lanceolate, and mucronate scales. It also differs from all other Gymnophthalmidae, except Iphisa, by the presence of two longitudinal rows of ventrals. The new genus differs from Iphisa by having two pairs of enlarged chinshields (one in Iphisa); posterior dorsal scales lanceolate, strongly keeled and not arranged in longitudinal rows (dorsals broad, smooth and forming two longitudinal rows), and lateral scales keeled (smooth). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data indicate the new species form a clade that is most closely related to Iphisa. We also address several nomenclatural issues and present a revised classification of Gymnophthalmidae.

  15. [Demography and nesting ecology of green iguana, Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in 2 exploited populations in Depresión Momposina, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Eliana M; Ortega, Angela M; Bock, Brian C; Páez, Vivian P

    2003-03-01

    We studied the demography and nesting ecology of two populations of Iguana iguana that face heavy exploitation and habitat modification in the Momposina Depression, Colombia. Lineal transect data was analyzed using the Fourier model to provide estimates of social group densities, which was found to differ both within and among populations (1.05-6.0 groups/ha). Mean group size and overall iguana density estimates varied between populations as well (1.5-13.7 iguanas/ha). The density estimates were far lower than those reported from more protected areas in Panama and Venezuela. Iguana densities were consistently higher in sites located along rivers (2.5 iguanas/group) than in sites along the margin of marshes, probably due to vegetational differences (1.5 iguanas/group). There was no correlation between density estimates and estimates of relative abundance (number of iguanas seen/hour/person) due to differing detectabilities of iguana groups among sites. The adult sex ratio (1:2.5 males:females) agreed well with other reports in the literature based upon observation of adult social groups, and probably results from the polygynous mating system in this species rather than a real demographic skew. Nesting in this population occurs from the end of January through March and hatching occurs between April and May. We monitored 34 nests, which suffered little vertebrate predation, perhaps due to the lack of a complete vertebrate fauna in this densely inhabited area, but nests suffered from inundation, cattle trampling, and infestation by phorid fly larvae. Clutch sizes in these populations were lower than all other published reports except for the iguana population on the highly xeric island of Curaçao, implying that adult females in our area are unusually small. We argue that this is more likely the result of the exploitation of these populations rather than an adaptive response to environmentally extreme conditions.

  16. Primer registro de Phyllodactylus sentosus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae para el valle del río Chillón, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Olivera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El gecko de Lima Phyllodactylus sentosus (Dixon & Huey, 1970 identificado como en peligro crítico de extinción ha sido registrado sólo en algunas localidades entre los valles de los ríos Rímac y Lurín, en el centro y sur de la ciudad de Lima, Región Lima, sin embargo, su distribución hacia el norte no está documentada. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez la presencia de P. sentosus en la Huaca Tambo Inga, ubicada en el margen derecho del valle del río Chillón en el distrito de Puente Piedra, extendiendo su distribución 19 km al noreste.

  17. A new genus and species of gekkonid lizard (Squamata: Gekkota: Gekkonidae) from Hormozgan Province with a revised key to gekkonid genera of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei-Mahroo, Barbod; Ghaffari, Hanyeh; Anderson, Steven C

    2016-05-10

    We describe a new genus and species of gekkonid from two gravid specimens which were found within Koh-e Homag Protected Area, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran. The genus Parsigecko gen. nov. can be distinguished from other genera of Middle East Gekkonidae by a combination of the following characteristics: digits not dilated, dorsal tail covered with small scales without any tubercles or keels, having two strong keeled and pointed scales on each side of each annulus. Parsigecko ziaiei sp. nov. is a ground-dwelling lizard. The new species was found in the Zagros Mountain forest steppe patch with scattered wild pistachio trees and mountain almond shrubs surrounded by South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert habitat in the south of Iran. The genus is the 13th gekkonid genus known from Iran, and the only gekkonid genus endemic to the Zagros Mountains. A key to the genera of the Gekkonidae in Iran is provided.

  18. Ecología del crecimiento de una lagartija del género Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae en la Reserva de la Biosfera, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México Growth ecology of a lizard of the genus Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae from the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GASTÓN ZAMORA-ABREGO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos el crecimiento corporal de una nueva especie de lagartija endémica del género Xenosaurus Peters, ubicada en la Reserva de la Biósfera, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. Se estimaron las tasas de crecimiento corporal y se analizaron a partir de los modelos de crecimiento de Von Bertalanffy, logístico por longitud y logístico por peso. Para describir el patrón de crecimiento de estas lagartijas, utilizamos el modelo logístico por longitud debido a que fue el modelo que tuvo el mejor ajuste a las tasas observadas de crecimiento corporal. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras en el parámetro característico de crecimiento ni en la talla asintótica proyectada. Por lo tanto, se construyó una sola curva de crecimiento para ambos sexos. Los machos alcanzan la madurez sexual a los 24 meses, mientras que las hembras lo hacen hasta los 37 meses. Las tasas de crecimiento independientes de la talla no fueron estadísticamente diferentes entre años (2001, 2002 y 2003, ni entre estaciones (estación húmeda y seca. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la variación en el crecimiento corporal de esta especie, no es causada exclusivamente por las variaciones ambientales, sino más bien por una compleja combinación de factores ambientales y bases genéticas.We analyzed variation in body growth of a new lizard species of the genus Xenosaurus Peters that is endemic to the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. We calculated body growth rates and analyzed them by means of the Von Bertalanffy, logistic-by-length, and logistic-by-weight growth models. We used the logistic-by-length model to describe the growth pattern of these lizards because this model provided the best fit to the observed body growth rates. No significant differences were found between males and females in the characteristic growth parameter or in the projected asymptotic size. Therefore, a single growth curve was constructed for both sexes. Males reach maturity at 24 months, whereas females at 37 months. Size-independent growth rates were not statistically different among years (2001, 2002 and 2003 or between season (wet and dry season. Our results suggest that variation in body growth of this species is not caused exclusively by environmental variation, but rather by a complex combination of environmental and genetic factors.

  19. Reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil Ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus y Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae en una área de caatinga del nordeste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO B. RIBEIRO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 in an area of caatinga in the Serido of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, from October 2006 to May 2008. In both species, the females were reproductively active from the middle of the dry season to the beginning of the rainy season. Female reproductive activity was influenced by precipitation, whereas males exhibited spermatozoa in their testes throughout the year, and their reproductive activity was not related to any of the climatic variables analyzed. Mean clutch size (± SD was 8.1 ± 2.0 and 2.1 ± 0.6 eggs in T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus, respectively, and was significantly related to female body size only in T. hispidus. The fat stock varied inversely with reproductive activity in the two species, and there was no difference in fat body mass between females and males. The effects of precipitation on the length of the breeding season of these two Tropidurus species suggest that their reproductive cycles are related to the microclimatic conditions suitable for embryo development, as well as for the neonates' emergence and survival especially during the rainy season, which may offer greater food availability to the hatchlings.Este estudio evaluó los ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 y T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 en una área de caatinga en el Seridó de Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, de octubre de 2006 a mayo de 2008. En ambas especies, las hembras se encontraron reproductivamente activas a partir de mediados de la estación seca para el inicio de la temporada de lluvias. La actividad reproductiva de las hembras fue influenciada por las precipitaciones, mientras que los machos presentaron espermatozoides en los testículos durante todo el año, y su actividad reproductiva no fue relacionada con ninguna de las variables climáticas analizadas. El tamaño medio (± DE de la nidada fue de 8.1 ± 2.0 y 2.1 ± 0.6 huevos en T. hispidus y T. semitaeniatus, respectivamente, y se relacionó significativamente con el tamaño corporal de la hembra solo en T. hispidus. La reserva de grasa varió inversamente con la actividad reproductiva en las dos especies, y no hubo diferencia en la cantidad de grasa corporal entre hembras y machos. Los efectos de la precipitación sobre la duración de la temporada reproductiva de estas dos especies de Tropidurus sugieren que sus ciclos reproductivos están relacionados con las condiciones microclimáticas adecuadas para el desarrollo del embrión, así como para la emergencia de los recién nacidos y su supervivencia, especialmente durante la temporada de lluvias, que es la que puede ofrecer una mayor disponibilidad de alimentos para las crías.

  20. Use of sleeping perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae in the fragmented tropical rainforest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico Uso de perchas para dormir por la lagartija Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae en el bosque tropical fragmentado de Los Tuxtlas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of nocturnal perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis is described. Bimonthly surveys were made throughout a year in small fragments and continuous tropical rainforest areas at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Twenty three juvenile individuals and 7 adults were recorded sleeping during the sampling time (18:00 - 23:00 h.. All individuals were found on leaves of plants of 14 species. Perch height ranged from 41.0 to 140.5 cm (mean: 90.1 cm juveniles; 80.6 cm adults and the most frequent sleeping position observed was with the body oriented along the longitudinal axis of the leaf and the head facing the stem of the plant. This apparently vulnerable position can permit the perception of external stimuli such as proximity of predators; although, eco-physiological factors may also influence selection of sleeping perch sites.Se describe el uso de perchas nocturnas por parte de la lagartija Anolis uniformis. Durante un año se ralizaron muestreos bimensuales en fragmentos pequeños y áreas continuas de bosque tropical perennifolio en Los Tuxtlas, México. Se registraron 23 individuos juveniles y 7 adultos durmiendo durante las horas de muestreo (18:00 a 23:00 hrs. Todos los individuos fueron encontrados en hojas de plantas pertenecientes a 14 especies. La altura de las perchas varió entre 41.0 y 140.5 cm (promedio: 90.1 cm juveniles; 80.6 cm adultos y la posición más frecuente de las lagartijas al dormir fue con el cuerpo extendido a lo largo del eje longitudinal de la hoja y la cabeza dirigida hacia el tallo de la planta. Esta posición, aparentemente vulnerable, puede permitir la percepción de estímulos externos como la aproximación de depredadores; sin embargo, factores eco-fisiológicos pueden también influir en la selección de sitios para dormir.

  1. Experimental introduction of Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae in Praia das Neves, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: a descriptive study 18 years later Introdução experimental de Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae em Praia das Neves, Espírito Santo, Brasil: um estudo descritivo 18 anos depois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hermínia B. Soares

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the results of the introduction into Praia das Neves, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, of Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, a lizard species threatened with extinction. Since there are few studies that evaluate how species establish and adapt to new environments, it is useful to assess to what extent the introduction of a critically endangered species into an area similar to where it originally occurred can help reduce its decline in number of individuals and avoid its possible extinction. This study presents the first results of an ongoing monitoring survey set up after the experimental introduction. We analyze how the introduced population uses space and food and we compare these characteristics to that of the original population at Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro state. We also compare morphological measurementss of specimens from both populations. Both make similar use of the microhabitat, but there are differences in their diets. We recommend that the introduced population, potential competitors, predators, parasites, and the habitat characteristics continue to be monitored, so as to insure that this species will not become a threat to Praia das Neves beach community.Esse artigo examina o resultado da introdução, em Praia das Neves, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, de Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, uma espécie de lagarto ameaçada de extinção. Como existem poucos estudos que avaliam como espécies estabelecem-se e adaptam-se a novos ambientes, é útil conhecer em que extensão a introdução de uma espécie criticamente em perigo em uma área similar àquela onde ocorria naturalmente pode ajudar a reduzir seu declínio em número de indivíduos e evitar sua possível extinção. Esse estudo apresenta os primeiros resultados de um monitoramento em andamento, iniciado depois da introdução experimental. Analisamos o uso do espaço pela população introduzida e sua alimentação, e comparamos essas características com a da população original em Barra de Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Também comparamos as medidas morfológicas das duas populações. Ambas fazem uso similar do microhabitat, mas há diferenças nas suas dietas. Recomendamos que a população introduzida e seus competidores potenciais, predadores e parasitos, e as características do habitat continuem a ser monitorados, para garantir que essa espécie não se torne uma ameaça à comunidade de Praia das Neves.

  2. Dimorfismo sexual y ciclo reproductivo de la lagartija espinosa arbórea Sceloporus formosus Wiegmann (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae de la zona central del estado de Oaxaca, México Sexual dimorphism and reproductive cycle in the arboreal spiny lizard Sceloporus formosus Wiegmann (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae from central Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURELIO RAMÍREZ-BAUTISTA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that geographic variation oceurs in life history characteristics among populations of lizards. Variations in life histories found in some studies are possibly adaptations to environmental pressures. In southwestern México, the reproductive characteristics of the endemic species Sceloporus formosus have been poorly studied throughout its geographic range. We used specimens from scientific collections to describe male and female reproductive eyeles and sexual dimorphism of S. formosus. Other viviparous Sceloporus from high elevations show sexual dimorphism, with males being larger in many morphological characteristics than females. We therefore expected that S. formosus would show sexual dimorphism. However, we found no sexual dimorphism. Males reached sexual maturity at a smaller (47 mm snout-vent length (SVL than females (50 mm. There were no significant differences between sexes and months in liver mass. However, fat body mass in females was greater than in males. For males, there was significant relationship between log10-testis volume and log10-SVL. Testis volume was positively correlated with temperature and was smallest during October, November, and December. For females, there was no significant effect of month on gonad volume. Vitellogenesis oceurred from April to November. Vitellogenic follicles and embryonic development were significantly correlated with precipitation (Pearson correlation, r = 0.80, n = 10, P = 0.0081 and photoperiod (Pearson correlation, r = 0.72, n = 10, P Es bien conocido que la variación geográfica ocurre en las características de historias de vida entre poblaciones de especies de lagartijas. Las variaciones en las características de historias de vida encontradas en algunos estudios son posiblemente adaptaciones a las presiones del ambiente. En el suroeste de México, habita la especie endémica, Sceloporus formosus la cual ha sido poco estudiada en sus características reproductivas a través de su intervalo de distribución geográfica. En este estudio se usaron especímenes provenientes de colecciones científicas para describir el ciclo reproductivo de machos y hembras y dimorfismo sexual de S. formosus. En otras especies vivíparas de altitudes elevadas del género Sceloporus muestran dimorfismo, donde los machos son más grandes que las hembras en muchas características morfológicas; debido a esto, esperábamos que S. formosus mostrara dimorfismo sexual. Sin embargo, no encontramos dimorfismo sexual. Los machos alcanzaron la madurez sexual a menor talla (47 mm en longitud hocico-cloaca (LHC que las hembras (50 mm. En cuanto a la masa del hígado no hubo diferencias significativas entre sexos y meses. Sin embargo, los cuerpos grasos en las hembras fueron mayores que en machos. En los machos, no hubo relaciones significativas entre log10-volumen testicular y el log10-LHC. El volumen testicular se correlacionó positivamente con la temperatura y este fue más pequeño durante octubre, noviembre y diciembre. Para las hembras, no hubo efectos significativos del mes sobre el volumen de la gónada. La vitelogénesis ocurrió de abril a noviembre. Los folículos vitelógenicos y el desarrollo embrionario se correlacionaron significativamente con la precipitación (Correlación de Pearson, r = 0.80,n=10,P = 0.0081 y el fotoperiodo (Correlación de Pearson, r = 0.72, n = 10, P < 0.0001. El tamaño de la carnada basado con el número de embriones, se correlacionó con la LHC (Correlación de Pearson, r = 0.82, n = 10, P = 0.0034. La masa relativa de la carnada no se correlacionó con la LHC de las hembras (Correlación de Pearson, r = 0.43, n = 10, P = 0.2110. Este patrón reproductivo otoñal encontrado es típico de especies vivíparas que habitan altitudes elevadas, donde la temperatura es baja, la precipitación y la humedad son altas. Lo que sugiere que la convergencia en los ciclos reproductivos puede estar asociada con un cambio a las condiciones ambientales imperantes en altitudes elevadas.

  3. Variation in parental investment and relative clutch mass of the spiny-tail iguana, Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae in central México Variación en la inversión parental y masa relativa de la nidada en la iguana de cola espinosa Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Castro-Franco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured the length, width, volume, and weight of 871 freshly laid eggs of 28 clutches of Ctenosaura pectinata. The iguanas were obtained from a tropical dry forest area in central Mexico. The relative clutch mass was related positively to the average egg weight but not to average egg volume. Unlike what usually occurs in lizards, where the body length strongly predicts egg production, in C. pectinata clutch size and egg size were not correlated with female weight or snout-vent length. Observed differences revealed variation in the weight-size of the egg within an individual clutch. Therefore, there is not an optimization of the egg in the studied population of Ctenosaura, as usually occurs in small lizards. This variation associated with reproduction takes place in the middle of the dry season, and may be interpreted as an adaptation to facilitate the adjustment of different phenotypes in environments with extreme drought.Medimos la longitud, amplitud, volumen, y peso de 871 huevos recién puestos de 28 nidadas de Ctenosaura pectinata. Las iguanas fueron obtenidas en un área de bosque tropical seco en el centro de México. La masa relativa de la nidada estuvo relacionada positivamente con el peso promedio de los huevos pero no con el volumen promedio del huevo. A diferencia de lo que ocurre usualmente en lagartijas, donde la longitud del cuerpo determina la producción de huevos, en C. pectinata el tamaño de la puesta y el tamaño del huevo no se correlacionan con el peso y tamaño de las hembras. Las diferencias observadas revelan variación en el tamaño y peso de los huevos dentro de las puestas individuales. En consecuencia, no hay una optimización del huevo en la población estudiada de Ctenosaura, como usualmente ocurre en lagartijas de tamaño pequeño. Esta variación asociada con la reproducción tiene lugar a mitad de la estación seca, y puede ser interpretada como una adaptación para facilitar el ajuste de diferentes fenotipos en ambientes con sequía extrema.

  4. Cool Season Paleotemperatures at Tree Line in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W. E.; Chan, M.

    2011-12-01

    Taiwan has over 200 mountains whose peaks exceed 3,000 meters in elevation. Despite straddling the Tropic of Cancer, the higher peaks have snow and freezing temperatures every winter. Trees growing above 3,500 meters show clear temperature variation, even producing frost rings. Yet unlike temperate tree-line species, with their warm season temperature signal, trees growing at Taiwan's tree line show sensitivity to cool season temperatures. Juniperus squamata growing above 3,500 meters in central Taiwan have ring width time series that commonly exceed 600 years. Presented are the first dendroclimatological analyses from Taiwanese Juniperus squamata.

  5. Sexual differences in size and shape of the Mosor rock lizard [Dinarolacerta mosorensis (Kolombatović, 1886] (squamata: lacertidae: A case study of the Lovćen mountain population (Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubisavljević Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual differences in size and shape of the Mosor rock lizard, Dinarolacerta mosorensis (Kolombatović, 1886, from Lovćen Mountain (Montenegro were examined on the basis of the intersex variation pattern of nine morphometric, eight pholidotic, and four qualitative traits. Sexual dimorphism was apparent for all morphometric characters except snout-vent length, while scalation and dorsal pattern exhibited small differences between sexes. The value of the sexual size difference (SSD index based on snout-vent length was 1.028. The sex-specific allometric slopes for head dimensions and interlimb distance significantly diverged. Head dimensions, especially head height, showed strong positive allometry in males, while interlimb distance was the only character which showed positive allometry in females. Generally, males had significantly greater body size than females. This was true of all body measurements except interlimb distance. The influence of sexual and natural selection on the examined traits is discussed.

  6. Chromosomal localization of the 18S-28S and 5S rRNA genes and (TTAGGGn sequences of butterfly lizards (Leiolepis belliana belliana and Leiolepis boehmei, Agamidae, Squamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornsorn Srikulnath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal mapping of the butterfly lizards Leiolepis belliana belliana and L. boehmei was done using the 18S-28S and 5S rRNA genes and telomeric (TTAGGGn sequences. The karyotype of L. b. belliana was 2n = 36, whereas that of L. boehmei was 2n = 34. The 18S-28S rRNA genes were located at the secondary constriction of the long arm of chromosome 1, while the 5S rRNA genes were found in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 6 in both species. Hybridization signals for the (TTAGGGn sequence were observed at the telomeric ends of all chromosomes, as well as interstitially at the same position as the 18S-28S rRNA genes in L. boehmei. This finding suggests that in L. boehmei telomere-to-telomere fusion probably occurred between chromosome 1 and a microchromosome where the 18S-28S rRNA genes were located or, alternatively, at the secondary constriction of chromosome 1. The absence of telomeric sequence signals in chromosome 1 of L. b. belliana suggested that its chromosomes may have only a few copies of the (TTAGGGn sequence or that there may have been a gradual loss of the repeat sequences during chromosomal evolution.

  7. Chemosensory recognition of the marbled whiptail lizard, Aspidoscelis marmorata (Squamata: Teiidae) to odors of sympatric lizards (Crotophytus collaris, Coleonyx brevis, Eumeces obsoletus and Uta stansburiana) that represent different predation risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, F

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the whiptail lizard Aspidoscelis marmorata (Teiidae) to detect and discriminate chemical stimuli associated with the integument of a sympatric saurophagous lizard (Crotaphytus collaris) was tested. Females of A. marmorata were presented with cotton swabs containing chemical cues from C. collaris and three species of nonsaurophagous lizards, as well as water and cologne (pungency control), and total number of tongue-flick (TF) recorded. Other responses were assessed including directed TF rate, time from initial presentation of the stimulus to first TF (latency), time spent fleeing from the stimulus, and number of flight bouts. The number of TFs, directed TF rate, and number of attempts at fleeing exhibited by were significantly greater when females were presented with swabs containing cues from C. collaris as compared to nonsaurophagous lizards and both control treatments. A. marmorata required significantly less time to elicit their first TF when presented with cues from C. collaris as compared to all other treatments. Most previous studies have focused on the responses of lizards to cues associated with snake predators. This study provides the first available data on responses of a teiid to cues associated with a saurophagous lizard.

  8. A Paleoautoecologia de Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior &Marques, 1997 (Lepidosauria, Squamata Basal da Formação Santana, Aptiano da Bacia do Araripe Cretáceo Inferior do Nordeste do Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Castro Bonfim-Júnior

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tijubina pontei is a basal lizard found in the Crato Member, SantanaFormation, Lower Cretaceous (Aptian, Brazil. It is considered a sister group of Huehuecuetzpalli mixtetus, the only basal lizard previously known, found in Mexico. The paleoautoecology of T. pontei is compatible with a terrestrial animal, omnivorous, which could eventually occupy other ecological niches. Based on their dentition and ecomorphology, their behaviour could be a combination of active forager or a “sit-and-wait” one. It could even perform bipedal locomotion. Comparing T. pontei with Liolaemus lutzae, an extantbrazilian lizard, we find many characters and morphological similarities. This suggests that the L. lutzae habits could be extrapolated to the paleoenvironment of T. pontei which, probably, lived in a sandy habitat, with a vegetation that could support variations in salinity and high temperatures.

  9. The Knight and the King: two new species of giant bent-toed gecko (Cyrtodactylus, Gekkonidae, Squamata) from northern New Guinea, with comments on endemism in the North Papuan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M.; Richards, Stephen J.; Mumpuni; Rösler, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The diverse biota of New Guinea includes many nominally widespread species that actually comprise multiple deeply divergent lineages with more localised histories of evolution. Here we investigate the systematics of the very large geckos of the Cyrtodactylus novaeguineae complex using molecular and morphological data. These data reveal two widespread and divergent lineages that can be distinguished from each other, and from type material of Cyrtodactylus novaeguineae, by aspects of size, build, coloration and male scalation. On the basis of these differences we describe two new species. Both have wide distributions that overlap extensively in the foothill forests of the North Papuan Mountains, however one is seemingly restricted to hill and lower montane forests on the ranges themselves, while the other is more widespread throughout the surrounding lowlands. The taxon endemic to the North Papuan Mountains is related to an apparently lowland form currently known only from Waigeo and Batanta Island far to the west – hinting at a history on island arcs that accreted to form the North Papuan Mountains. PMID:27006624

  10. Mixed-Up Sex Chromosomes: Identification of Sex Chromosomes in the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y System of the Legless Lizards of the Genus Lialis (Squamata: Gekkota: Pygopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Geckos in general show extensive variability in sex determining systems, but only male heterogamety has been demonstrated in the members of their legless family Pygopodidae. In the pioneering study published more than 45 years ago, multiple sex chromosomes of the type X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y were described in Burton's legless lizard (Lialisburtonis) based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. We conducted cytogenetic analyses including comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected cytogenetic markers in this species and the previously cytogenetically unstudied Papua snake lizard (Lialis jicari) to better understand the nature of these sex chromosomes and their differentiation. Both species possess male heterogamety with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system; however, the Y and one of the X chromosomes are not small chromosomes as previously reported in L. burtonis, but the largest macrochromosomal pair in the karyotype. The Y chromosomes in both species have large heterochromatic blocks with extensive accumulations of GATA and AC microsatellite motifs. FISH with telomeric probe revealed an exclusively terminal position of telomeric sequences in L. jicari (2n = 42 chromosomes in females), but extensive interstitial signals, potentially remnants of chromosomal fusions, in L.burtonis (2n = 34 in females). Our study shows that even largely differentiated and heteromorphic sex chromosomes might be misidentified by conventional cytogenetic analyses and that the application of more sensitive cytogenetic techniques for the identification of sex chromosomes is beneficial even in the classical examples of multiple sex chromosomes.

  11. On the Identity and Taxonomic Status ofColuber nuthalli Theobald, 1868, with Redescription of the Type Specimens of Coluber nuthalli andElaphis yunnanensis Anderson, 1879 (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus Dieter SCHULZ; Frank TILLACK; Abhijit DAS; Notker HELFENBERGER

    2015-01-01

    The taxaColuber nuthalli Theobald, 1868 andElaphis yunnanensis Anderson, 1879 are compared and re-described, based on the examination of their type material. The morphological similarities of these two taxa revealed them as conspeciifc.Elaphis yunnanensis Anderson is thus declared as a protected name (nomen conservandum) with priority overC. nuthalli Theobald (nomen oblitum). A lectotype forElaphis yunnanensis is designated and described. The validity ofyunnanensis as subspecies name in combination withOrthriophis taeniurus (Cope) will be discussed. A key to the subspecies ofO. taeniurus is provided.

  12. Primer registro de Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758 para el departamento de La Paz, Bolivia. Comentarios sobre la extensión de la distribución geográfica para Plica umbra (Linnaeus 1758, (Squamata: Tropiduridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de la especie Plica plica y tres de Plica umbra fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Todos los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Capital de Provincia Ixiamas, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas, Cantón Ixiamas, Capital de Cantón Tahua.

  13. Systematics of small Gehyra (Squamata: Gekkonidae) of the southern Kimberley, Western Australia: redescription of G. kimberleyi Börner & Schüttler, 1983 and description of a new restricted range species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Bourke, Gayleen; Pratt, Renae C; Doughty, Paul; Moritz, Craig

    2016-04-29

    Ongoing fieldwork and molecular research continues to reveal that the monsoonal tropics of northern Australia contain more vertebrate species than currently recognised. Here we focus on two morphologically distinctive, yet unrecognised forms in the genus Gehyra from the southern Kimberley region and surrounding deserts. We base our descriptions on a combination of unpublished genetic data and a morphological examination of voucher specimens. We recognise and redescribe G. kimberleyi, a species with a broad distribution extending over most of the south-west Kimberley, across the Great Sandy Desert and into the far northern Pilbara. This species has been previously assigned to G. pilbara owing to its frequent occurrence on termite mounds and short snout, but can be distinguished from G. pilbara and other regionally sympatric Gehyra by its moderate body size, moderate number of pre-cloacal pores in males (12-17) and aspects of dorsal colouration. We also describe G. girloorloo sp. nov., a small rock-dwelling species with a short snout, low number of pre-cloacal pores in males (8-11) and pinkish-grey dorsal colouration with alternating series of indistinct pale spots and irregular transversely-aligned dark blotches. The new species appears to be restricted to a relatively small region of exposed limestone karst in the south-west Kimberley and is entirely circumscribed by morphologically similar congeners.

  14. A new species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae), from Jawa Timur Province, Java, Indonesia, with taxonomic remarks on C. fumosus (Müller, 1895).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lukas; Mecke, Sven; Kieckbusch, Max; Mader, Felix; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2016-01-26

    A new species of the gekkonid lizard genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 is described from Klakah, Lumajang Regency, Jawa Timur Province, Java, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus klakahensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other congeners by the presence of (1) a deep precloacal groove in males, (2) three rows of enlarged precloacofemoral scales, of which the third row bears 37-38 pores in males, (3) three or four rows of enlarged scales between the precloacofemoral scale rows and the cloaca, forming distinct chevrons, (4) raised and strongly keeled dorsal tubercles in 15-19 rows at midbody, (5) an indistinct lateral fold, (6) 17-20 subdigital lamellae under the 4th toe, and (7) subcaudal scales which are not transversely enlarged. Cyrtodactylus klakahensis sp. nov. is only the third bent-toed gecko species described from Java, indicating that the diversity of this genus on this island has been neglected in the past. Furthermore, we confirm that C. fumosus (Müller, 1895) is a species that possesses a precloacal groove in males and is most likely restricted to northern Sulawesi. That species is defined by a single female holotype (NMB-REPT 2662). Specimens in museum collections catalogued as C. fumosus from localities elsewhere are misidentified and likely represent undescribed species.

  15. Cryptic speciation within Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) (Squamata: Pareatidae), the description of a new species from Peninsular Malaysia, and the resurrection of A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jude, 1923) from Sumatra: an integrative taxonomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, Ariel I; Wood, Perry L; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Greer, Lee F; Ahmad, Norhayati; Grismer, L Lee

    2013-01-01

    A review of the taxonomic status of the Asian Slug Snake, Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) based on an integrative taxonomic approach using molecular, morphological, color pattern, and ecological data indicate it is composed of three well supported monophyletic lineages: (1) Pulau Tioman and Fraser's Hill, Pahang and Bukit Larut, Perak; Peninsular Malaysia; (2) its sister lineage from Northern Sumatra; and (3) the remaining basal lineage from Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, we consider the high sequence divergence (6.3%-10.2%) between these lineages (especially in areas of sympatry) and discrete differences in their morphology, color pattern, and microhabitat preference as evidence they are not conspecific. As such, we resurrect the name A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jeude, 1923) for the Sumatra populations, restrict the name A. vertebralis to the populations from Pulau Tioman, Genting Highlands, Fraser's Hill, Gunung Benom, and Bukit Larut that contain terrestrial, banded adults; and consider A. lasgalenensis sp. nov. to be restricted to the populations from Fraser's Hill, Cameron Highlands, and Bukit Larut that contain arboreal, unbanded adults.

  16. 墨西哥帕丘卡卵胎生条纹强棱蜥的繁殖周期%Reproductive cycle of the viviparous lizard Sceloporus grammicus(Squamata:Phrynosomatidae)from Pachuca,Hidalgo,México

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aurelio RAM(I)REZ-BAUTISTA; Carlos A.MACIEL-MATA; Miguel Angel MART(I)NEZ-MORALES

    2005-01-01

    In this study,we present the cycle and reproductive characteristics of the viviparous lizard Sceloporus grammicus from populations of arid environments near Pachuca City,in the state of Hidalgo,México.We obtained data from preserved specimens at two Mexican scientific collections.Males and females reached sexual maturity at the same snout-vent length(SVL,40.0 mm).Testicular mass of adult males began to increase in May and maximum testes mass occurred from July to August.Changes in testicular mass were not correlated with precipitation,temperature or photoperiod.Follicle mass in females began to increase in July and continued through October.Females contained embryos from November to July.Vitellogenesis and embryonic development were not correlated with photoperiod,temperature or precipitation.Mean litter size was 5.2±0.2 neonates(2-10).Litter size was correlated with female SVL.%本文报道墨西哥伊达尔戈州帕丘卡地区干旱环境中卵胎生条纹强棱蜥的繁殖周期及特征.测定墨西哥两个科学收藏馆的浸制标本获得数据.雌雄个体达到性成熟时的体长相等,为40.0 mm.雄体睾丸重量在5月开始增加,至7、8月达到最大.睾丸重量变化与降雨量、温度和光周期均无关.雌体卵泡重量在7月开始增加,并一直持续至10月.从11月至次年7月,雌体怀有胚胎.卵黄发生及胚胎发育与光周期、温度和降雨量无关.窝仔数与雌体体长呈正相关.平均窝仔数为5.2±0.2个(2-10个).

  17. The association of Triatoma maculata (Ericsson 1848) with the gecko Thecadactylus rapicauda (Houttuyn 1782) (Reptilia:Squamata:Gekkonidae):a strategy of domiciliation of the Chagas disease peridomestic vector in Venezuela?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reyes-Lugo M; Rodrguez-Acosta A; Reyes-Contreras M; Salvi I; Gelves W; Aviln A; Llavaneras D; Navarrete LF; Cordero G; Snchez EE

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the bioecological relationship between Chagas disease peridomestic vectors and reptiles as source of feeding. Methods: In a three-story building, triatomines were captured by direct search and electric vacuum cleaner search in and outside the building. Then, age structure of the captured Triatoma maculata (T. maculata) were identified and recorded. Reptiles living in sympatric with the triatomines were also searched. Results: T. maculata were found living sympatric with geckos (Thecadactylus rapicauda) and they bit residents of the apartment building in study. A total of 1 448 individuals of T. maculata were captured within three days, of which 74.2% (1 074 eggs) were eggs, 21.5% were nymphs at different stages, and 4.3% were adults. Conclusions: The association of T. maculata and T. rapicauda is an effective strategy of colonizing dwellings located in the vicinity of the habitat where both species are present; and therefore, could have implications of high importance in the intradomiciliary transmission of Chagas disease.

  18. An inconspicuous, conspicuous new species of Asian pipesnake, genus Cylindrophis (Reptilia: Squamata: Cylindrophiidae), from the south coast of Jawa Tengah, Java, Indonesia, and an overview of the tangled taxonomic history of C. ruffus (Laurenti, 1768).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckbusch, Max; Mecke, Sven; Hartmann, Lukas; Ehrmantraut, Lisa; O'shea, Mark; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2016-03-20

    We describe a new species of Cylindrophis currently known only from Grabag, Purworejo Regency, Jawa Tengah Pro-vince (Central Java), Java, Indonesia. Cylindrophis subocularis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the presence of a single, eponymous subocular scale between the 3rd and 4th or 4th and 5th supralabial, preventing contact between the 4th or 5th supralabial and the orbit, and by having the prefrontal in narrow contact with or separated from the orbit. We preface our description with a detailed account of the tangled taxonomic history of the similar and putatively wide-ranging species C. ruffus, which leads us to (1) remove the name Scytale scheuchzeri from the synonymy of C. ruffus, (2) list the taxon C. rufa var. javanica as species inquirenda, and (3) synonymize C. mirzae with C. ruffus. We provide additional evidence to confirm that the type locality of C. ruffus is Java. Cylindrophis subocularis sp. nov. is the second species of Asian pipesnake from Java.

  19. All that glitters is not gold: A projected distribution of the endemic Indian Golden Gecko Calodactylodes aureus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae indicates a major range shrinkage due to future climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Srinivasulu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has a perceived threat on biodiversity due to its effect on species range.  Species with narrow ranges and highly specific climatic and habitat requirements are at higher risk.  To understand the influence of climate change on the Indian endemic gekkonid, the Indian Golden Gecko Calodactylodes aureus (Beddome, 1870 we model the present and future predicted distribution (2050 and 2070 under the CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios using MaxEnt under the HadGEM3-ES Model.  Our analysis revealed the negative impact of climate change on the Indian Golden Gecko with a decrease in the amount of climatically suitable areas in the future, and an almost total range shrinkage by 2070.  Despite its wide distribution in the eastern Deccan Peninsula, according to our predictions, the species is threatened by a shrinkage in the future range due to climate change. 

  20. Divergence and long-distance overseas dispersals of island populations of the Ryukyu five-lined skink, Plestiodon marginatus (Scincidae: Squamata), in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, as revealed by mitochondrial DNA phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the historical biogeography of the Ryukyu five-lined skink, Plestiodon marginatus, and related species (P. stimpsonii and P. elegans). Our specific aims were to reveal the origin, tim- ing, and route of the colonization to three volcanic islands in the northern Tokara Group of the northern Ryukyus: Kuchinoshima, Nakanoshima, and Suwanosejima. We conducted phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimation using a partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for P. marginatus collected from across its whole range (the northern and central Ryukyus), and for P. stimpsonii (from the Yaeyama Group of the southern Ryukyus) and P. elegans (from Taiwan). Our results suggest three major clades (A, B, and C). Clades A and B consist of P. marginatus, excluding the Kuchinoshima population, and Clade C consisted of the Kuchinoshima population, P. stimpsonii, and P. elegans. These clades are estimated to have diverged during the Late Miocene to the Late Pliocene. Among the three examined northern Tokara populations, the Kuchinoshima population was shown to be a sister group of P. stimpsonii. The two other populations from Nakanoshima and Suwanosejima Islands were closely related to P. marginatus from the northern part of the Okinawa Group and that from Kodakarajima Island in the southern Tokara Group, respectively. These populations are estimated to have diverged from their respective related spe cies in various ages of the Early to Late Pleistocene, suggesting that they colonized the islands by independent overseas dispersals of approximately 50-850 km via the Kuroshio Current. Taxonomic implications for P. marginatus are also discussed.

  1. A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Gunther; Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo; Petersen, Claus Bo P; De La Cruz, Fausto R Méndez

    2014-09-19

    We revise the species of anoles occurring along the Pacific versant of Mexico west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla. Based on our analyses of morphological and molecular genetic data, we recognize 21 species, six of which we describe as new (i.e., Anolis carlliebi sp. nov., A. immaculogularis sp. nov., A. nietoi sp. nov., A. sacamecatensis sp. nov., A. stevepoei sp. nov., and A. zapotecorum sp. nov.). Furthermore, we synonymize Anolis forbesi Smith & Van Gelder 1955 with Anolis microlepidotus Davis 1954. Of the recognized species, six have smooth ventral scales (i.e., Anolis dunni, A. gadovii, A. liogaster, A. omiltemanus, A. peucephilus, and A. taylori) and 14 have keeled ventral scales (i.e., A. boulengerianus, A. carlliebi, A. immaculogularis, A. megapholidotus, A. microlepidotus, A. nebuloides, A. nebulosus, A. nietoi, A. quercorum, A. sacamecatensis, A. stevepoei, A. subocularis, A. unilobatus, and A. zapotecorum). In one species, A. macrinii, the ventral scales vary from smooth to weakly keeled. For each species we provide color descriptions in life, color photographs in life, descriptions and illustration of hemipenis morphology (if available), description of external morphology, distribution maps based on the specimensexamined, comments on the conservation status, and natural history notes. Finally, we provide a dichotomous key for the identification of the 21 species of anoles occurring along the Pacific versant of Mexico west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla. 

  2. Partial revision of Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Grand Caribbean Region, with the description of two new species and a key to species recorded in the area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado Blas, V.H.

    2006-01-01

    Five Scolelepis species from the Gulf of Mexico and Western Atlantic Ocean are reported and certain species previously synonymized with Scolelepis (S.) squamata are revised. Four species are reinstated: S. (S.) goodbodyi (Jones, 1962), S. (S.) minuta (Treadwell, 1939), S. (S.) acuta (Treadwell, 1914

  3. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Airborne Laser Program at Kirtland Air Force Base (AFB) and White Sands Missile Range/Holloman AFB, NM, and Edwards AFB and Vandenberg AFB, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    quail (Callipepla squamata), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). greater roadrunner (Geococyx caliiornianus), American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos...as bighorn sheep in mountainous areas were not affected at all, and open range species such as quail and coyotes were only slightly impacted...activities, previously established policies and procedures are in place to ensure test areas are cleared of civilians before tesiing is

  4. Meteorological influences on North America quail populations [abstract, table, and figure

    OpenAIRE

    Botsford, Louis; Brittnacher, John G.

    1988-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Comparative study of environmental influences on the population dynamics of three North American species of quail, California quail (Callipepla california), Gambel's quail (C. gambellii), and scaled quail (C. squamata) has lead to identification of differential sensitivity of these species to global weather patterns.

  5. Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri C. C. Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest was investigated in relation to species richness and habitat use. Fourteen species of amphibian anurans pertaining to the families Bufonidae, Brachycephalidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae were recorded. The reptiles were represented by 37 species, distributed in the families Gekkonidae, Gymnophthalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Typhlopidae, Chelidae, Testudinidae and Alligatoridae. Most of the recorded species presented wide geographic distribution, although some of them had distributions that were restricted to the Atlantic Forest. The species richness of Mata do Buraquinho is relatively high for an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest, and the observed anthropogenic impacts show the urgent necessity of conservation in order to guarantee the viability of populations of amphibians and reptiles.

  6. Reptiles de zonas bajas de Yacopí (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Arias Rafael Ángel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un inventario de reptiles que ocurren por debajo de 1.000 m en el municipio de Yacopí, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se registraron 47 especies (26 Sauria, 19 Serpentes, un Amphisbaenia y un Testudinata, la familia y género más ricos fueron Colubridae y Anolis. La riqueza entre Sauria y  Serpentes fue diferente a la que se encuentra en el país. La fauna se agrupó según su distribución en dos tipos:  Trasandino (al oeste de la cordillera Oriental y Amplio (tanto al este como al oeste de la misma cordillera, los Saurios fueron más numerosos en el primero y las Serpentes en el segundo. Se encontró que la mayoría de reptiles se distribuye entre 0 y 2.000 m.

  7. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Airborne Laser Program at Kirtland AFB, White Sands Missile Range/ Holloman AFB, New Mexico; Edwards AFB, Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    buttes) o’ eartr·-en berms as a backstop. The ARS would also be tesied using a gcound-based simulator within Building 151 at Edwards AFB. No oper...Grasslands inciJde the horned !ark (Eremophila alpeslris), scaied quail (Cal/ipepla squamata), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), greater roadrunner...were not affected at all. and open range species such as quail and coyotes were only slightly impacted (White Sands M:ssile Range, ": 998

  8. Adaptation to life in aeolian sand: how the sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus, prevents sand particles from entering its lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Anna T.; Vihar, Boštjan; Günther, Mathias; Huemer, Michaela; Riedl, Martin; Shamiyeh, Stephanie; Mayrhofer, Bernhard; Böhme, Wolfgang; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus (Squamata: Scincidae), spends nearly its whole life in aeolian sand and only comes to the surface for foraging, defecating and mating. It is not yet understood how the animal can respire without sand particles entering its respiratory organs when buried under thick layers of sand. In this work, we integrated biological studies, computational calculations and physical experiments to understand this phenomenon. We present a 3D model of the upper res...

  9. The Evolutionary Implications of Hemipenial Morphology of Rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurent, 1768 (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcovan Porto

    Full Text Available Most amniotes vertebrates have an intromittent organ to deliver semen. The reptile Sphenodon and most birds lost the ancestral penis and developed a cloaca-cloaca mating. Known as hemipenises, the copulatory organ of Squamata shows unique features between the amniotes intromittent organ. They are the only paired intromittent organs across amniotes and are fully inverted and encapsulated in the tail when not in use. The histology and ultrastructure of the hemipenes of Crotalus durissus rattlesnake is described as the evolutionary implications of the main features discussed. The organization of hemipenis of Crotalus durissus terrificus in two concentric corpora cavernosa is similar to other Squamata but differ markedly from the organization of the penis found in crocodilians, testudinata, birds and mammals. Based on the available data, the penis of the ancestral amniotes was made of connective tissue and the incorporation of smooth muscle in the framework of the sinusoids occurred independently in mammals and Crotalus durissus. The propulsor action of the muscle retractor penis basalis was confirmed and therefore the named should be changed to musculus hemipenis propulsor.The retractor penis magnus found in Squamata has no homology to the retractor penis of mammals, although both are responsible for the retraction of the copulatory organ.

  10. Feeding ecology of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Squamata, Tropiduridae in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil Ecologia alimentar de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Sauria, Tropiduridae em duas áreas com diferentes níveis de conservação na Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. G. de Carvalho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effects of habitat disturbance on the feeding ecology of two local populations of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 in restinga habitats on Ilha da Marambaia, Southeastern Brazil. Both populations presented a relatively diverse diet and differ in the number (D Max = 0.22, DF = 2, p = 0.00 and volume of prey consumed (D Max = 0.82, DF = 2, p = 0.00. Ants were the most frequent and numerous preys in both areas, and plant matter and coleopterans were the most important alimentary items in volume. The population from the disturbed area presented a larger niche breadth for number of prey items consumed (Bi num = 3.06 and volume (Bi vol = 2.98, when compared to the other population (Bj num = 2.44, Bj vol = 1.52. Niche overlap was higher for number of items consumed between the populations (Oij num = 0.82 but lower for volume (Oij vol = 0.05. Our data suggest dietary differences between the two lizard populations, and these differences may be associated with environmental modifications. Our main hypothesis to explain the dietary differences is based in the Optimal Foraging Theory. However, the alimentary behavior, and consequently the diet of these lizards, seems to be constrained phylogenetically, with a pattern that may have evolved in the ancestor of all iguanids.Comparamos os efeitos da degradação ambiental sobre a ecologia alimentar de duas populações de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 em áreas de restinga da Ilha da Marambaia, sudeste do Brasil. Ambas as populações apresentaram dieta relativamente diversa e deferiram em número (D Max = 0,22; DF = 2; p = 0,00 e volume de presas consumidas (D Max = 0,82; DF = 2; p = 0,00. Formigas foram os itens mais freqüentes e numerosos em ambas as áreas, e material vegetal e coleópteros os mais importantes em volume. A população da área perturbada apresentou maior largura de nicho alimentar para número de presas consumidas (Bi num = 3,06 e volume (Bi vol = 2,98, quando comparada à outra população (Bj num = 2,44; Bj vol = 1,52. A sobreposição de nicho foi mais marcante para o número de itens consumidos entre as populações (Oij num = 0,82 e menos marcante para volume (Oij vol = 0,05. Nossos dados sugerem diferenças nas dietas entre as duas populações de lagartos, e estas diferenças parecem estar associadas à degradação ambiental. Nossa principal hipótese para explicar as diferenças nas dietas embasa-se na Teoria do Forrageamento Ótimo. Entretanto, o comportamento alimentar, e conseqüentemente a dieta dos lagartos, mostrarem-se limitadas filogeneticamente, com um padrão que pode ter evoluído no ancestral de todos os iguanídeos.

  11. 吉林桦甸盆地中始新世端生齿鬣蜥类(有鳞目)化石及对响蜥属的评述%ACRODONT IGUANIANS(SQUAMATA)FROM THE MIDDLE EOCENE OF THE HUADIAN BASIN OF JILIN PROVINCE,CHINA,WITH A CRITIQUE OF THE TAXON"TINOSAURUS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krister T.SMITH; Stehan F.K.SCHAAL; 孙巍; 李春田

    2011-01-01

    中国吉林省中始新世桦甸组的两种端生齿鬣蜥类化石突显出端生齿类(Acrodonta)在第三纪早期的分化.第一种化石的特征为具有多个(6个)前侧生齿位及单尖且侧扁的颊齿.其牙齿与牙齿缺失附尖的主要端生齿类(如鬣蜥亚科Agaminae的海蜥属Hydrosaurus)无特别相似之处,其亲缘关系也并不清楚.第二种的牙齿与很多现生有三尖齿的鬣蜥类(即蜡皮蜥属Leiolepis和飞蜥亚科Draconinae)以及化石响蜥属的许多种相似;一个骨骼特征显示其可能与包括鬣蜥亚科、海蜥属、飞蜘亚科和须鬣蜥亚科(Amphibolurinae)的支系有关,但尚需更多更完整的标本以做结论.与现生鬣蜥类的比较研究表明,与响蜥属牙齿相似的三尖型齿很可能是蜡皮蜥属及飞蜥亚科中大约200个现生种的典型特征.相对于这些支系,响蜥属的鉴定特征并不充分.由于端生齿类的分化被认为始于新生代早期,因而东亚的化石材料很可能有助于阐明这一支系的演化历史,尤其是结合分子遗传学的研究方法.然而仅基于破碎颌骨材料的新分类单元名称的成倍增加并不能使我们更接近这一目标,尽力采集标本并研究可对比的现生骨骼材料应是第一位的.%Two acrodont iguanians from the middle Eocene Huadian Formation,Jilin Province,China,highlight the diversity of Acrodonta early in the Tertiary.The first is characterized by a high number (six)of anterior pleurodont tooth loci and by unicuspid,labiolingually compressed cheek teeth.These teeth,however,show no special similarity to those of major acrodontan clades in which the accessory cusps are absent(e.g.,Hydrosaurus,Agaminae).Its relationships are poorly constrained.The dentilion of the second(axon is similar to that of a number of living tricuspid agamids(viz.,Leiolepis and Draconinae)and species of the fossil(axon nnosaurus;one osteological feature suggests it may be related to a clade including Agaminae,Hydrosaurinae,Draconinae and Amphibolurinae,but more numerous and complete specimens are required before conclusions are drawn.A comparative examination of living agamids demonstrates that tricuspid teeth similar to those of Tinosaurus spp.are probably characteristic of some 200 living species in Leiolepis and Draconinae.Tinosaums is inadequately diagnosed with respect to these clades.Because Acrodonta is thought to have been diversifying in the early Cenozoic,fossils from eastern Asia have great potential to elucidate the evolutionary history of the clade,particularly in combination with molecular-genetic methods.However,the multiplication of new taxon names based only on jaw fragments brings us no closer to this goal.Considerable effort must first be dedicated to the collection and study of modem comparative skeletal material.

  12. Fauna reptiliana do norte da grande Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales de Lema

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the preliminary results of two years of herpetogeographic studies in the region called «Grande Porto Alegre» at its northern portion. The physiognomy shows, at North, slopes of the Brazilian Southern Plateau, more or less forested in a general view; these elevations graãuálly decrease to the South until the levei of the sea to Atlantic littoral by the eastern border, and to Rio Grande do Sul savanah, which extends to Uruguay and Argentina. The biota is transitional from the highland prairies and forests of the plateau to lowland prairies of the pampas. Three faunistic Provinces are included: Guarani, Pampean, and Tupi. The most conspicuous dispersion is shown by the taxa proceeding from the plateau to savanah (Dispersion Centre Guarani; the pampean species occur in low percentage (Dispersion Centre Uruguay, and an inappreciable account of Tupi fauna (Dispersion Centre of «Serra do Mar». The new records are: presence of Chironius pyrrhopogon, Hydrodynastes gigas, Bothrops neuwiedi para-naensis, Micrurus corallinus; intergradation zone of Guarani and Pampean geographic roces; and new taxa of snakes, which will be described brieflly. The systematic composition presents: Chelonia, 4 (3 Chelidae, 1 Testudinidae; Sauria, 10 (1 Gekkonidae, 2 Iguanidae, 1 Anguidae, 3 Teiidae, 3 Amphisbaenidae; Serpentes, 45 (35 Colubridae, 4 Elapidae, 6 Viperidae; Crocodylia (1 Crocodylidae.

  13. Integration of molecules and new fossils supports a Triassic origin for Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, and tuatara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, tuatara) is a globally distributed and ecologically important group of over 9,000 reptile species. The earliest fossil records are currently restricted to the Late Triassic and often dated to 227 million years ago (Mya). As these early records include taxa that are relatively derived in their morphology (e.g. Brachyrhinodon), an earlier unknown history of Lepidosauria is implied. However, molecular age estimates for Lepidosauria have been problematic; dates for the most recent common ancestor of all lepidosaurs range between approximately 226 and 289 Mya whereas estimates for crown-group Squamata (lizards and snakes) vary more dramatically: 179 to 294 Mya. This uncertainty restricts inferences regarding the patterns of diversification and evolution of Lepidosauria as a whole. Results Here we report on a rhynchocephalian fossil from the Middle Triassic of Germany (Vellberg) that represents the oldest known record of a lepidosaur from anywhere in the world. Reliably dated to 238–240 Mya, this material is about 12 million years older than previously known lepidosaur records and is older than some but not all molecular clock estimates for the origin of lepidosaurs. Using RAG1 sequence data from 76 extant taxa and the new fossil specimens two of several calibrations, we estimate that the most recent common ancestor of Lepidosauria lived at least 242 Mya (238–249.5), and crown-group Squamata originated around 193 Mya (176–213). Conclusion A Early/Middle Triassic date for the origin of Lepidosauria disagrees with previous estimates deep within the Permian and suggests the group evolved as part of the faunal recovery after the end-Permain mass extinction as the climate became more humid. Our origin time for crown-group Squamata coincides with shifts towards warmer climates and dramatic changes in fauna and flora. Most major subclades within Squamata originated in the Cretaceous postdating major continental fragmentation. The

  14. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758): registro de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Cupul Magaña, Fabio Germán; García de Quevedo-Machain, Rafael; Tovar-Ramos, Jorge Alfredo; Curiel-Beltrán, Jesús Aarón

    2014-01-01

    Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae) o iguana verde de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012), con talla (punta del hocico a punta de la cola) de 43 cm y peso de 60 g. El ejemplar fue capturado por el tercer autor durante la última semana de septiembre del 2012 sobre la rama de un árbol de guamuchilillo, Pithecellobium lanceolatum (Willd.) Benth., en las inmediaciones de la zona centro de la mancha urbana de Puerto Va...

  15. First report of the male of Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) from a field-collected host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Terrassini, Flávio A; Camargo, Luís Marcelo A

    2005-11-01

    An adult male of the tick Amblyomma rotundatum Koch was collected on a naturally infested lizard, Tropidurus sp. (Squamata: Tropiduridae), at Monte Negro, State of Rondonia, Brazil. The tick's identity was confirmed morphologically and by analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA. This is the third known male specimen of A. rotundatum, a species that has been shown to reproduce exclusively by parthenogenesis. The two previously reported male specimens seemed to be partially teratological or gynandromorphic, whereas the present specimen shows no visible genetic or developmental anomaly.

  16. Estudio del placentoma de poblaciones de mabuya con énfasis en el análisis de células invasoras

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Samper Simón Halcón; Romero de Pérez Gloria

    2007-01-01

    La viviparidad es un evento que se ha identificado en más de 1.200 especies de reptiles del orden Squamata. Las lagartijas del Nuevo Mundo pertenecientes al género Mabuya tienen el nivel de placentotrofía más especializado que se conozca hasta el momento, presentando una alantoplacenta Tipo IV. Ésta se caracteriza por tener una serie de especializaciones muy similares a las que se encuentran en mamíferos euterianos. Una de ellas es el placentoma, una estructura que se ubica en el polo embrion...

  17. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  18. Molecular evolution of HoxA13 and the multiple origins of limbless morphologies in amphibians and reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E. Singarete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental processes and their results, morphological characters, are inherited through transmission of genes regulating development. While there is ample evidence that cis-regulatory elements tend to be modular, with sequence segments dedicated to different roles, the situation for proteins is less clear, being particularly complex for transcription factors with multiple functions. Some motifs mediating protein-protein interactions may be exclusive to particular developmental roles, but it is also possible that motifs are mostly shared among different processes. Here we focus on HoxA13, a protein essential for limb development. We asked whether the HoxA13 amino acid sequence evolved similarly in three limbless clades: Gymnophiona, Amphisbaenia and Serpentes. We explored variation in ω (dN/dS using a maximum-likelihood framework and HoxA13sequences from 47 species. Comparisons of evolutionary models provided low ω global values and no evidence that HoxA13 experienced relaxed selection in limbless clades. Branch-site models failed to detect evidence for positive selection acting on any site along branches of Amphisbaena and Gymnophiona, while three sites were identified in Serpentes. Examination of alignments did not reveal consistent sequence differences between limbed and limbless species. We conclude that HoxA13 has no modules exclusive to limb development, which may be explained by its involvement in multiple developmental processes.

  19. Molecular evolution of HoxA13 and the multiple origins of limbless morphologies in amphibians and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singarete, Marina E.; Grizante, Mariana B.; Milograna, Sarah R.; Nery, Mariana F.; Kin, Koryu; Wagner, Günter P.; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Developmental processes and their results, morphological characters, are inherited through transmission of genes regulating development. While there is ample evidence that cis-regulatory elements tend to be modular, with sequence segments dedicated to different roles, the situation for proteins is less clear, being particularly complex for transcription factors with multiple functions. Some motifs mediating protein-protein interactions may be exclusive to particular developmental roles, but it is also possible that motifs are mostly shared among different processes. Here we focus on HoxA13, a protein essential for limb development. We asked whether the HoxA13 amino acid sequence evolved similarly in three limbless clades: Gymnophiona, Amphisbaenia and Serpentes. We explored variation in ω (dN/dS) using a maximum-likelihood framework and HoxA13sequences from 47 species. Comparisons of evolutionary models provided low ω global values and no evidence that HoxA13 experienced relaxed selection in limbless clades. Branch-site models failed to detect evidence for positive selection acting on any site along branches of Amphisbaena and Gymnophiona, while three sites were identified in Serpentes. Examination of alignments did not reveal consistent sequence differences between limbed and limbless species. We conclude that HoxA13 has no modules exclusive to limb development, which may be explained by its involvement in multiple developmental processes. PMID:26500429

  20. Los reptiles escamosos del Plioceno de la costa atlántica entre Mar del Plata y Miramar, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina The Pliocene squamate reptiles of the Atlantic coast between Mar del Plata and Miramar, Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Brizuela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen restos fósiles de teidos y anfisbenas recuperados de sedimentos pliocépliocénicos de la costa bonaerense, entre Mar del Plata y Miramar. Entre estos restos se incluyen especímenes previamente citados y otros pertenecientes a colecciones antiguas. Se documenta la presencia del género Tupinambis en el Chapadmalalense superior y el Marplatense (subpiso/subedad Vorohuense. La especie extinta, "T. onyxodon" Kraglievich 1947 es considerada inválida, mientras que citas de T. merianae son reevaluadas como de Tupinambis sp.. Restos de Amphisbaena sp. son identificados en el Chapadmalalense superior, representando el registro más temprano, hasta el momento, de un Amphisbaenia en América del Sur..Teiid and amphisbaenian reptiles from Pliocene beds along the coast of the Buenos Aires province, between Mar del Plata and Miramar, are described. They include previously listed remains as well as unreported material belonging to old collections. They document the presence of the teiid genus Tupinambis in Upper Chapadmalalan and Marplatan (Vorohuan units. The extinct species "T. onyxodon" Kraglievich 1947 is considered invalid herein; also, previous cites of T. merianae are reevaluated as Tupinambis sp.. Remains of the amphisbaenid Amphisbaena sp. are identified in Upper Chapadmalal beds; they represent so far the earliest record of amphisbaenians in South America..

  1. A gravid lizard from the Cretaceous of China and the early history of squamate viviparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Evans, Susan E.

    2011-09-01

    Although viviparity is most often associated with mammals, roughly one fifth of extant squamate reptiles give birth to live young. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the trait evolved more than 100 times within Squamata, a frequency greater than that of all other vertebrate clades combined. However, there is debate as to the antiquity of the trait and, until now, the only direct fossil evidence of squamate viviparity was in Late Cretaceous mosasauroids, specialised marine lizards without modern equivalents. Here, we document viviparity in a specimen of a more generalised lizard, Yabeinosaurus, from the Early Cretaceous of China. The gravid female contains more than 15 young at a level of skeletal development corresponding to that of late embryos of living viviparous lizards. This specimen documents the first occurrence of viviparity in a fossil reptile that was largely terrestrial in life, and extends the temporal distribution of the trait in squamates by at least 30 Ma. As Yabeinosaurus occupies a relatively basal position within crown-group squamates, it suggests that the anatomical and physiological preconditions for viviparity arose early within Squamata.

  2. A new hypothesis of squamate evolutionary relationships from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Ted M.; Larson, Allan; Louis, Edward; Macey, J. Robert

    2004-05-19

    Squamate reptiles serve as model systems for evolutionary studies of a variety of morphological and behavioral traits, and phylogeny is crucial to many generalizations derived from such studies. Specifically, the traditional dichotomy between Iguania and Scleroglossa has been correlated with major evolutionary shifts within Squamata. We present a molecular phylogenetic study of squamates using DNA sequence data from the nuclear genes RAG-1 and c-mos and the mitochondrial ND2 region, sampling all major clades and most major subclades. Monophyly of Iguania, Anguimorpha, and almost all currently recognized squamate families is strongly supported. However, monophyly is rejected for Scleroglossa, Varanoidea, and several other higher taxa, and Iguania is highly nested within Squamata. Limblessness evolved independently in snakes, dibamids, and amphisbaenians, suggesting widespread morphological convergence or parallelism in limbless, burrowing forms. Amphisbaenians are the sister group of lacertids, and snakes are grouped with iguanians and anguimorphs. Dibamids diverged early in squamate evolutionary history. Xantusiidae is the sister taxon of Cordylidae. Studies of functional tongue morphology and feeding mode have found significant differences between Scleroglossa and Iguania, and our finding of a nonmonophyletic Scleroglossa and a highly nested Iguania suggest that similar states evolved separately in Sphenodon and Iguania, and that jaw prehension is the ancestral feeding mode in squamates.

  3. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  4. Conservation of chromosomes syntenic with avian autosomes in squamate reptiles revealed by comparative chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorná, Martina; Giovannotti, Massimo; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Caputo, Vincenzo; Olmo, Ettore; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Rens, Willem

    2012-08-01

    In contrast to mammals, birds exhibit a slow rate of chromosomal evolution. It is not clear whether high chromosome conservation is an evolutionary novelty of birds or was inherited from an earlier avian ancestor. The evolutionary conservatism of macrochromosomes between birds and turtles supports the latter possibility; however, the rate of chromosomal evolution is largely unknown in other sauropsids. In squamates, we previously reported strong conservatism of the chromosomes syntenic with the avian Z, which could reflect a peculiarity of this part of the genome. The chromosome 1 of iguanians and snakes is largely syntenic with chromosomes 3, 5 and 7 of the avian ancestral karyotype. In this project, we used comparative chromosome painting to determine how widely this synteny is conserved across nine families covering most of the main lineages of Squamata. The results suggest that the association of the avian ancestral chromosomes 3, 5 and 7 can be dated back to at least the early Jurassic and could be an ancestral characteristic for Unidentata (Serpentes, Iguania, Anguimorpha, Laterata and Scinciformata). In Squamata chromosome conservatism therefore also holds for the parts of the genome which are homologous to bird autosomes, and following on from this, a slow rate of chromosomal evolution could be a common characteristic of all sauropsids. The large evolutionary stasis in chromosome organization in birds therefore seems to be inherited from their ancestors, and it is particularly striking in comparison with mammals, probably the only major tetrapod lineage with an increased rate of chromosomal rearrangements as a whole.

  5. Genomic V exons from whole genome shotgun data in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, D N; von Haeften, B; Sánchez-Espinel, C; Faro, J; Gambón-Deza, F

    2014-08-01

    Reptiles and mammals diverged over 300 million years ago, creating two parallel evolutionary lineages amongst terrestrial vertebrates. In reptiles, two main evolutionary lines emerged: one gave rise to Squamata, while the other gave rise to Testudines, Crocodylia, and Aves. In this study, we determined the genomic variable (V) exons from whole genome shotgun sequencing (WGS) data in reptiles corresponding to the three main immunoglobulin (IG) loci and the four main T cell receptor (TR) loci. We show that Squamata lack the TRG and TRD genes, and snakes lack the IGKV genes. In representative species of Testudines and Crocodylia, the seven major IG and TR loci are maintained. As in mammals, genes of the IG loci can be grouped into well-defined IMGT clans through a multi-species phylogenetic analysis. We show that the reptilian IGHV and IGLV genes are distributed amongst the established mammalian clans, while their IGKV genes are found within a single clan, nearly exclusive from the mammalian sequences. The reptilian and mammalian TRAV genes cluster into six common evolutionary clades (since IMGT clans have not been defined for TR). In contrast, the reptilian TRBV genes cluster into three clades, which have few mammalian members. In this locus, the V exon sequences from mammals appear to have undergone different evolutionary diversification processes that occurred outside these shared reptilian clans. These sequences can be obtained in a freely available public repository (http://vgenerepertoire.org).

  6. On the evolution of arterial vascular patterns of tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C G

    2011-11-01

    The factors that explain the diverse arrangement of the major arteries of tetrapods are not known. Here, I aim to illuminate some of the underpinnings of these patterns. I review the variation in the sauropsid left, right, and dorsal aortae regarding the origin of the gastrointestinal blood vessels and the relative diameters of left and right aortae where they join together to form the dorsal aorta. I focus on these features because the quality of blood that flows through these aortae can vary depending on the state of cardiac shunting and the size of the vessel can provide insight into the quantity of blood borne by the vessels. I then place the information in a phyletic, historical, and ecological context. The plesiomorphic pattern is for the gastrointestinal vessels to arise as segmental arteries from the dorsal aorta, which is formed from the confluence of left and right aortae with similar diameters. The pattern is well conserved with only two major variations. First, in several clades of reptiles (testudines, crocodilians, lizards of the genera Varanus and Hydrosaurus) a substantial portion of the gastrointestinal arteries arises from the left aorta, leaving the diameter of the left aorta smaller than the right at their confluence. I hypothesize that this vascular arrangement facilitates growth by allowing more alkaline blood to flow to the somatic (body wall) and appendicular circulations, which may promote bone deposition and inhibit resorption, whereas hypercapnic, acidic blood flows to the digestive viscera, which may provide CO(2) as a substrate for the synthesis of gastric acid, bicarbonate, fatty acids, glutamine, purine rings, as well as glucose from lactate. Second, in some snakes and lizards with snake-like body forms, such as Amphisbaenidae, the diameters of left and right aortae are asymmetrical at their confluence with the left aorta exceeding the right, but in members of the amphibian order Gymnophiona the right generally exceeds the left. This

  7. Mass extinction of lizards and snakes at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrich, Nicholas R.; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S.; Gauthier, Jacques A.

    2012-12-01

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary is marked by a major mass extinction, yet this event is thought to have had little effect on the diversity of lizards and snakes (Squamata). A revision of fossil squamates from the Maastrichtian and Paleocene of North America shows that lizards and snakes suffered a devastating mass extinction coinciding with the Chicxulub asteroid impact. Species-level extinction was 83%, and the K-Pg event resulted in the elimination of many lizard groups and a dramatic decrease in morphological disparity. Survival was associated with small body size and perhaps large geographic range. The recovery was prolonged; diversity did not approach Cretaceous levels until 10 My after the extinction, and resulted in a dramatic change in faunal composition. The squamate fossil record shows that the end-Cretaceous mass extinction was far more severe than previously believed, and underscores the role played by mass extinctions in driving diversification.

  8. Nasal mites of the subfamily Speleognathinae (Ereynetidae) from birds in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, D B; Casto, S D

    1976-06-01

    Nasal mites of the subfamily Speleognathinae were recovered from several species of birds in Texas. New host records include Ophthalmophagus striatus (Crossley) 1952 from Columbigallina passerina, Boydaia clarki Fain 1963 from Callipepla squamata, Boydaia falconis Fain 1956 from Falco sparverius, and Boydaia tyrannus Ford 1959 from Myiarchus cinerascens. Also recovered was Astrida coccyzae Pence 1972 from Coccyzus americanus. Boydaia pheucticola sp. n. from Pheucticus melanocephalus is described. It differs from similar species in the adult female by having the coxal setae formula 2-1-2-0, sensillae clavate but not globose or subglobose, and interior seta on coxa I reduced in size but not vestigial. The larva is differentiated by the modified legs II with one long recurved hooklike claw and a shorter curved claw.

  9. Histology of the Skin of Three Limbless Squamates Dwelling in Mesic and Arid Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed A; Daza, Juan D; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha E

    2016-07-01

    The skin of limbless squamates has an increased contact with the substrate compared with limbed counterparts. Comparatively, the contact with the substrate is intensified in fossorial species, where the whole circumference of the body interacts with the soil during underground locomotion. Although fossoriality in Squamata, specifically lizards and snakes, has been studied ecologically and morphologically (e.g., osteological changes), not enough detail is yet available regarding changes in organs critical for underground lifestyle such as the skin. Here we used histological and microscopical techniques (scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) to uncover the structural detail of the epidermis and dermis in three limbless reptiles, the amphisbaenian Diplometopon zarudnyi, and two snakes, Indotyphlops braminus (Typhlopidae) and Cerastes cerastes (Viperidae). The skin of these taxa shows pronounced morphological diversity, which is likely associated to different environmental and functional demands upon these reptiles. Anat Rec, 299:979-989, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

    2004-12-01

    A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America.

  11. Tribological Analysis of Ventral Scale Structure in a Python Regius in Relation to Laser Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-aal, Hisham A

    2013-01-01

    Laser Texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a Laser Textured Surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to...

  12. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Silva, W; Oliveira, R M; Gonzaga, A F N; Pinto, K C; Poli, F C; Bilce, T M; Penhacek, M; Wronski, L; Martins, J X; Junqueira, T G; Cesca, L C C; Guimarães, V Y; Pinheiro, R D

    2015-08-01

    The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity.

  13. A new species of insular Rock Gecko (Genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) from the Bidong Archipelago, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Ahmad, Amirrudin B; Sumarli, Alexandra S-I; Vazquez, Jessika J; Ismail, Lukman H B; Nance, Ronald; Mohd-Amin, Muhammad Afif B; Othman, Mohamad N A B; Rizaijessika, Syed A; Kuss, Maria; Murdoch, Matthew; Cobos, Anthony

    2014-01-24

    A new insular species Cnemaspis bidongensis sp. nov. (Squamata: Gekkonidae), is described from Pulau Bidong, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia and bears a unique suite of morphological and color pattern characters that differentiate it from all other congeners. Cnemaspis bidongensis sp. nov. is the sister species to C. kendallii (Gray) and represents the fifth insular endemic species of Cnemaspis on archipelagos along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This species survived massive deforestation of the small island of Bidong (260 ha) from the mid 1970s to the early 1990s when the island served as a Vietnamese refugee camp and harbored as many as 40,000 people at one time. We hypothesize that this species' generalized lifestyle contributed to its survival, allowing it to seek refuge in rocky microhabitats.

  14. Functional studies of the placenta of the lizard Mabuya sp. (Scincidae) using immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, F B P; Ramirez-Pinilla, M P; Forhead, A S

    2010-08-01

    Most lizards lay eggs. However viviparity has evolved in the Squamata on many separate occasions by the process of extended retention of the egg coincident with gradual loss of the eggshell. This process is linked to reduction of the amount of yolk which is coupled with development of placental nutrient transfer. The family Scincidae currently show a range of multiple independent origins of viviparity and placentation along this pathway, and the genus Mabuya shows one of the most structurally complex placentas. This study investigates the transport potential of the different areas of the Mabuya placenta using immunocytochemistry to localize the systems in place for calcium, glucose and water transfer. The localization of these transporters demonstrated restricted distributions in the specialized areas of this morphologically complex placenta.

  15. Distribuição altitudinal e simpatria das aves do gênero Drymophila Swainson (Passeriformes, Thamnophilidae na Mata Atlântica Elevational distribution and sympatry of birds of the genus Drymophila Swainson (Passeriformes, Thamnophilidae in the Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Rajão

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram descritas e analisadas as distribuições altitudinais das seis espécies de Drymophila Swainson, 1824, endêmicas da Mata Atlântica e identificados e discutidos os casos de simpatria. Para isso, foram usados dois conjuntos de dados, um em escala local (a Serra dos Órgãos, um segmento da Serra do Mar no Estado do Rio de Janeiro e outro em escala regional (Mata Atlântica. Os registros e as altitudes na Serra dos Órgãos foram obtidos diretamente no campo enquanto que os dados da Mata Atlântica foram obtidos principalmente a partir de exemplares depositados em museus de história natural. Os dois conjuntos de dados mostraram um padrão similar de distribuição altitudinal das espécies: D. squamata (Lichtenstein, 1823 e D. ferruginea (Temminck, 1822 nas menores altitudes, D. malura (Temminck, 1825, D. ochropyga (Hellmayr, 1906 e D. rubricollis (Bertoni, 1901 com limites altitudinais semelhantes entre si e intermediários em relação às demais espécies e D. genei (Filippi, 1847, restrita às maiores altitudes. A maior parte das localidades na Mata Atlântica e pontos de observação na Serra dos Órgãos apresenta apenas uma ou duas espécies. Isso sugere que, embora possam ocorrer nas mesmas áreas ou localidades, as espécies tendem a se excluir. Drymophila squamata e D. malura foram as espécies que menos vezes ocorreram em simpatria proporcionalmente, nas duas escalas de análise. A simpatria entre as espécies irmãs D. ochropyga-D. genei e D. ferruginea-D. rubricollis ocorreu em localidades nas Serras do Mar e da Mantiqueira, sempre em faixas altitudinais estreitas, nunca superiores a 300 m de intervalo.The elevational distribution of Atlantic forest Drymophila Swainson, 1824 was analyzed and sympatry cases were identified and discussed. Two data sets were used, one with local scale data (a portion of Serra do Mar called Serra dos Órgãos, in Rio de Janeiro state and other with regional scale data (Atlantic forest. The Serra

  16. Mass extinction of lizards and snakes at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrich, Nicholas R.; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S.; Gauthier, Jacques A.

    2012-01-01

    The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary is marked by a major mass extinction, yet this event is thought to have had little effect on the diversity of lizards and snakes (Squamata). A revision of fossil squamates from the Maastrichtian and Paleocene of North America shows that lizards and snakes suffered a devastating mass extinction coinciding with the Chicxulub asteroid impact. Species-level extinction was 83%, and the K-Pg event resulted in the elimination of many lizard groups and a dramatic decrease in morphological disparity. Survival was associated with small body size and perhaps large geographic range. The recovery was prolonged; diversity did not approach Cretaceous levels until 10 My after the extinction, and resulted in a dramatic change in faunal composition. The squamate fossil record shows that the end-Cretaceous mass extinction was far more severe than previously believed, and underscores the role played by mass extinctions in driving diversification. PMID:23236177

  17. Mass extinction of lizards and snakes at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrich, Nicholas R; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2012-12-26

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary is marked by a major mass extinction, yet this event is thought to have had little effect on the diversity of lizards and snakes (Squamata). A revision of fossil squamates from the Maastrichtian and Paleocene of North America shows that lizards and snakes suffered a devastating mass extinction coinciding with the Chicxulub asteroid impact. Species-level extinction was 83%, and the K-Pg event resulted in the elimination of many lizard groups and a dramatic decrease in morphological disparity. Survival was associated with small body size and perhaps large geographic range. The recovery was prolonged; diversity did not approach Cretaceous levels until 10 My after the extinction, and resulted in a dramatic change in faunal composition. The squamate fossil record shows that the end-Cretaceous mass extinction was far more severe than previously believed, and underscores the role played by mass extinctions in driving diversification.

  18. Preliminary disease surveillance in west Texas quail (galliformes: odontophoridae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Kristyn N; Gibson, Anna G; Dabbert, C Brad; Presley, Steven M

    2013-04-01

    Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata) occur throughout northwestern Texas and overall population numbers have been declining for the past 30 yr. This decline has been attributed to habitat loss associated with intensive agricultural practices. We propose that disease may be a contributing factor to decline. Our findings suggest that West Nile virus (WNV) infection may be common in wild quail populations on the Rolling Plains of northwestern Texas. Serum samples (n=301) from wild-caught Northern Bobwhite and Scaled Quail were collected during 2008-10 from seven private properties across the Rolling Plains Region; 5.3% had detectable antibodies against WNV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to WNV in Scaled Quail and wild-caught Northern Bobwhite from the Rolling Plains of Texas.

  19. Molecular characterization of insulin from squamate reptiles reveals sequence diversity and possible adaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Genki; Yoshida, Ayaka; Kobayashi, Aya; Park, Min Kyun

    2016-01-01

    The Squamata are the most adaptive and prosperous group among ectothermic amniotes, reptiles, due to their species-richness and geographically wide habitat. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying their prosperity remain largely unknown, unique features have been reported from hormones that regulate energy metabolism. Insulin, a central anabolic hormone, is one such hormone, as its roles and effectiveness in regulation of blood glucose levels remain to be examined in squamates. In the present study, cDNAs coding for insulin were isolated from multiple species that represent various groups of squamates. The deduced amino acid sequences showed a high degree of divergence, with four lineages showing obviously higher number of amino acid substitutions than most of vertebrates, from teleosts to mammals. Among 18 sites presented to comprise the two receptor binding surfaces (one with 12 sites and the other with 6 sites), substitutions were observed in 13 sites. Among them was the substitution of HisB10, which results in the loss of the ability to hexamerize. Furthermore, three of these substitutions were reported to increase mitogenicity in human analogues. These substitutions were also reported from insulin of hystricomorph rodents and agnathan fishes, whose mitogenic potency have been shown to be increased. The estimated value of the non-synonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratio (ω) for the Squamata clade was larger than those of the other reptiles and aves. Even higher values were estimated for several lineages among squamates. These results, together with the regulatory mechanisms of digestion and nutrient assimilation in squamates, suggested a possible adaptive process through the molecular evolution of squamate INS. Further studies on the roles of insulin, in relation to the physiological and ecological traits of squamate species, will provide an insight into the molecular mechanisms that have led to the adaptivity and prosperity of squamates.

  20. Food web structure of the epibenthic and infaunal invertebrates on the Catalan slope (NW Mediterranean): Evidence from δ 13C and δ 15N analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, E.; Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Rumolo, P.; Brunet, C.; Sprovieri, M.

    2011-01-01

    The food-web structure of the epibenthic and infaunal invertebrates on the continental slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic basin, NW Mediterranean) was investigated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes on a total of 34 species, and HPLC pigment analyses for three key species. Samples were collected close to Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula), between 650 and 800 m depth and between February 2007 and February 2008. Mean δ 13C values ranged from -21.0‰ (small Calocaris macandreae and Amphipholis squamata) to -14.5‰ ( Sipunculus norvegicus). Values of δ 15N ranged from 4.0‰ ( A. squamata) to 12.1‰ ( Molpadia musculus). The stable isotope ratios of benthic fauna displayed a continuum of values (e.g. δ 15N range of 8‰), confirming a wide spectrum of feeding strategies (from active suspension feeders to predators) and complex food webs. According to the available information on diets of benthic fauna, the lowest values were found for surface deposit feeders (small C. macandrae and the two ophiuroids A. squamata and Amphiura chiajei) and active suspension feeders ( Abra longicallus and Scalpellum scalpellum) feeding on different sizes of particulate organic matter (POM), among which small particles may exhibit lower δ 15N. High annual mean δ 15N values were found among sub-surface deposit feeders, exploiting refractory or frequently recycled organic matter that is enriched in δ 15N. Carnivorous polychaetes ( Nephtys spp., Oenonidae and Polynoidae) and large decapods ( Geryon longipes and Paromola cuvieri) also displayed high δ 15N values. δ 13C ranges were particularly wide among surface deposit feeders (ranging from -21.0‰ to -16.4‰), suggesting exploitation of POM of both terrigenous and oceanic origins. Correlation between δ 13C and δ 15N was generally weak, indicating multiple carbon sources, likely due to the consumption of different kinds of sinking particles (e.g. marine snow, phytodetritus, etc.), sedimented and frequently recycled POM

  1. Incidence, causes and consequences of pregnancy failure in viviparous lizards: implications for research and conservation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Kelly M; Cree, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Research on the causes of pregnancy failure in vertebrates has historically been mammal-focussed. However, live-birth (viviparity) has evolved multiple times, and is present in all other vertebrate taxa except Aves and Agnatha. Viviparous lizards (O. Squamata, excluding snakes and amphisbaenians) provide a valuable experimental group when studying major evolutionary events and some are also species of high conservation value. Consequently, both researchers and herpetoculturists often require high reproductive output from captive-held lizards. We reviewed the literature to determine potential or known causes of pregnancy failure for captive lizards. Pregnancy success across species averages approximately 86%, but varies extensively and does not appear to be related to embryonic stage when brought into captivity or level of placentation. Causes of pregnancy failure also vary among species, but correct thermal environments are vital to success, and providing adequate nutrition before vitellogenesis increases the number of viable offspring. A coordinated sequence of hormonal changes involving both pro-pregnancy and pro-labour factors is important for successful pregnancies, although uncertainty remains around the maternal concentrations of corticosterone that allow successful development. Several research areas commonly studied in mammals have yet to be explored or fully addressed in pregnant lizards, including impacts of toxins, parasites, UV light and nutritional quality. As viviparity has evolved over 100 times in lizards, and many different levels of placentation exist, pregnant lizards provide valuable models for studies in ecology and evolution and offer a useful comparison for studies on other viviparous vertebrates.

  2. Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

  3. Adaptation to life in aeolian sand: how the sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus, prevents sand particles from entering its lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihar, Boštjan; Günther, Mathias; Huemer, Michaela; Riedl, Martin; Shamiyeh, Stephanie; Mayrhofer, Bernhard; Böhme, Wolfgang; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus (Squamata: Scincidae), spends nearly its whole life in aeolian sand and only comes to the surface for foraging, defecating and mating. It is not yet understood how the animal can respire without sand particles entering its respiratory organs when buried under thick layers of sand. In this work, we integrated biological studies, computational calculations and physical experiments to understand this phenomenon. We present a 3D model of the upper respiratory system based on a detailed histological analysis. A 3D-printed version of this model was used in combination with characteristic ventilation patterns for computational calculations and fluid mechanics experiments. By calculating the velocity field, we identified a sharp decrease in velocity in the anterior part of the nasal cavity where mucus and cilia are present. The experiments with the 3D-printed model validate the calculations: particles, if present, were found only in the same area as suggested by the calculations. We postulate that the sandfish has an aerodynamic filtering system; more specifically, that the characteristic morphology of the respiratory channel coupled with specific ventilation patterns prevent particles from entering the lungs. PMID:27852763

  4. Jaw adductor muscles across lepidosaurs: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Juan Diego; Diogo, Rui; Johnston, Peter; Abdala, Virginia

    2011-10-01

    The exact homologies of tetrapod jaw muscles remain unresolved, and this provides a barrier for phylogenetic analysis and tracing character evolution. Here, lepidosaur jaw muscles are surveyed using direct examination of species from 23 families and published descriptions of species from 10 families. A revised nomenclature is applied according to proposed homologies with Latimeria. Among lepidosaurs, variation was found in many aspects of jaw muscle anatomy. The superficial layers mm. levator and retractor anguli oris (LAO and RAO) are present in Sphenodon but not all squamates. The external jaw adductor muscles universally present in lepidosaurs are homologous with the main adductor muscle, A2, of Latimeria and include four layers: superficialis (A2-SUP), medialis (A2-M), profundus (A2-PRO), and posterior (A2-PVM). The A2-SUP appears divided in Agamidae, Gekkota, Xantusiidae, and Varanidae. The A2-M is layered lateromedial in lizards but anteroposterior in snakes. The names pseudotemporalis (PS) and pterygomandibularis (PTM) are recommended for subdivisions of the internal adductors of reptiles and amphibians, because the homology of this muscle with the A3' and A3 ″ of Latimeria remains inconclusive. The intramandibularis of lepidosaurs and Latimeria (A-ω) are homologous. The distribution of six jaw muscle characters was found to plot more parsimoniously on phylogenies based on morphological rather than and molecular data. Character mapping indicates that Squamata presents reduction in the divisions of the A2-M, Scincoidea presents reduction or loss of LAO, and two apomorphic features are found for the Gekkota.

  5. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  6. Characterization of pituitary growth hormone and its receptor in the green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Carranza, Martha; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) has been studied in most vertebrate groups; however, only a few studies have been carried out in reptiles. Little is known about pituitary hormones in the order Squamata, to which the green iguana (gi) belongs. In this work, we characterized the hypophysis of Iguana iguana morphologically. The somatotrophs (round cells of 7.6-10 μm containing 250- to 300-nm secretory granules where the giGH is stored) were found, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, exclusively in the caudal lobe of the pars distalis, whereas the lactotrophs were distributed only in the rostral lobe. A pituitary giGH-like protein was obtained by immuno-affinity chromatography employing a heterologous antibody against chicken GH. giGH showed molecular heterogeneity (22, 44, and 88 kDa by SDS-PAGE/Western blot under non-reducing conditions and at least four charge variants (pIs 6.2, 6.5, 6.9, 7.4) by isoelectric focusing. The pituitary giGH cDNA (1016 bp), amplified by PCR and RACE, encodes a pre-hormone of 218 aa, of which 190 aa correspond to the mature protein and 28 aa to the signal peptide. The giGH receptor cDNA was also partially sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the amino acid sequences of giGH and giGHR homologs in vertebrates suggest a parallel evolution and functional relationship between the GH and its receptor.

  7. Clutch size in the tropical scincid lizard Emoia sanfordi, a species endemic to the Vanuatu Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison Madeline; Eckstut, Mallory Elizabeth; Klein, Elaine Renee; Austin, Christopher Cowell

    2008-08-01

    The majority of species in the scincid genus Emoia (Squamata: Scincidae) have a fixed clutch size of two eggs per clutch and produce between two and four clutches per year. One lineage within Emoia, the Emoia samoensis species group, consists of 13 species occurring in Melanesia and the islands of the southwestern Pacific Ocean, and exhibits variation in clutch size, with previously reported clutch sizes of two to five eggs. Little is known about reproduction in several members of this lineage including Emoia sanfordi, a large-bodied lizard endemic to the archipelago of Vanuatu in the South Pacific. We analyzed reproduction and clutch size in E. sanfordi females and discovered that there is a substantial amount of intraspecific variation, with clutch size ranging from two to seven eggs, with a modal clutch size of five eggs. Females were reproductively active throughout the study period of June through October and appear to be laying multiple clutches. The variation in clutch size seen in E. sanfordi is congruent with the variation previously reported within other closely related species.

  8. Karyotypic evolution in squamate reptiles: comparative gene mapping revealed highly conserved linkage homology between the butterfly lizard (Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata, Agamidae, Lacertilia) and the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata, Colubridae, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsubara, Kazumi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Thongpan, Amara; Suputtitada, Saowanee; Apisitwanich, Somsak; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    The butterfly lizard (Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata) has the diploid chromosome number of 2n = 36, comprising two distinctive components, macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. To clarify the conserved linkage homology between lizard and snake chromosomes and to delineate the process of karyotypic evolution in Squamata, we constructed a cytogenetic map of L. reevesii rubritaeniata with 54 functional genes and compared it with that of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (E. quadrivirgata, 2n = 36). Six pairs of the lizard macrochromosomes were homologous to eight pairs of the snake macrochromosomes. The lizard chromosomes 1, 2, 4, and 6 corresponded to the snake chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and Z, respectively. LRE3p and LRE3q showed the homology with EQU5 and EQU4, respectively, and LRE5p and LRE5q corresponded to EQU7 and EQU6, respectively. These results suggest that the genetic linkages have been highly conserved between the two species and that their karyotypic difference might be caused by the telomere-to-telomere fusion events followed by inactivation of one of two centromeres on the derived dicentric chromosomes in the lineage of L. reevesii rubritaeniata or the centric fission events of the bi-armed macrochromosomes and subsequent centromere repositioning in the lineage of E. quadrivirgata. The homology with L. reevesii rubritaeniata microchromosomes were also identified in the distal regions of EQU1p and 1q, indicating the occurrence of telomere-to-telomere fusions of microchromosomes to the p and q arms of EQU1.

  9. A revised metric for quantifying body shape in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, David C; Reynaga, Crystal M; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

    2013-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit tremendous diversity in body shape, though quantifying this variation has been challenging. In the past, researchers have used simplified metrics that either describe overall shape but reveal little about its anatomical basis or that characterize only a subset of the morphological features that contribute to shape variation. Here, we present a revised metric of body shape, the vertebrate shape index (VSI), which combines the four primary morphological components that lead to shape diversity in vertebrates: head shape, length of the second major body axis (depth or width), and shape of the precaudal and caudal regions of the vertebral column. We illustrate the usefulness of VSI on a data set of 194 species, primarily representing five major vertebrate clades: Actinopterygii, Lissamphibia, Squamata, Aves, and Mammalia. We quantify VSI diversity within each of these clades and, in the course of doing so, show how measurements of the morphological components of VSI can be obtained from radiographs, articulated skeletons, and cleared and stained specimens. We also demonstrate that head shape, secondary body axis, and vertebral characteristics are important independent contributors to body shape diversity, though their importance varies across vertebrate groups. Finally, we present a functional application of VSI to test a hypothesized relationship between body shape and the degree of axial bending associated with locomotor modes in ray-finned fishes. Altogether, our study highlights the promise VSI holds for identifying the morphological variation underlying body shape diversity as well as the selective factors driving shape evolution.

  10. Fetal Membrane Ultrastructure and Development in the Oviparous Milksnake Lampropeltis triangulum (Colubridae) with Reference to Function and Evolution in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young K; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2016-07-01

    In eggs of oviparous reptiles, fetal membranes maintain developing embryos through the exchange of respiratory gases and provision of water and calcium. As part of a survey of reptilian fetal membranes, we used scanning electron microscopy to study fetal membrane morphology in the oviparous Pueblan milksnake, Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli. The chorioallantois initially is an avascular structure lined by enlarged chorionic and allantoic epithelia. Upon vascularization, the chorionic epithelium becomes greatly attenuated, enhancing the potential for gas exchange; the allantoic epithelium also flattens. The bilaminar omphalopleure of the yolk sac lacks blood vessels, but it becomes vascularized by allantoic capillaries and transformed into an omphalallantois. Upon regression of the isolated yolk mass, this membrane is converted to chorioallantois, equipping it for gas exchange. Allantoic fluid serves as a water reservoir, and we postulate that it facilitates water uptake by establishing an osmotic gradient. Early in development, epithelia of both the chorion and the omphalopleure show apical microvilli that greatly increase the cell surface area available for water uptake. However, these features are incompatible with gas exchange and are lost as oxygen needs take precedence. A comparison of the fetal membranes to those of other squamate species (both oviparous and viviparous) reveals characteristics that are probably ancestral for snakes, some of which are plesiomorphic for Squamata. The widespread phylogenetic distribution of these features reflects their utility as adaptations that serve functional requirements of squamate embryos.

  11. Diversification in the Mexican horned lizard Phrynosoma orbiculare across a dynamic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Robert W; García-Vázquez, Uri Omar; Riddle, Brett R

    2012-01-01

    The widespread montane Mexican horned lizard Phrynosoma orbiculare (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) represents an ideal species to investigate the relative impacts of Neogene vicariance and Quaternary climate change on lineage diversification across the Mexican highlands. We used mitochondrial DNA to examine the maternal history of P. orbiculare and estimate the timing and tempo of lineage diversification. Based on our results, we inferred 11 geographically structured, well supported mitochondrial lineages within this species, suggesting P. orbiculare represents a species complex. Six divergences between lineages likely occurred during the Late Miocene and Pliocene, and four splits probably happened during the Pleistocene. Diversification rate appeared relatively constant through time. Spatial and temporal divergences between lineages of P. orbiculare and co-distributed taxa suggest that a distinct period of uplifting of the Transvolcanic Belt around 7.5-3 million years ago broadly impacted diversification in taxa associated with this mountain range. To the north, several river drainages acting as filter barriers differentially subdivided co-distributed highland taxa through time. Diversification patterns observed in P. orbiculare provide additional insight into the mechanisms that impacted differentiation of highland taxa across the complex Mexican highlands.

  12. Evolutionary diversification of the lizard genus Bassiana (Scincidae across Southern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Dubey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relatively recent (Plio-Pleistocene climatic variations had strong impacts on the fauna and flora of temperate-zone North America and Europe; genetic analyses suggest that many lineages were restricted to unglaciated refuges during this time, and have expanded their ranges since then. Temperate-zone Australia experienced less severe glaciation, suggesting that patterns of genetic structure among species may reflect older (aridity-driven divergence events rather than Plio-Pleistocene (thermally-mediated divergences. The lizard genus Bassiana (Squamata, Scincidae contains three species that occur across a wide area of southern Australia (including Tasmania, rendering them ideally-suited to studies on the impact of past climatic fluctuations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed molecular phylogenetic and dating analyses using two partial mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4 of 97 samples of Bassiana spp. Our results reveal a pattern of diversification beginning in the Middle Miocene, with intraspecific diversification arising from 5.7 to 1.7 million years ago in the Upper Miocene-Lower Pleistocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to the temperate-zone Northern Hemisphere biota, patterns of evolutionary diversification within southern Australian taxa appear to reflect geologically ancient events, mostly relating to east-west discontinuities imposed by aridity rather than (as is the case in Europe and North America relatively recent recolonisation of northern regions from unglaciated refugia to the south.

  13. Elucidating the phylogenetic position of Gnathostomulida and first mitochondrial genomes of Gnathostomulida, Gastrotricha and Polycladida (Platyhelminthes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, Anja; Tobergte, Sarah; Struck, Torsten H

    2015-05-01

    Gnathostomulida is a taxon of small marine worms, which exclusively inhabit the interstitium. The evolution of Gnathostomulida has been discussed for decades. Originally regarded as primitive animals with affinities to flatworms, the phylogenetic position of Gnathostomulida has been debated. Given the lack of an anus a close relationship to Platyhelminthes has been maintained (i.e., Plathelminthomorpha hypothesis). Alternative hypotheses proposed Gnathostomulida as being close to Gastrotricha due to the presence of a monociliary epidermis (i.e., Monokonta/Neotrichozoa hypothesis) or to Syndermata based on the complicated jaw apparatus (i.e., Gnathifera hypothesis). Molecular analyses using only few genes were inconclusive. Recent phylogenomic studies brought some progress by placing Gnathostomulida as sister to Syndermata, but support for this relationship was low and depended on the analytical strategy. Herein we present the first data of complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genomes for two gnathostomulids (Gnathostomula paradoxa &G. armata), one gastrotrich (Lepidodermella squamata) and one polyclad flatworm (Stylochoplana maculata) to address the uncertain phylogenetic affinity of Gnathostomulida. Our analyses found Gnathostomulida as sister to Syndermata (Gnathifera hypothesis). Thorough sensitivity analyses addressing taxon instability, branch length heterogeneity (also known as long branch attraction) and base composition heterogeneity showed that the position of Gnathostomulida is consistent across the different analyses and, hence, independent of potential misleading biases. Moreover, by ameliorating these different biases nodal support values could be increased to maximum values. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that the different jaw apparatuses of Syndermata and Gnathostomulida are indeed homologous structures as proposed by the Gnathifera hypothesis.

  14. New host records for Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) from Grussaí restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lúcio André; Winck, Gisele Regina; Almeida-Santos, Marlon; Telles, Felipe Bottona da Silva; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Amblyomma rotundatum Koch is a parthenogenetic tick usually associated with reptiles and amphibians. However, relatively few studies on occurrences of ticks in wild reptile populations in Brazil have been produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of ticks associated with reptile species in the Grussaí restinga, in the municipality of São João da Barra, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between December 2010 and January 2011, 131 individuals belonging to nine species of reptiles of the order Squamata were sampled: the lizards Tropidurus torquatus (n = 51), Hemidactylus mabouia (n = 25), Mabuya agilis (n = 30), Mabuya macrorhyncha (n = 6), Cnemidophorus littoralis (n = 5) and Ameiva ameiva (n = 10); and the snakes Philodryas olfersii (n = 2), Oxyrhopus rhombifer (n = 1) and Micrurus corallinus (n = 1). The only tick species found to be associated with any of the reptiles sampled was A. rotundatum. One adult female was detected on one individual of the lizard A. ameiva, one nymph on one individual of the lizard T. torquatus and four nymphs on one individual of the snake P. olfersii. This study is the first record of parasitism of A. rotundatum involving the reptiles T. torquatus and P. olfersii as hosts. Our results suggest that in the Grussaí restinga habitat, A. rotundatum may use different species of reptiles to complete its life cycle.

  15. Observations on the sexual segment of the kidney of snakes with emphasis on ultrastructure in the yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Rheubert, Justin L; Gautreaux, Jillian; Hill, Toren G; Freeborn, Layla R

    2012-05-01

    The sexual segment of the kidney (SSK) is an accessory sex structure in male lizards and snakes (Squamata). We describe histology of the SSK in 12 species of snakes, including one from the basal Scolecophidia, Leptotyphlops dulcis, and from the more advanced Alethinophidia, species from the Acrochordidae (Acrochordus granulatus), Homalopsidae (Cerberus rynchops), Uropeltidae (Teretrurus sanguineus), and eight species from the Elapidae, including six species of sea snakes. We also describe the ultrastructure of the SSK of the sea snake, Pelamis platurus. The SSK of L. dulcis does not include the ureter but does include distal convoluted tubules (DCTs) and collecting ducts. In all other snakes examined, the SSK is limited to the DCTs and does not differ in histology by any consistent character. We found apparently mature individuals of several species with inactive SSKs. Hypertrophied SSKs give positive reactions for protein secretions but variable reactions for carbohydrates. Ultrastructure of the SSK of P. platurus reveals nuclei situated medially in the epithelium and mature electron dense secretory vacuoles in other areas of the cytoplasm. Product release is apocrine. Junctional complexes only occur at the luminal border, and intercellular canaliculi become widened and are open basally. No cytologically unique characters occur in the SSK of P. platurus. The ancestral condition of the SSK in squamates is the presence of simple columnar epithelium specialized for secretion of a protein + carbohydrate product that matures and is released seasonally.

  16. Adaptation to life in aeolian sand: how the sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus, prevents sand particles from entering its lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Anna T; Vihar, Boštjan; Günther, Mathias; Huemer, Michaela; Riedl, Martin; Shamiyeh, Stephanie; Mayrhofer, Bernhard; Böhme, Wolfgang; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-11-15

    The sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus (Squamata: Scincidae), spends nearly its whole life in aeolian sand and only comes to the surface for foraging, defecating and mating. It is not yet understood how the animal can respire without sand particles entering its respiratory organs when buried under thick layers of sand. In this work, we integrated biological studies, computational calculations and physical experiments to understand this phenomenon. We present a 3D model of the upper respiratory system based on a detailed histological analysis. A 3D-printed version of this model was used in combination with characteristic ventilation patterns for computational calculations and fluid mechanics experiments. By calculating the velocity field, we identified a sharp decrease in velocity in the anterior part of the nasal cavity where mucus and cilia are present. The experiments with the 3D-printed model validate the calculations: particles, if present, were found only in the same area as suggested by the calculations. We postulate that the sandfish has an aerodynamic filtering system; more specifically, that the characteristic morphology of the respiratory channel coupled with specific ventilation patterns prevent particles from entering the lungs.

  17. Identification of echinoderms (Echinodermata) from an anchialine cave in Cozumel Island, Mexico, using DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bribiesca-Contreras, Guadalupe; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    The echinoderm species richness of the Aerolito de Paraiso anchialine cave, on Cozumel Island, in the Mexican Caribbean, is assessed on the basis of morphological and DNA barcoding data. We included specimens from this cave system and from different open sea areas, and employed two different approaches for species delineation based on DNA barcoding data: a 2% cox1 divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) approaches. We subsequently compared the results derived from these approaches with our morphospecies discrimination. A total of 188 cox1 sequences belonging to specimens of four echinoderm classes were examined. The 2% cox1 divergence and GMYC approaches recovered 78 and 70 putative species, respectively, 24 and 22 of which corresponded to specimens from the anchialine system. Of 26 echinoderm species identified in the cave system, seven appear to be endemic to it. Among these are Copidaster carvenicola Solís-Marín & Laguarda-Figueras, 2010, two morphologically distinctive, undescribed species belonging to Asterinides and Ophionereis and four probably cryptic undescribed species originally assigned to Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1839), Astropecten duplicatus Gray, 1840, Copidaster lymani (AH Clark, 1948) and Ophiothrix angulata (Say, 1825). Further research and protection of this particularly fragile ecosystem becomes urgent because construction of tourism developments is planned nearby.

  18. Análises morfométricas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis (Annelida: Spionidae no litoral do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Características morfológicas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis De Blainville, 1828 foram analisadas utilizando-se análise morfométrica com o ojetivo foi avaliar se essas espécies podem ser discriminadas através da utilização de dados morfométricos. Além disso, foram fornecidos novos caracteres que possam ser utilizados para uma reavaliação da taxonomia do gênero. A análise baseada nas variáveis canônicas revelou que S. chilensis, S. goodbodyi e S. squamata são mais similares entre si, quanto a forma, do que com S. acuta. Os caracteres mais significativos para a discriminação das quatro espécies foram o comprimento da brânquia, o comprimento da base do palpo até o vigésimo setígero, o comprimento e a largura do prostômio e a largura e o comprimento do setígero 5 e 20. Destes, destacam-se o formato das brânquias e do prostômio, pois vem sendo utilizados como caracteres diagnósticos em estudos taxonômicos do gênero.

  19. Fitossociologia de uma área de cerrado denso na RECOR-IBGE, Brasília-DF Phytosociology of an area of "cerrado denso" at the RECOR-IBGE, Brasília-DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Z. Andrade

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi amostrada uma área de 10ha de cerrado denso da RECOR-IBGE, Brasília-DF. Nesta foram estabelecidas parcelas experimentais de um projeto para o estudo do efeito do fogo na vegetação do cerrado com um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Este levantamento foi efetuado antes da aplicação dos tratamentos visando conhecer a composição florística e estrutura da vegetação original. Foram incluídos todos os indivíduos lenhosos e aqueles não-lenhosos pertencentes à família Velloziaceae, com diâmetro mínimo de 5cm, presentes em cinco parcelas de 1000m². Foram medidas as alturas e os diâmetros a 30cm do solo de cada indivíduo. Ao todo foram amostrados 982 indivíduos, pertencentes a 63 espécies e a 34 famílias. Cerca de 47% das famílias foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Apenas 16 espécies foram comuns a todas as cinco parcelas. A diversidade da área foi alta (H'= 3,53 e a similaridade entre as parcelas segundo índice de Sørensen foi também alta. As espécies Sclerolobium paniculatum, Eremanthus glomerulatus, Schefflera macrocarpum, Ouratea hexasperma, Vochysia thyrsoidea, Guapira noxia, Caryocar brasiliense, Vellozia squamata, Qualea grandiflora e Emmotum nitens apresentaram os maiores valores de importância. As estimativas de densidade e de área basal por hectare foram de 1964 indivíduos e 13,28m², respectivamente. A diversidade foi equivalente a de outras áreas de cerrado sensu stricto na região, mas a densidade e a área basal foram mais elevadas.This survey was conducted within a randomized block experiment set up in the RECOR - DF aiming to study the effect of fire in the cerrado. The sampling was conducted prior to the application of any treatments to assess the original status of the cerrado denso (dense savanna woodland at the site. All woody individuals plus non-woody Velloziaceae over 5cm diameter were included in the sample which consisted of five 1000m² (20 x 50m plots. Height and diameter at 30

  20. REPTILES DEL BOSQUE SECO ESTACIONAL EN EL CARIBE COLOMBIANO: DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LOS HÁBITATS Y DEL RECURSO ALIMENTARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Rojas Murcia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar la distribución horizontal (repartición de los hábitats y la utilización del recurso alimentario (tipo y tamaño de las presas del ensamblaje de reptiles del bosque seco estacional al norte de la región Caribe de Colombia, en el departamento del Cesar, se realizaron cinco salidas de campo con una duración de doce días cada una. Los muestreos se realizaron en jornadas diurnas y nocturnas, en un diseño de transectos replicados a lo largo de diferentes hábitats que incluyeron: pastizales, bordes e interiores de bosque. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos de uso de hábitat en un perfil de vegetación por cada época climática y análisis de amplitud y sobreposición de nicho. Se registraron 38 especies de 14 familias del orden Squamata. Las especies se distribuyeron de manera homogénea entre zonas abiertas y boscosas. Se encontraron registros de 31 categorías de presa en 109 estómagos de seis especies de serpientes (61 estómagos y siete de lagartos (48 estómagos con un porcentaje de estómagos vacíos de 38 %. Las presas de mayor importancia para los lagartos fueron Coleoptera y Araneae, y para las serpientes fueron los anfibios. La mayoría de las especies presentaron un amplio espectro de dieta y entre especies similares, como entre Anolis auratus y A. gaigei, se presentó uso de recursos similares. En síntesis, el ensamblaje de reptiles presentó una distribución homogénea en los hábitats evaluados (áreas abiertas y boscosas y el recurso alimentario fue variado entre las diferentes especies; la estacionalidad de la zona presenta un papel fundamental en la estructura del ensamblaje de reptiles, presentándose menos abundancia durante la época seca, tanto en las áreas abiertas como en las boscosas.Reptiles from the Seasonal Dry Forest the Caribbean Region: Distribution of Habitat and use of Food ResourceABSTRACTWe assessed the horizontal distribution and use of the food resource of the reptile

  1. New host records for Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae from Grussaí restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Novos registros de hospedeiros para Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae da restinga de Grussaí, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio André Viana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma rotundatum Koch is a parthenogenetic tick usually associated with reptiles and amphibians. However, relatively few studies on occurrences of ticks in wild reptile populations in Brazil have been produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of ticks associated with reptile species in the Grussaí restinga, in the municipality of São João da Barra, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between December 2010 and January 2011, 131 individuals belonging to nine species of reptiles of the order Squamata were sampled: the lizards Tropidurus torquatus (n = 51, Hemidactylus mabouia (n = 25, Mabuya agilis (n = 30, Mabuya macrorhyncha (n = 6, Cnemidophorus littoralis (n = 5 and Ameiva ameiva (n = 10; and the snakes Philodryas olfersii (n = 2, Oxyrhopus rhombifer (n = 1 and Micrurus corallinus (n = 1. The only tick species found to be associated with any of the reptiles sampled was A. rotundatum. One adult female was detected on one individual of the lizard A. ameiva, one nymph on one individual of the lizard T. torquatus and four nymphs on one individual of the snake P. olfersii. This study is the first record of parasitism of A. rotundatum involving the reptiles T. torquatus and P. olfersii as hosts. Our results suggest that in the Grussaí restinga habitat, A. rotundatum may use different species of reptiles to complete its life cycle.Amblyomma rotundatum Koch é um carrapato partenogenético geralmente associado a répteis e anfíbios. Entretanto existem relativamente poucos estudos sobre a ocorrência de carrapatos em populações silvestres de répteis no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a presença de carrapatos associados às espécies de répteis em uma comunidade na restinga de Grussaí, município de São João da Barra, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Foram amostradas, entre os meses de dezembro de 2010 e janeiro de 2011, 131 indivíduos pertencentes a nove espécies de répteis da ordem Squamata: lagartos

  2. Effects of luteectomy in early pregnancy on the maintenance of gestation and plasma progesterone concentrations in the viviparous temperate lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Fierros Leticia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that the corpus luteum is the principal source of progesterone during the gravidity period in reptiles; however, its participation in the maintenance of gestation in the viviparous squamata is in dispute. The effects of ovariectomy or luteectomy vary according to the species and the time at which the procedure is performed. In this paper, we describe the effects of luteectomy during early pregnancy on the maintenance of gestation and progesterone concentrations in the temperate Mexican viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata. Methods Twenty-four lizards were subjected to three different treatments: luteectomy, sham luteectomy or non-surgical treatment, and blood samples were obtained before and after surgical treatment at different stages of gestation to determine the effects of luteectomy on the maintenance of gestation and progesterone concentrations. Results Spontaneous abortion was not observed in any of the females. However, luteectomy provoked abnormal parturition and a significant reduction in the number of young born alive. Parturition was normal in untreated females as well as those submitted to sham luteectomy. The surgical treatment also caused a significant reduction in progesterone concentrations in luteectomised females during early and middle gestation. However, no significant differences in hormone concentrations were observed among the three groups during late gestation or immediately post-parturition. Conclusions Our observations indicate that the presence of the corpus luteum is not necesary for the maintenance of gestation, but that it does participate in parturition control. Moreover, the corpus luteum of the viviparous lizard B. i. imbricata produces progesterone, at least during the first half of pregnancy, and that an extra-ovarian source of progesterone must maintain gestation in the absence of luteal tissue.

  3. Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus Mitochondrial Population Genomics Reveals Structure, Divergence, and Evidence for Heteroplasmy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A Halley

    (Callipepla squamata as being explanatory factors for the two bobwhite maternal lineages observed. Instead, our analyses support the supposition that two diverged maternal lineages have survived from pre-expansion to post-expansion population(s, with the segregation of some slightly deleterious nonsynonymous mutations.

  4. Prey type and foraging ecology of Sanderlings Calidris alba in different climate zones: are tropical areas more favourable than temperate sites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Grond

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanderlings (Calidris alba are long-distance migratory shorebirds with a non-breeding range that spans temperate and tropical coastal habitats. Breeding in the High Arctic combined with non-breeding seasons in the tropics necessitate long migrations, which are energetically demanding. On an annual basis, the higher energy expenditures during migration might pay off if food availability in the tropics is higher than at temperate latitudes. We compared foraging behaviour of birds at a north temperate and a tropical non-breeding site in the Netherlands and Ghana, respectively. In both cases the birds used similar habitats (open beaches, and experienced similar periods of daylight, which enabled us to compare food abundance and availability, and behavioural time budgets and food intake. During the non-breeding season, Sanderlings in the Netherlands spent 79% of their day foraging; in Ghana birds spent only 38% of the daytime period foraging and the largest proportion of their time resting (58%. The main prey item in the Netherlands was the soft-bodied polychaete Scolelepis squamata, while Sanderlings in Ghana fed almost exclusively on the bivalve Donax pulchellus, which they swallowed whole and crushed internally. Average availability of polychaete worms in the Netherlands was 7.4 g ash free dry mass (AFDM m−2, which was one tenth of the 77.1 g AFDM m−2 estimated for the beach in Ghana. In the tropical environment of Ghana the Sanderlings combined relatively low energy requirements with high prey intake rates (1.64 mg opposed to 0.13 mg AFDM s−1 for Ghana and the Netherlands respectively. Although this may suggest that the Ghana beaches are the most favourable environment, processing the hard-shelled bivalve (D. pulchellus which is the staple food could be costly. The large amount of daytime spent resting in Ghana may be indicative of the time needed to process the shell fragments, rather than indicate rest.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of the venom gland of the red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps using expressed sequence tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonk Freek J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps, Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae is a medically important venomous snake that inhabits South-East Asia. Although the venoms of most species of the snake genus Bungarus have been well characterized, a detailed compositional analysis of B. flaviceps is currently lacking. Results Here, we have sequenced 845 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the venom gland of a B. flaviceps. Of the transcripts, 74.8% were putative toxins; 20.6% were cellular; and 4.6% were unknown. The main venom protein families identified were three-finger toxins (3FTxs, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (including chain B of β-bungarotoxin, phospholipase A2 (including chain A of β-bungarotoxin, natriuretic peptide (NP, CRISPs, and C-type lectin. Conclusion The 3FTxs were found to be the major component of the venom (39%. We found eight groups of unique 3FTxs and most of them were different from the well-characterized 3FTxs. We found three groups of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (SPIs; one group was comparable to the classical SPIs and the other two groups to chain B of β-bungarotoxins (with or without the extra cysteine based on sequence identity. The latter group may be functional equivalents of dendrotoxins in Bungarus venoms. The natriuretic peptide (NP found is the first NP for any Asian elapid, and distantly related to Australian elapid NPs. Our study identifies several unique toxins in B. flaviceps venom, which may help in understanding the evolution of venom toxins and the pathophysiological symptoms induced after envenomation.

  6. 中国爬行纲动物分类厘定%A revised taxonomy for Chinese reptiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡波; 王跃招; 陈跃英; 李家堂

    2015-01-01

    本文对中国爬行纲动物的分类体系和物种进行了系统的评估,规范了中文学名,给出了《中国爬行纲校正名录》,结果表明:中国现存爬行纲动物3目30科132属462种,其中鳄形目(Crocodylia)1科1属1种,龟鳖目(Testudines)6科18属33种,有鳞目(Squamata)蜥蜴亚目(Lacertilia) 10科41属189种,有鳞目蛇亚目(Serpentes) 13科72属239种.与《中国动物志爬行纲第一卷(总论、龟鳖目、鳄形目)》、《中国动物志爬行纲第二卷(有鳞目:蜥蜴亚目)》和《中国蛇类》相比,目和亚目无变化;科级水平新增5科,变更2科;属级水平新增23属,合并15属,变更6属;种级水平新增81种,变动2种;未收录同物异名12种、杂交6种、中国无分布7种.形态和分子系统发育研究结果在爬行动物不同分类阶元均有一定差异,文章对这些争议进行了讨论,并对名录的选择做了说明.

  7. Response of benthic macrofauna to an oil pollution: Lessons from the “Prestige” oil spill on the rocky shore of Guéthary (south of the Bay of Biscay, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castège, Iker; Milon, Emilie; Pautrizel, Françoise

    2014-08-01

    The benthic community on the rocky foreshore of Guéthary (France) has been monitored since 2002. The standardized and quantitative monitoring method counts 20 geographically referenced quadrats spread on three littoral zones: upper mediolittoral, lower mediolittoral and infralittoral zones. The setting up of this monitoring occurred when the “Prestige” sunk close to the Finistere Cape in Galicia (Spain). The oil slick following the shipwreck impacted the Guéthary foreshore in early 2003. After the “Prestige” oil spill, the taxonomic richness decreased in the studied area with a loss of 16 species - from 57 in 2002 (before the shipwreck) to 41 species in 2004. Two or 3 years later, taxonomic richness increased to a level observed prior to the oil spill. Along the years, temporal variations in community structure of benthic macrofauna are revealed by detailed analysis. Some polluo-sensitive species disappeared after 2002 and have not reappeared yet (e.g.: Hymeniacidon perlevis). Some others reappeared two or three years after the spill or even later (e.g.: Amphipholis squamata, Botryllus schlosseri, Calliostoma zizyphinum, Echinus esculentus, etc.). Noteworthy changes were found in 2004 driven by the sudden increase in abundance of grazers. The following years, these abundances went back to a stable level. The benthic community seemed to recover almost 5 years later, although a new composition of macrofauna populations was observed. In overall aspect, the complexity of the benthic ecosystem response to oil spills confirms the need of regularly updated baselines to assess the impact of pollutions and more generally to maintain marine biodiversity.

  8. Inference of the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes from comparative gene mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Uno

    Full Text Available Comparative genome analysis of non-avian reptiles and amphibians provides important clues about the process of genome evolution in tetrapods. However, there is still only limited information available on the genome structures of these organisms. Consequently, the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes in tetrapods remain poorly understood. We constructed chromosome maps of functional genes for the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis, the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis, and the Western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis and compared them with genome and/or chromosome maps of other tetrapod species (salamander, lizard, snake, chicken, and human. This is the first report on the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes inferred from comparative genomic analysis of vertebrates, which cover all major non-avian reptilian taxa (Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines. The eight largest macrochromosomes of the turtle and chicken were equivalent, and 11 linkage groups had also remained intact in the crocodile. Linkage groups of the chicken macrochromosomes were also highly conserved in X. tropicalis, two squamates, and the salamander, but not in human. Chicken microchromosomal linkages were conserved in the squamates, which have fewer microchromosomes than chicken, and also in Xenopus and the salamander, which both lack microchromosomes; in the latter, the chicken microchromosomal segments have been integrated into macrochromosomes. Our present findings open up the possibility that the ancestral amniotes and tetrapods had at least 10 large genetic linkage groups and many microchromosomes, which corresponded to the chicken macro- and microchromosomes, respectively. The turtle and chicken might retain the microchromosomes of the amniote protokaryotype almost intact. The decrease in number and/or disappearance of microchromosomes by repeated

  9. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph D; Gutzwiller, Kevin J; Barrow, Wylie C; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-06-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes.

  10. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph D.; Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes.

  11. TREE RING-BASED SUMMER TEMPERATURE RECONSTRUCTION OVER THE PAST 200 YEARS IN MIYALUO OF WESTERN SICHUAN,CHINA%利用树木年轮宽度资料重建川西米亚罗地区过去200年夏季温度的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗善; 刘国华; 傅伯杰; 张齐兵; 胡婵娟; 罗淑政

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have previously been conducted in Western Sichuan and demonstrated the fidelity of tree-ring records to dendroclimatological research. However, climate variability of this region during past centuries still remains difficult to depict clearly, mainly due to the paucity of the high-resolution paleoclimatic evidence. Using tree-width data of Sabina squamata in Milyaluo, Western Sichuan of China, our objectives are to determine the main climate responses in diameter growth and seek to understand the regional climate variability within this ecological complex area.The study area(31.4° ~31.92°N, 102. 58° ~103.07°E) is situated in Miyaluo forest zone,in the watershed of Zagunao River( one of the major tributaries of the upper Min River). The sample site (31.63'N, 102.96°E) of S. squamata in this study is located in Jiabigou country. In total, we collected 45 cores from 45 living trees of S. squamata in a treeline site(3750m above sea level)at the southern slope side. Samples were dated and processed using basic dendrochronological techniques. A total of 38 increment cores were eventually crossdated and selected for chronology development, whereas seven poor quality cores( not cross-datable at the 99% significant level)were excluded from further analysis. Several statistics were used to identify common patterns of interannual growth variability ,and correlation and response function analyses were used to determine the basic response patterns of radial growth to climate.The result was a robust standard chronology( from 1785 to 2009 A. D. )with strong signal strength back to 1810 A. D., and with variability retained at the multi-decadal scale. Correlation and response analysis revealed that tree growth at this site was mostly governed by temperature in summer( June to July), and temperature from winter to early spring( prior December to current March)played a secondary role in explaining the climate related variance in ring records. In contrast

  12. 茶园黑刺粉虱和茶叶甲成虫与其捕食性天敌之间的关系%Relationships between Aleurocantus spiniferus Quaintance and Demotina fasciculata Baly and Their Predatory Natural Enemies in Tea Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭骅; 周夏芝; 毕守东; 邹运鼎; 杨林; 柯胜兵; 施晓丽; 林源; 柯磊

    2013-01-01

    为了保护和利用天敌综合防治茶园害虫,首先,比较“平阳特早”茶园季节间害虫及其天敌的种群差异,结果表明,2010年春夏与秋冬之间,黑刺粉虱、茶叶甲、异色瓢虫、三突花蟹蛛、鳞纹肖蛸、粽管巢蛛、草间小黑蛛、斜纹猫蛛、龟纹瓢虫和八斑球腹蛛的t值均小于t0.05 (2.13),差异不显著.并采用灰色系统和生态位分析法,对2010年春夏季茶园2种害虫与其天敌在数量、时间、空间等方面关系进行分析,2010年春夏季黑刺粉虱的主要天敌是鳞纹肖蛸、三突花蟹蛛和八斑球腹蛛;茶叶甲的主要天敌是龟纹瓢虫、异色瓢虫和草间小黑蛛;2010年秋冬季黑刺粉虱的主要天敌是鳞纹肖蛸、三突花蟹蛛和斜纹猫蛛.茶叶甲的是异色瓢虫、三突花蟹蛛和龟纹瓢虫.黑刺粉虱(2010年4月24日)的种群聚集均数λ大于2,其聚集是本身特性造成的,2个时间段所有天敌的λ值都小于2,其聚集是环境中某一因素所致.%In order to conserve and utilize natural enemies for comprehensive control of pests in tea garden,the seasonal variations of population quantities of two pests and their natural enemies in "Ping yang te zao" tea garden were investigated systematically.The results of a paired t-testing showed that the t values of eight natural enemy numbers,i.e.Leis axyridis (Pallas) ; Misumenops tricuspidatus (Fabr.) ;Tetragnatha squamata (Karsch) ; Clubiona japonicola (Boes.et Str.) ; Erigonidium graminicolum (Sundevall) ; Oxyopes sertatus (L.Koch) ; Propylea japonica (Thunberg) ; Theridion octomaculatum (Boes.et Str.),were respectively 0.78,1.65,0.81,0.16,2.09,1.72,1.38 and 0.79,between the seasons of spring-summer and autumn-winter in 2010,which all were significantly lower than 2.13 (t0.05 value),indicating that there was no significant difference between numbers of two insects and their natural enemies during the two seasons of spring-summer and autumn-winter in "Ping yang

  13. Term Selecting Research on "Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany" for the Revision of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Subject Headings%《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类主题词修订选词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 刘静; 刘丽红; 董燕; 贾李蓉; 高博; 李海燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study term selecting principles and methods of subject terms in the class of"Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany"for the new edition of TCM Materia Medica Subject Headings;To provide references for the revision.Methods Based on the compiling principles, word frequency of subject headings in TCM database were used as references. MeSH was referred to establish detail rules and regulations for revision of TB class.Results In TB class, 226 subject headings were planned to delete, such as "Apocynum Linn", "Piper betle Linn", "cetacean" and"dolphins";42 subject headings were planned to add, such as "Kalimerisindica", "Actinidiaceae" and "Squamata".Conclusion This revision formulated individual revision principles, proposed solutions for common problems, and basically completed adding and deleting of TB class and frame adjustment.%目的 研究《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类(TB类)主题词选词原则与方法,为其修订提供依据.方法 基于主题词表总体编制原则,以中国中医药数据库主题词标引词频为依据,参考医学主题词表(MeSH),确立TB类主题词修订细则.结果 本次修订拟删除罗布麻属、蒌叶胡椒、鲸目、海豚等226个主题词,拟增加马兰、猕猴桃科、有鳞目等42个主题词.结论 此次修订制定了药用动植物与中药类主题词结合考量等个性化修订原则,对常见问题提出了解决方案,基本完成原TB类主题词的增删及框架的调整.

  14. Skin pattern structure and function of juvenile ages of Chameleo chameleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra A. Fouda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the skin structure of juvenile chameleon especially its sensory function of their integumentary structure. Fifteen juvenile Chameleo chameleon are collected from Abu Rawash, Northern area of Giza, Egypt during Summer of 2015. It is belong to the order Squamata, family, Chamaeleonidae. Three ages are used in the present study and categorized according to the morphological criteria of head, abdomen and limb lengths. Dorsal abdominal surfaces are covered with abdominal scales of varying sizes either conical or elliptical-structures, regularly arranged in rows and imbricated with each other. Each scale possessed one cylindrical lenticular epidermal sense organ containing heavy sensillia. Histologically, the scales are characterized by wider conical surfaces and intermingled with another one by hinge region. The epidermal layer of outer scale surface is composed of five-layered stratified squamous epithelium including the stratum germinativum, intermediate zone of stratum spinosum and granulosum, α-keratin layer, β-keratin layer and outer superficial Oberhaütchen. Melanosomes are abundant in the intermediate zone as well as in the peripheral dermal layer underneath stratum germinativum layer. The melanosomes possessed long cellular processes with their content of melanin granules underneath the epidermis. The dermis is composed of upper collagenous and inner compact layer. Semithin sections revealed the presence of fibroblast cells, collagenous fibrils, nerve axons, melanosomes and mast cells in the connective tissue core. Increased immunoreaction of cytokeratin is observed in the epidermal layers of G3; meanwhile, an increased proliferation of epidermal and dermal cells was detected in G1. Transmission electron microscopy exhibited striking formation of dermal sense organs containing neuronal cells of both oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells with myelinated and unmyelinated nerve axons ensheathed externally by thin

  15. REPTILES DEL BOSQUE SECO ESTACIONAL EN EL CARIBE COLOMBIANO: DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LOS HÁBITATS Y DEL RECURSO ALIMENTARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo ROJAS MURCIA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar la distribución horizontal (repartición de los hábitats y la utilización del recurso alimentario (tipo y tamaño de las presas del ensamblaje de reptiles del bosque seco estacional al norte de la región Caribe de Colombia, en el departamento del Cesar, se realizaron cinco salidas de campo con una duración de doce días cada una. Los muestreos se realizaron en jornadas diurnas y nocturnas, en un diseño de transectos replicados a lo largo de diferentes hábitats que incluyeron: pastizales, bordes e interiores de bosque. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos de uso de hábitat en un perfil de vegetación por cada época climática y análisis de amplitud y sobreposición de nicho. Se registraron 38 especies de 14 familias del orden Squamata . Las especies se distribuyeron de manera homogénea entre zonas abiertas y boscosas. Se encontraron registros de 31 categorías de presa en 109 estómagos de seis especies de serpientes (61 estómagos y siete de lagartos (48 estómagos con un porcentaje de estómagos vacíos de 38 %. Las presas de mayor importancia para los lagartos fueron Coleoptera y Araneae , y para las serpientes fueron los anfibios. La mayoría de las especies presentaron un amplio espectro de dieta y entre especies similares, como entre Anolis auratus y A. gaigei , se presentó uso de recursos similares. En síntesis, el ensamblaje de reptiles presentó una distribución homogénea en los hábitats evaluados (áreas abiertas y boscosas y el recurso alimentario fue variado entre las diferentes especies; la estacionalidad de la zona presenta un papel fundamental en la estructura del ensamblaje de reptiles, presentándose menos abundancia durante la época seca, tanto en las áreas abiertas como en las boscosas.

  16. Priorities for genetic resource collection and preservation of wild gymnosperms in Yunnan: an analysis based on the "3E" principle%用3E原则评价云南野生裸子植物遗传资源收集保存的优先性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天才; 龙春林

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨局部地区遗传资源优先性评价的方法和管理问题,我们采用"3E"原则对云南裸子植物进行了评价."3E"分别指珍稀濒危的(Endangered)、特有的(Endemic)和具有经济价值的(Economic)三个方面.我们首先介绍了"3E"原则的由来、内涵和价值,并应用"3E"原则,以种(变种)为分析单元,对分布于云南的10科29属107种(变种)野生裸子植物遗传资源的状况进行了分析,确定了需要优先保护的遗传资源类群.结果表明,云南省野生裸子植物资源兼有受威胁严重、特有率高、经济价值高等多种特征,如南方红豆杉(Taxus chinensis var.mairei)、灰干苏铁(Cycas hongheensis)、油麦吊云杉(Picea brachytyla var.complanata)等58种不仅受威胁严重,而且具有重要的经济价值和潜在的开发利用价值.具有"3E"特性的裸子植物遗传资源有72种,其中贡山三尖杉(Cephalotaxus lanceolata)、苏铁(Cycas revoluta)、大理罗汉松(Podocarpus forrestii)、德保苏铁(C.debaoensis)、德钦柏(Juniperus baimashanensis)、巧家五针松(Pinus squamata)、灰干苏铁、万钧柏(J.chengii)、毛枝五针松(P.wangii)等9种亟待进行抢救性保存,中甸冷杉(Abies ferreana)、绿春苏铁(C.tangingii)、麦吊杉(Picea brachytyla)、怒江冷杉(A.nukiangensis)、河内苏铁(C.tonkinensis)等40种需要优先收集和保存.保存的方式包括原地保存、异地保存、设施保存和栽培利用等综合措施.将"3E"原则应用于云南裸子植物遗传资源的管理,具有科学合理性和可操作性,对遗传资源的保护和可持续利用具有一定的参考价值.%The “3E" principle has been used to determine priorities for preservation of genetic resources in conservation and research projects. The three “E"s refer to Endangered, Endemic, and Economic. Here, we applied this principle to explore wild gymnosperm genetic resources (or germplasm resources) at the species (varieties) level occurring in

  17. 不同寒热药性海洋中药在海洋生物系统发育树的分布规律及其关联关系分析%The Distribution and Association Relationships of Marine Chinese Medicine with Different Nature in the Phylogenetic Tree of Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xianjun; 付先军; 王振国; 王长云; 李学博; 王慧美; 赵娇

    2015-01-01

    目的:海洋中药是我国中药资源宝库的重要组成部分,海洋生物资源的开发为海洋中药的发展奠定了基础,如何快速客观评价海洋中药新资源的药性已成为制约海洋中药发展和临床应用的主要瓶颈问题之一.方法:本文以613味海洋中药涉及的1 091种海洋中药物种为研究对象,采用关联规则挖掘(Association Rules Mining)和系统发育树(Phylogenetic Tree)构建方法,分析不同寒热药性海洋中药在海洋生物系统发育树上的分布规律及其关联关系.结果:不同药性的海洋中药在发育树上的分布具有很高的聚集性,来源于相同科物种的海洋中药,其药性基本也一样,很多与同一药性关联程度高的规则分布在系统发育树的同一分支中,或者在发育树上的距离非常近,如与寒性关联程度比较高的绿藻门(Chlorophyta)、红藻纲(Florideophyceae)、褐藻纲(Phaeohpyceae)等海洋植物,与热性关联程度较高的十足目(Decapoda)、软甲纲(Malacostraca)、节肢动物门(Arthropoda)等海洋动物,和平性海洋中药相关程度较高的有鳞目(Squamata)海洋鱼类.结论:以上结果提示药性和海洋生物的门纲科属等亲缘关系信息具有一定的关联关系,来源于亲缘关系相同或相近海洋生物物种的海洋中药可能会具有相同或相近的中药药性,这为海洋中药新资源的药性预测和评价提供了新的评价指标和参考依据.%Marine Chinese Medicine (MCM) is one of the important part of the traditional Chinese medicine.The exploration of marine organism resources provide a good base for the development of MCM.However,the evaluation for the nature of the new source of MCM becomes one of the key problem of the clinic application of MCM.In this study,613 MCM and their related 1 091 species of marine organisms were screened.Association Rules Mining method and Phylogenetic Tree constructing method were used to find out the association relationship

  18. Temporal variation and size class distribution in a hepertological assemblage from Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de la conservación, conocer la abundancia, la diversidad, y los patrones de actividad de un ensamble herpetológico son medulares para comprender la dinámica de la comunidad y el modo de cómo es utilizado el hábitat. En este proyecto propusimos cuatro hipótesis nulas: 1 La frecuencia de captura de cada una de las especies será similar en los dos años relevados. 2 La frecuencia de capturas de cada especie es similar durante los meses estudiados. 3 La actividad de cada especie es similar a la actividad del resto del ensamble. 4 Las proporciones de cada grupo etario de cada especie se mantienen constantes en el tiempo. Durante este estudio fueron colectadas diecinueve especies, diez especies de Amphibia distribuidas en cuatro familias y nueve especies de Squamata distribuidas en siete familias. En hábitats relativamente complicados que poseen una estructura vegetal compleja y presentan patrones de actividad herpetológica irregular, el uso de trampas de caída resulta uno de los pocos métodos eficientes para la evaluación de la actividad de animales terrestres. El uso de trampas de caída es un método efectivo para realizar inventarios herpetológicos pero los resultados deben ser tratados con precaución porque este método captura algunas especies más fácilmente que otras. Los principales resultados obtenidos por este estudio fueron: La hipótesis 1 fue rechazada, para todas las especies exceptuando a Mabuya dorsivittata, que mostró frecuencias de actividad similares en ambos años, la hipótesis 2 también fue rechazada porque todas las especies mostraron significativas diferencias de actividad temporal. Las especies más variables fueron Odontophrynus americanus y Bufo fernandezae; la más constante Pantodactylus schreibersi. La tercera hipótesis fue rechazada para todas las especies salvo Elachistocleis bicolor que presentó un patrón de actividad similar al ensamble. La hipótesis 4 fue rechazada, los

  19. Estudio del placentoma de poblaciones de mabuya con énfasis en el análisis de células invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Samper Simón Halcón

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La viviparidad es un evento que se ha identificado en más de 1.200 especies de reptiles del orden Squamata. Las lagartijas del Nuevo Mundo pertenecientes al género Mabuya tienen el nivel de placentotrofía más especializado que se conozca hasta el momento, presentando una alantoplacenta Tipo IV. Ésta se caracteriza por tener una serie de especializaciones muy similares a las que se encuentran en mamíferos euterianos. Una de ellas es el placentoma, una estructura que se ubica en el polo embrionario de la cámara de incubación, fundamental en el transporte de substancias. Por la relación del corion con el útero y la característica sincitial de este último, la placenta de poblaciones de Mabuya ha sido clasificada como sienepiteliocorial. En este estudio realizado por microscopía óptica de alta resolución y microscopía electrónica de transmisión, el placentoma de cuatro poblaciones de Mabuya sp. mostró una estructura altamente plegada, en la que participan el útero materno y las membranas extraembrionarias compuestas por el corion y el alantoides. En la lámina propia del útero están presentes glándulas de tipo acinar constituidas por
    epitelio cúbico y sin un conducto diferenciable de modo que células de la glándula delimitan una luz a través de la cual sale la secreción. Grupos de células provenientes del corion, de forma y tamaño variable, denominadas células invasivas penetran en el sincitio uterino; las proyecciones citoplasmáticas de estas células alcanzan la lamina propia. Las células invasivas no tienen un curso regular, de modo que en una sección ultrafina solo se observan parcialmente; en algunas áreas, el citoplasma es muy pobre en organelos mientras que en otras se evidencian el núcleo, lisosomas, gránulos de secreción, cisternas de RER y REL, ribosomas, aparato de Golgi y mitocondrias. Se unen por medio de desmosomas, aunque en la mayor parte de su trayectoria, las membranas están estrechamente

  20. A LONG-LIMBED LIZARD FROM THE UPPER JURASSIC/LOWER CRETACEOUS OF DAOHUGOU, NINGCHENG, NEI MONGOL, CHINA%记内蒙古宁城道虎沟上侏罗统/下白垩统一具有长肢的蜥蜴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏珊·E·埃文斯; 王原

    2009-01-01

    道虎沟化石层分布于内蒙古宁城县道虎沟以及毗邻的河北北部和辽宁西部等地,已报道4种有尾类、1个无尾类蝌蚪、1个幼年蜥蜴、3种带原始羽毛的兽脚类恐龙、2种翼龙、3种哺乳动物以及双壳类、叶肢介、昆虫和植物等化石(有学者称之为"前热河生物群").该层位比热河群义县组低,但地层划分存在争议:中侏罗统九龙山组、上侏罗统道虎沟组和下白垩统热河群均有报道.本文研究的道虎沟蜥蜴是该地点发现的第2个蜥蜴化石,其身体细长,为一幼年个体;前颌骨、顶骨和额骨均成对;上颌骨的面突高;后额骨和后眶骨不愈合;后额骨较大,但可能未进入上颢孔;后眶骨具宽的后突;牙齿小而尖锐,结构简单且可能为侧生;头骨的眶前区较长;具27个荐前椎;虽然未成年但个体较大;未见真皮骨板;手掌和四肢较长.上述特征组合区别于所有现生蜥蜴类,四肢比例也与其他蜥蜴有较大区别.欧美中侏罗世-早白垩世的小盗蜥(Parviraptor)和蒙古早白垩世的一个幼年个体(可能属于壁虎犁类)与道虎沟标本比较相似.头骨特征和较大的荐前椎数目显示道虎沟标本可能属于硬舌蜥类(scleroglos-san).但因标本为幼年个体,本文暂将它归人有鳞类属种未定(squamata gen.et sp.indet.).测量数据显示,道虎沟标本的手掌和前肢相对较长;该特征常见于适应攀爬的蜥蜴种类,似可显示攀爬习性.但肢体比例可能会随身体增长而发生变化,所以此生活习性并非定论.%Lizards are now relatively well known from the Jehol Group of northeastern China, seven taxa having been named from the group or equivalent horizons. Here we describe a lizard specimen from a fossil horizon at Daohugou of Ningcheng, Nei Mongol, which predates the Yixian Formation of the Jehol Group. This is the second lizard from this locality. Comparisons with ontogenetic series of modern lizards show that