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Sample records for amphisbaenidae squamata amphisbaenia

  1. Anatomia visceral comparada de seis espécies de Amphisbaenidae (Squamata: Amphisbaenia Comparison of visceral anatomy of six species of Amphisbaenidae (Squamata: Amphisbaenia

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    Maria Eliana C. Navega-Gonçalves

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Visceral anatomy of amphisbaenids Amphisbaena vermicularis Wagler, 1824; Anops kingii Bell, 1833; Aulura anomala Barbour, 1914; Bronia bedai Vanzolini, 1991; Cercolophia cuiabana Strüssmann & Carvalho, 2001, and Leposternon microcephalum Wagler, 1824 were comparatively described and the size and the position of the organs in the pleuroperitoneal cavity was established in relation to the ventral scutellation. The main results were: the right lung presents different degrees of size reduction compared to the left lung, being conspicuous only in A. anomala, and L. microcephalum; the limit between small and large intestines is clear due to the presence of a caecum; the right lobe of the liver is larger than the left one, but its length varies within the same species and among species; the right gonad occupies a more cranial position in relation to the left one, in all six studied species; the right ovary is also larger than the left one in all studied specimens, whereas the left testicle can be larger or of the same size as the right one in some specimens; the shape of the testicles varies from elongated, kidney-shaped or oval; kidneys are symmetrically positioned at the caudal portion of the pleuroperitoneal cavity and one kidney can be larger than the other.

  2. Sistema respiratório de Amphisbaena vermicularis e Amphisbaena microcephala (Squamata, Amphisbaenia, Amphisbaenidae)

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    Maria Eliana C. Navega-Gonçalves; José Roberto M. C. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    A morfologia macro e microscópica da traqueia e pulmões de Amphisbaena vermicularis Wagler, 1824 e Amphisbaena microcephala (Wagler, 1824), assim como a ultraestrutura das câmaras respiratórias, foram descritas pela primeira vez neste estudo. A traqueia não se ramifica e seu segmento caudal, situado entre os pulmões, foi denominado brônquio. O pulmão esquerdo é alongado, saculiforme e unicameral, com parênquima faveolar na porção cranial e trabecular, na porção caudal. Câmaras respiratórias e...

  3. Estado de conservación de la fauna de Sauria y Amphisbaenidae (Reptilia: Squamata de Uruguay

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    Carreira Vidal, Santiago

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa el estado de conservación de la fauna de Sauria y Amphisbaenia del Uruguay, basado en el índice propuesto por Reca et al. (1994, y se aplican las categorías propuestas por Ávila et al. (2000. Se analizaron en total 17 especies, de las cuales se destacan como vulnerables (V Leposternon microcephalum, Anisolepis undulatus, Tropidurus torquatus y Stenocercus azureus, representando el 23,5% de los taxones investigados. La limitación principal detectada en la utilización del índice de Reca es que, dada la carencia de información básica sobre algunas especies, los resultados deben ser re-evaluados de forma constante ante la generación de nuevos conocimientos. Based on the index proposed by Reca et al. (1994, and the categories proposed by Ávila et al. (2000, the conservation status for Sauria and Amphisbaenia from Uruguay is evaluated. Seventeen species were analized, four of them stood out as vulnerable (V Leposternon microcephalum, Anisolepis undulatus, Tropidurus torquatus and Stenocercus azureus, representing the 23.5% of the taxa. The most important constraint detected using Reca's Index, is that due to the lack of basic information about some of the species, the results should be revisited any time new knowledge arises.

  4. Ontogenetic allometry constrains cranial shape of the head-first burrowing worm lizard Cynisca leucura (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae).

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    Hipsley, Christy A; Rentinck, Marc-Nicolas; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Müller, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Amphisbaenians are fossorial, predominantly limbless squamate reptiles with distinct cranial shapes corresponding to specific burrowing behaviors. Due to their cryptic lifestyles and the scarcity of museum specimens, little is known of their intraspecific variation, particularly regarding cranial osteology. This represents a critical lack of information, because the majority of morphological investigations of squamate relationships are based on cranial characters. We investigated cranial variation in the West African Coast Worm Lizard Cynisca leucura, a round-headed member of the Amphisbaenidae. Using geometric morphometric analyses of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans, we found that cranial osteology of C. leucura is highly conserved, with the majority of shape changes occurring during growth as the cranium becomes more slender and elongate, accompanied by increasing interdigitation among the dermal roofing bones. Elements of the ventral portion of the cranium remain loosely connected in adults, possibly as a protective mechanism against repeated compression and torsion during burrow excavation. Intraspecific variation was strongly correlated with size change from juveniles to adults, indicating a dominant role of ontogenetic allometry in determining cranial shape. We found no evidence of sexual dimorphism, either during growth or among adults. Given the fossorial habits of C. leucura, we hypothesize that cranial allometry is under strong stabilizing selection to maintain adequate proportions for head-first digging, thereby constraining the ability of individuals to respond to differing selection pressures, including sexual selection and variation in diet or microhabitat. For species in which digging imposes less mechanical stress (e.g., in softer sand), allometric associations during growth may be weakened, allowing changes to the ontogenetic trajectory and subsequent morphological traits. Such developmental dissociation between size and shape, known

  5. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil.

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    Costa, Henrique C; Resende, Flávia C; Teixeira, Mauro; Dal Vechio, Francisco; Clemente, Cinara A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains. PMID:26131637

  6. Nova espécie de Bronia Gray, 1845, do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae

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    Carolina Castro-Mello

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronia saxosa, sp. n., localidade tipo UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, Estado do Tocantins, difere das demais espécies de Bronia Gray, 1865, principalmente por possuir nasais pequenas separadas pela rostral. A nova espécie possui 4 poros, 253-272 anéis corporais, 17-21 anéis caudais, 18-24/1621 segmentos em um anel no meio do corpo.Bronia saxosa, sp. n. from the state of Tocantins, Brasil, (Hydroelectric Dam Luis Eduardo Magalhães, 09°45'S, 48°21'W, a cerrado area, differs from the remainining species of the genus mainly by having small nasals scutes separated by the rostral. It has (82 specimens 4 preanal pores, 253-272 body annuli, 17-21 tail annuli and 18-24/16-21 segments to a midbody annulus.

  7. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil

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    Henrique C. Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains.

  8. Variaciones dentarias en Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae)

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    Brizuela, Santiago; Albino, Adriana M.

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen los diferentes tipos morfológicos de dientes observados en una muestra osteológica de 26 ejemplares de Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae). En el maxilar y el dentario se reconocen dientes unicuspidados y multicuspidados o romos, dentro de los cuales se aprecian subtipos que varían en el tamaño y la robustez de los dientes, la curvatura, el grado de definición de las cúspides y la compresión labiolingual. Excepcionalmente se observan dientes pentacuspidados. L...

  9. Herpetofauna of the Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil. VIII. Amphisbaena arda sp. nov., a fulliginosa-like checkered patterned Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae.

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    Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaena arda sp. nov. is described based on a specimen obtained at Mocambo do Vento, on the left bank of the São Francisco river, Bahia state, Brazil. A. arda is a medium size amphisbaenian with a checkered black and white color pattern similar to the one present in the fuliginosa group but differing from that by having a lighter pigmentation, an uniformly white ventral surface, and by several other important morphological characters. A. arda is similar to Amphisbaena vermicularis in meristic characters currently used to assist amphisbaenian identification but can be separated from it by its color pattern, its flatter cephalic shields, and by the more ventral position of the nostril.

  10. Un caso de puesta comunal en Kentropyx lagartija (Squamata: Teiidae

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    Tulli, María José

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Los casos de puestas comunales y de puestas coloniales han sido mencionados para varios grupos de Squamata (Graves y Duvall, 1995. Se define como puesta comunal a la deposición no incidental de huevos de dos o más hembras de una especie que utilizan una única cavidad (Espinoza y Lobo, 1996. En una puesta colonial, en cambio, los nidos son construidos de manera adyacente y los huevos generalmente no son depositados en la misma cavidad. Esta última estrategia de oviposición es más frecuente en aves que en lagartijas (Rand, 1967; Wiewandt, 1982; Mora, 1989; Burger, 1993; Espinoza y Lobo, 1996; Krysko et al., 2003. Entre los Teiidae sólo se conoce el caso de puesta comunal de Kentropyx calcarata (Magnusson y Lima, 1984.

  11. PENGARUH SEKS RASIO TERHADAP TINGKAT KEBERHASILAN PEMIJAHAN PADA KAWIN SILANG Haliotis asinina DENGAN Haliotis squamata

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    Rio Ary Sudarmawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Haliotis asininna dan Haliotis squamata merupakan jenis abalon yang banyak dijumpai dan dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kendala yang sering dihadapi yaitu  menentukan jumlah induk yang berujung pada rendahnya produksi benih. Upaya peningkatan kualitas benih terus dilakukan salah satunya dengan kawin silang dengan perbandingan jumlah induk yang sesuai. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui jumlah induk betina abalon yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan larva yang optimal, serta mengetahui perbedaan tingkat keberhasilan persilangan dua jenis induk. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksperimental dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap  dua faktor. Faktor pertama, jumlah induk betina (1:2, 1:3 dan 1:4. Faktor kedua, persilangan dengan dua aras yaitu H. asinina jantan dengan H. squamata betina dan H. asinina betina dengan H. squamta jantan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rasio jumlah induk tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap keberhasilan pemijahan. Namun faktor persilangan memberikan pengaruh  nyata (p<0,05 terhadap jumlah telur, tingkat pembuahan dan tingkat penetasan. Persilangan dengan induk betina H. squamata menghasilkan tingkat keberhasilan lebih tinggi dibandingakan dengan induk betina H. asinina. Kata kunci: H. asinina, H. squamata, jumlah induk, kawin silang

  12. Helminth community of scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) from western Texas.

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    Landgrebe, Jill N; Vasquez, Barbara; Bradley, Russell G; Fedynich, Alan M; Lerich, Scott P; Kinsella, John M

    2007-02-01

    Forty-eight scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) were collected during August 2002 at Elephant Mountain Wildlife Management Area in Brewster County, Texas, and examined for helminths. Eight species of helminths were found (5 nematodes and 3 cestodes), representing 2,811 individuals. Of these species, Gongylonema sp., Procyrnea pileata, and Choanotaenia infundibulum are reported from scaled quail for the first time. Prevalence of Aulonocephalus pennula, Gongylonema sp., Oxyspirura petrowi, Physaloptera sp., P. pileata, C. infundibulum, Fuhrmannetta sp., and Rhabdometra odiosa was 98, 2, 56, 4, 60, 2, 25, and 35%, respectively. Aulonocephalus pennula numerically dominated, accounting for 88% of total worms. Statistical analyses were performed on the 5 species with > or = 25% prevalence using the after-hatch-year host sample (n = 38). Prevalence of P. pileata was higher (P = 0.049) in females than in males and higher (P = 0.037) in the sample collected from the site that had spreader dams (berms 1-2 m high and 4-55 m long constructed in varying sizes to catch and retain rainfall) than the control site (no spreader dams). Higher rank mean abundance of A. pennula and O. petrowi (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0052, respectively) was found in the host sample collected from the site that had spreader dams than the control site. A host gender-by-collection site interaction (P = 0.0215) was observed for P. pileata. Findings indicate that scaled quail are acquiring indirect life cycle helminths in arid western Texas habitats. PMID:17436967

  13. PENGARUH SEKS RASIO TERHADAP TINGKAT KEBERHASILAN PEMIJAHAN PADA KAWIN SILANG Haliotis asinina DENGAN Haliotis squamata

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    Rio Ary Sudarmawan; Sitti Hilyana; Nunik Cokrowati

    2013-01-01

    Haliotis asininna dan Haliotis squamata merupakan jenis abalon yang banyak dijumpai dan dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kendala yang sering dihadapi yaitu  menentukan jumlah induk yang berujung pada rendahnya produksi benih. Upaya peningkatan kualitas benih terus dilakukan salah satunya dengan kawin silang dengan perbandingan jumlah induk yang sesuai. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui jumlah induk betina abalon yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan larva yang optimal, serta mengetahui perbedaan tin...

  14. Hydroalcoholic extracts of Vellozia squamata: study of its nanoemulsions for pharmaceutical or cosmetic applications

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    Frederico J. O. Quintão

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Some species of plants are notable for the wide range of biologically active constituents in their tissues. Chemical and pharmacological studies of Vellozia squamata Pohl, Velloziaceae, popularly known in Brasil as "canela-de-ema" are scarce, but showed the presence of di-and triterpenoid that may be of scientific interest. In the present study the hydroalcoholic extracts from leafs and stems of V. squamata were submitted to phytochemical prospection to identify the principal groups of constituents, and the antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH method. The hydroethanolic extracts presented higher antioxidant activity. Thus, nanoemulsion formulations were prepared using the method of phase inversion. Accelerated stability tests, such as heat stress and centrifugation were made, and physical and chemical properties of the nanoemulsions were established. Stable formulations were obtained from both extracts from leafs and stems. By the results was possible to establish the potential application of hydroalcoholic extracts from V. squamata in development of products with antioxidant properties and demonstrate a promising pharmaceutical product.

  15. Sclerotic Rings in Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae): Structures and Taxonomic Diversity

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    Yamashita, Momo; Konishi, Takuya; Sato, Tamaki

    2015-01-01

    Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae) were a highly diverse, globally distributed group of aquatic lizards in the Late Cretaceous (98–66 million years ago) that exhibited a high degree of adaptation to life in water. To date, despite their rich fossil record, the anatomy of complete mosasaur sclerotic rings, embedded in the sclera of the eyeball, has not been thoroughly investigated. We here describe and compare sclerotic rings of four mosasaur genera, Tylosaurus, Platecarpus, Clidastes, and Mosasaurus, for the first time. Two specimens of Tylosaurus and Platecarpus share an exact scleral ossicle arrangement, excepting the missing portion in the specimen of Platecarpus. Furthermore, the exact arrangement and the total count of 14 ossicles per ring are shared between Tylosaurus and numerous living terrestrial lizard taxa, pertaining to both Iguania and Scleroglossa. In contrast, two species of Mosasaurus share the identical count of 12 ossicles and the arrangement with each other, while no living lizard taxa share exactly the same arrangement. Such a mosaic distribution of these traits both among squamates globally and among obligatorily aquatic mosasaurs specifically suggests that neither the ossicle count nor their arrangement played major roles in the aquatic adaptation in mosasaur eyes. All the mosasaur sclerotic rings examined consistently exhibit aperture eccentricity and the scleral ossicles with gently convex outer side. Hitherto unknown to any squamate taxa, one specimen of Platecarpus unexpectedly shows a raised, concentric band of roughened surface on the inner surface of the sclerotic ring. It is possible that one or both of these latter features may have related to adaptation towards aquatic vision in mosasaurs, but further quantitative study of extant reptilian clades containing both terrestrial and aquatic taxa is critical and necessary in order to understand possible adaptive significances of such osteological features. PMID:25692667

  16. Sclerotic rings in mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae: structures and taxonomic diversity.

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    Momo Yamashita

    Full Text Available Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae were a highly diverse, globally distributed group of aquatic lizards in the Late Cretaceous (98-66 million years ago that exhibited a high degree of adaptation to life in water. To date, despite their rich fossil record, the anatomy of complete mosasaur sclerotic rings, embedded in the sclera of the eyeball, has not been thoroughly investigated. We here describe and compare sclerotic rings of four mosasaur genera, Tylosaurus, Platecarpus, Clidastes, and Mosasaurus, for the first time. Two specimens of Tylosaurus and Platecarpus share an exact scleral ossicle arrangement, excepting the missing portion in the specimen of Platecarpus. Furthermore, the exact arrangement and the total count of 14 ossicles per ring are shared between Tylosaurus and numerous living terrestrial lizard taxa, pertaining to both Iguania and Scleroglossa. In contrast, two species of Mosasaurus share the identical count of 12 ossicles and the arrangement with each other, while no living lizard taxa share exactly the same arrangement. Such a mosaic distribution of these traits both among squamates globally and among obligatorily aquatic mosasaurs specifically suggests that neither the ossicle count nor their arrangement played major roles in the aquatic adaptation in mosasaur eyes. All the mosasaur sclerotic rings examined consistently exhibit aperture eccentricity and the scleral ossicles with gently convex outer side. Hitherto unknown to any squamate taxa, one specimen of Platecarpus unexpectedly shows a raised, concentric band of roughened surface on the inner surface of the sclerotic ring. It is possible that one or both of these latter features may have related to adaptation towards aquatic vision in mosasaurs, but further quantitative study of extant reptilian clades containing both terrestrial and aquatic taxa is critical and necessary in order to understand possible adaptive significances of such osteological features.

  17. Variaciones dentarias en Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae)

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    Brizuela, Santiago; Albino, Adriana María

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen los diferentes tipos morfológicos de dientes observados en una muestra osteológica de 26 ejemplares de Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae). En el maxilar y el dentario se reconocen dientes unicuspidados y multicuspidados o romos, dentro de los cuales se aprecian subtipos que varían en el tamaño y la robustez de los dientes, la curvatura, el grado de definición de las cúspides y la compresión labiolingual. Excepcionalmente se observan dientes pentacuspidados. L...

  18. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata

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    Huang, Li-Si; He, Fei; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-yong; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2), dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediyl))bis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylene))dicarbamate (3), obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5), and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5α,6β,7β-aromadendrane (6), (−)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5β,6α,7α-aromadendrane (7), (−)-4α,10β-aromadendranediol (8), (+)-4β,10β-aromadendranediol (9) were obtained from the South China Sea gorgonian coral Melitodes squamata Nutting. ...

  19. Alteration of bioluminescence in Amphipholis squamata (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) by heavy metals contamination: a field study

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    Deheyn, D; Jangoux, M.; Warnau, M.

    2000-01-01

    The ophiuroid Amphipholis squamata (Echinodermata) is a bioluminescent species whose light production varies with physico-chemical parameters of the medium. Individuals collected in the bay of Portman along a gradient of heavy metal contamination show different patterns of light production: the ones from the highest contaminated area showing a bioluminescence weaker and slower than those from the lowest contaminated area. Individuals that were transferred for 3 days from the lowest to the hig...

  20. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata.

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    Huang, Li-Si; He, Fei; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2), dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediyl))bis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylene))dicarbamate (3), obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5), and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5α,6β,7β-aromadendrane (6), (-)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5β,6α,7α-aromadendrane (7), (-)-4α,10β-aromadendranediol (8), (+)-4β,10β-aromadendranediol (9) were obtained from the South China Sea gorgonian coral Melitodes squamata Nutting. Compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 were new, and their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 6 and 7 contained a taurine group that was rarely found in marine natural compounds, and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity. The possible biosynthesis routes of 1-5 were conjectured. PMID:22423284

  1. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata

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    Li-Si Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2, dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediylbis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylenedicarbamate (3, obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5, and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5α,6β,7β-aromadendrane (6, (−-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5β,6α,7α-aromadendrane (7, (−-4α,10β-aromadendranediol (8, (+-4β,10β-aromadendranediol (9 were obtained from the South China Sea gorgonian coral Melitodes squamata Nutting. Compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 were new, and their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 6 and 7 contained a taurine group that was rarely found in marine natural compounds, and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity. The possible biosynthesis routes of 1–5 were conjectured.

  2. Nuevos registros de squamata (reptilia para el pleistoceno superior del norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Federico Agnolin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo son reportados ejemplares de diversos taxones de reptiles escamados fósiles procedentes de la base de la Formación Luján (Pleistoceno Superior, en la localidad fosilífera de Merlo, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Entre los ejemplares registrados se reconoce el primer registro fósil para el género y especie Anops kingii (Amphisbaenidae; asimismo se reporta la presencia de especies indeterminadas de los géneros Homonota (Gekkonidae y Liolaemus (Liolaemidae. La asociación conjunta de estos tres taxones hoy en día no se encuentra representada en el norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires, siendo la región geográficamente más cercana en donde encuentran una superposición en su distribución el Partido de Balcarce, ubicado en el extremo Sureste de la provincia y alejado unos 600 kilómetros al sur de la localidad fosilífera de Merlo. La presencia conjunta de estos tres reptiles se encuentra de acuerdo con la posible existencia de un pulso árido y frío, tal como ha sido propuesto con anterioridad para porción más inferior del Pleistoceno Superior en la provincia de Buenos Aires.

  3. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

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    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic. PMID:318307

  4. Colour varieties as sibling species in the polychromatic ophiuroid Amphipholis squamata (Echinodermata): evidence from inheritance of body colour and luminescence characters

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    Deheyn, D; Jangoux, M.

    1999-01-01

    Individuals of Amphipholis squamata from two colour varieties (beige and black) that differ strongly in luminescence performance, were collected from the field and raised in aquaria through three subsequent generations. The ophiuroid is a brooding species and a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Progeny from mature isolated adults and from pairs of adults of the same or of different colour varieties were scored for their characters of body colour and luminescence. Both characters change with age of ...

  5. Type specimens of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) re-examined, with new evidence after more than a century of confusion

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    Cardwell, Michael D.; Gotte, Steve W.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Gilmore, Ned; Poindexter, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The original description of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) was published in 1861 by Robert Kennicott, who did not identify a type specimen or a type locality. We review the history of specimens purported to be the type(s) and various designations of type locality. We provide evidence that ANSP 7069 (formerly one of two specimens of USNM 5027) is the holotype and that the appropriate type locality is Fort Buchanan, near present-day Sonoita, in Santa Cruz County, Arizona.

  6. THE ENDANGERED SPECIES Aristelliger georgeensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae IN RONCADOR CAY, COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

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    Mateo LÓPEZ-VICTORIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aristelliger georgeensis, previously known to occur in the Yucatan peninsula (Mexico, the coasts and islands from Belize and Honduras, and the oceanic islands of Colombia in the Caribbean (San Andres, Providence and Saint Catalina was registered for the first time in Roncador Cay, a flat and small island of coralline origin, located in the southwest of the Caribbean. Being considered as an endangered species at the national level, the new locality for this gecko constitutes an opportunity for its conservation. Some topics regarding the possible origins of this new population are discussed. This new locality represents the eastern most documented record of this species so far.La especie amenazada Aristelliger georgeensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae en el Cayo Roncador, Caribe colombianoAristelliger georgeensis, previamente conocido de la península de Yucatán (México, las costas e islas de Belice y Honduras y de las islas oceánicas de Colombia en el Caribe (San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, fue registrado por primera vez en el Cayo Roncador, una isla plana y pequeña de origen coralino, ubicada en el suroccidente del Caribe. Siendo considerada como una especie amenazada a nivel nacional, la nueva localidad para este geco constituye una oportunidad para su conservación. Se discuten algunos tópicos relacionados con el posible origen de esta nueva población. Esta nueva localidad representa el registro documentado más al Este para la especie. 

  7. Record length, mass, and clutch size in the nonindigenous Burmese Python, Python bivittatus Kuhl 1820 (Squamata: Pythonidae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysko, Kenneth L.; Hart, Kristen M.; Smith, Brian J.; Selby, Thomas H.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Coutu, Nicholas T.; Reichart, Rebecca M.; Nuñez, Leroy P.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Snow, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    The Burmese Python, Python bivittatus Kuhl 1820 (Squamata: Pythonidae), is indigenous to northern India,east to southern China, and south to Vietnam and a few islands in Indonesia (Barker and Barker 2008, Reed and Rodda 2009). This species has been introduced since at least 1979 in southern Florida, USA, where it likely began reproducing and became established during the 1980s (Meshaka et al. 2000, Snowet al. 2007b,Kraus 2009, Krysko et al. 2011, Willson et al. 2011). Python bivittatus has been documented in Florida consuming a variety of mammals and birds, and the American Alligator(Alligator mississippiensis) (Snowet al. 2007a, 2007b; Harvey et al. 2008; Rochford et al. 2010b; Holbrook and Chesnes 2011), many of which are protected species. Herein, we provide details on two of the largest known wild P. bivittatus in Florida to date, including current records on length,mass,clutch size, and diet.

  8. Dimorfismo sexual de Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata: Teiidae en el sur del Estado de México, México Sexual dimorphism of Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata: Teiidae in the south of the State of Mexico, Mexico

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    MAGDALENA AGUILAR-MORENO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El dimorfismo sexual es una característica extendida en lacertilios y se relaciona con la adecuación de los individuos. En este estudio se analizó si Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata presenta dimorfismo sexual al sur del Estado de México, México, especialmente en relación a su forma corporal altamente conservada dentro de la familia Teiidae. La población estudiada habita a 1500 msnm. Se utilizaron individuos adultos que fueron capturados y liberados durante estudios ecológicos. Para cada individuo se registró la longitud hocico-cloaca, el peso corporal, largo de la cabeza, ancho de la cabeza, alto de la cabeza, longitud del fémur y distancia interaxilar. Los análisis realizados indicaron que los machos fueron más grandes en longitud hocico-cloaca y peso; además presentaron dimensiones más grandes en cabeza y fémur que hembras de la misma longitud hocico-cloaca. La distancia interaxilar fue mayor en hembras que en machos de la misma longitud hocico-cloaca. El dimorfismo sexual de A. costata costata puede explicarse por selección sexual y selección por fecundidad.Sexual dimorphism is a widespread characteristic in lizards, and it has been related to the individual fitness. Sexual dimorphism was investigated in Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata to the south of the State of Mexico, Mexico, relating to its body proportions highly similar within the Teiidae. Study area was located at 1500 m. Adult individuals from mark-recapture study were used. Morphometric characteristics were measured in individuals of A. costata costata: snout-vent length, mass, head length, head width, head height, femur length and interlimb length. Males were larger than females for SVL and mass. At the same body, males had longer heads and femur and shorter interlimb length than did conspecific females. The sexual dimorphism of A. costata costata can be explained by selection sexual selection and fecundity selection.

  9. A new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) and other helminths in Cyrtodactylus gubaot (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Siler, Cameron D; Brown, Rafe M

    2015-12-01

    Cosmocerca leytensis sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Cyrtodactylus gubaot (Squamata: Gekkonidae) collected on Leyte Island, Philippines is described and illustrated. Cosmocerca leytensis sp. nov. is the 30th species assigned to the genus, the 4th from the Oriental region, and the first from the Philippine Islands. The new species is most similar to those species possessing 4 pairs of plectanes, i.e., C. archeyi, C. australis, C. oroensis, and C sardiniae. Cosmocerca sardiniae lacks lateral alae; C. archeyi, C. australis, C. leytensis sp. nov. and C. oroensis possess lateral alae. Spicule length of C. oroensis is less than 75 μm, while C. archeyi, C. australis, and C. leytensis sp. nov. have spicule lengths greater than 75 μm. Males of C. australis possess 2 pairs of rosette caudal papillae, which are lacking in C. archeyi and C. leytensis sp. nov. Females of C. archeyi posses a conical tail, females of C. leytensis sp. nov. have a rounded posterior end supporting a flexible filament.

  10. Autocrine and paracrine Shh signaling are necessary for tooth morphogenesis, but not tooth replacement in snakes and lizards (Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrigan, Gregory R; Richman, Joy M

    2010-01-01

    Here we study the role of Shh signaling in tooth morphogenesis and successional tooth initiation in snakes and lizards (Squamata). By characterizing the expression of Shh pathway receptor Ptc1 in the developing dentitions of three species (Eublepharis macularius, Python regius, and Pogona vitticeps) and by performing gain- and loss-of-function experiments, we demonstrate that Shh signaling is active in the squamate tooth bud and is required for its normal morphogenesis. Shh apparently mediates tooth morphogenesis by separate paracrine- and autocrine-mediated functions. According to this model, paracrine Shh signaling induces cell proliferation in the cervical loop, outer enamel epithelium, and dental papilla. Autocrine signaling within the stellate reticulum instead appears to regulate cell survival. By treating squamate dental explants with Hh antagonist cyclopamine, we induced tooth phenotypes that closely resemble the morphological and differentiation defects of vestigial, first-generation teeth in the bearded dragon P. vitticeps. Our finding that these vestigial teeth are deficient in epithelial Shh signaling further corroborates that Shh is needed for the normal development of teeth in snakes and lizards. Finally, in this study, we definitively refute a role for Shh signaling in successional dental lamina formation and conclude that other pathways regulate tooth replacement in squamates. PMID:19850027

  11. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae.

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    Emanuel Tschopp

    Full Text Available Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata. Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  12. Phylogeny, biogeography and evolution of clutch size in South American lizards of the genus Kentropyx (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, Fernanda de P; Giugliano, Lilian G; Collevatti, Rosane G; Colli, Guarino R

    2009-01-01

    The lizard genus Kentropyx (Squamata: Teiidae) comprises nine species, which have been placed in three species groups (calcarata group, associated to forests ecosystems; paulensis and striata groups, associated to open ecosystems). We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of Kentropyx based on morphology (pholidosis and coloration) and mitochondrial DNA data (12S and 16S), using maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods, and evaluated biogeographic scenarios based on ancestral areas analyses and molecular dating by Bayesian methods. Additionally, we tested the life-history hypothesis that species of Kentropyx inhabiting open ecosystems (under seasonal environments) produce larger clutches with smaller eggs and that species inhabiting forest ecosystems (under aseasonal conditions) produce clutches with fewer and larger eggs, using Stearns' phylogenetic-subtraction method and canonical phylogenetic ordination to take in to account the effects of phylogeny. Our results showed that Kentropyx comprises three monophyletic groups, with K. striata occupying a basal position in opposition to previous suggestions of relationships. Additionally, Bayesian analysis of divergence time showed that Kentropyx may have originated at the Tertiary (Eocene/Oligocene) and the 'Pleistocene Refuge Hypothesis' may not explain the species diversification. Based on ancestral reconstruction and molecular dating, we argued that a savanna ancestor is more likely and that historical events during the Tertiary of South America promoted the differentiation of the genus, coupled with recent Quaternary events that were important as dispersion routes and for the diversification at populational levels. Clutch size and egg volume were not significantly different between major clades and ecosystems of occurrence, even accounting for the phylogenetic effects. Finally, we argue that phylogenetic constraints and phylogenetic inertia might be playing essential roles in life history evolution of Kentropyx.

  13. A survey of neonicotinoid use and potential exposure to northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) in the Rolling Plains of Texas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Peper, Steven T; Dunham, Nicholas R; Kumar, Naveen; Kistler, Whitney; Almas, Sadia; Presley, Steven M; Kendall, Ronald J

    2016-06-01

    Northern bobwhite (quail) (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) populations have declined dramatically in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma (USA). There is rising concern about potential toxicity of neonicotinoids to birds. To investigate this concern, the authors examined crops of 81 northern bobwhite and 17 scaled quail to determine the presence or absence of seeds treated with 3 neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam). No treated seeds were found in the 98 crops examined. Liver samples from all 98 quail were collected and analyzed for neonicotinoid residues. Analysis revealed very low concentrations of neonicotinoids within the quail liver samples. The results suggest there is little to no risk of direct toxicity to quail from neonicotinoids. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1511-1515. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. GEOGRAPHIC BODY SIZE AND SHAPE VARIATION IN A MAINLAND Anolis (SQUAMATA: DACTYLOIDAE FROM NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA (COLOMBIA

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    Marta Lucia Calderón- Espinosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO JA X-NONE Anolis auratus is a widely distributed species, from Costa Rica in Central America, through northern South America, includingColombia, Venezuela, northern Brazil, Surinam and the Guyanas. In Colombia, its widespread distribution across different life zones suggests that these lizards occupy different environments and exhibit different microhabitat use in different geographic areas. On the other hand, some observations suggest that this species prefers open areas, selecting grasslands over brushy areas, and thus, an alternative hypothesis is that microhabitat use is similar among different populations. In Anolis, body variables related to locomotion (body size and shape define structural microhabitat use, so two distinct patterns could be expected in this species: conservative or highly variable body size and shape throughout the species distribution. To test thesepredictions, we characterized geographic variation in morphometric traits of this species in Colombia. Females and males were similar in body size, but exhibited differences in some variables related to body shape. These characteristics also varied among males and females from different regions, suggesting heterogeneous use of structural microhabitat, between sexes and among populations. As an alternative, phylogenetic divergence among populations could also account for the observed differences. Absence of ecological and phylogenetic data limits our ability to identify the underlying causes of this pattern. However, we provide a general framework to explore hypotheses about evolution of body size and shape in this species.Variación geográfica en tamaño y forma corporalen un Anolis (Squamata: Dactyloidae continentaldel noroeste de Suramérica (ColombiaRESUMENAnolis auratus se distribuye desde Costa Rica en Centro América, el norte de Sur América, incluyendo Colombia, Venezuela, norte de Brasil, Surinam y las Guyanas. En

  15. Estado actual del registro de escamados extinguidos de América del Sur y sus implicancias paleoambientales

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    Albino, Adriana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The record of the South American fossil Squamata extends from the Late Cretaceous to the Holocene. The recorded families are Iguanidae s.l., Teiidae, Gekkonidae, ?Scincidae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Aniliidae, Colubridae and Viperidae Dinilysiidae from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia and Palaeopheidae from the Late Eocene of Ecuador are the only known extinct recorded families. The families distribution during the Cretaceous and most of the Tertiary apparently was more extensive than at present, due to more generalized subtropical climatic conditions. The geological events during the Cenozoic would have caused climatic and environmental changes that would have favoured the appeareance of new adaptative types and the restriction in the distribution of many forms.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among amphisbaenian reptiles based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-19

    Complete mitochondrial genomic sequences are reported from 12 members in the four families of the reptile group Amphisbaenia. Analysis of 11,946 aligned nucleotide positions (5,797 informative) produces a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. The family Rhineuridae is basal and Bipedidae is the sister taxon to the Amphisbaenidae plus Trogonophidae. Amphisbaenian reptiles are surprisingly old, predating the breakup of Pangaea 200 million years before present, because successive basal taxa (Rhineuridae and Bipedidae) are situated in tectonic regions of Laurasia and nested taxa (Amphisbaenidae and Trogonophidae) are found in Gondwanan regions. Thorough sampling within the Bipedidae shows that it is not tectonic movement of Baja California away from the Mexican mainland that is primary in isolating Bipes species, but rather that primary vicariance occurred between northern and southern groups. Amphisbaenian families show parallel reduction in number of limbs and Bipes species exhibit parallel reduction in number of digits. A measure is developed for comparing the phylogenetic information content of various genes. A synapomorphic trait defining the Bipedidae is a shift from the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement to the derived state of trnE and nad6. In addition, a tandem duplication of trnT and trnP is observed in B. biporus with a pattern of pseudogene formation that varies among populations. The first case of convergent rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome among animals demonstrated by complete genomic sequences is reported. Relative to most vertebrates, the Rhineuridae has the block nad6, trnE switched in order with cob, trnT, trnP, as they are in birds.

  17. 五针白皮松在群落演替过程中的种间联结性分析%An analysis of interspecific associations of Pinus squamata with other dominant woody species in community succession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇; 陶德定; 李德铢

    2003-01-01

    通过方差分析、χ2检验和共同出现百分率PC等的计算,对五针白皮松(Pinus squamata)分布的群落中主要树种间的种间联结性进行了定量分析.研究结果表明:2个五针白皮松分布的群落总体种间关联性为显著正相关,其中半阳坡上的群落为正相关,阴坡上的群落为显著正相关.由于半阳坡上的群落为针阔叶混交林,而阴坡上的群落为常绿阔叶林,表明五针白皮松分布的群落有从针阔叶混交林向常绿阔叶林演替的趋势.χ2检验和共同出现百分率PC的结果说明,阴坡群落的树种间有较密切的正相关,五针白皮松与其他树种总体上无关联性,表明五针白皮松是一个阳性先锋树种,它与其他物种的共同出现往往是由于随机的因素.同时,通过五针白皮松年龄结构并联系云南松(Pinus yunnanensis)与其他物种关系的分析得出结论,五针白皮松的濒危状况可能是在长期的植被演化过程中被阔叶树种排挤所造成的.

  18. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  19. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses. PMID:27399970

  20. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonóra Szirovicza

    Full Text Available Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni, nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus, and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi, respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of a gecko and the phylogeneticposition of the Middle Eastern teratoscincus keyserlingii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Fong, Jonathan J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Shafiei,Soheila; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-04-22

    Sqamate reptiles are traditionally divided into six groups: Iguania, Anguimorpha, Scincomorpha, Gekkota (these four are lizards), Serpentes (snakes), and Amphisbaenia (the so-called worm lizards). Currently there are complete mitochondrial genomes from two representatives of the Iguania (Janke et al., 2001; Kumazawa, 2004), three from the Anguimorpha (Kumazawa, 2004; Kumazawa and Endo, 2004), two from the Scincomorpha (Kumazawa and Nishida, 1999; Kumazawa, 2004), two from Serpentes (Kumazawa et al., 1998; Kumazawa, 2004) and 12 from Amphisbaenia (Macey et al., 2004). The only traditional group of Squamata from which a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced is the Gekkota. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus keyserlingii, a Middle Eastern representative of the Gekkota. The gekkonid lizard genus Teratoscincus is distributed throughout the deserts of central and southwest Asia as shown in figure 1, with five species currently recognized (Macey et al. 1997a, 1999b). Included in this figure are the positions of mountain ranges discussed in the text; see also figure 1 in Macey et al. (1999b). Two species, T. bedriagai and T. microlepis, are restricted to Southwest Asia south of the Kopet Dagh and Hindu Kush in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (Anderson, 1999). Two species are found in the deserts of western China and Mongolia, with T. przewalskii occurring in the Taklimakan and lowland Gobi deserts, and T. roborowskii restricted to the Turpan Depression. The fifth species, T. scincus, is sometimes considered to be restricted to the Caspian Basin in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Alternatively, Teratoscincus populations in Southwest Asia, primarily on the Iranian Plateau, situated directly north of the Arabian Plate, are sometimes considered to be a subspecies of T. scincus or, otherwise, to constitute a sixth species, T. keyserlingii. Macey et al. (1999b) assessed the phylogenetic

  2. Earliest example of a giant monitor lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata.

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    Jack L Conrad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Varanidae is a clade of tiny (600 mm PCL lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis, although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new Varanus from the Mytilini Formation (Turolian, Miocene of Samos, Greece is described. The holotype consists of a partial skull roof, right side of a braincase, partial posterior mandible, fragment of clavicle, and parts of six vertebrae. A cladistic analysis including 83 taxa coded for 5733 molecular and 489 morphological characters (71 previously unincluded demonstrates that the new fossil is a nested member of an otherwise exclusively East Asian Varanus clade. The new species is the earliest-known giant (>600 mm PCL terrestrial lizard. Importantly, this species co-existed with a diverse continental mammalian fauna. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new monitor is larger (longer than 99% of known fossil and living lizards. Varanus includes, by far, the largest limbed squamates today. The only extant non-snake squamates that approach monitors in maximum size are the glass-snake Pseudopus and the worm-lizard Amphisbaena. Mosasauroids were larger, but exclusively marine, and occurred only during the Late Cretaceous. Large, extant, non-Varanus, lizards are limbless and/or largely isolated from mammalian competitors. By contrast, our new Varanus achieved gigantism in a continental environment populated by diverse eutherian mammal competitors.

  3. A new rock dwelling Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, B H C K; Bauer, Aaron; Lajmi, Aparna; Agarwal, Ishan; Giri, Varad B

    2015-09-25

    A distinct new species of gecko of the genus Hemidactylus is described from the Kanker district of Chhattisgarh State, east-central India. This large-sized (SVL average 81.33±13.40 to at least 98.0 mm) Hemidactylus is characterized by a dorsum with small granules, intermixed with 10-12 rows of irregularly arranged, slightly larger, rounded, weakly-keeled tubercles at midbody; 10-12 and 13-15 subdigital lamellae on the first and fourth digits, respectively, of both manus and pes; a single enlarged postcloacal tubercle on either side of the tail; 10-12 femoral pores on each thigh separated by 5-8 poreless scales; 12-14 supralabials and 10-12 infralabials.

  4. Nomenclatural issues in the Psammodromus hispanicus (Squamata: Lacertidae) species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    The Psammodromus hispanicus species group has been recently shown to include three lineages that differ in morphology (San-Jose et al. 2012), have largely parapatric range but exhibit little evidence of historical gene flow (Fitze et al. 2011), leading to the recognition of these three lineages as distinct species (Fitze et al. 2012). The eastern species can be unambiguously associated with the nomen Lacerta edwarsiana Dugès 1829, as the detailed information in Dugès (1829) leaves no doubt that he describes as Lacerta edwarsiana the local member of the P. hispanicus complex, and the type locality is the "bas Languedoc", an area of France equivalent to the lowland parts of the current Languedoc region where the only member of the complex is the eastern lineage. The types of Psammodromus edwarsianus have not been traced as far as I am aware, but given the lack of uncertainty regarding allocation of this nomen to the eastern lineage of the P. hispanicus complex this has no nomenclatural consequence. Two nomenclatural issues remain in this species group however: the aim of this note is to solve them.

  5. Nomenclature of African species of the genus Stenodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2013-01-01

    The statuses of proposed nomina of the North African species of the genus Stenodactylus have been revised based on the study of their original descriptions and the examination of their name-bearing types. Important nomenclatural actions proposed include the designation of a lectotype for the nomen Stenodactylus guttatus ensuring continuity of the prevailing usage of S. petrii, and the proposal of maintaining prevailing usage of Stenodactylus sthenodactylus by applying to the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature to set aside the existing name-bearing type and replace it with a neotype corresponding with that usage.

  6. Morphological variation in the tropical anole, Anolis casildae (Squamata: Polychrotidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, K E; Roberto Ibáñez, D; Jaramillo, C A; Lips, K R

    2001-06-01

    We describe morphological variation (scalation and coloration) observed among eight individuals of the Panamanian lizard species Anolis casildae. This variation was not observed in the holotype and aids in identification of this recently described species (originally described on the basis of a single, male specimen). This species occurs only in the Reserva Forestal Fortuna (Chiriquí Province) and the adjacent Bosque Protector Palo Seco (Bocas del Toro Province) in western Panama. Anolis casildae can be distinguished from all other Panamanian anole species via six features: (1) two enlarged superciliary scales (the first larger than the second); (2) an anterior nasal scale in contact with the rostral scale or separated from the rostral by one scale; (3) 6-8 sublabial scales to the center of the eye; (4) 3-4 scales between the supraobital semicircles; (5) unique coloration (4-6 oblique brown bands interspersed by blue-outlined yellow patches; dewlap is a dirty cream color with broad yellow scale rows irregularly interspersed with smaller emerald green scales) and (6) A. casildae occurs from 1,050 to 1,400 m in the Cordillera Central. We also compare our natural history observations of A. casildae to a similar large anole, A. frenatus, a species which we believe A. casildae to be closely related. PMID:11935926

  7. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.

    2011-01-01

    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Sinovipera sichuanensis (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Liu, Qin; Zhong, Guanghui; Xiao, Rong; Fang, Min; Guo, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Sinovipera sichuanensis is one of the Asian green pit vipers with less concern. It is endemic to China and only known in Hejiang, Sichuan Province and Jiangkou, Guizhou Province. In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome and characterize each partition. The complete mitochondrial genome is 17 225 bp in length containing 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 control regions and 22 tRNAs. We use Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods to infer the phylogenetic relationship of S. sichuanensis. Both BI and ML analyses strongly support that S. sichuanensis is independent from the other two Asian green pit vipers. PMID:26406352

  9. A Review of Sex Determining Mechanisms in Geckos (Gekkota: Squamata)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, T.

    2010-01-01

    Geckos are a species-rich clade of reptiles possessing diverse sex determining mechanisms. Some species possess genetic sex determination, with both male and female heterogamety, while other species have temperature-dependent sex determination. I compiled information from the literature on the taxonomic distribution of these sex determining mechanisms in geckos. Using phylogenetic data from the literature, I reconstructed the minimum number of transitions among these sex determining mechanism...

  10. A new species of Anolis lizard (Squamata, Iguania from Panama

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    Steven Poe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Anolis is described from western Panama and eastern Costa Rica. Populations of the new form were previously allocated to A. chocorum. However, the new species differs from A. chocorum in characters of color pattern, scalation and proportion.

  11. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Cristina Macedo; Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Teresa Cristina Sauer Ávila-Pires; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetolog...

  12. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina Macedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  13. Descripción del sincraneo de Ameiva Ameiva (Linnaeus (Squamata, Teiidae Description of the syncranium of Ameiva Ameiva (Linnaeus (Squamata, Teiidae

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    María Esther Tedesco

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available An osteological description of the syncranium and hyoid apparatus of Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758 is presented. By comparison between males and females signiflcant intersexual differences were found in relation to: skull size, frontal, parietal and basisphenoid bones, interpterygoid opening and teeth number and mor-phology. Absence of pterygoid teeth in A. ameiva is verified out. The specimens used for this study carne from Chaco and Formosa provinces (Argentina.

  14. Descripción del sincraneo de Ameiva Ameiva (Linnaeus) (Squamata, Teiidae) Description of the syncranium of Ameiva Ameiva (Linnaeus) (Squamata, Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    María Esther Tedesco; Ligia Krause; Blanca Beatríz Alvarez

    1999-01-01

    An osteological description of the syncranium and hyoid apparatus of Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) is presented. By comparison between males and females signiflcant intersexual differences were found in relation to: skull size, frontal, parietal and basisphenoid bones, interpterygoid opening and teeth number and mor-phology. Absence of pterygoid teeth in A. ameiva is verified out. The specimens used for this study carne from Chaco and Formosa provinces (Argentina).

  15. Esqueleto pré-sacral e sacral dos lagartos teiêdeos (Squamata, Teiidae Pressacral and sacral skeleton of teiids lizards (Squamata, Teiidae

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    Lauren Betina Veronese

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the axial skeleton -pressacral and sacral regions - of the nine genera of Teiidae Boulenger, 1885 comprising Ameiva Meyer, 1795, Callopistes Gravenhorst, 1838, Cnemidophorus Wagler, 1830, Crocodilurus Spix, 1825, Dicrodon Duméril & Bibron, 1839, Dracaena Daudin, 1802, Kenlropyx Spix, 1825, Teius Merrem, 1820 and Tupinambis Daudin, 1803 is here analysed under a comparative approach. The study is in a generic levei, and the principal conclusions reter to differences on the total number of vertebrae and some aspects of the ribs, especially their insertion and presence.

  16. Feeding ecology of the pygmy gecko Coleodactylus natalensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina M. C. A. Lisboa; Raul F. D. Sales; Eliza M.X. Freire

    2012-01-01

    We studied the feeding ecology of a population of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999, an endemic gecko of Atlantic Forest fragments in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Lizards (N = 49) were collected manually through active search in the four habitats of Parque Estadual Dunas de Natal, type locality of the species. In the laboratory, we measured the lizards and registered the number of consumed prey items identified to Order, its dimensions and frequencies. We also co...

  17. Feeding ecology of the pygmy gecko Coleodactylus natalensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Carolina M. C. A. Lisboa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the feeding ecology of a population of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999, an endemic gecko of Atlantic Forest fragments in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Lizards (N = 49 were collected manually through active search in the four habitats of Parque Estadual Dunas de Natal, type locality of the species. In the laboratory, we measured the lizards and registered the number of consumed prey items identified to Order, its dimensions and frequencies. We also collected samples of leaf litter in each habitat to determine prey availability. Females were significantly larger than males, but head size did not differ between the sexes. The most important prey categories in the diet of C. natalensis based on number, volume and frequency were Isopoda and Araneae. Prey categories with highest importance indices in the diet were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Gryllidae. The diets of adult males and females were similar with respect to prey size, but differed qualitatively, mainly due to the larger trophic spectrum of females. We found some variations on trophic niche breadths and food preferences of lizards between habitats, but in general niche breadths were intermediate, and the most elected prey categories were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Thysanoptera. High electivities for Isoptera and Gryllidae occurred only in the open habitats (restinga and dunes, and for Mantodea in the forested habitats (high and low forest. Collembola was consumed in the same proportion of the environment, and Acarina and Formicidae had negative values of electivity, indicating rejection. We conclude that the population studied seems to have a selective diet, preferring relatively large prey items that are less abundant in the leaf litter, and possibly avoiding potentially toxic prey.

  18. First occurrence of Mosasauridae (Squamata in the Maastrichtian (latest Cretaceous of Alicante (Valencia Community, Eastern Spain

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    Bardet, Nathalie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the mosasaurid genus Prognathodon is known worldwide during the latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian, we report here its first occurrence in the Eastern area of the Iberian Peninsula. It was previously known from coeval levels of the Basque Country. The specimen from Castalla (Alicante corresponds to a pterygoid tooth. Though it cannot be precisely determined at the specific level, the tooth belongs to a Prognathodon species with 'slender' teeth such as P. compressidens, P. sectorius and P. mosasauroides, all known in the Campanian-Maastrichtian of Europe, or P. kianda from the Maastrichtian of Angola.Aunque el genero de mosasaurio Prognathodon esta conocido mundialmente durante el Cretácico final (Campaniense-Maastrichtiense, damos a conocer su primera occurencia en el Levante Español. Previamente ya se conocía en niveles contemporáneos del País Vasco. El especimen de Castalla corresponde a un diente del pterigoides. Aunque no se puede identificar a nivel especifico, el diente pertenece a una especie de Prognathodon con dientes 'delgados' como P. compressidens, P. sectorius y P. mosasauroides, del Campaniense-Maastrichtiense de Europa, o P. kianda del Maastrichtiense de Angola.

  19. Individual Growth Rates of Nikolsky’s Viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Squamata, Viperidae

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    Bondarenko Z. S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Capture-mark-recapture data was used to infer growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Vedmederja, Grubant et Rudaeva, 1986, in the Eastern Ukraine. We have found that growth rate is negatively correlated with age. The difference in growth rates before maturation is not significant between different sexes. Growth rates decrease rapidly after maturation in males and females, however adult males retain significantly higher average growth rates. There is large dispersion of growth rates in the group of adult females, which is caused, probably, by alteration of complete arrest of growth in the years with reproduction and more intensive growth in the years without it. Asymptotic snout-ventral length estimated after Von Bertalanffy model was 680 mm in females and 630 mm in males. Females mature after fifth and males mature after fourth hibernation. The larger females in vipers can not be the result of higher growth rates in females, but are the outcome of a combination of other factors including different maturation time and size (older and being larger, and, perhaps, longer life span due to lower mortality. Growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper in the nature are higher than in other species in the group of small Eurasian vipers.

  20. Snakes of the genus Oxyrhopus (Colubridae: Squamata in Colombia: taxonomy and geographic variation

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    John D. Lynch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Oxyrhopus occur in Colombia, one (O. leucomelas of which is Andean and the other three occur in lowlands. No geographic variation was detected in O. occipitalis but there is marked geographic variation in color pattern and scutellation for the widely distributed O. petola. Recognition of subspecies within O. petola is possible but appears to obscure more than it illuminates. The snake previously reported as O. melanogenys or O. aff. melanogenys is diagnosed as a previously unrecognized species.Cuatro especies del género Oxyrhopus se encuentran en Colombia. De las cuatro especies, una (O. leucomelas es una especie andina y las otras tres son especies de las tierras bajas. Variación geográfica no fue detecta en O. occipitalis pero mucha variación se encuentra en O. petola, en términos de patrón y de conteos de escamas. Se posible de reconocer subespecies pero tal reconocimiento oscura mas que ilumina. La serpiente conocida antes como O. melanogenys o O. aff. melanogenys está descrita como especie nueva.

  1. Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Hutter, Carl R; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Noonan, Brice P; Townsend, Ted M; Sites, Jack W; Reeder, Tod W

    2012-12-23

    Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse groups of terrestrial vertebrates. Recent molecular analyses have suggested a very different squamate phylogeny relative to morphological hypotheses, but many aspects remain uncertain from molecular data. Here, we analyse higher-level squamate phylogeny with a molecular dataset of unprecedented size, including 161 squamate species for up to 44 nuclear genes each (33 717 base pairs), using both concatenated and species-tree methods for the first time. Our results strongly resolve most squamate relationships and reveal some surprising results. In contrast to most other recent studies, we find that dibamids and gekkotans are together the sister group to all other squamates. Remarkably, we find that the distinctive scolecophidians (blind snakes) are paraphyletic with respect to other snakes, suggesting that snakes were primitively burrowers and subsequently re-invaded surface habitats. Finally, we find that some clades remain poorly supported, despite our extensive data. Our analyses show that weakly supported clades are associated with relatively short branches for which individual genes often show conflicting relationships. These latter results have important implications for all studies that attempt to resolve phylogenies with large-scale phylogenomic datasets.

  2. Molecular systematics and undescribed diversity of Madagascan scolecophidian snakes (Squamata: Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán T; Marion, Angela B; Glaw, Frank; Miralles, Aurélien; Nopper, Joachim; Vences, Miguel; Hedges, S Blair

    2015-11-10

    We provide an updated molecular phylogenetic analysis of global diversity of typhlopid and xenotyphlopid blindsnakes, adding a set of Madagascan samples and sequences of an additional mitochondrial gene to an existing supermatrix of nuclear and mitochondrial gene segments. Our data suggest monophyly of Madagascan typhlopids, exclusive of introduced Indotyphlops braminus. The Madagascar-endemic typhlopid clade includes two species previously assigned to the genus Lemuriatyphlops (in the subfamily Asiatyphlopinae), which were not each others closest relatives. This contradicts a previous study that described Lemuriatyphlops based on a sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene from a single species and found this species not forming a clade with the other Malagasy species included. Based on our novel phylogenetic assessment we include all species in this endemic typhlopid clade in the genus Madatyphlops and in the subfamily Madatyphlopinae and consider Lemuriatyphlops as junior synonym. Within Madatyphlops, we identify several candidate species. For some of these (those in the M. arenarius complex), our preliminary data suggest sympatric occurrence and morphological differentiation, thus the existence of undescribed species. We also comment on the genus-level classification of several non-Madagascan typhlopids. We suggest that African species included in Madatyphlops (Afrotyphlops calabresii, A. cuneirostris, A. platyrhynchus, and Rhinotyphlops leucocephalus) should not be included in this genus. We furthermore argue that recent claims of Sundatyphlops, Antillotyphlops, and Cubatyphlops being "undiagnosable" or "not monophyletic" were based on errors in tree reconstruction and failure to notice diagnostic characters, and thus regard these three genera as valid.

  3. Natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii (Squamata, Leiosauridae in southern Brazilian Atlantic forest

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    Ricardo Rautenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of geckos of the genus Nactus and their relatives (Squamata: Gekkonidae

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    Todd R. Jackman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to investigate relationships within the gekkonid genus Nactus and between Nactus and other gekkonid genera. Nuclear (RAG-1, PDC and mitochondrial (ND2 data provide strong support for conflicting patterns of relationship among bisexual New Guinean species of Nactus and the unisexual oceanic form N. pelagicus. This may be explained by an ancient mitochondrial introgression event between N. sphaerodactylodes and N. vankampeni, a recent selective sweep of mitochondrial DNA throughout N. vankampeni, and gene conflict stemming from the hybrid event that gave rise to N. pelagicus. Strong support from all data partitions is obtained for the sister group relationship of Nactus to a clade consisting of the Australian Heteronotia and the Southeast Asian Dixonius. Putative synapomorphies of the Nactus/Heteronotia/Dixonius clade include the reduction of the second phalanx of digit IV of the manus and the presence of regular rows of keeled (sometimes multicarinate dorsal tubercles on the dorsum. Nactus and Heteronotia both include parthenogenetic species formed via hybridogenesis. This is rare among geckos, and vertebrates in general, and at some level may also be synapomorphic. Dixonius is not known to have any all-female species, but “D. siamensis” consists of multiple chromosome “races” that mirror morphologically cryptic, but karyotypically distinct, species in the other two genera. The strong support for the Nactus/Heteronotia/Dixonius clade demonstrates that the leaf-toed digital morphology of Dixonius has evolved multiple times within the Gekkonidae and suggests that superficial digital morphology may be misleading with respect to gekkonid suprageneric relationships.

  5. a new species of the genus elaphe (squamata: colubridae) from zoige county, sichuan, china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    previous phylogenetic analyses ot dna sequence data reveal a likely new species ot elaphe fitzinger from china,which forms the sister group of all extant elaphe.one of the three original specimens is crushed and the other two are neonates,which precludes a morphological analysis.three adult snakes (2 females,1 male) collected from jiangzha hot spring in zoige county,sichuan,china on 26 july 2010 now facilitate the species' description.mitochondrial dna nucleotide sequences of cytochrome b (cyt b),nadh dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nd4),12s ribosomal rna (12s rrna),and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (co1) from the adults are identical to sequences from the crashed specimen.interspecific uncorrected p-distances of partial co1 gene of 26 sequences from all 11 species of elaphe,including this new species,are large (8.5-15.2%).this new species is morphologically distinguished from all other species of elaphe by several characters:“m”-shaped marking on the supraoculars and adjacent frontal; four parallel series of red-brown spots on the dorsum extending from the neck to the vent; four longitudinal stripes associated with the spots; each spot is usually compósed of a whole (or incomplete) red-brown scale with puce borders; spots of each stripe are similar in shape,they occur at relatively regular intervals of one or two scales,and they are slightly red-brown in color; and it has three preoculars,whereas all other specie's have one or two.now elaphe contains 11 species and this discovery highlights the need for continued exploration of temperate regions.

  6. Taxonomic identity of two enigmatic aquatic snake populations (Squamata: Homalopsidae: Cerberus and Homalopsis) from southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Olivier S G; Sumontha, Montri

    2016-01-01

    In their revision of the homalopsid genus Homalopsis Kuhl & Van Hasselt, Murphy et al. (2012) resurrected H. semizonata Blyth, 1855 and noted that ''Frith (1977) reported on two Homalopsis from Phuket, Thailand with 40 and 42 dorsal scale rows, and 159 and 162 ventrals-scale counts within the range of H. semizonata which is found along the same coast, about 900 km to the north''. Murphy et al. (2012), however, did not list H. semizonata from Thailand, and on their species' distribution map they indicated an interrogation mark along the southern coast of Myanmar and the southwestern coast of peninsular Thailand. It should be noted that Murphy et al. (2012) misread Frith: while one of the two specimens reported by Frith was indeed from Phuket (''from the rocky edge of a stream torrent in good forest east of Thalang, central Phuket Island''), the other was from ''Klong Nakha, 80 kilometeres [sic] south of Ranong in lowland rain forest with some clearings and dwellings'', thus in Ranong Province, closer to the border with Myanmar. Nabhitabhata et al. (2004) recognized a single Homalopsis species in Thailand, H. buccata, which they listed for numerous provinces, including Phuket, based on Frith's (1977) record. Among the two Homalopsis species recognized to occur in Thailand by Nabhitabhata and Chan-ard (2005), H. buccata and H. nigroventralis, none was recorded by them from Phuket Province, but H. buccata was listed from, among others, the neighbouring provinces of Phang-Nga and Ranong. Chuaynkern & Chuaynkern (2012) recognized the same two species, and listed H. buccata from, among others, the provinces of Phang-Nga, Phuket and Ranong. Cox et al. (2012) listed three Homalopsis for Thailand (H. buccata, H. mereljcoxi and H. nigroventralis), and indicated that H. mereljcoxi is the species occurring, a.o., in Phang-Nga, Phuket and Ranong provinces. Wallach et al. (2014) noted that H. semizonata lives in southern Myanmar near sea level, but also that it ''possibly occurs in Phuket''. Chan-ard et al. (2015), in their field guide whose reptile taxonomy is largely outdated (Pauwels & Grismer 2015), recognized only Homalopsis nigroventralis and H. buccata and the map for the latter indicates its presence in Phuket and Phang-Nga provinces. In the most recent synthesis on the family Homalopsidae, Murphy & Voris (2014) made however no mention of the possibility that H. semizonata occurs in Thailand. Because of the lack of voucher material, the identity of the Homalopsis living on the Indian Ocean coastal area of Thailand has thus remained poorly understood so far.

  7. [Morphologic variation of the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki (Squamata: Teiidae): evolutionary and conservation implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Rocha, Sandra P; Méndez-de la Cruz, Fausto R; Méndez-Sánchez, J Fernando; Granados-González, Gisela; Hernândez-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2008-12-01

    Post-formational divergence has been used for the recognition of new parthenogenetic species. Currently, the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki McCoy and Maslin 1962 is recognized as a single taxon that was derived from a single, parthenogenetically capable, hybrid. This lizard had been derived via hybridization between individuals of two gonochoristic species, Aspidoscelis ungusticeps Cope 1878 and Aspidoscelis deppii Wiegmann 1834. The distribution of A. rodecki includes Isla Contoy and Isla Mujeres and the adjacent mainland of Quintana Roo, México. Previous studies have found post-formational divergence in genetic, chromatic and life-history characteristics among a continental population (Puerto Juárez) and an insular population (Isla Contoy). A meristic analysis was carried out to evaluate the morphological divergence among both populations of A. rodecki. We used 38 individuals from Puerto Juárez and 23 individuals from Isla Contoy. Nine meristic characters with discrimination value among species of the genus Aspidoscelis were used in both univariate (t-Student) and multivariate analyses (principal components and canonical variate analysis). According to both analyses, Puerto Juárez is meristically distinguishable from Isla Contoy. Both populations differ in five meristic characters and were a high correct classification in the canonical variate analysis: 97% of Puerto Juárez and 100% of Isla Contoy. A small sample from Isla Mujeres and a single specimen from Punta Sam (mainland) may represent different morphological groups. Due to the patterns of phenotypic variation, A. rodecki is considered as a single variable parthenogenetic species with high priority to conservation. The populations of A. rodecki have been extremely affected by the tourism developers. If the habitat of the parthenogenetic lizard (beach grasses) is allowed to stay, the expansion by the developers will not affect the survivorship of these populations. Nevertheless, the first sign of development is the total destruction of natural grasses that occurs on the beach, leaving only sand. There is a last chance to save the parthenogenetic lizard A. rodecki, but any effort will be useless without the support from the environmental authority of Mexico and cooperation from the developers. We suggest that Puerto Juárez and Isla Contoy receive separate management because they have unique portions of phenotypic variation of A. rodecki. The two lizard populations can be considered separate "Evolutionary Significant Units" (ESU). PMID:19419088

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gloydius intermedius (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunzhu; Zhao, Shuai; Li, Cheng; Dou, Huashan

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Gloydius intermedius is analyzed and presented for the first time. The genome was 17, 226 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 control region. The overall base composition was A (32.4%), C (28.8%), T (25.9%), and G (12.9%). The base compositions clearly presented the A-C skew, which was most obvious in the protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of G. intermedius. Mitochondrial genome analyses based on MP, ML, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees, indicating a close phylogenetic affinity of the 13 Crotalinae species. It appeared that no less than two major phyletic lineages were present in Crotalinae. The main clades within the Crotalinae supported are: A clade including the Protobothrops. A clade (G. brevicaudus, G. ussuriensis, G. intermedius, G. saxatilis) with the Ovophis appeared as the sister taxon to Protobothrops and was supported by bootstrap values of 88%. The four Gloydius species formed a paraphyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100 %) in all examinations.

  9. Clutch size in populations and species of cnemidophorines (Squamata: Teiidae on the eastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDERLAINE A. MENEZES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed some reproductive aspects of 16 coastal populations, belonging to five lizard species (A. ocellifera, A. abaetensis, A. nativo, A. littoralis and C. lacertoides from different restinga habitats along the eastern coast of Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate to what extent the reproductive aspects vary geographically and among species. For each female, we recorded the number of vitellogenic follicles, size and color of the largest follicle, presence and size of corpora lutea, and number and size of oviductal eggs. Clutch size of almost all coastal populations/species of Ameivula had little variation and most clutches were composed of two eggs. There was a significant relationship between female size and the mean clutch size when females from different species were pooled. Mean egg volume, among species, varied from 420 to 655 mm3. Relative clutch mass varied from 0.129 to 0.159 and did not differ significantly among species. We concluded that the five coastal species studied (four bisexuals and one parthenogenetic had similar reproductive characteristics. Most of them presented multiple clutches, low clutch size and low relative clutch mass, similar to other species in the genus and to unisexual and bisexual species of the Teiidae family.

  10. Molecular cytogenetic map of the central bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Squamata: Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M J; O'Meally, D; Sarre, S D; Georges, A; Ezaz, T

    2013-07-01

    Reptiles, as the sister group to birds and mammals, are particularly valuable for comparative genomic studies among amniotes. The Australian central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is being developed as a reptilian model for such comparisons, with whole-genome sequencing near completion. The karyotype consists of 6 pairs of macrochromosomes and 10 pairs microchromosomes (2n = 32), including a female heterogametic ZW sex microchromosome pair. Here, we present a molecular cytogenetic map for P. vitticeps comprising 87 anchor bacterial artificial chromosome clones that together span each macro- and microchromosome. It is the first comprehensive cytogenetic map for any non-avian reptile. We identified an active nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on the sub-telomeric region of 2q by mapping 18S rDNA and Ag-NOR staining. We identified interstitial telomeric sequences in two microchromosome pairs and the W chromosome, indicating that microchromosome fusion has been a mechanism of karyotypic evolution in Australian agamids within the last 21 to 19 million years. Orthology searches against the chicken genome revealed an intrachromosomal rearrangement of P. vitticeps 1q, identified regions orthologous to chicken Z on P. vitticeps 2q, snake Z on P. vitticeps 6q and the autosomal microchromosome pair in P. vitticeps orthologous to turtle Pelodiscus sinensis ZW and lizard Anolis carolinensis XY. This cytogenetic map will be a valuable reference tool for future gene mapping studies and will provide the framework for the work currently underway to physically anchor genome sequences to chromosomes for this model Australian squamate. PMID:23703235

  11. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia:Squamata:Varanidae) in North American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendyk, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    In zoos, life expectancy-the average lifespan of individuals within a population, and longevity-the maximum lifespan within a population, can be useful parameters for evaluating captive husbandry and animal welfare. Using life history and demographic data derived from regional studbooks, this study examined life expectancy and longevity in a total of 782 wild-caught (WC) and captive-bred (CB) varanid lizards of seven species maintained in North American zoos since 1926. The average lifespans for WC and CB animals were 6.3 ± 0.3 and 9.3 ± 0.4 years, respectively, with CB males living significantly longer than females (P = 0.009). A total of 26.4% of WC and 22.5% of CB animals experienced mortality during their first 2 years in captivity, with mortality during this period greatest among Varanus rudicollis and V. prasinus. A positive correlation was observed between life expectancy and adult body mass in captive-bred individuals (r = 0.981; P = 0.002). Wild-caught females with a history of successful reproduction had a significantly greater average lifespan than non-reproducing females (P zoos. In light of these findings, several husbandry-related factors which may be affecting the welfare and lifespans of varanids in zoos are identified and discussed. This study also highlights the utility of demographic and life history data in captive animal management, and offers a general framework for future herpetological studies of a similar nature. PMID:25503984

  12. A new Bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Mekongga Mountains, South East Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Kurniati, Hellen; Engilis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We describe Cyrtodactylus hitchi sp. nov., a new species of Bent-toed Gecko from montane forests in the Mekongga Mountains, South East Sulawesi, Indonesia. Although we cannot speculate about relationships, morphologically it shares several traits with C. batik, a large species known only from Mount Tompotika near the tip of Sulawesi's Eastern Peninsula. The following unique combination of characters distinguishes it from all other congeners: absence of precloacal groove, absence of precloacal and femoral pores, absence of enlarged femoral scales, no abrupt contact between large and small postfemoral scales, 18-20 lamellae under the fourth toes, and transversely enlarged, median subcaudal scales arranged in a single row. PMID:27394851

  13. A novel species of Euspondylus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes Mountains of central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Tiffany M; Adams, Grant

    2015-10-21

    The South American gymnophthalmid genus Euspondylus is distributed from Venezuela through Peru, with its highest diversity occurring in Peru. Euspondylus paxcorpus sp. nov. is a new species from Junín, Peru possessing prefrontal scales and represented by 60 specimens. The new species differs from all other species by the combination of four supraoculars with supraocular/supraciliary fusion, 5-7 occipitals, a single palpebral scale, five supralabials and infralabials, quadrangular dorsal scales with low keels arranged in transverse series only, 40-45 in a longitudinal count and 22-28 in a transverse count, 12 rows of ventrals in a transverse count and 23-25 in a longitudinal count, and no sexual dimorphism in coloration. The discovery of E. paxcorpus increases the known number of Euspondylus species to 13. Because the coloration patterns of the specimens were greatly different after preservation in alcohol, caution should be used when identifying Euspondylus species from museum specimens.

  14. Origin and clonal diversity of the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki (Squamata: Teiidae: chromosomal evidence

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    Norma L. Manríquez-Morán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the karyotypes of individuals of two different populations of Aspidoscelis rodecki to investigate the origin andchromosomal diversity of this unisexual lizard. The karyotype of A. rodecki has a diploid number of 50 chromosomes, and exhibits a marked structural heteromorphism. The unique arrangement seems to have originated by Todd´s fission after the origin of parthenogenesis(hybridization between A. angusticeps and A. deppii. This pattern was observed in two populations of the species, which is endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula.

  15. A new species of Thecadactylus from Sint Maarten, Lesser Antilles (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae

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    Gunther Koehler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Thecadactylus from the Caribbean island of Sint Maarten. The new species differs from all other species in the genus bya distinct dorsal pattern of numerous irregular but sharply deliminated black spots and blotches on an otherwise almost patternless background.

  16. Fine Structure of the Epididymal Sperm of the Snake Eryx jayakari (Squamata, Reptilia

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    Y.Z. Al-Onazee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastucture of the snake Eryx jayakari (E. jayakari mature sperm has not been published. Therefore, the present study was conducted to elucidate the sperm ultrastructure of this species in comparison with that of other reptilian species. The present investigation has shown that mature spermatozoa of Eryx jayakari are filiform in shape averaging 45 m (mean of 10 in length with a curved head measuring 9 m. The acrosomal complex, which involves the acrosomal cap and subacrosomal material, measures 2.5 m. The nucleus is 6.5 m in length, the neck approximates 1 m and the tail (midpiece, principal piece and endpiece is maximally 35 m in length. The different tail pieces vary in diameter, being the largest at the midpiece (0.66 m, diminished at the principal piece (0.36 m and the least at the endpiece (0.25 m. The midpiece, the longest tail piece, is composed of mitochondrial and fibrous sheaths encircling the microtubular axoneme. The mitochondria are rod-shaped having linear cristae but no dense bodies interrupt their arrangement. The principal tail piece consists of the microtubular axoneme surrounded by the fibrous sheath. The endpiece involves only an axoneme enveloped within the plasmalemma of the spermatozoon. The present findings were discussed in relation to other relevant studies. It was concluded that the general ultrastucture of the E. jayakari spermatozoon conforms to that reported to be typical of squamates.

  17. Wound Myiasis Due to Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Persian Horned Viper, Pseudocerastes persicus (Squamata: Viperidae

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    R Dehghani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of myiasis due to Musca domestica describes in Pseudocerastes persicus for the first time. The snake was found in Bari Karafs, Kashan, Iran, with a lesion on its body. Fourteen live larvae of M. domestica removed from its wound. This is the first report of a new larval habitat of M. domestica.

  18. Morphological and molecular identification of ticks infesting Boa constrictor (Squamata, Boidae in Manaus (Central Brazilian Amazon

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    Leonardo Costa Fiorini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Boa constrictor is one of the world's largest vertebrate carnivores and is often found in urban areas in the city of Manaus, Brazil. The morphological identification of ticks collected from 27 snakes indicated the occurrence of Amblyomma dissimile Koch 1844 on all individuals sampled. In contrast, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch was found on only two snakes. An analysis of the 16S rRNA molecular marker confirmed the morphological identification of these ectoparasites.

  19. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Squamata: Scincidae from a montane atlantic rainforest area in Southeastern Brazil

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    Teixeira, Rogério L.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns aspectos da ecologia (principalmente reprodução e dieta do lagarto scincídeo Mabuya agilis foram estudados com base em amostras mensais realizadas de dezembro de 1997 a abril de 1999 em uma área de floresta tropical serrana no estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil. Dos 197 espécimes coletados, 82 eram machos, 110 eram fêmeas, e o resto não pôde ser corretamente sexado. Lagartos variaram em comprimento rostro-coacal de 30 a 96 mm e foram sexualmente dimórficos em tamanho, com fêmeas atingindo maiores tamanhos que machos. A menor fêmea grávida mediu 54.0 mm. O tamanho da ninhada para 49 fêmeas grávidas variou de 2 a 9 (média = 5.7 e esteve positiva e significativamente relacionado ao tamanho dos lagartos. As presas dominantes na dieta de M. agilis foram baratas, ortópteros e aranhas. A população de M. agilis aqui estudada diferiu de outras populações conspecíficas previamente estudadas em hábitats de «restinga» nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, sendo que os indivíduos crescem a tamanhos maiores e a fecundidade é mais alta, possivelmente devido a uma maior disponibilidade de alimento no hábitat de floresta tropical serrana Some aspects of the ecology (mainly reproduction and diet of the skink Mabuya agilis were studied based on monthly samples taken from December 1997 to April 1999 at a montane rainforest area in Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Of 197 collected specimens, 82 were males, 110 were females, and the rest could not be properly sexed. Lizards varied in snout-vent length (SVL from 30 to 96 mm and were sexually dimorphic in size, with females growing larger than males. The smallest gravid female measured 54.0 mm in SVL. Litter size of 49 gravid females varied from 2 to 9 (mean= 5.7 and was positively and significantly related to lizard SVL. The dominant prey items in the diet of M. agilis were cockroaches, orthopterans and spiders. The population of M. agilis here studied differed from other conspecific populations previously studied in «restinga» habitats from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo states in that individuals grow to larger sizes and fecundity is higher, possibly because of a higher food availability in the montane rainforest habitat.

  20. The development of the skull of the Egyptian Cobra Naja h. haje (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae.

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    Eraqi R Khannoon

    Full Text Available The study of craniofacial development is important in understanding the ontogenetic processes behind morphological diversity. A complete morphological description of the embryonic skull development of the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje, is lacking and there has been little comparative discussion of skull development either among elapid snakes or between them and other snakes.We present a description of skull development through a full sequence of developmental stages of the Egyptian cobra, and compare it to other snakes. Associated soft tissues of the head are noted where relevant. The first visible ossification centres are in the supratemporal, prearticular and surangular, with slight ossification visible in parts of the maxilla, prefrontal, and dentary. Epiotic centres of ossification are present in the supraoccipital, and the body of the supraoccipital forms from the tectum posterior not the tectum synoticum. The venom glands are visible as distinct bodies as early at stage 5 and enlarge later to extend from the otic capsule to the maxilla level with the anterior margin of the eye. The gland becomes more prominent shortly before hatching, concomitant with the development of the fangs. The tongue shows incipient forking at stage 5, and becomes fully bifid at stage 6.We present the first detailed staging series of cranial development for the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje. This is one of the first studies since the classical works of G. de Beer and W. Parker that provides a detailed description of cranial development in an advanced snake species. It allows us to correct errors and misinterpretations in previous accounts which were based on a small sample of specimens of uncertain age. Our results highlight potentially significant variation in supraoccipital formation among squamates and the need for further research in this area.

  1. Status and diversity of snakes (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes at the Chittagong University Campus in Chittagong, Bangladesh

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    M. F. Ahsan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the status and diversity of snakes of the Chittagong University Campus (CUC between September 2013 and December 2014, and on preserved snake specimens of museums of CUC (Department of Zoology, University of Chittagong; Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong; and Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong.  Thirty-six species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families (Typhlopidae, Pythonidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae were recorded from CUC during the study period. Colubridae comprised the highest (24 species i.e., 66.67% number of species and Pythonidae the lowest (1 species. Checkered Keelback Xenochrophis piscator was the most common snake and the rarest was the Bengalese Kukri Snake Oligodon dorsalis belonging to the family Colubridae.  Among venomous snakes Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus was the most common snake and Black Krait Bungarus niger was the most rare.  Their status in CUC has been assessed. 

  2. Ecological trap for Cnemidophorus ocellifer Spix 1825 (Squamata: Teiidae during removal of vegetation

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    Lucas Bezerra de Mattos Brito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals must anticipate future conditions according to current environmental clues. When habitats are rapidly modified, these signs may not reflect the actual environmental quality, leading to a decreased fitness of an individual and its population. During an activity of faunal rescue and scaring away in the coast of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, evidence of an ecological trap for the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer was observed. We suggest some actions which can minimize the impact of vegetation removal activities on lizards, such as: i better planning before proceeding with deforestation; and ii capture and release of lizards in appropriate locations.

  3. On the distribution of the genus Teius Merrem, 1820 (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciali, Pier; Morando, Mariana; Köhler, Gunther; Avila, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The lizard genus Teius is composed by three species: Teius teyou, T. oculatus, and T. suquiensis and is distributed in South America, east of Andes. Teius teyou and T. oculatus have wide parapatric distributions with contact zones. Teius suquiensis is present in a small range along a sympatric area of the former species. In this work we analyze the distribution of the three species of Teius across its whole geographic range, examining its relationships with climatic parameters. We based our analysis on specimens in collections and literature records. Our analysis shows that the genus Teius is distributed from central Bolivia southwards to north of Río Negro Province in northern Patagonia, Argentina. Teius teyou reaches the northernmost range limit of the genus whereas T. oculatus occupies the southernmost limit. Teius oculatus is related to open and moist environments whereas T. teyou is more adapted to xeric and forested areas. Teius suquiensis is present in xerophytic areas of Dry Chaco and Espinal. Climatic factors in the distribution of the distribution of the two widespread species show marked differences and seasonality.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Schlegel's Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hun; Park, Jaejin; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Lee, Heon-Joo; Kim, Ja-Kyeong; Park, Daesik

    2016-09-01

    We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Gekko japonicus, whose status as an endemic or invasive species is currently under debate in Korea. The total genome size is 16 544 bp and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 non-coding regions. The A + T content of the genome is 55.8% (A, 31.2%; C, 29.4%; T, 24.6%; G, 14.9%). Phylogenetic analysis shows that G. japonicus has a close phylogenetic relationship with both G. swinhonis and G. chinensis. Our result will facilitate further genetic studies of this species to ascertain its species status. PMID:26366825

  5. The Terminal and Vomeronasal Nerves of Montpellier Snake, Malpolon monspessulana (Colubridae, Ophidia, Squamata

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    Omar A. R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The montpellier snake, Malpolon monspessulana, used in the current work in order to study the nervi terminalis and vomeronasalis. The vomeronasal organ or Jacobson’s organ is a part of the olfactory apparatus. This organ is innervated by the terminal and vomeronasal nerves. These nerves emerge from the sensory epithelium of Jacobson’s organ simultaneously. The bundles of the terminal and vomeronasal nerves traverse together the cavity of the nasal capsule in their way to the brain. These nerves bear scattered ganglionic cells which represent the ganglion terminale. They leave the capsule through the foramen olfactorium advehens. The terminal and vomeronasal nerves are connected with the olfactory nerve and enter the olfactory formation of the forebrain.

  6. Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata of South America

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    RW Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible, site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.

  7. Postcranial Anatomy of the Mesozoic Dalinghosaurus (Squamata):Evidence from a New Specimen of Western Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shu'an; JI Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The postcranial skeleton of a new specimen of the long-tailed lizard Dalinghosaurus longidigitus was excavated from the Yixian Formation in Lingyuan, western Liaoning. The new specimen provides more anatomical information about this species, especially about the anterior dorsal vertebrae, shoulder girdle and forelimbs. This lizard can be included within the clade Scleroglossa by its 27 or more presacrals, moderately long pubis, and gently notched distal end of tibia. But the detailed systematic position for this taxon remains undetermined. The features of the much longer hind limbs and pes compared with forelimbs and manus, metatarsal IV longer than III, pedal phalanges robust, and penultimate phalanx not longer than other phalanges etc. suggest that this lizard was a running and ground swelling animal.

  8. A new small karst-dwelling species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Bauer, Aaron M; Yudha, Donan Satria

    2014-04-07

    A new small karst-dwelling species of the genus Cyrtodactylus is described from East Java and Special Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus semiadii sp. nov. is a small species (SVL to 47.1 mm in females, 42.1 mm in males) distinguished from all other congeners by unique characters combination: short, robust, cylindrical tail, indistinct ventrolateral folds, absence of precloacal groove, absence of enlarged femoral scales, absence of precloacal and femoral pores and lack of enlarged median subcaudal scales. It is the third member of the genus recorded from Java. 

  9. The fourth Bent-toed Gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L

    2015-12-22

    Cyrtodactylus petani sp. nov. is a new species of Bent-toed Gecko from Java, Indonesia that had been masquerading under the name C. fumosus (Müller, 1895). The new species is differentiated from C. fumosus and all its Sundaland congeners by having the following combination of morphological characters: a maximum SVL of 57.2 mm; nine or ten supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; strongly tuberculate body and limbs; 20-25 paravertebral tubercles; 30-35 ventral scales; enlarged precloacal scales; enlarged femoral scales; 17-18 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 31-35 continuous precloacal and femoral pores in males, pores absent in females; no precloacal groove; no enlarged median subcaudals; tubercles on anterior portion of tail; no reticulated pattern on top of head; a blotched dorsal pattern; and no paired, dark, semi-lunar shaped blotches on the nape.

  10. Characterization of the Frictional Response of Squamata Shed Skin in Comparison to Human skin

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Aal, H A

    2010-01-01

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined rubbing response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its behavior according to the evolution of sliding conditions. Inspirations for such designs are frequently encountered in natural species. In particular, and from a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a Python regius snake. The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional re...

  11. Temporal germ cell development strategy during continuous spermatogenesis within the montane lizard, Sceloporus bicanthalis (Squamata; Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin; Anzalone, Marla; Collier, Matthew; Granados-González, Gisela; Villagrán-Santa Cruz, Maricela; Hernández-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2011-10-01

    Sceloporus bicanthalis is a viviparous lizard that lives at higher elevations in Mexico. Adult male S. bicanthalis were collected (n = 36) from the Nevado de Toluca, Mexico (elevation is 4200 m) during August to December, 2007 and January to July, 2008. Testes were extracted, fixed in Trumps, and dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol. Tissues were embedded, sectioned (2 μm), stained, and examined via a light microscope to determine the spermatogenic developmental strategy of S. bicanthalis. In all months examined, the testes were spermiogenically active; based on this, plus the presence of sperm in the lumina of seminiferous tubules, we inferred that S. bicanthalis had year-round or continuous spermatogenesis, unlike most reptiles that occupy a temperate or montane habitat. It was recently reported that seasonally breeding reptiles had a temporal germ cell development strategy similar to amphibians, where germ cells progress through spermatogenesis as a single population, which leads to a single spermiation event. This was much different than spatial development within the testis of other derived amniotes. We hypothesized that germ cell development was temporal in S. bicanthalis. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether reptiles that practice continuous spermatogenesis have a mammalian-like spatial germ cell development, which is different than the typical temperate reptile exhibiting a temporal development. In the present study, S. bicanthalis had a temporal development strategy, despite its continuous spermatogenic cycle, making them similar to tropical anoles.

  12. Ultrastructure and wear patterns of the ventral epidermis of four snake species (Squamata, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marie-Christin G; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-10-01

    Snakes are limbless tetrapods highly specialized for sliding locomotion. This locomotion leads to the skin being exposed to friction loads, especially on the ventral body side, which leads to wear. It is presumed that snakes therefore have specific optimizations for minimizing abrasion. Scales from snakes with habitat, locomotor and/or behavior specializations have specific gradients in material properties that may be due to different epidermal architecture. To approach this issue we examined the skin of Lampropeltis getula californiae (terrestrial), Epicrates cenchria cenchria (generalist), Morelia viridis (arboreal), and Gongylophis colubrinus (burrowing) with a focus on (i) the ultrastructure of the ventral epidermis and (ii) the qualitative abrasion pattern of the ventral scales. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed variations in the structure, thickness, layering, and material composition of the epidermis between the species. Furthermore, SEM and white light interferometer images of the scale surface showed that the abrasion patterns differed, even when the snakes were reared on the same substrate. These data support the idea that (i) a specific gradient in material properties may be due to a variation in epidermis architecture (thickness/ultrastructure) and (ii) this variation may be an optimization of material properties for specific ways of life.

  13. Postnatal development of the skull of Dinilysia patagonica (Squamata-stem Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanferla, Agustín; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S

    2014-03-01

    The snake skull represents a profound transformation of the ancestral squamate cranium in which dermal skull roof bones were integrated with the braincase, in a manner convergent with that which occurred during the origin of mammals. However, the ontogeny of snake characters at the origin of the clade has until now been inaccessible. Here we describe a postnatal ontogenetic series of the Late Cretaceous stem snake Dinilysia patagonica and compare it to that of extant lizards and snakes. Comparative analysis indicates notable ontogenetic changes, including advanced state of ossification, isometric growth of the otic capsule, fusion of the stylohyal to the quadrate, and great posterior elongation of the supratemporal. Of these transformations, the unfused condition of braincase bones and the retention of a large otic capsule in adults are examples of paedomorphic and peramorphic processes, respectively. Some ontogenetic transformations detected, in particular those present in middle ear, skull roof and suspensorium, are strikingly similar to those present in extant snakes. Nevertheless, Dinilysia retains a lizard-like paroccipital process without an epiphyseal extremity, and a calcified epiphysis that caps the sphenoccipital tubercle. Finally, the integration of the dermal skull roof with the braincase is similar to that seen in mammals with regard to the overall closure of the braincase, but the two evolutionary and developmental modules appear less integrated in snakes in that the parietal bone of the dermal skull roof progressively overlaps the supraoccipital of the chondrocranial braincase.

  14. Scratch resistance of the ventral skin surface in four snake species (Squamata, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marie-Christin G; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-04-01

    Snakes are limbless tetrapods highly specialized for sliding locomotion on various substrates. Their skin is constantly exposed to high friction forces, which promotes abrasion. Snake skin has material and surface specializations, presumably optimized for friction and abrasion resistance. We found that different snake species living in different habitats have different abrasion patterns and hypothesized that this correlates with specific epidermal architecture and surface topography. To test this hypothesis artificial scratches, under controlled load conditions, were created on the ventral skin material (epidermis) of four snake species adapted to different habitats: Lampropeltis getula californiae (stony and sandy soil substrates), Epicrates cenchria cenchria (trees, soil and water), Morelia viridis (trees), and Gongylophis colubrinus (burrowing in sand). Abrasion appearance on the skin surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy and white light interferometry. The material failure was different between the species, which we attribute to differences in the epidermis' response to the same abrasive challenge. We also discuss abrasion resistance mechanisms and the correlation with the different ultrastructure and surface microstructure.

  15. Taxonomic identity of two enigmatic aquatic snake populations (Squamata: Homalopsidae: Cerberus and Homalopsis) from southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Olivier S G; Sumontha, Montri

    2016-01-01

    In their revision of the homalopsid genus Homalopsis Kuhl & Van Hasselt, Murphy et al. (2012) resurrected H. semizonata Blyth, 1855 and noted that ''Frith (1977) reported on two Homalopsis from Phuket, Thailand with 40 and 42 dorsal scale rows, and 159 and 162 ventrals-scale counts within the range of H. semizonata which is found along the same coast, about 900 km to the north''. Murphy et al. (2012), however, did not list H. semizonata from Thailand, and on their species' distribution map they indicated an interrogation mark along the southern coast of Myanmar and the southwestern coast of peninsular Thailand. It should be noted that Murphy et al. (2012) misread Frith: while one of the two specimens reported by Frith was indeed from Phuket (''from the rocky edge of a stream torrent in good forest east of Thalang, central Phuket Island''), the other was from ''Klong Nakha, 80 kilometeres [sic] south of Ranong in lowland rain forest with some clearings and dwellings'', thus in Ranong Province, closer to the border with Myanmar. Nabhitabhata et al. (2004) recognized a single Homalopsis species in Thailand, H. buccata, which they listed for numerous provinces, including Phuket, based on Frith's (1977) record. Among the two Homalopsis species recognized to occur in Thailand by Nabhitabhata and Chan-ard (2005), H. buccata and H. nigroventralis, none was recorded by them from Phuket Province, but H. buccata was listed from, among others, the neighbouring provinces of Phang-Nga and Ranong. Chuaynkern & Chuaynkern (2012) recognized the same two species, and listed H. buccata from, among others, the provinces of Phang-Nga, Phuket and Ranong. Cox et al. (2012) listed three Homalopsis for Thailand (H. buccata, H. mereljcoxi and H. nigroventralis), and indicated that H. mereljcoxi is the species occurring, a.o., in Phang-Nga, Phuket and Ranong provinces. Wallach et al. (2014) noted that H. semizonata lives in southern Myanmar near sea level, but also that it ''possibly occurs in Phuket''. Chan-ard et al. (2015), in their field guide whose reptile taxonomy is largely outdated (Pauwels & Grismer 2015), recognized only Homalopsis nigroventralis and H. buccata and the map for the latter indicates its presence in Phuket and Phang-Nga provinces. In the most recent synthesis on the family Homalopsidae, Murphy & Voris (2014) made however no mention of the possibility that H. semizonata occurs in Thailand. Because of the lack of voucher material, the identity of the Homalopsis living on the Indian Ocean coastal area of Thailand has thus remained poorly understood so far. PMID:27394821

  16. Nitrogen excretion during embryonic development of the green iguana, Iguana iguana (Reptilia; Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, M R; Taylor, E W; Abe, A S

    2012-10-01

    Development within the cleidoic egg of birds and reptiles presents the embryo with the problem of accumulation of wastes from nitrogen metabolism. Ammonia derived from protein catabolism is converted into the less toxic product urea or relatively insoluble uric acid. The pattern of nitrogen excretion of the green iguana, Iguana iguana, was determined during embryonic development using samples from allantoic fluid and from the whole homogenized egg, and in hatchlings and adults using samples of blood plasma. Urea was the major excretory product over the course of embryonic development. It was found in higher concentrations in the allantoic sac, suggesting that there is a mechanism present on the allantoic membrane enabling the concentration of urea. The newly hatched iguana still produced urea while adults produced uric acid. The time course of this shift in the type of nitrogen waste was not determined but the change is likely to be related to the water relations associated with the terrestrial habit of the adult. The green iguana produces parchment-shelled eggs that double in mass during incubation due to water absorption; the eggs also accumulate 0.02 mM of urea, representing 82% of the total measured nitrogenous residues that accumulate inside the allantois. The increase in egg mass and urea concentration became significant after 55 days of incubation then were unchanged until hatching. PMID:22710252

  17. Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (Squamata, Dactyloidae) of the Cerrado hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Werneck, Fernanda P; Giugliano, Lilian G; Santos, Marcella G; Fenker, Jéssica; Sousa, Lucas; D'Angiolella, Annelise B; Dos Santos, Adriana R; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Dorado-Rodrigues, Tainá F; Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group. PMID:26385121

  18. Comparing alignment methods for inferring the history of the new world lizard genus Mabuya (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Alison S; Sites, Jack W; Pellegrino, Katia C M; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2006-03-01

    The rapid increase in the ability to generate molecular data, and the focus on model-based methods for tree reconstruction have greatly advanced the use of phylogenetics in many fields. The recent flurry of new analytical techniques has focused almost solely on tree reconstruction, whereas alignment issues have received far less attention. In this paper, we use a diverse sampling of gene regions from lizards of the genus Mabuya to compare the impact, on phylogeny estimation, of new maximum likelihood alignment algorithms with more widely used methods. Sequences aligned under different optimality criteria are analyzed using partitioned Bayesian analysis with independent models and parameter settings for each gene region, and the most strongly supported phylogenetic hypothesis is then used to test the hypothesis of two colonizations of the New World by African scincid lizards. Our results show that the consistent use of model-based methods in both alignment and tree reconstruction leads to trees with more optimal likelihood scores than the use of independent criteria in alignment and tree reconstruction. We corroborate and extend earlier evidence for two independent colonizations of South America by scincid lizards. Relationships within South American Mabuya are found to be in need of taxonomic revision, specifically complexes under the names M. heathi, M. agilis, and M. bistriata (sensu, M.T. Rodrigues, Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 41 (2000) 313).

  19. Cariotipo y región organizadora del nucleolo en Teius teyou (Daudin, 1802 (Squamata: Teiidae

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    Hernando, Alejandra

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Teius teyou (Daudin, 1982 from Formosa and Chaco, Argentina, were citologically analyzed. A karyotype characterized by 54 chromosomes and 2 pairs of ribosomal chromosomes were identified.

  20. A taxonomic revision of the Phrynosoma douglasii species complex (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanucci, Richard R

    2015-01-01

    Short-horned lizards (Phrynosoma douglasii species complex) occur throughout the inter-montane West and Great Plains of western North America. The comparative morphology and color pattern variation of short-horned lizards was studied in 3,174 specimens. Multivariate analyses of 20 morphological and color-pattern characters were applied to 977 specimens, and univariate statistics were summarized for 52 samples totaling 1,134 specimens. The results of the morphological data analyses support the recognition of P. douglasii (Bell 1828) as a distinct species, and the resurrection of P. brevirostris Girard 1858a and P. ornatissimum Girard 1858a as species distinct from P. hernandesi Girard 1858a. Two new species allied to P. brevirostris are described: P. bauri sp. nov. from the eastern plains of Colorado and northeastern New Mexico, southeastern Wyoming and southwestern Nebraska south of the North Platte River, and P. diminutum sp. nov. endemic to the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. The Mexican taxon brachycercum Smith 1942 is reassigned as a subspecies of P. ornatissimum, based on non-discrete character differences and overall morphometric similarity. The ranges of P. hernandesi and P. ornatissimum broadly overlap in central New Mexico, the former taxon occupying the coniferous forests of disjunct mountain ranges, the latter occuring in the surrounding desert grasslands. Principal components analysis has revealed morphological evidence of hybridization where the two taxa meet, generally within ecotones between montane forest associations and grasslands. Principal components analysis has also revealed a high level of morphological variability in populations occurring in the Colorado Plateau region of northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, extreme southwestern Colorado and adjacent Utah. The evidence suggests that these populations arose through past hybridization between the two species. The taxon ornatum Girard 1858b, although sharing several traits with P. brevirostris, is morphologically close to P. hernandesi. It is regarded as a stabilized population of hybrid origin, but treated taxonomically as a subspecies of P. hernandesi. The taxonomic arrangement in this study, with the exception of P. douglasii, is largely discordant with the proposed taxonomy from a previously published study based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data. PMID:26624023

  1. Report of a bite by the South American colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii latirostris (Squamata: Colubridae

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    María Elisa Peichoto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the bite of Philodryas olfersii latirostris Cope, 1862, a 29-year-old male herpetologist developed localized and burning pain, and minimal bleeding from the puncture marks of posterior maxillary teeth, which subsided rapidly. The victim developed no other local signs or symptoms. After few days the victim presented persistent severe rotatory dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. On examination his hearing was normal. Neurological exam was otherwise normal. The patient had acute vertiginous symptoms but had no associated neurological signs. Computed tomography did not show abnormality. A diagnosis of labyrinthine syndrome was made. It was treated conservatively, and the patient recovered uneventfully. It was assumed as an effect of ophitoxemia. This case may be regarded as an unusual presentation of systemic envenoming following a human bite by Philodryas olfersii latirostris.

  2. Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) preys on the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, S; Ardiles, K; Figueroa, R A; González-Acuña, D

    2013-02-01

    Philodryas chamissonis, the Chilean long-tailed snake, is a diurnal predator mainly of Liolaemus lizards, but also of amphibians, birds, rodents and juvenile rabbits. Dromiciops gliroides (Colocolo opossum) is an arboreal marsupial endemic of temperate rainforest of southern South America. Little information is available about this marsupial's biology and ecology. Here we report the predation of one Colocolo opossum by an adult female P. chamissonis in a mixed Nothofagus forest, composed mainly by N. dombeyi, N. glauca and N. alpina trees, in the "Huemules de Niblinto" National Reserve, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Since these two species have different activity and habitat use patterns, we discuss how this encounter may have occurred. Although it could just have been an opportunistic event, this finding provides insights into the different components of food chains in forest ecosystems of Chile. PMID:23644784

  3. The relationship between perch type and aggressive behavior in the lizard Norops polylepis (Squamata: Dactyloidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Randall R. Jiménez; Jorengeth Abad Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    The intensity of aggression against intruders by owners of a territory has been related to the type of resources available to an individual within its territory. The influence of perch-site characteristics on aggressive behavior of resident male Norops polylepis in presence of an intruder male was investigated in this study. At each perch site, pairwise encounters were conducted in which the aggressive behavior of resident males was recorded, along with the diameter of the perch and the numbe...

  4. High frequency of pauses during intermittent locomotion of small South American gymnophthalmid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae

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    Elizabeth Höfling

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the locomotor behavior of two closely-related species of Gymnophthalmini lizards, Vanzosaura rubricauda and Procellosaurinus tetradactylus, that was imaged under laboratory conditions at a rate of 250 frames/s with a high-speed video camera (MotionScope PCI 1000 on four different substrates with increasing degrees of roughness (smooth perspex, cardboard, glued sand, and glued gravel. Vanzosaura rubricauda and P. tetradactylus are both characterized by intermittent locomotion, with pauses occurring with high frequency and having a short duration (from 1/10 to 1/3 s, and taking place in rhythmic locomotion in an organized fashion during all types ofgaits and on different substrates. The observed variations in duration and frequency of pauses suggest that in V. rubricauda mean pause duration is shorter and pause frequency is higher than in P. tetradactylus. The intermittent locomotion observed in V.rubricauda and P. tetradactylus imaging at 250 frames/s is probably of interest for neurobiologists. In the review of possible determinants, the phylogenetic relationships among the species of the tribe Gymnophthalmini are focused. Keywords: .

  5. The demography of the lizard Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a highly seasonal Neotropical savanna

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    Helga C. Wiederhecker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The demography of a population of Tropidurus torquatus was studied from March 1996 until December 1998, in the Cerrado biome of the Central Brazil, using the method of capture and recapture. Population size, number of incoming individuals in the population, and age structure varied seasonally, reflecting the reproductive cycle of the species. The instantaneous rate of population increase did not differ from zero throughout the study. In general, the permanence rate of juveniles and adults were low, indicating a large turnover of individuals in the population, with a maximum life expectancy of three years. The sex-ratio among adults was biased toward females. Since no bias was observed among juveniles and there was no difference in adults permanence between sexes, we suggestet that the biased adult sex-ratio resulted from a lower permanence of males during a short ontogenetic period, when secondary sexual characteristics develop. When compared to T. itambere, the studied population of T. torquatus attained a higher density and a greater female bias in the sex-ratio. In general, the studied population presented characteristics that, according to life history theory, should be associated with early age at maturity and polyginy: short life expectancy, high population turnover, and female biased sex-ratios.

  6. Defense behavior and tail loss in the endemic lizard Eurolophosaurus nanuzae (Squamata, Tropiduridae from southeastern Brazil

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    Conrado A. B. Galdino

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Defense behavior of the endemic tropidurid lizard Eurolophosaurus nanuzae was studied in an area of rocky outcrops at Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Tail loss aspects of this species were also studied in lizards from three populations (Diamantina, Serra do Cipó, and Serro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Lizards relied primarily on crypsis to avoid detection by predators. Secondary defense strategies involved a complex set of behaviors. Mean maximum distance of flight was 1.68 ± 1.70 m. When captured,individuals attempted to flee, lifted the tail, produced distress calls, discharged the cloacal contents, waived their tails, and bit. Frequency of tail autotomy was 13.2% (n = 53 in Diamantina, 11.9% (n = 42 in Serra do Cipó, and 4.1% (n = 49 in Serro. Tail autotomy frequency did not differ among the three populations (X2 = 3.3, DF =2, p = 0.19. Tail autotomy did not vary between the years of the study (X2 = 1.32, p = 0.35 and did not differ between males and females among the studied populations.

  7. Morphology and ecology of sibon snakes (Squamata: Dipsadidae from two forests in Central America

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    Todd R. Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical measurements, abundance, and ecological observations were recorded for Sibon annulatus,S. argus, S. longifrens, and S. nebulatus at two Neotropical habitats: a lowland swamp forest in Costa Rica and a montane cloud forest in Panama. Fourty-four and 58 adult snakes were recorded from Costa Rica and Panama, respectively. Differences in morphology and body condition showed minimal significant differences among species from both geographical locations. Observations of feeding, reproduction, abundance, distribution and a new size record for S. annulatus are discussed.

  8. New species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Molineidae) in Ameiva festiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Vitt, Laurie J

    2006-04-01

    Oswaldocruzia nicaraguensis n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the intestines of Ameiva festiva (Sauria: Teiidae) is described and illustrated. Oswaldocruzia nicaraguensis represents the 78th species assigned to the genus and is most similar to the Caribbean species of the genus by possessing spicules in which each of the 3 divisions terminates in numerous fine points. Of the 8 species assigned to this group, O. nicaraguensis is most similar to Oswaldocruzia moraveci; of the 8 species, only O. moraveci and O. nicaraguensis possess a type II bursa and lack cervical alae. It is separated from O. moraveci by the position of the tips of ribs 5-6; close together in O. nicaraguensis, well separated in O. moraveci. PMID:16729693

  9. Divergent calcium signaling in RBCs from Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata – Tropiduridae strengthen classification in lizard evolution

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    Garcia Célia RS

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that a Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs such as Ameiva ameiva and Tupinambis merianae controls intracellular calcium levels by displaying multiple mechanisms. In these cells, calcium stores could be discharged not only by: thapsigargin, but also by the Na+/H+ ionophore monensin, K+/H+ ionophore nigericin and the H+ pump inhibitor bafilomycin as well as ionomycin. Moreover, these lizards possess a P2Y-type purinoceptors that mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores upon ATP addition. Results Here we report, that RBCs from the tropidurid lizard Tropidurus torquatus store Ca2+ in endoplasmic reticulum (ER pool but unlike in the referred Teiidae, these cells do not store calcium in monensin-nigericin sensitive pools. Moreover, mitochondria from T. torquatus RBCs accumulate Ca2+. Addition of ATP to a calcium-free medium does not increase the [Ca2+]c levels, however in a calcium medium we observe an increase in cytosolic calcium. This is an indication that purinergic receptors in these cells are P2X-like. Conclusion T. torquatus RBCs present different mechanisms from Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs, for controlling its intracellular calcium levels. At T. torquatus the ion is only stored at endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Moreover activation of purinergic receptor, P2X type, was able to induce an influx of calcium from extracelullar medium. These studies contribute to the understanding of the evolution of calcium homeostasis and signaling in nucleated RBCs.

  10. Banding patterns and chromosomal evolution in five species of neotropical Teiinae lizards (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rodrigo Marques Lima; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo

    2007-11-01

    Karyotypes of five species of South American teiid lizards from subfamily Teiinae: Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata, K. paulensis, K. vanzoi (2n = 50, all acrocentric), and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (2n = 50, all biarmed), are herein described and compared on the basis of conventional and silver staining, and CBG and RBG banding patterns. Meiotic data are also included. Karyotypes of K. paulensis, K. vanzoi, and C. ocellifer are reported here for the first time. Inter-generic variability in Ag-NORs location was detected with NORs occurring at the end of long arm of pair 1 in K. calcarata, K. paulensis, and K. vanzoi; pair 5 in C. ocellifer and pair 7 in A. ameiva. The location of NORs, along with the karyological differences between A. ameiva and the Central American species (A. auberi), corroboretes the molecular-based hypothesis that the genus Ameiva is paraphyletic. Inter-populational heteromorphism in Ag-NORs size was detected between populations of C. ocellifer. RBG and CBG banding data demonstrated that the biarmed condition of the C. ocellifer chromosomes is due to multiple pericentric inversion events instead of addition of constitutive heterochromatin. Differential-staining techniques used here revealed valuable information about Teiinae karyotypic diversity and made it possible to compare these species, contributing to both the better comprehension of their chromosomal evolution and issues on taxa systematics. PMID:17206461

  11. The effects of early experience on subsequent feeding responses in the Tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Squamata : Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, F

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of early feeding experiences on subsequent responses to prey in the tegu, Tupinambis teguixin. Five-day old lizards were exposed to the odors of various prey and control substances on cotton-tipped applicators with the tongue-flick attack score (TFAS) chosen as the dependent variable. Each lizard was exposed to four stimuli: two controls (deionised water and cologne), and extracts from a mouse Mus musculus, and a lizard Ameiva ameiva, in a repeated measures, randomized block design, receiving one stimulus training session / day over a 40-day period. Tongue-flicks directed toward the applicator were counted over a 1 min period as well as the amount of time that elapsed from the first tongue flick to any bite that may have occurred. Live neonatal mice (but not A. ameiva), offered on a weekly basis, were used as a food source for tegus over a 10-month period. After 10 months, tegus were exposed to applicators containing control odors as well as those containing extracts from mice and lizards (A. ameiva). Mouse extracts elicited significantly higher TFAS as compared to those elicited by A. ameiva or control odors, suggesting that prey odors encountered in the environment shortly after hatching can influence prey preferences by these lizards later in life. These results also indicate that tegu lizards can learn to use specific odor cues associated with naturally occurring prey as releasers for subsequent hunting behaviors. PMID:12974408

  12. Plasmodium carmelinoi n. sp. (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae in Amazonian Brazil

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    Lainson R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium carmelinoi n. sp. is described in the teiid lizard Ameiva ameiva from north Brazil. Following entry of the merozoites into the erythrocyte, the young, uninucleated trophozoites are at first tearshaped and already possess a large vacuole: with growth, they may assume an irregular shape, but eventually become spherical or broadly ovoid. The vacuole reduces the cytoplasm of the parasite to a narrow peripheral band in which nuclear division produces a schizont with 8-12 nuclei. At first the dark, brownish-black pigment granules are restricted to this rim of cytoplasm but latterly become conspicuously concentrated within the vacuole. The mature schizonts are spherical to ovoid and predominantly polar in their position in the erythrocyte. They average 5.4 x 4,9 μm (4.4 x 4.4 - 6.6 x 5,9 μm, shape index 1.1, n = 50: 8-12 merozoites are produced and measure approximately 2.0 x 1,0 μm. Mature gametocytes are also polar in position, and spherical to subspherical. The macrogametocytes measure 5.7 x 5,2 μm (4.4 x 4.0 - 5.9 x 5,1 μm, shape index 1.1, n = 50 and, following staining by Giemsa’s method, possess a compact, pink-staining nucleus and a clear blue, faintly stained cytoplasm. Microgametocytes are slightly larger, 6.0 x 5,0 μm (5.2 x 4.4 – 6.2 x 5,2 μm, shape index 1.2, n = 45. They stain an over-all pink colour due to the dispersed nuclear chromatin. The vacuoles in both the macro- and microgametocytes are considerably smaller than those of the schizonts and of ovoid or spindle shape: they contain most of the pigment granules. The sex ratio, as seen in an inicial intense infection, was 1 male to 2.2 females. Prevalence of infection was low (5 % but, due to the very low parasitaemia which may result in a failure to detect parasites, it is probably higher than this.

  13. Report of reproduction in Ameiva cf. jacuba (Squamata: Teiidae in Brazilian Cerrado

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    Bruno Tayar Marinho do Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ameiva jacuba was described from specimens collected in the Emas National Park, Goiás State, Brazil. On 20 September 2012, we collected a female Ameiva cf. jacuba in the Santa Bárbara Ecological Station (22°47'10.95"S 49°14'41.93"W, elevation 620m, municipality of Águas de Santa Bárbara, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.The female measured 102mm snout-vent length (SVL, 280mm total length, and weighed 29 g (with eggs. Three elliptical shelled eggs weighing 2.5 g each (22.75 mm x 13.6 mm, 23.75 mm x 13.15 mm, 24mm x 13.6mm were removed. The weight of the female without eggs was 21.5 g.

  14. New records for Ameiva ameiva (L., 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Mario R.

    2002-01-01

    Tucumán province. Leales Department, Tacanas (27°08'S, 64°49'W): MACN (ex CENAI) 54. Santiago del Estero province. Loreto Department, 5 km S Villa San Martín (28°24'S; 64°12'W): MACN 27836 (entry number 5083). Entre Ríos province. Uruguay Department, Pronunciamiento (32°21'S; 58°26'W): MACN (ex CENAI) 407; 409/413. Jujuy province. Yavi Department, La Quiaca (22°07'S; 65°36'W): MACN (exCENAI) 752.

  15. New records for Ameiva ameiva (L., 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae in Argentina

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    Cabrera, Mario R.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Tucumán province. Leales Department, Tacanas (27°08'S, 64°49'W: MACN (ex CENAI 54. Santiago del Estero province. Loreto Department, 5 km S Villa San Martín (28°24'S; 64°12'W: MACN 27836 (entry number 5083. Entre Ríos province. Uruguay Department, Pronunciamiento (32°21'S; 58°26'W: MACN (ex CENAI 407; 409/413. Jujuy province. Yavi Department, La Quiaca (22°07'S; 65°36'W: MACN (exCENAI 752.

  16. Plasmodium carmelinoi n. sp. (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) in Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; Franco, C M; Da Matta, R

    2010-06-01

    Plasmodium carmelinoi n. sp. is described in the teiid lizard Ameiva ameiva from north Brazil. Following entry of the merozoites into the erythrocyte, the young, uninucleated trophozoites are at first tear-shaped and already possess a large vacuole: with growth, they may assume an irregular shape, but eventually become spherical or broadly ovoid. The vacuole reduces the cytoplasm of the parasite to a narrow peripheral band in which nuclear division produces a schizont with 8-12 nuclei. At first the dark, brownish-black pigment granules are restricted to this rim of cytoplasm but latterly become conspicuously concentrated within the vacuole. The mature schizonts are spherical to ovoid and predominantly polar in their position in the erythrocyte. They average 5.4 x 4,9 microm (4.4 x 4.4 - 6.6 x 5,9 microm), shape index 1.1, n = 50: 8-12 merozoites are produced and measure approximately 2.0 x 1,0 microm. Mature gametocytes are also polar in position, and spherical to subspherical. The macrogametocytes measure 5.7 x 5,2 microm (4.4 x 4.0- 5.9 x 5,1 microm), shape index 1.1, n = 50 and, following staining by Giemsa's method, possess a compact, pink-staining nucleus and a clear blue, faintly stained cytoplasm. Microgametocytes are slightly larger, 6.0 x 5,0 microm (5.2 x 4.4 - 6.2 x 5,2 microm), shape index 1.2, n = 45. They stain an over-all pink colour due to the dispersed nuclear chromatin. The vacuoles in both the macro- and microgametocytes are considerably smaller than those of the schizonts and of ovoid or spindle shape: they contain most of the pigment granules. The sex ratio, as seen in an inicial intense infection, was 1 male to 2.2 females. Prevalence of infection was low (5%) but, due to the very low parasitaemia which may result in a failure to detect parasites, it is probably higher than this. PMID:20597439

  17. Temporal and ontogenetic variation in the escape response of Ameiva festiva (Squamata, Teiidae

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    Lattanzio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors have been shown to affect lizard escape behavior (flight initiation distance or FID, the distance between predator and prey when the prey initiates escape. Patterns of daily activity, such as foraging or movement behavior, vary with respect to time of day, supporting that escape responses may vary temporally as well. However, there remains scant information regarding the effects of time of day on FID. During peak activity, FID may decrease due to increased cost of giving up resources (e.g., prey or potential mates. An alternative hypothesis is that FID may increase because lizard activity in general may serve to alert a predator in advance of its approach. A lizard in this scenario may be favored to flee sooner rather than later. Moreover, juvenile and adult lizards of multiple species may differ in behavioral, ecological, and morphological traits that could influence escape decisions. I tested the effects of time of day (in 30-min intervals and age (juvenile or adult on the FID of a tropical whiptail lizard, Ameiva festiva in Costa Rica. I found that A. festiva escape responses varied with time of day such that in general, their FID decreased throughout the day. In addition, I observed a peak in FID from mid to late-morning that matches published estimates of peak activity times for A. festiva. Overall, juvenile A. festiva initiated an escape response sooner than adults, which may be related to differences in perceived risk associated with differences in size and predator experience between the two age groups. I conclude that escape responses may be contingent on both the activity level of the animal at the time of approach and its age.

  18. New records for Ameiva ameiva (L., 1758) (Squamata: teiidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Mario Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Tucumán province. Leales Department, Tacanas (27°08'S, 64°49'W): MACN (ex CENAI) 54. Santiago del Estero province. Loreto Department, 5 km S Villa San Martín (28°24'S; 64°12'W): MACN 27836 (entry number 5083). Entre Ríos province. Uruguay Department, Pronunciamiento (32°21'S; 58°26'W): MACN (ex CENAI) 407; 409/413. Jujuy province. Yavi Department, La Quiaca (22°07'S; 65°36'W): MACN (exCENAI) 752.

  19. Signal transduction in red blood cells of the lizards Ameiva ameiva and Tupinambis merianae (Squamata, Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, F H; Sartorello, R; Lanari, R D; Garcia, C R

    2001-06-01

    The fluorescent calcium probe, Fluo-3, AM was used to measure the intracellular calcium concentration in red blood cells (RBCs) of the teiid lizards Ameiva ameiva and Tupinambis merianae. The cytosolic [Ca2+] is maintained around 20 nM and the cells contain membrane-bound Ca2+ pools. One pool appears to be identifiable with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) inasmuch as addition of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, SERCA, inhibitor thapsigargin induces an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+ both in the presence and in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In addition to the ER, an acidic compartment appears to be involved in Ca2+ storage, as collapse of intracellular pHgradients by monensin, a Na+ -H+ exchanger, and nigericin, a K+ -H+ exchanger, induce the release of Ca2+ from internal pools. A vacuolar H+ pump, sensitive to NBD-Cl and bafilomycin appears to be necessary to load the acidic Ca2+ pools. Finally, the purinergic agonist ATP triggers a rapid and transient increase of [Ca2+]c in the cells from both lizard species, mostly by mobilization of the cation from internal stores. PMID:11352509

  20. Insights into Himalayan biogeography from geckos: a molecular phylogeny of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ishan; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R; Karanth, K Praveen

    2014-11-01

    The India-Asia collision profoundly influenced the climate, topography and biodiversity of Asia, causing the formation of the biodiverse Himalayas. The species-rich gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus is an ideal clade for exploring the biological impacts of the India-Asia collision, as previous phylogenetic hypotheses suggest basal divergences occurred within the Himalayas and Indo-Burma during the Eocene. To this end, we sampled for Cyrtodactylus across Indian areas of the Himalayas and Indo-Burma Hotspots and used three genes to reconstruct relationships and estimate divergence times. Basal divergences in Cyrtodactylus, Hemidactylus and the Palaearctic naked-toed geckos were simultaneous with or just preceded the start of the India-Asia collision. Diversification within Cyrtodactylus tracks the India-Asia collision and subsequent geological events. A number of geographically concordant clades are resolved within Indo-Burmese Cyrtodactylus. Our study reveals 17 divergent lineages that may represent undescribed species, underscoring the previously undocumented diversity of the region. The importance of rocky habitats for Cyrtodactylus indicates the Indo-Gangetic flood plains and the Garo-Rajmahal Gap are likely to have been important historical barriers for this group.

  1. Histological and morphological observations on tongue of Scincella tsinlingensis (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The histology and morphology characteristics of the tongue in Scincella tsinlingensis were studied by light and electronic microscopy. Under light microscopy, the tongue consists of tip, lingual body and radix in sequence. Numerous lingual papillae widely distribute on the surface of the dorsal and ventral flanks in the tongue, in addition to some regions of the tip. The papillae's surface is covered with the epithelial layer. The lamina propria and dense connective tissue are distinct existing under the epithelial layer. There are many lingual glands spread over the lamina propria. Tongue muscle is developed and composed of distinct intrinsic muscle, hyoglossus and genioglossus. By scanning electron microscopy, at higher magnification, the epithelial cells of the dorsal surface in the divaricate tongue tips show numerous microvilli, micro-ridges and micro-pores. The surface of dorsal side of the papillae in lingual body is covered with abundant of micro-ridges and taste bud lacuna. On the surface of the papillae in radix, micro-facets and micro-ridges are compactly distributed, as well as scattered mucilage-pores. The lingual epithelium is divided into four layers observed by the transmission electron microscope. Cells of basal layer are irregularly elliptical in shape, with sparse organelles in the cytoplasm. The deep intermediate layer is not always distinct. Small numbers of organelles are scattered into the cytoplasm. The cells of the superficial intermediate layer gradually flatten, as do their nuclei. The cytoplasm contains many keratohyalin granules. Cell membranes are formed processes around cells and joined by abundant desmosomes to the cell membranes of adjacent cells. The cells located on the extreme free-surface side of the keratinized layer have fallen off. The basal lamina is intercalated between the basal layer and the lamina propria. The lamina propria of lingual body contains lingual gland. A large part of the cytoplasm is occupied by mucus granules which located in the distal part of the cell. The connective tissue contains myelinated nerve fibers, vessel and muscle cells.

  2. Natural history of Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon (Squamata, Xenosauridae), a Knob-scaled Lizard from Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    JULIO A LEMOS-ESPINAL; Smith, Geoffrey R.

    2005-01-01

    We made observations on the natural history of a population of the lizard Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon from Oaxaca, Mexico. Females were larger than males (SVL). Most lizards were found completely inside rock crevices. Mean body temperature was 20.3°C. Body temperature wasrelated primarily to substrate temperature. Body temperature was not influenced by any crevice characteristic. Based on abdominal palpation, the size at maturity for females appears to be 117-119 mm SVL. Sex ratio did not dif...

  3. Molecular phylogenetics, species diversity, and biogeography of the Andean lizards of the genus Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Noemí; Padial, José M; Chaparro, Juan C; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; De la Riva, Ignacio

    2012-12-01

    The family Gymnophthalmidae comprises ca. 220 described species of Neotropical lizards distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. It includes 36 genera, among them Proctoporus, which contains six currently recognized species occurring across the yungas forests and wet montane grasslands of the Amazonian versant of the Andes from central Peru to central Bolivia. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships and species limits of Proctoporus and closely related taxa by analyzing 2121 base pairs of mitochondrial (12S, 16S, and ND4) and nuclear (c-mos) genes. Our taxon sampling of 92 terminals includes all currently recognized species of Proctoporus and 15 additional species representing the most closely related groups to the genus. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses recovered a congruent, fully resolved, and strongly supported hypothesis of relationships that challenges previous phylogenetic hypotheses and classifications, and biogeographic scenarios. Our main results are: (i) discovery of a strongly supported clade that includes all species of Proctoporus and within which are nested the monotypic Opipeuter xestus (a genus that we consider a junior synonym of Proctoporus), and two species of Euspondylus, that are therefore transferred to Proctoporus; (ii) the paraphyly of Proctoporus bolivianus with respect to P. subsolanus, which is proposed as a junior synonym of P. bolivianus; (iii) the detection of seven divergent and reciprocally monophyletic lineages (five of them previously assigned to P. bolivianus) that are considered confirmed candidate species, which implies that more candidate species are awaiting formal description and naming than currently recognized species in the genus; (iv) rejection of the hypothesis that Proctoporus diversified following a south to north pattern parallel to the elevation of the Andes; (v) species diversity in Proctoporus is the result of in situ diversification through vicariance in the grasslands of the high Andes, with at least five dispersals contributing to montane forest species. PMID:22982151

  4. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Si Huang; Fei He; Hui Huang; Xiao-Yong Zhang; Shu-Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2), dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediyl))bis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylene))dicarbamate (3), obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5), and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5α,6β,7β-aromadendrane (6), (−)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5β,6α,7α-aromadendrane (7), (−)-4α,10β-aromadendranediol (8), (+)-4β,10β-aromadendrane...

  5. Reporte de Hepatozoon sp. en Corallus hortulanus (Squamata: Boidae para Guaviare‚ Colombia -resumen-

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    L P González-Camacho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatozoon spp. pertenecientes a la familia Hemogregarinidae son los hemoparásitos más abundantes en serpientes reportados a nivel mundial. Su identificación se realiza con base en parámetros morfológicos de los gamontes en sangre periférica del hospedero vertebrado. Corallus hortulanus‚ es distribuida ampliamente en el Neotrópico‚ habita de 1-2 metros sobre el suelo en áreas arbóreas con alta humedad‚ se alimenta de aves‚ reptiles y anfibios. Estos últimos han sido implicados como hospederos intermedios en el ciclo de transmisión de Hepatozoon spp.‚ los cuales se infectan al ingerir dípteros con formas infectivas. Otros invertebrados también han sido implicados como hospederos definitivos de Hepatozoon spp. como garrapatas‚ sanguijuelas‚ ácaros‚ piojos o pulgas. Un individuo de C. hortulanus fue capturado en zona boscosa aprox. a 10 km de San José del Guaviare‚ Colombia. La muestra se obtuvo por corte de hígado‚ se realizaron tres extendidos sanguíneos los cuales se colorearon con Giemsa‚ y se observaron microscópicamente para determinación de la parasitemia‚ análisis morfológico y morfométrico. La parasitemia se cuantificó como el número de parásitos en 10000 glóbulos rojos (100 campos ópticos analizados a1000X. Para el conocimiento de los autores este es el primer reporte de infección‚ en esta especie. Los gamontes de Hepatozoon sp.‚ poseen forma elongada‚ curva‚ núcleo compacto‚ cápsula conspicua‚ con citoplasma azul y granulaciones dispersas. El 50,3% de los gamontes presentan el núcleo con apariencia de bandas‚ que han sido señalados como formas inmaduras. La infección se presenta tanto en eritrocitos como en leucocitos‚ en los primeros provoca desplazamiento lateral del núcleo y aumento de tamaño‚ siendo común la infección con más de un parásito en la misma célula (12.69%. La parasitemia en C. hortulanus fue de 22,2%. A pesar de que muchos reportes refieren que la infección por Hepatozoon sp.‚ no causa alteraciones clínicas evidentes‚ una alta parasitemia como la encontrada‚ podría estar causando anemias hemolíticas y afectando la supervivencia del hospedero. Por cuanto seguimientos a largo plazo también como caracterización de ciclo esporogonico y patología de Hepatozoon spp. en estos hospederos‚ son deseables.

  6. Variabilidad poblacional en el género Kentropyx (Squamata: Teiidae del Norte argentino

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    Tedesco, María E.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability of population of Kentropyx from northern Argentina was studied using characters of lepidosis and coloration. A subspecific taxonomic level, Kentropyx viridistriga lagartija is proposed for Kentropyx lagartija, considering this subspecies a western form of the eastern one Kentropyx viridistriga viridistriga.

  7. Pygidial secretions ofPasimachus subsulcatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) deter predation byEumeces inexpectatus (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witz, B W; Mushinsky, H R

    1989-03-01

    The carabid beetlePasimachus subsulcatus is an abundant ground-dwelling insect in west central Florida that exudes a powerful mucous membrane irritant when disturbed. This secretion can be sprayed over 10 cm from the abdominal tip. The southeastern five-lined skink,Eumeces inexpectatus, is an abundant insectivorous lizard sympatric withPasimachus. We assessed the availability ofPasimachus toEumeces and found it to be within the foraging microenvironment of the lizard. Analysis ofEumeces gut contents and field feeding trials indicate thatPasimachus are not ingested by the lizard, yet arthropods of comparable size and exoskeletal thickness are ingested. The movement response ofEumeces to isolatedPasimachus secretion constituents, conducted in a modified Y-maze laboratory experiment, was used to assess the repellent capabilities of the secretion.Eumeces are consistently repelled byPasimachus secretion constituents, indicating that the beetle is protected chemically from the lizard. PMID:24271904

  8. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the dry season, which can result in habitat loss and territorial displacement of individuals.

  9. Two new species of Parapharyngodon (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae from the enigmatic Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus (Squamata: Bipedidae Dos especies nuevas de Parapharyngodon (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae de los enigmáticos Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus (Squamata: Bipedidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Agustín Jiménez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Parapharyngodon collected from Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus are herein described. Parapharyngodon lamothei n. sp. was collected from the 4-toed worm lizard Bipes canaliculatus from southern Mexico. It is unique in possessing 6 lips, a gubernaculum, a fringed cloacal lip, and a single medial papilla in addition to 3 paired papillae. Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp., was collected from the 3-toed worm lizard Bipes tridactylus, and it is characterized by having 3 bilobed lips, a simple cloaca, a relatively long spicule, and by possessing 3 pairs of caudal papillae. These are the third and fourth species of the genus recorded in Mexico.En este trabajo se describen 2 especies del género Parapharyngodon: Parapharyngodon lamothei n. sp. y Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp., recolectadas del intestino de los bipédidos Bipes canaliculatus y Bipes tridactylus, respectivamente. La primera se caracteriza por poseer 6 labios, gubernáculo, labio cloacal ornamentado y las papilas caudales distribuidas en 3 pares y 1 papila sencilla media ventral inmediatamente postcloacal. Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp. se diferencia por poseer 3 labios lobulados, por su estructura cloacal lisa y por presentar 3 pares de papilas caudales en el caso de los machos.

  10. A new species of Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parasitizing Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata from northeastern Argentina Una especie nueva de Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parásita de Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata del noreste de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Inés Lunaschi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae from a Spiny Lava Lizard, Tropidurus spinulosus, collected in Chaco Province, Argentina, is described. This is the second species of Mathevotaenia described from Neotropical reptiles. The new species is mainly characterized by having a relatively small strobila, 24 mm in total length, with about 100 craspedote proglottids, and 19-24 testes per proglottid. Among the South American species of Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis is most similar to the new species by having similar body length and number of testes, but the major differences between both species include the size of suckers, neck, proglottids, testes and egg capsules, and the shape of the genital atrium and ovary (with 10-13 lobules on each side in M. argentinensis,, and 4-7 lobules in M. chaquensis n. sp.. A key to the species of the South American members of the Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946 is presented.Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae es descrita parasitando al lagarto de los quebrachales, Tropidurus spinulosus, procedente de la Provincia del Chaco, Argentina. Esta es la segunda especie de Mathevotaenia descrita parasitando reptiles Neotropicales. La nueva especie está caracterizada principalmente por tener un estróbilo relativamente pequeño, 24 mm de largo, con aproximadamente 100 proglótides craspedotas y 19-24 testículos por proglótide. Entre las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis es la más semejante a la nueva especie por presentar similar longitud del cuerpo y número de testículos, pero difieren en el tamaño de las ventosas, cuello, proglótides, testículos y huevos. Además difieren en la forma del atrio genital y del ovario (10-13 lóbulos a cada lado enM. argentinensis vs. 4-7 lóbulos en M. chaquensis n. sp.. Se presenta una clave para la determinación de las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946.

  11. Single large or several small? The influence of prey size on feeding performance of Philodryas nattereri (Squamata: Serpentes

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    Sara Catunda Pereira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the energetic return and feeding time on Philodryas nattereri kept in captivity. Snakes were fed biweekly for 60 days (four feeding trials, in two different feeding treatments (single and multiple prey items. The energetic return revealed no significant difference between the feeding treatments; however, we found a negative relationship between snake size and prey handling time during a feed using multiple prey items. In P. nattereri, when large preys are as easy to find as small ones, there seems to be no difference in energetic return.

  12. Reproductive cycles and reproductive strategies among populations of the Rose-bellied Lizard Sceloporus variabilis (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) from central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Elizalde, Raciel; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio

    2016-03-01

    Species with wide distribution, generally show variations in life history characteristics, which can be attributed to environmental causes. In this study, we analyzed the reproductive cycle and reproductive characteristics from three populations (Atlapexco, San Pablo Tetlapayac, and Santa Catarina) of the lizard Sceloporus variabilis from central Mexico. The specific goal of this study was to evaluate life history characteristics such as reproductive period extent, SVL (snout-vent length) at sexual maturity, clutch size, egg mass and volume, and RCM (relative clutch mass). The San Pablo Tetlapayac population showed a larger clutch size, RCM, egg mass, and a smaller SVL, body mass and reproductive period (January-September), as well as egg volume than the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations. Reproductive cycle and reproductive characteristics were more similar between the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations. Differences found in the population of San Pablo Tetlapayac with respect to the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations could be attributed to environmental variations where lizard populations occur. Differences in the reproductive period and reproductive characteristics in each population could be the result of both historical (phylogenetic; e.g., reproductive mode) and nonhistorical (environmental; e.g., temperature, food availability) causes. This study showed that populations of the same species are under different selection pressures, and these affect the reproductive characteristics of populations. Our results also indicate that long-term and targeted studies on predation, use and selection of food, are needed to determine the causes of these variations in populations of S. variabilis. PMID:26929815

  13. Resolving the higher-order phylogenetic relationships of the circumtropical Mabuya group (Squamata: Scincidae): An out-of-Asia diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Benjamin R; Metallinou, Margarita; Weinell, Jeffrey L; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2016-09-01

    Despite an abundance of phylogenetic studies focused on intrageneric relationships of members of the Mabuya group, the intergeneric relationships have remained difficult to resolve. The most-persistent unresolved regions of the phylogeny of the group include: (1) the placement of the Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with respect to the Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis and its taxonomic status; (2) the phylogenetic position of the Cape Verdean Chioninia within the larger Mabuya group; (3) support for the placement of Dasia with respect to the entire group; and (4) the phylogenetic placement of Eutropis novemcarinata with respect to other Eutropis and Dasia. In this study, we include representatives of all these taxa as well as African Eumecia and Neotropical Mabuya. We seek to address these phylogenetic and systematic issues by generating a well-resolved and supported phylogeny for the Mabuya group as a whole that can be used to develop a stable taxonomy and reconstruct the geographic patterns of diversification within the group. To meet these goals, we built a large multi-locus dataset of 11 markers (nine nuclear and two mitochondrial), and performed concatenated and species tree analyses to generate a well-supported phylogeny for the group. Statistical topology tests reject the monophyly of Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis, and to reflect monophyly we place the Middle-Eastern species into a previously described genus, Heremites. Cape-Verdean Chioninia are resolved as the strongly supported sister-group to Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis. Monophyly of the Southeast-Asian genera, Eutropis and Dasia, is not supported, with a clade composed of Dasia+Eutropis novemcarinata more closely related to the rest of the Mabuya group than to the remaining Eutropis. The phylogenetic position of E. novemcarinata renders Eutropis polyphyletic, and we therefore describe and place E. novemcarinata into a new monotypic genus, Toenayar, to preserve monophyly among the genera. In light of these novel findings, we review and discuss the historical biogeography of the entire Mabuya group.

  14. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) III: a new species from Tablas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Drew R; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Feller, Kathryn D; Ashford, Alissa; Kouri, Josh; Nguyen, Daniel; Shauberger, Kathryn; Sheatsley, Kyra; Winfrey, Claire; Wong, Rachel; Sanguila, Marites B; Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the diversity of Philippine amphibians and reptiles have resulted in the continued description of cryptic species. Species formerly thought to range across multiple recognized faunal regions are now considered to be assemblages of multiple unique species, each restricted to a single faunal region. This pattern continues to hold true when considering Philippine skinks of the genus Brachymeles. Recent studies have resulted in the description of numerous unique species with many exhibiting various degrees of digit loss or limb reduction, as well as suggesting that unique lineages are still present in the B. bonitae Complex. In this paper, we describe a new species of fossorial skink within this species complex from Tablas Island based on collections made nearly 50 years ago. Although no genetic data are available for the new species, examinations of morphological data (qualitative traits, meristic counts, and mensural measurements) support its distinction from all other members of the genus. Brachymeles dalawangdaliri sp. nov. is differentiated from other members of the genus based on a suite of unique phenotypic characteristics, including a small body size (SVL 66.0-80.9 mm), bidactyl fore-limbs, digitless, unidactyl, or bidactyl hind limbs, a high number of presacral vertebrae (49), the absence of auricular openings, and distinct dorsal head scale patterns. The description of the new species increases the diversity of endemic vertebrates recognized to occur in the Romblon Island Group in the central Philippines. PMID:27395650

  15. The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae: current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities

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    Carlos F. D. Rocha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

  16. Vulnerability to climate warming of Liolaemus pictus (Squamata, Liolaemidae), a lizard from the cold temperate climate in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, Erika Leticia; Fernández, Jimena Beatriz; Ibargüengoytía, Nora Ruth

    2016-02-01

    The vulnerability of populations and species to global warming depends not only on the environmental temperatures, but also on the behavioral and physiological abilities to respond to these changes. In this sense, the knowledge of an organism's sensitivity to temperature variation is essential to predict potential responses to climate warming. In particular, it is interesting to know how close species are to their thermal limits in nature and whether physiological plasticity is a potential short-term response to warming climates. We exposed Liolaemus pictus lizards, from northern Patagonia, to either 21 or 31 °C for 30 days to compare the effects of these treatments on thermal sensitivity in 1 and 0.2 m runs, preferred body temperature (T pref), panting threshold (T pant), and critical minimum temperature (CTMin). Furthermore, we measured the availability of thermal microenvironments (operative temperatures; T e) to measure how close L. pictus is, in nature, to its optimal locomotor performance (T o) and thermal limits. L. pictus showed limited physiological plasticity, since the acclimation temperature (21 and 31 °C) did not affect the locomotor performance nor did it affect T pref, the T pant, or the CTMin. The mean T e was close to T o and was 17 °C lower than the CTMax. The results suggest that L. pictus, in a climate change scenario, could be vulnerable to the predicted temperature increment, as this species currently lives in an environment with temperatures close to their highest locomotor temperature threshold, and because they showed limited acclimation capacity to adjust to new thermal conditions by physiological plasticity. Nevertheless, L. pictus can run at 80 % or faster of its maximum speed across a wide range of temperatures near T o, an ability which would attenuate the impact of global warming.

  17. Restinga lizards (Reptilia: Squamata at the Imbassaí Preserve on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil

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    Danilo Couto-Ferreira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the diversity of lizard species at the Imbassaí Preserve, located in the Mata de São João municipality, on the northern coast of Bahia region, Brazil, with special attention to the threatened and endemic species. We present the main results on richness and abundance, from a long term monitoring program and especially from the period between November 2008 and June 2010. We applied the visual search method associated with pitfall traps and random encounters, on a 200m linear transect, in four different vegetation habitats. We detected 26 lizard species, distributed in 19 genera of 10 families. The study reveals a high diversity area for lizards, within the restinga ecosystem along the northern coast line, and therefore contributes to the knowledge of the herpetofauna on the northern coast of the Bahia region, as well as to future management and monitoring programs.

  18. Suivi du Gecko Phelsuma serraticauda (Squamata : Gekkonidae dans la région Atsinanana, dans l’Est de Madagascar

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    Karen L. M. Freeman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RÉSUMÉCette étude a été effectuée sur le Gecko Phelsuma serraticauda durant les mois d’octobre et décembre 2008 dans 57 sites dans l’est et nord-est de Madagascar. Elle a pour objectifs de déterminer l’aire de distribution dans l’est de Madagascar et l’utilisation d’habitat de cette espèce pour sa conservation et son utilisation durable. La plupart des observations des individus sur les plantes sont sur le cocotier Cocos nucifera (84,3 % et le fruit de pain Artocarpus altilis (4,9 %, avec 8,3 % sur le mur d’une maison en bois. Le nombre de P. serraticauda varie entre un et cinq par biotope avec une moyenne de 2,6 ± 0,2 pour l’ensemble des plantes et de 1,7 ± 0,4 pour les maisons. Parmi les 29 pieds de cocotier, 34 % sont occupés chacun par un seul individu mâle ou femelle, 14 % par deux femelles, 10 % par deux mâles, 10 % par un mâle et une femelle, et 10 % par deux mâles et une femelle. Le nombre moyen de mâle a été 1,06 ± 0,20 et 1,00 ± 0,15 pour la femelle. Sur les quatre maisons visitées, trois sont occupées chacune par une femelle et la dernière par trois mâles et deux femelles. Le nombre moyen de mâles a été 0,75 ± 0,75 et de 1,25 ± 0,25 pour les femelles. Phelsuma serraticauda est rarement trouvé sur des eucalyptus, Artocarpus heterophyllus et autres palmiers. Cette espèce n’est pas recensée dans la forêt humide de basse altitude d’Analalava, à la périphérie de la forêt littorale d’Antetezana et dans la plantation de Ravenala madagascariensis. L’analyse des matières fécales a montré que l’espèce se nourrit principalement d’araignées, coléoptères, hyménoptères, hémiptères et de leurs larves. Elle est sympatrique avec P. lineata et P. quadriocellata. La collecte de P. serraticauda dans la nature est allouée avec une autorisation légale et suivant le quota fixé par la CITES. Des cas de collecte illicite qui constitue une menace pour l’espèce de P. serraticauda, sont notés pendant cette étude. Compte tenu de l’état actuel des populations de P. serraticauda et de l’absence de mesures de conservation, un système de monitoring et un site de conservation pour cette espèce devraient être mis en place de toute urgence. Cette étude est la première réalisée sur cette espèce dans son état sauvage pour mieux comprendre ses besoins en termes d’habitat et les mesures de conservation à long terme de l’espèce. ABSTRACTThe diurnal gecko Phelsuma serraticauda has a restricted range in eastern and northeastern Madagascar. A study was under­taken in 57 sites mostly in Ivoloina and its surroundings areas in October (phase 1 and December (phase 2 2008. The main objectives were to elucidate the distribution area in the east of Madagascar and to determine the habitat use of P. serrati­cauda to help ensure its conservation and sustainable use. Most of the observations on plants were from coconut tree Cocos nucifera (84.3 % and breadfruit Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae, 4.9 %, with 8.3 % from houses. The number of P. serraticauda per biotope varied between one and five with means of 2.6 ± 0.2 for all plants and 1.7 ± 0.4 for the houses. Among the 29 coconut trees, 34 % were each occupied by one male or female, 14 % by two females, 10 % by two males, 10 % by one male and one female, 10 % by two males and one female. The mean number of male of P. serraticauda on the coconut trees was 1.06 ± 0.20 and 1.00 ± 0.15 for female. Among the four analysed houses, three were occupied by one female and one by three males and two females. The mean number of male P. serraticauda on the houses was 0.75 ± 0.75 and 1.25 ± 0.25 for female. Phelsuma serraticauda was also found infrequently on Eucalyptus sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, and other palm trees such as Dypsis sp. This species of gecko was not recorded in the humid forest of Analalava, in the edge of the Antetezana littoral forest, and in the vast plantation of Ravenala madagascariensis situated in the surrounding areas of Ivoloina. Results from fae­cal analysis showed tha

  19. Comparative Studies on Sperm Ultrastructure of Three Gecko Species, Gekko japonicus, Gekko chinensis and Hemidactylus bowrigii (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangli HAO; Liangliang PAN; Zhouxi FANG; Yongpu ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first description of the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of Gekko japonicus, Gekko chinensis and Hemidactylus bowrigii for further understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of Gekkonidae. Mature spermatozoa of the three species differ in the occurrence and shape of epinuclear electron-lucent zone, nuclear space, neck cylinder and mitochondria. G. japonicus and G. chinensis have similar spermatozoan ultrastructure while H. bowrigii differs from these two species. In addition, these three species have neck cylinder with mitochondria in neck region and dense bodies arranged in grid with mitochondria in the midpiece, which may be the autapomorphies of the family Gekkonidae. Statistical analyses reveal that:total length of the spermatozoa was signiifcantly different between G. japonicus and G. chinensis, as well as between G. japonicus and H. bowrigii (F2,57=23.66, P<0.0001);G. japonicus and H. bowrigii differ in head length (F2,43=4.64, P<0.05) and the width of nuclear base (F2,22=3.97, P<0.05). In addition, the midpiece length (F2,33=23.66, P<0.01) of the spermatozoa was signiifcantly different between H. bowrigii and G. japonicus, and also between H. bowrigii and G. chinensis. Lengths of perforatorium, acrosomal complex and nuclear rostrum and the width of nuclear shoulder are similar in all three species. Our results indicated that the sperm ultrastructure contained intra and intergeneric variabilities which is helpful for better understanding their genetic relationships.

  20. Evolution around the Red Sea: Systematics and biogeography of the agamid genus Pseudotrapelus (Squamata: Agamidae) from North Africa and Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamar, Karin; Scholz, Sebastian; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Meiri, Shai; Schmitz, Andreas; Wilms, Thomas; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Since the Oligocene, regions adjacent to the Red Sea have experienced major environmental changes, from tectonic movements and continuous geological activity to shifting climatic conditions. The effect of these events on the distribution and diversity of the regional biota is still poorly understood. Agamid members of the genus Pseudotrapelus are diurnal, arid-adapted lizards distributed around the Red Sea from north-eastern Africa, across the mountains and rocky plateaus of the Sinai and Arabian Peninsulas northwards to Syria. Despite recent taxonomic work and the interest in the group as a model for studying biogeographic and diversity patterns of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia, its taxonomy is poorly understood and a comprehensive phylogeny is still lacking. In this study, we analyzed 92 Pseudotrapelus specimens from across the entire distribution range of the genus. We included all known species and subspecies, and sequenced them for mitochondrial (16S, ND4 and tRNAs) and nuclear (MC1R, c-mos) markers. This enabled us to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus, using gene trees, species trees and coalescent-based methods for species delimitation. Our results revealed Pseudotrapelus as a monophyletic genus comprised of two major clades and six independently evolving lineages. These lineages correspond to the five currently recognized species and a sixth lineage relating to the synonymized P. neumanni. The subspecific validity of P. sinaitus werneri needs further assessment as it does not form a distinct cluster relative to P. s. sinaitus. The onset of Pseudotrapelus diversification is estimated to have occurred in Arabia during the late Miocene. Radiation has likely resulted from vicariance and dispersal events due to the continued geological instability, sea level fluctuations and climatic changes within the region.

  1. A new species of kukri snake (Squamata: Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Le, Son Hong; Murphy, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new kukri snake, Oligodon condaoensis sp. nov., from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam based on the morphological characters of four specimens. It differs from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: medium size in adults (total length up to 552 mm); 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows; deeply forked hemipenes without spines and papillae, extending to subcaudal 13 or 14; 11-13 maxillary teeth, the posterior three being enlarged; cloacal plate undivided; head scalation complete; nasal divided; presubocular absent; 168-176 ventrals; 33-37 subcaudals; overall dorsal coloration dark gray, faint body stripes present or absent; and ventral coloration cream to dark gray without rectangular blotches. We also provide a list of 43 species of amphibians and terrestrial reptiles recorded from Con Dao Islands. PMID:27470803

  2. Evolution around the Red Sea: Systematics and biogeography of the agamid genus Pseudotrapelus (Squamata: Agamidae) from North Africa and Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamar, Karin; Scholz, Sebastian; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Meiri, Shai; Schmitz, Andreas; Wilms, Thomas; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Since the Oligocene, regions adjacent to the Red Sea have experienced major environmental changes, from tectonic movements and continuous geological activity to shifting climatic conditions. The effect of these events on the distribution and diversity of the regional biota is still poorly understood. Agamid members of the genus Pseudotrapelus are diurnal, arid-adapted lizards distributed around the Red Sea from north-eastern Africa, across the mountains and rocky plateaus of the Sinai and Arabian Peninsulas northwards to Syria. Despite recent taxonomic work and the interest in the group as a model for studying biogeographic and diversity patterns of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia, its taxonomy is poorly understood and a comprehensive phylogeny is still lacking. In this study, we analyzed 92 Pseudotrapelus specimens from across the entire distribution range of the genus. We included all known species and subspecies, and sequenced them for mitochondrial (16S, ND4 and tRNAs) and nuclear (MC1R, c-mos) markers. This enabled us to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus, using gene trees, species trees and coalescent-based methods for species delimitation. Our results revealed Pseudotrapelus as a monophyletic genus comprised of two major clades and six independently evolving lineages. These lineages correspond to the five currently recognized species and a sixth lineage relating to the synonymized P. neumanni. The subspecific validity of P. sinaitus werneri needs further assessment as it does not form a distinct cluster relative to P. s. sinaitus. The onset of Pseudotrapelus diversification is estimated to have occurred in Arabia during the late Miocene. Radiation has likely resulted from vicariance and dispersal events due to the continued geological instability, sea level fluctuations and climatic changes within the region. PMID:26772670

  3. Validation and Application of Skeletochronology for Age Determination of the Ryukyu Ground Gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata:Eublepharidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takaki KURITA; Mamoru TODA

    2013-01-01

    Skeletochronology is a method commonly used for estimating the age of amphibians and reptiles in the wild. However, the number of lines of arrested growth (LAGs) does not necessarily relfect age in some species. We validated the applicability of this method to an endangered eublepharid gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae, then inferred its longevity and age structures in wild populations. We classiifed young geckos into three groups using previously published data for early growth:Group 1 contained hatchlings before the ifrst winter, Group 2 contained hatchlings after the ifrst win-ter, and Group 3 included yearlings after the second winter. LAG numbers in these groups were then compared. All individuals in Group 1 possessed a single LAG, which was considered as a hatching line. Most individuals in Groups 2 and 3 possessed one and two additional LAGs, respectively (LAG1 and LAG2), corroborating the notion that LAGs are formed annually. A few geckos exhibited fewer LAGs than expected. Analysis of variations in LAG and marrow cavity diameter demonstrated that in animals with fewer LAGs, endosteal resorption or fusion of hatching line and LAG1 had occurred. LAG2 was never lost by endosteal resorption and was identiifable by its diameter. Thus, the age of adult geckos could be determined by counting LAGs outward from LAG2. Application of this method to wild populations re-vealed that the longevity of this species is not less than 83 months, but that almost all individuals in fragmented habitats die before 50 months, suggesting lower population sustainability in such habitats.

  4. A new species of karst-dwelling bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khammouane Province, central Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from Khammouane Province, central Laos based on morphological features and molecular data. Morphologically, Cyrtodactylus bansocensis sp. nov. is differentiated from other congeners by a unique combination of the following characters: medium size, SVL reaching 74.0 mm; dorsal pattern consisting of four light transverse bands between limb insertions; supranasals in contact with each other; dorsal tubercles at midbody in 14-15 irregular rows; lateral folds present without interspersed tubercles; ventral scales between ventrolateral folds 34-35; precloacal and femoral pores in males 34, separated by four poreless scales in the male holotype and in a continuous row in the male paratype; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales present; postcloacal tubercles 5-7 on each side; dorsal tubercles present at tail base; and subcaudal scales transversely enlarged. Molecular analyses revealed the new species to be closely related to Cyrtodactylus rufford, which is also found in Khammouane Province. PMID:27395993

  5. Comparative cytogenetics of two species of ground skinks: Scincella assata and S. cherriei (Squamata: Scincidae: Lygosominae from Chiapas, Mexico

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    Riccardo Castiglia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard karyotypes of two species of the genus Scincella, S. assata and S. cherriei, both from Chiapas State, Mexico, were described for the first time. The diploid chromosome number was 28 in S. assata, whereas 30 in S. cherriei. The karyotypes of the two species, while differing in the number of microchromosomes, 14-15 in S. assata and 16-17 in S. cherriei, share four pairs of large metacentric, two pairs of medium-sized metacentric, and one particular pair (number 7 of chromosomes. Female S. assata carries chromosome pair 7 composed of two identical medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes. This chromosome pair is heteromorphic in males of both species, i.e., one component of the pair is similar to the homomorphic chromosomes 7 of the S. assata female, while the other is nearly one-half the size of its counterpart and resembles a microchromosome. The homology of such externally different elements is deducted from the presence of an asymmetric bivalent in spermatocytes at diplotene-diakinesis. Female S. cherriei was not available. We suspect that the two Scincella species possess an XY sex determination system, as previously reported for the North American congeneric species, S. lateralis.

  6. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the Liolaemus rothi complex and a new species of lizard from Auca Mahuida Volcano (Squamata: Liolaemini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Luciano Javier; Olave, Melisa; Perez, Cristian Hernan Fulvio; Perez, Daniel Roberto; Morando, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    A new species of lizard of the genus Liolaemus from Neuquén Province, western Argentina, is described. The new species is a member of the Liolaemus rothi species complex, and mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data show it as sister taxon of the clade composed of (L. hermannunezi (L. tromen + L. loboi)), differing in size, squamation, coloration, and sexual dimorphism from the other species of this group. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. has a dark body coloration with series of notched blotches on the dorsum, with bright spots, and a very iridescent yellow-green coloration in natural light. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. is found only in the Auca Mahuida volcano and is terrestrial, dwelling on the stony slopes with sandy soil between 1300 m and the volcano summit. PMID:24614465

  7. A new species of kukri snake (Squamata: Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Le, Son Hong; Murphy, Robert W

    2016-07-20

    We describe a new kukri snake, Oligodon condaoensis sp. nov., from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam based on the morphological characters of four specimens. It differs from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: medium size in adults (total length up to 552 mm); 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows; deeply forked hemipenes without spines and papillae, extending to subcaudal 13 or 14; 11-13 maxillary teeth, the posterior three being enlarged; cloacal plate undivided; head scalation complete; nasal divided; presubocular absent; 168-176 ventrals; 33-37 subcaudals; overall dorsal coloration dark gray, faint body stripes present or absent; and ventral coloration cream to dark gray without rectangular blotches. We also provide a list of 43 species of amphibians and terrestrial reptiles recorded from Con Dao Islands.

  8. Out of the deep: cryptic speciation in a Neotropical gecko (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) revealed by species delimitation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Fabricius M C B; Bosque, Renan J; Cassimiro, José; Colli, Guarino R; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Santos, Marcella G; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2014-11-01

    Levels of biodiversity in the Neotropics are largely underestimated despite centuries of research interest in this region. This is particularly true for the Cerrado, the largest Neotropical savanna and a formally recognized biodiversity hotspot. Molecular species delimitation methods have become essential tools to uncover cryptic species and can be notably robust when coupled with morphological information. We present the first evaluation of the monophyly and cryptic speciation of a widespread Cerrado endemic lizard, Gymnodactylus amarali, using phylogenetic and species-trees methods, as well as a coalescent-based Bayesian species delimitation method. We tested whether lineages resulting from the analyses of molecular data are morphologically diagnosed by traditional meristic scale characters. We recovered eight deeply divergent molecular clades within G. amarali, and two additional ones from seasonally dry tropical forest enclaves between the Cerrado and the Caatinga biomes. Analysis of morphological data statistically corroborated the molecular delimitation for all groups, in a pioneering example of the use of support vector machines to investigate morphological differences in animals. The eight G. amarali clades appear monophyletic and endemic to the Cerrado. They display several different properties used by biologists to delineate species and are therefore considered here as candidates for formal taxonomic description. We also present a preliminary account of the biogeographic history of these lineages in the Cerrado, evidence for speciation of sister lineages in the Cerrado-Caatinga contact, and highlight the need for further morphological and genetic studies to assess cryptic diversity in this biodiversity hotspot. PMID:25109652

  9. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata) del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Brizuela; Marcos M. Cenizo; Daniel A. Tassara

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province). The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds). The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for th...

  10. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Santiago Brizuela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province. The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds. The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for the family Anguidae exhumed in Argentina.

  11. A new lizard species of the Phymaturus patagonicus group (Squamata: Liolaemini) from northern Patagonia, Neuquén, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Andrea González; Pérez, Cristian Hernán Fulvio; Minoli, Ignacio; Morando, Mariana; Avila, Luciano Javier

    2016-01-01

    The integrative taxonomy framework allows developing robust hypotheses of species limits based on the integration of results from different data sets and analytical methods. In this work, we test a candidate species hypothesis previously suggested based on molecular data, with geometric and traditional morphometrics analyses (multivariate and univariate). This new lizard species is part of the Phymaturus patagonicus group (payuniae clade) that is distributed in Neuquén and Mendoza provinces (Argentina). Our results showed that Phymaturus rahuensis sp. nov. differs from the other species of the payuniae clade by a higher number of midbody scales, and fewer supralabials scales, finger lamellae and toe lamellae. Also, its multidimensional spaces, both based on continuous lineal variables and geometric morphometrics (shape) characters, do not overlap with those of the other species in this clade. The results of the morphometric and geometric morphometric analyses presented here, coupled with previously published molecular data, represent three independent lines of evidence that support the diagnosis of this new taxon. PMID:27395232

  12. Photographic evidence of interspecies mating in geckos of the Lepidodactylus lugubris unisexual-bisexual complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, Donald W.; Cianchini, Carlos; Taborosi, Danko; Fisher, Robert N.; Bauer, Aaron; Ineich, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    An interspecies mating between unisexual Lepidodactylus lugubris and a male of the bisexual Lepidodactylus moestus was photographed by Carlos Cianchini on Kosrae [Island], FSM, at 18:15 h on 22 August 2013 (Figure 1). The mating pair was on a window frame inside a house at Pukusruk Wan village (05°21'01" N, 163°00'41" E, elev. 28 m a.s.l.) on the northeastern side of the island. This is the first direct evidence of mating between these two species.

  13. Uso nocturno de perchas en dos especies de Anolis (Squamata: Polychrotidae en un bosque Andino de Colombia

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    Claudia Molina Zuluaga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio registramos el uso de sitios para dormir por Anolis "anoriensis" y Anolis mariarum en un bosque montano al norte de la Cordillera Central de Colombia, con el objetivo de examinar la ocurrencia de segregación espacial entre ellas. Además, estimamos la disponibilidad de perchas en ambos sitios. Anolis mariarum durmió con mayor frecuencia en arbustos (51% que en otros tipos de perchas (arboles, helechos, herbáceas, y lo hizo en proporción similar a su disponibilidad. Anolis "anoriensis" utilizó de manera diferencial los tipos de percha en los dos sitios muestreados, dependiendo de la presencia/ausencia de la otra especie. Esta variación en la selección de los arbustos por A. "anoriensis" sugiere la existencia de competencia entre ambas especies cuando ocurren sintópicamente.In this study we recorded the use of sleeping site by Anolis "anoriensis" and Anolis mariarum in two study sites located in the montane forest of the extreme northern of Cordillera Central, Colombia. We also tested the occurrence of spatial segregation between the two species. Furthermore, we estimated perch availability in both study sites. Anolis mariarum slept more frequently on shrubs (51% than other kinds of perches (ferns, herbs, trees, but did so in proportion to their availability. Anolis "anoriensis" used different kinds of perches in each site, depending on the presence/absence of A. mariarum. Such variation in response to shrubs as sleeping perches by A. "anoriensis" suggests the existence of competition between the species when they are in syntopy.

  14. Diet, microhabitat use, and thermal preferences of Ptychoglossus bicolor (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae in an organic coffee shade plantation in Colombia

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    Jaime M. Anaya-Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ptychoglossus bicolor is a small gymnophthalmid lizard distributed in the Magdalena Valley of Colombia. We studied ecological features of diet, microhabitat use, and thermal preferences of a population found in an organic coffee shade plantation at the Cordillera Oriental of the Colombian Andes. The studied population had a diet composed predominantly of isopods. The Relative Importance Index of isopods was 98.8%; there were no significant monthly differences in the full stomach content and volume of isopods eaten during the sampling year, neither between rainy and dry seasons. A large number of lizards were found active in the leaf-litter, buried around coffee tree roots, and under or in rotting logs. Lizard body temperature was positively correlated with substrate temperature and air temperature; sex differences in body temperature were not significant. At the studied locality we did not find lizards out of the coffee fields. Our results suggested that these lizards successfully cope with the conditions offered by the organic coffee areas as a result of the cultivation system. Thus, this population might be vulnerable to any modification of the habitat that changes microhabitat availability and abundance of isopods.Ptychoglossus bicolor es un pequeño lagarto de la familia Gymnophthalmidae, que habita el valle del Río Magdalena de Colombia. Se estudiaron las características ecológicas de la dieta, uso de microhábitat y preferencias termales de una población que habita una plantación de café orgánico bajo sombra en la Cordillera Oriental colombiana. La dieta en esta población está dominada por isópodos. El Índice Valor de Importancia Relativa fue del 98.8% y no hubo diferencias mensuales significativas en el contenido estomacal y el volumen de isópodos consumidos durante el año, ni tampoco entre las estaciones de lluvia y seca. Un gran número de lagartos fueron encontrados activos entre la hojarasca, enterrados junto a las raíces de los árboles y bajo o dentro de troncos en descomposición. La temperatura corporal estuvo positivamente correlacionada con las temperaturas del suelo y del aire y no hubo diferencias significativas en temperatura corporal entre los sexos. En esta localidad no encontramos lagartos fuera de los campos de cultivo de café. Nuestros resultados sugieren que estos lagartos sobrellevan exitosamente las condiciones ofrecidas por los cafetales orgánicos como resultado del sistema de cultivo. Así, esta población podría ser vulnerable a cualquier modificación del hábitat que cambie la disponibilidad de microhábitats y la abundancia de isópodos.

  15. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrastro, L; Ely, I

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of a species' diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard's diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, "sit-and-wait" or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often. PMID:26132010

  16. A new species of Spauligodon (Nematoda; Oxyuroidea; Pharyngodonide) and other Helminths in Ptychozoon Kuhli (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from East Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Lee Grismer, L

    2016-03-01

    Spauligodon geckonis sp. nov. from the intestines of Ptychozoon kuhli (Gekkonidae) from East Malaysia is described and illustrated. Spauligodon geckonis sp. nov. represents the 52nd species assigned to the genus and the third species from the Oriental Region. The new species is separated from congeners by the unique combination of aspinose filamentous tail and spicule in the male and spinose filamentous tail and fusiform, two knobbed eggs in the female. Gravid individuals 3 species of Nematoda, Meteterakis singaporensis, Physalopteroides grismeri, and Skrjabinelazia machidai, as well as larvae assignable to the Ascaridae were also found. PMID:27078659

  17. A new microendemic species of Tropidurus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from southern Brazil and revalidation of Tropidurus catalanensis Gudynas & Skuk, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Tobias Saraiva; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    The South American and cis-andean lizard genus Tropidurus has a complex taxonomic history. Most species were recently described and previous revisions included few specimens from the southern part of the continent. Tropidurus torquatus has the broadest geographic distribution in the genus and several morphological and ecological differences were described within its distribution. We analyzed the geographic variation in external morphological characters of Tropidurus torquatus, including large number of samples from southern Brazil. Tropidurus catalanensis is revalidated and Tropidurus imbituba sp. nov., with a restrict distribution in the southern coast of Brazil, is described. The new species is distinguished from Tropidurus catalanensis by the number of dorsal scales. It can be distinguished from T. catalanensis and T. torquatus by a distinct orange ventral coloration in adults, which can reach the lateral portion of the body in adult males. Our analysis also suggests that at least two other undescribed species could be recognized under the name Tropidurus torquatus in southeastern and central Brazil. PMID:25232619

  18. Dragons in the mist: three new species of Pseudocalotes Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae) from the sky island archipelago of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Quah, Evan S H; Wood, Perry L Jr; Anuar, Shahrul; Muin, Abdul; Davis, Hayden R; Murdoch, Matthew L; Grismer, Jesse L; Cota, Michael; Cobos, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    An integrative taxonomic analysis is used to delimit and describe three new species of Pseudocalotoes from the sky island archipelago of the Banjaran (=mountain range) Titiwangsa of Peninsular Malaysia. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov., from Fraser's Hill, Pahang is basal to the sister species P. larutensis from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Banjaran Bintang and the new species P. rhaegal sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a flat rostrum; seven postrostrals; an interparietal; 11 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one scale between the rostral and nasal; nine supralabials; eight infralabials; 10 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; five or six sublabials; five or six chinshields; 47 smooth, wide, gular scales; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; enlarged upper and lower posttemporals; a single enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; three large scales bordering the dorsal margin of the ear opening; large pretympanic scales; eight scales in the nuchal crest not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the tip of the tail; keeled and non-plate-like scales on flanks; 51 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on third toe enlarged and spinose; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.52; HL/SVL 0.31; no elbow or knee patches; and a male dewlap color of lime-green bearing a central yellow spot. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. is differentiated from all other Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a convex rostrum; 6-8 postrostrals; an interparietal; nine or 10 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one or two scales between the rostral and nasal scales; eight or nine supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; 11 or 12 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; four or five chinshields; 40-45 smooth, wide, gular scales; no transverse gular fold; a weak antehumeral fold; three or four enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; no large scales bordering the upper margin of the ear opening or in the pretympanic region; 6-8 enlarged nuchal crest scales not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the base of the tail; weakly keeled, non-plate-like scales on the flanks; 52-58 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19-21 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 22-26 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third enlarged and rounded; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.50-0.54; HL/SVL 0.28-0.30; no elbow or knee patches; and female dewlap color yellow bearing a purple base. The analyses also indicated that the new species, P. viserion sp. nov. from Genting Highlands, Pahang in the southern section of the Banjaran Titiwangsa is the sister species of P. flavigula from Cameron Highlands 121 km to the north and can be separated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of three postrostrals; 10 circumorbitals; four or five canthals; 5-7 superciliaries; rostral and nasals in contact; supralabials contacting the nasal; six or seven supralabials; six or seven infralabials; two or three postmentals; 47 or 48 smooth, flat, gular scales; three chinshields; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; 7-9 nuchal crest scales lacking gaps and not extending beyond midbody; weakly keeled and plate-like scales on the flanks; 35-38 midbody scales; ventrals smaller than dorsals; 22 or 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 26 or 27 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third toe not modified; subdigital scales not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.62; no white marking below the eye; dewlap in males yellow; and no elbow or knee patches. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. most likely occurs in syntopy with P. flavigula in Tanah Rata at Cameron Highlands and its discovery adds to a growing body of literature detailing the recent descriptions of several new, upland, closely related, sympatric species in Peninsular Malaysia. Another new population referred to here as Pseudocalotes sp. nov. from the Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Betong District, Yala Province, Thailand is discussed. The discovery and description of these three new Pseudocalotes from the upland regions of Peninsular Malaysia continues to underscore the remarkably high herpetological diversity and ecological complexity in this sky island archipelago that is still underestimated, unappreciated, and unprotected. PMID:27395729

  19. Thermal ecology and thermoregulatory behavior of Coleodactylus natalensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae, in a fragment of the Atlantic forest of northeastern, Brazil

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    Pablo A. G. de Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the thermal ecology and thermoregulatory behavior of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999 in a remnant of a northern coastal patch of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Data were collected during four 20-day field excursions over the course of one year. We assessed the importance of substrate and air temperatures, in addition to time of exposure to sunlight, as relevant factors for the regulation of body temperature in this species. After each specimen was captured, body (Tb, substrate (Ts and air (Ta temperature were measured 10 cm above the ground, using a temperature sensor coupled to a fast response thermo-hygrometer. Ad libitum and focal animal methods were used to describe thermoregulatory behavior. The mean body temperature of C. natalensis was 31.3 ± 3°C (amplitude of 26.9 and 38.4°C, n = 20. A positive relationship was found between Tb and environmental temperatures; further, substrate temperature explained the additional variability of temperature variations in this species. With respect to environmental observations, individuals of C. natalensis did not expose themselves directly to the sun, moving equally between full and filtered sun. Our results indicate that C. natalensis is umbrophylic and a passive thermoregulator.

  20. Dragons in the mist: three new species of Pseudocalotes Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae) from the sky island archipelago of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Quah, Evan S H; Wood, Perry L Jr; Anuar, Shahrul; Muin, Abdul; Davis, Hayden R; Murdoch, Matthew L; Grismer, Jesse L; Cota, Michael; Cobos, Anthony J

    2016-07-07

    An integrative taxonomic analysis is used to delimit and describe three new species of Pseudocalotoes from the sky island archipelago of the Banjaran (=mountain range) Titiwangsa of Peninsular Malaysia. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov., from Fraser's Hill, Pahang is basal to the sister species P. larutensis from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Banjaran Bintang and the new species P. rhaegal sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a flat rostrum; seven postrostrals; an interparietal; 11 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one scale between the rostral and nasal; nine supralabials; eight infralabials; 10 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; five or six sublabials; five or six chinshields; 47 smooth, wide, gular scales; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; enlarged upper and lower posttemporals; a single enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; three large scales bordering the dorsal margin of the ear opening; large pretympanic scales; eight scales in the nuchal crest not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the tip of the tail; keeled and non-plate-like scales on flanks; 51 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on third toe enlarged and spinose; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.52; HL/SVL 0.31; no elbow or knee patches; and a male dewlap color of lime-green bearing a central yellow spot. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. is differentiated from all other Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a convex rostrum; 6-8 postrostrals; an interparietal; nine or 10 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one or two scales between the rostral and nasal scales; eight or nine supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; 11 or 12 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; four or five chinshields; 40-45 smooth, wide, gular scales; no transverse gular fold; a weak antehumeral fold; three or four enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; no large scales bordering the upper margin of the ear opening or in the pretympanic region; 6-8 enlarged nuchal crest scales not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the base of the tail; weakly keeled, non-plate-like scales on the flanks; 52-58 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19-21 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 22-26 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third enlarged and rounded; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.50-0.54; HL/SVL 0.28-0.30; no elbow or knee patches; and female dewlap color yellow bearing a purple base. The analyses also indicated that the new species, P. viserion sp. nov. from Genting Highlands, Pahang in the southern section of the Banjaran Titiwangsa is the sister species of P. flavigula from Cameron Highlands 121 km to the north and can be separated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of three postrostrals; 10 circumorbitals; four or five canthals; 5-7 superciliaries; rostral and nasals in contact; supralabials contacting the nasal; six or seven supralabials; six or seven infralabials; two or three postmentals; 47 or 48 smooth, flat, gular scales; three chinshields; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; 7-9 nuchal crest scales lacking gaps and not extending beyond midbody; weakly keeled and plate-like scales on the flanks; 35-38 midbody scales; ventrals smaller than dorsals; 22 or 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 26 or 27 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third toe not modified; subdigital scales not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.62; no white marking below the eye; dewlap in males yellow; and no elbow or knee patches. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. most likely occurs in syntopy with P. flavigula in Tanah Rata at Cameron Highlands and its discovery adds to a growing body of literature detailing the recent descriptions of several new, upland, closely related, sympatric species in Peninsular Malaysia. Another new population referred to here as Pseudocalotes sp. nov. from the Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Betong District, Yala Province, Thailand is discussed. The discovery and description of these three new Pseudocalotes from the upland regions of Peninsular Malaysia continues to underscore the remarkably high herpetological diversity and ecological complexity in this sky island archipelago that is still underestimated, unappreciated, and unprotected.

  1. Report of a bite by the South American colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii latirostris (Squamata: Colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    María Elisa Peichoto; Jorge Abel Céspedez; Juan Antonio Pascual

    2007-01-01

    Following the bite of Philodryas olfersii latirostris Cope, 1862, a 29-year-old male herpetologist developed localized and burning pain, and minimal bleeding from the puncture marks of posterior maxillary teeth, which subsided rapidly. The victim developed no other local signs or symptoms. After few days the victim presented persistent severe rotatory dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. On examination his hearing was normal. Neurological exam was otherwise normal. The patient had ...

  2. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863 (Squamata: Dipsadidae in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  3. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863) (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho; Luciano Leandro Plombon

    2014-01-01

    Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae) occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  4. Pentastomid infection in Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824) (Squamata: Colubridae) in a caatinga of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W O; Guedes, T B; Freire, E M X; Vasconcellos, A

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between pentastomids and two Colubridae species, Phillodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824), were investigated in the federal government's reserve Estação Ecológica do Seridó (ESEC, Seridó) situated at lat 6 degrees 35'-40' S and long 37 degrees 15'-20 W in the municipality of Serra Negra do Norte, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil and run by IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Resources). Throughout 2005, 26 specimens of snakes, 13 of P. nattereri and 13 of O. aeneus were collected. After anatomical dissection and laboratorial examination of the snakes respiratory tracts, P. nattereri was found to be parasitized by two species of pentastomids: Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922 with a prevalence of 30.8% and a mean intensity of infection of 51.5 +/- 32.7 (range 3-147), and Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1863) which had a prevalence of 7.7% and a mean intensity of infection of 1.0. Only one female of O. aeneus was found to be infected by C. tetrapoda, with a prevalence of 7.7% and mean intensity of infection of 2.0. There was no significant relationship between size of snout-vent length (SVL) and intensity of infection in the specimens investigated here. The two individuals of P. nattereri infected by more than 40 specimens of pentastomids had their lungs completely infected including the pulmonary peritoneum and trachea. It is noteworthy that the hosts had their lung tissues partially destroyed with apparent haemorrhage, and the trabecular structure of their lungs was also destroyed. The contrasting rates of infection estimated here may be related to differences in foraging strategies, in diet, and habitat selection carried out by individuals of P. nattereri and O. aeneus. PMID:18470397

  5. The Diet and Sexual Differences of the Caspian Bent-Toed Gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius (Squamata: Gekkonidae, in Northern Iran

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    Vida Hojati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caspian bent-toed gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius, is one of the most common nocturnal lizards of Iran with widespread distribution especially in the northern provinces. This research was done in order to study the diet and sexual dimorphism of this species in Sari County from 5 May to 20 October. During this research, 40 specimens of them including 20 males and 20 females were studied for diet and 140 specimens including 70 adult males and 70 adult females were studied for sexual dimorphism. Prey items identified were insects that belong to 15 species of 8 families and 6 orders. The most common prey items were Culex pipiens and Musca domestica. There is no significant difference between diets of males and females. Results show that the adult males in addition of having the apparent femoral and preanal pores are heavier than females and have larger body, head, and tail length.

  6. Atlas de Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae. Anatomía externa, osteología y bibliografía

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    Montero, Ricardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Los lagartos que en Argentina se conocen como "iguana roja" o "caraguay" pertenecen al género Tupinambis, uno de los saurios de mayor talla del continente; tienen importancia económica, tanto por su cuero como por su carne. Se reconocen seis especies actuales, que se distribuyen en América del Sur desde Colombia hasta el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina (Cei, 1993. Por su amplia distribución y abundancia son utilizados como animales de laboratorio por lo que es importante el conocimiento detallado de su anatomía. Es por ello que aquí presentamos en un Atlas fotográfico la morfología externa y osteología de Tupinambis rufescens.

  7. A new species of Gekko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tà Kóu Nature Reserve, Binh Thuan Province, Southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Van Tri, Ngo; Gamble, Tony

    2010-01-01

    A new species of Gekko Laurenti is described from Ta Kou Mountain, an isolated granitic peak in Ta Kou Nature Reserve, Ham Thuan Nam district, Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. The species is distinguished from its congeners by its moderate size, with snout to vent length (SVL) reaching a maximum 107.0 mm; dorsal pattern of 5–8 white vertebral blotches between the nape and sacrum and 6–8 pairs of short white bars on the flanks; 11–14 precloacal pores in males; 14–17 longitudinal rows of ...

  8. Expression of phenotypic plasticity in hatchlings of the lizard Calotes versicolor (Squamata: Agamidae: influence of nest moisture

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    Bhagyashri A. Shanbhag

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Calotes versicolor breed from late May to early October. The breeding activity begins with the onset of the southwest monsoon. The eggs laid in early breeding season experience more wet conditions than those of the late breeding season. We studied the influence of nest moisture levels on the phenotypic traits of hatchlings by burying the eggs in 5-cm-deep sand nests with ~50%(wet nest or ~20% (relatively dry nest moisture to simulate nesting conditions of early and late breeding seasons. A group of eggs were subjected to standard laboratory incubation procedure in which eggs are half-buried in the moist sand and the other half exposed to air. Hatching time and hatchling body size varied with the treatment. The eggs from dry nests hatched later and hatchlings were the biggest but possessed least amount of residual yolk compared to those of 'wet nest' and also 'lab incubated' groups. In these hatchlings head and limb sizes were significantly larger than that of the other two groups. The findings show: (1 a developmental plasticity in the lizard, (2 that under low moist conditionslarger body size is preferred, and (3 that the trade-off between somatic growth of embryos and future energy reserves (residual yolk of hatchlings is influenced by the soil moisture in C. versicolor.

  9. Circumstantial evidences for mimicry of scorpions by the neotropical gecko Coleodactylus brachystoma (Squamata, Gekkonidae in the Cerrados of central Brazil

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    Reuber Albuquerque Brandão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few records of invertebrates mimicry by reptiles. In the Cerrados of central Brazil, the small Coleodactylus brachystoma is an endemic species common in the islands and margins of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam reservoir. When cornered, this lizard folds the tail over the body exposing the pale-orange ventral surface. Lizard behavior, tail length and color pattern confer to this lizard a strong resemblance with syntopic buthid scorpions Rhopalurus agamenon, Tytius matogrossensis, and Anantheris balzani. Lizards and scorpions share the same tail color, size, and shape. Ecologically, they use the same microhabitats, are exposed to the same potential predators, and present similar behaviors when threatened.

  10. Habitat use, daily activity periods, and thermal ecology of Ameiva ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza M. X. Freire; Jorge, Jaqueiuto S.; LEONARDO B RIBEIRO; Raul F. D. Sales

    2011-01-01

    We studied the use of spatial, temporal, and thermal resources by the Neotropical lizard Ameiva ameiva during rainy and dry seasons in a caatinga (xerophilous open forests) environment in northeasternBrazil. Lizards used the vegetation habitats and microhabitats in the ground, but never were seen in the rocky habitat. Adults usually used the arboreal-shrubby habitat, whereas juveniles were sighted more often in the shrubby-herbaceous habitat. Ontogenetic differences in spatial use seem to be ...

  11. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the lizard Ameiva ameiva, with considerations on polymorphism within the family Teiidae (Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, L G; Teixeira, R D; Colli, G R; Báo, S N

    2002-09-01

    A detailed description of sperm ultrastructure of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae) is provided. Mature spermatozoa are characterized by: a depressed acrosome at the anterior portion; a unilateral ridge at the anterolateral portion; an acrosome vesicle divided into cortex and medulla; medulla divided into two regions with different electron-densities; paracrystalline subacrosomal material with radial organization in transverse section; a pointed prenuclear perforatorium; a stopper-like perforatorium base plate that appears embedded in the subacrosomal material; the presence of an epinuclear lucent zone surrounded by its own membrane; a large nuclear rostrum; round nuclear shoulders; a nuclear space at the nucleus tip; a bilateral stratified laminar structure; a central dense body within the proximal centriole; a short midpiece; an axonemal midpiece axial component; peripheral fibers 3 and 8 grossly enlarged at the anterior portion of axoneme; columnar mitochondria with linear cristae; solid dense bodies arranged as rings or spirals; a triangular-shaped annulus in transverse section; a fibrous sheath into the midpiece; a thin zone of cytoplasm at the anterior portion of the principal piece; and a slight decrease in diameter of the principal piece immediately after the annulus. Comparisons with Cnemidophorus sexlineatus and Micrablepharus maximiliani failed to identify unique sperm ultrastructure traits of Teiidae or Teiioidea (Teiidae + Gymnophthalmidae). High levels of polymorphism between Ameiva and Cnemidophorus, two closely related genera of the family Teiidae, were detected, suggesting that extensive sampling within squamate families is essential if sperm ultrastructure data are to be used in phylogenetic analyses at this taxonomic level. PMID:12125065

  12. Red blood cells of the lizards Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae) display multiple mechanisms to control cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, F H; Sartorello, R; Gazarini, M L; Caldeira, W; Garcia, C R S

    2002-02-01

    We have previously reported that lizard red blood cells control their cytosolic calcium concentration by sequestering calcium ions in pools, which could be discharged by thapsigargin, by the Na+/H+ ionophore, monensin, by the K+/H+ ionophore, nigericin and by the proton pump inhibitor, bafilomycin A1 [1]. We have now demonstrated, with the aid of confocal microscopy, the presence in these cells of organelles, which accumulate the dye acridine orange and are thus by inference the sites of proton pools. We have found, moreover, that monensin, nigericin and bafilomycin all act to discharge these pools. We further show that calcium release ensues when the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, is added after thapsigargin and monensin; this implies the existence of a third pool, besides the acidic pool and the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), which participates in calcium homeostasis. The ER calcium pool can de discharged by the addition of the second messenger, IP3, and we present evidence, based on confocal microscopy, that the IP3 receptors are located in or close to the nucleus. PMID:11969248

  13. An endemic new species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from an isolated dry   forest in southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauro, Caroll Z; García-Bravo, Antonio; Venegas, Pablo J

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of Ameiva from an interandean dry forest in central-southern Peru. Ameiva reticulata sp. nov. represents the fifth species in the genus known to occur in Peru. The new species is similar to the species of the A. ameiva complex such as A. ameiva, A. atrigularis, A. pantherina, and A. praesignis, and is distinguished from these by a smaller size, a lower count of dorsal scales along the middorsal line and scales across the midbody, and by the gular coloration. PMID:25947699

  14. Note on the diet of Ameiva edracantha (Squamata, Teiidae in Cerros de Amotape National Park, Tumbes, Peru

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    Juan C. Jordán

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Ameiva edracantha Bocourt 1874, a terrestrial diurnal teiid lizard distributed in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador is described for the first time. Stomach contents of fifteen individuals collected from quebrada La Angostura were analyzed. Lepidopteran larvae, coleopterans, orthopterans and spiders were the dominant preys in the lizard’s diet. Snout-vent length and head length, width and height were not correlated to prey length, width and volume. Other parameters such as profitability and prey target selection could be involved in prey selection by A. edracantha.

  15. Habitat use, daily activity periods, and thermal ecology of Ameiva ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

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    Eliza M. X. Freire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the use of spatial, temporal, and thermal resources by the Neotropical lizard Ameiva ameiva during rainy and dry seasons in a caatinga (xerophilous open forests environment in northeasternBrazil. Lizards used the vegetation habitats and microhabitats in the ground, but never were seen in the rocky habitat. Adults usually used the arboreal-shrubby habitat, whereas juveniles were sighted more often in the shrubby-herbaceous habitat. Ontogenetic differences in spatial use seem to be linked to different thermal needs between age groups owing to differences in body size. Body temperatures were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults. Most teiid species have elevated body temperatures, usually above 37oC, and are active during the hottest times of day, as was observed for A. ameiva in this study. Seasonality influenced habitat use and daily activity periods of adults, but not body temperatures. We verified annual fluctuations in adult abundance, with a decline of active lizards in the dry season; this phenomenon may be related to aestivation and/or increased mortality rate during the driest months.

  16. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Neotropical skink genus Mabuya Fitzinger (Squamata: Scincidae) with emphasis on Colombian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Calderón-Espinosa, Martha L; Miralles, Aurélien; Crawford, Andrew J; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the phylogenetic and geographical history of Neotropical lineages requires having adequate geographic and taxonomic sampling across the region. However, Colombia has remained a geographical gap in many studies of Neotropical diversity. Here we present a study of Neotropical skinks of the genus Mabuya, reptiles that are difficult to identify or delimit due to their conservative morphology. The goal of the present study is to propose phylogenetic and biogeographic hypotheses of Mabuya including samples from the previously under-studied territory of Colombia, and address relevant biogeographic and taxonomic issues. We combined molecular and morphological data sampled densely by us within Colombia with published data representing broad sampling across the Neotropical realm, including DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and cytochrome b) and three nuclear genes (Rag2, NGFB and R35). To evaluate species boundaries we employed a general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model applied to the mitochondrial data set. Our results suggest that the diversity of Mabuya within Colombia is higher than previously recognized, and includes lineages from Central America and from eastern and southern South America. The genus appears to have originated in eastern South America in the Early Miocene, with subsequent expansions into Central America and the Caribbean in the Late Miocene, including at least six oceanic dispersal events to Caribbean Islands. We identified at least four new candidate species for Colombia and two species that were not previously reported in Colombia. The populations of northeastern Colombia can be assigned to M. zuliae, while specimens from Orinoquia and the eastern foothills of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia correspond to M. altamazonica. The validity of seven species of Mabuya sensu lato was not supported due to a combination of three factors: (1) non-monophyly, (2) <75% likelihood bootstrap support and <0.95 Bayesian posterior probability, and (3) GMYC analysis collapsing named species. Finally, we suggest that Mabuya sensu stricto may be regarded as a diverse monophyletic genus, widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. PMID:26234274

  17. Thermal ecology of the lizard Sceloporus gadoviae (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) in a semiarid region of southern Puebla, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo A. Woolrich-Piña; JULIO A LEMOS-ESPINAL; Smith, Geoffrey R.; Luis Oliver-López; Felipe Correa-Sánchez; Tizoc A. Altamirano-Álvarez; Raymundo Montoya-Ayala

    2012-01-01

    We studied the thermal ecology of the lizard Sceloporus gadoviae from Puebla, Mexico. Mean body temperature (Tb) was 31.5 ± 0.3˚C. A multiple regression suggested that Tb was affected by substrate temperature and solar insolation, and minimally affected by ambient temperature (Ta), sex, and body size. However, body temperature was higher in females than males, and higher in gravid females than non-gravid females. We also found significant differences in Tbs of lizards occupying microhabitats ...

  18. Resolving the higher-order phylogenetic relationships of the circumtropical Mabuya group (Squamata: Scincidae): An out-of-Asia diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Benjamin R; Metallinou, Margarita; Weinell, Jeffrey L; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2016-09-01

    Despite an abundance of phylogenetic studies focused on intrageneric relationships of members of the Mabuya group, the intergeneric relationships have remained difficult to resolve. The most-persistent unresolved regions of the phylogeny of the group include: (1) the placement of the Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with respect to the Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis and its taxonomic status; (2) the phylogenetic position of the Cape Verdean Chioninia within the larger Mabuya group; (3) support for the placement of Dasia with respect to the entire group; and (4) the phylogenetic placement of Eutropis novemcarinata with respect to other Eutropis and Dasia. In this study, we include representatives of all these taxa as well as African Eumecia and Neotropical Mabuya. We seek to address these phylogenetic and systematic issues by generating a well-resolved and supported phylogeny for the Mabuya group as a whole that can be used to develop a stable taxonomy and reconstruct the geographic patterns of diversification within the group. To meet these goals, we built a large multi-locus dataset of 11 markers (nine nuclear and two mitochondrial), and performed concatenated and species tree analyses to generate a well-supported phylogeny for the group. Statistical topology tests reject the monophyly of Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis, and to reflect monophyly we place the Middle-Eastern species into a previously described genus, Heremites. Cape-Verdean Chioninia are resolved as the strongly supported sister-group to Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis. Monophyly of the Southeast-Asian genera, Eutropis and Dasia, is not supported, with a clade composed of Dasia+Eutropis novemcarinata more closely related to the rest of the Mabuya group than to the remaining Eutropis. The phylogenetic position of E. novemcarinata renders Eutropis polyphyletic, and we therefore describe and place E. novemcarinata into a new monotypic genus, Toenayar, to preserve monophyly among the genera. In light of these novel findings, we review and discuss the historical biogeography of the entire Mabuya group. PMID:27246101

  19. A new phasmid gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from the Arnhem Plateau: more new diversity in rare vertebrates from northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Parkin, Tom

    2014-10-22

    The Arnhem Plateau is a rugged expanse of sandstone escarpment in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics with a highly endemic biota. Here we describe a new species of small spinifex dwelling Strophurus (phasmid gecko) that also appears to be endemic to this region. Strophurus horneri sp. nov. can be diagnosed from all congeners by aspects of size, coloration and scalation. Even with the description of this new species, however, levels of morphological and genetic diversity within Strophurus from the stone country of the Northern Territory suggest additional divergent lineages are present. A number of recent studies have now provided preliminary evidence of evolutionary diversity within the Arnhem Plateau, but data remains scant and almost nothing is known about how topography and historical processes have shaped the endemic biota of this region. 

  20. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  1. Home-range size and overlap within an introduced population of the Cuban Knight Anole, Anolis equestris (Squamata: Iguanidae

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    Paul M. Richards

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the spatial relationships of terrestrial lizards, but arboreal species remain poorly studiedbecause they are difficult to observe. The conventional view of home-range size and overlap among territorial, polygynous species of lizards is that: (1 male home ranges are larger than those of females; (2 male home ranges usually encompass, or substantiallyoverlap, those of several females; and (3 male home-range overlap varies but often is minimal, but female home ranges frequently overlap extensively. However, the paucity of pertinent studies makes it difficult to generalize these patterns to arboreal lizards. Weinvestigated home-range size and overlap in the arboreal Knight Anole, Anolis equestris, and compared our findings to published home-range data for 15 other species of Anolis. Using radiotelemetry and mark-recapture/resight techniques, we analyzed the home rangesof individuals from an introduced population of Knight Anoles in Miami, Florida. The home ranges of both sexes substantially overlapped those of the same- and different-sex individuals. In addition, male and female home ranges did not differ significantly, an unusual observation among lizard species. If one compares both male and female home ranges to those of other Anolis species, Knight Anoles have significantly larger home ranges, except for two species for which statistical comparisons were not possible. Our results suggest that home ranges and sex-specific spatial arrangements of canopy lizards may differ from those of more terrestrial species.

  2. A new green anole lizard of the "Dactyloa" clade (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from the Magdalena river valley of Colombia .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Julián A; Hurtado-Gómez, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Anolis from the Magdalena river valley in Colombia. The new species is morphologically similar to Anolis ibanezi and A. chocorum, but differs in body and dewlap color, and head scalation. We performed an exploratory multivariate analysis based on 15 morphological characteristics of the new species and A chocorum and found that differences between both species are mainly associated with head dimensions. A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters suggests that the new species is nested within the "Dactyloa" clade of Anolis. Finally, we discuss phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical affinities based in its distribution.  PMID:24872178

  3. Pentastomid infection in Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824) (Squamata: Colubridae) in a caatinga of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W O; Guedes, T B; Freire, E M X; Vasconcellos, A

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between pentastomids and two Colubridae species, Phillodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824), were investigated in the federal government's reserve Estação Ecológica do Seridó (ESEC, Seridó) situated at lat 6 degrees 35'-40' S and long 37 degrees 15'-20 W in the municipality of Serra Negra do Norte, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil and run by IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Resources). Throughout 2005, 26 specimens of snakes, 13 of P. nattereri and 13 of O. aeneus were collected. After anatomical dissection and laboratorial examination of the snakes respiratory tracts, P. nattereri was found to be parasitized by two species of pentastomids: Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922 with a prevalence of 30.8% and a mean intensity of infection of 51.5 +/- 32.7 (range 3-147), and Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1863) which had a prevalence of 7.7% and a mean intensity of infection of 1.0. Only one female of O. aeneus was found to be infected by C. tetrapoda, with a prevalence of 7.7% and mean intensity of infection of 2.0. There was no significant relationship between size of snout-vent length (SVL) and intensity of infection in the specimens investigated here. The two individuals of P. nattereri infected by more than 40 specimens of pentastomids had their lungs completely infected including the pulmonary peritoneum and trachea. It is noteworthy that the hosts had their lung tissues partially destroyed with apparent haemorrhage, and the trabecular structure of their lungs was also destroyed. The contrasting rates of infection estimated here may be related to differences in foraging strategies, in diet, and habitat selection carried out by individuals of P. nattereri and O. aeneus.

  4. The intestinal helminth community of the spiny-tailed lizard Darevskia rudis (Squamata, Lacertidae) from northern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, V; Jorge, F; Ilgaz, Ç; Kumlutaş, Y; Durmuş, S H; Carretero, M A

    2016-03-01

    Populations of the lizard Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886) from northern Anatolia were examined for intestinal parasites in adult specimens. One cestode, Nematotaenia tarentolae López-Neyra, 1944 and four nematode species, Spauligodon saxicolae Sharpilo, 1962, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni Li, 1934, Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) and Strongyloides darevskyi Sharpilo, 1976, were found. Three of these nematodes, S. saxicolae, S. hoffmanni and S. darevskyi are suggested to be part of a module in the network of Darevskia spp. and their parasites. Only one, S. darevskyi, was identified as a Darevskia spp. specialist. The very low infection and diversity parameters are indicative of the depauperate helminth communities found in this lacertid lizard, falling among the lowest within the Palaearctic saurians. Nevertheless these values are higher than those found in parthenogenetic Darevskia spp. Interpopulation variation in the intensity of S. saxicolae and N. tarentolae is attributable to local changes in ecological conditions. On the other hand, parasite abundance and richness increased in the warmer localities, while the effect of lizard sex and size on infection was negligible. The structure of these helminth communities in D. rudis are compared with those observed in other European lacertid lizards. PMID:26821706

  5. Boletín de la AHA | Volumen 2 | Número 1-3

    OpenAIRE

    Asociación Herpetológica Argentina (AHA)

    1985-01-01

    - Resúmenes de los trabajos presentados en la II Reunión de Comunicaciones Herpetológicas: -- Un nuevo anfibio para la provincia de Mendoza (Argentina): Ceratophrys cranwelli Barrio (Anura, Leptodactylidae); Enrique Richard -- El cariotipo de Amphisbaena munoai y comentarios sobre la meiosis en los Amphisbaenidae; Gabriel Skuk -- Histología del tracto digestivo de Lilaemus multimaculatus (Dumeril y Bibron, 1837); Viviana C. Devincenti, Lía Goldemberg y José M. Chani -- Estudio...

  6. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa; Eliza Maria Xavier Freire

    2010-01-01

    Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  7. Siphlophis compressus (Daudin, 1803) (Squamata: Dipsadidae): First records for the Atlantic forest north of the São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Ubiratan; Gomes De Lima, Marcelo; Vilela, Bruno; Skuk, Gabriel Omar

    2011-01-01

    Brazil, Alagoas State. Municipality of Murici: Fazenda Bananeira (9° 16' S, 35° 59' W; 550 m, Datum: SAD69). Collection data: 4 November 1994, Col.: Eliza Maria Xavier Freire & others. Deposited in the herpetological collection of the Museum of Natural History, Federal University of Alagoas (MUFAL). MUFAL 1773, adult female (SVL [snout–vent length]: 338 mm, HW [head width]: 7.9 mm, TL [tail length]: 100.1 mm, SVL/ TL: 0.30).

  8. Ecological observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 were undertaken in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India during the monsoons (July following quadrat sampling that was time-constrained. The study revealed that the area is one of the preferable habitats for the species. A population analysis showed that the relative abundance of the subadults was higher, followed by juveniles and adults during the study period. The beginning of activity of the lizards was found to vary over the study period depending on prevailing weather conditions. The activity pattern was bimodal, except across rain events. The study revealed two important ecological findings about these lizards; complete sealing of burrow during rains which differed from partial sealing on normal days and complete diurnal cycle of body colour changes during the monsoon. Feeding was the predominant activity of this lizard followed by basking, resting and chasing each other. The adult lizards were found to be strictly herbivorous, in spite of an abundance of insects available in the area during the period. Subadults and juveniles were found to eat both plant parts, as well as insects. Microhabitat use such as inside grass clumps was found to be higher followed by barren ground, under shade and on stones.

  9. Reproducción y variación de grupos de tamaño en una población de Liolaemus koslowskyi (Squamata: Liolaemini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El patrón reproductivo, la tasa de crecimiento y la supervivencia son las principales características de la historia de vida de los organismos, el tamaño o edad en que un individuo adquiere su madurez sexual, el tamaño de la puesta y la fenología reproductiva inciden sobre el reclutamiento y por lo tanto sobre la estabilidad poblacional. Se seleccionaron diferentes ambientes representativos del área de estudio, unas para realizar la extracción de las muestras reproductivas y otras para la observación de la dinámica poblacional. Se obtuvieron 12 muestras reproductivas desde el mes de octubre de 1998 al mes de febrero de 2000, durante ese período se estudiaron 413 hembras, x= 55,48; (35-65, ds = 4,08 y 472 machos, x = 57,75; (42-69, ds = 4,66. La proporción de sexos fue similar, el macho reproductivo más pequeño medió 46 mm, la hembra con folículos yemados más pequeña midió 47 mm, se puedo registrar la presencia de los folículos yemados desde octubre a enero, los huevos en oviducto desde noviembre a febrero, no hay evidencia de más de una postura por temporada. La fecundación se produce durante noviembre, coincidiendo con los valores máximos de los volúmenes testiculares, se observó una correlación negativa entre la actividad reproductiva y el ciclo de cuerpos grasos en ambos sexos, los huevos fueron puestos a partir de diciembre y los primeros neonatos se observaron a partir de enero. Se apreció una leve correlación negativa entre la tasa de crecimiento individual y el tamaño del lagarto, Durante el período de estudio se realizaron 2199 avistajes y se estimó la proporción de cada grupo de tamaño para cada mes, se destacó el mes de enero por la presencia de 15% de individuos recién nacidos, la mayor tasa de actividad en la parcela correspondió a enero, febrero y marzo de 1999, disminuyendo en el otoño y registrando una suspensión de actividad en junio y julio, se observó una menor tasa de actividad en el segundo verano. The reproductive pattern, the rate of growth and the survival are the main characteristics of the life history of organisms, the size or age in that an individual acquires his sexual maturity, the size of the maturity and the reproductive fenology affect the recruitment and therefore the stability of the populational size. Different representative sites of the study area were selected, to carry out the extraction of the reproductive samples and for the observation of the populational dynamics, 12 samples were obtained from October 1998 to February 2000, during that period 413 females were studied, x = 55.48; (35-65 ds = 4.08 and 472 males, x = 57.75; (42-69 ds = 4.66. The proportion of sexes was similar, the smallest reproductive male measured 46 mm, the smallest female with vitelogenic follicles measured 47 mm. The presence of vitelogenic follicles was observed from October to January, eggs in oviduct from November to February, there were no evidence of more than one clutch per season, and fecundation takes place during the month of November, coinciding the maximum values of the testicular volumes. Negative correlation between the reproductive activity and the cycle of fat bodies was observed in both sexes, the eggs are laid from December and the first hatchlings are observed in January. There was a negative correlation between the rate of individual growth and the size of the lizard. During the period of study 2199 lizards where observed and the proportion of each size group was calculated for every month, in January 15% of recently born individuals were observed in the site, the highest activity rate in the site corresponded to January, February and March of 1999, diminishing in autumn and no activity was registered in June and July. The second season presented less activity than the first one.

  10. Establishing a New Species Encephalitozoon pogonae for the Microsporidian Parasite of Inland Bearded Dragon Pogona vitticeps Ahl 1927 (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Yuliya Y; Sakaguchi, Kanako; Paulsen, Daniel B

    2016-07-01

    The microsporidium parasitizing Inland Bearded Dragons Pogona vitticeps, and developing primarily in macrophages within foci of granulomatous inflammation of different organs, is described as a new species Encephalitozoon pogonae. Establishing the new species was based on sequencing the ITS-SSUrDNA region of the ribosomal gene and consequent SSUrDNA-inferred phylogenetic analyses, as well as on comparison of pathogenesis, host specificity, and ultrastructure among Encephalitozoon species and isolates. The new species is closely related to E. lacertae and E. cuniculi. Analysis of the literature suggests that this microsporidium has been reported previously as an unidentified microsporidian species or isolate of E. cuniculi and may represent a common infection in bearded dragons. All stages of E. pogonae develop in parasitophorous vacuoles. Uninucleate spores on methanol-fixed smears measured 2.1 × 1.1 μm, range 1.7-2.6 × 0.9-1.7 μm; on ultrathin sections spores measured 0.8-1.1 × 1.8-2.2 μm. Ultrastructural study revealed 3-6 polar filament coils, a mushroom-shaped polar disk, and a polar sac embracing half of the volume occupied by the lamellar polaroplast. In activated spores, polar filament everted eccentrically. The overall morphology and intracellular development of E. pogonae were similar to other Encepahalitozoon spp. We also review the existing data on microsporidia infecting reptiles. PMID:26785360

  11. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis) from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H.; Medina-Flores, Melissa; Wilson, Larry David; Jadin, Robert C.; Austin, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by having 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to Bothriechis lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas. PMID:23794885

  12. Histology of tooth attachment tissues and plicidentine in Varanus (Reptilia: Squamata), and a discussion of the evolution of amniote tooth attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Erin E; Caldwell, Michael W; Lamoureux, Denis O; Budney, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Few recent studies have examined the histological basis for tooth attachment in squamates. In the past few years, a surge of interest in this topic has led to the intriguing suggestion that the major tissues derived from the tooth germ (enamel, dentine, cementum and alveolar bone), are conservative and are present in all amniotes. In this study, we describe the histology and development of the tooth attachment complex in Varanus rudicollis, the rough-neck monitor. We provide the first published evidence for the role of cementum and alveolar bone in tooth attachment in varanoid lizards. In Varanus, cementum is deposited on the external surface of the tooth root as well as at the base of the tooth, where it plays a role in the attachment of the tooth to the jawbone. Alveolar bone is also involved in tooth ankylosis. Our results support the hypothesis that the major tooth germ tissues are found in all amniotes. We provide insights into the structure and development of plicidentine, defined as infolding of the dentine around the tooth base. This feature is unique to varanoids among extant tetrapods and is the third tissue implicated in tooth attachment in Varanus. Plicidentine develops asymmetrically along the labial-lingual axis of a tooth. Varanus is characterized by the presence of both primary and higher-order lamellae, which anastomose to form a honeycomb-like surface that then interacts with the more basal attachment tissues.

  13. Análisis comparativo de la composición de tres comunidades de Squamata de la Sierra Grande de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The differences and similarities of lizard assemblages can be explaned by historical or ecological factors or by the interaction of both. To examine these hypothesis we selected three communities with similar environmental influences in the Sierra Grande de Córdoba (Argentina. The sites selected where: Villa Las Rosas (31°56', 65°03', dep. San Javier on the west side of the Sierra, Tanti (310,22, 64°36' dep. Punilla on the east side of the Sierra and Achiras (33°10', 64°59' dep. Rio Cuarto on the southem extreme of the Sierra. All these sites have more than eight species of lizards. The diversity of each site is described and the novelties, sustitutions and absences for each locality are discussed and compared with three external communities. A phylogenetic hypothesis of the species involved in this study is need to resolve the biogeographic problems.

  14. The snake assemblage (Squamata: Serpentes of a Cerrado-Caatinga transition area in Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francílio da Silva Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS, pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT, and incidental encounters (IE. During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/observer and 6,468 days/trap were used, respectively. We estimated 23 species of snakes for the locality, although only 19 species were recorded. Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 10, Liophis poecilogyrus (Schlegel, 1837 (n = 9, Liophis viridis Günther, 1862 (n = 8 and Thamnodynastes sp. (n = 8 were the most abundant species. Terrestrial, cryptozoic, and diurnal snakes predominated in the assemblage (Boidae = 2 species, Dipsadidae = 12, Colubridae = 2, Elapidae = 1, Viperidae = 2. The results indicate that the fauna of the locality is similar with that of other open formations, especially the Caatinga, corroborating previous floristic studies. Comparisons between snake assemblages analyzed by different authors suggest structural differences between the assemblages of the Cerrado and the Caatinga, contradicting the hypothesis of mixed composition of fauna in these biomes.

  15. Sea ice meiofauna abundance in coastal fast ice off Barrow, Alaska, with a focus on Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta), July 12, 2005 - April 4, 2006 (NODC Accession 0064869)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fast ice along the Alaskan coastline forms in November/December and reaches a thickness of 1.5-1.8m by April. Break-up usually occurs between late June and...

  16. Genetic diversity of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Gekko gecko Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in Southeast Asia determined with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watee Kongbuntad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Red-spotted tokay geckos, Gekko gecko, are distributed mainly in Southeast Asia. They are a traditional Chinese medicine, with the massive hunting for exports dramatically decreasing their numbers. Information on the genetic diversity of these geckos in Southeast Asia is very limited. This study aims to explore intrapopulation and interpopulation genetic variation and the genetic structure of 16 populations collected from different localities in Thailand, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Relatively high genetic diversity occurred at both the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels. Genetic differentiation with FST values ranging between 0.006–0.892 was found. Five distinct genetic groups of the red-spotted tokay populations could be classified. A group of populations from northern Thailand showed the highest genetic differentiation from the other groups. Moreover, there was a substantial genetic subdivision depending on the genetic groups with FCT=0.664 and FSC=0.185. This genetic structure is related to geographical distribution and distance between populations, R2=0.5614, p<0.001. Our findings of pronounced genetic structuring and the concomitant conservation genetic consequences if further population loss occurs mean that management actions should therefore focus on the conservation of all of the main sites where tokay geckos still occur.

  17. So far away, yet so close: strong genetic structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae, a species with restricted geographic distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica F Felappi

    Full Text Available The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings.

  18. Homonota fasciata Duméril y Bibron, 1839 (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Corrientes (República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcione, Camila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron, 1839. República Argentina, Provincia de Corrientes, Departamento Bella Vista, Cuarta Sección, Colonia Progreso, Loma Sur, Toropí (28°35'55" S; 59°03'38" W (Figura 1. Colectores: Eduardo Etchepare, María del Rosario Ingaramo, Camila Falcione y Roberto Aguirre. 05 de abril de 2011. Se colectaron 4 ejemplares adultos (2 machos y 2 hembras y 1 juvenil, depositados en la Colección Herpetológica de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNEC-11212, UNNEC-11213, UNNEC- 11214, UNNEC-11215 y UNNEC-11216.

  19. Species on the rocks: Systematics and biogeography of the rock-dwelling Ptyodactylus geckos (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) in North Africa and Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Červenka, Jan; Crochet, Pierre-André; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Wilms, Thomas; Geniez, Philippe; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Brito, José C; Carranza, Salvador

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the diversity of species in the Palearctic and the processes that have generated it is still weak for large parts of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia. Reptiles are among their most remarkable representatives, with numerous groups well adapted to the diverse environments. The Ptyodactylus geckos are a strictly rock-dwelling genus with homogeneous morphology distributed across mountain formations and rocky plateaus from the western African ranges in Mauritania and the Maghreb to the eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, with an isolated species in southern Pakistan. Here, we use a broad sampling of 378 specimens, two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (c-mos, MC1R, ACM4, RAG2) markers in order to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus and place its diversification in a temporal framework. The results reveal high levels of intraspecific variability, indicative of undescribed diversity, and they do not support the monophyly of one species (P. ragazzii). Ptyodactylus species are allopatric across most of their range, which may relate to their high preference for the same type of structural habitat. The onset of their diversification is estimated to have occurred in the Late Oligocene, while that of several deep clades in the phylogeny took place during the Late Miocene, a period when an increase in aridification in North Africa and Arabia initiated.

  20. Microanatomical and histological features in the long bones of Mosasaurine mosasaurs (Reptilia, Squamata--implications for aquatic adaptation and growth rates.

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    Alexandra Houssaye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During their evolution in the Late Cretaceous, mosasauroids attained a worldwide distribution, accompanied by a marked increase in body size and open ocean adaptations. This transition from land-dwellers to highly marine-adapted forms is readily apparent not only at the gross anatomic level but also in their inner bone architecture, which underwent profound modifications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present contribution describes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the internal organization (microanatomy and tissue types and characteristics (histology of propodial and epipodial bones in one lineage of mosasauroids; i.e., the subfamily Mosasaurinae. By using microanatomical and histological data from limb bones in combination with recently acquired knowledge on the inner structure of ribs and vertebrae, and through comparisons with extant squamates and semi-aquatic to fully marine amniotes, we infer possible implications on mosasaurine evolution, aquatic adaptation, growth rates, and basal metabolic rates. Notably, we observe the occurrence of an unusual type of parallel-fibered bone, with large and randomly shaped osteocyte lacunae (otherwise typical of fibrous bone and particular microanatomical features in Dallasaurus, which displays, rather than a spongious inner organization, bone mass increase in its humeri and a tubular organization in its femora and ribs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dominance of an unusual type of parallel-fibered bone suggests growth rates and, by extension, basal metabolic rates intermediate between that of the extant leatherback turtle, Dermochelys, and those suggested for plesiosaur and ichthyosaur reptiles. Moreover, the microanatomical features of the relatively primitive genus Dallasaurus differ from those of more derived mosasaurines, indicating an intermediate stage of adaptation for a marine existence. The more complete image of the various microanatomical trends observed in mosasaurine skeletal elements supports the evolutionary convergence between this lineage of secondarily aquatically adapted squamates and cetaceans in the ecological transition from a coastal to a pelagic lifestyle.

  1. First assessment on the molecular phylogeny of Anatololacerta (Squamata, Lacertidae) distributed in Southern Anatolia: insights from mtDNA and nDNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Kamil; Kankılıç, Tolga; Güçlü, Özgür; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Lymberakis, Petros; Poulakakis, Nikos; Ilgaz, Çetin

    2016-05-01

    The genus Anatololacerta (Lacertidae) occurs mainly in Anatolia (western and southern Turkey) and on the Aegean islands Samos, Ikaria, and Rhodos. Although its taxonomy has long been debated and is currently nascent, three morphological species have been attributed to this genus: Anatololacerta anatolica, Anatololacerta oertzeni, and Anatololacerta danfordi. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of A. oertzeni and Anatololacerta danfordi based on both mitochondrial and nuclear markers (16S rRNA and cmos). In total, 34 Anatololacerta specimens were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. Our results supported the presence of four well-supported lineages: two belongs to A. oertzeni and two to A. danfordi. The temporal diversification of these lineages probably started with the divergence of the first A. oertzeni lineage from western Antalya at 7.9 Mya. The other two major splits may have occurred in early Pliocene (4.4 Mya: the divergence of the second A. oertzeni from A. danfordi) and in late Pliocene (2.7 Mya: the divergence of the two lineages of A. danfordi). The phylogeographical scenario suggests that the major diversification events (from late Miocene to late Pliocene) could be related with climatic oscillations (such as the late Miocene aridification and the Messinian Salinity Crisis) and tectonic movements (such as the uplift of the central Taurus mountain). PMID:25489775

  2. Phylogeography of the ocellated skink Chalcides ocellatus (Squamata, Scincidae), with the use of mtDNA sequences: a hitch-hiker's guide to the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilios, P; Kyriazi, P; Poulakakis, N; Kumlutaş, Y; Ilgaz, C; Mylonas, M; Lymberakis, P

    2010-02-01

    We analyze geographic genetic variation in C. ocellatus to evaluate the influences of major climatic, paleogeographic and anthropogenic factors in its biogeographic history. Ninety four specimens from 61 populations were collected across all of its geographical range and analyzed based on partial mitochondrial sequences (cyt b, 12S, and ND1). Our results demonstrate that an ancestral form of C. ocellatus, which expanded in northwestern Africa at the end of Miocene, diverged in at least three separate evolutionary lineages approximately 4.57Ma: C. humilis spread south of the Sahara, while the other two (C. ocellatus sensu stricto) were restricted in the coastal North African region. The complicated history of the ocellated skink is a result of multiple vicariant phenomena followed by multiple active or passive dispersals. The Messinian salinity crisis and the re-flooding of the Mediterranean basin, the climatic transition from Middle to Upper Pliocene, and the hyperarid phase of the Sahara, affected the distribution and diversification of C. ocellatus, while in historical times it was introduced in the central Mediterranean islands and eastern Mediterranean region from Tunisia and Cyrenaica, respectively. PMID:19765663

  3. Variación morfológica de la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis rodecki (Squamata: Teiidae): implicaciones evolutivas y de conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra P. Elizalde-Rocha; Fausto R. Méndez-de la Cruz; J. Fernando Méndez-Sánchez; Gisela Granados-González; Oswaldo Hernández-Gallegos

    2008-01-01

    La divergencia post-formación se ha utilizado para el reconocimiento de nuevas especies partenogenéticas. Actualmente, la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis rodecki McCoy y Maslin 1962 es reconocida como una sola especie, que se originó de un híbrido partenogenético. Estudios previos han encontrado divergencia genética, en coloración y en características de historia de vida entre una población continental (Puerto Juárez) y una insular (Isla Contoy) en Quintana Roo, México. Se llevó a cabo...

  4. Isolation, characterization, cloning and expression of an alpha-neurotoxin from the venom of the Mexican coral snake Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; López-Vera, Estuardo; Bénard-Valle, Melisa; Smith, Eric N; Zamudio, Fernando; de Roodt, Adolfo R; Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    A new member of short chain α-neurotoxic protein family from venom of the Mexican coral snake, Micrurus laticollaris, was characterized. This protein, named MlatA1, possesses 61 amino acids with 8 conserved cysteine residues, sharing 30-91% sequence identity with other fully sequenced Micrurus toxins. MlatA1 (LD50i.v. = 0.064 mg/kg) antagonizes with both fetal and adult nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) as well as α-7 neuronal nAChR in a dose-dependent way. Specific rabbit anti-Mlat serum (titer higher than 18,000) does not show any protective ability against this toxin, nevertheless it was able to recognize protein bands in six out of twelve Micrurus venoms showing the existence of two distinct antigenic groups for α-neurotoxins in North American coral snakes species. The MlatA1 gene was cloned and used to produce recombinant toxin (rMlatA1) that was recognized by rabbit anti-native toxin but was depleted of toxic activity.

  5. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) II: a new species from the northern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Cameron D; Davis, Drew R; Freitas, Elyse S; Huron, Nicholas A; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Papeș, Monica; Amrein, Andrew; Anwar, Alyssa; Cooper, Dontae; Hein, Tucker; Manning, Annalisa; Patel, Neeral; Pinaroc, Lauren; Diesmos, Arvin C; Diesmos, Mae L; Oliveros, Carl H; Brown, Rafe M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new digitless scincid lizard of the genus Brachymeles from northern Luzon and Camiguin Norte islands in the Philippines. This species belongs to the Brachymeles bonitae Complex, and both molecular and morphological data confirm that this species is distinct from all other congeners. Formerly considered to be a single widespread species, this group of species has been the focus of recent systematic reviews. Here we describe a new species in the B. bonitae Complex, recognized currently to constitute five species. Brachymeles ilocandia sp. nov. is the second digitless and the seventeenth non-pentadactyl species in genus. The description of this species brings the total number of species in the genus to 40, and provides new insight into unique distribution patterns of species of the northern Philippines.

  6. Radiation, multiple dispersal and parallelism in the skinks, Chalcides and Sphenops (Squamata: Scincidae), with comments on Scincus and Scincopus and the age of the Sahara Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Geniez, Ph; Roca, J; Mateo, J A

    2008-03-01

    Phylogenetic analysis using up to 1325 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 179 specimens and 30 species of Chalcides, Sphenops, Eumeces, Scincopus and Scincus indicates that Sphenops arose twice independently within Chalcides. It is consequently synonymized with that genus. Chalcides in this broader sense originated in Morocco, diversifying into four main clades about 10 Ma, after which some of its lineages dispersed widely to cover an area 40 times as large. Two separate lineages invaded the Canary Islands and at least five main lineages colonized southern Europe. At least five more spread across northern Africa, one extending into southwest Asia. Elongate bodies with reduced limbs have evolved at least four times in Chalcides, mesic 'grass-swimmers' being produced in one case and extensive adaptation to life in loose desert sand in two others. In clade, Chalcides striatus colonized SW Europe from NW Africa 2.6 Ma and C. chalcides mainland Italy 1.4 Ma, both invasions being across water, while C. c. vittatus reached Sardinia more recently, perhaps anthropogenically, and C. guentheri spread 1200km further east to Israel. C. minutus is a composite, with individuals from the type locality forming a long independent lineage and the remaining ones investigated being most closely related to C. mertensi. In the Northern clade, C. boulengeri and C. sepsoides spread east through sandy habitats north of the Sahara about 5 Ma, the latter reaching Egypt. C. bedriagai invaded Spain around the same time, perhaps during the Messinian period when the Mediterranean was dry, and shows considerable diversification. Although it is currently recognized as one species, the C. ocellatus clade exhibits as much phylogenetic depth as the other main clades of Chalcides, having at least six main lineages. These have independently invaded Malta and Sardinia from Tunisia and also southwest Arabia C. o. humilis appears to have spread over 4000 km through the Sahel, south of the Sahara quite recently, perhaps in the Pleistocene. In the Western clade of Chalcides, C. delislei appears to have dispersed in a similar way. There were also two invasions of the Canary Islands: one around 5 Ma by C. simonyi, and the other about 7 Ma by the ancestor of C. viridanus+C. sexlineatus. C. montanus was believed to be related to C. lanzai of the Northern clade, but in the mtDNA tree it is placed within C. polylepis of the Western clade, although this may possibly be an artifact of introgression. The Eumeces schneideri group, Scincopus and Scincus form a clade separate from Chalcides. Within this clade, the geographically disjunct E. schneideri group is paraphyletic. One of its members, E. algeriensis is the sister taxon to Scincopus, and Scincus may also be related to these taxa. The phylogeny suggests Scincopus entered desert conditions in Africa, up to 9.6 Ma and the same may have been true of Scincus up to 11.7 Ma. Scincus appears to have diversified and spread into Arabia around 6 Ma. Dates of origin and divergence of these skinks, desert Chalcides and other squamates agree with recent geological evidence that the Sahara is at least 5-7 My old. The subspecies Chalcides viridanus coeruleopunctatus is upgraded to the species level as C. coeruleopunctatus stat nov., on the basis of its large genetic divergence from C. v. viridanus. PMID:18276164

  7. Variación intraespecífica en Phalotris matogrossensis y P. tricolor: una evaluación de sus caracteres diagnósticos (Squamata: Colubridae

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    Cacciali Sosa, Pier

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalotris matogrossensis es una especie del grupo tricolor, descrita recientemente en base a ejemplares procedentes de Brasil y Paraguay. Se diferencia claramente de P. cuyanus y P. mertensi por la coloración y algunos detalles de la lepidosis corporal, y según la bibliografía de P. tricolor por la mayor longitud del anillo cervical blanco respecto al negro en P. matogrossensis, siendo el negro mucho mayor en P. tricolor. Los resultados del presente trabajo demuestran que este carácter no debe ser tomado tan estrictamente como diagnóstico ya que se encontraron grandes variaciones en los ejemplares revisados. Las diferencias encontradas aquí que mejor sirven para diferenciar entre ambas especies son: 1 la coloración de la mandíbula, oscura o al menos manchada en P. tricolor y siempre inmaculada en P. matogrossensis; 2 la longitud del anillo negro respecto a la proporción total del cuerpo, que en P. tricolor resulta mayor que en P. matogrossensis sin solapamiento de valores; y 3 el color dorsal, ya que P. tricolor en ocasiones presenta manchas o líneas interrumpidas en el dorso, en contraste con la coloración totalmente inmaculada del dorso de P. matogrossensis. Además se dan algunos datos acerca de las afinidades biogeográficas de ambas especies en Paraguay. Phalotris matogrossensis is a species belonging to the tricolor group that was recently described from specimens collected in Brazil and Paraguay. This species can be easily distinguished from P. cuyanus and P. mertensi by its coloration and some traits of the body pholidosis and, after bibliography, from P. tricolor by the reduced black and longer white cervical ring. The results of this work shows that this character should not to be treated as diagnostic as great variation was found among the specimens examined. Characters that better differentiate between the two species: 1 mandible coloration, dark or at least spotted in P. tricolor but always clear in P. matogrossensis; 2 the length of the black ring with respect to the total body length, which is greater in P. tricolor and does not overlap with results for P. matogrossensis; and 3 the dorsal color, P. tricolor sometimes showing spots or interrupted stripes on the dorsum, in contrast to the uniform coloration of P. matogrossensis. Some data regarding the biogeographic affinities of both species in Paraguay are also provided.

  8. Prevalence of enterobacteriaceae in Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae) from a captive facility in Central Brazil, with a profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa de Moraes Carvalho; Ayrton Klier Péres Júnior; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Valéria de Sá Jayme

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the presence of enterobacteriaceae in Tegu Lizards (Tupinambis merianae)from a captive facility in central Brazil. From a total of 30 animals, 10 juveniles and 20 adults (10 males, 10 females), 60 samples were collected, in two periods separated by 15 days. The samples were cultivated in Xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar (XLT4) and MacConkey agar. The Salmonella enterica were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 78 bacteria was isolated, of wich 27 were ...

  9. Molecular data reveal spatial and temporal patterns of diversification and a cryptic new species of lowland Stenocercus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 (Squamata: Tropiduridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mauro; Prates, Ivan; Nisa, Carolina; Silva-Martins, Nathalia Suzan Camarão; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies have uncovered biogeographic patterns and the associated diversification processes of Neotropical wet forest taxa, yet the extensive open and drier biomes have received much less attention. In the Stenocercus lizard radiation, restricted sampling and phylogenetic information have limited inferences about the timing, spatial context, and environmental drivers of diversification in the open and dry lowland settings of eastern and southern South America. Based on new DNA sequence data of previously unsampled species, we provide an updated historical biogeographic hypothesis of Stenocercus. We infer phylogenetic relationships, estimate divergence times, and track ancestral distributions, asking whether cladogenetic events within the genus correlate to reported shifts in South American landscapes during the past 30millionyears, focusing in the open and drier areas. To examine correlations between genetic and ecological divergence, we extracted environmental data from occurrence records and estimated climatic envelopes occupied by lowland taxa. Our results suggest that Stenocercus began to diversify around the South American Midwest by the late Oligocene. We recovered two main lowland and two main Andean clades within the genus; within both Andean clades, most cladogenetic events date back to the Miocene, synchronously with the most intense phase of Andean uplift. In the western clade of lowland Stenocercus, species ranges and divergence times are consistent with major landscape shifts at the upper Guaporé and Paraguay River basins as a result of Andean orogeny, suggesting vicariant speciation. By contrast, in the 'horned' lowland clade, we find evidence that dispersal and ecological differentiation have shaped species divergences and current ranges in the Brazilian Cerrado, Caatinga, Pampas and Atlantic Forest, possibly under a vanishing refuge scenario. Lastly, our phylogenetic results indicate two divergent clades within the formerly recognized taxon S. sinesaccus, and further evaluation of morphological data corroborates the existence of a distinct, new species of Stenocercus, here described. The new taxon occurs in the Chapada dos Parecis massif in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia. PMID:26432394

  10. Prevalence of enterobacteriaceae in Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae from a captive facility in Central Brazil, with a profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Moraes Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the presence of enterobacteriaceae in Tegu Lizards (Tupinambis merianaefrom a captive facility in central Brazil. From a total of 30 animals, 10 juveniles and 20 adults (10 males, 10 females, 60 samples were collected, in two periods separated by 15 days. The samples were cultivated in Xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar (XLT4 and MacConkey agar. The Salmonella enterica were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 78 bacteria was isolated, of wich 27 were from juveniles of T. merianae, 30 from adult males and 21 from adult females. Salmonella enterica was the most frequent bacteria followed by Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sakasakii, Kluivera sp., Citrobacter amalonaticus, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter diversus, Yersinia frederiksenii, Serratia odorifera, and Serratia liquefaciens. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae and houtenae showed resistance to cotrimoxazole, and serum Salmonella enterica Worthington showed resistance to tetracycline and gentamicin. Salmonella enterica Panama and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae showed intermediate sensitivity to cotrimoxazole. In addition to Enterobacteriaceae in the Tegu lizard, pathogenic serotypes of S. enterica also occur, and their antimicrobial resistance was confirmed.

  11. Reproducción y dieta de una población de Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata, Scincidae en Córdoba, Argentina

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    Liliana Aun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron estudiados los aspectos reproductivos y la dieta de Mabuya dorsivittata, una especie de lagarto vivíparo de la localidad de Alto Alegre (Córdoba. La hembra de menor tamaño, con folículos yemados midió de LHC 41 mm. El tamaño de la camada varió entre 5 – 10 embriones por hembra. Los machos de menor tamaño con espermatozoos en los testículos midieron de LHC 31 mm. Hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el peso de las gónadas versus el estadio reproductivo (b= 0,524, R= 0,254, P< 0,001. En los machos hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el volumen testicular y el estadio reproductivo (R2= 0,851, b= 0,929, P< 0,002. El incremento de cuerpos grasos en hembras y machos se relacionó con el periodo de gestación, especialmente en las hembras, decreciendo en las últimas fases, indicando un costo energético alto en los últimos meses del crecimiento embrionario. En cuanto a la dieta, las hembras se alimentaron principalmente de Araneae (suelo como ítem fundamental, y de Scarabeidae, Araneae (otras y Acridiidae como ítem secundario y los machos se alimentaran de Isopoda, Acridiidae y Araneae (otras como ítem fundamental y de Tettigonidae como ítem secundario. Hubo diferencias significativas en la selección trófica entre sexos.

  12. Addition of Ptyas nigromarginata (Blyth, 1854) (Squamata:Colubridae) to the Snake Fauna of Thailand with Preliminary Remarks on Its Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gernot VOGEL; Sjon HAUSER

    2013-01-01

    The first record of Ptyas nigromarginata (Blyth, 1854) from Thailand and a new record from China are reported. Literature and internet sources were searched for previous records of this species to establish its geographic and altitudinal distributions in Asia. The distribution in India was adapted to the new state division of the northern part of the country. The results show that the species almost exclusively occurs in hill evergreen and montane forests of the Himalayan foothills and mountain ranges continuous with it, at altitudes of 1000-2300 m above sea level.

  13. Microanatomical and Histological Features in the Long Bones of Mosasaurine Mosasaurs (Reptilia, Squamata) – Implications for Aquatic Adaptation and Growth Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Houssaye; Johan Lindgren; Rodrigo Pellegrini; Lee, Andrew H.; Damien Germain; Polcyn, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During their evolution in the Late Cretaceous, mosasauroids attained a worldwide distribution, accompanied by a marked increase in body size and open ocean adaptations. This transition from land-dwellers to highly marine-adapted forms is readily apparent not only at the gross anatomic level but also in their inner bone architecture, which underwent profound modifications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present contribution describes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the...

  14. A molecular and morphological characterization of Oliver's parrot snake, Leptophis coeruleodorsus (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae) with the description of a new species from Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C; Charles, Stevland P; Lehtinen, Richard M; Koeller, Krista L

    2013-01-01

    Currently, two snake species of the genus Leptophis occur in Trinidad and Tobago. One, L. stimsoni, is endemic to Trinidad's Northern Range and known from relatively few specimens. The second is the diurnal, arboreal, brightly colored parrot snake Leptophis coeruleodorsus Oliver. It was originally described based on 23 specimens from Trinidad, Tobago, and four locations in northern Venezuela but remains poorly known. It was later assigned as a subspecies of Leptophis ahaetulla; a widespread, polytypic species. Here we compare 11 specimens of the L. ahaetulla Group using DNA sequences from two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and 16S, 1,383 bp total) from island and mainland populations, report on the variation in the morphology of 54 museum specimens of Leptophis a. coeruleodorsus; describe the previously undescribed holotype of L. coeruleodorsus Oliver, and restrict its type locality. Additionally, we describe a new species of Leptophis from the island of Tobago that can be distinguished from L. coeruleodorsus on the basis of snout shape, upper labial architecture, elongated prefrontal scales, and ventral scale counts. The new Leptophis raises the number of endemic Tobago amphibians and reptiles to 11 taxa.

  15. Effect of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae) leaf extract combined with anti-venom serum on experimental Crotalus durissus (Squamata: Viperidae) envenomation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Nogueira, Rosa Maria Barilli; Sakate, Michiko; Laposy, Cecília Braga; da Motta, Yudney Pereira; Sangiorgio, Fabíola; David, Heloísa Costa; Nabas, João Marcelo

    2009-12-01

    Crotalic envenomation represents the highest number of deaths when compared to other snakebite envenomations of medical interest. Crotalic venom has important characteristics such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and clotting and hemolytic action. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory aspects of Crotalus durissus terrificus experimental envenomation in Wistar rats treated with antivenom and the aqueous extract of the plant Mikania glomerata. The animals were divided into three groups: Group C (control); Group VS-venom and antivenom; Group VSM-venom, antivenom and aqueous extract of M. glomerata. Crotalic poison caused clinical and laboratory alterations in Wistar mice. Significant clinical alterations were: temperature decrease, edema in the venom inoculated member, sedation and a locomotion decrease in groups VS and VSM when compared with group C. A faster recovery from sedation was observed only for animals of group VSM when compared to VS. There was an increase in the number of leukocytes, neutrophils and creatine kinase in the VS and VSM groups, compared to group C. Wistar rats showed a high resistance to crotalic venom. Additional studies with different doses, time of treatment, different administration methods and histopathological and immunological studies are necessary to understand the action of M. glomerata in crotalic accidents.

  16. Régime alimentaire du grand gecko vert de Madagascar, Phelsuma grandis Gray, 1870 sur l'île de La Réunion (Squamata : Gekkonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dervin, Sébastien; Baret, Samuel; Penin, Lucie; Sanchez, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Phelsuma grandis Gray, 1870 est un gecko introduit sur l'île de La Réunion. Le régime alimentaire de ce reptile, considéré comme invasif, a été étudié afin d'évaluer la menace qu'il pourrait représenter pour la faune indigène. Le contenu stomacal de 171 individus a été analysé. À La Réunion, P. grandis se nourrit principalement d'Arthropodes. Les ressources végétales occupent également une part non négligeable de son alimentation et il consomme régulièrement d'autres espèces de geckos. P. gra...

  17. Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and two new species of lizards from Brazilian Amazonia, with nomenclatural comments on the taxonomy of Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Guarino R; Hoogmoed, Marinus S; Cannatella, David C; Cassimiro, José; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Pellegrino, Kátia C M; Salerno, Patricia; Souza, Sergio Marques De; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new genus and two new species of gymnophthalmid lizards based on specimens collected from Brazilian Amazonia, mostly in the "arc of deforestation". The new genus is easily distinguished from other Gymnophthalmidae by having very wide, smooth, and imbricate nuchals, arranged in two longitudinal and 6-10 transverse rows from nape to brachium level, followed by much narrower, strongly keeled, lanceolate, and mucronate scales. It also differs from all other Gymnophthalmidae, except Iphisa, by the presence of two longitudinal rows of ventrals. The new genus differs from Iphisa by having two pairs of enlarged chinshields (one in Iphisa); posterior dorsal scales lanceolate, strongly keeled and not arranged in longitudinal rows (dorsals broad, smooth and forming two longitudinal rows), and lateral scales keeled (smooth). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data indicate the new species form a clade that is most closely related to Iphisa. We also address several nomenclatural issues and present a revised classification of Gymnophthalmidae. PMID:26623733

  18. Reproducción y variación de grupos de tamaño en una población de Liolaemus koslowskyi (Squamata: Liolaemini)

    OpenAIRE

    Martori, Ricardo; Aun, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    El patrón reproductivo, la tasa de crecimiento y la supervivencia son las principales características de la historia de vida de los organismos, el tamaño o edad en que un individuo adquiere su madurez sexual, el tamaño de la puesta y la fenología reproductiva inciden sobre el reclutamiento y por lo tanto sobre la estabilidad poblacional. Se seleccionaron diferentes ambientes representativos del área de estudio, unas para realizar la extracción de las muestras reproductivas y otras para la obs...

  19. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Townsend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to B. lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas.

  20. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis) from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H; Medina-Flores, Melissa; Wilson, Larry David; Jadin, Robert C; Austin, James D

    2013-01-01

    A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by having 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to Bothriechis lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas.

  1. Variación estacional de la dieta de Liolaemus wiegmanii (Squamata: Tropiduridae en un agroecosistema del sur de Córdoba, Argentina

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    Aun, Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el espectro trófico de Liolaemus weigmannii, procedente de Laguna Oscura, Departamento Río Cuarto (33°50'S y 64°50'W, Córdoba, Argentina. Se analizaron la composición y diversidad alimentaria mediante el análisis de los contenidos estomacales. Se concluye que la dieta consiste principalmente de insectos, predominando las hormigas como las presas mas abundantes y frecuentes pero las larvas y langostas son las que aportan casi la mitad del volumen ingerido. Estacionalmente se observa que tanto en numerosidad como en frecuencia el item presa más importante a lo largo de todas las estaciones es Formicidae, excepto para las hembras de la segunda primavera que consumieron principalmente dípteros. A partir del otoño del segundo año de estudio, otras presas además de las hormigas, fueron importantes los coreidos, arañas, larvas y las langostas. Se observaron algunas diferencias de consumo entre sexos. Seasonal variation in the diet of Liolaemus wiegmannii from Laguna Oscura, Departamento Río Cuarto (33°50'S 64°50'W, Córdoba Argentina was studied during two seasons. The composition, diversity and preference of the diet were studied from stomach contents. The most numerous and frequent prey during all periods were ants, except females during the second spring preferred fijes. Larvae and locusts represented almost the 50 of the volume of the stomach content. During the second year other prey where consumed frequently including Correidae, spiders, larvae and small locusts. Some differences where observed between sexes.

  2. Integrating early detection with DNA barcoding: species identification of a non-native monitor lizard (Squamata: Varanidae) carcass in Mississippi, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Hopken, Matthew W.; Steen, David A.; Falk, Bryan G.; Piaggio, Antoinette J.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of invasive species is critical to increasing the probability of successful management. At the primary stage of an invasion, invasive species are easier to control as the population is likely represented by just a few individuals. Detection of these first few individuals can be challenging, particularly if they are cryptic or otherwise characterized by low detectability. The engagement of members of the public may be critical to early detection as there are far more citizen s on the landscape than trained biologists. However, it can be difficult to assess the credibility of public reporting, especially when a diagnostic digital image or a physical specimen in good condition are lacking. DNA barcoding can be used for verification when morphological identification of a specimen is not possible or uncertain (i.e., degraded or partial specimen). DNA barcoding relies on obtaining a DNA sequence from a relatively small fragment of mitochondrial DNA and comparing it to a database of sequences containing a variety of expertly identified species. He rein we report the successful identification of a degraded specimen of a non-native, potentially invasive reptile species (Varanus niloticus) via DNA barcoding, after discovery and reporting by a member of the public.

  3. Clima, distribución geográfica y viviparismo en especies de Liolaemus (Reptilia; Squamata: cuando las hipótesis se ponen a prueba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix B. Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de los reptiles, dada su dependencia de la temperatura, puede verse restringida en función del clima. En particular, se han planteado tres hipótesis que vinculan el clima con la distribución y el viviparismo en las especies de reptiles: i hipótesis de clima variable, ii hipótesis del clima frío e iii hipótesis de manipulación materna. Entre las lagartijas de Sudamérica las especies del género Liolaemus se distribuyen tanto en ambientes cálidos como fríos y más del 50 % de ellas son vivíparas. En este trabajo estudiamos 47 especies de Liolaemus, tomando datos climáticos de sus sitios de colecta, su temperatura de preferencia (Tpref, el coeficiente de variación de la misma (CV y los límites de tolerancia térmica (TT. Nuestros resultados no apoyan la hipótesis de clima variable, aunque ésta ha sido sustentada en estudios anteriores. Se encontró relación entre viviparismo y altitud, pero no entre viviparismo y las variables térmicas ambientales. Finalmente, las especies vivíparas de Liolaemus mostraron un comportamiento termorregulador más preciso que las especies ovíparas, reforzando la hipótesis de manipulación materna.

  4. The snake assemblage (Squamata: Serpentes) of a Cerrado-Caatinga transition area in Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Francílio da Silva Rodrigues; Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente

    2011-01-01

    This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS), pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT), and incidental encounters (IE). During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/ob...

  5. Two new endemic species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru and additional information on Ameiva concolor Ruthven, 1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Rödder, Dennis; Flecks, Morris; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new species of Ameiva Meyer, 1795 from the dry forest of the Northern Peruvian Andes. The new species Ameiva nodam sp. nov. and Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. share a divided frontal plate and are differentiated from each other and from their congeners based on genetic (12S and 16S rRNA genes) and morphological characteristics. A. nodam sp. nov. has dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 101 mm, 10 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 86-113 midbody granules, 25-35 lamellae under the fourth toe, and a color pattern with 5 longitudinal yellow stripes on the dorsum. Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. has not or only hardly dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 99.3 mm, 10-12 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 73-92 midbody granules, 31-39 lamellae under the fourth toe, and the females and juveniles of the species normally exhibit a cream-colored vertebral stripe on a dark dorsum ground color. We provide information on the intraspecific variation and distribution of A. concolor. Furthermore, we provide information on the environmental niches of the taxa and test for niche conservatism.  PMID:25113348

  6. A comparative ultrastructural study of spermatozoa of the teiid lizards Cnemidophorus gularis gularis, Cnemidophorus ocellifer, and Kentropyx altamazonica (Reptilia, Squamata, Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R D; Scheltinga, D M; Trauth, S E; Colli, G R; Báo, S N

    2002-06-01

    The ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of Cnemidophorus gularis gularis, Cnemidophorus ocellifer, and Kentropyx altamazonica is described for the first time. Mature spermatozoa of Cnemidophorus spp. and K. altamazonica differ in the occurrence of a perforatorial base plate, the enlargement of axonemal fibers 3 and 8, and shape of mitochondria. The comparisons of the ultrastructure sperm of Cnemidophorus spp. and K. altamazonica with Ameiva ameiva [J. Morphol. (2002) in press] suggest that Ameiva and Cnemidophorus are more similar to each other than either is to Kentropyx. Statistical analyses reveal that sperm of all three species studied are significantly different in the following dimensions: head, acrosome, distal centriole length, and nuclear shoulders width. There was no variable statistically different between the Cnemidophorus spp. only. The length of the tail, midpiece, entire sperm, and nuclear rostrum are significantly different between K. altamazonica and Cnemidophorus spp. Our results indicate that sperm ultrastructure presents intra and intergeneric variability. PMID:12182806

  7. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartorello R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva store Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and that the purinergic agonist ATP triggers a rapid and transient increase of [Ca2+]c by mobilization of the cation from internal stores. We also reported the ability of the second messenger IP3 to discharge the ER calcium pool of the ER. Here we characterize the purinoceptor present in the cytoplasmic membrane of the RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva by the selective use of ATP analogues and pyrimidine nucleotides. The nucleotides UTP, UDP, GTP, and ATPgammaS triggered a dose-dependent response, while interestingly 2MeSATP, 2ClATP, alpha, ß-ATP, and ADP failed to do so in a 1- to 200-µm con- centration. The EC50 obtained for the compounds tested was 41.77 µM for UTP, 48.11 µM for GTP, 53.11 µM for UDP, and 30.78 µM for ATPgammaS. The present data indicate that the receptor within the RBCs of Ameiva ameiva is a P2Y4-like receptor due to its pharmacological similarity to the mammalian P2Y4 receptor.

  8. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sartorello R.; Garcia C.R.S.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs) of the lizard ...

  9. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorello, R; Garcia, C R S

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs) of the lizard Ameiva ameiva store Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that the purinergic agonist ATP triggers a rapid and transient increase of [Ca2+]c by mobilization of the cation from internal stores. We also reported the ability of the second messenger IP3 to discharge the ER calcium pool of the ER. Here we characterize the purinoceptor present in the cytoplasmic membrane of the RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva by the selective use of ATP analogues and pyrimidine nucleotides. The nucleotides UTP, UDP, GTP, and ATPgammaS triggered a dose-dependent response, while interestingly 2MeSATP, 2ClATP, alpha, ss-ATP, and ADP failed to do so in a 1- to 200-microm con- centration. The EC50 obtained for the compounds tested was 41.77 microM for UTP, 48.11 microM for GTP, 53.11 microM for UDP, and 30.78 microM for ATPgammaS. The present data indicate that the receptor within the RBCs of Ameiva ameiva is a P2Y4-like receptor due to its pharmacological similarity to the mammalian P2Y4 receptor. PMID:15665982

  10. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  11. Deep divergence and structure in the Tropical Oceanic Pacific: a multilocus phylogeography of a widespread gekkonid lizard (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Gehyra oceanica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonione, Maria A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Zhu, Catherine; Moritz, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Aim The islands of the Tropical Oceanic Pacific (TOP) host both local radiations and widespread, colonizing species. The few phylogeographical analyses of widespread species often point to recent human-aided expansions through the Pacific, suggesting that the communities are recently assembled. Here we apply multilocus data to infer biogeographical history of the gekkonid lizard, Gehyra oceanica, which is widespread, but for which prior analyses suggested a pre-human history and in situ diversification. Location Tropical Oceanic Pacific. Methods We generated a data set including mtDNA and diagnostic SNPs for 173 individuals of G. oceanica spanning Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. For a subset of these individuals, we also sequenced nuclear loci. From these data, we performed maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to reveal major clades. We also performed Bayesian clustering analyses and coalescence–based species delimitation tests to infer the number of species in this area. Results We found evidence for six independent evolutionary lineages (candidate species) within G. oceanica that diverged between the Pliocene and the early Pleistocene, with high diversity through northern Melanesia, and pairing of northern Melanesian endemic taxa with widespread lineages across Micronesia and Polynesia. Main conclusions The islands of northern Melanesia not only have unrecognized diversity, but also were the source of independent expansions of lineages through the more remote northern and eastern Pacific. These results highlight the very different evolutionary histories of island faunas on remote archipelagos versus those across Melanesia and point to the need for more intensive studies of fauna within Melanesia if we are to understand the evolution of diversity across the tropical Pacific.

  12. A metapopulation of the lizard Anguis fragilis (Squamata: Anguidae on a local scale in Dorset, Great Britain, as indicated by spatial distribution and movement

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    Thomas Haley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A metapopulation is a group of spatially structured populations, consisting of distinct units (subpopulations that are separated by space or barriers, and connected by dispersal movements. Evidence derived from Gaussian finite-mixture models and dispersal events suggests that slow-worms may exist in a metapopulation. The Gaussian finite-mixture models showed that slow-worms are aggregated into individual subpopulations; the movement data revealed that males are more likely to migrate than females and that they have the ability to travel sufficiently far to bridge subpopulations. Therefore, the evidence supports the metapopulation theory and that slow-worms exist in multiple small subpopulations instead of one large homogenous population.

  13. Cryptic, Sympatric Diversity in Tegu Lizards of the Tupinambis teguixin Group (Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae) and the Description of Three New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowers, Michael J.; Lehtinen, Richard M.; Charles, Stevland P.; Colli, Guarino R.; Peres, Ayrton K.; Hendry, Catriona R.; Pyron, R. Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita). Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympatric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists. PMID:27487019

  14. Liolaemus carlosgarini and Liolaemus riodamas (Squamata: Liolaemidae), two new species of lizards lacking precloacal pores, from Andean areas of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Damien; Núñez, Herman; Scolaro, José Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Most of the lizards of the Liolaemus genus present precloacal pores in males, with few exceptions in species of the lineomaculatus and neuquensis groups, and in the elongatus-kriegi complex. The elongatus-kriegi complex, belonging to the Liolaemus (sensu stricto) subgenus, is composed of medium sized, saxicolous, viviparous and insectivorous or omnivorous lizards, distributed between the Andean and Patagonian zones of Chile and Argentina. We reviewed the taxonomic history of this group, and we describe two new species, Liolaemus carlosgarini, found in the vicinity of the Maule Lagoon, in the Maule Region, Chile, and Liolaemus riodamas, described from the population that was originally designated as Liolaemus cf ceii, from Las Damas River, near the Termas del Flaco locality, in the Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins Region, thereby based on this research L. ceii is eliminated from the species belonging to Chile. Both species have as a diagnostic character the absence of precloacal pores, and we suggest here their presumptive systematic relationships in Liolaemus. We analyzed ten species of Liolaemus, in order to perform a phylogenetic analysis based on external morphology, using mostly squamation and morphometric characters. The analysis was performed using PAUP, with the Maximum Parsimony criterion. In addition, through diaphanisation, we studied and described the osteology of the new species. We conclude that species lacking precloacal pores do not form a monophyletic group, and that constructing a phylogeny using only external morphology, at least for this group of reptiles, is insufficient to establish solid phyletic relationships. Other sort of characters should complement the morphological ones. PMID:26131484

  15. A revision of the Oligodon taeniatus (Günther, 1861) group (Squamata: Colubridae), with the description of three new species from the Indochinese Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. David; G. Vogel; J. van Rooijen

    2008-01-01

    The group of Asian colubrid species morphologically similar to Oligodon taeniatus (Günther, 1861), previously containing only O. taeniatus, Oligodon mouhoti (Günther, 1864) and Oligodon barroni (Smith, 1916), is revised on the basis of variation in external morphology and dentition of 175 specimens.

  16. The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus; Squamata: Varanidae) as a sentinel species for lead and cadmium contamination in sub-Saharan wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetland pollution is a matter of concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Though regularly exploited, the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), a large amphibious lizard, is not threatened. This work aims at assessing the value of this varanid as a sentinel species in surveys of environmental contamination by metals. Lead and cadmium quantifications were performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bone, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle in 71 monitors from three unevenly polluted sites in Mali and Niger, plus a reference site. The effects of sex, size and fat reserves as well as factors related to the sampling strategy (tissue sampled, sampling site) were studied with a mixed linear model. Metal contamination is moderate at the four sites but clear differences nevertheless occur. Lead levels are generally maximal in bone, with a gender-independent median value 320 ng.g-1. Median cadmium concentrations never exceed 70.2 ng.g-1 in females (kidney) and 57.5 ng.g-1 in males (intestine). Such levels should have no detrimental effects on the monitors. Lead and cadmium levels in muscles are generally below 200 and 20 ng.g-1, respectively, and should provoke no health hazard to occasional consumers of monitor meat. Metal organotropisms are consistent with those observed in other studies about Squamates: for lead: bone > [kidney, intestine, liver] > muscle in males and [bone, kidney] > [intestine, liver] > muscle in females; for cadmium: [liver, intestine, kidney] > [bone, muscle] for both genders. Females are more contaminated, especially in their kidneys. In this tissue, median values in ng.g-1 are 129.7 and 344.0 for lead and 43.0 and 70.2 for cadmium, for males and females, respectively. Nile monitors can reveal subtle differences in local pollution by metals; moreover, the spatial resolution of the pollution indication that they give seems to be very sharp. The practical relevance of this new tool is thus validated.

  17. Variation in parental investment and relative clutch mass of the spiny-tail iguana, Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae in central México Variación en la inversión parental y masa relativa de la nidada en la iguana de cola espinosa Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae en el centro de México

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    Rubén Castro-Franco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured the length, width, volume, and weight of 871 freshly laid eggs of 28 clutches of Ctenosaura pectinata. The iguanas were obtained from a tropical dry forest area in central Mexico. The relative clutch mass was related positively to the average egg weight but not to average egg volume. Unlike what usually occurs in lizards, where the body length strongly predicts egg production, in C. pectinata clutch size and egg size were not correlated with female weight or snout-vent length. Observed differences revealed variation in the weight-size of the egg within an individual clutch. Therefore, there is not an optimization of the egg in the studied population of Ctenosaura, as usually occurs in small lizards. This variation associated with reproduction takes place in the middle of the dry season, and may be interpreted as an adaptation to facilitate the adjustment of different phenotypes in environments with extreme drought.Medimos la longitud, amplitud, volumen, y peso de 871 huevos recién puestos de 28 nidadas de Ctenosaura pectinata. Las iguanas fueron obtenidas en un área de bosque tropical seco en el centro de México. La masa relativa de la nidada estuvo relacionada positivamente con el peso promedio de los huevos pero no con el volumen promedio del huevo. A diferencia de lo que ocurre usualmente en lagartijas, donde la longitud del cuerpo determina la producción de huevos, en C. pectinata el tamaño de la puesta y el tamaño del huevo no se correlacionan con el peso y tamaño de las hembras. Las diferencias observadas revelan variación en el tamaño y peso de los huevos dentro de las puestas individuales. En consecuencia, no hay una optimización del huevo en la población estudiada de Ctenosaura, como usualmente ocurre en lagartijas de tamaño pequeño. Esta variación asociada con la reproducción tiene lugar a mitad de la estación seca, y puede ser interpretada como una adaptación para facilitar el ajuste de diferentes fenotipos en ambientes con sequía extrema.

  18. Ecología del crecimiento de una lagartija del género Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae en la Reserva de la Biosfera, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México Growth ecology of a lizard of the genus Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae from the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GASTÓN ZAMORA-ABREGO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos el crecimiento corporal de una nueva especie de lagartija endémica del género Xenosaurus Peters, ubicada en la Reserva de la Biósfera, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. Se estimaron las tasas de crecimiento corporal y se analizaron a partir de los modelos de crecimiento de Von Bertalanffy, logístico por longitud y logístico por peso. Para describir el patrón de crecimiento de estas lagartijas, utilizamos el modelo logístico por longitud debido a que fue el modelo que tuvo el mejor ajuste a las tasas observadas de crecimiento corporal. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras en el parámetro característico de crecimiento ni en la talla asintótica proyectada. Por lo tanto, se construyó una sola curva de crecimiento para ambos sexos. Los machos alcanzan la madurez sexual a los 24 meses, mientras que las hembras lo hacen hasta los 37 meses. Las tasas de crecimiento independientes de la talla no fueron estadísticamente diferentes entre años (2001, 2002 y 2003, ni entre estaciones (estación húmeda y seca. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la variación en el crecimiento corporal de esta especie, no es causada exclusivamente por las variaciones ambientales, sino más bien por una compleja combinación de factores ambientales y bases genéticas.We analyzed variation in body growth of a new lizard species of the genus Xenosaurus Peters that is endemic to the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. We calculated body growth rates and analyzed them by means of the Von Bertalanffy, logistic-by-length, and logistic-by-weight growth models. We used the logistic-by-length model to describe the growth pattern of these lizards because this model provided the best fit to the observed body growth rates. No significant differences were found between males and females in the characteristic growth parameter or in the projected asymptotic size. Therefore, a single growth curve was constructed for both sexes. Males reach maturity at 24 months, whereas females at 37 months. Size-independent growth rates were not statistically different among years (2001, 2002 and 2003 or between season (wet and dry season. Our results suggest that variation in body growth of this species is not caused exclusively by environmental variation, but rather by a complex combination of environmental and genetic factors.

  19. Use of sleeping perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae in the fragmented tropical rainforest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico Uso de perchas para dormir por la lagartija Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae en el bosque tropical fragmentado de Los Tuxtlas, México

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    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of nocturnal perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis is described. Bimonthly surveys were made throughout a year in small fragments and continuous tropical rainforest areas at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Twenty three juvenile individuals and 7 adults were recorded sleeping during the sampling time (18:00 - 23:00 h.. All individuals were found on leaves of plants of 14 species. Perch height ranged from 41.0 to 140.5 cm (mean: 90.1 cm juveniles; 80.6 cm adults and the most frequent sleeping position observed was with the body oriented along the longitudinal axis of the leaf and the head facing the stem of the plant. This apparently vulnerable position can permit the perception of external stimuli such as proximity of predators; although, eco-physiological factors may also influence selection of sleeping perch sites.Se describe el uso de perchas nocturnas por parte de la lagartija Anolis uniformis. Durante un año se ralizaron muestreos bimensuales en fragmentos pequeños y áreas continuas de bosque tropical perennifolio en Los Tuxtlas, México. Se registraron 23 individuos juveniles y 7 adultos durmiendo durante las horas de muestreo (18:00 a 23:00 hrs. Todos los individuos fueron encontrados en hojas de plantas pertenecientes a 14 especies. La altura de las perchas varió entre 41.0 y 140.5 cm (promedio: 90.1 cm juveniles; 80.6 cm adultos y la posición más frecuente de las lagartijas al dormir fue con el cuerpo extendido a lo largo del eje longitudinal de la hoja y la cabeza dirigida hacia el tallo de la planta. Esta posición, aparentemente vulnerable, puede permitir la percepción de estímulos externos como la aproximación de depredadores; sin embargo, factores eco-fisiológicos pueden también influir en la selección de sitios para dormir.

  20. Reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil Ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus y Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae en una área de caatinga del nordeste de Brasil

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    LEONARDO B. RIBEIRO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 in an area of caatinga in the Serido of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, from October 2006 to May 2008. In both species, the females were reproductively active from the middle of the dry season to the beginning of the rainy season. Female reproductive activity was influenced by precipitation, whereas males exhibited spermatozoa in their testes throughout the year, and their reproductive activity was not related to any of the climatic variables analyzed. Mean clutch size (± SD was 8.1 ± 2.0 and 2.1 ± 0.6 eggs in T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus, respectively, and was significantly related to female body size only in T. hispidus. The fat stock varied inversely with reproductive activity in the two species, and there was no difference in fat body mass between females and males. The effects of precipitation on the length of the breeding season of these two Tropidurus species suggest that their reproductive cycles are related to the microclimatic conditions suitable for embryo development, as well as for the neonates' emergence and survival especially during the rainy season, which may offer greater food availability to the hatchlings.Este estudio evaluó los ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 y T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 en una área de caatinga en el Seridó de Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, de octubre de 2006 a mayo de 2008. En ambas especies, las hembras se encontraron reproductivamente activas a partir de mediados de la estación seca para el inicio de la temporada de lluvias. La actividad reproductiva de las hembras fue influenciada por las precipitaciones, mientras que los machos presentaron espermatozoides en los testículos durante todo el año, y su actividad reproductiva no fue relacionada con ninguna de las variables climáticas analizadas. El tamaño medio (± DE de la nidada fue de 8.1 ± 2.0 y 2.1 ± 0.6 huevos en T. hispidus y T. semitaeniatus, respectivamente, y se relacionó significativamente con el tamaño corporal de la hembra solo en T. hispidus. La reserva de grasa varió inversamente con la actividad reproductiva en las dos especies, y no hubo diferencia en la cantidad de grasa corporal entre hembras y machos. Los efectos de la precipitación sobre la duración de la temporada reproductiva de estas dos especies de Tropidurus sugieren que sus ciclos reproductivos están relacionados con las condiciones microclimáticas adecuadas para el desarrollo del embrión, así como para la emergencia de los recién nacidos y su supervivencia, especialmente durante la temporada de lluvias, que es la que puede ofrecer una mayor disponibilidad de alimentos para las crías.

  1. Dimorfismo sexual y ciclo reproductivo de la lagartija espinosa arbórea Sceloporus formosus Wiegmann (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae de la zona central del estado de Oaxaca, México Sexual dimorphism and reproductive cycle in the arboreal spiny lizard Sceloporus formosus Wiegmann (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae from central Oaxaca, México

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    AURELIO RAMÍREZ-BAUTISTA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that geographic variation oceurs in life history characteristics among populations of lizards. Variations in life histories found in some studies are possibly adaptations to environmental pressures. In southwestern México, the reproductive characteristics of the endemic species Sceloporus formosus have been poorly studied throughout its geographic range. We used specimens from scientific collections to describe male and female reproductive eyeles and sexual dimorphism of S. formosus. Other viviparous Sceloporus from high elevations show sexual dimorphism, with males being larger in many morphological characteristics than females. We therefore expected that S. formosus would show sexual dimorphism. However, we found no sexual dimorphism. Males reached sexual maturity at a smaller (47 mm snout-vent length (SVL than females (50 mm. There were no significant differences between sexes and months in liver mass. However, fat body mass in females was greater than in males. For males, there was significant relationship between log10-testis volume and log10-SVL. Testis volume was positively correlated with temperature and was smallest during October, November, and December. For females, there was no significant effect of month on gonad volume. Vitellogenesis oceurred from April to November. Vitellogenic follicles and embryonic development were significantly correlated with precipitation (Pearson correlation, r = 0.80, n = 10, P = 0.0081 and photoperiod (Pearson correlation, r = 0.72, n = 10, P Es bien conocido que la variación geográfica ocurre en las características de historias de vida entre poblaciones de especies de lagartijas. Las variaciones en las características de historias de vida encontradas en algunos estudios son posiblemente adaptaciones a las presiones del ambiente. En el suroeste de México, habita la especie endémica, Sceloporus formosus la cual ha sido poco estudiada en sus características reproductivas a través de su intervalo de distribución geográfica. En este estudio se usaron especímenes provenientes de colecciones científicas para describir el ciclo reproductivo de machos y hembras y dimorfismo sexual de S. formosus. En otras especies vivíparas de altitudes elevadas del género Sceloporus muestran dimorfismo, donde los machos son más grandes que las hembras en muchas características morfológicas; debido a esto, esperábamos que S. formosus mostrara dimorfismo sexual. Sin embargo, no encontramos dimorfismo sexual. Los machos alcanzaron la madurez sexual a menor talla (47 mm en longitud hocico-cloaca (LHC que las hembras (50 mm. En cuanto a la masa del hígado no hubo diferencias significativas entre sexos y meses. Sin embargo, los cuerpos grasos en las hembras fueron mayores que en machos. En los machos, no hubo relaciones significativas entre log10-volumen testicular y el log10-LHC. El volumen testicular se correlacionó positivamente con la temperatura y este fue más pequeño durante octubre, noviembre y diciembre. Para las hembras, no hubo efectos significativos del mes sobre el volumen de la gónada. La vitelogénesis ocurrió de abril a noviembre. Los folículos vitelógenicos y el desarrollo embrionario se correlacionaron significativamente con la precipitación (Correlación de Pearson, r = 0.80,n=10,P = 0.0081 y el fotoperiodo (Correlación de Pearson, r = 0.72, n = 10, P < 0.0001. El tamaño de la carnada basado con el número de embriones, se correlacionó con la LHC (Correlación de Pearson, r = 0.82, n = 10, P = 0.0034. La masa relativa de la carnada no se correlacionó con la LHC de las hembras (Correlación de Pearson, r = 0.43, n = 10, P = 0.2110. Este patrón reproductivo otoñal encontrado es típico de especies vivíparas que habitan altitudes elevadas, donde la temperatura es baja, la precipitación y la humedad son altas. Lo que sugiere que la convergencia en los ciclos reproductivos puede estar asociada con un cambio a las condiciones ambientales imperantes en altitudes elevadas.

  2. Experimental introduction of Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae in Praia das Neves, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: a descriptive study 18 years later Introdução experimental de Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae em Praia das Neves, Espírito Santo, Brasil: um estudo descritivo 18 anos depois

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    Ana Hermínia B. Soares

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the results of the introduction into Praia das Neves, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, of Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, a lizard species threatened with extinction. Since there are few studies that evaluate how species establish and adapt to new environments, it is useful to assess to what extent the introduction of a critically endangered species into an area similar to where it originally occurred can help reduce its decline in number of individuals and avoid its possible extinction. This study presents the first results of an ongoing monitoring survey set up after the experimental introduction. We analyze how the introduced population uses space and food and we compare these characteristics to that of the original population at Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro state. We also compare morphological measurementss of specimens from both populations. Both make similar use of the microhabitat, but there are differences in their diets. We recommend that the introduced population, potential competitors, predators, parasites, and the habitat characteristics continue to be monitored, so as to insure that this species will not become a threat to Praia das Neves beach community.Esse artigo examina o resultado da introdução, em Praia das Neves, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, de Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, uma espécie de lagarto ameaçada de extinção. Como existem poucos estudos que avaliam como espécies estabelecem-se e adaptam-se a novos ambientes, é útil conhecer em que extensão a introdução de uma espécie criticamente em perigo em uma área similar àquela onde ocorria naturalmente pode ajudar a reduzir seu declínio em número de indivíduos e evitar sua possível extinção. Esse estudo apresenta os primeiros resultados de um monitoramento em andamento, iniciado depois da introdução experimental. Analisamos o uso do espaço pela população introduzida e sua alimentação, e comparamos essas características com a da população original em Barra de Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Também comparamos as medidas morfológicas das duas populações. Ambas fazem uso similar do microhabitat, mas há diferenças nas suas dietas. Recomendamos que a população introduzida e seus competidores potenciais, predadores e parasitos, e as características do habitat continuem a ser monitorados, para garantir que essa espécie não se torne uma ameaça à comunidade de Praia das Neves.

  3. Cool Season Paleotemperatures at Tree Line in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W. E.; Chan, M.

    2011-12-01

    Taiwan has over 200 mountains whose peaks exceed 3,000 meters in elevation. Despite straddling the Tropic of Cancer, the higher peaks have snow and freezing temperatures every winter. Trees growing above 3,500 meters show clear temperature variation, even producing frost rings. Yet unlike temperate tree-line species, with their warm season temperature signal, trees growing at Taiwan's tree line show sensitivity to cool season temperatures. Juniperus squamata growing above 3,500 meters in central Taiwan have ring width time series that commonly exceed 600 years. Presented are the first dendroclimatological analyses from Taiwanese Juniperus squamata.

  4. Divergence and long-distance overseas dispersals of island populations of the Ryukyu five-lined skink, Plestiodon marginatus (Scincidae: Squamata), in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, as revealed by mitochondrial DNA phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the historical biogeography of the Ryukyu five-lined skink, Plestiodon marginatus, and related species (P. stimpsonii and P. elegans). Our specific aims were to reveal the origin, tim- ing, and route of the colonization to three volcanic islands in the northern Tokara Group of the northern Ryukyus: Kuchinoshima, Nakanoshima, and Suwanosejima. We conducted phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimation using a partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for P. marginatus collected from across its whole range (the northern and central Ryukyus), and for P. stimpsonii (from the Yaeyama Group of the southern Ryukyus) and P. elegans (from Taiwan). Our results suggest three major clades (A, B, and C). Clades A and B consist of P. marginatus, excluding the Kuchinoshima population, and Clade C consisted of the Kuchinoshima population, P. stimpsonii, and P. elegans. These clades are estimated to have diverged during the Late Miocene to the Late Pliocene. Among the three examined northern Tokara populations, the Kuchinoshima population was shown to be a sister group of P. stimpsonii. The two other populations from Nakanoshima and Suwanosejima Islands were closely related to P. marginatus from the northern part of the Okinawa Group and that from Kodakarajima Island in the southern Tokara Group, respectively. These populations are estimated to have diverged from their respective related spe cies in various ages of the Early to Late Pleistocene, suggesting that they colonized the islands by independent overseas dispersals of approximately 50-850 km via the Kuroshio Current. Taxonomic implications for P. marginatus are also discussed.

  5. The association of Triatoma maculata (Ericsson 1848) with the gecko Thecadactylus rapicauda (Houttuyn 1782) (Reptilia:Squamata:Gekkonidae):a strategy of domiciliation of the Chagas disease peridomestic vector in Venezuela?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reyes-Lugo M; Rodrguez-Acosta A; Reyes-Contreras M; Salvi I; Gelves W; Aviln A; Llavaneras D; Navarrete LF; Cordero G; Snchez EE

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the bioecological relationship between Chagas disease peridomestic vectors and reptiles as source of feeding. Methods: In a three-story building, triatomines were captured by direct search and electric vacuum cleaner search in and outside the building. Then, age structure of the captured Triatoma maculata (T. maculata) were identified and recorded. Reptiles living in sympatric with the triatomines were also searched. Results: T. maculata were found living sympatric with geckos (Thecadactylus rapicauda) and they bit residents of the apartment building in study. A total of 1 448 individuals of T. maculata were captured within three days, of which 74.2% (1 074 eggs) were eggs, 21.5% were nymphs at different stages, and 4.3% were adults. Conclusions: The association of T. maculata and T. rapicauda is an effective strategy of colonizing dwellings located in the vicinity of the habitat where both species are present; and therefore, could have implications of high importance in the intradomiciliary transmission of Chagas disease.

  6. Primer registro de Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758 para el departamento de La Paz, Bolivia. Comentarios sobre la extensión de la distribución geográfica para Plica umbra (Linnaeus 1758, (Squamata: Tropiduridae

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    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de la especie Plica plica y tres de Plica umbra fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Todos los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Capital de Provincia Ixiamas, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas, Cantón Ixiamas, Capital de Cantón Tahua.

  7. 墨西哥帕丘卡卵胎生条纹强棱蜥的繁殖周期%Reproductive cycle of the viviparous lizard Sceloporus grammicus(Squamata:Phrynosomatidae)from Pachuca,Hidalgo,México

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aurelio RAM(I)REZ-BAUTISTA; Carlos A.MACIEL-MATA; Miguel Angel MART(I)NEZ-MORALES

    2005-01-01

    In this study,we present the cycle and reproductive characteristics of the viviparous lizard Sceloporus grammicus from populations of arid environments near Pachuca City,in the state of Hidalgo,México.We obtained data from preserved specimens at two Mexican scientific collections.Males and females reached sexual maturity at the same snout-vent length(SVL,40.0 mm).Testicular mass of adult males began to increase in May and maximum testes mass occurred from July to August.Changes in testicular mass were not correlated with precipitation,temperature or photoperiod.Follicle mass in females began to increase in July and continued through October.Females contained embryos from November to July.Vitellogenesis and embryonic development were not correlated with photoperiod,temperature or precipitation.Mean litter size was 5.2±0.2 neonates(2-10).Litter size was correlated with female SVL.%本文报道墨西哥伊达尔戈州帕丘卡地区干旱环境中卵胎生条纹强棱蜥的繁殖周期及特征.测定墨西哥两个科学收藏馆的浸制标本获得数据.雌雄个体达到性成熟时的体长相等,为40.0 mm.雄体睾丸重量在5月开始增加,至7、8月达到最大.睾丸重量变化与降雨量、温度和光周期均无关.雌体卵泡重量在7月开始增加,并一直持续至10月.从11月至次年7月,雌体怀有胚胎.卵黄发生及胚胎发育与光周期、温度和降雨量无关.窝仔数与雌体体长呈正相关.平均窝仔数为5.2±0.2个(2-10个).

  8. Chromosomal localization of the 18S-28S and 5S rRNA genes and (TTAGGGn sequences of butterfly lizards (Leiolepis belliana belliana and Leiolepis boehmei, Agamidae, Squamata

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    Kornsorn Srikulnath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal mapping of the butterfly lizards Leiolepis belliana belliana and L. boehmei was done using the 18S-28S and 5S rRNA genes and telomeric (TTAGGGn sequences. The karyotype of L. b. belliana was 2n = 36, whereas that of L. boehmei was 2n = 34. The 18S-28S rRNA genes were located at the secondary constriction of the long arm of chromosome 1, while the 5S rRNA genes were found in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 6 in both species. Hybridization signals for the (TTAGGGn sequence were observed at the telomeric ends of all chromosomes, as well as interstitially at the same position as the 18S-28S rRNA genes in L. boehmei. This finding suggests that in L. boehmei telomere-to-telomere fusion probably occurred between chromosome 1 and a microchromosome where the 18S-28S rRNA genes were located or, alternatively, at the secondary constriction of chromosome 1. The absence of telomeric sequence signals in chromosome 1 of L. b. belliana suggested that its chromosomes may have only a few copies of the (TTAGGGn sequence or that there may have been a gradual loss of the repeat sequences during chromosomal evolution.

  9. Applying n-dimensional hypervolumes for species delimitation: unexpected molecular, morphological, and ecological diversity in the Leaf-Toed Gecko Phyllodactylus reissii Peters, 1862 (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Flecks, Morris; Venegas, Pablo J; Bialke, Patrick; Valverde, Sebastian; Rödder, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    An integrative taxonomic approach based on morphology, molecular analyses, and climatic niche modeling was used to uncover cryptic diversity in the phyllodactylid gecko species Phyllodactylus reissii. At least three distinct species could be identified among the examined specimens from southern Ecuador and northern Peru. Phyllodactylus magister, described by Noble (1924) from arid Andean valleys of the Chinchipe and Marañón rivers in the Peruvian Department of Cajamarca and synonymized with P. reissii by Dixon & Huey (1970) is elevated from synonymy and a detailed redescription is provided. A new species of the genus Phyllodactylus from the Andean dry forest of the southern Marañón valley is identified and described herein. Phyllodactylus pachamama sp. nov. is differentiated from other South American congeners on the basis of mtDNA sequence divergence, morphological characters, and differences in the realized climatic niche. At least in Peru, P. reissii seems to primarily inhabit the northern coastal region west of the Andes, while the inter-Andean area along the Río Marañón and its tributaries seems to be inhabited mostly by other species of the genus, which are endemic to this area. The Andean valleys are underestimated in terms of biodiversity and lack thorough investigation and conservation actions.

  10. Cryptic speciation within Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) (Squamata: Pareatidae), the description of a new species from Peninsular Malaysia, and the resurrection of A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jude, 1923) from Sumatra: an integrative taxonomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, Ariel I; Wood, Perry L; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Greer, Lee F; Ahmad, Norhayati; Grismer, L Lee

    2013-01-01

    A review of the taxonomic status of the Asian Slug Snake, Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) based on an integrative taxonomic approach using molecular, morphological, color pattern, and ecological data indicate it is composed of three well supported monophyletic lineages: (1) Pulau Tioman and Fraser's Hill, Pahang and Bukit Larut, Perak; Peninsular Malaysia; (2) its sister lineage from Northern Sumatra; and (3) the remaining basal lineage from Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, we consider the high sequence divergence (6.3%-10.2%) between these lineages (especially in areas of sympatry) and discrete differences in their morphology, color pattern, and microhabitat preference as evidence they are not conspecific. As such, we resurrect the name A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jeude, 1923) for the Sumatra populations, restrict the name A. vertebralis to the populations from Pulau Tioman, Genting Highlands, Fraser's Hill, Gunung Benom, and Bukit Larut that contain terrestrial, banded adults; and consider A. lasgalenensis sp. nov. to be restricted to the populations from Fraser's Hill, Cameron Highlands, and Bukit Larut that contain arboreal, unbanded adults. PMID:26266316

  11. An inconspicuous, conspicuous new species of Asian pipesnake, genus Cylindrophis (Reptilia: Squamata: Cylindrophiidae), from the south coast of Jawa Tengah, Java, Indonesia, and an overview of the tangled taxonomic history of C. ruffus (Laurenti, 1768).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckbusch, Max; Mecke, Sven; Hartmann, Lukas; Ehrmantraut, Lisa; O'shea, Mark; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2016-03-20

    We describe a new species of Cylindrophis currently known only from Grabag, Purworejo Regency, Jawa Tengah Pro-vince (Central Java), Java, Indonesia. Cylindrophis subocularis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the presence of a single, eponymous subocular scale between the 3rd and 4th or 4th and 5th supralabial, preventing contact between the 4th or 5th supralabial and the orbit, and by having the prefrontal in narrow contact with or separated from the orbit. We preface our description with a detailed account of the tangled taxonomic history of the similar and putatively wide-ranging species C. ruffus, which leads us to (1) remove the name Scytale scheuchzeri from the synonymy of C. ruffus, (2) list the taxon C. rufa var. javanica as species inquirenda, and (3) synonymize C. mirzae with C. ruffus. We provide additional evidence to confirm that the type locality of C. ruffus is Java. Cylindrophis subocularis sp. nov. is the second species of Asian pipesnake from Java.

  12. A new species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae), from Jawa Timur Province, Java, Indonesia, with taxonomic remarks on C. fumosus (Müller, 1895).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lukas; Mecke, Sven; Kieckbusch, Max; Mader, Felix; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2016-01-26

    A new species of the gekkonid lizard genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 is described from Klakah, Lumajang Regency, Jawa Timur Province, Java, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus klakahensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other congeners by the presence of (1) a deep precloacal groove in males, (2) three rows of enlarged precloacofemoral scales, of which the third row bears 37-38 pores in males, (3) three or four rows of enlarged scales between the precloacofemoral scale rows and the cloaca, forming distinct chevrons, (4) raised and strongly keeled dorsal tubercles in 15-19 rows at midbody, (5) an indistinct lateral fold, (6) 17-20 subdigital lamellae under the 4th toe, and (7) subcaudal scales which are not transversely enlarged. Cyrtodactylus klakahensis sp. nov. is only the third bent-toed gecko species described from Java, indicating that the diversity of this genus on this island has been neglected in the past. Furthermore, we confirm that C. fumosus (Müller, 1895) is a species that possesses a precloacal groove in males and is most likely restricted to northern Sulawesi. That species is defined by a single female holotype (NMB-REPT 2662). Specimens in museum collections catalogued as C. fumosus from localities elsewhere are misidentified and likely represent undescribed species.

  13. Reproducción y variación de grupos de tamaño en una población de Liolaemus koslowskyi (Squamata: liolaemini)

    OpenAIRE

    Martori, Ricardo; Aun, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    El patrón reproductivo, la tasa de crecimiento y la supervivencia son las principales características de la historia de vida de los organismos, el tamaño o edad en que un individuo adquiere su madurez sexual, el tamaño de la puesta y la fenología reproductiva inciden sobre el reclutamiento y por lo tanto sobre la estabilidad poblacional. Se seleccionaron diferentes ambientes representativos del área de estudio, unas para realizar la extracción de las muestras reproductivas y otras para la obs...

  14. Applying n-dimensional hypervolumes for species delimitation: unexpected molecular, morphological, and ecological diversity in the Leaf-Toed Gecko Phyllodactylus reissii Peters, 1862 (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Flecks, Morris; Venegas, Pablo J; Bialke, Patrick; Valverde, Sebastian; Rödder, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    An integrative taxonomic approach based on morphology, molecular analyses, and climatic niche modeling was used to uncover cryptic diversity in the phyllodactylid gecko species Phyllodactylus reissii. At least three distinct species could be identified among the examined specimens from southern Ecuador and northern Peru. Phyllodactylus magister, described by Noble (1924) from arid Andean valleys of the Chinchipe and Marañón rivers in the Peruvian Department of Cajamarca and synonymized with P. reissii by Dixon & Huey (1970) is elevated from synonymy and a detailed redescription is provided. A new species of the genus Phyllodactylus from the Andean dry forest of the southern Marañón valley is identified and described herein. Phyllodactylus pachamama sp. nov. is differentiated from other South American congeners on the basis of mtDNA sequence divergence, morphological characters, and differences in the realized climatic niche. At least in Peru, P. reissii seems to primarily inhabit the northern coastal region west of the Andes, while the inter-Andean area along the Río Marañón and its tributaries seems to be inhabited mostly by other species of the genus, which are endemic to this area. The Andean valleys are underestimated in terms of biodiversity and lack thorough investigation and conservation actions. PMID:27615910

  15. Infestación Ectoparásitaria en la lagartija Anolis antonii (Squamata: Dactyloidae en dos Hábitat con Diferente Grado de Perturbación -resumen-

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    Cristian A Gallego-Carmona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la fragmentación del hábitat y la conversión de ambientes naturales en tierras agrícolas ha cobrado gran importancia en la parasitología de especies silvestres. Las perturbaciones en los hábitats naturales pueden influir en la distribución y/o abundancia de los ectoparásitos‚ así como en las interacciones parasito-hospedero y los patrones de infestación. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la carga ectoparasitaria de la lagartija Anolis antonii en una franja de bosque secundario y en un área cultivada (Musa sp. en el departamento del Tolima‚ Colombia. Se realizaron simultáneamente muestreos de búsqueda libre entre las 7:00 y las 18:00 horas en los dos hábitats. Los individuos fueron capturados manualmente y para cada uno se registró: el sexo‚ número y posición de los ectoparásitos‚ longitud hocico-cloaca‚ altura y diámetro de percha‚ peso y lesiones asociadas a la presencia de ectoparásitos. En los dos hábitats se hallaron individuos inmaduros pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae como parásitos de Anolis antonii. En el cultivo se presentó una prevalencia de infestación del 47‚05% (n=102 donde los machos presentaron la mayor prevalencia‚ seguidos por las hembras y los juveniles (machos=27‚ hembras=12‚ juveniles= 9. En el bosque se presentó una prevalencia de infestación del 17‚74% (n=124 donde las hembras y los juveniles presentaron la misma prevalencia‚ seguidos por los machos (hembras=9‚ juveniles=9‚ machos=4. En el cultivo‚ el 92‚59% de los machos infestados presentaron ectoparásitos en el saco gular y el 11,11% presentó lesiones asociadas a ectoparásitos en esta área. La intensidad de infestación no presentó diferencias significativas entre los hábitats. Se utilizaron análisis de regresión lineal entre el tamaño‚ peso y altura de percha de las lagartijas con respecto a la intensidad de infestación; sin embargo‚ no se presentaron relaciones significativas. Aunque no se identificaron variables determinantes en el patrón de infestación de Anolis antonii en ninguno de los hábitats‚ se reportó una alta prevalencia en los machos del área cultivada‚ así como lesiones que podrían limitar la funcionalidad del saco gular.

  16. Cryptic speciation within Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) (Squamata: Pareatidae), the description of a new species from Peninsular Malaysia, and the resurrection of A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jude, 1923) from Sumatra: an integrative taxonomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, Ariel I; Wood, Perry L; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Greer, Lee F; Ahmad, Norhayati; Grismer, L Lee

    2013-01-01

    A review of the taxonomic status of the Asian Slug Snake, Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) based on an integrative taxonomic approach using molecular, morphological, color pattern, and ecological data indicate it is composed of three well supported monophyletic lineages: (1) Pulau Tioman and Fraser's Hill, Pahang and Bukit Larut, Perak; Peninsular Malaysia; (2) its sister lineage from Northern Sumatra; and (3) the remaining basal lineage from Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, we consider the high sequence divergence (6.3%-10.2%) between these lineages (especially in areas of sympatry) and discrete differences in their morphology, color pattern, and microhabitat preference as evidence they are not conspecific. As such, we resurrect the name A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jeude, 1923) for the Sumatra populations, restrict the name A. vertebralis to the populations from Pulau Tioman, Genting Highlands, Fraser's Hill, Gunung Benom, and Bukit Larut that contain terrestrial, banded adults; and consider A. lasgalenensis sp. nov. to be restricted to the populations from Fraser's Hill, Cameron Highlands, and Bukit Larut that contain arboreal, unbanded adults.

  17. Sexual differences in size and shape of the Mosor rock lizard [Dinarolacerta mosorensis (Kolombatović, 1886] (squamata: lacertidae: A case study of the Lovćen mountain population (Montenegro

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    Ljubisavljević Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual differences in size and shape of the Mosor rock lizard, Dinarolacerta mosorensis (Kolombatović, 1886, from Lovćen Mountain (Montenegro were examined on the basis of the intersex variation pattern of nine morphometric, eight pholidotic, and four qualitative traits. Sexual dimorphism was apparent for all morphometric characters except snout-vent length, while scalation and dorsal pattern exhibited small differences between sexes. The value of the sexual size difference (SSD index based on snout-vent length was 1.028. The sex-specific allometric slopes for head dimensions and interlimb distance significantly diverged. Head dimensions, especially head height, showed strong positive allometry in males, while interlimb distance was the only character which showed positive allometry in females. Generally, males had significantly greater body size than females. This was true of all body measurements except interlimb distance. The influence of sexual and natural selection on the examined traits is discussed.

  18. Chromosomal evolution in the Brazilian geckos of the genus Gymnodactylus (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) from the biomes of Cerrado, Caatinga and Atlantic rain forest: evidence of Robertsonian fusion events and supernumerary chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, K C M; dos Santos, R M L; Rodrigues, M T; Laguna, M M; Amaro, R C; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomes of the South American geckos Gymnodactylus amarali and G. geckoides from open and dry areas of the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes in Brazil, respectively, were studied for the first time, after conventional and AgNOR staining, CBG- and RBG-banding, and FISH with telomeric sequences. Comparative analyses between the karyotypes of open areas and the previously studied Atlantic forest species G. darwinii were also performed. The chromosomal polymorphisms detected in populations of G. amarali from the states of Goiás and Tocantins is the result of centric fusions (2n = 38, 39 and 40), suggesting a differentiation from a 2n = 40 ancestral karyotype and the presence of supernumerary chromosomes. The CBG- and RBG-banding patterns of the Bs are described. G. geckoides has 40 chromosomes with gradually decreasing sizes, but it is distinct from the 2n = 40 karyotypes of G. amarali and G. darwinii due to occurrence of pericentric inversions or centromere repositioning. NOR location seems to be a marker for Gymnodactylus, as G. amarali and G. geckoides share a medium-sized subtelocentric NOR-bearing pair, while G. darwinii has NORs at the secondary constriction of the long arm of pair 1. The comparative analyses indicate a non-random nature of the Robertsonian rearrangements in the genus Gymnodactylus. PMID:20215729

  19. Systematics of small Gehyra (Squamata: Gekkonidae) of the southern Kimberley, Western Australia: redescription of G. kimberleyi Börner & Schüttler, 1983 and description of a new restricted range species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Bourke, Gayleen; Pratt, Renae C; Doughty, Paul; Moritz, Craig

    2016-04-29

    Ongoing fieldwork and molecular research continues to reveal that the monsoonal tropics of northern Australia contain more vertebrate species than currently recognised. Here we focus on two morphologically distinctive, yet unrecognised forms in the genus Gehyra from the southern Kimberley region and surrounding deserts. We base our descriptions on a combination of unpublished genetic data and a morphological examination of voucher specimens. We recognise and redescribe G. kimberleyi, a species with a broad distribution extending over most of the south-west Kimberley, across the Great Sandy Desert and into the far northern Pilbara. This species has been previously assigned to G. pilbara owing to its frequent occurrence on termite mounds and short snout, but can be distinguished from G. pilbara and other regionally sympatric Gehyra by its moderate body size, moderate number of pre-cloacal pores in males (12-17) and aspects of dorsal colouration. We also describe G. girloorloo sp. nov., a small rock-dwelling species with a short snout, low number of pre-cloacal pores in males (8-11) and pinkish-grey dorsal colouration with alternating series of indistinct pale spots and irregular transversely-aligned dark blotches. The new species appears to be restricted to a relatively small region of exposed limestone karst in the south-west Kimberley and is entirely circumscribed by morphologically similar congeners.

  20. A Paleoautoecologia de Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior &Marques, 1997 (Lepidosauria, Squamata Basal da Formação Santana, Aptiano da Bacia do Araripe Cretáceo Inferior do Nordeste do Brasil).

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Castro Bonfim-Júnior; Oscar Rocha-Barbosa

    2006-01-01

    Tijubina pontei is a basal lizard found in the Crato Member, SantanaFormation, Lower Cretaceous (Aptian), Brazil. It is considered a sister group of Huehuecuetzpalli mixtetus, the only basal lizard previously known, found in Mexico. The paleoautoecology of T. pontei is compatible with a terrestrial animal, omnivorous, which could eventually occupy other ecological niches. Based on their dentition and ecomorphology, their behaviour could be a combination of active forager or a “sit-and-wait” o...

  1. A Paleoautoecologia de Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior &Marques, 1997 (Lepidosauria, Squamata Basal da Formação Santana, Aptiano da Bacia do Araripe Cretáceo Inferior do Nordeste do Brasil.

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    Francisco de Castro Bonfim-Júnior

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tijubina pontei is a basal lizard found in the Crato Member, SantanaFormation, Lower Cretaceous (Aptian, Brazil. It is considered a sister group of Huehuecuetzpalli mixtetus, the only basal lizard previously known, found in Mexico. The paleoautoecology of T. pontei is compatible with a terrestrial animal, omnivorous, which could eventually occupy other ecological niches. Based on their dentition and ecomorphology, their behaviour could be a combination of active forager or a “sit-and-wait” one. It could even perform bipedal locomotion. Comparing T. pontei with Liolaemus lutzae, an extantbrazilian lizard, we find many characters and morphological similarities. This suggests that the L. lutzae habits could be extrapolated to the paleoenvironment of T. pontei which, probably, lived in a sandy habitat, with a vegetation that could support variations in salinity and high temperatures.

  2. Partial revision of Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Grand Caribbean Region, with the description of two new species and a key to species recorded in the area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado Blas, V.H.

    2006-01-01

    Five Scolelepis species from the Gulf of Mexico and Western Atlantic Ocean are reported and certain species previously synonymized with Scolelepis (S.) squamata are revised. Four species are reinstated: S. (S.) goodbodyi (Jones, 1962), S. (S.) minuta (Treadwell, 1939), S. (S.) acuta (Treadwell, 1914

  3. Reptiles de zonas bajas de Yacopí (Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Moreno Arias Rafael Ángel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un inventario de reptiles que ocurren por debajo de 1.000 m en el municipio de Yacopí, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se registraron 47 especies (26 Sauria, 19 Serpentes, un Amphisbaenia y un Testudinata, la familia y género más ricos fueron Colubridae y Anolis. La riqueza entre Sauria y  Serpentes fue diferente a la que se encuentra en el país. La fauna se agrupó según su distribución en dos tipos:  Trasandino (al oeste de la cordillera Oriental y Amplio (tanto al este como al oeste de la misma cordillera, los Saurios fueron más numerosos en el primero y las Serpentes en el segundo. Se encontró que la mayoría de reptiles se distribuye entre 0 y 2.000 m.

  4. Tikiguania and the antiquity of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Mark N.; Skinner, Adam; Lee, Michael S. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Tikiguania estesi is widely accepted to be the earliest member of Squamata, the reptile group that includes lizards and snakes. It is based on a lower jaw from the Late Triassic of India, described as a primitive lizard related to agamids and chamaeleons. However, Tikiguania is almost indistinguishable from living agamids; a combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data places it with draconines, a prominent component of the modern Asian herpetofauna. It is unlikely that ...

  5. Mesozoic marine reptile palaeobiogeography in response to drifting plates

    OpenAIRE

    Bardet, Nathalie; Falconnet, Jocelyn; Fischer, Valentin; Houssaye, Alexandra; Jouve, Stéphane; Pereda-Superbiola, Xavier; Perez-García, Adan; Rage, Jean-Claude; Vincent, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    During the Mesozoic, various groups of reptiles underwent a spectacular return to an aquatic life, colonizing most marine environments. They were highly diversified both systematically and ecologically, and most were the largest top-predators of the marine ecosystems of their time. The main groups were Ichthyosauria, Sauropterygia, Thalattosauria, and several lineages of Testudinata, Crocodyliformes, Rhynchocephalia and Squamata. Here we show that the palaeobiogeographical distribution of the...

  6. The Evolutionary Implications of Hemipenial Morphology of Rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurent, 1768 (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae.

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    Marcovan Porto

    Full Text Available Most amniotes vertebrates have an intromittent organ to deliver semen. The reptile Sphenodon and most birds lost the ancestral penis and developed a cloaca-cloaca mating. Known as hemipenises, the copulatory organ of Squamata shows unique features between the amniotes intromittent organ. They are the only paired intromittent organs across amniotes and are fully inverted and encapsulated in the tail when not in use. The histology and ultrastructure of the hemipenes of Crotalus durissus rattlesnake is described as the evolutionary implications of the main features discussed. The organization of hemipenis of Crotalus durissus terrificus in two concentric corpora cavernosa is similar to other Squamata but differ markedly from the organization of the penis found in crocodilians, testudinata, birds and mammals. Based on the available data, the penis of the ancestral amniotes was made of connective tissue and the incorporation of smooth muscle in the framework of the sinusoids occurred independently in mammals and Crotalus durissus. The propulsor action of the muscle retractor penis basalis was confirmed and therefore the named should be changed to musculus hemipenis propulsor.The retractor penis magnus found in Squamata has no homology to the retractor penis of mammals, although both are responsible for the retraction of the copulatory organ.

  7. Feeding ecology of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Squamata, Tropiduridae in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil Ecologia alimentar de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Sauria, Tropiduridae em duas áreas com diferentes níveis de conservação na Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil

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    André L. G. de Carvalho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effects of habitat disturbance on the feeding ecology of two local populations of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 in restinga habitats on Ilha da Marambaia, Southeastern Brazil. Both populations presented a relatively diverse diet and differ in the number (D Max = 0.22, DF = 2, p = 0.00 and volume of prey consumed (D Max = 0.82, DF = 2, p = 0.00. Ants were the most frequent and numerous preys in both areas, and plant matter and coleopterans were the most important alimentary items in volume. The population from the disturbed area presented a larger niche breadth for number of prey items consumed (Bi num = 3.06 and volume (Bi vol = 2.98, when compared to the other population (Bj num = 2.44, Bj vol = 1.52. Niche overlap was higher for number of items consumed between the populations (Oij num = 0.82 but lower for volume (Oij vol = 0.05. Our data suggest dietary differences between the two lizard populations, and these differences may be associated with environmental modifications. Our main hypothesis to explain the dietary differences is based in the Optimal Foraging Theory. However, the alimentary behavior, and consequently the diet of these lizards, seems to be constrained phylogenetically, with a pattern that may have evolved in the ancestor of all iguanids.Comparamos os efeitos da degradação ambiental sobre a ecologia alimentar de duas populações de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 em áreas de restinga da Ilha da Marambaia, sudeste do Brasil. Ambas as populações apresentaram dieta relativamente diversa e deferiram em número (D Max = 0,22; DF = 2; p = 0,00 e volume de presas consumidas (D Max = 0,82; DF = 2; p = 0,00. Formigas foram os itens mais freqüentes e numerosos em ambas as áreas, e material vegetal e coleópteros os mais importantes em volume. A população da área perturbada apresentou maior largura de nicho alimentar para número de presas consumidas (Bi num = 3,06 e volume (Bi vol = 2,98, quando comparada à outra população (Bj num = 2,44; Bj vol = 1,52. A sobreposição de nicho foi mais marcante para o número de itens consumidos entre as populações (Oij num = 0,82 e menos marcante para volume (Oij vol = 0,05. Nossos dados sugerem diferenças nas dietas entre as duas populações de lagartos, e estas diferenças parecem estar associadas à degradação ambiental. Nossa principal hipótese para explicar as diferenças nas dietas embasa-se na Teoria do Forrageamento Ótimo. Entretanto, o comportamento alimentar, e conseqüentemente a dieta dos lagartos, mostrarem-se limitadas filogeneticamente, com um padrão que pode ter evoluído no ancestral de todos os iguanídeos.

  8. Venómica. Mecanismos moleculares y evolutivos de la diversificación estructural de la familia de las disintegrinas

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez Gómez, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Serpientes y lagartos forman el orden de los reptiles escamosos (Squamata). La composición proteica de los venenos refleja el hecho de que éstos se originaron en etapas tempranas de la evolución de los reptiles escamosos, por reclutamiento y transformación por evolución acelerada de un número reducido de proteínas endogenas. Los venenos de los vipéridos poseen un arsenal de proteínas capaces de degradar la matriz extracelular e interferir en la cascada de coagulación, el sistema hemostático y...

  9. Molecular and functional approaches to understand the natural history of snake short disintegrins

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz-Soler, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El grupo Reptilia, consta de aves y reptiles no aviares. Los reptiles son uno de los grupos de organismos vivos más notables, desde el punto de vista ecológico y evolutivo, que han colonizado la mayor parte del planeta. La mayor diversidad de los reptiles no aviares (96,4%) se concentra en Squamata (lagartos y serpientes). Por otra parte, tortugas y cocodrilos representan el 3,4% y el 0,2%, respectivamente (reptile-database.org) (Uetz and Hošek 2015). En la figura 1 (p.7) se...

  10. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Phymaturus spp. (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallo, Geraldine; Bursey, Charles; Castillo, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Parapharyngodon sanjuanensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestines of Phymaturus punae and Phymaturus williamsi (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from province of San Juan, Argentina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon sanjuanensis sp. nov. is the 54th species assigned to the genus and the 8th from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus in that males possess 8 caudal papillae, 6 of which are large and pedunculate, 2 are small, almost inconspicuous; anterior lip echinate, posterior lip bilobate; females possess prominent vulva and short stiff tail spike. PMID:27447208

  11. Reptiles in municipality of Duque de Caxias, Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

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    Rodrigo de Oliveira Lula Salles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Duque de Caxias municipality is located in the Fluminense lowland, Rio de Janeiro state, in the Ombrophilous Atlantic Rain Forest domain. The local herpetofauna was widely studied in the 40’s, but a general list of the species for the municipality was never made. From August 2006 to October 2009, we carried out field expeditions, searching for and collecting reptiles mainly at night time. Besides the visual active search method, we also verified records of species in scientific literature and of specimens housed in zoological collections. Altogether, 53 species of reptiles of the Orders Crododylia, Squamata and Testudines occur within the borders of Duque de Caxias municipality.

  12. A gravid lizard from the Cretaceous of China and the early history of squamate viviparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Evans, Susan E.

    2011-09-01

    Although viviparity is most often associated with mammals, roughly one fifth of extant squamate reptiles give birth to live young. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the trait evolved more than 100 times within Squamata, a frequency greater than that of all other vertebrate clades combined. However, there is debate as to the antiquity of the trait and, until now, the only direct fossil evidence of squamate viviparity was in Late Cretaceous mosasauroids, specialised marine lizards without modern equivalents. Here, we document viviparity in a specimen of a more generalised lizard, Yabeinosaurus, from the Early Cretaceous of China. The gravid female contains more than 15 young at a level of skeletal development corresponding to that of late embryos of living viviparous lizards. This specimen documents the first occurrence of viviparity in a fossil reptile that was largely terrestrial in life, and extends the temporal distribution of the trait in squamates by at least 30 Ma. As Yabeinosaurus occupies a relatively basal position within crown-group squamates, it suggests that the anatomical and physiological preconditions for viviparity arose early within Squamata.

  13. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  14. A new hypothesis of squamate evolutionary relationships from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Ted M.; Larson, Allan; Louis, Edward; Macey, J. Robert

    2004-05-19

    Squamate reptiles serve as model systems for evolutionary studies of a variety of morphological and behavioral traits, and phylogeny is crucial to many generalizations derived from such studies. Specifically, the traditional dichotomy between Iguania and Scleroglossa has been correlated with major evolutionary shifts within Squamata. We present a molecular phylogenetic study of squamates using DNA sequence data from the nuclear genes RAG-1 and c-mos and the mitochondrial ND2 region, sampling all major clades and most major subclades. Monophyly of Iguania, Anguimorpha, and almost all currently recognized squamate families is strongly supported. However, monophyly is rejected for Scleroglossa, Varanoidea, and several other higher taxa, and Iguania is highly nested within Squamata. Limblessness evolved independently in snakes, dibamids, and amphisbaenians, suggesting widespread morphological convergence or parallelism in limbless, burrowing forms. Amphisbaenians are the sister group of lacertids, and snakes are grouped with iguanians and anguimorphs. Dibamids diverged early in squamate evolutionary history. Xantusiidae is the sister taxon of Cordylidae. Studies of functional tongue morphology and feeding mode have found significant differences between Scleroglossa and Iguania, and our finding of a nonmonophyletic Scleroglossa and a highly nested Iguania suggest that similar states evolved separately in Sphenodon and Iguania, and that jaw prehension is the ancestral feeding mode in squamates.

  15. Molecular evolution of HoxA13 and the multiple origins of limbless morphologies in amphibians and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singarete, Marina E.; Grizante, Mariana B.; Milograna, Sarah R.; Nery, Mariana F.; Kin, Koryu; Wagner, Günter P.; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Developmental processes and their results, morphological characters, are inherited through transmission of genes regulating development. While there is ample evidence that cis-regulatory elements tend to be modular, with sequence segments dedicated to different roles, the situation for proteins is less clear, being particularly complex for transcription factors with multiple functions. Some motifs mediating protein-protein interactions may be exclusive to particular developmental roles, but it is also possible that motifs are mostly shared among different processes. Here we focus on HoxA13, a protein essential for limb development. We asked whether the HoxA13 amino acid sequence evolved similarly in three limbless clades: Gymnophiona, Amphisbaenia and Serpentes. We explored variation in ω (dN/dS) using a maximum-likelihood framework and HoxA13sequences from 47 species. Comparisons of evolutionary models provided low ω global values and no evidence that HoxA13 experienced relaxed selection in limbless clades. Branch-site models failed to detect evidence for positive selection acting on any site along branches of Amphisbaena and Gymnophiona, while three sites were identified in Serpentes. Examination of alignments did not reveal consistent sequence differences between limbed and limbless species. We conclude that HoxA13 has no modules exclusive to limb development, which may be explained by its involvement in multiple developmental processes. PMID:26500429

  16. Novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian E; Favrot, Claude; Ackermann, Mathias; Gull, Jessica; Vetsch, Elisabeth; Tobler, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota). This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1). It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF) frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF sequence showed the highest percentage of sequence identities to human PV5 (57.9%) and Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus) PV1 (55.4%), thus, establishing a new clade. According to phylogenetic analysis, the MsPV1 genome clusters with PVs of mammalian rather than sauropsid hosts. PMID:21910860

  17. Tribological Analysis of Ventral Scale Structure in a Python Regius in Relation to Laser Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-aal, Hisham A

    2013-01-01

    Laser Texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a Laser Textured Surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to...

  18. Biochemical Characterization, Action on Macrophages, and Superoxide Anion Production of Four Basic Phospholipases A2 from Panamanian Bothrops asper Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Quintero Rueda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae is the most important venomous snake in Central America, being responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents. Four basic PLA2s (pMTX-I to -IV were purified from crude venom by a single-step chromatography using a CM-Sepharose ion-exchange column (1.5 × 15 cm. Analysis of the N-terminal sequence demonstrated that pMTX-I and III belong to the catalytically active Asp49 phospholipase A2 subclass, whereas pMTX-II and IV belong to the enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2s-like subclass. The PLA2s isolated from Panama Bothrops asper venom (pMTX-I, II, III, and IV are able to induce myotoxic activity, inflammatory reaction mainly leukocyte migration to the muscle, and induce J774A.1 macrophages activation to start phagocytic activity and superoxide production.

  19. Histology of the Skin of Three Limbless Squamates Dwelling in Mesic and Arid Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed A; Daza, Juan D; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha E

    2016-07-01

    The skin of limbless squamates has an increased contact with the substrate compared with limbed counterparts. Comparatively, the contact with the substrate is intensified in fossorial species, where the whole circumference of the body interacts with the soil during underground locomotion. Although fossoriality in Squamata, specifically lizards and snakes, has been studied ecologically and morphologically (e.g., osteological changes), not enough detail is yet available regarding changes in organs critical for underground lifestyle such as the skin. Here we used histological and microscopical techniques (scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) to uncover the structural detail of the epidermis and dermis in three limbless reptiles, the amphisbaenian Diplometopon zarudnyi, and two snakes, Indotyphlops braminus (Typhlopidae) and Cerastes cerastes (Viperidae). The skin of these taxa shows pronounced morphological diversity, which is likely associated to different environmental and functional demands upon these reptiles. Anat Rec, 299:979-989, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27111253

  20. The Origin, Early History and Diversification of Lepidosauromorph Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Susan E.; Jones, Marc E. H.

    The reptilian group Lepidosauria diversified through the Mesozoic, survived the end-Cretaceous extinction relatively unscathed, and has more than 7,000 living species. Although originally constituted as a "waste-bin" for non-archosaurian diapsids, modern definitions limit Lepidosauria to its two constituent groups, Rhynchocephalia and Squamata, and their most recent common ancestor. To date, the earliest known lepidosaurs are from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Europe and India, but their derived morphology provides indirect evidence of a longer, unrecorded, history. Rhynchocephalians and squamates probably diverged in the Early-Middle Triassic, and new material from the Early Triassic of Poland sheds some light on their common ancestor. The roots of Lepidosauria may extend into the Palaeozoic, but there are critical gaps in the fossil record.

  1. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Silva, W; Oliveira, R M; Gonzaga, A F N; Pinto, K C; Poli, F C; Bilce, T M; Penhacek, M; Wronski, L; Martins, J X; Junqueira, T G; Cesca, L C C; Guimarães, V Y; Pinheiro, R D

    2015-08-01

    The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity.

  2. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Silva, W; Oliveira, R M; Gonzaga, A F N; Pinto, K C; Poli, F C; Bilce, T M; Penhacek, M; Wronski, L; Martins, J X; Junqueira, T G; Cesca, L C C; Guimarães, V Y; Pinheiro, R D

    2015-08-01

    The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity. PMID:26691094

  3. First description of the nymph and larva of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae), parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent reexamination of collection lots stored in the United States National Tick Collection revealed adult specimens of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae) reared from field-collected nymphs, which allowed us to associate field-collected unidentified nymphs and larvae with this species. Nymphs of D. compactus can be easily distinguished from those of other congeneric species by the shape of the scutum and spiracular plate, the hypostome dentition, and the size of the spurs on the coxae. Larvae of this species can be distinguished by the shape and sculpture of the scutum, the shape of basis capituli, the absence of auriculae, and the size of the spurs on coxae II and III. Both nymphs and larvae feed mostly on various species of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae). Considerably fewer nymphs and larvae were found on murid rodents (Rodentia: Muridae), domestic dogs (Carnivora: Canidae), and a snake (Squamata: Colubridae). PMID:27095664

  4. New data on Pleistocene and Holocene herpetofauna of Marie Galante (Blanchard Cave, Guadeloupe Islands, French West Indies): Insular faunal turnover and human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailon, S.; Bochaton, C.; Lenoble, A.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents the herpetofaunal remains collected from Blanchard Cave (Marie-Galante, Guadeloupe Archipelago). This site has yielded the oldest stratigraphic layers (around 40,000 BP) of the island, along with data concerning the herpetofaunal biodiversity of the island from the Late Pleistocene to pre-Columbian and modern times. The study of these fossil remains reveals the presence of at least 11 amphibian and squamata taxa (Eleutherodactylus cf. martinicensis, Iguana sp., Anolis ferreus, Leiocephalus cf. cuneus, Thecadactylus cf. rapicauda, cf. Capitellum mariagalantae, Ameiva sp., cf. Antillotyphlops, Boa sp., Alsophis sp. and Colubridae sp. 2) during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene on Marie-Galante Island and provides new evidence concerning extinction times and the introduced or native status of taxa. This study also reveals that this bone assemblage is the result of diverse accumulation processes and provides new morphological data on the past herpetofauna of Marie-Galante.

  5. Novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Jessica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Papillomaviruses (PVs are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota. This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1. It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF sequence showed the highest percentage of sequence identities to human PV5 (57.9% and Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus PV1 (55.4%, thus, establishing a new clade. According to phylogenetic analysis, the MsPV1 genome clusters with PVs of mammalian rather than sauropsid hosts.

  6. Three new species of the genus Pterygosoma Peters, 1849 (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae) from agamid lizards (Sauria: Agaminae) with DNA barcode data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfer, Monika; Melnikov, Daniel; Dabert, Mirosława

    2016-10-01

    Three new species of the genus Pterygosoma Peters, 1849 parasitising lizards of the subfamily Agaminae (Squamata: Agamidae) are described: P. pallidum n. sp. from Trapelus pallidus (Merrem) and P. parasiniatum n. sp. from Pseudotrapelus cf. sinaitus (Heyden) (both from Jordan); and P. theobaldi n. sp. from Phrynocephalus theobaldi Blyth from North India. We extend the standard morphological description of the new species by using DNA barcode markers, partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene and the hypervariable region D2 of the nuclear 28S rRNA gene. A key to the species group inermis is constructed based on female morphology. The agamid genus Phrynocephalus Kaup, 1825 is recorded as a host of Pterygosoma for the first time. PMID:27638734

  7. Molecular characterization of insulin from squamate reptiles reveals sequence diversity and possible adaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Genki; Yoshida, Ayaka; Kobayashi, Aya; Park, Min Kyun

    2016-01-01

    The Squamata are the most adaptive and prosperous group among ectothermic amniotes, reptiles, due to their species-richness and geographically wide habitat. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying their prosperity remain largely unknown, unique features have been reported from hormones that regulate energy metabolism. Insulin, a central anabolic hormone, is one such hormone, as its roles and effectiveness in regulation of blood glucose levels remain to be examined in squamates. In the present study, cDNAs coding for insulin were isolated from multiple species that represent various groups of squamates. The deduced amino acid sequences showed a high degree of divergence, with four lineages showing obviously higher number of amino acid substitutions than most of vertebrates, from teleosts to mammals. Among 18 sites presented to comprise the two receptor binding surfaces (one with 12 sites and the other with 6 sites), substitutions were observed in 13 sites. Among them was the substitution of HisB10, which results in the loss of the ability to hexamerize. Furthermore, three of these substitutions were reported to increase mitogenicity in human analogues. These substitutions were also reported from insulin of hystricomorph rodents and agnathan fishes, whose mitogenic potency have been shown to be increased. The estimated value of the non-synonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratio (ω) for the Squamata clade was larger than those of the other reptiles and aves. Even higher values were estimated for several lineages among squamates. These results, together with the regulatory mechanisms of digestion and nutrient assimilation in squamates, suggested a possible adaptive process through the molecular evolution of squamate INS. Further studies on the roles of insulin, in relation to the physiological and ecological traits of squamate species, will provide an insight into the molecular mechanisms that have led to the adaptivity and prosperity of squamates.

  8. 赣南脐橙园蜘蛛优势种群发生动态及相关气象因子分析%Population Dynamics of Dominant Spider Species in Gannan Navel Orange Orchards and Affecting Meteorological Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗育发; 钟八莲

    2012-01-01

    13 families and 38 species of spiders were found in Gannan navel orange orchards. The dominant species in tree canopies were Hylyphantes graminicola, Clubiona deletrix and Tetrag-natha squamata. Two main peaks of H. Graminicola population appeared from May to June, and from September to October. C. deletrix population was peaked from July to October, and significantly reduced from February to March. The peak of T. Squamata population was observed in April and December whereas the smallest population was observed from June to September. Hylyphantes graminicola and Pirata subpiraticus were the dominant spider species on the ground of the orchards. The main peaks of H. Graminicola population appeared in June and October. The population of P. subpiraticus peaked in March and bottomed in December. There was a significant positive correlation between the seasonal changes in the populations of H. graminicola and C. deletrix in navel orange canopies and the average temperatures and sunshine hours. In contrast, a significant negative correlation was found between the seasonal changes in the population of T. squamata and the average temperatures. There were very significant positive correlations between the seasonal variations in the population of P. subpiraticus on the ground of navel orange orchards and the relative humidity and precipitation.%在江西省赣州市章贡区蟠龙镇一个集中连片面积达32 hm2且管理粗放的11年生“纽荷尔”脐橙园调查发现,脐橙园蜘蛛分属13科38种.脐橙园树冠层蜘蛛优势种有3种:草间钻头蛛Hylyphantes graminicola 全年以5-6月及9-10月的发生数量最大;斑管巢蛛Clubiona deletrix 在7-9月发生量较大,2-3月的数量明显减少;鳞纹蟏蛸Tetragnatha squamata在4月和11-12月的种群数量较多,6-9月较少见到.脐橙园地面层蜘蛛优势种有2种:草间钻头蛛的季节消长同样具有两个高峰期,但时间跨度较短,仅在6月和10

  9. Role of macrofauna on benthic oxygen consumption in sandy sediments of a high-energy tidal beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Céline; Lavesque, Nicolas; Anschutz, Pierre; Bachelet, Guy; Lecroart, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Sandy beaches exposed to tide and waves are characterized by low abundance and diversity of benthic macrofauna, because of high-energy conditions. This is the reason why there are few studies on benthic communities living in such highly dynamic environments. It has been shown recently that tidal sandy beaches may act as biogeochemical reactors. Marine organic matter that is supplied in the sand during each flood tide is efficiently mineralized through aerobic respiration. In order to quantify the role of macrofauna in the whole beach benthic respiration, we studied the macrofauna and the pore water oxygen content of an exposed sandy beach (Truc Vert, SW of France) during four seasons in 2011. The results showed that macrofauna was characterised by a low number of species of specialized organisms such as the crustaceans Eurydice naylori and Gastrosaccus spp. and the polychaetes Ophelia bicornis and Scolelepis squamata. The distribution and abundance of macrofauna were clearly affected by exposure degree and emersion time. The combined monitoring of benthic macrofauna and pore waters chemistry allowed us to estimate (1) the macrofauna oxygen uptake, calculated with a standard allometric relationship using biomass data, and (2) the total benthic oxygen uptake, calculated from the oxygen deficit measured in pore waters. This revealed that benthic macrofauna respiration represented a variable but low (consumption. This suggests that oxygen was mainly consumed by microbial respiration.

  10. Identification of echinoderms (Echinodermata) from an anchialine cave in Cozumel Island, Mexico, using DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bribiesca-Contreras, Guadalupe; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    The echinoderm species richness of the Aerolito de Paraiso anchialine cave, on Cozumel Island, in the Mexican Caribbean, is assessed on the basis of morphological and DNA barcoding data. We included specimens from this cave system and from different open sea areas, and employed two different approaches for species delineation based on DNA barcoding data: a 2% cox1 divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) approaches. We subsequently compared the results derived from these approaches with our morphospecies discrimination. A total of 188 cox1 sequences belonging to specimens of four echinoderm classes were examined. The 2% cox1 divergence and GMYC approaches recovered 78 and 70 putative species, respectively, 24 and 22 of which corresponded to specimens from the anchialine system. Of 26 echinoderm species identified in the cave system, seven appear to be endemic to it. Among these are Copidaster carvenicola Solís-Marín & Laguarda-Figueras, 2010, two morphologically distinctive, undescribed species belonging to Asterinides and Ophionereis and four probably cryptic undescribed species originally assigned to Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1839), Astropecten duplicatus Gray, 1840, Copidaster lymani (AH Clark, 1948) and Ophiothrix angulata (Say, 1825). Further research and protection of this particularly fragile ecosystem becomes urgent because construction of tourism developments is planned nearby. PMID:23551841

  11. Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

  12. cDNA-derived amino-acid sequence of a land turtle (Geochelone carbonaria) beta-chain hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, S; Meza, A N; Saad, S T; Ogo, S H; Costa, F F

    1997-06-01

    The cDNA sequence encoding the turtle Geochelone carbonaria beta-chain was determinated. The isolation of hemoglobin mRNA was based on degenerate primers' PCR in combination with 5'- and 3'-RACE protocol. The full length cDNA is 615 bp with the ATG start codon at position 53 and TGA stop codon at position 495; The AATAAA polyadenylation signal is found at position 599. The deduced polypeptyde contains 146 amino-acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence shares 83% identity with the beta-globin of a related specie, the aquatic turtle C. p. belli. Otherwise, identity is higher when compared with chicken beta-Hb (80%) than with other reptilian orders (Squamata, 69%, and Crocodilia, 61%). Compared with human HbA, there is 67% identity, and at least three amino acid substitutions could be of some functional significance (Glu43 beta-->Ser, His116 beta-->Thr and His143 beta-->Leu). To our knowledge this represents the first cDNA sequence of a reptile globin gene described. PMID:9238523

  13. Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae. PMID:26067293

  14. Transfer of metals from crude oil impacted soils to some native wetland species, the Niger-delta, Nigeria: Implications for phytoremediation potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunkunle Clement O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wetland species growing naturally in the surrounding of two crude oil facilities were sampled and screened for their phytoremediation potentials for zinc, lead, nickel, chromium and cadmium in soil. Concentrations of metals in the root and shoot samples of the wetland species alongside the rhizosphere soil were determined. Metal accumulation in wetland species exceeded the permissible limits, but it was still within phytotoxic thresholds except for chromium. The use of a bioconcentration factor and a transfer factor to screen the wetland species for phytoremediation potentials identified six out of the eight studied species as multi-elemental phytostabilizers of metals in soil. In addition, five of the eight wetland species displayed potentials for phytoextraction of metal, though there was no multi-elemental phytoextractor among the wetland species. Paspalum vaginatum, Andropogon tectorum and Kyllinga squamata portend potential abilities to phytoextract nickel. In addition, Setaria longiseta and Pteridium aquilinum also showed strong potential to phytoextract lead and cadmium respectively from soil. This screening assessment is hoped to be useful in the applications of a cost-effective green technology to remediate heavy metals in contaminated soil.

  15. Observations on the sexual segment of the kidney of snakes with emphasis on ultrastructure in the yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Rheubert, Justin L; Gautreaux, Jillian; Hill, Toren G; Freeborn, Layla R

    2012-05-01

    The sexual segment of the kidney (SSK) is an accessory sex structure in male lizards and snakes (Squamata). We describe histology of the SSK in 12 species of snakes, including one from the basal Scolecophidia, Leptotyphlops dulcis, and from the more advanced Alethinophidia, species from the Acrochordidae (Acrochordus granulatus), Homalopsidae (Cerberus rynchops), Uropeltidae (Teretrurus sanguineus), and eight species from the Elapidae, including six species of sea snakes. We also describe the ultrastructure of the SSK of the sea snake, Pelamis platurus. The SSK of L. dulcis does not include the ureter but does include distal convoluted tubules (DCTs) and collecting ducts. In all other snakes examined, the SSK is limited to the DCTs and does not differ in histology by any consistent character. We found apparently mature individuals of several species with inactive SSKs. Hypertrophied SSKs give positive reactions for protein secretions but variable reactions for carbohydrates. Ultrastructure of the SSK of P. platurus reveals nuclei situated medially in the epithelium and mature electron dense secretory vacuoles in other areas of the cytoplasm. Product release is apocrine. Junctional complexes only occur at the luminal border, and intercellular canaliculi become widened and are open basally. No cytologically unique characters occur in the SSK of P. platurus. The ancestral condition of the SSK in squamates is the presence of simple columnar epithelium specialized for secretion of a protein + carbohydrate product that matures and is released seasonally.

  16. Tribological analysis of the ventral scale structure in a Python regius in relation to laser textured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the Python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a laser textured surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to efficient function of a rubbing deterministic surface, are already optimized in the reptile. We further show that optimization in reptilian surfaces is based on synchronizing surface form, textures and aspects to condition the frictional response. Mimicking reptilian surfaces, we argue, may form a design methodology potentially capable of generating advanced deterministic surface constructs capable of efficient tribological function. (paper)

  17. Benthic macrofauna of sandy intertidal zone at Santos estuarine system, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Corbisier

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, faunal density, species diversity and zonation patterns of benthic macrofauna, as well as its relation to sediment characteristics were examined and compared in three sandy beaches on the polyhaline area at Santos estuarine system in the State of São Paulo. Samples were collected quarterly during one year (July/1977 - May/1978. Low, mean and high intertidal levels were sampled. Polyehaetes dominated the fauna, both in terms of numbers of species and numbers of individuals. The community structure of Ponta da Praia beach was characterized by high density, low diversity (H' and evenness (J', due to the dominance of the spionid Scolelepis squamata. At Vicente de Carvalho the fauna was characterized by the dominance of the polyehaetes Laeonereis acuta and Capitella capitata and presented low density, high diversity and evenness. At Bertioga Channel, intermediate values were observed and the fauna was dominated by Scololepis squamata andLaeonereis acuta. The sediment texture was responsible for those figures, although some differences in diversity may be explained by differences in wave energy. The low number of crustaceans and molluscs suggests the effect of the estuarine pollution upon the fauna. The zonation pattern of both species distribution and community structure differed at the studied sites; it was not correlated with sediment characteristics which were relatively uniform down shore; however, the lowest diversity was observed at the high level in all sites.Neste trabalho foi estudada a macrofauna bentônica da zona entremarés arenosa da área polihalina do sistema estuarino de Santos. A composição em espécies, densidade e diversidade e o padrão de zonação da fauna foram analisados e comparados, bem como sua relação com as características do sedimento em três praias arenosas. As amostras foram coletadas trimestralmente durante o período de um ano (julho/1977 - maio/1978. Em cada local, foram amostrados os n

  18. Helminth parasites of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examinations of 102 specimens of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic (South Bohemia and South Moravia) were carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) in the years 1987-1992. In them, a total of 19 species of helminth parasites was found, including Trematoda (11 species), Cestoda (2), Nematoda (4) and Acanthocephala (2), which can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.) (37%), those parasitic mainly in cormorants (16%) and non-specific parasites (47%). Of the 19 species recorded, 100% were found in South Moravia, but only 47% of these 19 species in South Bohemia. The higher number of helminth species in cormorants from South Moravia and a higher proportion of non-specific species may be associated with the presence of the large Nové Mlýny water reservoir, in addition to better ecological and environmental conditions in this warmer region. Scanning electron microscopical examination of three common nematode species parasitising cormorants, Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Desmidocercella incognita Solonitsin, 1932 and Syncuaria squamata (von Linstow, 1883), revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features, such as the cephalic structures, numbers and distribution of male caudal papillae or the shapes of spicules. PMID:27312270

  19. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  20. New host records for Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) from Grussaí restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lúcio André; Winck, Gisele Regina; Almeida-Santos, Marlon; Telles, Felipe Bottona da Silva; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Amblyomma rotundatum Koch is a parthenogenetic tick usually associated with reptiles and amphibians. However, relatively few studies on occurrences of ticks in wild reptile populations in Brazil have been produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of ticks associated with reptile species in the Grussaí restinga, in the municipality of São João da Barra, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between December 2010 and January 2011, 131 individuals belonging to nine species of reptiles of the order Squamata were sampled: the lizards Tropidurus torquatus (n = 51), Hemidactylus mabouia (n = 25), Mabuya agilis (n = 30), Mabuya macrorhyncha (n = 6), Cnemidophorus littoralis (n = 5) and Ameiva ameiva (n = 10); and the snakes Philodryas olfersii (n = 2), Oxyrhopus rhombifer (n = 1) and Micrurus corallinus (n = 1). The only tick species found to be associated with any of the reptiles sampled was A. rotundatum. One adult female was detected on one individual of the lizard A. ameiva, one nymph on one individual of the lizard T. torquatus and four nymphs on one individual of the snake P. olfersii. This study is the first record of parasitism of A. rotundatum involving the reptiles T. torquatus and P. olfersii as hosts. Our results suggest that in the Grussaí restinga habitat, A. rotundatum may use different species of reptiles to complete its life cycle. PMID:23070450

  1. Diversification in the Mexican horned lizard Phrynosoma orbiculare across a dynamic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Robert W; García-Vázquez, Uri Omar; Riddle, Brett R

    2012-01-01

    The widespread montane Mexican horned lizard Phrynosoma orbiculare (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) represents an ideal species to investigate the relative impacts of Neogene vicariance and Quaternary climate change on lineage diversification across the Mexican highlands. We used mitochondrial DNA to examine the maternal history of P. orbiculare and estimate the timing and tempo of lineage diversification. Based on our results, we inferred 11 geographically structured, well supported mitochondrial lineages within this species, suggesting P. orbiculare represents a species complex. Six divergences between lineages likely occurred during the Late Miocene and Pliocene, and four splits probably happened during the Pleistocene. Diversification rate appeared relatively constant through time. Spatial and temporal divergences between lineages of P. orbiculare and co-distributed taxa suggest that a distinct period of uplifting of the Transvolcanic Belt around 7.5-3 million years ago broadly impacted diversification in taxa associated with this mountain range. To the north, several river drainages acting as filter barriers differentially subdivided co-distributed highland taxa through time. Diversification patterns observed in P. orbiculare provide additional insight into the mechanisms that impacted differentiation of highland taxa across the complex Mexican highlands.

  2. Evolutionary diversification of the lizard genus Bassiana (Scincidae across Southern Australia.

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    Sylvain Dubey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relatively recent (Plio-Pleistocene climatic variations had strong impacts on the fauna and flora of temperate-zone North America and Europe; genetic analyses suggest that many lineages were restricted to unglaciated refuges during this time, and have expanded their ranges since then. Temperate-zone Australia experienced less severe glaciation, suggesting that patterns of genetic structure among species may reflect older (aridity-driven divergence events rather than Plio-Pleistocene (thermally-mediated divergences. The lizard genus Bassiana (Squamata, Scincidae contains three species that occur across a wide area of southern Australia (including Tasmania, rendering them ideally-suited to studies on the impact of past climatic fluctuations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed molecular phylogenetic and dating analyses using two partial mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4 of 97 samples of Bassiana spp. Our results reveal a pattern of diversification beginning in the Middle Miocene, with intraspecific diversification arising from 5.7 to 1.7 million years ago in the Upper Miocene-Lower Pleistocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to the temperate-zone Northern Hemisphere biota, patterns of evolutionary diversification within southern Australian taxa appear to reflect geologically ancient events, mostly relating to east-west discontinuities imposed by aridity rather than (as is the case in Europe and North America relatively recent recolonisation of northern regions from unglaciated refugia to the south.

  3. Análises morfométricas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis (Annelida: Spionidae no litoral do Brasil

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    Marcelo B. Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Características morfológicas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis De Blainville, 1828 foram analisadas utilizando-se análise morfométrica com o ojetivo foi avaliar se essas espécies podem ser discriminadas através da utilização de dados morfométricos. Além disso, foram fornecidos novos caracteres que possam ser utilizados para uma reavaliação da taxonomia do gênero. A análise baseada nas variáveis canônicas revelou que S. chilensis, S. goodbodyi e S. squamata são mais similares entre si, quanto a forma, do que com S. acuta. Os caracteres mais significativos para a discriminação das quatro espécies foram o comprimento da brânquia, o comprimento da base do palpo até o vigésimo setígero, o comprimento e a largura do prostômio e a largura e o comprimento do setígero 5 e 20. Destes, destacam-se o formato das brânquias e do prostômio, pois vem sendo utilizados como caracteres diagnósticos em estudos taxonômicos do gênero.

  4. 基于matK基因的松属白皮松组分子系统发育分析%Molecular Phylogeny of Section Parrya of Pinus (Pinaceae) Based on Chloroplast matK Gene Sequence Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇; 李德铢

    2004-01-01

    基于matK基因对松属(Pinus L.)白皮松组(sect.Parrya Myre)进行了分子系统发育分析.白皮松组为一个并系类群,因为白松组的成员与该组(包括越南的扁叶松(P.krempfii Lecomte))的亚洲成员形成一个强烈支持的分支(靴带值92%).在这个分支中,白松组的3个代表种形成一个稳定的单系,而白皮松组的亚洲成员之间系统发育关系不明确.扁叶松和西藏白皮松(P. gerardiana Wall.ex D.Don)聚在一起,但只有61%的支持率.虽然在以前4个cpDNA基因序列分析时五针白皮松(P.squamata X.W.Li)与白皮松(P.bungeana Zucc.ex Loud.)和西藏白皮松形成一个单系,但在本文的分析中三者的关系不明确.在邻接树和多数一致简约树上,北美的白皮松组成员形成一个支持率低的分支.北美的subsect.Balfourianae Engelm.亚组(包括P.aristata Engelm.)是一个单系,但支持率较低.美洲另外两个亚组subsect.Cembroides Englem.和subsect.Rzedowskianae Carv.的组间和组内关系不确定,它们在严格一致简约树上形成一个多歧分支.%The molecular phylogenetics of sect. Parrya Myre of Pinus L. was analyzed based on chloroplast matKgene sequence data. The section was resolved as paraphyletic because members of the sect. Strobus were nested within a clade composed by the Asian members of the sectio n, including the Vietnamese P. krempfii Lecomte, which was strongly supported with a bootstrap value of 92%. In this topology, the three sampled species of sect. Strobus formed a strongly supported monophyletic group,while their relationships of Asian species of sect. Parrya were not clear. P. krempfii was grouped with P.gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don with low bootstrap support. The relationships among the Asian members of the sect. Parrya, i.e.P. bungeana Zucc. ex Loud., P. gerardiana and the recently described endangered pine, P.squamata X. W. Li, was not resolved, although the monophyly of the three pines was strongly supported in the

  5. REPTILES DEL BOSQUE SECO ESTACIONAL EN EL CARIBE COLOMBIANO: DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LOS HÁBITATS Y DEL RECURSO ALIMENTARIO

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    Luis Eduardo Rojas Murcia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar la distribución horizontal (repartición de los hábitats y la utilización del recurso alimentario (tipo y tamaño de las presas del ensamblaje de reptiles del bosque seco estacional al norte de la región Caribe de Colombia, en el departamento del Cesar, se realizaron cinco salidas de campo con una duración de doce días cada una. Los muestreos se realizaron en jornadas diurnas y nocturnas, en un diseño de transectos replicados a lo largo de diferentes hábitats que incluyeron: pastizales, bordes e interiores de bosque. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos de uso de hábitat en un perfil de vegetación por cada época climática y análisis de amplitud y sobreposición de nicho. Se registraron 38 especies de 14 familias del orden Squamata. Las especies se distribuyeron de manera homogénea entre zonas abiertas y boscosas. Se encontraron registros de 31 categorías de presa en 109 estómagos de seis especies de serpientes (61 estómagos y siete de lagartos (48 estómagos con un porcentaje de estómagos vacíos de 38 %. Las presas de mayor importancia para los lagartos fueron Coleoptera y Araneae, y para las serpientes fueron los anfibios. La mayoría de las especies presentaron un amplio espectro de dieta y entre especies similares, como entre Anolis auratus y A. gaigei, se presentó uso de recursos similares. En síntesis, el ensamblaje de reptiles presentó una distribución homogénea en los hábitats evaluados (áreas abiertas y boscosas y el recurso alimentario fue variado entre las diferentes especies; la estacionalidad de la zona presenta un papel fundamental en la estructura del ensamblaje de reptiles, presentándose menos abundancia durante la época seca, tanto en las áreas abiertas como en las boscosas.Reptiles from the Seasonal Dry Forest the Caribbean Region: Distribution of Habitat and use of Food ResourceABSTRACTWe assessed the horizontal distribution and use of the food resource of the reptile

  6. New host records for Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae from Grussaí restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Novos registros de hospedeiros para Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae da restinga de Grussaí, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio André Viana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma rotundatum Koch is a parthenogenetic tick usually associated with reptiles and amphibians. However, relatively few studies on occurrences of ticks in wild reptile populations in Brazil have been produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of ticks associated with reptile species in the Grussaí restinga, in the municipality of São João da Barra, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between December 2010 and January 2011, 131 individuals belonging to nine species of reptiles of the order Squamata were sampled: the lizards Tropidurus torquatus (n = 51, Hemidactylus mabouia (n = 25, Mabuya agilis (n = 30, Mabuya macrorhyncha (n = 6, Cnemidophorus littoralis (n = 5 and Ameiva ameiva (n = 10; and the snakes Philodryas olfersii (n = 2, Oxyrhopus rhombifer (n = 1 and Micrurus corallinus (n = 1. The only tick species found to be associated with any of the reptiles sampled was A. rotundatum. One adult female was detected on one individual of the lizard A. ameiva, one nymph on one individual of the lizard T. torquatus and four nymphs on one individual of the snake P. olfersii. This study is the first record of parasitism of A. rotundatum involving the reptiles T. torquatus and P. olfersii as hosts. Our results suggest that in the Grussaí restinga habitat, A. rotundatum may use different species of reptiles to complete its life cycle.Amblyomma rotundatum Koch é um carrapato partenogenético geralmente associado a répteis e anfíbios. Entretanto existem relativamente poucos estudos sobre a ocorrência de carrapatos em populações silvestres de répteis no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a presença de carrapatos associados às espécies de répteis em uma comunidade na restinga de Grussaí, município de São João da Barra, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Foram amostradas, entre os meses de dezembro de 2010 e janeiro de 2011, 131 indivíduos pertencentes a nove espécies de répteis da ordem Squamata: lagartos

  7. Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus Mitochondrial Population Genomics Reveals Structure, Divergence, and Evidence for Heteroplasmy.

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    Yvette A Halley

    (Callipepla squamata as being explanatory factors for the two bobwhite maternal lineages observed. Instead, our analyses support the supposition that two diverged maternal lineages have survived from pre-expansion to post-expansion population(s, with the segregation of some slightly deleterious nonsynonymous mutations.

  8. Chromosome size-correlated and chromosome size-uncorrelated homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences in New World quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Tsuruta, Yuri; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Atsushi; Nishida, Chizuko; Griffin, Darren K; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Ono, Tamao; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-04-01

    Many families of centromeric repetitive DNA sequences isolated from Struthioniformes, Galliformes, Falconiformes, and Passeriformes are localized primarily to microchromosomes. However, it is unclear whether chromosome size-correlated homogenization is a common characteristic of centromeric repetitive sequences in Aves. New World and Old World quails have the typical avian karyotype comprising chromosomes of two distinct sizes, and C-positive heterochromatin is distributed in centromeric regions of most autosomes and the whole W chromosome. We isolated six types of centromeric repetitive sequences from three New World quail species (Colinus virginianus, CVI; Callipepla californica, CCA; and Callipepla squamata, CSQ; Odontophoridae) and one Old World quail species (Alectoris chukar, ACH; Phasianidae), and characterized the sequences by nucleotide sequencing, chromosome in situ hybridization, and filter hybridization. The 385-bp CVI-MspI, 591-bp CCA-BamHI, 582-bp CSQ-BamHI, and 366-bp ACH-Sau3AI fragments exhibited tandem arrays of the monomer unit, and the 224-bp CVI-HaeIII and 135-bp CCA-HaeIII fragments were composed of minisatellite-like and microsatellite-like repeats, respectively. ACH-Sau3AI was a homolog of the chicken nuclear membrane repeat sequence, whose homologs are common in Phasianidae. CVI-MspI, CCA-BamHI, and CSQ-BamHI showed high homology and were specific to the Odontophoridae. CVI-MspI was localized to microchromosomes, whereas CVI-HaeIII, CCA-BamHI, and CSQ-BamHI were mapped to almost all chromosomes. CCA-HaeIII was localized to five pairs of macrochromosomes and most microchromosomes. ACH-Sau3AI was distributed in three pairs of macrochromosomes and all microchromosomes. Centromeric repetitive sequences may be homogenized in chromosome size-correlated and -uncorrelated manners in New World quails, although there may be a mechanism that causes homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences primarily between microchromosomes, which is commonly

  9. 中国爬行纲动物分类厘定%A revised taxonomy for Chinese reptiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡波; 王跃招; 陈跃英; 李家堂

    2015-01-01

    本文对中国爬行纲动物的分类体系和物种进行了系统的评估,规范了中文学名,给出了《中国爬行纲校正名录》,结果表明:中国现存爬行纲动物3目30科132属462种,其中鳄形目(Crocodylia)1科1属1种,龟鳖目(Testudines)6科18属33种,有鳞目(Squamata)蜥蜴亚目(Lacertilia) 10科41属189种,有鳞目蛇亚目(Serpentes) 13科72属239种.与《中国动物志爬行纲第一卷(总论、龟鳖目、鳄形目)》、《中国动物志爬行纲第二卷(有鳞目:蜥蜴亚目)》和《中国蛇类》相比,目和亚目无变化;科级水平新增5科,变更2科;属级水平新增23属,合并15属,变更6属;种级水平新增81种,变动2种;未收录同物异名12种、杂交6种、中国无分布7种.形态和分子系统发育研究结果在爬行动物不同分类阶元均有一定差异,文章对这些争议进行了讨论,并对名录的选择做了说明.

  10. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph D.; Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes. ??2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Inference of the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes from comparative gene mapping.

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    Yoshinobu Uno

    Full Text Available Comparative genome analysis of non-avian reptiles and amphibians provides important clues about the process of genome evolution in tetrapods. However, there is still only limited information available on the genome structures of these organisms. Consequently, the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes in tetrapods remain poorly understood. We constructed chromosome maps of functional genes for the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis, the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis, and the Western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis and compared them with genome and/or chromosome maps of other tetrapod species (salamander, lizard, snake, chicken, and human. This is the first report on the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes inferred from comparative genomic analysis of vertebrates, which cover all major non-avian reptilian taxa (Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines. The eight largest macrochromosomes of the turtle and chicken were equivalent, and 11 linkage groups had also remained intact in the crocodile. Linkage groups of the chicken macrochromosomes were also highly conserved in X. tropicalis, two squamates, and the salamander, but not in human. Chicken microchromosomal linkages were conserved in the squamates, which have fewer microchromosomes than chicken, and also in Xenopus and the salamander, which both lack microchromosomes; in the latter, the chicken microchromosomal segments have been integrated into macrochromosomes. Our present findings open up the possibility that the ancestral amniotes and tetrapods had at least 10 large genetic linkage groups and many microchromosomes, which corresponded to the chicken macro- and microchromosomes, respectively. The turtle and chicken might retain the microchromosomes of the amniote protokaryotype almost intact. The decrease in number and/or disappearance of microchromosomes by repeated

  12. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph D; Gutzwiller, Kevin J; Barrow, Wylie C; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-06-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes.

  13. TREE RING-BASED SUMMER TEMPERATURE RECONSTRUCTION OVER THE PAST 200 YEARS IN MIYALUO OF WESTERN SICHUAN,CHINA%利用树木年轮宽度资料重建川西米亚罗地区过去200年夏季温度的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗善; 刘国华; 傅伯杰; 张齐兵; 胡婵娟; 罗淑政

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have previously been conducted in Western Sichuan and demonstrated the fidelity of tree-ring records to dendroclimatological research. However, climate variability of this region during past centuries still remains difficult to depict clearly, mainly due to the paucity of the high-resolution paleoclimatic evidence. Using tree-width data of Sabina squamata in Milyaluo, Western Sichuan of China, our objectives are to determine the main climate responses in diameter growth and seek to understand the regional climate variability within this ecological complex area.The study area(31.4° ~31.92°N, 102. 58° ~103.07°E) is situated in Miyaluo forest zone,in the watershed of Zagunao River( one of the major tributaries of the upper Min River). The sample site (31.63'N, 102.96°E) of S. squamata in this study is located in Jiabigou country. In total, we collected 45 cores from 45 living trees of S. squamata in a treeline site(3750m above sea level)at the southern slope side. Samples were dated and processed using basic dendrochronological techniques. A total of 38 increment cores were eventually crossdated and selected for chronology development, whereas seven poor quality cores( not cross-datable at the 99% significant level)were excluded from further analysis. Several statistics were used to identify common patterns of interannual growth variability ,and correlation and response function analyses were used to determine the basic response patterns of radial growth to climate.The result was a robust standard chronology( from 1785 to 2009 A. D. )with strong signal strength back to 1810 A. D., and with variability retained at the multi-decadal scale. Correlation and response analysis revealed that tree growth at this site was mostly governed by temperature in summer( June to July), and temperature from winter to early spring( prior December to current March)played a secondary role in explaining the climate related variance in ring records. In contrast

  14. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph D.; Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes.

  15. Reptilian transferrins: evolution of disulphide bridges and conservation of iron-binding center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuraszkiewicz, Justyna; Biczycki, Marian; Maluta, Aleksandra; Martin, Samuel; Watorek, Wiesław; Olczak, Mariusz

    2007-07-01

    known bird homologues. A partially different disulphide bridge pattern was found in the Squamata (snakes and lizards). The possibility of a unique interdomain disulphide bridge was predicted for LtrF. Differences were found in iron-binding centers from those of previously known transferrins. Substitutions were found in the iron-chelating residues of StrF and TtrF and in the synergistic anion-binding residues of NtrF. In snakes, the transferrin (PtrF, HtrF and GtrF) N-lobe "dilysine trigger" occurring in all other known transferrins was not found, which indicates a different mechanism of iron release. PMID:17466466

  16. Term Selecting Research on "Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany" for the Revision of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Subject Headings%《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类主题词修订选词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 刘静; 刘丽红; 董燕; 贾李蓉; 高博; 李海燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study term selecting principles and methods of subject terms in the class of"Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany"for the new edition of TCM Materia Medica Subject Headings;To provide references for the revision.Methods Based on the compiling principles, word frequency of subject headings in TCM database were used as references. MeSH was referred to establish detail rules and regulations for revision of TB class.Results In TB class, 226 subject headings were planned to delete, such as "Apocynum Linn", "Piper betle Linn", "cetacean" and"dolphins";42 subject headings were planned to add, such as "Kalimerisindica", "Actinidiaceae" and "Squamata".Conclusion This revision formulated individual revision principles, proposed solutions for common problems, and basically completed adding and deleting of TB class and frame adjustment.%目的 研究《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类(TB类)主题词选词原则与方法,为其修订提供依据.方法 基于主题词表总体编制原则,以中国中医药数据库主题词标引词频为依据,参考医学主题词表(MeSH),确立TB类主题词修订细则.结果 本次修订拟删除罗布麻属、蒌叶胡椒、鲸目、海豚等226个主题词,拟增加马兰、猕猴桃科、有鳞目等42个主题词.结论 此次修订制定了药用动植物与中药类主题词结合考量等个性化修订原则,对常见问题提出了解决方案,基本完成原TB类主题词的增删及框架的调整.

  17. Continental shelf benthos off Otago Peninsula, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, P. Keith; Wilson, John B.

    1984-09-01

    Benthic macrofauna of the continental shelf off Otago Peninsula, south-eastern New Zealand (45°51'S, 170°52'E) was surveyed by dredge sampling during 1973-1975. Numerical classification (Canberra metric coefficient and flexible sorting) was used to produce site groups and species groups, and three major benthic communities were recognised: a shallow-water (14-25 m) fauna inhabiting well-sorted fine sand, a mid-shelf fauna (concentrated in the depth range 50-76 m) associated with sediments containing the greatest proportions of gravel and siltclay, and a predominantly sand-bottom fauna occurring mainly on the outer shelf (87-150 m). All station groups were dominated numerically by polychaetes (mean of 36·6-56% of individuals) with Mollusca (13·8-25%) or Crustacea (12·1-19·4%) the next most abundant group. The inshore sand fauna was the most distinct, characteristic elements being the trochid gastropod Antisolarium egenum, an amphipod of the genus Hippomedon and dense patches of the spionid polychaete Spiophanes bombyx. Diagnostic species of the mid-shelf mixed sediments were Lepidonotus jacksoni, Psammolyce antipoda, Lumbrineris brevicirra and Phyllamphicteis foliata (Polychaeta), Terenochiton otagoensis, Micrelenchus caelatus caelatus, Maoricolpus roseus roseus and Zegalerus tenuis (Mollusca), Ampelisca chiltoni (Amphipoda) and Amphipholis squamata (Ophiuroidea). Outer shelf sand stations were faunally less distinct, but among the more characteristic species were Euthalenessa fimbriata, Sigalion sp. and Euchone sp. (Polychaeta) and Gari stangeri (Bivalvia). Several abundant species were widely distributed among station groups, notably Nephtys macroura, Lumbrineris magalhaensis, Phyllochaetopterus socialis and Owenia fusiformis (Polychaeta) and Nucula nitidula and Tawera spissa (Bivalvia). Free-living lunulitiform Bryozoa of the genus Otionella were a characteristic component of inner and outer shelf sand faunas, and their inshore penetration probably marks

  18. Temporal variation and size class distribution in a hepertological assemblage from Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de la conservación, conocer la abundancia, la diversidad, y los patrones de actividad de un ensamble herpetológico son medulares para comprender la dinámica de la comunidad y el modo de cómo es utilizado el hábitat. En este proyecto propusimos cuatro hipótesis nulas: 1 La frecuencia de captura de cada una de las especies será similar en los dos años relevados. 2 La frecuencia de capturas de cada especie es similar durante los meses estudiados. 3 La actividad de cada especie es similar a la actividad del resto del ensamble. 4 Las proporciones de cada grupo etario de cada especie se mantienen constantes en el tiempo. Durante este estudio fueron colectadas diecinueve especies, diez especies de Amphibia distribuidas en cuatro familias y nueve especies de Squamata distribuidas en siete familias. En hábitats relativamente complicados que poseen una estructura vegetal compleja y presentan patrones de actividad herpetológica irregular, el uso de trampas de caída resulta uno de los pocos métodos eficientes para la evaluación de la actividad de animales terrestres. El uso de trampas de caída es un método efectivo para realizar inventarios herpetológicos pero los resultados deben ser tratados con precaución porque este método captura algunas especies más fácilmente que otras. Los principales resultados obtenidos por este estudio fueron: La hipótesis 1 fue rechazada, para todas las especies exceptuando a Mabuya dorsivittata, que mostró frecuencias de actividad similares en ambos años, la hipótesis 2 también fue rechazada porque todas las especies mostraron significativas diferencias de actividad temporal. Las especies más variables fueron Odontophrynus americanus y Bufo fernandezae; la más constante Pantodactylus schreibersi. La tercera hipótesis fue rechazada para todas las especies salvo Elachistocleis bicolor que presentó un patrón de actividad similar al ensamble. La hipótesis 4 fue rechazada, los

  19. 四川雉鹑育雏早期雌体与幼体夜栖地的选择%Roost Selection by Buff-throated Partridge Females with Chicks during Two Weeks Post Hatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雨; 王彬; 窦亮; 冉江洪; 刘世荣; 李八斤

    2014-01-01

    Studying the roost habitat of young birds is important for determining their adaption to environments and assessing the habitat conservation.The buff-throated partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii is a galliformes species and listed as the category Ⅰ species of nationally protected animals in China.By using the radio-tracking and direct sighting,the roost selection by the females with chicks at early brooding period (with chicks of two week-post-hatch) was investigated.We found that the females with chicks would roost on the ground in the first week (n =3) ; and they started to roost in trees in the second week when chicks developed some abilities of jumping (n =12).The analysis showed the females and chicks preferred Abies squamata-Larix potaninii var.macrocarpa forests.In microhabitat,they selected sites with good tree cover and large degree of slope.Compared to roosts that subsequently selected by all family members,their roosts were characterized by larger tree cover,but smaller tree diameter at breast height and closer distance to the trail.Based on this study,we suggest that the managers should maintain good tree cover in some specific areas and meanwhile protect some small-medium size trees.%开展鸟类幼体夜栖生境的研究,对于确定物种的生存策略并实施生境保护具有重要的参考价值.四川雉鹑Tetraophasis szechenyii是我国Ⅰ级重点保护物种.利用无线电遥测和直接跟踪的方法,对育雏早期(幼体孵化后大约2周内)雌体与幼体的夜栖生境进行研究.研究发现,在幼体孵化后1周内,雌体与幼体夜栖于地上(n=3);在第2周,它们开始上树夜栖(n=12).当树栖时,偏好选择鳞皮冷杉-大果红杉林,并使用乔木盖度和坡度较大的地方.与育雏后期的正常夜栖生境相比,本阶段雌体与幼体的夜栖地的乔木盖度更大,但夜栖树胸径较小且靠近道路.基于本研究,建议在生境保护方面应该维持一定区域的乔木盖度,并适当注意保留一些中小型乔木.