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Sample records for amphisbaenidae squamata amphisbaenia

  1. Anatomia visceral comparada de seis espécies de Amphisbaenidae (Squamata: Amphisbaenia Comparison of visceral anatomy of six species of Amphisbaenidae (Squamata: Amphisbaenia

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    Maria Eliana C. Navega-Gonçalves

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Visceral anatomy of amphisbaenids Amphisbaena vermicularis Wagler, 1824; Anops kingii Bell, 1833; Aulura anomala Barbour, 1914; Bronia bedai Vanzolini, 1991; Cercolophia cuiabana Strüssmann & Carvalho, 2001, and Leposternon microcephalum Wagler, 1824 were comparatively described and the size and the position of the organs in the pleuroperitoneal cavity was established in relation to the ventral scutellation. The main results were: the right lung presents different degrees of size reduction compared to the left lung, being conspicuous only in A. anomala, and L. microcephalum; the limit between small and large intestines is clear due to the presence of a caecum; the right lobe of the liver is larger than the left one, but its length varies within the same species and among species; the right gonad occupies a more cranial position in relation to the left one, in all six studied species; the right ovary is also larger than the left one in all studied specimens, whereas the left testicle can be larger or of the same size as the right one in some specimens; the shape of the testicles varies from elongated, kidney-shaped or oval; kidneys are symmetrically positioned at the caudal portion of the pleuroperitoneal cavity and one kidney can be larger than the other.

  2. Ontogenetic allometry constrains cranial shape of the head-first burrowing worm lizard Cynisca leucura (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae).

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    Hipsley, Christy A; Rentinck, Marc-Nicolas; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Müller, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Amphisbaenians are fossorial, predominantly limbless squamate reptiles with distinct cranial shapes corresponding to specific burrowing behaviors. Due to their cryptic lifestyles and the scarcity of museum specimens, little is known of their intraspecific variation, particularly regarding cranial osteology. This represents a critical lack of information, because the majority of morphological investigations of squamate relationships are based on cranial characters. We investigated cranial variation in the West African Coast Worm Lizard Cynisca leucura, a round-headed member of the Amphisbaenidae. Using geometric morphometric analyses of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans, we found that cranial osteology of C. leucura is highly conserved, with the majority of shape changes occurring during growth as the cranium becomes more slender and elongate, accompanied by increasing interdigitation among the dermal roofing bones. Elements of the ventral portion of the cranium remain loosely connected in adults, possibly as a protective mechanism against repeated compression and torsion during burrow excavation. Intraspecific variation was strongly correlated with size change from juveniles to adults, indicating a dominant role of ontogenetic allometry in determining cranial shape. We found no evidence of sexual dimorphism, either during growth or among adults. Given the fossorial habits of C. leucura, we hypothesize that cranial allometry is under strong stabilizing selection to maintain adequate proportions for head-first digging, thereby constraining the ability of individuals to respond to differing selection pressures, including sexual selection and variation in diet or microhabitat. For species in which digging imposes less mechanical stress (e.g., in softer sand), allometric associations during growth may be weakened, allowing changes to the ontogenetic trajectory and subsequent morphological traits. Such developmental dissociation between size and shape, known

  3. Subterranean ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae as prey of fossorial reptiles (Reptilia, Squamata: Amphisbaenidae in Central Brazil

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    Flávia de Araújo Esteves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ant diversity observed in stomach contents of fossorial reptiles was compared to the subterranean ant richness collected using traditional and modern techniques of ant collections. We analyzed the alimentary tract of 64 specimens of amphisbaenians (4 Amphisbaena alba, 10 A. fuliginosa, 25 A. vermicularis, and 25 Leposternon infraorbitale collected during the fauna rescue for the construction of Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam in the Tocantins River (from 1992 to 1997, in Minaçu County, Goiás, Brazil. We found only five ant species present in the stomach contents, all belonging to the army ants subfamily Ecitoninae. In contrast, the traditional techniques for subterranean ants' collection are far more efficient than the exam of fossorial reptile's stomach contents, collecting a much richer and diverse ant fauna. The exclusive occurrence of army ants in the alimentary tract of these fossorial reptiles suggests that they trace the chemical trails laid by the ants while moving inside and over the soil. Further, the occurrence of the epigaeic army ants Eciton and Labidus in the stomach contents suggests that amphisbaenians may forage on the soil surface as well.A diversidade de formigas no conteúdo estomacal de répteis fossoriais foi comparada à riqueza de formigas subterrâneas coletadas com o uso de técnicas tradicionais e modernas para sua coleta. Analisamos o trato alimentar de 64 espécimes de anfisbenídeos (4 Amphisbaena alba, 10 A. fuliginosa, 25 A. vermicularis e 25 Leposternon infraorbitale coletados durante o resgate da fauna para a construção da represa da Hidroelétrica da Serra da Mesa no Rio Tocantins (de 1992 a 1997, na cidade de Minaçu, Goiás, Brasil. Encontramos apenas cinco espécies de formigas presentes nos conteúdos estomacais aqui examinados, todas pertencentes à subfamília das formigas-de-correição, Ecitoninae. Ao contrário, as técnicas tradicionais de coleta de formigas subterrâneas são muito mais eficientes que o exame dos conteúdos estomacais de répteis fossoriais, coletando uma fauna muito mais rica e diversa de formigas. A ocorrência exclusiva de formigas-de-correição no trato alimentar destes répteis fossoriais sugere que eles seguem trilhas químicas deixadas pelas formigas à medida que se elas movimentam no interior e sobre o solo. Ainda, a ocorrência das formigas-de-correição epigéicas Eciton e Labidus nos conteúdos estomacais analisados sugere que os anfisbenídeos podem também forragear na superfície do solo.

  4. A new species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae from state of Maranhão, Brazil

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    Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaena ibijara sp. nov. is described from Urbano Santos (Fazenda Santo Amaro, state of Maranhão, Brazil. The new species is a small amphisbaenian with four precloacal pores, nasals in broad contact at midline, no major fusions at head scales, 239-250 body annuli, 23-25 caudal annuli, and 14-16 dorsal and 14-16 ventral segments per annuli at midbody. Other attributes of the new species are: suture between frontals slightly smaller than parietal suture and much longe than nasal suture, three supralabials (the first being the smallest second infralabial the largest and much larger than postmental, two rows of postgenials, and absence of a postmolar row.

  5. An aid to the identification of the South American species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae

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    P. E. Vanzolini

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A matrix of meristic characters is presented to orient the identification of South American Amphisbaena. Complementarily is given a checklist containing the citation of the original description, the type locality, identified, and a citation of a modern description useful to the identification.O trabalho consiste de uma matriz de caracteres merísticos, destinada a orientar a identificação das espécies sul americanas de Amphisbaena. Complementarmente é apresentada uma lista remissiva contendo a citação original, a localidade tipo, identificada, e a citação de uma descrição recente util à identificação.

  6. On the identity of Amphisbaena hugoi Vanzolini, 1990 (Reptilia: Squamata: Amphisbaenidae)

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    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Mott, T.

    2003-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Amphisbaena hugoi Vanzolini, 1990, is discussed. It is concluded that it is a new junior synonym of Amphisbaena vanzolinii Gans, 1963. O validade taxonômica de Amphisbaena hugoi é discutida. Conclue-se que A. hugoi Vanzolini, 1990, é um sinônimo júnior de Amphisbaena

  7. Nova espécie de Bronia Gray, 1845, do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae

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    Carolina Castro-Mello

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronia saxosa, sp. n., localidade tipo UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, Estado do Tocantins, difere das demais espécies de Bronia Gray, 1865, principalmente por possuir nasais pequenas separadas pela rostral. A nova espécie possui 4 poros, 253-272 anéis corporais, 17-21 anéis caudais, 18-24/1621 segmentos em um anel no meio do corpo.Bronia saxosa, sp. n. from the state of Tocantins, Brasil, (Hydroelectric Dam Luis Eduardo Magalhães, 09°45'S, 48°21'W, a cerrado area, differs from the remainining species of the genus mainly by having small nasals scutes separated by the rostral. It has (82 specimens 4 preanal pores, 253-272 body annuli, 17-21 tail annuli and 18-24/16-21 segments to a midbody annulus.

  8. Reptilia, Squamata, Amphisbaenia, Amphisbaena cuiabana (Strussmann and Carvalho, 2001: Range extension in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Silva, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaena cuiabana (Strüssmann and Carvalho, 2001 is reported from three localities in Mato Grosso,Brazil. These new records extend its known distribution on 275 km northwest, 230 km west, 67 km east of its type-locality.We redefine the diagnosis of the species based on these additional specimens.

  9. Confirmación de Amphisbaena angustifrons plumbea (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) en la provincia de San Juan, Argentina

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    Acosta, Juan Carlos; Murúa, Fernando; Ortiz, Graciela

    1996-01-01

    Amphisbaena angustifrons plumbea (Gray). República Argentina, provincia de San Juan, Valle del Tulum, departamento Chimbas, Villa Sarmiento (31º 29' S, 69º 30' W) 12 de noviembre de 1995. Un ejemplar adulto, IMCN - UNSJ 102 (Instituto y Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de San Juan).

  10. Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    2010-01-01

    The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes. PMID:21637605

  11. Biogeography of worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) driven by end-Cretaceous mass extinction.

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    Longrich, Nicholas R; Vinther, Jakob; Pyron, R Alexander; Pisani, Davide; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2015-05-07

    Worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) are burrowing squamates that live as subterranean predators. Their underground existence should limit dispersal, yet they are widespread throughout the Americas, Europe and Africa. This pattern was traditionally explained by continental drift, but molecular clocks suggest a Cenozoic diversification, long after the break-up of Pangaea, implying dispersal. Here, we describe primitive amphisbaenians from the North American Palaeocene, including the oldest known amphisbaenian, and provide new and older molecular divergence estimates for the clade, showing that worm lizards originated in North America, then radiated and dispersed in the Palaeogene following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) extinction. This scenario implies at least three trans-oceanic dispersals: from North America to Europe, from North America to Africa and from Africa to South America. Amphisbaenians provide a striking case study in biogeography, suggesting that the role of continental drift in biogeography may be overstated. Instead, these patterns support Darwin and Wallace's hypothesis that the geographical ranges of modern clades result from dispersal, including oceanic rafting. Mass extinctions may facilitate dispersal events by eliminating competitors and predators that would otherwise hinder establishment of dispersing populations, removing biotic barriers to dispersal. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic structure and expression of immunoglobulins in Squamata.

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    Olivieri, David N; Garet, Elina; Estevez, Olivia; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The Squamata order represents a major evolutionary reptile lineage, yet the structure and expression of immunoglobulins in this order has been scarcely studied in detail. From the genome sequences of four Squamata species (Gekko japonicus, Ophisaurus gracilis, Pogona vitticeps and Ophiophagus hannah) and RNA-seq datasets from 18 other Squamata species, we identified the immunoglobulins present in these animals as well as the tissues in which they are found. All Squamata have at least three immunoglobulin classes; namely, the immunoglobulins M, D, and Y. Unlike mammals, however, we provide evidence that some Squamata lineages possess more than one Cμ gene which is located downstream from the Cδ gene. The existence of two evolutionary lineages of immunoglobulin Y is shown. Additionally, it is demonstrated that while all Squamata species possess the λ light chain, only Iguanidae species possess the κ light chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A second note on the geographical differentiation of Amphisbaena fuliginosa L., 1758 (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae, with a consideration of the forest refuge model of speciation

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    VANZOLINI PAULO EMILIO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographical differentiation of Amphisbaena fuliginosa L. is studied with basis on 220 specimens from 99 definite and 2 generic localities, ranging from Panamá to Puno in Peru and Goiás in Brasil. The pattern found is considered to support Vanzolini's 1951 scheme of five subspecies, defined by color pattern and by four meristic characters, and differentiated in consequence of Quaternary paleoecological events. Recent developments relating to models of differentiation in Quaternary tropical South America are briefly considered.

  14. Herpetofauna of the Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil. VIII. Amphisbaena arda sp. nov., a fulliginosa-like checkered patterned Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae.

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    Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaena arda sp. nov. is described based on a specimen obtained at Mocambo do Vento, on the left bank of the São Francisco river, Bahia state, Brazil. A. arda is a medium size amphisbaenian with a checkered black and white color pattern similar to the one present in the fuliginosa group but differing from that by having a lighter pigmentation, an uniformly white ventral surface, and by several other important morphological characters. A. arda is similar to Amphisbaena vermicularis in meristic characters currently used to assist amphisbaenian identification but can be separated from it by its color pattern, its flatter cephalic shields, and by the more ventral position of the nostril.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias multiocellata (Squamata: Lacertidae).

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    Tong, Qing-Lin; Yao, Yun-Tao; Lin, Long-Hui; Ji, Xiang

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias multiocellata (Squamata: Lacertidae) is reported, which is a circular molecule of 19,385 bp in size. The nucleotides composition are 31.2% A, 28.9% T, 27.1% C and 13.4% G. The genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 putative control region.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias przewalskii (Squamata: Lacertidae).

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    Du, Yu; Qiu, Qing-Bo; Tong, Qing-Lin; Lin, Long-Hui

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias przewalskii (Squamata: Lacertidae) is reported, which is a circular molecule of 18,225 bp in size. The base composition of mtDNA is as follows: 30.3% A, 27.9% T, 27.9% C and 13.9% G. The genome consists of 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and one putative control region.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias vermiculata (Squamata: Lacertidae).

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    Tong, Qing-Lin; Yao, Yun-Tao; Lin, Long-Hui; Ji, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias vermiculata (Squamata: Lacertidae), which is a circular molecule of 19,914 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and 1 putative control region. The A + T content of overall base of the composition of H-strand is 59.8% (T: 28.9%, C: 27.2%, A: 30.9%, G: 13.0%). All of the results provide powerful data to further study of the molecular systematics, species identification and conservation genetics.

  18. Habitat structural effect on squamata fauna of the restinga ecosystem in northeastern Brazil.

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    Dias, Eduardo J R; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we surveyed data on richness and composition of squamatan reptiles and habitat structural effect in nine areas of restinga ecosystem in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The "restinga" ecosystems are coastal sand dune habitats on the coast of Brazil. Our main hypothesis is that the Squamata fauna composition along these restinga areas would be modulated by habitat structural. After 90 days of field sampling we recorded approximately 5% of reptile species known in Brazil. The composition of Squamata assemblages varied mainly based on the presence or absence of lizards of the genera Ameivula and Tropidurus. Our data showed that habitat structure consistently affected the composition of local Squamata fauna, especially lizards.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Acanthosaura lepidogaster (Squamata: Agamidae).

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    Yu, Xiu-Li; Du, Yu; Yao, Yun-Tao; Lin, Chi-Xian; Lin, Long-Hui

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Acanthosaura lepidogaster (Squamata, Agamidae), which is a circular molecule of 16 899 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The overall base composition is as follows: T (22.8%), C (30.5%), A (32.3%), and G (14.4%). We constructed a phylogeny that included for 10 species of Leiolepidinae lizards and one outgroup Leiocephalus personatus constructed in BEAST, based on 15 mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, ND1, ND2, COI, COII, ATP8, ATP6, COIII, ND3, ND4L, ND4, ND5, ND6, and cytochrome b). The topology of the phylogenetic tree is broadly similar to that mentioned by Pyron et al.

  20. A Member of the Roseobacter Clade, Octadecabacter sp., is the Dominant Symbiont in the Brittle Star Amphipholis squamata.

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    Morrow, Kathleen M; Tedford, Abbey Rose; Pankey, M Sabrina; Lesser, Michael P

    2018-02-19

    Symbiotic associations with subcuticular bacteria (SCB) have been identified and studied in many echinoderms, including the SCB of the brooding brittle star, Amphipholis squamata. Previous studies on the SCB of A. squamata placed the isolated bacterium, designated as AS1, in the genus Vibrio (Gammaproteobacteria), but subsequent studies suggested that the SCB of echinoderms belong to the Alphaproteobacteria. This study examines the taxonomic composition of SCB associated with A. squamata from the Northwest Atlantic using the 16S rRNA gene and next generation sequencing (NGS). Results show the presence of a single dominant bacterial type, within the Roseobacter clade, family Rhodobacteraceae, which composes 70-80% of the A. squamata microbiome. These Rhodobacteraceae sequences were identified as members of the genus Octadecabacter. Additionally, the original isolate, AS1, from the brittle star A. squamata also belongs in the genus Octadecabacter based on Sanger sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. By comparison, adjacent seawater and sediment porewater communities were significantly more diverse, hosting bacteria in the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria. Thus, a distinct SCB community is present in A. squamata that is dominated by a member of the genus Octadecabacter, and is identical to the original isolate, AS1, from this brittle star.

  1. PENGARUH SEKS RASIO TERHADAP TINGKAT KEBERHASILAN PEMIJAHAN PADA KAWIN SILANG Haliotis asinina DENGAN Haliotis squamata

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    Rio Ary Sudarmawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Haliotis asininna dan Haliotis squamata merupakan jenis abalon yang banyak dijumpai dan dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kendala yang sering dihadapi yaitu  menentukan jumlah induk yang berujung pada rendahnya produksi benih. Upaya peningkatan kualitas benih terus dilakukan salah satunya dengan kawin silang dengan perbandingan jumlah induk yang sesuai. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui jumlah induk betina abalon yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan larva yang optimal, serta mengetahui perbedaan tingkat keberhasilan persilangan dua jenis induk. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksperimental dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap  dua faktor. Faktor pertama, jumlah induk betina (1:2, 1:3 dan 1:4. Faktor kedua, persilangan dengan dua aras yaitu H. asinina jantan dengan H. squamata betina dan H. asinina betina dengan H. squamta jantan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rasio jumlah induk tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap keberhasilan pemijahan. Namun faktor persilangan memberikan pengaruh  nyata (p<0,05 terhadap jumlah telur, tingkat pembuahan dan tingkat penetasan. Persilangan dengan induk betina H. squamata menghasilkan tingkat keberhasilan lebih tinggi dibandingakan dengan induk betina H. asinina. Kata kunci: H. asinina, H. squamata, jumlah induk, kawin silang

  2. Female heterogamety in Madagascar chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae: Furcifer): differentiation of sex and neo-sex chromosomes

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    Rovatsos, Michail; Pokorn?, Martina Johnson; Altmanov?, Marie; Kratochv?l, Luk??

    2015-01-01

    Amniotes possess variability in sex determining mechanisms, however, this diversity is still only partially known throughout the clade and sex determining systems still remain unknown even in such a popular and distinctive lineage as chameleons (Squamata: Acrodonta: Chamaeleonidae). Here, we present evidence for female heterogamety in this group. The Malagasy giant chameleon (Furcifer oustaleti) (chromosome number 2n?=?22) possesses heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes with heterochromatic W...

  3. Molecular evolutionary rates are not correlated with temperature and latitude in Squamata: an exception to the metabolic theory of ecology?

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    Rolland, Jonathan; Loiseau, Oriane; Romiguier, Jonathan; Salamin, Nicolas

    2016-05-20

    The metabolic theory of ecology stipulates that molecular evolutionary rates should correlate with temperature and latitude in ectothermic organisms. Previous studies have shown that most groups of vertebrates, such as amphibians, turtles and even endothermic mammals, have higher molecular evolutionary rates in regions where temperature is high. However, the association between molecular evolutionary rates and temperature or latitude has never been tested in Squamata. We used a large dataset including the spatial distributions and environmental variables for 1,651 species of Squamata and compared the contrast of the rates of molecular evolution with the contrast of temperature and latitude between sister species. Using major axis regressions and a new algorithm to choose independent sister species pairs, we found that temperature and absolute latitude were not associated with molecular evolutionary rates. This absence of association in such a diverse ectothermic group questions the mechanisms explaining current pattern of species diversity in Squamata and challenges the presupposed universality of the metabolic theory of ecology.

  4. Development and characterization of 47 novel microsatellite markers for Vellozia squamata (Velloziaceae).

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    Duarte-Barbosa, Marcia; Bajay, Miklos M; Zucchi, Maria I; Pivello, Vânia R

    2015-02-01

    • We developed and validated microsatellite primers for Vellozia squamata (Velloziaceae), an endemic species of the cerrado (Brazilian savannas), to investigate the influence of different fire regimes on its genetic diversity and population structure. • Using a selective hybridization method, we tested 51 SSR loci using a natural population of V. squamata and obtained 47 amplifiable loci. Among these, 26 loci were polymorphic and the average values of genetic diversity were: average number of alleles per locus ([Formula: see text]) = 6.54, average number of alleles per polymorphic locus ([Formula: see text]) = 7.13, average observed heterozygosity [Formula: see text] = 0.22, average expected heterozygosity [Formula: see text] = 0.49, and average fixation index [Formula: see text] = 0.55. • These 26 loci allowed us to assess the effects of distinct fire regimes on the genetic structure of V. squamata populations with the aim of establishing strategies for the conservation of this endemic species. The markers can also be useful for future pharmaceutical studies, as the species has great potential for medicinal and cosmetic applications.

  5. Sclerotic rings in mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae): structures and taxonomic diversity.

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    Yamashita, Momo; Konishi, Takuya; Sato, Tamaki

    2015-01-01

    Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae) were a highly diverse, globally distributed group of aquatic lizards in the Late Cretaceous (98-66 million years ago) that exhibited a high degree of adaptation to life in water. To date, despite their rich fossil record, the anatomy of complete mosasaur sclerotic rings, embedded in the sclera of the eyeball, has not been thoroughly investigated. We here describe and compare sclerotic rings of four mosasaur genera, Tylosaurus, Platecarpus, Clidastes, and Mosasaurus, for the first time. Two specimens of Tylosaurus and Platecarpus share an exact scleral ossicle arrangement, excepting the missing portion in the specimen of Platecarpus. Furthermore, the exact arrangement and the total count of 14 ossicles per ring are shared between Tylosaurus and numerous living terrestrial lizard taxa, pertaining to both Iguania and Scleroglossa. In contrast, two species of Mosasaurus share the identical count of 12 ossicles and the arrangement with each other, while no living lizard taxa share exactly the same arrangement. Such a mosaic distribution of these traits both among squamates globally and among obligatorily aquatic mosasaurs specifically suggests that neither the ossicle count nor their arrangement played major roles in the aquatic adaptation in mosasaur eyes. All the mosasaur sclerotic rings examined consistently exhibit aperture eccentricity and the scleral ossicles with gently convex outer side. Hitherto unknown to any squamate taxa, one specimen of Platecarpus unexpectedly shows a raised, concentric band of roughened surface on the inner surface of the sclerotic ring. It is possible that one or both of these latter features may have related to adaptation towards aquatic vision in mosasaurs, but further quantitative study of extant reptilian clades containing both terrestrial and aquatic taxa is critical and necessary in order to understand possible adaptive significances of such osteological features.

  6. Patrones de osificación en Tupinambis merianae y Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae y patrones generales en Squamata

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    Arias, Federico

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la variación ontogenética del esqueleto de 13 embriones de Tupinambis merianae y 11 de Tupinambis rufescens, detectándose heterocronías entre ambas especies. Los resultados muestran que los elementos dermales (tanto del cráneo como de la cintura pectoral osifican antes que los elementos condrales, siendo los elementos que forman la mandíbula inferior, el paladar (especialmente los palatinos y los pterigoides y la clavícula los primeros en osificarse, mientras que los elementos del dermatocráneo más tardíos en osificarse son los del arco temporal superior (lacrimal, postorbital, postfrontal. Las principales diferencias en los tiempos de aparición y osificación se producen en algunos huesos del cráneo y en el autopodio (carpo/tarso, pero estas heterocronías no alteran la arquitectura final del esqueleto. Los resultados encontrados son comparados y discutidos con el conocimiento existente sobre otros linajes de Squamata. We describe the ontogenetic variation of skeleton of 13 Tupinambis meriane embryos and 11 Tupinambis rufescens embryos. Furthermore heterochronies in ossification sequence between both species are recorded. Results show that dermal elements (belonging to the skull and the pectoral girdle ossify before the chondral elements, being the elements that constitute the lower jaw, the palate (especially the palatine and the pterygoid, and the clavicle the first ones to ossify. The elements belonging to the dermatocranium which ossify later are the ones of the upper temporal arch (lacrimal, postorbital and postfrontal. The main differences present in timing of onset and ossification are produced in some bones of the skull and of the autopodium (carpus / tarsus; though, these heterochronies do not alter the final structure of the skeleton. Results achieved are compared and discussed with the available knowledge of other squamate lineages.

  7. Estudo ultraestrutural de espermatozoide de squamata (Reptilia), e sua importancia na analise filogenetica

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscaia Dias Teixeira

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: A análise filo genética a partir da ultraestrutura do espermatozóide vem ganhando interesse dos biólogos celulares e sistematas. Este interesse é devido à ultraestrutura do espermatozóide ser uma fonte de informação valiosa para a análise filogenética, por fornecer dados novos e não tradicionais, e por ter uma natureza mais conservativa que os dados morfológicos tradicionais. Numa tentativa de contribuir para o entendimento da filogenia dos Squamata, a presente dissertação tem como fi...

  8. A new species of Aplectana (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) in Goniurosaurus bawanglingensis (Squamata, Eublepharidae), from Hainan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Lee Grismer, L

    2018-03-26

    Aplectana hainanensis sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Cosmocercidae) from the intestines of Goniurosaurus bawanglingensis (Squamata, Eublepharidae) is described and illustrated. Aplectana hainanensis sp. nov. represents the 52nd species assigned to the genus and the 5th species reported from the Sino-Japanese region. It is easily separated from the 4 species previously reported from the region by the distribution pattern of male caudal papillae: A. macintoshii has an irregular pattern; A. hylae has no precloacal papillae; A. fujianae has 1 pair of precloacal papillae; A paucipapillosa has 3 pairs of precloacal papillae; Aplectana hainanensis sp. nov. has 7 pairs of precloacal papillae.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the toad-headed lizard, Phrynocephalus albolineatus (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Min; Ma, Li; Zhang, Guangzheng; Wang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Phrynocephalus albolineatus (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae), which is a circular molecule of 16 808 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and 2 non-coding sequence (D-loop). The mitogenome of P. albolineatus was similar to the typical mtDNA of vertebrates in gene arrangement and composition. The control region was comprised by two parts, one (992 bp) between tRNA-Phe and 12S rRNA, and the other (650 bp) between tRNA-Thr and tRNA-Pro. The A + T content of overall base of H-strand is 63.1% (T: 26.7%, C: 24.6%, A: 36.4%, G: 12.3%). The whole mitogenomic sequence of P. albolineatus provides powerful data to study the molecular systematic, population genetics and phylogeography of Squamata.

  10. The effect of the dominant polychaete Scolelepis squamata on nematode colonisation in sandy beach sediments: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Tatiana F.; Esteves, André M.; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Vanreusel, Ann

    2011-09-01

    The effect of an abundant sandy beach polychaete, Scolelepis squamata, on the colonisation of defaunated sediments by marine nematodes indicates that sandy beach fauna can be partially controlled by biological interactions within and across size groups. Experimental cores, equipped with windows allowing infaunal colonisation, were filled with defaunated sandy beach sediment containing two different treatments with and without S. squamata. These cores were inserted into microcosms filled with sediment with indigenous meiofauna collected from the field. The treatments were incubated in the laboratory at ambient temperature and salinity for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days, in order to follow the colonisation process of the defaunated sediments by the indigenous nematode fauna over time. Nematodes initially colonised both treatments, with abundances of up to 10% of the densities in the control; after 2 weeks, nematode densities in the cores without S. squamata surpassed the control densities. Nematode assemblages in both treatments were not species rich, and also differed in composition from the natural assemblages. The most successful colonising species, Enoplolaimus litoralis, was rare in the surrounding sediment, suggesting that colonisation was determined by species-specific characteristics such as body size, motility and feeding strategy. Initially the presence of macrofauna did not affect the nematode community composition, but after 2 weeks of the experiment, the presence of the polychaete seemed to facilitate the earlier establishment of non-opportunistic species.

  11. KARAKTERISASI DAN EVALUASI POPULASI ABALON Haliotis squamata SECARA MOLEKULER, MORFOMETRIK, DAN BIOLOGI

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    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan salah satu komoditas penting gastropoda laut. Tingginya permintaan abalon ini mengakibatkan menipisnya stok di alam. Oleh karena itu, upaya keberhasilan budidaya abalon perlu didukung oleh jenis unggul. Indikasi awal suatu jenis unggul dapat dilakukan dengan menganalisis potensi genetik yang dimiliki. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan analisis gen 16S rRNA, karakter morfolologi, dan biologi dianalisis secara deskriptif dengan metode kajian pustaka. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan keragaman inter populasi Haliotis squamata mendeteksi adanya tujuh haplotipe yang terbagi dalam dua kelompok. Penyertaan H. diversicolor sebagai outgroup dalam pengujian memperlihatkan bahwa populasi H. squamata dari Pulau Bali dan beberapa lokasi di Pulau Jawa berada dalam satu kelompok yang terpisah dengan outgroup. Hasil ini kongruen dengan analisis morfometrik terdapat perkembangan pertumbuhan cangkang yang asimetri pada populasi Banten. Pertumbuhan asimetri merupakan indikasi spesifik untuk populasi Banten atau merupakan gejala abnormalitas yang dapat diakibatkan oleh faktor penurunan kualitas genetik atau lingkungan. Karakter biologi terlihat proporsi daging dan gonad berbeda pada populasi Banten dengan indikasi adanya pertumbuhan asimetri. Rasio gonad dan daging populasi Banyuwangi berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dengan populasi lainnya. Abalone is arguably one of the highly valued and sought-after marine gastropods. However, the over-exploitation of this species has exhausted its wild stock. To overcome this challenge, the culture technique and management of this species must be established and continually improved. One of the ways is through producing superior broodstocks. An initial assessment of a genetically superior broodstock can be done using the potential genetic analysis. This recent research employed the analysis to study the species’ 16S rRNA gene. To complement the study, the morphometric and biological characteristics of the species were

  12. New species of Stenodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Sharqiyah Sands in northeastern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-12-06

    A new species of gecko of the genus Stenodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) is described from the dune desert of Al Sharqiyah Sands in northeastern Oman. Stenodactylus sharqiyahensis sp. nov. is characterized morphologically by its small size, snout shape, webbing between fingers not very extended, relatively short limbs, and scalation. It is genetically distinct in the mitochondrial DNA and the nuclear MC1R gene from Stenodactylus arabicus to which it has previously been referred. The new species seems to have a restricted distribution confined to the Sharqiyah Sands, which remain isolated from other sand deserts in Arabia. In addition, the data presented herein confirm new locality records for Stenodactylus arabicus in the easternmost limit of its distribution range in western central Oman. 

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the common lizard Zootoca vivipara (Squamata: Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Dan; Zhao, Wen-Ge; Ji, Xiang

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Zootoca vivipara (Squamata: Lacertidae) is a circular molecule of 17,046 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 63.43% (T: 30.95%, C: 24.03%, A: 32.48%, G: 12.54%). Protein-coding genes begin with ATG as start codon except COII with GTG. ND1, ATP8, ATP6, ND4L, ND5 and Cyt b genes are terminated with TAA as stop codon, ND2 ends with TAG, COI and ND6 end with AGG, and the other four protein-coding genes end with an incomplete stop codon (a single stop nucleotide T).

  14. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Elaphe anomala (Squamata Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wen-Ge

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Elaphe anomala (Squamata: Colubridae) is first determined using long PCR. It is a circular molecule of 17,164 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 2 control regions (CRI and CRII). The gene order and nucleotide composition of E. anomala are very similar with E. schrenckii. Mitochondrial genomes analyses based on the NJ method yield phylogenetic tree of 17 species snakes of Colubridae. Species E. anomala, E. schrenckii, E. bimaculata and E. davidi seemed to have formed a monophyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100%) except E. poryphyracea. Oligodon ningshaanensis and Thermophis zhaoermii are special species. The molecular data presented here provide a useful tool for setting the stage for further studies.

  15. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Si; He, Fei; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2), dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediyl))bis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylene))dicarbamate (3), obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5), and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5α,6β,7β-aromadendrane (6), (-)-4β-N-methenetauryl-10β-methoxy-1β,5β,6α,7α-aromadendrane (7), (-)-4α,10β-aromadendranediol (8), (+)-4β,10β-aromadendranediol (9) were obtained from the South China Sea gorgonian coral Melitodes squamata Nutting. Compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 were new, and their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 6 and 7 contained a taurine group that was rarely found in marine natural compounds, and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity. The possible biosynthesis routes of 1-5 were conjectured.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Amur rat-snake Elaphe schrenckii (Squamata: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wen-Ge

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the whole mitochondrial genome of Elaphe schrenckii (Squamata: Colubridae) is first sequenced. It is a circular molecule of 17,165 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 2 control regions (CRI and CRII). Except for eight tRNAs and ND6 gene, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand (H strand). The gene order and orientation of E. schrenckii mitogenome are basically identical to that of other alethinophidian snakes. Mitochondrial genome analyses based on MP, ML and NJ yielded identical phylogenetic trees, indicating a close phylogenetic affinity of 12 species of Colubridae snakes. This study will facilitate the further research of the population genetics of this species and systematic analyses of the genus Elaphe.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Madagascar ground gecko Paroedura picta (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostová, Zuzana; Musilová, Zuzana

    2016-11-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Madagascar ground gecko Paroedura picta (Squamata: Gekkonidae). The mitogenome is 17 220 base pairs long and conforms to the typical vertebrate gene composition and arrangement, i.e. 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1919 bp long control region. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of P. picta and representatives of nine other genera from the family Gekkonidae and calculated mean p-distances for all 13 protein-coding mitochondrial genes. The lowest mean p-distances were found in cytochrome oxidase subunit I and III genes (COI and COIII) indicating their usefulness for elucidating deeper phylogenetic relationships.

  18. Spermiogenesis in the imbricate alligator lizard, Barisia imbricata (Reptilia, Squamata, Anguidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin M; Rheubert, Justin L; Touzinsky, Katherine; Hanover, Jessica; Matchett, Caroline L; Granados-González, Gisela; Hernández-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2013-06-01

    Although the events of spermiogenesis are commonly studied in amniotes, the amount of research available for Squamata is lacking. Many studies have described the morphological characteristics of mature spermatozoa in squamates, but few detail the ultrastructural changes that occur during spermiogenesis. This study's purpose is to gain a better understanding of the subcellular events of spermatid development within the Imbricate Alligator Lizard, Barisia imbricata. The morphological data presented here represent the first complete ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis within the family Anguidae. Samples of testes from four specimens collected on the northwest side of the Nevado de Toluca, México, were prepared using standard techniques for transmission electron microscopy. Many of the ultrastructural changes occurring during spermiogenesis within B. imbricata are similar to that of other squamates (i.e., early acrosome formation, chromatin condensation, flagella formation, annulus present, and a prominent manchette). However, there are a few unique characteristics within B. imbricata spermatids that to date have not been described during spermiogenesis in other squamates. For example, penetration of the acrosomal granule into the subacrosomal space to form the basal plate of the perforatorium during round spermatid development, the clover-shaped morphology of the developing nuclear fossa of the flagellum, and the bulbous shape to the perforatorium are all unique to the Imbricate Alligator Lizard. These anatomical character differences may be valuable nontraditional data that along with more traditional matrices (such as DNA sequences and gross morphological data) may help elucidate phylogenetic relationships, which are historically considered controversial within Squamata. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. FORMULASI PAKAN BUATAN DENGAN BAHAN BAKU RUMPUT LAUT UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN ABALON Haliotis squamata

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    I Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan salah satu jenis moluska laut yang memiliki potensi ekonomis untuk dikembangkan usaha budidayanya. Teknologi pembenihan abalon Haliotis squamata telah dikembangkan dan berhasil memproduksi benih secara massal. Selain benih, ketersediaan pakan yang sesuai sangat menentukan keberhasilan budidaya pembesaran abalon. Selain makan pakan segar berupa makroalga, abalon juga dapat menerima pakan buatan dengan baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan formula pakan dengan bahan baku tepung rumput laut untuk pertumbuhan H. squamata. Tiga pakan percobaan diformulasi dengan proporsi tepung rumput laut Ulva sp., Gracilaria sp., dan Sargassum sp. yang berbeda dibuat berbentuk remah dengan kandungan protein dan lemak yang sama.  Sebagai kontrol digunakan pakan Gracilaria sp. segar asal tambak.  Sebanyak 16 buah bak beton berukuran 2,0 x 0,5 x 0,5 m3 dengan ketinggian air 25 cm dan dilengkapi dengan aerasi digunakan sebagai wadah percobaan.  Benih abalon hasil pembenihan di hatcheri dengan ukuran bobot 5,30 ± 1,07 g; panjang cangkang 3,35 ± 0,29 cm ditebar dengan kepadatan 388 ekor per bak.  Abalon diberi pakan percobaan 2 kali sehari selama 168 hari. Jumlah pakan disesuaikan dengan respons makan dari abalon. Percobaan dirancang dengan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan pakan dan setiap perlakuan terdiri atas 4 ulangan.  Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan abalon yang diberi pakan buatan tidak berbeda nyata, tetapi pakan dengan proporsi tepung Ulva sp. 35% cenderung memberikan pertumbuhan yang lebih baik. Pertumbuhan abalon terbaik diperoleh pada perlakuan kontrol.  Kandungan protein daging abalon dipengaruhi oleh pakan percobaan. Kandungan protein daging abalon yang diberi pakan buatan signifikan lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kontrol.

  20. Rate heterogeneity across Squamata, misleading ancestral state reconstruction and the importance of proper null model specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, S; Reeder, T W

    2017-02-01

    The binary-state speciation and extinction (BiSSE) model has been used in many instances to identify state-dependent diversification and reconstruct ancestral states. However, recent studies have shown that the standard procedure of comparing the fit of the BiSSE model to constant-rate birth-death models often inappropriately favours the BiSSE model when diversification rates vary in a state-independent fashion. The newly developed HiSSE model enables researchers to identify state-dependent diversification rates while accounting for state-independent diversification at the same time. The HiSSE model also allows researchers to test state-dependent models against appropriate state-independent null models that have the same number of parameters as the state-dependent models being tested. We reanalyse two data sets that originally used BiSSE to reconstruct ancestral states within squamate reptiles and reached surprising conclusions regarding the evolution of toepads within Gekkota and viviparity across Squamata. We used this new method to demonstrate that there are many shifts in diversification rates across squamates. We then fit various HiSSE submodels and null models to the state and phylogenetic data and reconstructed states under these models. We found that there is no single, consistent signal for state-dependent diversification associated with toepads in gekkotans or viviparity across all squamates. Our reconstructions show limited support for the recently proposed hypotheses that toepads evolved multiple times independently in Gekkota and that transitions from viviparity to oviparity are common in Squamata. Our results highlight the importance of considering an adequate pool of models and null models when estimating diversification rate parameters and reconstructing ancestral states. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Nuevos registros de squamata (reptilia para el pleistoceno superior del norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Agnolin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo son reportados ejemplares de diversos taxones de reptiles escamados fósiles procedentes de la base de la Formación Luján (Pleistoceno Superior, en la localidad fosilífera de Merlo, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Entre los ejemplares registrados se reconoce el primer registro fósil para el género y especie Anops kingii (Amphisbaenidae; asimismo se reporta la presencia de especies indeterminadas de los géneros Homonota (Gekkonidae y Liolaemus (Liolaemidae. La asociación conjunta de estos tres taxones hoy en día no se encuentra representada en el norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires, siendo la región geográficamente más cercana en donde encuentran una superposición en su distribución el Partido de Balcarce, ubicado en el extremo Sureste de la provincia y alejado unos 600 kilómetros al sur de la localidad fosilífera de Merlo. La presencia conjunta de estos tres reptiles se encuentra de acuerdo con la posible existencia de un pulso árido y frío, tal como ha sido propuesto con anterioridad para porción más inferior del Pleistoceno Superior en la provincia de Buenos Aires.

  2. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN REPRODUKSI ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 TURUNAN KETIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan pertumbuhan dan reproduksi abalon Haliotis squamata dilakukan di hatcheri Balai Besar Riset Budidaya Laut dan Penyuluhan Perikanan (BBRBLPP Gondol, Bali. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk memperoleh informasi tentang keragaan pertumbuhan dan performansi reproduksi abalon turunan ketiga. Induk H. squamata turunan kedua hasil seleksi yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan benih turunan ketiga mempunyai ukuran panjang cangkang 6,5-7,0 cm. Benih dipelihara dalam bak beton berukuran 2,5 m x 1,2 m x 1,0 m yang diberikan feeding plate sebagai substrat penempelan dan dilengkapi dengan sistem aerasi dan sistem air mengalir. Pakan yang diberikan pada awal pemeliharaan adalah diatom jenis Nitzschia sp. dan Melosira sp. yang telah ditumbuhkan terlebih dahulu pada feeding plate sebelum penebaran benih. Benih F-3 dipelihara sampai menjadi calon induk untuk diamati perkembangan reproduksinya. Pengambilan sampel pertumbuhan dilakukan setiap 10 hari. Pengamatan reproduksi dilakukan pada saat abalon mulai tumbuh gonad sampai matang gonad stadia-III. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan abalon sangat dipengaruhi ketersediaan pakan pada plate terutama pada hari ke-50. Proporsi jantan-betina abalon F-3 (3,3:1 meningkat dibandingkan dengan F-0 dari alam (2,5:1 menunjukkan ketidakseimbangan jumlah individu yang dapat disebabkan oleh tekanan seleksi. Abalon turunan ketiga pada umur 16 bulan mulai matang gonad dan dapat digunakan sebagai induk untuk pemijahan. Observation on the growth and reproduction development of Haliotis squamata had been undertaken in the hatchery of the Institute for Mariculture Research and Development (IMRAD Gondol, Bali. The research was aimed to study of the growth and reproduction performance of filial-3 abalone in supporting seed production in hatchery. Larvae were obtained from natural spawning of filial-2 abalone broodstock with the length shell of 6.5-7.0 cm in the hatchery. Larvae were reared in 2.5 m x 1.2 m x 1.0 m

  3. A new genus and species of pterygosomatid mite (Acari: Pterygosomatidae) parasitizing Callopistes maculatus (Squamata: Teiidae) from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, María Carolina Silva-de La; Paredes-León, Ricardo; Casanueva, María Eugenia; Escobar-Huerta, Gustavo; Salas, Lucila Moreno

    2015-06-10

    A new genus and species Callopistiella atacamensis gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae) are described from Callopistes maculatus (Squamata: Teiidae) in Chile. In this species, both sexes are characterized by the hypostome without a velum, the chelicerae proximally globose and very thin distally, ending in a movable digit curved outward, the fixed cheliceral digit reduced to a membranous and sparsely serrate structure, presence of seta 2c, tarsus I with seta ft nude and 2 times longer than solenidion ω2; larvae have solenidion ω1 on tarsus I and tibia I without solenidion φ and moderate hypertrichy present around the genital area. Some biological aspects of this new species are discussed.

  4. Redescription of Tijubina pontei, an Early Cretaceous lizard (Reptilia; Squamata from the Crato Formation of Brazil

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    Tiago R. Simões

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of Gondwanan Mesozoic lizards is very poor. Among the few species described for this region there is Tijubina pontei, an Early Cretaceous lizard from the Crato Formation (late Aptian of northeast Brazil. Its description is very brief and lacks most of its diagnostic characters and clear delimitation from other lizard species. Here, a full redescription of the holotype is provided. T. pontei is demonstrated to be a valid species and a new diagnosis is provided with reference to Olindalacerta brasiliensis, a contemporary species of the Crato Formation. It lacks the posteroventral and posterodorsal processes of the dentary; the tibial/fibular length equals the femoral length and its posterior dentary teeth are robust, cylindrically based, unsculptured and bear no cuspids. The systematic position of T. pontei still needs further clarification, but preliminary analyses indicate that it lies in a rather basal position among the Squamata, similarly to O. brasiliensis.O registro de lagartos do Mesozóico de Gondwana é extremamente limitado. Dentre as poucas espécies descritas para esta região está Tijubina pontei, um lagarto do Cretáceo Inferior da Formação Crato (Aptiano superior do nordeste do Brasil. A sua descrição é muito breve e não contém a maioria dos seus caracteres diagnósticos ou uma clara delimitação das outras espécies de lagartos. Neste trabalho, uma redescrição completa do holótipo, é provida. É demonstrado que T. pontei é espécie válida, e uma nova diagnose é provida com referência à Olindalacerta brasiliensis, uma espécie contemporânea da Formação Crato. Ele não possui os processos posteroventral e posterodorsal do dentário; o comprimento tibilar/fibular é relativamente igual ao comprimento do fêmur e os seus dentes posteriores no dentário são robustos, de base cilindrica, sem ornamentações e sem cúspides. Embora a posição sistemática de T. pontei ainda necessite de maiores

  5. Localization and distribution of gonadal proteins in the oviparous lizard Sceloporus aeneus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivia Rocio, Antonio-Rubio; Maricela, Villagrán-SantaCruz; Norma, Moreno-Mendoza

    2017-06-01

    Among vertebrates, several specific proteins are involved in the function and development of gonads. Several genes such as SOX9, FOXL2, DDX4, IFITM3, and DPPA3, are active during embryonic differentiation and maintain their expression in adult tissues, playing important roles in the function and development of the line cell, where these are produced. Among reptiles, molecular mechanisms for sex differentiation have been analyzed in turtles, crocodiles, and some lizards, while in adult stages such studies are scarce. The aim of this study was to locate and analyze the distribution of important gonadal proteins in adult and embryonic ovaries and testes of the oviparous lizard Sceloporus aeneus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae). Adult specimens and embryos of the lizard S. aeneus were collected in Milpa Alta, a suburb located Southwest of Mexico City. Expression of gonadal proteins was analyzed using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy. Our results showed that SOX9 is located in Sertoli cells of embryonic and adult testes. FOXL2 is expressed in follicular cells of adult ovaries. DDX4 and IFITM3 are located in germ line cells as well as in follicular cells of adult ovaries. DPPA3 was observed in somatic and germ line cells of adult and embryonic gonads. Our observations show that important molecules of vertebrate ovaries and testes are conserved in S. aeneus and it is suggested that these may have a similar role during gonadal development and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Female heterogamety in Madagascar chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae: Furcifer): differentiation of sex and neo-sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-08-19

    Amniotes possess variability in sex determining mechanisms, however, this diversity is still only partially known throughout the clade and sex determining systems still remain unknown even in such a popular and distinctive lineage as chameleons (Squamata: Acrodonta: Chamaeleonidae). Here, we present evidence for female heterogamety in this group. The Malagasy giant chameleon (Furcifer oustaleti) (chromosome number 2n = 22) possesses heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes with heterochromatic W. The panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) (2n = 22 in males, 21 in females), the second most popular chameleon species in the world pet trade, exhibits a rather rare Z1Z1Z2Z2/Z1Z2W system of multiple sex chromosomes, which most likely evolved from W-autosome fusion. Notably, its neo-W chromosome is partially heterochromatic and its female-specific genetic content has expanded into the previously autosomal region. Showing clear evidence for genotypic sex determination in the panther chameleon, we resolve the long-standing question of whether or not environmental sex determination exists in this species. Together with recent findings in other reptile lineages, our work demonstrates that female heterogamety is widespread among amniotes, adding another important piece to the mosaic of knowledge on sex determination in amniotes needed to understand the evolution of this important trait.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the toad-headed lizard, Phrynocephalus forsythii (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Min; Ma, Li; Wang, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Phrynocephalus forsythii (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae), which is a circular molecule of 16,143 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 2 non-coding sequence (D-loop). The mitogenome of P. forsythii was similar to the typical mtDNA of vertebrates in gene arrangement and composition. The control region composed of two parts: one (348 bp) between tRNA(Phe) and the other (636 bp) between tRNA(Pro) and 12S rRNA. The A + T content of overall base of the composition of H-strand is 62.0% (T: 25.6%, C: 25.7%, A: 36.3% and G: 12.3%). The whole mitogenomic sequence of P. forsythii provides powerful data to study of its phylogenetic position within toad-headed lizards.

  8. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN VARIASI GENETIK ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 HASIL SELEKSI F-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Produksi benih abalon Haliotis squamata skala massal di hatcheri telah berhasil dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali. Permasalahan utama dalam budidaya abalon adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Keadaan tersebut diduga karena pengaruh faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keragaan pertumbuhan dan variasi genetik abalon tumbuh cepat hasil seleksi individu. Hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa pembentukan populasi F-1 mempunyai pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dengan F-1 kontrol. Peningkatan bobot yang dicapai 22,15 g atau 17,93% lebih baik dibandingkan F-1 kontrol. Keragaman genetik F-1 terseleksi yang ditunjukkan dari nilai heterozigositas adalah (Ho. 0,023 terjadi penurunan 21,7% jika dibandingkan F-0. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena hilangnya beberapa allele dalam proses seleksi. Terdapat hubungan antara jumlah heterozigot pada lokus tertentu dengan pertumbuhan abalon. Hasil ini diharapkan dapat mendukung upaya meningkatkan produksi benih yang mempunyai performa fenotipe dan genotipe unggul sehingga dapat mendukung kegiatan budidaya abalon yang berkelanjutan.

  9. Female heterogamety in Madagascar chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae: Furcifer): differentiation of sex and neo-sex chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Pokorná, Martina Johnson; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Amniotes possess variability in sex determining mechanisms, however, this diversity is still only partially known throughout the clade and sex determining systems still remain unknown even in such a popular and distinctive lineage as chameleons (Squamata: Acrodonta: Chamaeleonidae). Here, we present evidence for female heterogamety in this group. The Malagasy giant chameleon (Furcifer oustaleti) (chromosome number 2n = 22) possesses heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes with heterochromatic W. The panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) (2n = 22 in males, 21 in females), the second most popular chameleon species in the world pet trade, exhibits a rather rare Z1Z1Z2Z2/Z1Z2W system of multiple sex chromosomes, which most likely evolved from W-autosome fusion. Notably, its neo-W chromosome is partially heterochromatic and its female-specific genetic content has expanded into the previously autosomal region. Showing clear evidence for genotypic sex determination in the panther chameleon, we resolve the long-standing question of whether or not environmental sex determination exists in this species. Together with recent findings in other reptile lineages, our work demonstrates that female heterogamety is widespread among amniotes, adding another important piece to the mosaic of knowledge on sex determination in amniotes needed to understand the evolution of this important trait. PMID:26286647

  10. Synanthropic behavior of the Neotropical palm swift Tachornis squamata (Apodiformes: Apodidae in the Brazilian Caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor O. Lunardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical palm swift, Tachornis squamata Cassin, 1853 (Apodidae, inhabits palm forests in the northern, northeastern and central regions of South America. At the Chapada do Apodi, Brazilian Caatinga, we investigated how the Neotropical palm swifts use palm trees to roost in two areas: urban and exurban. From May to November 2011 and from March to June 2012, out of the breeding season of the species, we compared the differences between the descriptive parameters of the palm-roosts and the activity levels of the swifts in urban and exurban roosting. We sampled 30 carnauba palm-roosts in exurban areas and 32 carnauba palm-roosts and 26 Chinese fan palm-roosts in urban areas for a period of 132 days, a total of 528 hours of sampling. The number of wasp nests was greater in carnauba palm-roosts in exurban areas than in palm-roosts in urban areas. However, there were greater numbers of swift nests and swifts in palm-roosts in urban areas than in exurban areas. Moreover, the activity levels (number of entry and exit events of swifts in the palm-roost during sunrise (05:00-05:20 a.m. and sunset (05:41-06:00 p.m. were significantly lower in the exurban area than in the urban area. These results may contribute to establish better management practices for the coexistence between wildlife and humans in cities.

  11. Variation in the position of the jugal medial ridge among lizards (reptilia: squamata): its functional and taxonomic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerňanský, Andrej; Smith, Krister T; Klembara, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    The course of the medial ridge in the lizard jugal shows considerable morphological variation. There are four basic configurations: (1) the medial ridge is located ventral to mid-height on the suborbital process and anterior to mid-length on the postorbital process; (2) the medial ridge is located ventrally on the suborbital process (as above), but posteriorly on the postorbital process; (3) the medial ridge is located dorsally on the suborbital process and anteriorly on the postorbital process; and (4) the medial ridge is centrally located along the entire length of the jugal. Ancestral character state reconstruction shows that type 1 is plesiomorphic for Squamata regardless of the broad-scale phylogenetic topology. Type 3 is present in chamaeleonids and convergently in Anolis barbatus. Type 3 is a synapomorphy of the chamaeleonids. Type 2 is considered plesiomorphic for Anguidae, Heloderma and Xenosaurus, although it is independently modified in some extant members. These taxa form a clade in molecular phylogenies of Squamata, and the course of the medial ridge of the jugal therefore provides some measure of morphological support for this arrangement. The course of the medial ridge may be best explained by the position of the eye and by the angle of the jugal; its relations with other bony orbital structures (supraocular osteoderms, palpebral, supraorbital flanges) and the posterior extent of the maxilla are also discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. On the taxonomic status of the European Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae), with description of a new species from southern Europe On the taxonomic status of the European Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae), with description of a new species from southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surugiu, Victor

    2016-09-05

    In order to clarify taxonomic problems relating to the identity of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) specimens from the Black Sea, the identified material was compared with specimens of Scolelepis cirratulus (Delle Chiaje, 1829) from the Mediterranean, of S. squamata (Abildgaard, in O.F. Müller, 1806) from the North Sea and the Atlantic coast of Spain, and with the syntypes of S. mesnili (Bellan & Lagardère, 1971) from the Atlantic coast of France. The examination of a large number of specimens (both juveniles and adults) reveals that the currently accepted morphological differences distinguishing all species show size-related patterns, suggesting that they all belong to one species. Therefore, this study supports the view that Scolelepis cirratulus and Scolelepis mesnili are junior synonyms of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata. As a result of the re-assessment of the species limits of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata, a new species, Scolelepis (Scolelepis) neglecta sp. nov., is distinguished and described from the Cantabrian coast of Spain. It inhabits shallow sublittoral fine sands and was earlier misidentified and reported from the Atlantic coast of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea as Scolelepis squamata, Scolelepis mesnili, Scolelepis cantabra (Rioja, 1918), or Dispio uncinata Hartman, 1951. The new species is characterized by having a trilobate prostomium with an acuminate medial portion, a short peristomium with well-developed dorso-lateral wings, short palps with two longitudinal bands of elevated lobes, neuropodial postchaetal lamellae notched from chaetigers 14-41, and strongly curved bidentate neuropodial hooded hooks with a slight constriction on the shaft starting from chaetigers 19-49. The morphology, diagnostic characters and ecology of both Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata and Scolelepis (Scolelepis) neglecta sp. nov. are discussed.

  13. Type specimens of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) re-examined, with new evidence after more than a century of confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael D.; Gotte, Steve W.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Gilmore, Ned; Poindexter, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The original description of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) was published in 1861 by Robert Kennicott, who did not identify a type specimen or a type locality. We review the history of specimens purported to be the type(s) and various designations of type locality. We provide evidence that ANSP 7069 (formerly one of two specimens of USNM 5027) is the holotype and that the appropriate type locality is Fort Buchanan, near present-day Sonoita, in Santa Cruz County, Arizona.

  14. Ultrastructure of the ovarian follicles in the placentotrophic Andean lizard of the genus Mabuya (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simón; de Pérez, Gloria Romero; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2010-06-01

    We studied the ultrastructural organization of the ovarian follicles in a placentotrophic Andean lizard of the genus Mabuya. The oocyte of the primary follicle is surrounded by a single layer of follicle cells. During the previtellogenic stages, these cells become stratified and differentiated in three cell types: small, intermediate, and large globoid, non pyriform cells. Fluid-filled spaces arise among follicular cells in late previtellogenic follicles and provide evidence of cell lysis. In vitellogenic follicles, the follicular cells constitute a monolayered granulosa with large lacunar spaces; the content of their cytoplasm is released to the perivitelline space where the zona pellucida is formed. The oolemma of younger oocytes presents incipient short projections; as the oocyte grows, these projections become organized in a microvillar surface. During vitellogenesis, cannaliculi develop from the base of the microvilli and internalize materials by endocytosis. In the juxtanuclear ooplasm of early previtellogenic follicles, the Balbiani's vitelline body is found as an aggregate of organelles and lipid droplets; this complex of organelles disperses in the ooplasm during oocyte growth. In late previtellogenesis, membranous organelles are especially abundant in the peripheral ooplasm, whereas abundant vesicles and granular material occur in the medullar ooplasm. The ooplasm of vitellogenic follicles shows a peripheral band constituted by abundant membranous organelles and numerous vesicular bodies, some of them with a small lipoprotein core. No organized yolk platelets, like in lecithotrophic reptiles, were observed. Toward the medullary ooplasm, electron-lucent vesicles become larger in size containing remains of cytoplasmic material in dissolution. The results of this study demonstrate structural similarities between the follicles of this species and other Squamata; however, the ooplasm of the mature oocyte of Mabuya is morphologically similar to the ooplasm of

  15. Ultrastructural description and cytochemical study of the spermatozoon of Crotallus durissus (Squamata, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, L D; Tavares-Bastos, L; Báo, S N

    2008-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate some aspects about the nature of the spermatozoon ultrastructure of Crotallus durissus using cytochemical methods. We also provide for the first time the ultrastructural description of this species spermatozoon. Cytochemical studies of spermatozoa have not been performed so far in the Serpentes, and species spermatozoon may prove helpful to better understand the reproductive biology of this group. Besides the synapomorphies of the Squamata and Serpentes, the C. durissus spermatozoon possess the following: circular acrosome tip; rounded perforatorium tip with a stopper-like basal modification; bilateral stratified laminar structures; central electron-dense structure within the proximal centriole; fibrous sheath extending until the level of the second mitochondrial ring; rounded mitochondria in cross-section, but with variable shape and organization in longitudinal and oblique sections, respectively; linear annulus; developed multilaminar membranes in the nuclear region and the midpiece. The formation of membrane filipin-sterol complexes occur sparsely along the head region, specially around the nucleus; the complexes were also present in the midpiece membrane and scarcely lining the flagellum. The complexes were present in the different layers of the multilaminar membranes. The ethanol-phosphotungstic acid (E-PTA) treatment relieved the presence of basic proteins in acrosome vesicle, pericentriolar material, peripheral fibers of the axoneme and fibrous sheath. The tannic acid technique revealed the microtubules of the centrioles and the axoneme; the extracellular tubules encircling the spermatozoa and those spread in the epididymal lumen were also observed. However, the immunocytochemistry assay using antibodies against alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin, the primary microtubule monomers, does not support the existence of composition similarity between these tubular structures, since the extracellular tubules were not

  16. Atypical reproductive cycles in a population of Sceloporus grammicus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) from the Mexican Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Stephenson, Barry P; Lozano, Abraham; Uribe-Rodríguez, Héctor; Leyte Manrique, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The spiny lizard Sceloporus grammicus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) is a small reptile from central México and the southern United States, occurring in a wide geographic area characterized by extensive variation in topographic and climatic regimes. Genetic variation among lineages from central México is substantial, though the extent to which this variation corresponds with life-history traits remains obscure. To address part of this puzzle, we studied a population of S. grammicus from Tepeapulco, Hidalgo, México. Male-biased sexual dimorphism was extensive in this population; males were larger than females overall, and expressed proportionately larger heads and longer limbs. Minimum size at sexual maturity was similar in the sexes (males: 43 mm; females: 42 mm). In contrast to other populations from the Central Plateau, reproductive activity of males and females was synchronous. Testicular recrudescence of adult males was initiated in October–November, and maximum testis size maintained from December to July. Female reproductive activity showed no clear seasonal pattern: females had vitellogenic follicles from October to July, and pregnant females were found throughout the year. Female body size was not related to litter size. Neither male nor female gonadal mass was correlated with any abiotic environmental variable examined. Differences in reproductive characteristics among populations of S. grammicus might be indicative of plasticity in response to local environmental conditions, local adaptation, or complex gene × environment interactions. We consider these results in the context of previously studied populations of S. grammicus from the Central Plateau and elsewhere, and propose directions for future research. PMID:22957191

  17. A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The extant squamates (>9400 known species of lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse and conspicuous radiations of terrestrial vertebrates, but no studies have attempted to reconstruct a phylogeny for the group with large-scale taxon sampling. Such an estimate is invaluable for comparative evolutionary studies, and to address their classification. Here, we present the first large-scale phylogenetic estimate for Squamata. Results The estimated phylogeny contains 4161 species, representing all currently recognized families and subfamilies. The analysis is based on up to 12896 base pairs of sequence data per species (average = 2497 bp) from 12 genes, including seven nuclear loci (BDNF, c-mos, NT3, PDC, R35, RAG-1, and RAG-2), and five mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, cytochrome b, ND2, and ND4). The tree provides important confirmation for recent estimates of higher-level squamate phylogeny based on molecular data (but with more limited taxon sampling), estimates that are very different from previous morphology-based hypotheses. The tree also includes many relationships that differ from previous molecular estimates and many that differ from traditional taxonomy. Conclusions We present a new large-scale phylogeny of squamate reptiles that should be a valuable resource for future comparative studies. We also present a revised classification of squamates at the family and subfamily level to bring the taxonomy more in line with the new phylogenetic hypothesis. This classification includes new, resurrected, and modified subfamilies within gymnophthalmid and scincid lizards, and boid, colubrid, and lamprophiid snakes. PMID:23627680

  18. Squamata: Scincidae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009; Skinner et al. 2011). These studies suggest that the genus Lygosoma may not be monophyletic, and related genera such as Mochlus and Lepidothyris appear to be nested within a larger Lygosoma clade (Wagner et al. 2009). However these studies were based on limited sampling of Lygosoma spp. from Asia.

  19. A new species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adelerina) from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-Nojosa, Diva M; Borges-Leite, M Juliana; Maia, João P; Zanchi-Silva, Djan; da Rocha Braga, Roberta; Harris, D James

    2017-01-01

    Based on both unique morphological characteristics of the gamont, distinct changes caused to the host erythrocyte and analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences, a new parasite of the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 is described from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil. The new species, Hepatozoon musa n. sp., is characterized by large and curved mature gamonts (18.9 ± 0.9 μm in length and 3.8 ± 0.3 μm in width) that considerably engorge infected host erythrocytes and displace the nucleus laterally, which become longer and thinner. Phylogenetic estimates indicate the new species is more closely related to the recently described Hepatozoon cuestensis O'Dwyer, Moço, Paduan, Spenassatto, Silva & Ribolla, 2013, from Brazilian rattlesnakes. These recent findings highlight the need for further studies of Hepatozoon to better determine the biodiversity of this common but poorly-studied parasite group.

  20. Liolaemus lizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) as hosts for the nymph of Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae), with notes on Rickettsia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Tarragona, Evelina L; Martins, Thiago F; Martín, Claudia M; Burgos-Gallardo, Freddy; Nava, Santiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Adults of Amblyomma parvitarsum are common ectoparasites of South American camelids of the genera Lama and Vicugna, occuring in highlands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and also in Argentinean Patagonia. Whereas larval stages of this tick are known to feed on small lizards, host records for the nymphal instar have remained unreported. Supported by morphological and molecular analyses, herein we report A. parvitarsum nymphs parasitizing two Liolaemus species (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Andean Plateau of Argentina and Chile. Additionally, by a PCR screening targetting gltA and ompA genes, DNA of Rickettsia was detected in one of the collected nymphs. Obtained sequences of this agent were identical to a recent Rickettsia sp. described infecting adults of this tick species in Chile and Argentina.

  1. New species of Cosmocercoides (Nematoda; Cosmocercidae) and other helminths in Gonocephalus liogaster (Squamata; Agamidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Grismer, Lee L

    2015-12-01

    Cosmocercoides malayensis sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Gonocephalus liogaster (Squamata, Agamidae) from Peninsular Malaysia is described and illustrated. Cosmocercoides malayensis sp. nov. represents the 23rd species assigned to the genus and the 10th species from the Oriental biogeographical region. Cosmocercoides malayensis sp. nov. differs from the previously described Oriental species in number and position of rosette papillae; however, it is most similar to C. bufonis and C. rickae in that these 3 species have 6 post cloacal rosette papillae. Cosmocercoides bufonis possesses a prebulbar copular swelling, which is absent in C. malayensis; C. rickae posssesess somatic papillae, which are absent in C. malayensis. Three addtional nematode species were found, adult specimens of Meteterakis singaporensis and Orneoascaris sandoshami and larva of Physocephalus sp.

  2. Record length, mass, and clutch size in the nonindigenous Burmese Python, Python bivittatus Kuhl 1820 (Squamata: Pythonidae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysko, Kenneth L.; Hart, Kristen M.; Smith, Brian J.; Selby, Thomas H.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Coutu, Nicholas T.; Reichart, Rebecca M.; Nuñez, Leroy P.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Snow, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    The Burmese Python, Python bivittatus Kuhl 1820 (Squamata: Pythonidae), is indigenous to northern India,east to southern China, and south to Vietnam and a few islands in Indonesia (Barker and Barker 2008, Reed and Rodda 2009). This species has been introduced since at least 1979 in southern Florida, USA, where it likely began reproducing and became established during the 1980s (Meshaka et al. 2000, Snowet al. 2007b,Kraus 2009, Krysko et al. 2011, Willson et al. 2011). Python bivittatus has been documented in Florida consuming a variety of mammals and birds, and the American Alligator(Alligator mississippiensis) (Snowet al. 2007a, 2007b; Harvey et al. 2008; Rochford et al. 2010b; Holbrook and Chesnes 2011), many of which are protected species. Herein, we provide details on two of the largest known wild P. bivittatus in Florida to date, including current records on length,mass,clutch size, and diet.

  3. Characterisation of artisanal mine waste on Buru Island, Indonesia and toxicity to the brittle star Amphipholis squamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thomas, Bernard; Howe, Pelli L; Male, Yusthinus; Clark, Malcolm W

    2017-12-01

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation commenced on Buru Island, Indonesia, in 2012, but was halted in 2015 due to concerns of widespread Hg contamination. Much of the Hg used in the mining process is lost to trommel waste which is disposed of in settlement ponds that drain into adjacent waterways and into Kayeli Bay. Several thousand unmanaged trommel sites and associated tailing ponds exist on Buru Island. This study shows that waste from the Marloso trommel at the Gogrea site contained 203 mg/kg total Hg (THg), with a negligible proportion present as bioavailable methyl Hg (MeHg) and a low total organic carbon content. There are currently very few tools available for ecotoxicological risk assessment of mine tailings for tropical marine ecosystems, and we support the development of Tailings Toxicity Tests (TTTs) and describe laboratory toxicity test methods using the cosmopolitan benthic echinoderm Amphipholis squamata. Undiluted trommel waste caused 100% mortality of A. squamata within 48 h, and a 96-h LC50 of 6.7% w/w trommel waste (4 mg/kg THg) was estimated. Sub-lethal effects on the water vascular system of the brittle star were assessed by quantification of the Ability to Right Itself (ARI), and a 48-h EC50 of 7.3% w/w trommel waste (14.4 mg/kg THg) was estimated. The results show that trommel waste produced on Buru Island is highly contaminated with THg and is acutely toxic, raising serious concern for receiving ecosystems where Hg methylation to more toxic and bioavailable forms is likely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of copper and temperature on juveniles of the eurybathic brittle star Amphipholis squamata--exploring responses related to motility and the water vascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, James Geoffrey; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda Jean; Clark, Malcolm W

    2015-04-01

    The limited availability of test organisms that represent tropical and deeper water environments is a significant concern when assessing the risk of contaminants in these environments. Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje 1828) is a widely distributed brittle star with many phylogenetic clades reported from different latitudes, and it also occurs from the intertidal zone to a depth of ∼1300 m. In the present study, the effect of copper on four behavioural responses and mortality of A. squamata were quantified at four different temperatures including 25, 20, 15 and 10°C. At 25°C the four behavioural responses and mortality were relatively sensitive to copper, with 96 h EC50 values of 25 (confidence interval 18-44), 24 (7-26), 32 (24-41), 29 (9-41) μg L(-1) for the measured ability to turn from the oral surface up to oral surface down, curling behaviour, tube foot movement, and tube foot retraction respectively. The average 96-h LC50 value for copper at 25°C was 46 μg L(-1). Some endpoints investigated showed significant effects of reduced temperature compared to the optimal temperature. These effects were enhanced with increasing copper concentrations and significant differences in copper toxicity between temperature treatments were most notable when measuring the ability to turn from the oral surface up to oral surface down where the EC50 changed from 25 (18 to 44) to 6 (-18 to 14) μg L(-1) with a reduction of temperature from 25 to 15°C. The results showed that A. squamata is relatively sensitive to copper and that further investigation into the effects of other stressors on these endpoints is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Embryology of the VNO and associated structures in the grass snakeNatrix natrix(Squamata: Naticinae): a 3D perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Paweł; Hermyt, Mateusz; Rupik, Weronika

    2017-01-01

    Snakes are considered to be vomerolfaction specialists. They are members of one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, Squamata. The vomeronasal organ and the associated structures (such as the lacrimal duct, choanal groove, lamina transversalis anterior and cupola Jacobsoni) of adult lizards and snakes have received much anatomical, histological, physiological and behavioural attention. However, only limited embryological investigation into these structures, constrained to some anatomical or cellular studies and brief surveys, has been carried out thus far. The purpose of this study was, first, to examine the embryonic development of the vomeronasal organ and the associated structures in the grass snake ( Natrix natrix ), using three-dimensional reconstructions based on histological studies, and, second, to compare the obtained results with those presented in known publications on other snakes and lizards. Five major developmental processes were taken into consideration in this study: separation of the vomeronasal organ from the nasal cavity and its specialization, development of the mushroom body, formation of the lacrimal duct, development of the cupola Jacobsoni and its relation to the vomeronasal nerve, and specialization of the sensory epithelium. Our visualizations showed the VNO in relation to the nasal cavity, choanal groove, lacrimal duct and cupola Jacobsoni at different embryonic stages. We confirmed that the choanal groove disappears gradually, which indicates that this structure is absent in adult grass snakes. On our histological sections, we observed a gradual growth in the height of the columns of the vomeronasal sensory epithelium and widening of the spaces between them. The main ophidian taxa (Scolecophidia, Henophidia and Caenophidia), just like other squamate clades, seem to be evolutionarily conservative at some levels with respect to the VNO and associated structures morphology. Thus, it was possible to homologize certain embryonic levels

  6. Myrtaceae, Myrcia squamata (Mattos and D. Legrand Mattos and Myrceugenia seriatoramosa (Kiaersk. D. Legrand and Kausel in Santa Catarina: Distribution extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, F. C. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myrtaceae have pantropical distribution, with about 3,500 to 5,800 species in the world, and about 1,000in Brazil. In Santa Catarina state, 23 species of Myrceugenia and 37 species of Myrcia, included Gomidesia in this genus,are known. Collection trips were made in the cities of Garuva and Joinville, where Myrcia squamata and Myrceugeniaseriatoramosa were found for the first time in Santa Catarina. Currently, 38 species of Myrcia and 24 of Myrceugenia areconfirmed, increasing the number of Myrtaceae species in this state.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides, lead, and mercury in northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) from the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Catherine E; Pappas, Sara; Abel, Michael T; Kendall, Ronald J

    2015-07-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) from the Rolling Plains ecoregion in Texas and Oklahoma were evaluated for organochlorine pesticides, Pb, and Hg. Of all organochlorine pesticides analyzed, only p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) were found in a few composite liver samples. Similarly, a small fraction of tissue samples had detectable levels of Hg (liver and breast) or Pb exceeding background concentrations (femur). Lead concentrations in a few individuals fell within the range associated with moderate toxicity. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. RIQUEZA E COMPOSIÇÃO DE RÉPTEIS SQUAMATA (LAGARTOS E ANFISBENAS) DA ÁREA DE PROTEÇÃO AMBIENTAL DA FAZENDINHA, AMAPÁ, BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Carlos Eduardo Costa; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lima, Janaína Reis Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    O presente estudo apresenta informações sobre a composição e riqueza de répteis Squamata (lagartos e anfisbenas) em habitats de floresta da Área de Proteção Ambiental da Fazendinha, município de Macapá, Amapá (Amazônia Oriental) utilizando três métodos de amostragem: armadilhas de interceptação e queda, busca ativa e encontros ocasionais. Foram registradas 22 espécies de lagartos e uma de anfisbena distribuídas em nove famílias: Gymnophthalmidae (6), Dactyloidae (4), Teiidae (4), Tropiduridae...

  9. A new Late Cretaceous iguanomorph from North America and the origin of New World Pleurodonta (Squamata, Iguania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMar, David G; Conrad, Jack L; Head, Jason J; Varricchio, David J; Wilson, Gregory P

    2017-01-25

    Iguanomorpha (stem + crown Iguania) is a diverse squamate clade with members that predominate many modern American lizard ecosystems. However, the temporal and palaeobiogeographic origins of its constituent crown clades (e.g. Pleurodonta (basilisks, iguanas, and their relatives)) are poorly constrained, mainly due to a meagre Mesozoic-age fossil record. Here, we report on two nearly complete skeletons from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of North America that represent a new and relatively large-bodied and possibly herbivorous iguanomorph that inhabited a semi-arid environment. The new taxon exhibits a mosaic of anatomical features traditionally used in diagnosing Iguania and non-iguanian squamates (i.e. Scleroglossa; e.g. parietal foramen at the frontoparietal suture, astragalocalcaneal notch in the tibia, respectively). Our cladistic analysis of Squamata revealed a phylogenetic link between Campanian-age North American and East Asian stem iguanomorphs (i.e. the new taxon + Temujiniidae). These results and our evaluation of the squamate fossil record suggest that crown pleurodontans were restricted to the low-latitude Neotropics prior to their early Palaeogene first appearances in the mid-latitudes of North America. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. A new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) and other helminths in Cyrtodactylus gubaot (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Siler, Cameron D; Brown, Rafe M

    2015-12-01

    Cosmocerca leytensis sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Cyrtodactylus gubaot (Squamata: Gekkonidae) collected on Leyte Island, Philippines is described and illustrated. Cosmocerca leytensis sp. nov. is the 30th species assigned to the genus, the 4th from the Oriental region, and the first from the Philippine Islands. The new species is most similar to those species possessing 4 pairs of plectanes, i.e., C. archeyi, C. australis, C. oroensis, and C sardiniae. Cosmocerca sardiniae lacks lateral alae; C. archeyi, C. australis, C. leytensis sp. nov. and C. oroensis possess lateral alae. Spicule length of C. oroensis is less than 75 μm, while C. archeyi, C. australis, and C. leytensis sp. nov. have spicule lengths greater than 75 μm. Males of C. australis possess 2 pairs of rosette caudal papillae, which are lacking in C. archeyi and C. leytensis sp. nov. Females of C. archeyi posses a conical tail, females of C. leytensis sp. nov. have a rounded posterior end supporting a flexible filament.

  11. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata). Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  12. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Tschopp

    Full Text Available Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata. Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  13. Systematics and biogeography of Hemidactylus homoeolepis Blanford, 1881 (Squamata: Gekkonidae), with the description of a new species from Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Raquel; Carranza, Salvador

    2014-07-14

    A new species of gecko of the genus Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) is described from Oman and extreme eastern Yemen. Hemidactylus minutus sp. nov. is characterized morphologically by its very small size, being the smallest Hemidactylus in mainland Arabia, absence of enlarged tubercles anywhere on the body, expanded subcaudal scales beginning some way from tail base, number of preanal pores, number of lamellae under the first and fourth toes, and weakly contrasted black and white banded pattern on the ventral part of tail. It is also genetically distinct from H. homoeolepis to which it has previously been referred, and from all other closely related Hemidactylus from the arid clade in DNA sequence data for mitochondrial (12S, cyt b, ND4) and three nuclear (RAG1, MC1R, c‑mos) markers. An adult female from southern Yemen and a badly preserved juvenile from southwestern Saudi Arabia previously assigned to H. homoeolepis are morphologically differentiated from this species and from H. minutus sp. nov. and temporarily referred to as Hemidactylus sp. 12 and Hemidactylus sp. 13, respectively until more specimens are collected and analyzed.        Up to now, H. homoeolepis was the only non-endemic native species of the Socotra Archipelago. With the description of H. minutus sp. nov., all native reptile species of Socotra are now endemic, such that this archipelago has one with the highest number of endemic reptiles in relation to its small size. In addition, as a result of our taxonomic change, the area of occupancy and extent of occurrence of H. homoeolepis have changed dramatically and thus its conservation status should be updated. Although H. minutus sp. nov. seems widely distributed and relatively abundant, its conservation status should also be re-evaluated. 

  14. Static osteogenesis does not precede dynamic osteogenesis in periosteal ossification of Pleurodeles (Caudata, Amphibia) and Pogona (Squamata, Lepidosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Jorge; Hui, Mylaine; Clarac, François; Quilhac, Alexandra

    2017-05-01

    Two successive mechanisms have been described in perichondral ossification: (1) in static osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into stationary osteoblasts oriented randomly, which differentiate into osteocytes in the same site; (2) in dynamic osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts that are all oriented in the same direction and move back as they secrete collagen fibers. This study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that the ontogenetic sequence static then dynamic osteogenesis observed in the chicken and in the rabbit is homologous and was acquired by the last common ancestor of amniotes or at a more inclusive node. For this we analyze the developmental patterns of Pleurodeles (Caudata, Amphibia) and those of the lizard Pogona (Squamata, Lepidosauria). We processed Pleurodeles larvae and Pogona embryos, prepared thin and ultrathin sections of appendicular bones, and analyzed them using light and transmission electron microscopy. We show that static osteogenesis does not precede dynamic osteogenesis in periosteal ossification of Pleurodeles and Pogona. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and according to the parsimony method the ontogenetic sequence observed in the chicken and in the rabbit are convergent. In Pleurodeles and Pogona dynamic osteogenesis occur without a previous rigid mineralized framework, whereas in the chicken and in the rabbit dynamic osteogenesis seems to take place over a mineralized support whether bone (in perichondral ossification) or calcified cartilage (in endochondral ossification). Interestingly, in typical dynamic osteogenesis, osteoblasts show an axis (basal nucleus-distal endoplasmic reticulum) perpendicular to the front of secreted unmineralized bone matrix, whereas in Pleurodeles and Pogona this axis is parallel to the bone matrix. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A survey of neonicotinoid use and potential exposure to northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) in the Rolling Plains of Texas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Peper, Steven T; Dunham, Nicholas R; Kumar, Naveen; Kistler, Whitney; Almas, Sadia; Presley, Steven M; Kendall, Ronald J

    2016-06-01

    Northern bobwhite (quail) (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) populations have declined dramatically in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma (USA). There is rising concern about potential toxicity of neonicotinoids to birds. To investigate this concern, the authors examined crops of 81 northern bobwhite and 17 scaled quail to determine the presence or absence of seeds treated with 3 neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam). No treated seeds were found in the 98 crops examined. Liver samples from all 98 quail were collected and analyzed for neonicotinoid residues. Analysis revealed very low concentrations of neonicotinoids within the quail liver samples. The results suggest there is little to no risk of direct toxicity to quail from neonicotinoids. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1511-1515. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the lizard Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Squamata, Iguanidae) and the variability of sperm morphology among iguanian lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gustavo H C; Colli, Guarino R; Báo, Sônia N

    2004-01-01

    The spermatozoon of Iguana iguana is filiform and resembles that of other iguanian lizards, being most similar to Tropidurus. All sperm synapomorphies of Tetrapoda, Amniota and Squamata are present in the sperm of Iguana iguana. By reconstructing the evolution of 30 sperm characters we identified a novel synapomorphy of Iguania: the presence of a well-developed acrosomal ridge at the level of the epinuclear lucent zone. Because of the poor topological resolution among iguanian clades we could not discount the possibility of convergence or neutral selection as determinant of the variability in characteristics of the sperm cell. In agreement with previous studies, we identified heterogeneous rates of evolution among the three main regions of the sperm cell, namely the head, midpiece and tail. PMID:15198687

  17. Répteis Squamata de remanescentes florestais do campus da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas de Sales, Raul Fernandes; Aires Lisboa, Carolina María Cardoso; Freire, Eliza María Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Inventários faunísticos são fundamentais para o conhecimento da biodiversidade e, conseqüentemente, para o planejamento e tomada de decisões sobre estratégias de conservação. Para conhecer a diversidade e composição dos répteis Squamata, assim como a distribuição das espécies por microhábitat em três fragmentos florestais na área do Campus da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), efetuaramse excursões quinzenais diurnas, de março a junho de 2008. As buscas ativas foram realizada...

  18. Influence of thylakoid membrane lipids on the structure of aggregated light-harvesting complexes of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and the green alga Mantoniella squamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller-Laudel, Susann; Latowski, Dariusz; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Strzałka, Kazimierz; Daum, Sebastian; Bacia, Kirsten; Wilhelm, Christian; Goss, Reimund

    2017-07-01

    The study investigated the effect of the thylakoid membrane lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) on the structure of two algal light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). In contrast to higher plants whose thylakoid membranes are characterized by an enrichment of the neutral galactolipids MGDG and DGDG, both the green alga Mantoniella squamata and the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contain membranes with a high content of the negatively charged lipids SQDG and PG. The algal thylakoids do not show the typical grana-stroma differentiation of higher plants but a regular arrangement. To analyze the effect of the membrane lipids, the fucoxanthin chlorophyll protein (FCP) complex of T. pseudonana and the LHC of M. squamata (MLHC) were prepared by successive cation precipitation using Triton X-100 as detergent. With this method, it is possible to isolate LHCs with a reduced amount of associated lipids in an aggregated state. The results from 77 K fluorescence and photon correlation spectroscopy show that neither the neutral galactolipids nor the negatively charged lipids are able to significantly alter the aggregation state of the FCP or the MLHC. This is in contrast to higher plants where SQDG and PG lead to a strong disaggregation of the LHCII whereas MGDG and DGDG induce the formation of large macroaggregates. The results indicate that LHCs which are integrated into thylakoid membranes with a high amount of negatively charged lipids and a regular arrangement are less sensitive to lipid-induced structural alterations than their counterparts in membranes enriched in neutral lipids with a grana-stroma differentiation. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Répteis squamata de remanescentes florestais do Campus da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sales, Raul Fernandes Dantas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Inventários faunísticos são fundamentais para o conhecimento da biodiversidade e, conseqüentemente, para o planejamento e tomada de decisões sobre estratégias de conservação. Para conhecer a diversidade e composição dos répteis Squamata, assim como a distribuição das espécies por microhábitat em três fragmentos florestais na área do Campus da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, efetuaram-se excursões quinzenais diurnas, de março a junho de 2008. As buscas ativas foram realizadas ao longo de transecções percorridas aleatoriamente, efetuando-se os registros das espécies, dos microhábitats e do horário de observação. Um total de 92 espécimes, correspondentes a 10 espécies, foi coletados nas três áreas estudadas. A consulta da Coleção Herpetológica da UFRN possibilitou adicionar outras oito espécies, totalizando 18 espécies para o Campus da UFRN. As espécies mais abundantes foram Mabuya heathi, Hemidactylus mabouia e Tropidurus hispidus. O coeficiente de similaridade faunística binário de Sorensen mostrou 59 % de similaridade com os Squamata do Parque Estadual das Dunas do Natal (PEDN, área de conservação contígua com a área estudada. Apesar do grande adensamento urbano, os fragmentos florestais do Campus Central da UFRN abrigam espécies de formações abertas e de áreas florestadas, com destaque para os primeiros registros de Coleodactylus natalensis e de Amphisbaena heathi nessa vegetação relictual, fatos que justificam a preservação desses fragmentos em prol da manutenção destas espécies endêmicas do Rio Grande do Norte. Fauna inventories are crucial for increasing knowledge of biodiversity as well as for planning and conservation strategies. To assess the taxonomic composition and microhabitat distribution of squamate reptiles in three forest fragments on the campus of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, field collections were carried out quarterly from March

  20. Understanding the life of a sandy beach polychaete of functional importance - Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae) on Belgian sandy beaches (northeastern Atlantic, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speybroeck, Jeroen; Alsteens, Lotte; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2007-08-01

    The cosmopolitan sandy beach polychaete Scolelepis squamata constitutes an important food resource for juvenile flatfish and wading birds in the northeastern Atlantic, thus playing an important role in sandy beach ecosystem functioning. However, its population dynamics and life history in this part of the world have gone widely uninvestigated. Eight beach transects on Belgian sandy beaches were sampled monthly from October 2003 until October 2004, in order to investigate seasonal trends in the species' abundance, biomass, secondary production, and patterns in reproduction and zonation. Average density, modal density and modal biomass (ash-free dry weight) (mean average density = 169 ± 9 SE ind/m 2; mean modal density = 505 ± 38 SE ind/m 2; mean modal biomass = 0.25 ± 0.02 SE g/m 2) did not exhibit major seasonal changes, whereas average biomass (0.081 ± 0.005 SE g/m 2) and individuals and biomass per strip transect (IST = 16286 ± 1330 SE ind/m; BMST = 7.8 + 0.7 SE g/m) did, peaking in May 2004. Production was calculated at 1.9 g/(m 2*year) (size-frequency method, SFM) and 0.88 g/(m 2*year) (mass specific growth rate method, MSGR) and mean annual biomass was 0.797 g/m 2; resulting in a P/B ratio of 2.40/year (SFM) and 1.11/year (MSGR), which is intermediate to moderately low compared to other polychaete species. Gravid individuals were found from February until August and a single recruitment period was observed from July until September. An average sex ratio of 1.41 ± 0.08 SE was calculated, with a female predominance. Highest densities (>200 ind/m 2) were mostly found above 3 m above MLLWS and at a median grain size from 190 to 320 μm. Average modal or peak density along each transect was situated from 3.95 m up to 4.40 m above MLLWS, in contrast to some other studies where the species was restricted to mid-tidal levels. Significant differences in elevation of peak density were found between non-gravid (411 ± 4 SE cm) and gravid (402 ± 5 SE cm) animals

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among amphisbaenian reptiles based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences

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    Macey, J. Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-19

    Complete mitochondrial genomic sequences are reported from 12 members in the four families of the reptile group Amphisbaenia. Analysis of 11,946 aligned nucleotide positions (5,797 informative) produces a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. The family Rhineuridae is basal and Bipedidae is the sister taxon to the Amphisbaenidae plus Trogonophidae. Amphisbaenian reptiles are surprisingly old, predating the breakup of Pangaea 200 million years before present, because successive basal taxa (Rhineuridae and Bipedidae) are situated in tectonic regions of Laurasia and nested taxa (Amphisbaenidae and Trogonophidae) are found in Gondwanan regions. Thorough sampling within the Bipedidae shows that it is not tectonic movement of Baja California away from the Mexican mainland that is primary in isolating Bipes species, but rather that primary vicariance occurred between northern and southern groups. Amphisbaenian families show parallel reduction in number of limbs and Bipes species exhibit parallel reduction in number of digits. A measure is developed for comparing the phylogenetic information content of various genes. A synapomorphic trait defining the Bipedidae is a shift from the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement to the derived state of trnE and nad6. In addition, a tandem duplication of trnT and trnP is observed in B. biporus with a pattern of pseudogene formation that varies among populations. The first case of convergent rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome among animals demonstrated by complete genomic sequences is reported. Relative to most vertebrates, the Rhineuridae has the block nad6, trnE switched in order with cob, trnT, trnP, as they are in birds.

  2. Feeding ecology in the small neotropical amphisbaenid Amphisbaena munoai (Amphisbaenidae in southern Brazil Ecologia alimentar da pequena anfisbaena neotropical Amphisbaena munoai (Amphisbaenidae no sul do Brasil

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    Jorge S. Bernardo-Silva

    Full Text Available We analyzed the alimentary tract of 66 specimens of Amphisbaena munoai Klappenbach, 1969 from the Serra do Sudeste, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Forty specimens (60.6% had prey items in their gut. The diet consisted mainly of small invertebrate prey, such as termites, insect larvae and ants. The most abundant prey item was termites, found in 62.5% of the non empty stomachs. The high number of individual prey items in the majority of stomachs, the small size of the regular prey items, and the absence of gut content in specimens of A. munoai kept alive for about two days, indicate that this species forages very frequently. The predominance of fossorial prey items and the occasional records of nomadic ants lead us to suggest that A. munoai usually feeds underground, and occasionally forages on the surface.Analisamos o trato digestório de 66 exemplares de Amphisbaena munoai Klappenbach, 1969 procedentes da Serra do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Quarenta espécimes (60,6% possuíam presas. A dieta é composta basicamente de pequenos invertebrados, como térmitas, larvas de insetos e formigas. As presas mais abundantes foram térmitas, encontradas em 62,5% dos estômagos não vazios. O elevado número de presas em cada indivíduo na maioria dos estômagos, o tamanho pequeno de presas regulares e a ausência de itens alimentares em espécimes de A. munoai mantidas vivas por aproximadamente dois dias, indicam que está espécie é forrageadora freqüente. A predominância de itens alimentares fossórios e o encontro ocasional de formigas nômades nos permitem sugerir que A. munoai usualmente se alimenta abaixo da terra e ocasionalmente na superfície.

  3. Annotated Draft Genome Assemblies for the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata) Reveal Disparate Estimates of Modern Genome Diversity and Historic Effective Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldeschulte, David L; Halley, Yvette A; Wilson, Miranda L; Bhattarai, Eric K; Brashear, Wesley; Hill, Joshua; Metz, Richard P; Johnson, Charles D; Rollins, Dale; Peterson, Markus J; Bickhart, Derek M; Decker, Jared E; Sewell, John F; Seabury, Christopher M

    2017-09-07

    Northern bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus ; hereafter bobwhite) and scaled quail ( Callipepla squamata ) populations have suffered precipitous declines across most of their US ranges. Illumina-based first- (v1.0) and second- (v2.0) generation draft genome assemblies for the scaled quail and the bobwhite produced N50 scaffold sizes of 1.035 and 2.042 Mb, thereby producing a 45-fold improvement in contiguity over the existing bobwhite assembly, and ≥90% of the assembled genomes were captured within 1313 and 8990 scaffolds, respectively. The scaled quail assembly (v1.0 = 1.045 Gb) was ∼20% smaller than the bobwhite (v2.0 = 1.254 Gb), which was supported by kmer-based estimates of genome size. Nevertheless, estimates of GC content (41.72%; 42.66%), genome-wide repetitive content (10.40%; 10.43%), and MAKER-predicted protein coding genes (17,131; 17,165) were similar for the scaled quail (v1.0) and bobwhite (v2.0) assemblies, respectively. BUSCO analyses utilizing 3023 single-copy orthologs revealed a high level of assembly completeness for the scaled quail (v1.0; 84.8%) and the bobwhite (v2.0; 82.5%), as verified by comparison with well-established avian genomes. We also detected 273 putative segmental duplications in the scaled quail genome (v1.0), and 711 in the bobwhite genome (v2.0), including some that were shared among both species. Autosomal variant prediction revealed ∼2.48 and 4.17 heterozygous variants per kilobase within the scaled quail (v1.0) and bobwhite (v2.0) genomes, respectively, and estimates of historic effective population size were uniformly higher for the bobwhite across all time points in a coalescent model. However, large-scale declines were predicted for both species beginning ∼15-20 KYA. Copyright © 2017 Oldeschulte et al.

  4. Estado actual del registro de escamados extinguidos de América del Sur y sus implicancias paleoambientales

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    Albino, Adriana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The record of the South American fossil Squamata extends from the Late Cretaceous to the Holocene. The recorded families are Iguanidae s.l., Teiidae, Gekkonidae, ?Scincidae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Aniliidae, Colubridae and Viperidae Dinilysiidae from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia and Palaeopheidae from the Late Eocene of Ecuador are the only known extinct recorded families. The families distribution during the Cretaceous and most of the Tertiary apparently was more extensive than at present, due to more generalized subtropical climatic conditions. The geological events during the Cenozoic would have caused climatic and environmental changes that would have favoured the appeareance of new adaptative types and the restriction in the distribution of many forms.

  5. Desplazamientos de la iguana verde, Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae durante la estación seca en La Palma, Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Morales-Mávil

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Usamos radiotransmisores para determinar los desplazamientos de la iguana verde (Iguana iguana en el periodo de anidación (febrero-julio en La Palma, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México (18°33’ N, 95°03’ W. Las iguanas fueron radiolocalizadas entre 23 y 30 ocasiones, principalmente en árboles (56 % entre 3-9 m; sólo 4 % fueron localizadas en el suelo. El tamaño del ámbito hogareño de machos y de hembras fue similar (9 158.06±3 025.3 m² vs. 6 591.24±4 001.1 m², respectivamente; t= 0.51, p>0.05. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre la LHC y el ámbito hogareño (r= 0.76, gl= 7, pDisplacements of the green iguana (Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae during the dry season in La Palma, Veracruz, Mexico. The green iguana (Iguana iguana is said to be primarily sedentary, although the females travel long distances to nest. Displacement patterns must be known to help predict the effects of environmental disturbance on iguanas’ survival. We studied nesting season (February-July movements in La Palma, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico (18°33’ N, 95°03’ W. Individual movements and activity were monitored by radio tracking. The transmitters were implanted surgically in eight adult iguanas (four males and four females. Snout vent length (SVL was used to determine the relationship between size of the body and size of home range. To estimate the size of home range, three or more points were used. Minimum convex polygons estimates of home range were calculated with McPAAL. The iguanas were radio-located between 23 and 30 occasions, mainly in trees (56 % between 3-9 m; only 4 % were localized under a height of 3 m (forest floor. The occupation area mean was larger for males (9 158.06±3 025.3m² vs. 6 591.24±4 001.1 m² although the differences were not significant (t= 0.51, p>0.05. SVL was correlated with home range (r= 0.76; gl= 7; p<0.05. Breeding males defended their home range vigorously against other adult males. We observed one

  6. Variación morfológica de la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis rodecki (Squamata: Teiidae: implicaciones evolutivas y de conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra P Elizalde-Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La divergencia post-formación se ha utilizado para el reconocimiento de nuevas especies partenogenéticas. Actualmente, la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis rodecki McCoy y Maslin 1962 es reconocida como una sola especie, que se originó de un híbrido partenogenético. Estudios previos han encontrado divergencia genética, en coloración y en características de historia de vida entre una población continental (Puerto Juárez y una insular (Isla Contoy en Quintana Roo, México. Se llevó a cabo un análisis merístico para evaluar la divergencia entre ambas poblaciones de A. rodecki. Se utilizaron 38 individuos de Puerto Juárez y 23 individuos de Isla Contoy. Se usaron nueve características merísticas y se realizaron análisis univariados (t de Student y multivariados (análisis de componentes principales y análisis de variación canónica. De acuerdo a ambos análisis, Puerto Juárez es merísticamente distinguible de Isla Contoy. Ambas poblaciones difieren en cinco características merísticas y presentaron un alto porcentaje de clasificación en el análisis de variación canónica: 97% para Puerto Juárez y 100% para Isla Contoy. Una pequeña muestra de Isla Mujeres y un solo individuo de Punta Sam (continente pueden representar otros grupos morfológicos. Con base en los patrones de variación fenotípica, A. rodecki es considerada como una sola especie partenogenética variable y prioritaria para la conservación. Debido a que cada población contiene una porción única de la variación de A. rodecki, Puerto Juárez e Isla Contoy merecen un manejo separado y se sugiere que cada una constituya una "Unidad Evolutiva Significativa" (ESU.Morphologic variation of the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki (Squamata: Teiidae: evolutionary and conservation implications. Post-formational divergence has been used for the recognition of new parthenogenetic species. Currently, the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki Mc

  7. Female sperm storage in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Hamlett, William C

    2002-02-01

    Internal fertilization and oviparity most likely are symplesiomorphies for modern reptiles, and viviparity has evolved independently numerous times in Sauria and Serpentes. Oviducal sperm storage is known in females of all taxa except Amphisbaenia. However, in Rhynchocephalia and Crocodilia, sperm storage is poorly studied, and specialized sperm storage tubules (Ssts) are unknown. We use the molecular phylogenetic hypothesis [(Chelonia+Archosauria) (Squamata)] to trace evolution of sperm storage characters. Ssts arose independently in Chelonia and Squamata. Turtles possess albumen-secreting glands in the anterior half of the oviduct (the tuba or isthmus), and the most distal of these glands also serve as Ssts; in addition, some turtles possess Ssts in the adjacent segment of the oviduct, the uterus. Squamates lack albumen-secreting glands, and the ancestral state is possession of Ssts in the posterior infundibulum (uterine tube). Secondarily, iguanids have evolved vaginal Ssts. In this paper, we present the first ultrastructural observations on vaginal Ssts in lizards, using Anolis sagrei (Polychrotidae). Proximally, the neck of these simple tubular glands continues the alternation of ciliated and secretory cells lining the lumen of the vagina. However, the epithelial cells of the distal sperm storage area are neither secretory nor ciliated. The Ssts of Anolis are more similar to those of birds more than to infundibular receptacles in snakes and lizards. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Suivi du Gecko Phelsuma serraticauda (Squamata : Gekkonidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude a été effectuée sur le Gecko Phelsuma serraticauda durant les mois d'octobre et décembre 2008 dans 57 sites dans l'est et nord - est de Madagascar. Elle a pour objectifs de déterminer l'aire de distribution dans l'est de Madagascar et l'utilisation d'habitat de cette espèce pour sa conservation et son utilisation ...

  9. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758 (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre, 11º58'15.7"S, 68º00'22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores: Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero. Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre de Dios.

  10. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of a gecko and the phylogeneticposition of the Middle Eastern teratoscincus keyserlingii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Fong, Jonathan J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Shafiei,Soheila; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-04-22

    Sqamate reptiles are traditionally divided into six groups: Iguania, Anguimorpha, Scincomorpha, Gekkota (these four are lizards), Serpentes (snakes), and Amphisbaenia (the so-called worm lizards). Currently there are complete mitochondrial genomes from two representatives of the Iguania (Janke et al., 2001; Kumazawa, 2004), three from the Anguimorpha (Kumazawa, 2004; Kumazawa and Endo, 2004), two from the Scincomorpha (Kumazawa and Nishida, 1999; Kumazawa, 2004), two from Serpentes (Kumazawa et al., 1998; Kumazawa, 2004) and 12 from Amphisbaenia (Macey et al., 2004). The only traditional group of Squamata from which a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced is the Gekkota. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus keyserlingii, a Middle Eastern representative of the Gekkota. The gekkonid lizard genus Teratoscincus is distributed throughout the deserts of central and southwest Asia as shown in figure 1, with five species currently recognized (Macey et al. 1997a, 1999b). Included in this figure are the positions of mountain ranges discussed in the text; see also figure 1 in Macey et al. (1999b). Two species, T. bedriagai and T. microlepis, are restricted to Southwest Asia south of the Kopet Dagh and Hindu Kush in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (Anderson, 1999). Two species are found in the deserts of western China and Mongolia, with T. przewalskii occurring in the Taklimakan and lowland Gobi deserts, and T. roborowskii restricted to the Turpan Depression. The fifth species, T. scincus, is sometimes considered to be restricted to the Caspian Basin in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Alternatively, Teratoscincus populations in Southwest Asia, primarily on the Iranian Plateau, situated directly north of the Arabian Plate, are sometimes considered to be a subspecies of T. scincus or, otherwise, to constitute a sixth species, T. keyserlingii. Macey et al. (1999b) assessed the phylogenetic

  12. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonóra Szirovicza

    Full Text Available Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni, nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus, and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi, respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses.

  13. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses.

  14. A new species of Anolis lizard (Squamata, Iguania from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Poe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Anolis is described from western Panama and eastern Costa Rica. Populations of the new form were previously allocated to A. chocorum. However, the new species differs from A. chocorum in characters of color pattern, scalation and proportion.

  15. Dentition and tooth replacement pattern in Chalcides (Squamata; Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Sidney; Davit-Beal, Tiphaine; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2003-05-01

    This study was undertaken as a prerequisite to investigations on tooth differentiation in a squamate, the Canarian scincid Chalcides. Our main goal was to determine whether the pattern of tooth replacement, known to be regular in lizards, could be helpful to predict accurately any stage of tooth development. A growth series of 20 laboratory-reared specimens, aged from 0.5 month after birth to about 6 years, was used. The dentition (functional and replacement teeth) was studied from radiographs of jaw quadrants. The number of tooth positions, the tooth number in relation to age and to seasons, and the size of the replacement teeth were recorded. In Chalcides, a single row of pleurodont functional teeth lies at the labial margin of the dentary, premaxillary, and maxillary. Whatever the age of the specimens, 16 tooth positions were recorded, on average, in each quadrant, suggesting that positions are maintained throughout life. Replacement teeth were numerous whatever the age and season, while the number of functional teeth was subject to variation. Symmetry of tooth development was evaluated by comparing teeth two by two from the opposite side in the four jaw quadrants of several specimens. Although the relative size of some replacement teeth fitted perfectly, the symmetry criterion was not reliable to predict the developmental stage of the opposite tooth, whether the pair of teeth compared was left-right or upper-lower. The best fit was found when comparing the size of successive replacement teeth from the front to the back of the jaw. Every replacement tooth that is 40-80% of its definitive size is followed, in the next position on the arcade, by a tooth that is, on average, 20% less developed. Considering teeth in alternate positions (even and odd series), each replacement tooth was a little more developed than the previous, more anterior, one (0.5-20% when the teeth are from 10-40% of their final size). The latter pattern showed that tooth replacement occurred in alternate positions from back to front, forming more or less regular rows (i.e., "Zahnreihen"). In Chalcides, the developmental stage of a replacement tooth in a position p can be accurately predicted provided the developmental stage of the replacement tooth in position p-1 or, to a lesser degree, in position p-2 is known. This finding will be particularly helpful when starting our structural and ultrastructural studies of tooth differentiation in this lizard. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Neuromuscular Activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae Venom in Vitro

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    Alejandro Carbajal-Saucedo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have examined the neuromuscular activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Mexican coral snake venom (MLV in vertebrate isolated nerve-muscle preparations. In chick biventer cervicis preparations, the MLV induced an irreversible concentration- and time-dependent (1–30 µg/mL neuromuscular blockade, with 50% blockade occurring between 8 and 30 min. Muscle contractures evoked by exogenous acetylcholine were completely abolished by MLV, whereas those of KCl were also significantly altered (86% ± 11%, 53% ± 11%, 89% ± 5% and 89% ± 7% for one, three, 10 and 30 µg of venom/mL, respectively; n = 4; p < 0.05. In mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations, MLV (1–10 µg/mL promoted a slight increase in the amplitude of twitch-tension (3 µg/mL, followed by neuromuscular blockade (n = 4; the highest concentration caused complete inhibition of the twitches (time for 50% blockade = 26 ± 3 min, without exhibiting a previous neuromuscular facilitation. The venom (3 µg/mL induced a biphasic modulation in the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs/min, causing a significant increase after 15 min, followed by a decrease after 60 min (from 17 ± 1.4 (basal to 28 ± 2.5 (t15 and 12 ± 2 (t60. The membrane resting potential of mouse diaphragm preparations pre-exposed or not to d-tubocurarine (5 µg/mL was also significantly less negative with MLV (10 µg/mL. Together, these results indicate that M. laticollaris venom induces neuromuscular blockade by a combination of pre- and post-synaptic activities.

  17. Phylogeny of endemic skinks of the genus Lygosoma (Squamata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. 2Department of Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006, India. 3Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Unit,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,. Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064, India. [Datta-Roy A., Singh M.

  18. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Di Giacomo

    Full Text Available Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i widely occur in erythrocytes, ii are polarized, and iii seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation.

  19. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation.

  20. Earliest example of a giant monitor lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack L Conrad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Varanidae is a clade of tiny (600 mm PCL lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis, although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new Varanus from the Mytilini Formation (Turolian, Miocene of Samos, Greece is described. The holotype consists of a partial skull roof, right side of a braincase, partial posterior mandible, fragment of clavicle, and parts of six vertebrae. A cladistic analysis including 83 taxa coded for 5733 molecular and 489 morphological characters (71 previously unincluded demonstrates that the new fossil is a nested member of an otherwise exclusively East Asian Varanus clade. The new species is the earliest-known giant (>600 mm PCL terrestrial lizard. Importantly, this species co-existed with a diverse continental mammalian fauna. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new monitor is larger (longer than 99% of known fossil and living lizards. Varanus includes, by far, the largest limbed squamates today. The only extant non-snake squamates that approach monitors in maximum size are the glass-snake Pseudopus and the worm-lizard Amphisbaena. Mosasauroids were larger, but exclusively marine, and occurred only during the Late Cretaceous. Large, extant, non-Varanus, lizards are limbless and/or largely isolated from mammalian competitors. By contrast, our new Varanus achieved gigantism in a continental environment populated by diverse eutherian mammal competitors.

  1. Visceral vasculature in the family Cordylidae (Reptilia: Squamata)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-11-24

    Nov 24, 1992 ... Phylogenetic studies of lizards have traditionally focused on external and osteological characters. ... patterns of circulatory variation in a phylogenetic context. Representatives of most lizard groups have ...... was provided largely by the Division of Amphibians and. Reptiles, United States National Museum of ...

  2. Phylogeny of endemic skinks of the genus Lygosoma (Squamata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The catalogue numbers for the samples for which the sequences were generated are depicted. x, refers to unavailable sequence data; CES,. Centre for Ecological Sciences; BNHS, Bombay Natural History Society Zoological museum where the reference samples are stored. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 93, No. 1, April 2014 ...

  3. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  4. Dynamic sex chromosomes in Old World chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S V; Banks, J L; Diaz, R E; Trainor, P A; Gamble, T

    2018-01-18

    Much of our current state of knowledge concerning sex chromosome evolution is based on a handful of 'exceptional' taxa with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. However, classifying the sex chromosome systems of additional species lacking easily identifiable, heteromorphic sex chromosomes is indispensable if we wish to fully understand the genesis, degeneration and turnover of vertebrate sex chromosomes. Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are a potential model clade for studying sex chromosome evolution as they exhibit a suite of sex-determining modes yet most species lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Only three (of 203) chameleon species have identified sex chromosome systems (all with female heterogamety, ZZ/ZW). This study uses a recently developed method to identify sex-specific genetic markers from restriction site-associated DNA sequence (RADseq) data, which enables the identification of sex chromosome systems in species lacking heteromorphic sex chromosomes. We used RADseq and subsequent PCR validation to identify an XX/XY sex chromosome system in the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus), revealing a novel transition in sex chromosome systems within the Chamaeleonidae. The sex-specific genetic markers identified here will be essential in research focused on sex-specific, comparative, functional and developmental evolutionary questions, further promoting C. calyptratus' utility as an emerging model organism. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. New provincial records of skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) from northwestern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Van; Le, Dzung Trung; Nguyen, Son Lan Hung; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report six new records of skinks from northwestern Vietnam: Eutropis macularius, Scincella devorator, S. monticola, S. ochracea, Sphenomorphus cryptotis and S. indicus. Our new findings increase the species number of skinks (Scincidae) to nine in Dien Bien Province and to 14 in Son La Province. We also provide additional natural history data of aforementioned species. PMID:25698899

  6. Visceral vasculature in the family Cordylidae (Reptilia: Squamata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major circulatory patterns in lizards of the family Cordylidae are poorly known, but may serve as a source of characters for systematics. Two specimens each of the cordylines, Cordylus jordani and C. pofyzonus, and the gerrhosaurine, Zonosaurus madagascariensis were prepared by Microfil™ injection and whole body ...

  7. Earliest Example of a Giant Monitor Lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jack L.; Balcarcel, Ana M.; Mehling, Carl M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Varanidae is a clade of tiny (600 mm PCL) lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus) are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis), although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain. Methodology/Principal Findings A new Varanus from the Mytilini Formation (Turolian, Miocene) of Samos, Greece is described. The holotype consists of a partial skull roof, right side of a braincase, partial posterior mandible, fragment of clavicle, and parts of six vertebrae. A cladistic analysis including 83 taxa coded for 5733 molecular and 489 morphological characters (71 previously unincluded) demonstrates that the new fossil is a nested member of an otherwise exclusively East Asian Varanus clade. The new species is the earliest-known giant (>600 mm PCL) terrestrial lizard. Importantly, this species co-existed with a diverse continental mammalian fauna. Conclusions/Significance The new monitor is larger (longer) than 99% of known fossil and living lizards. Varanus includes, by far, the largest limbed squamates today. The only extant non-snake squamates that approach monitors in maximum size are the glass-snake Pseudopus and the worm-lizard Amphisbaena. Mosasauroids were larger, but exclusively marine, and occurred only during the Late Cretaceous. Large, extant, non-Varanus, lizards are limbless and/or largely isolated from mammalian competitors. By contrast, our new Varanus achieved gigantism in a continental environment populated by diverse eutherian mammal competitors. PMID:22900001

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus roborowskii (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Min; She, Ying; Hou, Li-Xia; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Dan-Ni; Qin, Xin-Min

    2016-05-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus roborowskii was sequenced here. It was determined to be 16,644 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The 22 tRNA genes could be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure described for vertebrate mitochondrial tRNAs. The base composition of the heavy strand was 30.33% A, 30.35% C, 14.65% G and 24.67% T. The control region was located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes and is 1248 bp in length and some tandem repeat sequences were found in it.

  9. Three additional lizard (Squamata: Sauria records for Mizoram, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. Lalremsanga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We collected three additional species - Calotes maria, Calotes mystaceus and Ophisaurus gracilis which were not recorded previously from Mizoram. Ophisaurus gracilis (Family Anguidae represents a new family for the state.

  10. The mosasaurs (Squamata, Mosasauridae) of the garcet collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Dirk; Verding, Louis; Schulp, Anne S.; Jagt, John W M

    2012-01-01

    Robert Garcet (April 12, 1912 - December 26, 2001) amassed a remarkable collection of mosasaur fossils from upper Maastrichtian strata in the Eben Emael-Lava area (Liège, Belgium), just south of the type section of the Maastrichtian Stage at the St Pietersberg (Maastricht, the Netherlands). His

  11. The taxonomic status of Tantilla marcovani Lema 2004 (Squamata: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Silva, Vicente; Wilson, Larry David

    2016-03-16

    The colubrid snake genus Tantilla currently comprises 62 valid species distributed from the southern United States of America to southern Bolivia in the west, and Uruguay and northern Argentina in the east (Wilson & Mata-Silva 2014, 2015). Of these 62 species, 13 are found in South America (Wilson & Mata-Silva 2014, 2015). The most recently described of these Southamerican species is Tantilla marcovani Lema, 2004. While we were working on a checklist and key to the members of the Tantilla clade (sensu Holm 2008, including the genera Geagras Cope 1876, Scolecophis Fitzinger 1843, Tantilla Baird & Girard 1853, and Tantillita Smith 1941; Wilson & Mata-Silva 2015), it became apparent that the diagnosis of T. marcovani entirely falls to distinguish this nominal taxon from the widespread and extensively variable T. melanocephala Linnaeus 1758. Tantilla melanocephala, as presently envisioned, is the most broadly distributed member of its genus (Wilson & Mena 1980; Savage 2002; Greenbaum et al. 2004), occurring from Panama southward into the major portion of the South American continent, apart from Chile and southern Argentina.

  12. Procellosaurinus erythrocercus Rodrigues, 1991 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae): Distribution extension

    OpenAIRE

    Delfim, Fagner; Mesquita, Daniel; Fernandes-Ferreira, Hugo; Cavalcanti, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    We report the northernmost occurrence of Procellosaurinus erythrocercus in South America. This species was originally described from the paleoquaternary sand dunes complex of the São Francisco River, and found later at Serra das Confusões, Piauí state. We found P. erythrocercus at São Francisco de Assis do Piauí and Pavussu municipalities, Piauí state, about 253 kilometers northwest from its type locality. This record corroborates the theory that sand dune refuges were created during recent g...

  13. Ontogeny of Hemidactylus (Gekkota, Squamata with emphasis on the limbs

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    Wessel van der Vos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Squamate reptiles constitute a major component of the world’s terrestrial vertebrate diversity, encompassing many morphotypes related to ecological specialization. Specifically, Gekkota, the sister clade to most other squamates, have highly specialized autopodia, which have been linked to their ecological plasticity. In this study, a developmental staging table of the gecko Hemidactylus, housed at the Museum für Naturkunde, is established. Twelve post-ovipositional stages are erected, monitoring morphological embryological transitions in eye, ear, nose, heart, limbs, pharyngeal arches, and skin structures. Ecomorphological specializations in the limbs include multiple paraphalanges, hypothesized to aid in supporting the strong muscles, that are situated adjacent to metacarpal and phalangeal heads. Furthermore, some phalanges are highly reduced in manual digits III and IV and pedal digits III, IV, and V. Development, composition, and growth of limb elements is characterized in detail via µCT, histochemistry, and bone histological analysis. Using known life history data from two individuals, we found an average lamellar bone accretion rate in the humeral diaphysis comparable to that of varanids. Various adult individuals also showed moderate to extensive remodeling features in their long bone cortices, indicating that these animals experience a highly dynamic bone homeostasis during their growth, similar to some other medium-sized to large squamates. This study of in-ovo development of the gecko Hemidactylus and its ecomorphological specializations in the adult autopodia, enlarges our knowledge of morphological trait evolution and of limb diversity within the vertebrate phylum.

  14. A Review of Sex Determining Mechanisms in Geckos (Gekkota: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, T.

    2010-01-01

    Geckos are a species-rich clade of reptiles possessing diverse sex determining mechanisms. Some species possess genetic sex determination, with both male and female heterogamety, while other species have temperature-dependent sex determination. I compiled information from the literature on the taxonomic distribution of these sex determining mechanisms in geckos. Using phylogenetic data from the literature, I reconstructed the minimum number of transitions among these sex determining mechanisms with parsimony-based ancestral state reconstruction. While only a small number of gecko species have been characterized, numerous changes among sex determining mechanisms were inferred. This diversity, coupled with the high frequency of transitions, makes geckos excellent candidates as a model clade for the study of vertebrate sex determination and evolution. PMID:20234154

  15. A Review of Sex Determining Mechanisms in Geckos (Gekkota: Squamata)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, T.

    2010-01-01

    Geckos are a species-rich clade of reptiles possessing diverse sex determining mechanisms. Some species possess genetic sex determination, with both male and female heterogamety, while other species have temperature-dependent sex determination. I compiled information from the literature on the taxonomic distribution of these sex determining mechanisms in geckos. Using phylogenetic data from the literature, I reconstructed the minimum number of transitions among these sex determining mechanism...

  16. Polydactyly in the central pacific gecko, Lepidodactylus sp. (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.M.; Hathaway, S.A.; Fisher, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of naturally occurring polydactyly in a gekkotan lizard. A single individual from Palmyra Atoll exhibited a triplication of digit III of the m hand. No obvious teratogenic sources are present on the atoll and the causal factors of polydactyly in Lepidodactylus sp. remain unknown.

  17. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.

    2011-01-01

    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  18. Patrones de osificación en Tupinambis merianae y Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae) y patrones generales en Squamata

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Federico; Lobo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Se describe la variación ontogenética del esqueleto de 13 embriones de Tupinambis merianae y 11 de Tupinambis rufescens, detectándose heterocronías entre ambas especies. Los resultados muestran que los elementos dermales (tanto del cráneo como de la cintura pectoral) osifican antes que los elementos condrales, siendo los elementos que forman la mandíbula inferior, el paladar (especialmente los palatinos y los pterigoides) y la clavícula los primeros en osificarse, mientras que los elementos d...

  19. Patrones de osificación en Tupinambis merianae y Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae) y patrones generales en Squamata

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Federico; Lobo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Se describe la variación ontogenética del esqueleto de 13 embriones de Tupinambis merianae y 11 de Tupinambis rufescens, detectándose heterocronías entre ambas especies. Los resultados muestran que los elementos dermales (tanto del cráneo como de la cintura pectoral) osifican antes que los elementos condrales, siendo los elementos que forman la mandíbula inferior, el paladar (especialmente los palatinos y los pterigoides) y la clavícula los primeros en osificarse, mientras que los elementos d...

  20. Esqueleto pré-sacral e sacral dos lagartos teiêdeos (Squamata, Teiidae Pressacral and sacral skeleton of teiids lizards (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Betina Veronese

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the axial skeleton -pressacral and sacral regions - of the nine genera of Teiidae Boulenger, 1885 comprising Ameiva Meyer, 1795, Callopistes Gravenhorst, 1838, Cnemidophorus Wagler, 1830, Crocodilurus Spix, 1825, Dicrodon Duméril & Bibron, 1839, Dracaena Daudin, 1802, Kenlropyx Spix, 1825, Teius Merrem, 1820 and Tupinambis Daudin, 1803 is here analysed under a comparative approach. The study is in a generic levei, and the principal conclusions reter to differences on the total number of vertebrae and some aspects of the ribs, especially their insertion and presence.

  1. Marine Ecological Index Survey of San Diego Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Seasonally Hypersaline, Estuarine Echinodermata Amphipholis squamata SP Seasonally Hypersaline, Thermal Arthropoda Ampithoe plumulosa SP Seasonally...Thermal Arthropoda Synalpheus lockingtoni 40 Region Type  Sample Phylum Species Estuarine Seine Echinodermata Amphipholis squamata Estuarine Seine Chordata...spinohirsutus Marine Sieve Echinodermata Amphipholis squamata Thermal Sieve Mollusca Notoucmea insessa Seasonally Hypersaline Sieve Mollusca

  2. Morphology of the spermatozoa of the iguanian lizards Uta stansburiana and Urosaurus ornatus (Squamata, Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltinga, D M; Jamieson, B G; Trauth, S E; McAllister, C T

    2000-04-01

    The spermatozoa of Uta stansburiana and Urosaurus ornatus show the following squamate autapomorphies: a single perforatorium extending anteriorly from the apical tip of the paracrystalline subacrosomal cone; the presence of an epinuclear electron lucent region; intermitochondrial dense bodies; and the fibrous sheath extending into the midpiece. The acrosome vesicle is flattened and concentrically zoned apically; basally it overlies a subacrosomal cone which invests the nuclear rostrum. A stopper-like perforatorial base plate, rounded nuclear shoulders and a basal nuclear fossa are present. The proximal centriole contains a density within its centre for approximately one half its length and lies at approximately 80 degrees to the distal centriole. The two central singlets of the axoneme extend into the short distal centriole. A peripheral dense fibre is associated with each of the nine triplets of the distal centriole, and the fibre continues posteriorly with each of the nine doublets of the axoneme. A central fibre is associated with the two central singlets. All fibres are absent or vestigial at the level of the annulus. Mitochondria are short sinuous with a maximum of eight seen in transverse section. Uta and Urosaurus sperm differ from each other in their arrangement of intermitochondrial dense bodies in two ways: 1) longitudinally, Uta has five incomplete 'rings' of dense bodies, whereas Urosaurus has only four such rings; 2) in cross section, each individual 'ring' of Uta may contain up to four irregularly spaced dense bodies, whereas Urosaurus contains a maximum of only two dense bodies. The sperm of Uta and Urosaurus show strong similarities to those of the agamids and polychrotids. No spermatozoal autapomorphies for the Phrynosomatidae were found.

  3. Clutch size in populations and species of cnemidophorines (Squamata: Teiidae on the eastern coast of Brazil

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    VANDERLAINE A. MENEZES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed some reproductive aspects of 16 coastal populations, belonging to five lizard species (A. ocellifera, A. abaetensis, A. nativo, A. littoralis and C. lacertoides from different restinga habitats along the eastern coast of Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate to what extent the reproductive aspects vary geographically and among species. For each female, we recorded the number of vitellogenic follicles, size and color of the largest follicle, presence and size of corpora lutea, and number and size of oviductal eggs. Clutch size of almost all coastal populations/species of Ameivula had little variation and most clutches were composed of two eggs. There was a significant relationship between female size and the mean clutch size when females from different species were pooled. Mean egg volume, among species, varied from 420 to 655 mm3. Relative clutch mass varied from 0.129 to 0.159 and did not differ significantly among species. We concluded that the five coastal species studied (four bisexuals and one parthenogenetic had similar reproductive characteristics. Most of them presented multiple clutches, low clutch size and low relative clutch mass, similar to other species in the genus and to unisexual and bisexual species of the Teiidae family.

  4. Defense behavior and tail loss in the endemic lizard Eurolophosaurus nanuzae (Squamata, Tropiduridae from southeastern Brazil

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    Conrado A. B. Galdino

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Defense behavior of the endemic tropidurid lizard Eurolophosaurus nanuzae was studied in an area of rocky outcrops at Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Tail loss aspects of this species were also studied in lizards from three populations (Diamantina, Serra do Cipó, and Serro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Lizards relied primarily on crypsis to avoid detection by predators. Secondary defense strategies involved a complex set of behaviors. Mean maximum distance of flight was 1.68 ± 1.70 m. When captured,individuals attempted to flee, lifted the tail, produced distress calls, discharged the cloacal contents, waived their tails, and bit. Frequency of tail autotomy was 13.2% (n = 53 in Diamantina, 11.9% (n = 42 in Serra do Cipó, and 4.1% (n = 49 in Serro. Tail autotomy frequency did not differ among the three populations (X2 = 3.3, DF =2, p = 0.19. Tail autotomy did not vary between the years of the study (X2 = 1.32, p = 0.35 and did not differ between males and females among the studied populations.

  5. Temporal and ontogenetic variation in the escape response of Ameiva festiva (Squamata, Teiidae

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    Lattanzio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors have been shown to affect lizard escape behavior (flight initiation distance or FID, the distance between predator and prey when the prey initiates escape. Patterns of daily activity, such as foraging or movement behavior, vary with respect to time of day, supporting that escape responses may vary temporally as well. However, there remains scant information regarding the effects of time of day on FID. During peak activity, FID may decrease due to increased cost of giving up resources (e.g., prey or potential mates. An alternative hypothesis is that FID may increase because lizard activity in general may serve to alert a predator in advance of its approach. A lizard in this scenario may be favored to flee sooner rather than later. Moreover, juvenile and adult lizards of multiple species may differ in behavioral, ecological, and morphological traits that could influence escape decisions. I tested the effects of time of day (in 30-min intervals and age (juvenile or adult on the FID of a tropical whiptail lizard, Ameiva festiva in Costa Rica. I found that A. festiva escape responses varied with time of day such that in general, their FID decreased throughout the day. In addition, I observed a peak in FID from mid to late-morning that matches published estimates of peak activity times for A. festiva. Overall, juvenile A. festiva initiated an escape response sooner than adults, which may be related to differences in perceived risk associated with differences in size and predator experience between the two age groups. I conclude that escape responses may be contingent on both the activity level of the animal at the time of approach and its age.

  6. High frequency of pauses during intermittent locomotion of small South American gymnophthalmid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae

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    Elizabeth Höfling

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the locomotor behavior of two closely-related species of Gymnophthalmini lizards, Vanzosaura rubricauda and Procellosaurinus tetradactylus, that was imaged under laboratory conditions at a rate of 250 frames/s with a high-speed video camera (MotionScope PCI 1000 on four different substrates with increasing degrees of roughness (smooth perspex, cardboard, glued sand, and glued gravel. Vanzosaura rubricauda and P. tetradactylus are both characterized by intermittent locomotion, with pauses occurring with high frequency and having a short duration (from 1/10 to 1/3 s, and taking place in rhythmic locomotion in an organized fashion during all types ofgaits and on different substrates. The observed variations in duration and frequency of pauses suggest that in V. rubricauda mean pause duration is shorter and pause frequency is higher than in P. tetradactylus. The intermittent locomotion observed in V.rubricauda and P. tetradactylus imaging at 250 frames/s is probably of interest for neurobiologists. In the review of possible determinants, the phylogenetic relationships among the species of the tribe Gymnophthalmini are focused. Keywords: .

  7. The demography of the lizard Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a highly seasonal Neotropical savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga C. Wiederhecker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The demography of a population of Tropidurus torquatus was studied from March 1996 until December 1998, in the Cerrado biome of the Central Brazil, using the method of capture and recapture. Population size, number of incoming individuals in the population, and age structure varied seasonally, reflecting the reproductive cycle of the species. The instantaneous rate of population increase did not differ from zero throughout the study. In general, the permanence rate of juveniles and adults were low, indicating a large turnover of individuals in the population, with a maximum life expectancy of three years. The sex-ratio among adults was biased toward females. Since no bias was observed among juveniles and there was no difference in adults permanence between sexes, we suggestet that the biased adult sex-ratio resulted from a lower permanence of males during a short ontogenetic period, when secondary sexual characteristics develop. When compared to T. itambere, the studied population of T. torquatus attained a higher density and a greater female bias in the sex-ratio. In general, the studied population presented characteristics that, according to life history theory, should be associated with early age at maturity and polyginy: short life expectancy, high population turnover, and female biased sex-ratios.

  8. Natural history of Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon (Squamata, Xenosauridae, a Knob-scaled Lizard from Oaxaca, Mexico

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    Julio A. Lemos-Espinal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We made observations on the natural history of a population of the lizard Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon from Oaxaca, Mexico. Females were larger than males (SVL. Most lizards were found completely inside rock crevices. Mean body temperature was 20.3°C. Body temperature wasrelated primarily to substrate temperature. Body temperature was not influenced by any crevice characteristic. Based on abdominal palpation, the size at maturity for females appears to be 117-119 mm SVL. Sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. We compare the ecology of this population to that of other Xenosaurus.

  9. First Record of Laticauda semifasciata (Reptilia: Squamata: Elapidae: Laticaudinae from Korea

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    Park, Jaejin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese sea snake Laticauda semifasciata (Reinwardt in Schlegel, 1837 is newly reported from Korean waters based on three specimens collected from Jeju Island, Korea, in August, September, and November 2015. This is the first time that the genus Laticauda and subfamily Laticaudinae has been reported from Korean waters. The subfamily Laticaudinae has ventrals that are four to five times wider than the adjacent dorsals, which are unlike the ventrals that are similar or up to two times wider than adjacent dorsals in the subfamily Hydrophiinae. Laticauda semifasciata is distinct from other species because it has three prefrontals and its rostrals are horizontally divided into two. As the result of this report, four species (L. semifasciata, Hydrophis (Pelamis platurus, Hydrophis cyanocinctus, and H. melanocephalus of sea snakes have been reported in Korean waters.

  10. First Record of Laticauda semifasciata (Reptilia: Squamata: Elapidae: Laticaudinae) from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jaejin; Kim, Il-Hun; Koo, Kyo-Sung; Park, Daesik

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese sea snake Laticauda semifasciata (Reinwardt in Schlegel, 1837) is newly reported from Korean waters based on three specimens collected from Jeju Island, Korea, in August, September, and November 2015. This is the first time that the genus Laticauda and subfamily Laticaudinae has been reported from Korean waters. The subfamily Laticaudinae has ventrals that are four to five times wider than the adjacent dorsals, which are unlike the ventrals that are similar or up to two times wide...

  11. A new small karst-dwelling species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Bauer, Aaron M; Yudha, Donan Satria

    2014-04-07

    A new small karst-dwelling species of the genus Cyrtodactylus is described from East Java and Special Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus semiadii sp. nov. is a small species (SVL to 47.1 mm in females, 42.1 mm in males) distinguished from all other congeners by unique characters combination: short, robust, cylindrical tail, indistinct ventrolateral folds, absence of precloacal groove, absence of enlarged femoral scales, absence of precloacal and femoral pores and lack of enlarged median subcaudal scales. It is the third member of the genus recorded from Java. 

  12. The fourth Bent-toed Gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L

    2015-12-22

    Cyrtodactylus petani sp. nov. is a new species of Bent-toed Gecko from Java, Indonesia that had been masquerading under the name C. fumosus (Müller, 1895). The new species is differentiated from C. fumosus and all its Sundaland congeners by having the following combination of morphological characters: a maximum SVL of 57.2 mm; nine or ten supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; strongly tuberculate body and limbs; 20-25 paravertebral tubercles; 30-35 ventral scales; enlarged precloacal scales; enlarged femoral scales; 17-18 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 31-35 continuous precloacal and femoral pores in males, pores absent in females; no precloacal groove; no enlarged median subcaudals; tubercles on anterior portion of tail; no reticulated pattern on top of head; a blotched dorsal pattern; and no paired, dark, semi-lunar shaped blotches on the nape.

  13. Minute Y chromosomes and karyotype evolution in Madagascan iguanas (Squamata: Iguania: Opluridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altmanová, M.; Rovatsos, M.; Kratochvíl, L.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 3 (2016), s. 618-633 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Anolis * comparative genome hybridization * Chalarodon * heterochromatin * interstitial telomeric sequences Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  14. Ecological trap for Cnemidophorus ocellifer Spix 1825 (Squamata: Teiidae during removal of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bezerra Brito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p303   Animals must anticipate future conditions according to current environmental clues. When habitats are rapidly modified, these signs may not reflect the actual environmental quality, leading to a decreased fitness of an individual and its population. During an activity of faunal rescue and scaring away in the coast of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, evidence of an ecological trap for the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer was observed. We suggest some actions which can minimize the impact of vegetation removal activities on lizards, such as: i better planning before proceeding with deforestation; and ii capture and release of lizards in appropriate locations.

  15. Eryx jaculus (Linnaeus, 1758: a new species for the Italian herpetofauna (Squamata: Erycidae

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    Gianni Insacco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a population of the Javelin sand boa Eryx jaculus in Sicilia is here reported for the first time. Observations of live snakes and road-killed individuals have been obtained from the region of Licata (Province of Agrigento, in the southern part of Sicily. Data on the distribution and pholidosis from four specimens are presented. The large area of occurrence of the snake in Sicily, that bears also a local vernacular name suggests an ancient origin of the colonization. The presence of this species, increases the numbers of snakes living in Italy.

  16. Baseline values of immunologic parameters in the lizard Salvator merianae (Teiidae, Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Ana Paula; Amavet, Patricia Susana; Siroski, Pablo Ariel

    2017-01-01

    The genus Salvator is widely distributed throughout South America. In Argentina, the species most abundant widely distributed is Salvator merianae. Particularly in Santa Fe province, the area occupied by populations of these lizards overlaps with areas where agriculture was extended. With the aim of established baseline values for four immunologic biomarkers widely used, 36 tegu lizards were evaluated tacking into account different age classes and both sexes. Total leukocyte counts were not different between age classes. Of the leucocytes count, eosinophils levels were higher in neonates compared with juvenile and adults; nevertheless, the heterophils group was the most prevalent leukocyte in the peripheral blood in all age classes. Lymphocytes, monocytes, heterophils, azurophils and basophils levels did not differ with age. Natural antibodies titres were higher in the adults compared with neonates and juveniles lizards. Lastly, complement system activity was low in neonates compared with juveniles and adults. Statistical analysis within each age group showed that gender was not a factor in the outcomes. Based on the results, we concluded that S. merianae demonstrated age (but not gender) related differences in the immune parameters analyzed. Having established baseline values for these four widely-used immunologic biomarkers, ongoing studies will seek to optimize the use of the S. merianae model in future research. PMID:28652981

  17. Transplacental nutrient transfer during gestation in the Andean lizard Mabuya sp. (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; Rueda, Elkin Darío; Stashenko, Elena

    2011-02-01

    Mabuya skinks have the most specialized allantoplacenta and the greatest degree of placentotrophy known among the Reptilia. Their recently ovulated eggs are microlecithal (1-2 mm) and lack fatty yolk platelets; thus, virtually all of the nutrients for embryonic development must pass across the placenta. We quantified the net uptake of nutrients during gestation in an Andean population of Mabuya and compared these results with other matrotrophic skinks and eutherian mammals. Total dry and wet masses, ash and organic content, ions (calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron), lipids (cholesterol, vitamin E and fatty acids in the major lipid classes-triacylglycerol, phospholipids, cholesteryl ester, free fatty acids), nitrogen (an index of protein) were measured during the different developmental stages throughout gestation, and in neonates. A significant net uptake of inorganic and organic matter was found. This uptake begins slowly during early gestation but accelerates during the last third of gestation when the growth of the embryo is maximal and the allantoplacenta has developed its greatest complexity. The drastic reduction of egg size in this clade is related to the great reduction in the contribution of lecithotrophic nutrients to the embryo, an obligatory placentotrophy from early developmental stages, and the highest placental complexity known in the Reptilia. All of these features converge with features found in eutherian mammals.

  18. Wound Myiasis Due to Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Persian Horned Viper, Pseudocerastes persicus (Squamata: Viperidae

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    R Dehghani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of myiasis due to Musca domestica describes in Pseudocerastes persicus for the first time. The snake was found in Bari Karafs, Kashan, Iran, with a lesion on its body. Fourteen live larvae of M. domestica removed from its wound. This is the first report of a new larval habitat of M. domestica.

  19. Natural history of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae in a Cerrado region of northeastern Brazil

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    Francisco Dal Vechio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt & Luetken, 1861 is a microteiid lizard widely distributed in the open areas of South America. Little is known about its ecology and reproductive biology. Here, we analyzed aspects of the natural history of a population of M. maximiliani from a Cerrado area in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. Our results suggest that the reproductive activity of M. maximiliani might be seasonal in the Cerrado, since reproductive females were observed only in the dry season, whereas reproductive males were present in both seasons. Vitellogenic follicles and oviductal eggs were found simultaneously in one female, suggesting that females may produce more than one clutch per season. Sexual dimorphism was observed in body shape, and individuals were mainly restricted to a typical savanna physiognomy. The diet consisted of small arthropods, including spiders, crickets and cockroaches as the most important items.

  20. Autoecology of Dryadosaura nordestina (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae from Atlantic forest fragments in Northeastern Brazil

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    Adrian A. Garda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Life history parameters such as diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism are crucial to understand ecological and evolutionary forces shaping species traits. Nevertheless, such information is scant in the literature for most Neotropical squamates. Gymnophthalmidae contains over 242 species in 46 genera and includes small-size, mostly terrestrial species, although psamophilic, semi-aquatic, and low vegetation dwellers also occur. Dryadosaura is a monospecific genus - Dryadosaura nordestina Rodrigues et al., 2005 - , occurring in Atlantic Forest areas from Rio Grande do Norte to Northern Bahia, and little is known about its ecology and natural history. We analyzed the species' diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism based on 170 specimens deposited in museum collections. Dryadosaura nordestina is considered generalist and active forager, based on dietary items. Arthropods, especially ants and insect larvae, dominate the diet. The reproductive period shows a peak during the rainy season (May through June, while recruitment occurs from July through November. Males are significantly larger than females, and sexes can also be distinguished based on shape variables: males have higher heads and longer bodies, while body height and width are larger in females.

  1. Natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii (Squamata, Leiosauridae in southern Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rautenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.

  2. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae.

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    Ana Pérez-Cembranos

    Full Text Available Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource.

  3. Sex Chromosomes and Karyotype of the (Nearly) Mythical Creature, the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, M.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2014), e104716 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : determining mechanisms * lizards * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  4. Baseline values of immunologic parameters in the lizard Salvator merianae (Teiidae, Squamata

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    Ana Paula Mestre

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salvator is widely distributed throughout South America. In Argentina, the species most abundant widely distributed is Salvator merianae. Particularly in Santa Fe province, the area occupied by populations of these lizards overlaps with areas where agriculture was extended. With the aim of established baseline values for four immunologic biomarkers widely used, 36 tegu lizards were evaluated tacking into account different age classes and both sexes. Total leukocyte counts were not different between age classes. Of the leucocytes count, eosinophils levels were higher in neonates compared with juvenile and adults; nevertheless, the heterophils group was the most prevalent leukocyte in the peripheral blood in all age classes. Lymphocytes, monocytes, heterophils, azurophils and basophils levels did not differ with age. Natural antibodies titres were higher in the adults compared with neonates and juveniles lizards. Lastly, complement system activity was low in neonates compared with juveniles and adults. Statistical analysis within each age group showed that gender was not a factor in the outcomes. Based on the results, we concluded that S. merianae demonstrated age (but not gender related differences in the immune parameters analyzed. Having established baseline values for these four widely-used immunologic biomarkers, ongoing studies will seek to optimize the use of the S. merianae model in future research.

  5. Osteologia do neurocrânio de Iguana iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae

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    Fabiano C. Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O crânio representa o segmento com conspícuas adaptações que, nos lagartos, podem ser conservativas ou impulsionadas por pressões seletivas. Objetivando subsidiar o conhecimento morfológico dos répteis, fornecemos uma descrição detalhada dos ossos que formam o neurocrânio de Iguana iguana iguana com base na análise de três esqueletos secos de espécimes adultos. O crânio da referia espécie possui características basais entre os lagartos sem o fechamento das aberturas cranianas e formato geral triangular. As estruturas ósseas que formam a base craniana apresentam muitas fusões, principalmente no assoalho. Na face caudal o exoccipital e o opistótico estão fundidos e formam o otoccipital, que contribui para a formação dos terços laterais do côndilo occipital. A parte central do côndilo é formada pelo supraoccipital. Fusões e estruturas esqueléticas presentes em Iguana são similares aos demais lagartos. Não foram descritas autapomorfias no neurocrânio para esta espécie.

  6. Helmintos oxiuridae parasitos de Iguana iguana (Squamata, Lacertilia, Iguanidae procedentes do Brasil

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    P. Breves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on nematode fauna occurring in wild iguanas (Iguana iguana from Brazilian Northeast (Alagoas and Maranhão and Central-west (Goiás and Mato Grosso areas were presented. Six adult iguanas, three males and three females, were necropsied and the digestive system removed to examination. All the iguana specimens were heavily parasitized. The helminths diagnosed were: Ozolaimus cirratus in the cecum and colon of five iguanas; Ozolaimus megatyphlon in cecum, colon and rectum of three iguanas; and Alaeuris vogelsangi in the small intestine, cecum, colon and rectum of five animals. Two larvae of Ozolaimus sp. were recovered from the pyloric region of the stomach of one iguana. The three diagnosed species of nematodes were reported for the first time in the Brazilian Central-West region.

  7. Species-specific evolution of class I MHC genes in iguanas (order: Squamata; subfamily: Iguaninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-07-01

    Over the last few decades, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has emerged as a model for understanding the influence of natural selection on genetic diversity in populations as well as for investigating the genetic basis of host resistance to pathogens. However, many vertebrate taxa remain underrepresented in the field of MHC research, preventing its application to studies of disease, evolution, and conservation genetics in these groups. This is particularly true for squamates, which are by far the most diversified order of non-avian reptiles but have not been the subject of any recent MHC studies. In this paper, we present MHC class I complementary DNA data from three squamate species in the subfamily Iguaninae (iguanas): the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), the Galápagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus), and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). All sequences obtained are related to the few published class I genes from other squamates. There is evidence for multiple loci in each species, and the conserved alpha-3 domain appears to be evolving in a species-specific manner. Conversely, there is some indication of shared polymorphism between species in the peptide-binding alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains, suggesting that these two regions have different phylogenetic histories. The great similarity between alpha-3 sequences in marine iguanas in particular suggests that concerted evolution is acting to homogenize class I loci within species. However, while less likely, the data are also compatible with a birth and death model of evolution.

  8. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  9. Patterns of phenotypic variation reveal substantial differentiation in sexual dimorphism of three Psammodromus (Squamata, Lacertidae) species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San-Jose, L.M.; Gonzalez-Jimena, V.; Fitze, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    The Spanish sand racer (Psammodromus hispanicus) has been recently split into three distinct species: P. hispanicus, P. edwardsianus, and P. occidentalis. Some morphological differences have been reported but there is as yet no description allowing unambiguous identification of the three species.

  10. Hemidactylus frenatus (Squamata: Gekkonidae: call frequency, movement and condition of tail in Costa Rica

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    Caty Frenkel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Call frequency and movements of the gecko Hemidactylus frenatus were studied in Punta Morales, Costa Rica from April 1999 through May 2000. Call activity of H. frenatus was positively related to air temperature at night and throughout the year. Higher activity was at dusk, dawn, and during the hottest months. Call frequency was related with gecko abundance per month, although not during the night. More males and females had a regenerated tail compared to juveniles, the last ones could have it complete or regenerated. Females moved longer distances than males and juveniles. Adults were found higher on walls. Males and females were recaptured more times than juveniles, and the period of time between their recaptures was longer. Members of this population do not seem to be as aggressive to other geckos as mentioned in the literature. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1125-1130. Epub 2006 Dec. 15Estudié la frecuencia de canto y el desplazamiento de la lagartija Hemidactylus frenatus en Punta Morales, CostaRica. La frecuencia de canto se corelaciona positivamente con la temperatura ambiental durante la noche y con la temperatura a lo largo del año. La mayor actividad fue al anochecer, al amanecer y durante los meses más calurosos. La abundancia mensual de lagartijas se relacionó con la frecuencia de canto, no así la abundancia por noche. Las colas regeneradas son más frecuentes en hembras y machos que en las lagartijas jóvenes. Las hembras se desplazaron mayores distancias que machos y jóvenes. Los adultos se encontraban más alto en las paredes de los edificios. Los machos y hembras se recapturaron más veces que los jóvenes, y el tiempo entre recapturas fue mayor. Esta población no parece ser tan agresiva como se menciona en la literatura

  11. Dietary analysis of Homonota darwini (Squamata: Gekkoni-dae in Northern Patagonia

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    Marcelo E. KUN, Carla PIANTONI, John D. KRENZ, Nora R. IBARGÜENGOYTÍA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigated the diet of the southernmost gecko in the world, Homonota darwini. Fifty-three specimens were captured during spring and summer in four locations in Patagonia, Argentina. The stomach contents of the specimens were identified, and we found that prey consisted of six main groups: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera and Araneae, and the adults and larvae of moth Lepidoptera. Lepidoptera was the major dietary component. The presence of ants and moths as common prey suggests an ambush feeding strategy. In spring, females consumed more ants than males although no other dietary differences between males and females were evident. We found nine geckos with empty stomachs and six parasitized by nematodes. Presence of empty stomachs corroborates previous observations of other nocturnal geckos and non-gecko lizards. Reduced foraging success of nocturnal lizards could be due to difficulty in prey detection due to dim light, reduced or erratic activity of insect prey at night, or shorter activity times of geckos relative to diurnal success. Sex and season were not associated with the incidence of empty stomachs. Principal component analysis showed that four food alternatives correlated with season. The constraint of nocturnality, coupled with low night-time temperatures restricting feeding to only a few hours after sunset, appear to have caused a generality of diet which may limit energy acquisition. We conclude that H. darwini is an arthropod generalist and likely an ambush forager, as are many other nocturnal gekkonids [Current Zoology 56 (4: 406–410, 2010].

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of geckos of the genus Nactus and their relatives (Squamata: Gekkonidae

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    Todd R. Jackman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to investigate relationships within the gekkonid genus Nactus and between Nactus and other gekkonid genera. Nuclear (RAG-1, PDC and mitochondrial (ND2 data provide strong support for conflicting patterns of relationship among bisexual New Guinean species of Nactus and the unisexual oceanic form N. pelagicus. This may be explained by an ancient mitochondrial introgression event between N. sphaerodactylodes and N. vankampeni, a recent selective sweep of mitochondrial DNA throughout N. vankampeni, and gene conflict stemming from the hybrid event that gave rise to N. pelagicus. Strong support from all data partitions is obtained for the sister group relationship of Nactus to a clade consisting of the Australian Heteronotia and the Southeast Asian Dixonius. Putative synapomorphies of the Nactus/Heteronotia/Dixonius clade include the reduction of the second phalanx of digit IV of the manus and the presence of regular rows of keeled (sometimes multicarinate dorsal tubercles on the dorsum. Nactus and Heteronotia both include parthenogenetic species formed via hybridogenesis. This is rare among geckos, and vertebrates in general, and at some level may also be synapomorphic. Dixonius is not known to have any all-female species, but “D. siamensis” consists of multiple chromosome “races” that mirror morphologically cryptic, but karyotypically distinct, species in the other two genera. The strong support for the Nactus/Heteronotia/Dixonius clade demonstrates that the leaf-toed digital morphology of Dixonius has evolved multiple times within the Gekkonidae and suggests that superficial digital morphology may be misleading with respect to gekkonid suprageneric relationships.

  13. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2016-12-09

    We present distribution data of all Anguidae, Scincidae, and Teiidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 29 species-level taxa, belonging to 14 genera. This represents 11 more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families in this area. Data were based on literature and 46,806 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~55%) are endemic to Amazonia. Except for Ameiva ameiva, that is present in several environments and domains, non-endemic species are either associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, occupying similar environments outside Amazonia, gallery forests within the Cerrado, or present disjunct populations in the Atlantic Forest. As a whole, six taxa are widespread in Amazonia, four are restricted to eastern Amazonia, four to western Amazonia, three to southwestern Amazonia, one to northern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, two species present apparently more restricted, unique distributions. Only three species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in AE Guiana and one in AE Inambari.

  14. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2017-05-22

    We present distribution data of all Alopoglossidae and Gymnophthalmidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 54 species-level taxa, belonging to 17 genera and two families. This represents 22 more species-level taxa than previously reported. Data were based on 17,431 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~80%) are endemic to Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open vegetation (savanna) enclaves or open dry (semideciduous) forest in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa (including one species complex) are widespread in Amazonia, six are restricted to eastern Amazonia, seven to western Amazonia, two to southwestern Amazonia, 11 to southern Amazonia, 11 to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), and six to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, four species present unique distributions. Considering this study and the other three catalogues of distribution of lizards already published, the total number of lizard species from Brazilian Amazonia increased from 97 to 142 species-level tava. It represents an increase of 45 species from the region since the last revision.

  15. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. II. Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-02

    I present distribution data of all geckos (Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae and Sphaerodactylidae) known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 19 species, belonging to nine genera. This represents six more taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 23,094 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums. Most species (68.4%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia. As a whole, three taxa are widespread in Amazonia, two are restricted to eastern Amazonia, two to western Amazonia, three to northern Amazonia (either widespread or restriced to parts of the Guiana region), one to southern Amazonia, one to southwestern Amazonia, and three to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Additionally, four species have unique distributions and four species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in the area of endemism of Guiana, one in Inambari, and one in Tapajós.

  16. Comparative surface and molecular investigations of the sandfish’s epidermis (Squamata: Scincidae: Scincus scincus)

    OpenAIRE

    Staudt, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The sandfish (Scincidae: Scincus scincus) is a lizard capable of moving through desert sand in a swimming-like fashion. The epidermis of this lizard shows a low friction to sand as an adaption to a subterranean life below the desert’s surface. Caused by material properties of ß-keratin proteins forming the outer epidermis, this low friction reduces further adhesive wear. Both skin effects, the friction reduction and abrasion resistance outperform even steel. A possible explanation for these p...

  17. Distinct patterns of desynchronized limb regression in malagasy scincine lizards (squamata, scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Aurélien; Hipsley, Christy A; Erens, Jesse; Gehara, Marcelo; Rakotoarison, Andolalao; Glaw, Frank; Müller, Johannes; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Scincine lizards in Madagascar form an endemic clade of about 60 species exhibiting a variety of ecomorphological adaptations. Several subclades have adapted to burrowing and convergently regressed their limbs and eyes, resulting in a variety of partial and completely limbless morphologies among extant taxa. However, patterns of limb regression in these taxa have not been studied in detail. Here we fill this gap in knowledge by providing a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of three mitochondrial and four nuclear gene fragments in an extended sampling of Malagasy skinks, and microtomographic analyses of osteology of various burrowing taxa adapted to sand substrate. Based on our data we propose to (i) consider Sirenoscincus Sakata & Hikida, 2003, as junior synonym of Voeltzkowia Boettger, 1893; (ii) resurrect the genus name Grandidierina Mocquard, 1894, for four species previously included in Voeltzkowia; and (iii) consider Androngo Brygoo, 1982, as junior synonym of Pygomeles Grandidier, 1867. By supporting the clade consisting of the limbless Voeltzkowia mira and the forelimb-only taxa V. mobydick and V. yamagishii, our data indicate that full regression of limbs and eyes occurred in parallel twice in the genus Voeltzkowia (as hitherto defined) that we consider as a sand-swimming ecomorph: in the Voeltzkowia clade sensu stricto the regression first affected the hindlimbs and subsequently the forelimbs, whereas the Grandidierina clade first regressed the forelimbs and subsequently the hindlimbs following the pattern prevalent in squamates. Timetree reconstructions for the Malagasy Scincidae contain a substantial amount of uncertainty due to the absence of suitable primary fossil calibrations. However, our preliminary reconstructions suggest rapid limb regression in Malagasy scincids with an estimated maximal duration of 6 MYr for a complete regression in Paracontias, and 4 and 8 MYr respectively for complete regression of forelimbs in Grandidierina and hindlimbs in Voeltzkowia.

  18. A new Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khanh Hoa Province, southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nicole; Phung, Trung My; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Ziegler, Thomas

    2014-04-07

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from southern Vietnam, based on morphological and molecular datasets. Cyrtodactylus cucdongensis sp. nov. is described on the basis of seven specimens collected from Cuc Dong Cape, Khanh Hoa Province. The new species can be distinguished from the remaining bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: maximum SVL 65.9 mm; 16-19 dorsal tubercle rows; 41-44 ventral scales at midbody; 5 or 6 precloacal pores in males, 4-6 pitted precloacal scales in females; no femoral pores; 6-13 enlarged precloacal scales; 5-9 enlarged femoral scales; no transversally enlarged subcaudals; dorsal pattern consisting of irregular dark bands. This is the 33rd species of Cyrtodactylus known from Vietnam.

  19. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the limestone forest of Khammouane Province, central Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Calame, Thomas; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-12-17

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus on the basis of three specimens from Khammouane Province, Laos. Cyrtodactylus soudthichaki sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining congeners by the combination of the following characters: adult SVL 69.2-70.0 mm; dorsal head and neck with dark blotches; nuchal loop present; dorsum with five brown bands between limb insertions; 19 or 20 irregular rows of dorsal tubercles; 32 or 33 ventral scale rows; ventrolateral folds present, with distinct tubercles; dorsal surface of hind limbs with tubercles; 29 precloacal and femoral pores in a continuous row in males, precloacal pores absent in the female; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales present; 4 or 5 postcloacal tubercles; and subcaudals transversely enlarged. The new species most closely resembles Cyrtodactylus jaegeri and Cyrtodactylus roesleri in overall coloration and pattern. However, they can be clearly distinguished from each other in the number of dorsal tubercle rows, ventral scales, and femoral and precloacal pores. Cyrtodactylus soudthichaki is the 16th species of Cyrtodactylus known from Laos.

  20. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khammouane Province, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Calame, Thomas; Bonkowski, Michael; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Ziegler, Thomas

    2014-01-30

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus based on two adult specimens from Khammouane Province, Laos. Cyrtodactylus jaegeri sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining Indochinese bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: a moderately sized Cyrtodactylus with a maximum SVL reaching 68.5 mm; dorsal pattern consisting of a dark nuchal loop and four narrow brown body bands between limb insertions; dorsal tubercles in 15-17 irregular rows; ventrals in 31-32 longitudinal rows at midbody; lateral skin folds present with interspersed tubercles; precloacal-femoral pores 44 in the male, in a continuous series; enlarged femoral scales and precloacal scales present; postcloacal tubercles 3-6; subcaudals transversely enlarged. Cyrtodactylus jaegeri sp. nov. is the ninth species of Cyrtodactylus known from Laos.

  1. A new species of the genus Opisthotropis Günther, 1872 from northern Laos (Squamata: Natricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teynié, Alexandre; Lottier, Anne; David, Patrick; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Vogel, Gernot

    2014-03-05

    Two specimens, a male and a female, of the genus Opisthotropis Günther, 1872 were collected in a karst formation of northern Louangphabang (or Luang Prabang) Province, North Laos. These specimens are assigned to the genus Opisthotropis on the basis of their morphology, dentition and cephalic scalation. However, they differ from all other known species of Opisthotropis by a combination of the following characters: (1) 21-19 scale rows on the fore part of the body, (2) 17 scale rows at midbody, (3) 22/23 maxillary teeth, (4) 177-181 ventrals, (5) 1 loreal on each side, in contact with internasal, (6) 7 supralabials, 4th entering orbit, (7) dorsum dark bronze-brown, with upper part of dorsum darker than lateral sides, without bands or crossbars, and (8) chin and throat blackish-brown with a sharp, transversal limit with the ventral colour crossing the posterior part of the throat. As a consequence, these specimens are here referred to a new species, Opisthotropis durandi spec. nov. The new species is compared with other species of the genus, especially the most similar species O. spenceri Smith, 1918 and O. atra Günther, 1872, the type species of the genus. An updated key to the genera Opisthotropis is provided. Opisthotropis durandi spec. nov. represents the first confirmed record of a species of Opisthotropis sensu stricto from Laos and it is the 108th snake species currently recorded from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

  2. A new karst dwelling species of the Gekko japonicus group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from central Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2017-05-08

    A new species of the Gekko japonicus group is described from Khammouane Province, central Laos, based on morphological characters and molecular data. Morphologically, Gekko nadenensis sp. nov. is differentiated from the remaining congeners by a combination of the following characters: size moderate (SVL 61.0-77.1 mm); nares bordered with rostral; internasals absent; postmentals enlarged; interorbital scales between anterior corners of the eyes 28-30; dorsal tubercles absent; ventral scales between mental and cloacal slit 175-185; midbody scale rows 123-140; ventral scale rows 38-40; subdigital lamellae on first toes 13-15, on fourth toes 14-16; finger and toe webbing present at base; tubercles on dorsal surface of fore and hind limbs absent; precloacal pores six (3+3 or 5+1) in a discontinuous row in males, absent in the female; postcloacal tubercles 1 or 2; tubercles absent on dorsal surface of tail base; subcaudals distinctly enlarged; dorsal surface of body with greyish brown blotches. Molecular analyses demonstrated the new species is closely related to G. bonkowskii and G. thakhekensis, but separated from them by approximately 7% in genetic divergence as shown by a fragment of the mitochondrial ND2 gene.

  3. Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible, site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.

  4. Diversity, distribution and conservation of the terrestrial reptiles of Oman (Sauropsida, Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xipell, Meritxell; Tarroso, Pedro; Gardner, Andrew; Arnold, Edwin Nicholas; Robinson, Michael D.; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Vasconcelos, Raquel; de Pous, Philip; Amat, Fèlix; Šmíd, Jiří; Sindaco, Roberto; Els, Johannes; Pleguezuelos, Juan Manuel; Machado, Luis; Donaire, David; Martínez, Gabriel; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Mazuch, Tomáš; Wilms, Thomas; Gebhart, Jürgen; Aznar, Javier; Gallego, Javier; Zwanzig, Bernd-Michael; Fernández-Guiberteau, Daniel; Papenfuss, Theodore; Al Saadi, Saleh; Alghafri, Ali; Khalifa, Sultan; Al Farqani, Hamed; Bait Bilal, Salim; Alazri, Iman Sulaiman; Al Adhoobi, Aziza Saud; Al Omairi, Zeyana Salim; Al Shariani, Mohammed; Al Kiyumi, Ali; Al Sariri, Thuraya; Al Shukaili, Ahmed Said; Al Akhzami, Suleiman Nasser

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we use an exceptional database including 5,359 records of 101 species of Oman’s terrestrial reptiles together with spatial tools to infer the spatial patterns of species richness and endemicity, to infer the habitat preference of each species and to better define conservation priorities, with especial focus on the effectiveness of the protected areas in preserving this unique arid fauna. Our results indicate that the sampling effort is not only remarkable from a taxonomic point of view, with multiple observations for most species, but also for the spatial coverage achieved. The observations are distributed almost continuously across the two-dimensional climatic space of Oman defined by the mean annual temperature and the total annual precipitation and across the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the multivariate climatic space and are well represented within 17 out of the 20 climatic clusters grouping 10% of the explained climatic variance defined by PC1 and PC2. Species richness is highest in the Hajar and Dhofar Mountains, two of the most biodiverse areas of the Arabian Peninsula, and endemic species richness is greatest in the Jebel Akhdar, the highest part of the Hajar Mountains. Oman’s 22 protected areas cover only 3.91% of the country, including within their limits 63.37% of terrestrial reptiles and 50% of all endemics. Our analyses show that large areas of the climatic space of Oman lie outside protected areas and that seven of the 20 climatic clusters are not protected at all. The results of the gap analysis indicate that most of the species are below the conservation target of 17% or even the less restrictive 12% of their total area within a protected area in order to be considered adequately protected. Therefore, an evaluation of the coverage of the current network of protected areas and the identification of priority protected areas for reptiles using reserve design algorithms are urgently needed. Our study also shows that more than half of the species are still pending of a definitive evaluation by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). PMID:29414999

  5. Morphology and ecology of sibon snakes (Squamata: Dipsadidae from two forests in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical measurements, abundance, and ecological observations were recorded for Sibon annulatus,S. argus, S. longifrens, and S. nebulatus at two Neotropical habitats: a lowland swamp forest in Costa Rica and a montane cloud forest in Panama. Fourty-four and 58 adult snakes were recorded from Costa Rica and Panama, respectively. Differences in morphology and body condition showed minimal significant differences among species from both geographical locations. Observations of feeding, reproduction, abundance, distribution and a new size record for S. annulatus are discussed.

  6. Individual Growth Rates of Nikolsky’s Viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Squamata, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Z. S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Capture-mark-recapture data was used to infer growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Vedmederja, Grubant et Rudaeva, 1986, in the Eastern Ukraine. We have found that growth rate is negatively correlated with age. The difference in growth rates before maturation is not significant between different sexes. Growth rates decrease rapidly after maturation in males and females, however adult males retain significantly higher average growth rates. There is large dispersion of growth rates in the group of adult females, which is caused, probably, by alteration of complete arrest of growth in the years with reproduction and more intensive growth in the years without it. Asymptotic snout-ventral length estimated after Von Bertalanffy model was 680 mm in females and 630 mm in males. Females mature after fifth and males mature after fourth hibernation. The larger females in vipers can not be the result of higher growth rates in females, but are the outcome of a combination of other factors including different maturation time and size (older and being larger, and, perhaps, longer life span due to lower mortality. Growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper in the nature are higher than in other species in the group of small Eurasian vipers.

  7. Morphology and ecology of sibon snakes (Squamata: Dipsadidae) from two forests in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Todd R. Lewis; Rowland K. Griffin; Paul B. C. Grant; Alex Figueroa; Julie M. Ray; Kirsty E. Graham; Gabriel David

    2013-01-01

    Physical measurements, abundance, and ecological observations were recorded for Sibon annulatus,S. argus, S. longifrens, and S. nebulatus at two Neotropical habitats: a lowland swamp forest in Costa Rica and a montane cloud forest in Panama. Fourty-four and 58 adult snakes were recorded from Costa Rica and Panama, respectively. Differences in morphology and body condition showed minimal significant differences among species from both geographical locations. Observations of feeding, reproducti...

  8. Female heterogamety in Madagascar chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae: Furcifer): differentiation of sex and neo-sex chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovatsos, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, M.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 13196 (2015) ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : determining mechanisms * telomeric repeats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  9. Two new species of Japalura (Squamata: Agamidae) from the Hengduan Mountain Range, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Jiang, Ke; Zou, Da-Hu; Yan, Fang; Siler, Cameron D; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    Until recently, the agamid species, Japalura flaviceps, was recognized to have the widest geographic distribution among members of the genus occurring in China, from eastern Tibet to Shaanxi Province. However, recent studies restricted the distribution of J. flaviceps to the Dadu River valley only in northwestern Sichuan Province, suggesting that records of J. flaviceps outside the Dadu River valley likely represent undescribed diversity. During two herpetofaunal surveys in 2013 and 2015, eight and 12 specimens of lizards of the genus Japalura were collected from the upper Nujiang (=Salween) Valley in eastern Tibet, China, and upper Lancang (=Mekong) Valley in northwestern Yunnan, China, respectively. These specimens display a unique suite of diagnostic morphological characters. Our robust comparisons of phenotype reveal that these populations can be distinguished readily from J. flaviceps and all other recognized congeners. Herein, we describe the two Japalura lineages as new species, Japalura laeviventris sp. nov. and Japalura iadina sp. nov.. In addition, we provide updated conservation assessments for the new species as well as imperiled congeners according to the IUCN criteria for classification, discuss the importance of color patterns in the diagnosis and description of species in the genus Japalura, and discuss directions for future taxonomic studies of the group.

  10. Morphology and development of the placentae in Eulamprus quoyii group skinks (Squamata: Scincidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Bridget F; Brandley, Matthew C; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    Frequent evolutionary changes in reproductive mode have produced a wide range of placental structures in viviparous squamate reptiles. Closely related species with different placental structures and resolved phylogenetic relationships are particularly useful for reconstructing how placentae might have transformed during the evolutionary process. We used light microscopy to study placental morphology in mid- to late stage embryos of four closely related species of Eulamprus, a genus of viviparous scincid lizards that we had reason to suspect may display significant interspecific variation in placental morphology. Embryos from all four species possess a chorioallantoic placenta, an omphaloplacenta and an interomphalopleuric membrane, characteristics present in other viviparous skinks. However, unlike other viviparous skinks but characteristic of oviparous skinks, the allantois expands to surround the yolk sac in each species, supplanting the omphalopleure with a larger area of chorioallantois until a chorioallantoic placenta surrounds the entire egg in one specimen that is only a few days from birth. All four Eulamprus species share the same extraembryonic membrane morphology, but the cellular morphology of the uterine epithelium in the chorioallantoic placenta and omphaloplacenta varies between species. We determined that the interomphalopleuric membrane is a shared derived character of the Eulamprus quoyii species group. New phylogenetic information indicates that variation in the chorioallantoic placenta is a result of two independent transitions, but that variation in the omphaloplacenta can be explained using a single change within the species studied. Our results indicate that E. quoyii group skinks are a valuable model for investigating the evolution of viviparity, as extraembryonic membrane development in these species shows features characteristic of both oviparous and viviparous skinks. PMID:22420511

  11. Seasonal shifts in the thermal biology of the lizard Liolaemus tandiliensis (Squamata, Liolaemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellatelli, Oscar Aníbal; Villalba, Agustina; Block, Carolina; Vega, Laura Estela; Dajil, Juan Esteban; Cruz, Félix Benjamín

    2018-04-01

    Small lizards can accommodate to constraints imposed by temporal changes in ambient temperature through a combination of adaptive evolution and behavioral and physiological plasticity. Thermal physiology plasticity may compensate for climate variation and favor performance while minimizing behavioral costs in sub-optimal conditions. The Tandilia's lizard, Liolaemus tandiliensis, occurs in an isolated mountain range of the Argentinean temperate Pampas. In this study, we compared the thermal biology of L. tandiliensis between late spring (December) and mid-summer (February). The habitats' thermal quality was lower in late spring than in mid-summer. The lizard's field-body temperature (Tb) was 2-3 °C higher than the operative temperature (Te). Overall, the mean preferred temperature (Tsel) was 37.4 °C [preferred range (Tset): 36.2-38.7 °C], and was similar to other Liolaemus species. The Tset and Tsel of females in late spring were 1.8 °C lower than in mid-summer. In the case of males, the Tsel did not vary among seasons, while the Tset had a difference of 2.5 °C between seasons. Adults were moderate thermoregulators, but females were more efficient only in late spring (E males = 0.69; E females = 0.58), compared to mid-summer (E males = 0.68; E females = 0.50). Juveniles did not show temporal differences in temperature preferences and had a relatively higher efficiency in late spring (E = 0.38) compared to mid-summer (E = 0.28). An increased proportion of juveniles and adults shifted their Tb near to the Tset in late spring respect to mid-summer. The adults also matched their preferred temperatures to their current body temperature. These results suggest that seasonal shifts in the thermoregulatory parameters of L. tandiliensis may improve their thermoregulatory efficiency. Although temporal variation in ambient temperatures might influence the thermal biology of the studied lizards, other factors such as changes in the reproductive status may have also interfered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal germ cell development strategy during continuous spermatogenesis within the montane lizard, Sceloporus bicanthalis (Squamata; Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin; Anzalone, Marla; Collier, Matthew; Granados-González, Gisela; Villagrán-Santa Cruz, Maricela; Hernández-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2011-10-01

    Sceloporus bicanthalis is a viviparous lizard that lives at higher elevations in Mexico. Adult male S. bicanthalis were collected (n = 36) from the Nevado de Toluca, Mexico (elevation is 4200 m) during August to December, 2007 and January to July, 2008. Testes were extracted, fixed in Trumps, and dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol. Tissues were embedded, sectioned (2 μm), stained, and examined via a light microscope to determine the spermatogenic developmental strategy of S. bicanthalis. In all months examined, the testes were spermiogenically active; based on this, plus the presence of sperm in the lumina of seminiferous tubules, we inferred that S. bicanthalis had year-round or continuous spermatogenesis, unlike most reptiles that occupy a temperate or montane habitat. It was recently reported that seasonally breeding reptiles had a temporal germ cell development strategy similar to amphibians, where germ cells progress through spermatogenesis as a single population, which leads to a single spermiation event. This was much different than spatial development within the testis of other derived amniotes. We hypothesized that germ cell development was temporal in S. bicanthalis. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether reptiles that practice continuous spermatogenesis have a mammalian-like spatial germ cell development, which is different than the typical temperate reptile exhibiting a temporal development. In the present study, S. bicanthalis had a temporal development strategy, despite its continuous spermatogenic cycle, making them similar to tropical anoles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinct Patterns of Desynchronized Limb Regression in Malagasy Scincine Lizards (Squamata, Scincidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Aurélien; Hipsley, Christy A.; Erens, Jesse; Gehara, Marcelo; Rakotoarison, Andolalao; Glaw, Frank; Müller, Johannes; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Scincine lizards in Madagascar form an endemic clade of about 60 species exhibiting a variety of ecomorphological adaptations. Several subclades have adapted to burrowing and convergently regressed their limbs and eyes, resulting in a variety of partial and completely limbless morphologies among extant taxa. However, patterns of limb regression in these taxa have not been studied in detail. Here we fill this gap in knowledge by providing a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of three mitochondrial and four nuclear gene fragments in an extended sampling of Malagasy skinks, and microtomographic analyses of osteology of various burrowing taxa adapted to sand substrate. Based on our data we propose to (i) consider Sirenoscincus Sakata & Hikida, 2003, as junior synonym of Voeltzkowia Boettger, 1893; (ii) resurrect the genus name Grandidierina Mocquard, 1894, for four species previously included in Voeltzkowia; and (iii) consider Androngo Brygoo, 1982, as junior synonym of Pygomeles Grandidier, 1867. By supporting the clade consisting of the limbless Voeltzkowia mira and the forelimb-only taxa V. mobydick and V. yamagishii, our data indicate that full regression of limbs and eyes occurred in parallel twice in the genus Voeltzkowia (as hitherto defined) that we consider as a sand-swimming ecomorph: in the Voeltzkowia clade sensu stricto the regression first affected the hindlimbs and subsequently the forelimbs, whereas the Grandidierina clade first regressed the forelimbs and subsequently the hindlimbs following the pattern prevalent in squamates. Timetree reconstructions for the Malagasy Scincidae contain a substantial amount of uncertainty due to the absence of suitable primary fossil calibrations. However, our preliminary reconstructions suggest rapid limb regression in Malagasy scincids with an estimated maximal duration of 6 MYr for a complete regression in Paracontias, and 4 and 8 MYr respectively for complete regression of forelimbs in Grandidierina and hindlimbs in Voeltzkowia. PMID:26042667

  14. Reptilia, Squamata, Iguanidae, Stenocercus humeralis Gunther, 1859: First country record, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venegas, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work provides the first country record of Stenocercus humeralis in Peru. This new record extends theknown species’ distribution ca. 78.5 km SW from the southernmost record at 12.2 km south of Loja (on road to Vilcabamba,Ecuador

  15. Sex Chromosomes and Karyotype of the (Nearly) Mythical Creature, the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorná, Martina Johnson; Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha) encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal...

  16. Sex chromosomes and karyotype of the (nearly) mythical creature, the Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha) encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal to human beings. We uncovered homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome. The sex chromosomes are morphologically similar to the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of monitor lizards (Varanidae). If the sex chromosomes of helodermatids and varanids are homologous, female heterogamety may be ancestral for the whole Anguimorpha group. Moreover, we found that the karyotype of the Gila monster consists of 2n = 36 chromosomes (14 larger metacentric chromosomes and 22 acrocentric microchromosomes). 2n = 36 is the widely distributed chromosomal number among squamates. In his pioneering works representing the only previous cytogenetic examination of the family Helodermatidae, Matthey reported the karyotype as 2n = 38 and suggested a different chromosomal morphology for this species. We believe that this was probably erroneously. We also discovered a strong accumulation of telomeric sequences on several pairs of microchromosomes in the Gila monster, which is a trait documented relatively rarely in vertebrates. These new data fill an important gap in our understanding of the sex determination and karyotype evolution of squamates.

  17. Sex chromosomes and karyotype of the (nearly mythical creature, the Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Johnson Pokorná

    Full Text Available A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal to human beings. We uncovered homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome. The sex chromosomes are morphologically similar to the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of monitor lizards (Varanidae. If the sex chromosomes of helodermatids and varanids are homologous, female heterogamety may be ancestral for the whole Anguimorpha group. Moreover, we found that the karyotype of the Gila monster consists of 2n = 36 chromosomes (14 larger metacentric chromosomes and 22 acrocentric microchromosomes. 2n = 36 is the widely distributed chromosomal number among squamates. In his pioneering works representing the only previous cytogenetic examination of the family Helodermatidae, Matthey reported the karyotype as 2n = 38 and suggested a different chromosomal morphology for this species. We believe that this was probably erroneously. We also discovered a strong accumulation of telomeric sequences on several pairs of microchromosomes in the Gila monster, which is a trait documented relatively rarely in vertebrates. These new data fill an important gap in our understanding of the sex determination and karyotype evolution of squamates.

  18. A new species of dwarf gecko in the genus Lygodactylus (squamata: Gekkonidae) from central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonza, Patrick K; Granthon, Carolina; Williams, Dean A

    2016-01-08

    A new species of Lygodactylus gecko (L. wojnowskii sp. nov.) is described from the vicinity of Chogoria Town on the eastern lower slopes of Mt. Kenya in central Kenya. A phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA shows that the proposed new taxon is distinct within the Lygodactylus picturatus group and is the sister lineage to L. mombasicus and L. kimhowelli. It is morphologically very similar to both L. mombasicus and L. keniensis but its dorsal coloration and pattern is different. Its dorsum is grey with dark stripes while its head has black and white stripes that form a Y-shaped mark. While the male throat pattern is similar to that of L. mombasicus, that of the female is like that of females and some males of Lygodactylus keniensis. Lygodactylus wojnowskii sp. nov. has a higher number of post-postmental scales (6) than do its close relatives (5). The new species is distributed on the lower slopes of mid-altitude areas on eastern Mt. Kenya, but it may occur in other areas at similar elevations in central Kenya. It is associated with short, scattered trees within agricultural areas. It has not yet been recorded within the protected Chogoria forest block of Mt. Kenya forest. It is likely present in Mwea National Reserve as it occurs in nearby areas.

  19. Kinyongia asheorum sp n., a new montane chameleon from the Nyiro Range, northern Kenya (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečas, P.; Sindaco, R.; Kořený, L.; Kopečná, J.; Malonza, P. K.; Modrý, David

    -, č. 2028 (2009), s. 41-50 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1548; GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Kinyongia asheorum sp n, * new montane chameleon * Kenya Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.891, year: 2009

  20. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A.; Puas, German I.; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus. PMID:27920609

  1. Diversity, distribution and conservation of the terrestrial reptiles of Oman (Sauropsida, Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Salvador; Xipell, Meritxell; Tarroso, Pedro; Gardner, Andrew; Arnold, Edwin Nicholas; Robinson, Michael D; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Vasconcelos, Raquel; de Pous, Philip; Amat, Fèlix; Šmíd, Jiří; Sindaco, Roberto; Metallinou, Margarita; Els, Johannes; Pleguezuelos, Juan Manuel; Machado, Luis; Donaire, David; Martínez, Gabriel; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Mazuch, Tomáš; Wilms, Thomas; Gebhart, Jürgen; Aznar, Javier; Gallego, Javier; Zwanzig, Bernd-Michael; Fernández-Guiberteau, Daniel; Papenfuss, Theodore; Al Saadi, Saleh; Alghafri, Ali; Khalifa, Sultan; Al Farqani, Hamed; Bait Bilal, Salim; Alazri, Iman Sulaiman; Al Adhoobi, Aziza Saud; Al Omairi, Zeyana Salim; Al Shariani, Mohammed; Al Kiyumi, Ali; Al Sariri, Thuraya; Al Shukaili, Ahmed Said; Al Akhzami, Suleiman Nasser

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we use an exceptional database including 5,359 records of 101 species of Oman's terrestrial reptiles together with spatial tools to infer the spatial patterns of species richness and endemicity, to infer the habitat preference of each species and to better define conservation priorities, with especial focus on the effectiveness of the protected areas in preserving this unique arid fauna. Our results indicate that the sampling effort is not only remarkable from a taxonomic point of view, with multiple observations for most species, but also for the spatial coverage achieved. The observations are distributed almost continuously across the two-dimensional climatic space of Oman defined by the mean annual temperature and the total annual precipitation and across the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the multivariate climatic space and are well represented within 17 out of the 20 climatic clusters grouping 10% of the explained climatic variance defined by PC1 and PC2. Species richness is highest in the Hajar and Dhofar Mountains, two of the most biodiverse areas of the Arabian Peninsula, and endemic species richness is greatest in the Jebel Akhdar, the highest part of the Hajar Mountains. Oman's 22 protected areas cover only 3.91% of the country, including within their limits 63.37% of terrestrial reptiles and 50% of all endemics. Our analyses show that large areas of the climatic space of Oman lie outside protected areas and that seven of the 20 climatic clusters are not protected at all. The results of the gap analysis indicate that most of the species are below the conservation target of 17% or even the less restrictive 12% of their total area within a protected area in order to be considered adequately protected. Therefore, an evaluation of the coverage of the current network of protected areas and the identification of priority protected areas for reptiles using reserve design algorithms are urgently needed. Our study also shows that more than half of the species are still pending of a definitive evaluation by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

  2. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the dry season, which can result in habitat loss and territorial displacement of individuals.

  3. Nitrogen excretion during embryonic development of the green iguana, Iguana iguana (Reptilia; Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, M R; Taylor, E W; Abe, A S

    2012-10-01

    Development within the cleidoic egg of birds and reptiles presents the embryo with the problem of accumulation of wastes from nitrogen metabolism. Ammonia derived from protein catabolism is converted into the less toxic product urea or relatively insoluble uric acid. The pattern of nitrogen excretion of the green iguana, Iguana iguana, was determined during embryonic development using samples from allantoic fluid and from the whole homogenized egg, and in hatchlings and adults using samples of blood plasma. Urea was the major excretory product over the course of embryonic development. It was found in higher concentrations in the allantoic sac, suggesting that there is a mechanism present on the allantoic membrane enabling the concentration of urea. The newly hatched iguana still produced urea while adults produced uric acid. The time course of this shift in the type of nitrogen waste was not determined but the change is likely to be related to the water relations associated with the terrestrial habit of the adult. The green iguana produces parchment-shelled eggs that double in mass during incubation due to water absorption; the eggs also accumulate 0.02 mM of urea, representing 82% of the total measured nitrogenous residues that accumulate inside the allantois. The increase in egg mass and urea concentration became significant after 55 days of incubation then were unchanged until hatching. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the dry season, which can result in habitat loss and territorial displacement of individuals

  5. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

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    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the dry season, which can result in habitat loss and territorial displacement of individualsLa Iguana de Cola Espinosa Ctenosaura oaxacana es una especie restringida al Istmo de Tehuantepec en el Sureste de Oaxaca, México. Este reptil es uno de los iguánidos menos conocidos. Entre Mayo 2010 y Abril 2011 hicimos el seguimiento de una población al Sur de Niltepec, Oaxaca, México. A lo largo de un año, se colocaron y monitorearon un total de diez transectos en el área de estudio, para determinar la abundancia relativa, densidad y uso de hábitat (selva seca, Nanchal, pastizal, vegetación riparia y manglar de la especie. Esta investigación reporta una nueva población de C. oaxacana en el límite sureste de la distribución conocida para la especie. Aunque esta especie posee una distribución muy restringida y se encuentra en peligro de extinción, C. oaxacana presenta una alta densidad poblacional comparada con otras especies de Ctenosaura. Se registró un total de 108 individuos a lo largo del estudio. La selva seca (33.75ind/ha y el Nanchal (18.75ind/ha fueron los hábitats con densidad más alta. No se encontró diferencia significativa entre la selva seca y el Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Al comparar entre estaciones el resultado fue similar. La Iguana de Cola Espinosa prefirió la selva seca y después al Nanchal, mientras que evitó el pastizal, la vegetación riparia y el manglar. No se registró diferencia en el uso de hábitat entre machos y hembras. La altura media de las perchas fue 1.23±0.32 (n=30 en Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 en pastizal, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 en selva baja, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 en manglar y 2.30±0.37 (n=6 en vegetación riparia. Las especies observadas como refugio y percha fueron B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (pastizal; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. y Haematoxylon sp. (selva seca; G. sepium, Acacia sp. y Guazuma ulmifolia (vegetación riparia; y C. erecta (manglar. La especie utilizó agujeros y ramas de árboles vivos. Las principales amenazas para la especie son la cacería excesiva y la pérdida de hábitat. Además, la quema de pastizales sigue siendo común en el área de estudio durante la temporada seca, lo que puede resultar en la pérdida de hábitat y el desplazamiento territorial de los individuos.

  6. The relationship between perch type and aggressive behavior in the lizard Norops polylepis (Squamata: Dactyloidae

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    Randall R. Jiménez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of aggression against intruders by owners of a territory has been related to the type of resources available to an individual within its territory. The influence of perch-site characteristics on aggressive behavior of resident male Norops polylepis in presence of an intruder male was investigated in this study. At each perch site, pairwise encounters were conducted in which the aggressive behavior of resident males was recorded, along with the diameter of the perch and the number of nearby perches. Aggressive behavior of resident males increased on larger perches and to some extent in areas having greater density of nearby saplings. Potential explanations for the high aggressive behavior of N. polylepis on broad perches with high number of neighboring saplings are explored.

  7. Phylogenomic analysis of the Chilean clade ofLiolaemuslizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) based on sequence capture data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Alejandra; Leaché, Adam D; D'Elía, Guillermo; Victoriano, Pedro F

    2017-01-01

    The genus Liolaemus is one of the most ecologically diverse and species-rich genera of lizards worldwide. It currently includes more than 250 recognized species, which have been subject to many ecological and evolutionary studies. Nevertheless, Liolaemus lizards have a complex taxonomic history, mainly due to the incongruence between morphological and genetic data, incomplete taxon sampling, incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization. In addition, as many species have restricted and remote distributions, this has hampered their examination and inclusion in molecular systematic studies. The aims of this study are to infer a robust phylogeny for a subsample of lizards representing the Chilean clade (subgenus Liolaemus sensu stricto ), and to test the monophyly of several of the major species groups. We use a phylogenomic approach, targeting 541 ultra-conserved elements (UCEs) and 44 protein-coding genes for 16 taxa. We conduct a comparison of phylogenetic analyses using maximum-likelihood and several species tree inference methods. The UCEs provide stronger support for phylogenetic relationships compared to the protein-coding genes; however, the UCEs outnumber the protein-coding genes by 10-fold. On average, the protein-coding genes contain over twice the number of informative sites. Based on our phylogenomic analyses, all the groups sampled are polyphyletic. Liolaemus tenuis tenuis is difficult to place in the phylogeny, because only a few loci (nine) were recovered for this species. Topologies or support values did not change dramatically upon exclusion of L. t. tenuis from analyses, suggesting that missing data did not had a significant impact on phylogenetic inference in this data set. The phylogenomic analyses provide strong support for sister group relationships between L. fuscus , L. monticola , L. nigroviridis and L. nitidus , and L. platei and L. velosoi . Despite our limited taxon sampling, we have provided a reliable starting hypothesis for the relationships among many major groups of the Chilean clade of Liolaemus that will help future work aimed at resolving the Liolaemus phylogeny.

  8. Embryonic development of the skull of the Andean lizard Ptychoglossus bicolor (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jaimes, Carlos; Jerez, Adriana; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The study of cranial design and development in Gymnophthalmidae is important to understand the ontogenetic processes behind the morphological diversity of the group and to examine the possible effects of microhabitat use and other ecological parameters, as well as phylogenetic constraints, on skull anatomy. Complete morphological descriptions of embryonic skull development within Gymnophthalmidae are non-existent. Likewise, very little is known about the complete chondrocranium of the family. Herein, the development of the skull of the semi-fossorial lizard Ptychoglossus bicolor is described along with an examination of the chondrocranium of other gymnophthalmid taxa and the teiid Cnemidophorus lemniscatus. Cranial chondrification begins with early condensations in the ethmoid, orbitotemporal and occipital regions of the chondrocranium as well as the viscerocranium. Ossification of the skull starts with elements of the dermatocranium (pterygoid, prefrontal, maxilla and jugal). The orbitosphenoid is the last chondral bone to appear. At birth, the skull is almost completely ossified and exhibits a large frontoparietal fontanelle. In general terms, the chondrocranium of the gymnophthalmids studied is characteristic of lacertiform terrestrial lizards, in spite of their life habits, and resembles the chondrocranium of C. lemniscatus in many aspects. However, the gymnophthalmids show great variation in the orbitosphenoid and a complex nasal capsule. The latter exhibits greater development of some nasal cartilages, which make it more complex than in C. lemniscatus. These characteristics might be related to microhabitat use and the well-developed olfactory and vomeronasal systems observed within this clade. PMID:22881276

  9. Two new species of Crocodile Skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Tribolonotus) from the Solomon Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmeyer, Eric N; Austin, Christopher C

    2017-05-15

    We describe two new species of the scincid lizard genus Tribolonotus from the islands of Buka and Choiseul in the Solomon Archipelago, closely related to, and previously included within, T. pseudoponceleti. One species, T. parkeri sp. nov., is endemic to Buka Island and was revealed in our previous study via taxonomically focused analyses of both next-generation sequencing data and morphology. Here, we also further support the validity of this species by more taxonomically comprehensive Bayesian species delimitation of three Sanger sequenced nuclear loci. The second species, T. choiseulensis sp. nov., is endemic to Choiseul Island and was revealed by an expanded morphological data analysis. These results suggest that numerous other species found on multiple island groups in the Solomon Archipelago may similarly represent complexes of multiple, closely related species, and that the biodiversity of the region is vastly underestimated.

  10. Comparative morphology of snake (Squamata) endocasts: evidence of phylogenetic and ecological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Rémi; Boistel, Renaud; Daghfous, Gheylen; Blanchet, Zoé; Cornette, Raphaël; Bardet, Nathalie; Vincent, Peggy; Houssaye, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Brain endocasts obtained from computed tomography (CT) are now widely used in the field of comparative neuroanatomy. They provide an overview of the morphology of the brain and associated tissues located in the cranial cavity. Through anatomical comparisons between species, insights on the senses, the behavior, and the lifestyle can be gained. Although there are many studies dealing with mammal and bird endocasts, those performed on the brain endocasts of squamates are comparatively rare, thus limiting our understanding of their morphological variability and interpretations. Here, we provide the first comparative study of snake brain endocasts in order to bring new information about the morphology of these structures. Additionally, we test if the snake brain endocast encompasses a phylogenetic and/or an ecological signal. For this purpose, the digital endocasts of 45 snake specimens, including a wide diversity in terms of phylogeny and ecology, were digitized using CT, and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. Snake endocasts exhibit a great variability. The different methods performed from descriptive characters, linear measurements and the outline curves provided complementary information. All these methods have shown that the shape of the snake brain endocast contains, as in mammals and birds, a phylogenetic signal but also an ecological one. Although phylogenetically related taxa share several similarities between each other, the brain endocast morphology reflects some notable ecological trends: e.g. (i) fossorial species possess both reduced optic tectum and pituitary gland; (ii) both fossorial and marine species have cerebral hemispheres poorly developed laterally; (iii) cerebral hemispheres and optic tectum are more developed in arboreal and terrestrial species. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  11. A new species of gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderduys, Eric

    2017-11-13

    A new species of diplodactylid gecko in the genus Strophurus Fitzinger, from central Queensland, Australia, is described herein as Strophurus trux sp. nov. It is similar to the recently described Strophurus congoo Vanderduys from north Queensland and apparently shares a habitat preference for Triodia hummock open woodlands. It is notably different from the latter in possessing a vivid yellow to golden eye. It is only known from one small area of the Brigalow Belt Bioregion, although it is expected to occur more widely than the one area in which it has been found. It is likely that it is endemic to the Brigalow Belt Bioregion.

  12. A new species of pentastomida infecting Tropidurus hispidus (Squamata: Tropiduridae from Caatinga in Northeastern Brazil

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    WO. Almeida

    Full Text Available This article describes a new species of Brazilian Raillietiella Sambon, 1910 from lungs of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825. Between July and October 2005 eighteen specimens of T. hispidus were actively captured with elastic rubber slings in granite outcrops (lajeiros (06° 59’ S and 39° 31’ W from caatinga formations in the municipality of Farias Brito, State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. One female and one male of T. hispidus had lungs infected by Raillietiella mottae sp. nov. (prevalence 11.1% and mean intensity of infection 6.0 ± 1.4, range 5-7. The parasite’s main diagnostic characteristics include the dimensions of sharp hooks and strongly curved or "C-shaped" male copulatory spicules with knob-like posterior projection from the base towards the inner curvature of the spicule.

  13. Brumation of introduced Black and White Tegus, Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae), in southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Michelle; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Klug, Page E.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    An established population of Tupinambis merianae (Black and White Tegu) in southeastern Florida threatens the Everglades ecosystem. Understanding the behavioral ecology of Black and White Tegus could aid in management and control plans. Black and White Tegus are seasonally active and brumate during the winter in their native range, but brumation behavior is largely unstudied in either the native or the invasive range. We describe the first observations of Black and White Tegu brumation in southeastern Florida after monitoring 5 free-ranging, adult male Black and White Tegus through an inactive season using radiotelemetry and automated cameras. Duration of brumation averaged 137 days, beginning in September and ending by February. One of the 5 Black and White Tegus emerged to bask regularly during brumation, which to our knowledge represents the first documented instance of a free-ranging Black and White Tegu basking during brumation. These preliminary findings provide a basis for future research of brumation behavior.

  14. Rediscovery and redescription of the holotype of Liolaemus lemniscatus Gravenhorst, 1838 (Reptilia, Squamata, Liolaemidae

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    Bartosz Borczyk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The presumed lost holotype of Liolaemus lemniscatus Gravenhorst 1838 has been found at the Museum of Natural History of the University of Wrocław and identified by the individual pattern of head scales which matches Gravenhorst’s drawing. The first detailed description of this specimen is provided.

  15. Ahaetulla nasuta anomala (Annandale, 1906) (Squamata: Colubridae), resurrected as a valid species with marked sexual dichromatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Pratyush P; Dutta, S K; Kar, Niladri B; Das, Abhijit; Murthy, B H C K; Deepak, V

    2017-05-09

    In this paper we resolve the taxonomic confusion related to Ahaetulla nasuta anomala (Annandale, 1906). On the basis of molecular and morphological data, we remove it from the synonymy of Ahaetulla nasuta (Lacépède, 1789) and reinstate it as a valid species-Ahaetulla anomala. This species is sexually dichromatic, males are green and females are brown in colour. Though the brown morph morphologically resembles Ahaetulla pulverulenta (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) there are significant morphological and genetic differences between these two species. Additional information on taxonomy, natural history and distribution of the species is provided.

  16. Description of a new species of Cnemaspis (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Knuckles Range of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batuwita, Sudesh; Udugampala, Sampath

    2017-04-12

    A new species of Cnemaspis Strauch is described from Knuckles Range of Sri Lanka. This new species had been previously confused with Cnemaspis podihuna Deraniyagala. Cnemaspis kandambyi sp. nov. closely resembles C. podihuna and C. molligodai Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa. Cnemaspis kandambyi sp. nov. differs from C. podihuna by having 7-8 (versus 3-6) unpored scales in each side of the precloacal-femoral pores row, lacking (versus having) an internasal scale, body (axilla to groin) relatively long 47.7-48.3 (versus 38.1-38.7)% of SVL and dorsum dark brown (versus bright yellow). Cnemaspis kandambyi sp. nov. also distinguished from C. molligodai by having 4 (versus 5) precloacal pores, 5-6 (versus 7-9) femoral pores on each side, precloacal pores not in an inverted V-shaped arrangement (versus in inverted V-shaped arrangement), lacking (versus having) a distinct black marking on nape and a black lateral stripe begins behind eye extends laterally beyond the origin of forearm (versus not extending beyond the origin of forearm). Additionally, Cnemaspis kandambyi sp. nov. and C. molligodai show discrete distribution: former restricted to Knuckles Range and the latter confined to Lowland wet zone of Sri Lanka. We confirm that, no type material of Cnemaspis podihuna survive in the current collection of the National Museum of Sri Lanka.

  17. Elucidating the global elapid (Squamata) richness pattern under metabolic theory of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rosana Talita; Oliveira de Grande, Thallita; de Souza Barreto, Bruno; Felizola Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre; Terribile, Levi Carina

    2014-04-01

    Environmental determinants of global patterns in species richness are still uncertain. The Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) proposes that species richness patterns can be explained by environmental temperature acting on the metabolism of ectothermic organisms. However, the generality of this theory has been questioned due to its low fit to the geographic variation in species richness of different taxonomic groups. Here, we investigated whether the MTE drives elapid richness, testing the non-stationarity of the relationship between the natural logarithm of species richness (ln S) and the inverse function of temperature (1/kT) using a geographically weighted regression (GWR). The relationship between ln S and 1/kT varied systematically over space and showed non-stationarity. Few tropical locations were consistent with MTE predictions, whereas other regions fitted differently. Although the slope of the GWR model ranged from low to high, the temperature did not predict species richness strongly on average and did not limit the upper values of richness. The response of richness to temperature in some areas might reflect a recent history of colonization and diversification of species across tropical and subtropical regions. In regions not affected by temperature, species richness should be structured by other biotic and abiotic interactions. This scenario reveals that the non-stationarity of the relationship would be linked to idiosyncrasies in the sample sites, which can drift the magnitude or change the relationship between species richness and temperature throughout space.

  18. A new species of the genus Takydromus (Squamata: Lacertidae) from Tianjingshan Forestry Station, northern Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Yong; Gong, Shi-Ping; Liu, Peng; Wang, Xin

    2017-10-26

    Many early descriptions of species of the genus Takydromus were based on limited diagnostic characteristics. This has caused considerable challenges in accurate species identification, meaning that a number of cryptic species have been erroneously identified as known species, resulting in substantially underestimated species diversity. We have integrated evidence from morphology and DNA sequence data to describe a new species of the Asian Grass Lizard, Takydromus albomaculosus sp. nov., based on two specimens from Tianjingshan Forestry Station, Ruyuan County, Guangdong Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from other known Takydromus species by distinctive morphological differences and significant genetic divergence in the mitochondrial COI gene. Morphologically, the new species differs from the known 22 congeners in the following combination of characters: relatively large body size, SVL 70.9 mm in female, 65.5 mm in male; presence of three or four pairs of femoral pores and four pairs of chin-shields; supraoculars three, rarely four, the posterior loreal either in contact with the anteriormost supraocular or not; the presence of supraciliary granules; the presence of six rows of ventral scales, strongly keeled in the male, and smooth but with the outermost row keeled in the female; the presence of enlarged and keeled lateral scales in a row above the ventrals, but shorter than the ventrals; subdigital lamellae 23-24 under the fourth finger and 29-30 under the fourth toe; dorsal surface brown, ventral surface green, flank dark brown or brown black with several prominent white round spots; the presence of a pair of white longitudinal dorsolateral stripes and a pair of white longitudinal ventrolateral stripes. Takydromus albomaculosus sp. nov. represents the twenty-third species of this genus, of which six species occur in northern Guangdong, where the biodiversity level of Takydromus is the second highest in the world, just below that of Taiwan.

  19. New material of Prognathodon (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from the type Maastrichtian of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, A.S.; Jagt, J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    A partial quadrate, here assigned to the globidensine mosasaur Prognathodon cf. saturator, is recorded from the basal Valkenburg Member (Maastricht Formation) in the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage (southeast Netherlands, northeast Belgium). Occurrences of Prognathodon saturator in this area

  20. Helminths of the Lizard Salvator merianae (Squamata, Teiidae) in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A A M; Brito, S V; Teles, D A; Ribeiro, S C; Araujo-Filho, J A; Lima, V F; Pereira, A M A; Almeida, W O

    2017-01-01

    The lizard Salvator merianae is a widely distributed species in South America, occurring from southern Amazonia to the eastern Andes and northern Patagonia. Studies on the parasitic fauna of this lizard have revealed that it is a host for helminths in various Brazilian biomes. The present work provides new parasitological data on the gastrointestinal nematodes associated with the lizard S. merianae. Sixteen specimens were analyzed from nine different locations in a semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil. Five species of nematodes were identified. Oswaldofilaria petersi was first recorded as a parasite of the S. merianae, thus increasing the knowledge of the fauna of parasites that infect large Neotropical lizards.

  1. Sex Chromosomes and Karyotype of the (Nearly) Mythical Creature, the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorná, Martina Johnson; Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha) encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal to human beings. We uncovered homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome. The sex chromosomes are morphologically similar to the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of monitor lizards (Varanidae). If the sex chromosomes of helodermatids and varanids are homologous, female heterogamety may be ancestral for the whole Anguimorpha group. Moreover, we found that the karyotype of the Gila monster consists of 2n = 36 chromosomes (14 larger metacentric chromosomes and 22 acrocentric microchromosomes). 2n = 36 is the widely distributed chromosomal number among squamates. In his pioneering works representing the only previous cytogenetic examination of the family Helodermatidae, Matthey reported the karyotype as 2n = 38 and suggested a different chromosomal morphology for this species. We believe that this was probably erroneously. We also discovered a strong accumulation of telomeric sequences on several pairs of microchromosomes in the Gila monster, which is a trait documented relatively rarely in vertebrates. These new data fill an important gap in our understanding of the sex determination and karyotype evolution of squamates. PMID:25119263

  2. Three new species of Pharygodonidae (Nematoda: Oxyuridea) in Laudakia tuberculata (Squamata: Agamidae) from Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab; Bursey, Charles R

    2017-06-01

    Parapharyngodon tuberculata sp. nov., Thelandros tuberculata sp. nov. and Thelandros dehradunensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of a rock lizard, Laudakia tuberculata Gray, 1827), are described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon tuberculata sp. nov. is the 8th Oriental species and 59th species assigned to the genus Parapharyngodon and differs from other species of the genus by possessing 3 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate cloacal lip, 112-115 µm spicule length and postbulbar ovary. Thelandros tuberculata sp. nov. is the 5th and Thelandros dehradunensis sp. nov. the 6th Oriental species, respectively, and they are the 40th and 41st species assigned to the genus Thelandros. They differ from other species of the genus in caudal papillae arrangement, length of spicules, and structure of the anterior end of the esophagus. We transfer Parapharyngodon arequipensis Calisaya and Cordova, 1997 to Thelandros arequipensis (Calisaya and Cordova, 1997) comb. n. based upon the presence of a terminal operculum in the egg and large, pendant, caudal papillae.

  3. Immunocytological analysis of meiotic recombination in two anole lizards (Squamata, Dactyloidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisachov, Artem P; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Giovannotti, Massimo; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Borodin, Pavel M

    2017-01-01

    Although the evolutionary importance of meiotic recombination is not disputed, the significance of interspecies differences in the recombination rates and recombination landscapes remains under-appreciated. Recombination rates and distribution of chiasmata have been examined cytologically in many mammalian species, whereas data on other vertebrates are scarce. Immunolocalization of the protein of the synaptonemal complex (SYCP3), centromere proteins and the mismatch-repair protein MLH1 was used, which is associated with the most common type of recombination nodules, to analyze the pattern of meiotic recombination in the male of two species of iguanian lizards, Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832 and Deiroptyx coelestinus (Cope, 1862). These species are separated by a relatively long evolutionary history although they retain the ancestral iguanian karyotype. In both species similar and extremely uneven distributions of MLH1 foci along the macrochromosome bivalents were detected: approximately 90% of crossovers were located at the distal 20% of the chromosome arm length. Almost total suppression of recombination in the intermediate and proximal regions of the chromosome arms contradicts the hypothesis that "homogenous recombination" is responsible for the low variation in GC content across the anole genome. It also leads to strong linkage disequilibrium between the genes located in these regions, which may benefit conservation of co-adaptive gene arrays responsible for the ecological adaptations of the anoles.

  4. Identification and characterisation of the epididymal proteins in the lizard, Eutropis carinata (Reptilia, Squamata) (Schneider, 1801).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, R; Bhagya, M; Samson, S

    2018-04-01

    Lizards are seasonal breeders. Cyclic reproductive nature makes lizard as a useful model for the study of the reproductively active protein secretions in the epididymis. During breeding season, the epididymides of the lizard secret proteins that mixes with the spermatozoa and create a favourable environment for sperm maturation. In this spectrum, the aim of this study is to identify and characterize proteins which are present in the lumen of the epididymis of the lizard, E. carinata during the active phase of reproduction. The identification and analysis of the proteins are done through the proteomic approaches. The epididymal luminal fluid sample was taken from the reproductively active and inactive phase and these are subjected to the size exclusion chromatography. Two major peaks (peak 1 and peak 2) were obtained in the epididymal luminal fluid sample taken during the reproductively active phase. On the other hand, the sample from the reproductively inactive phase showed one peak (peak 1) whereas, peak 2 is not present during this phase. The peak 2 belong to reproductively active phase was later subjected to the proteomic analysis. Appropriate gel electrophoresis separation and purification methods are combined with LC-MS/MS in order to identify and characterize the proteins that are presented during the reproductively active phase. Further, in this work, nine proteins are identified including three enzymes and three heat shock proteins. Among the identified proteins, bioinformatics analysis predicts that majority of them are localized in the cytoplasm. In addition to this, an observation is made in the endoplasmic reticulum where it is seen that a close protein-protein interaction network of three molecular chaperones are involved in protein processing. Overall, this paper opens up a new dimension search for epididymal markers for the first time in reptiles, particularly lizards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A new perspective on the reduction of cephalic scales in fossorial legless skinks (Squamata, Scincidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miralles, Aurélien; Jono, Teppei; Mori, Akira; Gandola, Robert; Erens, Jesse; Köhler, Jörn; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we provide an extended multilocus phylogenetic analysis combining mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of a group of fossorial and miniaturized legless lizards (genus Paracontias) from Madagascar, including the description of two species new to science, P. ampijoroensis sp. nov. and P.

  6. Systematics of Eutropis rugifera (Stoliczka, 1870) (Squamata: Scincidae) including the redescription of the holotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, A A Thasun; Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Campbell, Patrick D; Leo, Sandy; Supriatna, Jatna; Hallermann, Jakob

    2017-05-26

    Eutropis rugifera has long been identified as a widespread species complex distributed in Nicobar, Peninsular Malaysia, Greater Sundaic Islands, Bali, Sulawesi and the Philippines. This skink was described by Stoliczka in 1870 from Nicobar Island based on a single specimen (holotype by monotypy). Later, Peters (1871), Bartlett (1895) and Werner (1896) described three more species which were morphologically similar to Euprepes percarinatus (from Java), Mabuia rubricollis (Borneo) and M. quinquecarinata (Sumatra) respectively, which are currently considered junior objective synonyms of Eutropis rugifera. We examined all the available synonym types and voucher specimens of Eutropis rugifera deposited at several museums. A morphological examination of the types of this species and mtDNA analysis (584 bp of 16S rRNA) of the samples from different biogeographic regions revealed that Eutropis rugifera from Nicobar Island, Bali Island, and Bawean Island are composed of a monophyletic species. However, the taxonomic status of the above population requires further clarification, and the population in Bawean Island may represent a cryptic species. Finally, we provide a complete redescription of E. rugifera based on its holotype.

  7. Proteomic Profile of Mabuya sp. (Squamata: Scincidae) Ovary and Placenta During Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Nathaly; Torres, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Reptiles are one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, providing an integrated system for comparative studies on metabolic, animal physiology, and developmental biology. However, the molecular data available are limited and only recently have started to call attention in the "omics" sciences. Mabuya sp. is a viviparous placentrotrophic skink with particular reproductive features, including microlecithal eggs, early luteolysis, prolonged gestation, and development of a highly specialized placenta. This placenta is responsible for respiratory exchange and the transference of all nutrients necessary for embryonic development. Our aim was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the ovary and placenta of Mabuya sp. during early, mid, and late gestation; their possible metabolic pathways; and biological processes. We carried out a comparative proteomic analysis during gestation in both tissues by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. Differential protein expression in both tissues (Student's t-test P < 0.05) was related to several processes such as cell structure, cell movement, and energy. Proteins found in ovary are mainly associated with follicular development and its regulation. In the placenta, particularly during mid and late gestation, protein expression is involved in nutrient metabolism, transport, protein synthesis, and embryonic development. This work provides new insights about the proteins expressed and their physiological mechanisms in Mabuya sp. placenta and ovary during gestation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. New material of Carinodens (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) phosphates of Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardet, Nathalie; Pereda Suberbiola, Xabier; Schulp, Anne S; Bouya, Baâdi; Everhart, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The genus Carinodens is an unusual, small-sized, latest Cretaceous mosasaurid. It is known only from a partially toothed dentary and a dentary fragment from the Upper Maastrichtian of The Netherlands and some thirty-odd isolated teeth from coeval stratigraphic levels from Belgium, The Netherlands,

  9. The phylogenetic relationships of Pachyrhachis problematicus, and the evolution of limblessness in snakes (Lepidosauria, Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Hussam; Rieppel, Olivier

    1999-12-01

    We have revisited the type material of Pachyrhachis problematicus, a fossil snake from the Cenomanian (Cretaceous) of the Middle East, and found a number of characters in need of revision with respect to its recent re-description. A new interpretation is given for several cranial characters. There is no identifiable regionalization of the presacral-vertebral column beyond that found in booid snakes. The identification of a free sacral rib in Pachyrhachis is more parsimoniously interpreted as the first lymphapophysis. It is questionable that the pelvic rudiment would have been suspended from the axial skeleton. We have also extensively reviewed the evidence that is believed to link Pachyrhachis, and with it all other snakes, to a mosasauroid ancestor. We were not able to corroborate this hypothesis, which involves characters related to the dentition, braincase morphology, and the intramandibular joint. Instead, re-analysis of the phylogenetic relationships of Pachyrhachis corroborates the hypothesis that it represents the sister-group of macrostomatan snakes, i.e., advanced snakes. Given that Pachyrhachis is nested within the hierarchy of snakes, it is entirely possible that this snake re-developed almost complete hind limbs. A less parsimonious hypothesis would be to consider the hind limbs to have been lost independently in the major basal clades of extant snakes (Scolecophidia, Anilioidea, and Macrostomata). The latter hypothesis is considered a serious possibility given the recently described findings on the mechanisms of limb development in Python, which could account for the highly variable pattern of hindlimb reduction found among basal snakes.

  10. A new species of Plestiodon (Squamata: Scincidae) from the Senkaku Group, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Ota, Hidetoshi; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2017-04-20

    A new scincid lizard, Plestiodon takarai sp. nov., is described from the Senkaku Group, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. The Plestiodon lizards in this island group have previously been identified as P. elegans because they all exhibit a patch of enlarged and irregularly arranged scales on the posterior surface of their femurs. However, detailed molecular analyses revealed that the Senkaku population, although closely related to P. elegans and other species in the P. latiscutatus species group, is substantially diverged from all other recognized species. Furthermore, although the Senkaku population largely exhibits the characteristic morphological features of this species group, it can be differentiated from all recognized species by the scutellation and hatchling tail coloration. The biogeographical and conservation implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  11. A Phylogenetic, Biogeographic, and Taxonomic study of all Extant Species of Anolis (Squamata; Iguanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Steven; Nieto-Montes de Oca, Adrián; Torres-Carvajal, Omar; De Queiroz, Kevin; Velasco, Julián A; Truett, Brad; Gray, Levi N; Ryan, Mason J; Köhler, Gunther; Ayala-Varela, Fernando; Latella, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Anolis lizards (anoles) are textbook study organisms in evolution and ecology. Although several topics in evolutionary biology have been elucidated by the study of anoles, progress in some areas has been hampered by limited phylogenetic information on this group. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of all 379 extant species of Anolis, with new phylogenetic data for 139 species including new DNA data for 101 species. We use the resulting estimates as a basis for defining anole clade names under the principles of phylogenetic nomenclature and to examine the biogeographic history of anoles. Our new taxonomic treatment achieves the supposed advantages of recent subdivisions of anoles that employed ranked Linnaean-based nomenclature while avoiding the pitfalls of those approaches regarding artificial constraints imposed by ranks. Our biogeographic analyses demonstrate complexity in the dispersal history of anoles, including multiple crossings of the Isthmus of Panama, two invasions of the Caribbean, single invasions to Jamaica and Cuba, and a single evolutionary dispersal from the Caribbean to the mainland that resulted in substantial anole diversity. Our comprehensive phylogenetic estimate of anoles should prove useful for rigorous testing of many comparative evolutionary hypotheses. [Anoles; biogeography; lizards; Neotropics; phylogeny; taxonomy]. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A new species of Lepidodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Kei Islands, Maluku, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Alexander L; Karin, Benjamin R; Arifin, Umilaela; Iskandar, Djoko T; Arida, Evy; Reilly, Sean B; Bloch, Luke M; Kusnadi, Agus; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2017-11-16

    Lepidodactylus pantai is a new species of gecko from the Kei Islands, Maluku, Indonesia that is closely associated with intertidal habitats. This species does not fit cleanly into any of the three species groups described for the genus because it possesses the unique combination of both divided terminal scansors on all toes and a nearly completely cylindrical tail without fringes or evidence of dorsoventral compression. A phylogenetic analysis including this species demonstrates that it is the sister taxon of a population from Palau, and that this clade is sister to the clade containing Group III species for which we have molecular data.

  13. A new species of Rock Gecko genus Cnemaspis (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Western Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Takaki; Nishikawa, Kanto; Matsui, Masafumi; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2017-05-03

    A new species of Asian rock gecko, genus Cnemaspis, is described from Padawan, western Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The new species forms a clade with C. paripari and C. nigridia of the C. nigridia group in a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and is similar to them morphologically in some characters such as caudal scalation. It differs from the other Asian Cnemaspis species in its unique combination of snout-vent length (up to 62.7 mm), 4-9 precloacal pores in males, keeled subcaudals with an enlarged, smooth, median row, presence of ventrolateral caudal tubercles, and coloration (head and upper flanks dark-yellow; anterior portion of tail black; posterior portion of tail white with black, paravertebral blob). Phylogenetic relationships within the C. nigridia group and the distributional ranges of species within the group suggest allopatric speciation by geographic isolation.

  14. A new species of Thecadactylus from Sint Maarten, Lesser Antilles (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Koehler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Thecadactylus from the Caribbean island of Sint Maarten. The new species differs from all other species in the genus bya distinct dorsal pattern of numerous irregular but sharply deliminated black spots and blotches on an otherwise almost patternless background.

  15. A Tylosaurine Mosasauridae (Squamata from the Late Cretaceous of the Basque-Cantabrian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corral, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An isolated mosasaurid tooth from the Campanian of Alava (Basque Country, previously referred to as cf. Mosasaurus sp., is here reattributed to a tylosaurine. It may belong to Tylosaurus, a nearly cosmopolitan genus known from the Santonian-Maastrichtian. This is the first occurrence of a tylosaurine mosasaurid in the Iberian Peninsula. Moreover, it corresponds to the southernmost occurrence of this clade in the northern margin of the Mediterranean Tethys. ylosaurinae fossils are known from North America, Europe, New Zealand, Antarctica, Africa and Asia, but remain unknown from the southern Mediterranean Tethyan margin and from tropical palaeolatitudes.Un diente aislado de mosasaurio procedente del Campaniense de Álava (País Vasco, previamente asignado a cf. Mosasaurus sp., se atribuye en este trabajo a un tilosaurino. Podría pertenecer a Tylosaurus, un género cuasi cosmopolita del Santoniense-Maastrichtiense. Es la primera cita de un mosasáurido tilosaurino en la Península Ibérica. Además, se trata del registro más meridional de este clado en el margen norte del Tetis mediterráneo. Los Tylosaurinae están representados por fósiles en Norteamérica, Europa, Nueva Zelanda, Antártida, África y Asia, pero carecen de registro en el margen sur del Tetis mediterráneo y en paleolatitudes tropicales.

  16. Identification key to species of the flying lizard genus Draco Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Agamidae in Thailand

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    Nattawut Srichairat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A species identification key of flying lizards in the genus Draco from Thailand was constructed based on 521 preserved specimens from collections during 1967–2012 in the Natural History Museum (THNHM, National Science Museum, Technopolis, Pathum Thani, Thailand. Regardless of sexual characters, four characters were used to identify Draco spp. lizards: 1 nostril direction; 2 type of tympanum; 3 pattern of patagium; and 4 snout with or without a series of scales forming a Y-shaped figure. The specimens were identified into nine species—Draco blanfordii, Draco fimbriatus, Draco maculatus, Draco maximus, Draco melanopogon, Draco obscurus, Draco quinquefasciatus, Draco taeniopterus and Draco volans.

  17. Hemidactylus frenatus (Squamata: Gekkonidae): call frequency, movement and condition of tail in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Caty Frenkel

    2006-01-01

    Call frequency and movements of the gecko Hemidactylus frenatus were studied in Punta Morales, Costa Rica from April 1999 through May 2000. Call activity of H. frenatus was positively related to air temperature at night and throughout the year. Higher activity was at dusk, dawn, and during the hottest months. Call frequency was related with gecko abundance per month, although not during the night. More males and females had a regenerated tail compared to juveniles, the last ones could have it...

  18. Habitat use in eight populations of Sceloporus grammicus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) from the Mexican Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyte-Manrique, Adrian; Hernández-Salinas, Uriel; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Mata-Silva, Vicente; Marshall, Jonathon C

    2017-05-01

    Studies on habitat use have often helped explain observed variation in morphology, behavior and reproductive characteristics among populations within a single species. Here we analyze morphological and ecological characteristics of individuals from the Sceloporus grammicus species complex from 7 different localities (CER, El Cerezo; PAC, Pachuca; HUI, Huichapan; EZA, Emiliano Zapata; SMR, San Miguel Regla; LMJ, La Mojonera; and LMZ, La Manzana) in the state of Hidalgo, and one locality (Cahuacán) in the State of Mexico. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that females from PAC, EZA, LMZ, HUI, SMR and CAH populations use similar microhabitats characterized mostly by bare soil, in females from LMJ and CER use microhabitats characterized primarily by vegetation and rocks. Females were observed using 12 different types of perches. With regard to perch height use, the CCA showed that females from PAC, LMJ, LMZ, SMR, CER and CAH populations were correlated with height to nearest perch (HNP), in the rest of the females were not related to any perch use variable. In contrast, the CCA showed that males from PAC, LMJ and CAH were characterized by microhabitats with higher vegetal coverage, while males from LMZ and CER used microhabitats composed of bare soil, but males from HUI and SMR populations used microhabitats composed chiefly of bare soil and rocks. With respect to perch height use, the CCA showed that males from PAC, LMJ, EZA and LMZ were correlated with distance to the nearest perch, but the rest of the males were not correlated with any perch use variables. Males were observed in 9 different perch types. The males were larger than the females in all morphological variables analyzed. Moreover, in both sexes the snout-vent length is positively correlated with all morphological variables, and although both the slope and ordinate of the origin of all morphological variables were larger in males than females, the analysis of covariance indicated that there is no increase in the morphological variables with increasing SVL between sexes. Our results suggest that variation in habitat use and morphology among populations is an adaptive response (phenotypic plasticity) to the environmental conditions where these populations of Sceloporus grammicus occur. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Snakes of the genus Oxyrhopus (Colubridae: Squamata in Colombia: taxonomy and geographic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Lynch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Oxyrhopus occur in Colombia, one (O. leucomelas of which is Andean and the other three occur in lowlands. No geographic variation was detected in O. occipitalis but there is marked geographic variation in color pattern and scutellation for the widely distributed O. petola. Recognition of subspecies within O. petola is possible but appears to obscure more than it illuminates. The snake previously reported as O. melanogenys or O. aff. melanogenys is diagnosed as a previously unrecognized species.Cuatro especies del género Oxyrhopus se encuentran en Colombia. De las cuatro especies, una (O. leucomelas es una especie andina y las otras tres son especies de las tierras bajas. Variación geográfica no fue detecta en O. occipitalis pero mucha variación se encuentra en O. petola, en términos de patrón y de conteos de escamas. Se posible de reconocer subespecies pero tal reconocimiento oscura mas que ilumina. La serpiente conocida antes como O. melanogenys o O. aff. melanogenys está descrita como especie nueva.

  20. Diversity, distribution and conservation of the terrestrial reptiles of Oman (Sauropsida, Squamata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Carranza

    Full Text Available In the present work, we use an exceptional database including 5,359 records of 101 species of Oman's terrestrial reptiles together with spatial tools to infer the spatial patterns of species richness and endemicity, to infer the habitat preference of each species and to better define conservation priorities, with especial focus on the effectiveness of the protected areas in preserving this unique arid fauna. Our results indicate that the sampling effort is not only remarkable from a taxonomic point of view, with multiple observations for most species, but also for the spatial coverage achieved. The observations are distributed almost continuously across the two-dimensional climatic space of Oman defined by the mean annual temperature and the total annual precipitation and across the Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the multivariate climatic space and are well represented within 17 out of the 20 climatic clusters grouping 10% of the explained climatic variance defined by PC1 and PC2. Species richness is highest in the Hajar and Dhofar Mountains, two of the most biodiverse areas of the Arabian Peninsula, and endemic species richness is greatest in the Jebel Akhdar, the highest part of the Hajar Mountains. Oman's 22 protected areas cover only 3.91% of the country, including within their limits 63.37% of terrestrial reptiles and 50% of all endemics. Our analyses show that large areas of the climatic space of Oman lie outside protected areas and that seven of the 20 climatic clusters are not protected at all. The results of the gap analysis indicate that most of the species are below the conservation target of 17% or even the less restrictive 12% of their total area within a protected area in order to be considered adequately protected. Therefore, an evaluation of the coverage of the current network of protected areas and the identification of priority protected areas for reptiles using reserve design algorithms are urgently needed. Our study also shows that more than half of the species are still pending of a definitive evaluation by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN.

  1. Tantilla alticola (Boulenger, 1903) (Squamata: Colubridae): filling a geographical distribution gap in western Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanega-Guerrero, Jhonattan; Batista, Abel; Medina, Iliana; Vargas-Salinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Based on a single specimen collected in La Delfina, municipality of Dagua, department of Valle del Cauca, we fills a record gap of 255 km in the distribution of the snake Tantilla alticola in western Colombia.

  2. Noteworthy records for Tantilla cascadae and T. ceboruca (Squamata: Colubridae) from Jalisco, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Sáenz, Daniel; Muñoz-Nolasco, Francisco; Lazcano, David; Flores-Covarrubias, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    We report the first records of two species of snake in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. We recorded one specimen of Tantilla cascadae and two of Tantilla ceboruca, the former known only from its type locality. These findings extend the known geographical distribution of T. cascadae 121 km westward from Michoacán, its type locality. Also, it extends the known geographical distribution of T. ceboruca 41 km eastward from its type locality and 185 km northwest from its second record in the state of ...

  3. Approaches to capturing the Black and White Tegu Salvator merianae (Squamata: Teiidae

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    Renata C. Vieira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of traps is extremely important in several types of ecological studies, and may assist in the capture of individuals in areas that are difficult to access. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of wooden (Schramm versus "Tomahawk" traps to capture Salvator merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839 lizards. The study was conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Field data were collected from August 2013 to March 2015, during the reproductive period of the species. The study involved two types of baited traps: i "Tomahawk", made of galvanized steel; and ii Schramm, a wooden trap. The capture rate of the Schramm wooden traps was 1.63 individuals/day, and of the "Tomahawk" was 0.36 individuals/day. These results are important for researchers working with large lizards and may help to increase sampling efficiency for these organisms.

  4. Microhabitat use and diet of Anotosaura vanzolinia(Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) in a Caatinga area, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Bruno Halluan Soares de; Pessanha, André Luiz Machado

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the microhabitat use and diet of the lizard Gymnophthalmidae Anotosaura vanzolinia (Dixon 1974) in the Complexo Aluízio Campos (7° 16′ 34″ S, 35° 53′ 7″ W), an area of the Caatinga in the Campina Grande, Paraíba. We studied a total of 12 transects by active searching during the daytime. In each sample, habitat and microhabitat types occupied by the specimen were categorized, together with solar incidence and soil type. For all individuals, morphometric measurements...

  5. Microhabitat use and diet of Anotosaura vanzolinia (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) in a Caatinga area, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Bruno Halluan Soares de; Pessanha,Andre Luiz Machado

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the microhabitat use and diet of the lizard Gymnophthalmidae Anotosaura vanzolinia (Dixon 1974) in the Complexo Aluízio Campos (7° 16′ 34″ S, 35° 53′ 7″ W), an area of the Caatinga in the Campina Grande, Paraíba. We studied a total of 12 transects by active searching during the daytime. In each sample, habitat and microhabitat types occupied by the specimen were categorized, together with solar incidence and soil type. Fo...

  6. The peak of thermoregulation effectiveness: Thermal biology of the Pyrenean rock lizard, Iberolacerta bonnali (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Zaida; Mencía, Abraham; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-02-01

    We studied, at 2200m altitude, the thermal biology of the Pyrenean rock lizard, Iberolacerta bonnali, in the glacial cirque of Cotatuero (National Park of Ordesa, Huesca, Spain). The preferred thermal range (PTR) of I. bonnali indicates that it is a cold-adapted ectotherm with a narrow PTR (29.20-32.77°C). However, its PTR (3.57°C) is twice as wide as other Iberolacerta lizards, which may be explained by its broader historical distribution. The studied area is formed by a mosaic of microhabitats which offer different operative temperatures, so that lizards have, throughout their entire daily period of activity, the opportunity to choose the most thermally suitable substrates. I. bonnali achieves an effectiveness of thermoregulation of 0.95, which makes it the highest value found to date among the Lacertidae, and one of the highest among lizards. Their relatively wide distribution, their wider PTR, and their excellent ability of thermoregulation, would make I. bonnali lizards less vulnerable to climate change than other species of Iberolacerta. Thanks to its difficult access, the studied area is not visited by a large number of tourists, as are other areas of the National Park. Thus, it is a key area for the conservation of the Pyrenean rock lizard. By shuttling between suitable microhabitats, lizards achieve suitable body temperatures during all day. However, such thermally suitable microhabitats should vary in other traits than thermal quality, such as prey availability or predation risk. Hence, it seems that these not-thermal traits are not constraining habitat selection and thermoregulation in this population. Therefore, future research in this population may study the causes that would lead lizards to prioritize thermoregulation to such extent in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative cranial osteology of fossorial lizards from the tribe Gymnophthalmini (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscito, Juliana G; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2010-11-01

    Squamates (lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians) are represented by a large number of species distributed among a wide variety of habitats. Changes in body plan related to a fossorial habit are a frequent trend within the group and many morphological adaptations to this particular lifestyle evolved convergently in nonrelated species, reflecting adaptations to a similar habitat. The fossorial lifestyle requires an optimal morphological organization for an effective use of the available resources. Skeleton arrangement in fossorial squamates reflects adaptations to the burrowing activity, and different degrees of fossoriality can be inferred through an analysis of skull morphology. Here, we provide a detailed description of the skull morphology of three fossorial gymnophthalmid species: Calyptommatus nicterus, Scriptosaura catimbau, and Nothobachia ablephara.

  8. Distinct Patterns of Desynchronized Limb Regression in Malagasy Scincine Lizards (Squamata, Scincidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miralles, A.; Hipsley, C.A.; Erens, J.; Gehara, M.; Rakotoarison, A.; Glaw, F.; Müller, J.; Vences, M.

    2015-01-01

    Scincine lizards in Madagascar form an endemic clade of about 60 species exhibiting a variety of ecomorphological adaptations. Several subclades have adapted to burrowing and convergently regressed their limbs and eyes, resulting in a variety of partial and completely limbless morphologies among

  9. A new species of Bachia (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with pleisomorphic limb morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizirian, D.A.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new species of Bachia from the upper Rio Negro drainage of southeastern Colombia and southern Venezuela. The new taxon is diagnosed by a complement of phalanges that is unique among gymnophthalmid lizards and intermediate relative to other Bachia and closely related genera. Variation in limb osteology among the species of Bachia and close relatives is reported. We discuss the distribution of B. panoplia and the taxonomic status of B. flavescens.

  10. Diet and conservation implications of an invasive chameleon, Chamaeleo jacksonii (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Fred; Medeiros, Arthur; Preston, David; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Rodda, Gordon H.

    2012-01-01

    We summarize information on current distribution of the invasive lizard Chamaeleo jacksonii and predict its potential distribution in the Hawaiian Islands. Potential distribution maps are based on climate models developed from known localities in its native range and its Hawaiian range. We also present results of analysis of stomach contents of a sample of 34 chameleons collected from native, predominantly dryland, forest on Maui. These data are the first summarizing prey range of this non-native species in an invaded native-forest setting. Potential distribution models predict that the species can occur throughout most of Hawaii from sea level to >2,100 m elevation. Important features of this data set are that approximately one-third of the diet of these lizards is native insects, and the lizards are consuming large numbers of arthropods each day. Prey sizes span virtually the entire gamut of native Hawaiian arthropod diversity, thereby placing a large number of native species at risk of predation. Our dietary results contrast with expectations for most iguanian lizards and support suggestions that chameleons comprise a third distinct foraging-mode category among saurians. The combination of expanding distribution, large potential range size, broad diet, high predation rates, and high densities of these chameleons imply that they may well become a serious threat to some of the Hawaiian fauna.

  11. Comparing alignment methods for inferring the history of the new world lizard genus Mabuya (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Alison S; Sites, Jack W; Pellegrino, Katia C M; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2006-03-01

    The rapid increase in the ability to generate molecular data, and the focus on model-based methods for tree reconstruction have greatly advanced the use of phylogenetics in many fields. The recent flurry of new analytical techniques has focused almost solely on tree reconstruction, whereas alignment issues have received far less attention. In this paper, we use a diverse sampling of gene regions from lizards of the genus Mabuya to compare the impact, on phylogeny estimation, of new maximum likelihood alignment algorithms with more widely used methods. Sequences aligned under different optimality criteria are analyzed using partitioned Bayesian analysis with independent models and parameter settings for each gene region, and the most strongly supported phylogenetic hypothesis is then used to test the hypothesis of two colonizations of the New World by African scincid lizards. Our results show that the consistent use of model-based methods in both alignment and tree reconstruction leads to trees with more optimal likelihood scores than the use of independent criteria in alignment and tree reconstruction. We corroborate and extend earlier evidence for two independent colonizations of South America by scincid lizards. Relationships within South American Mabuya are found to be in need of taxonomic revision, specifically complexes under the names M. heathi, M. agilis, and M. bistriata (sensu, M.T. Rodrigues, Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 41 (2000) 313).

  12. Ultrastructure of the placentae of the natricine snake, Virginia striatula (Reptilia: Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James R; Brasch, Klaus R

    2003-02-01

    Virginia striatula is a viviparous snake with a complex pattern of embryonic nutrition. Nutrients for embryonic development are provided by large, yolked eggs, supplemented by placental transfer. Placentation in this species is surprisingly elaborate for a predominantly lecithotrophic squamate reptile. The embryonic-maternal interface consists of three structurally distinct areas, an omphalallantoic placenta and a regionally diversified chorioallantoic placenta. The chorioallantoic placenta over the embryonic hemisphere (paramesometrial region) of the egg, features close apposition of embryonic and uterine blood vessels because of the attenuate form of the interceding epithelial cells. The periphery of the chorioallantoic placenta, which is adjacent to the omphalallantoic placenta, is characterized by a simple cuboidal uterine epithelium apposed to a stratified cuboidal chorionic epithelium. There are no sites with attenuate epithelial cells and close vascular apposition. The morphology of the omphalallantoic placenta is similar to that of the peripheral chorioallantoic placenta, except that the height of uterine epithelial cells is greater and allantoic blood vessels are not associated with the embryonic epithelium. The functional capabilities of the three placental regions are not known, but structural characteristics suggest that the omphalallantoic placenta and peripheral zone of the chorioallantoic placenta are sites of nutritional provision via histotrophy. The paramesometrial region of the chorioallantoic placenta is also nutritive, in addition to functioning as the primary embryonic respiratory system. The structure of the chorioallantoic placenta of V. striatula is a new placental morphotype for squamate reptiles that is not represented by a classic model for the evolution of reptilian placentation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The development of the skull of the Egyptian Cobra Naja h. haje (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khannoon, Eraqi R; Evans, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    The study of craniofacial development is important in understanding the ontogenetic processes behind morphological diversity. A complete morphological description of the embryonic skull development of the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje, is lacking and there has been little comparative discussion of skull development either among elapid snakes or between them and other snakes. We present a description of skull development through a full sequence of developmental stages of the Egyptian cobra, and compare it to other snakes. Associated soft tissues of the head are noted where relevant. The first visible ossification centres are in the supratemporal, prearticular and surangular, with slight ossification visible in parts of the maxilla, prefrontal, and dentary. Epiotic centres of ossification are present in the supraoccipital, and the body of the supraoccipital forms from the tectum posterior not the tectum synoticum. The venom glands are visible as distinct bodies as early at stage 5 and enlarge later to extend from the otic capsule to the maxilla level with the anterior margin of the eye. The gland becomes more prominent shortly before hatching, concomitant with the development of the fangs. The tongue shows incipient forking at stage 5, and becomes fully bifid at stage 6. We present the first detailed staging series of cranial development for the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje. This is one of the first studies since the classical works of G. de Beer and W. Parker that provides a detailed description of cranial development in an advanced snake species. It allows us to correct errors and misinterpretations in previous accounts which were based on a small sample of specimens of uncertain age. Our results highlight potentially significant variation in supraoccipital formation among squamates and the need for further research in this area.

  14. Postnatal development of the skull of Dinilysia patagonica (Squamata-stem Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanferla, Agustín; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S

    2014-03-01

    The snake skull represents a profound transformation of the ancestral squamate cranium in which dermal skull roof bones were integrated with the braincase, in a manner convergent with that which occurred during the origin of mammals. However, the ontogeny of snake characters at the origin of the clade has until now been inaccessible. Here we describe a postnatal ontogenetic series of the Late Cretaceous stem snake Dinilysia patagonica and compare it to that of extant lizards and snakes. Comparative analysis indicates notable ontogenetic changes, including advanced state of ossification, isometric growth of the otic capsule, fusion of the stylohyal to the quadrate, and great posterior elongation of the supratemporal. Of these transformations, the unfused condition of braincase bones and the retention of a large otic capsule in adults are examples of paedomorphic and peramorphic processes, respectively. Some ontogenetic transformations detected, in particular those present in middle ear, skull roof and suspensorium, are strikingly similar to those present in extant snakes. Nevertheless, Dinilysia retains a lizard-like paroccipital process without an epiphyseal extremity, and a calcified epiphysis that caps the sphenoccipital tubercle. Finally, the integration of the dermal skull roof with the braincase is similar to that seen in mammals with regard to the overall closure of the braincase, but the two evolutionary and developmental modules appear less integrated in snakes in that the parietal bone of the dermal skull roof progressively overlaps the supraoccipital of the chondrocranial braincase. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (Squamata, Dactyloidae) of the Cerrado hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Werneck, Fernanda P; Giugliano, Lilian G; Santos, Marcella G; Fenker, Jéssica; Sousa, Lucas; D'Angiolella, Annelise B; Dos Santos, Adriana R; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Dorado-Rodrigues, Tainá F; Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A new species of iguanid lizard, genus Stenocercus (Squamata, Iguania), from the Central Andes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Pablo J; Echevarría, Lourdes Y; García-Burneo, Karla; Koch, Claudia

    2016-12-04

    We describe a new species of Stenocercus from the montane forest of the right margin of the Marañón river in the northern portion of the Central Andes in northern Peru (Amazonas and La Libertad departments), at elevations ranging from 2300 to 3035 m. Stenocercus omari sp. nov. differs from other Stenocercus species, with the exception of S. amydrorhytus, S. chrysopygus, S. cupreus, S. johaberfellneri, S. latebrosus, S. melanopygus, S. modestus, S. ornatissimus, S. orientalis, and S. stigmosus, by having granular scales on the posterior surfaces of thighs, a conspicuous antehumeral fold and by lacking a vertebral crest. However, Stenocercus omari sp. nov. is easily distinguished from the aforementioned species, except S. orientalis, by the presence of prominently keeled dorsal head scales. The new species differs from S. orientalis by lacking a prominent oblique neck fold and by having a distinct deep postfemoral mite pocket.

  17. Divergent calcium signaling in RBCs from Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata – Tropiduridae strengthen classification in lizard evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Célia RS

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that a Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs such as Ameiva ameiva and Tupinambis merianae controls intracellular calcium levels by displaying multiple mechanisms. In these cells, calcium stores could be discharged not only by: thapsigargin, but also by the Na+/H+ ionophore monensin, K+/H+ ionophore nigericin and the H+ pump inhibitor bafilomycin as well as ionomycin. Moreover, these lizards possess a P2Y-type purinoceptors that mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores upon ATP addition. Results Here we report, that RBCs from the tropidurid lizard Tropidurus torquatus store Ca2+ in endoplasmic reticulum (ER pool but unlike in the referred Teiidae, these cells do not store calcium in monensin-nigericin sensitive pools. Moreover, mitochondria from T. torquatus RBCs accumulate Ca2+. Addition of ATP to a calcium-free medium does not increase the [Ca2+]c levels, however in a calcium medium we observe an increase in cytosolic calcium. This is an indication that purinergic receptors in these cells are P2X-like. Conclusion T. torquatus RBCs present different mechanisms from Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs, for controlling its intracellular calcium levels. At T. torquatus the ion is only stored at endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Moreover activation of purinergic receptor, P2X type, was able to induce an influx of calcium from extracelullar medium. These studies contribute to the understanding of the evolution of calcium homeostasis and signaling in nucleated RBCs.

  18. Two newLiolaemuslizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A; Puas, German I; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2016-01-01

    Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus ( sensu stricto ) and Eulaemus , distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus ( sensu stricto ), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus , which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus ( sensu stricto ) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis . Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus .

  19. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Troncoso-Palacios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The L. elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto, especially the species closely related to L. elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the L. elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that L. lonquimayensis is a synonym of L. elongatus.

  20. Ultrastructure and wear patterns of the ventral epidermis of four snake species (Squamata, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marie-Christin G; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-10-01

    Snakes are limbless tetrapods highly specialized for sliding locomotion. This locomotion leads to the skin being exposed to friction loads, especially on the ventral body side, which leads to wear. It is presumed that snakes therefore have specific optimizations for minimizing abrasion. Scales from snakes with habitat, locomotor and/or behavior specializations have specific gradients in material properties that may be due to different epidermal architecture. To approach this issue we examined the skin of Lampropeltis getula californiae (terrestrial), Epicrates cenchria cenchria (generalist), Morelia viridis (arboreal), and Gongylophis colubrinus (burrowing) with a focus on (i) the ultrastructure of the ventral epidermis and (ii) the qualitative abrasion pattern of the ventral scales. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed variations in the structure, thickness, layering, and material composition of the epidermis between the species. Furthermore, SEM and white light interferometer images of the scale surface showed that the abrasion patterns differed, even when the snakes were reared on the same substrate. These data support the idea that (i) a specific gradient in material properties may be due to a variation in epidermis architecture (thickness/ultrastructure) and (ii) this variation may be an optimization of material properties for specific ways of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecological trap for Cnemidophorus ocellifer Spix 1825 (Squamata: Teiidae during removal of vegetation

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    Lucas Bezerra de Mattos Brito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals must anticipate future conditions according to current environmental clues. When habitats are rapidly modified, these signs may not reflect the actual environmental quality, leading to a decreased fitness of an individual and its population. During an activity of faunal rescue and scaring away in the coast of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, evidence of an ecological trap for the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer was observed. We suggest some actions which can minimize the impact of vegetation removal activities on lizards, such as: i better planning before proceeding with deforestation; and ii capture and release of lizards in appropriate locations.

  2. Temporal overlap of humans and giant lizards (Varanidae; Squamata) in Pleistocene Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Louys, Julien; Cramb, Jonathan; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin; Hocknull, Scott A.; Webb, Gregory E.; Nguyen, Ai Duc; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud

    2015-10-01

    An obvious but key prerequisite to testing hypotheses concerning the role of humans in the extinction of late Quaternary 'megafauna' is demonstrating that humans and the extinct taxa overlapped, both temporally and spatially. In many regions, a paucity of reliably dated fossil occurrences of megafauna makes it challenging, if not impossible, to test many of the leading extinction hypotheses. The giant monitor lizards of Australia are a case in point. Despite commonly being argued to have suffered extinction at the hands of the first human colonisers (who arrived by 50 ka), it has never been reliably demonstrated that giant monitors and humans temporally overlapped in Australia. Here we present the results of an integrated U-Th and 14C dating study of a late Pleistocene fossil deposit that has yielded the youngest dated remains of giant monitor lizards in Australia. The site, Colosseum Chamber, is a cave deposit in the Mt Etna region, central eastern Australia. Sixteen new dates were generated and demonstrate that the bulk of the material in the deposit accumulated since ca. 50 ka. The new monitor fossil is, minimally, 30 ky younger than the previous youngest reliably dated record for giant lizards in Australia and for the first time, demonstrates that on a continental scale, humans and giant lizards overlapped in time. The new record brings the existing geochronological dataset for Australian giant monitor lizards to seven dated occurrences. With such sparse data, we are hesitant to argue that our new date represents the time of their extinction from the continent. Rather, we suspect that future fossil collecting will yield new samples both older and younger than 50 ka. Nevertheless, we unequivocally demonstrate that humans and giant monitor lizards overlapped temporally in Australia, and thus, humans can only now be considered potential drivers for their extinction.

  3. Helminth parasites of the African lizard Agama agama (Squamata: Agamidae, in Lagos, Nigeria

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    G.O Adeoye

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Agama agama, the agamid rainbow lizard, has been reported to serve as transport and reservoir host to several protozoan and helminth parasites. We randomly sampled 310 specimens between May and July, 2005, at Oyingbo, Lagos, Nigeria (6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E and 6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E.They harboured four species of nematodes: Strongyluris brevicaudata, Parapharyngodon awokoyai, Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris sp.; one of Cestoda, Oochoristica agamae; one of Trematoda, Mesocoelium monas; and one of Pentastomida, Raillietiella sp. Strongyluris brevicaudata had the highest prevalence of infection (82.3 %, followed by P. awokoyai (74.5 %, Raillietiella (10.3 %, Capillaria sp. (8.4 % and O. agamae (7.4 %. M. monas and Oxyuris sp. had low prevalences: 1.61 % each. Raillietiella sp. and Capillaria sp. can cause localized inflammation and intestinal infections in humans. The prevalence of infection was higher in larger adult lizards. Prevalence in males was 97.6 % (94.1 % in females. in four of the helminth species, intensity of infection was higher in male lizards. Parasite intensity was highest in the rectum, followed by the intestine (pLa lagartija Agama agama actúa como medio de transporte y hospedero para varios protozoos y helmintos parásitos. Capturamos 310 lagartijas, muestreadas aleatoriamente, entre mayo y julio 2005, en Oyingbo, Lagos, Nigeria (6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E y 6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E. Hallamos cuatro especies de nematodos: Strongyluris brevicaudata, Parapharyngodon awokoyai, Capillaria y Oxyuris; un céstodo intestinal, Oochoristica agamae; un trematodo, Mesocoelium monodi; y un pentastómido, Raillietiella. S. brevicaudata tuvo la mayor prevalencia de infección (82.26 %, seguida por P. awokoyai (74.52 %, Raillietiella (10.32 %, Capillaria (8.38 % y O. agamae (7.41 %. M. monodi y Oxyuris tuvieron baja prevalencia con 1.61 % cada uno. Raillietiella y Capillaria causan inflamación localizada e infección intestinal en humanos. La prevalencia de infección estuvo positivamente relacionada con el tamaño de las lagartijas adultas. Los machos tuvieron mayor prevalencia, con 97.58 % (hembras 94.09 %. La infección intestinal en los machos fue mayor para cuatro de las especies de helmintos. La intensidad parasitaria fue mayor en el recto, seguida por el intestino (p<0.05. La intensidad de la infección fue dependiente del tipo de parásito y la edad de la lagartija. En mayo, P. awokoyai tuvo el mayor promedio de intensidad y prevalencia. La prevalencia y la intensidad promedio de S. brevicaudata fue mayor en junio (julio en las demás especies. La prevalencia y la intensidad variaron con el mes (ambos p<0.05.

  4. Low rate of interchromosomal rearrangements during old radiation of gekkotan lizards (Squamata: Gekkota)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Trifonov, V. A.; Rens, W.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2015), s. 299-309 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : genome evolution * geckos * chromosome painting * karyotype evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.590, year: 2015

  5. Differentiation of Sex Chromosomes and Karyotype Characterisation in the Dragonsnake Xenodermus javanicus (Squamata: Xenodermatidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovatsos, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 1 (2015), s. 48-54 ISSN 1424-8581 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : interstitial telomeric repeats * sex chromosomes * sex determination Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.638, year: 2015

  6. Reptilia, Squamata, Tropiduridae, Stenocercus sinesaccus Torres–Carvajal, 2005: Distribution extension

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    Morais, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the easternmost known record for the tropidurid lizard Stenocercussinesaccus Torres–Carvajal, 2005, at Floresta Nacional de Silvânia, state of Goiás, Brazil, in a transition areabetween cerrado sensu strictu and gallery forest

  7. Low rate of interchromosomal rearrangements during old radiation of gekkotan lizards (Squamata: Gekkota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-06-01

    Gekkotan lizards are a highly specious (∼1600 described species) clade of squamate lizards with nearly cosmopolitan distribution in warmer areas. The clade is primarily nocturnal and forms an ecologically dominant part of the world nocturnal herpetofauna. However, molecular cytogenetic methods to study the evolution of karyotypes have not been widely applied in geckos. Our aim here was to uncover the extent of chromosomal rearrangements across the whole group Gekkota and to search for putative synapomorphies supporting the newly proposed phylogenetic relationships within this clade. We applied cross-species chromosome painting with the recently derived whole-chromosomal probes from the gekkonid species Gekko japonicus to members of the major gekkotan lineages. We included members of the families Diplodactylidae, Carphodactylidae, Pygopodidae, Eublepharidae, Phyllodactylidae and Gekkonidae. Our study demonstrates relatively high chromosome conservatism across the ancient group of gekkotan lizards. We documented that many changes in chromosomal shape across geckos can be attributed to intrachromosomal rearrangements. The documented rearrangements are not totally in agreement with the recently newly erected family Phyllodactylidae. The results also pointed to homoplasy, particularly in the reuse of chromosome breakpoints, in the evolution of gecko karyotypes.

  8. A preliminary phylogeny of the Palearctic naked-toed geckos (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) with taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Aaron M; Masroor, Rafaqat; Titus-McQuillan, James; Heinicke, Matthew P; Daza, Juan D; Jackman, Todd R

    2013-01-08

    Palearctic naked-toed geckos are a group of gekkonid geckos that range from North Africa to northern India and western China, with their greatest diversity in Iran and Pakistan. Relationships among the constituent genera remain incompletely resolved and the monophyly of key genera remains unverified. Further, competing classifications are in current use and many species have been allocated to different genera by different authors. We used both mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear genes (RAG1, PDC) to explore relationships among representatives of all but one genus in the group (Rhinogecko), including four genera not previously included in phylogenetic analyses (Asiocolotes, Altigekko, Indogekko, and Siwaligekko). Siwaligekko (and presumably other Tibeto-Himalayan species often referred to Cyrtopodion) are more closely related to tropical Asian Cyrtodactylus than to Palearctic naked-toed geckos. Sampled species of Asiocolotes and Altigekko are sister taxa, but both genera are here considered junior subjective synonyms of Altiphylax. Cyrtopodion sensu lato is non-monophyletic; Mediodactylus and Tenuidactylus, which have variably been considered as subgenera or synonyms of Cyrtopodion are both valid genera. Indogekko is embedded within Cyrtopodion and is here treated as a subgenus. Bunopus and Crossobamon are closely related to one-another, and with Agamura are interdigitated among taxa previously assigned to Cyrtopodion. Our data confirm the previous identification of a Saharo-Arabian Stenodactylus/Tropiocolotes/Pseudoceramodactylus clade and verify that Microgecko and Alsophylax are not members of the main clade of Palearctic naked-toed geckos. Osteological differences between Tropiocolotes and Microgecko, formerly treated as congeneric, are discussed and illustrated. The divergence between Cyrtodactylus and the Palearctic naked-toed clade predates the initial collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates, but deeper divergences within both groups are consistent with mountain building in the Himalayas and adjacent ranges as promoting cladogenic events. Miocene divergences within Tenuidactylus are consistent with vicariant speciation caused by uplift events in the Iranian and Transcaspian regions. Taxonomic implications of our phylogenetic results are discussed and a preliminary allocation of all species of padless Palearctic gekkonids to genus is provided.

  9. Insights into Himalayan biogeography from geckos: a molecular phylogeny of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ishan; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R; Karanth, K Praveen

    2014-11-01

    The India-Asia collision profoundly influenced the climate, topography and biodiversity of Asia, causing the formation of the biodiverse Himalayas. The species-rich gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus is an ideal clade for exploring the biological impacts of the India-Asia collision, as previous phylogenetic hypotheses suggest basal divergences occurred within the Himalayas and Indo-Burma during the Eocene. To this end, we sampled for Cyrtodactylus across Indian areas of the Himalayas and Indo-Burma Hotspots and used three genes to reconstruct relationships and estimate divergence times. Basal divergences in Cyrtodactylus, Hemidactylus and the Palaearctic naked-toed geckos were simultaneous with or just preceded the start of the India-Asia collision. Diversification within Cyrtodactylus tracks the India-Asia collision and subsequent geological events. A number of geographically concordant clades are resolved within Indo-Burmese Cyrtodactylus. Our study reveals 17 divergent lineages that may represent undescribed species, underscoring the previously undocumented diversity of the region. The importance of rocky habitats for Cyrtodactylus indicates the Indo-Gangetic flood plains and the Garo-Rajmahal Gap are likely to have been important historical barriers for this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Scratch resistance of the ventral skin surface in four snake species (Squamata, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marie-Christin G; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-04-01

    Snakes are limbless tetrapods highly specialized for sliding locomotion on various substrates. Their skin is constantly exposed to high friction forces, which promotes abrasion. Snake skin has material and surface specializations, presumably optimized for friction and abrasion resistance. We found that different snake species living in different habitats have different abrasion patterns and hypothesized that this correlates with specific epidermal architecture and surface topography. To test this hypothesis artificial scratches, under controlled load conditions, were created on the ventral skin material (epidermis) of four snake species adapted to different habitats: Lampropeltis getula californiae (stony and sandy soil substrates), Epicrates cenchria cenchria (trees, soil and water), Morelia viridis (trees), and Gongylophis colubrinus (burrowing in sand). Abrasion appearance on the skin surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy and white light interferometry. The material failure was different between the species, which we attribute to differences in the epidermis' response to the same abrasive challenge. We also discuss abrasion resistance mechanisms and the correlation with the different ultrastructure and surface microstructure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. The oogenic cycle of the Caspian bent-toed gecko, Cyrtopodion caspium (Squamata: Gekkonidae in Iran

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    Vida Hojati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caspian bent-toed gecko, Cyrtopodion caspium, is one of the commonest lizards in northern Iran. It is nocturnal, anthropophile and oviparous. In this study, the reproductive cycle of this species was studied by focusing on oogenesis, from April 5 to October 20, 2011. In total, 70 adult females were obtained from Mazandaran, one of the northern provinces of Iran where the climate is temperate. Ovaries were removed and processed for histological and morphometric studies. The results show that oocyte growth starts in late April and ends in August. Mating starts in spring, especially at the beginning of May, with oviposition occurring from late May to mid August. Females lay 1-2 eggs per clutch with the possibility of producing a secondary clutch later in the season. Maximum reproductive activity occurs in May and peaks in June. There was no significant difference between right and left side of reproductive system. With oogenesis occurring from April through July, C. caspium follows an oogenic cycle typical for temperate species.

  12. [Morphologic variation of the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki (Squamata: Teiidae): evolutionary and conservation implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Rocha, Sandra P; Méndez-de la Cruz, Fausto R; Méndez-Sánchez, J Fernando; Granados-González, Gisela; Hernândez-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2008-12-01

    Post-formational divergence has been used for the recognition of new parthenogenetic species. Currently, the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki McCoy and Maslin 1962 is recognized as a single taxon that was derived from a single, parthenogenetically capable, hybrid. This lizard had been derived via hybridization between individuals of two gonochoristic species, Aspidoscelis ungusticeps Cope 1878 and Aspidoscelis deppii Wiegmann 1834. The distribution of A. rodecki includes Isla Contoy and Isla Mujeres and the adjacent mainland of Quintana Roo, México. Previous studies have found post-formational divergence in genetic, chromatic and life-history characteristics among a continental population (Puerto Juárez) and an insular population (Isla Contoy). A meristic analysis was carried out to evaluate the morphological divergence among both populations of A. rodecki. We used 38 individuals from Puerto Juárez and 23 individuals from Isla Contoy. Nine meristic characters with discrimination value among species of the genus Aspidoscelis were used in both univariate (t-Student) and multivariate analyses (principal components and canonical variate analysis). According to both analyses, Puerto Juárez is meristically distinguishable from Isla Contoy. Both populations differ in five meristic characters and were a high correct classification in the canonical variate analysis: 97% of Puerto Juárez and 100% of Isla Contoy. A small sample from Isla Mujeres and a single specimen from Punta Sam (mainland) may represent different morphological groups. Due to the patterns of phenotypic variation, A. rodecki is considered as a single variable parthenogenetic species with high priority to conservation. The populations of A. rodecki have been extremely affected by the tourism developers. If the habitat of the parthenogenetic lizard (beach grasses) is allowed to stay, the expansion by the developers will not affect the survivorship of these populations. Nevertheless, the first sign of development is the total destruction of natural grasses that occurs on the beach, leaving only sand. There is a last chance to save the parthenogenetic lizard A. rodecki, but any effort will be useless without the support from the environmental authority of Mexico and cooperation from the developers. We suggest that Puerto Juárez and Isla Contoy receive separate management because they have unique portions of phenotypic variation of A. rodecki. The two lizard populations can be considered separate "Evolutionary Significant Units" (ESU).

  13. Variabilidad poblacional en el género Kentropyx (Squamata: Teiidae del Norte argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedesco, María E.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability of population of Kentropyx from northern Argentina was studied using characters of lepidosis and coloration. A subspecific taxonomic level, Kentropyx viridistriga lagartija is proposed for Kentropyx lagartija, considering this subspecies a western form of the eastern one Kentropyx viridistriga viridistriga.

  14. Species delimitation using Bayes factors: simulations and application to the Sceloporus scalaris species group (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummer, Jared A; Bryson, Robert W; Reeder, Tod W

    2014-03-01

    Current molecular methods of species delimitation are limited by the types of species delimitation models and scenarios that can be tested. Bayes factors allow for more flexibility in testing non-nested species delimitation models and hypotheses of individual assignment to alternative lineages. Here, we examined the efficacy of Bayes factors in delimiting species through simulations and empirical data from the Sceloporus scalaris species group. Marginal-likelihood scores of competing species delimitation models, from which Bayes factor values were compared, were estimated with four different methods: harmonic mean estimation (HME), smoothed harmonic mean estimation (sHME), path-sampling/thermodynamic integration (PS), and stepping-stone (SS) analysis. We also performed model selection using a posterior simulation-based analog of the Akaike information criterion through Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis (AICM). Bayes factor species delimitation results from the empirical data were then compared with results from the reversible-jump MCMC (rjMCMC) coalescent-based species delimitation method Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BP&P). Simulation results show that HME and sHME perform poorly compared with PS and SS marginal-likelihood estimators when identifying the true species delimitation model. Furthermore, Bayes factor delimitation (BFD) of species showed improved performance when species limits are tested by reassigning individuals between species, as opposed to either lumping or splitting lineages. In the empirical data, BFD through PS and SS analyses, as well as the rjMCMC method, each provide support for the recognition of all scalaris group taxa as independent evolutionary lineages. Bayes factor species delimitation and BP&P also support the recognition of three previously undescribed lineages. In both simulated and empirical data sets, harmonic and smoothed harmonic mean marginal-likelihood estimators provided much higher marginal-likelihood estimates than PS and SS estimators. The AICM displayed poor repeatability in both simulated and empirical data sets, and produced inconsistent model rankings across replicate runs with the empirical data. Our results suggest that species delimitation through the use of Bayes factors with marginal-likelihood estimates via PS or SS analyses provide a useful and complementary alternative to existing species delimitation methods.

  15. Molecular systematics and undescribed diversity of Madagascan scolecophidian snakes (Squamata: Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán T; Marion, Angela B; Glaw, Frank; Miralles, Aurélien; Nopper, Joachim; Vences, Miguel; Hedges, S Blair

    2015-11-10

    We provide an updated molecular phylogenetic analysis of global diversity of typhlopid and xenotyphlopid blindsnakes, adding a set of Madagascan samples and sequences of an additional mitochondrial gene to an existing supermatrix of nuclear and mitochondrial gene segments. Our data suggest monophyly of Madagascan typhlopids, exclusive of introduced Indotyphlops braminus. The Madagascar-endemic typhlopid clade includes two species previously assigned to the genus Lemuriatyphlops (in the subfamily Asiatyphlopinae), which were not each others closest relatives. This contradicts a previous study that described Lemuriatyphlops based on a sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene from a single species and found this species not forming a clade with the other Malagasy species included. Based on our novel phylogenetic assessment we include all species in this endemic typhlopid clade in the genus Madatyphlops and in the subfamily Madatyphlopinae and consider Lemuriatyphlops as junior synonym. Within Madatyphlops, we identify several candidate species. For some of these (those in the M. arenarius complex), our preliminary data suggest sympatric occurrence and morphological differentiation, thus the existence of undescribed species. We also comment on the genus-level classification of several non-Madagascan typhlopids. We suggest that African species included in Madatyphlops (Afrotyphlops calabresii, A. cuneirostris, A. platyrhynchus, and Rhinotyphlops leucocephalus) should not be included in this genus. We furthermore argue that recent claims of Sundatyphlops, Antillotyphlops, and Cubatyphlops being "undiagnosable" or "not monophyletic" were based on errors in tree reconstruction and failure to notice diagnostic characters, and thus regard these three genera as valid.

  16. The rediscovery of the Common Water Monitor Lizard Varanus salvator (Squamata: Varanidae in northern Myanmar

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    Sai Sein Lin Oo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On 09 June 2015, a Common Water Monitor Varanus salvator (Laurenti, 1768 was observed and photographed (Image 1 on the campus of Banmaw University, Banmaw (Bhamo, Kachin State, Myanmar (24018’15”N & 97015’52”E.  Subsequently, a second individual was observed 140km to the west at Banmauk, Sagaing Division (24024’N & 95051’E. These two observations are the first records of Varanus salvator from Upper Myanmar since Anderson (1878. It would be interesting to conduct follow-up studies to determine whether this is indeed a relict northern population. 

  17. Estudo sobre a folidose, morfometria e dimorfismo sexual de Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858) (Squamata, Colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Rafaella Vallim de

    2013-01-01

    A família Colubridae compreende o maior grupo de serpentes, com mais de 1772 espécies descritas no mundo. O gênero Philodryas está representado por 18 espécies, sendo 13 ocorrentes no Brasil, com ampla distribuição. Características morfológicas externas e padrões de coloração são fundamentais para estudos sobre o dimorfismo sexual e a taxonomia das espécies de serpentes. Assim, objetivou-se analisar e avaliar características morfológicas entre os sexos de Philodryas patagoniensis, depositados...

  18. Spatial ecology of the coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum (Squamata: Colubridae), in eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Johnson; Robert R. Fleet; Michael B. Keck; D. Craig Rudolph

    2007-01-01

    We radio-tracked nine Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhips) to determine home range, habitat use, and movements in eastern Texas from April to October 2000. Home ranges of Coachwhips contained more oak savanna macrohabitat than early-successional pine plantation or forested seep, based on the availability of these three macrohabitats in the study area....

  19. The presence of Abronia oaxacae (Squamata: Anguidae in tank bromeliads in temperate forests of Oaxaca, Mexico

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    GI. Cruz-Ruiz

    Full Text Available The presence of lizards in bromeliads has been widely documented. Nevertheless, the possibility of some type of preference or specificity among lizards for particular bromeliad species has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aims to document the presence of Abronia oaxacae in six species of tank bromeliads found in pine forests, pine-live oak forests, and live oak groves during both the rainy season and the dry season. Three adult individuals of Abronia oaxacae were collected; one in a Tillandsia violácea (pine-live oak forest, one in a T. calothyrsus (live oak grove, and one in a T. prodigiosa (live oak grove. All three specimens were collected in sampling efforts carried out during the dry season. The results of the present study suggest that A. oaxacae shows no preference for a single, specific bromeliad species, although it does have a certain preference for a few select species. The presence of A. oaxacae in bromeliads during the dry season could be related to the cooler, moister microhabitat that these plants represent.

  20. Notes on Anolis omiltemanus Davis, 1954 (Reptilia Squamata: Dactyloidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Gunther; Trejo Pérez, Raúl Gómez; García Pareja, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    During a short visit to the region of Omiltemi (Guerrero, Mexico), we observed Anoĩis omiĩtemanus in its natural habitat and collected 10 specimens. We provide a description of the external morphology of this species based on the newly collected specimens and 30 additional specimens from various ...

  1. Resurrection of Bronchocela burmana Blanford, 1878 for the Green Crested Lizard (Squamata, Agamidae of southern Myanmar

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    George R. Zug

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent fieldwork in southern Tanintharyi revealed the presence of a small Green Crested Lizard in the wet evergreen forest. We generated mtDNA sequence data (ND2 that demonstrates that this population’s nearest relative is Bronchocela rayaensis Grismer et al., 2015 of Pulau Langkawi, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia and Phuket Island. Morphologically the Burmese Bronchocela shares many features with B. rayaensis, which potentially would make this recently described Thai-Malay species a synonym of Bronchocela burmana Blanford, 1878; however, we interpret the genetic and morphological differences to reflect evolutionary divergence and recommend the recognition of both species.

  2. Tropidurus cocorobensis Rodrigues, 1987 (Squamata, Tropiduridae. New record and geographic distribution map in northeastern Brazil

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    Barbosa, Luirick F. S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropidurus cocorobensis Rodrigues, 1987. Brazil, state of Pernambuco, municipality of Floresta (08°36'04" S; 38°34'07" W; 316 m. Collectors: Members of the Wildlife Rescue Team from the Project of Integration of São Francisco river (PISF with the basins of septentrional northeastern. From July 2009 to February 2010, 55 specimens were collected in areas of Caatinga characterized by shrub vegetation with sandy soil, and deposited in the Scientific Collection of the Centro de Conservação e Manejo de Fauna da Caatinga – CEMAFAUNA-CAATINGA/UNIVASF, Petrolina, Brazil. Axis East Transposition of the São Franscisco river – Petrolândia (Leste Petrolândia: LPE (LPE 998.

  3. Distribuição geográfica de Psychosaura agmosticha (Rodrigues, 2000 (Squamata, Mabuyidae

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    Arnaldo Magalhães Júnior

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n2p217 Durante as atividades de resgate de fauna do Projeto de Integração do Rio São Francisco com as bacias do nordeste setentrional foram capturados 39 exemplares de Psychosaura agmosticha (Rodrigues, 2000 em localidades nos estados do Ceará, Paraíba e Pernambuco, região Nordeste do Brasil. Relacionamos estes registros aos encontrados na literatura e constatamos a espécie em quatro formações fitofisionômicas distintas: Dunas arenosas do rio São Francisco, caatinga arbustiva, caatinga arbórea e formações de florestas residuais e ecotonais. A ampliação da distribuição geográfica e os novos registros de ocorrência de P. agmosticha, bem como sua ocorrência em diferentes formações fitofisionômicas da Caatinga e em áreas de florestas residuais e ecótonos, demonstram que, apesar de sua distribuição geográfica ser mais ampla do que se conhecia, seu padrão de distribuição relictual ainda se mantém, em virtude da ocorrência de P. agmosticha estar relacionada à ocorrência de bromélias. Contudo, o endemismo da espécie para o bioma Caatinga parece não ser absoluto.

  4. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Squamata: Scincidae from a montane atlantic rainforest area in Southeastern Brazil

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    Teixeira, Rogério L.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns aspectos da ecologia (principalmente reprodução e dieta do lagarto scincídeo Mabuya agilis foram estudados com base em amostras mensais realizadas de dezembro de 1997 a abril de 1999 em uma área de floresta tropical serrana no estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil. Dos 197 espécimes coletados, 82 eram machos, 110 eram fêmeas, e o resto não pôde ser corretamente sexado. Lagartos variaram em comprimento rostro-coacal de 30 a 96 mm e foram sexualmente dimórficos em tamanho, com fêmeas atingindo maiores tamanhos que machos. A menor fêmea grávida mediu 54.0 mm. O tamanho da ninhada para 49 fêmeas grávidas variou de 2 a 9 (média = 5.7 e esteve positiva e significativamente relacionado ao tamanho dos lagartos. As presas dominantes na dieta de M. agilis foram baratas, ortópteros e aranhas. A população de M. agilis aqui estudada diferiu de outras populações conspecíficas previamente estudadas em hábitats de «restinga» nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, sendo que os indivíduos crescem a tamanhos maiores e a fecundidade é mais alta, possivelmente devido a uma maior disponibilidade de alimento no hábitat de floresta tropical serrana Some aspects of the ecology (mainly reproduction and diet of the skink Mabuya agilis were studied based on monthly samples taken from December 1997 to April 1999 at a montane rainforest area in Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Of 197 collected specimens, 82 were males, 110 were females, and the rest could not be properly sexed. Lizards varied in snout-vent length (SVL from 30 to 96 mm and were sexually dimorphic in size, with females growing larger than males. The smallest gravid female measured 54.0 mm in SVL. Litter size of 49 gravid females varied from 2 to 9 (mean= 5.7 and was positively and significantly related to lizard SVL. The dominant prey items in the diet of M. agilis were cockroaches, orthopterans and spiders. The population of M. agilis here studied differed from other conspecific populations previously studied in «restinga» habitats from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo states in that individuals grow to larger sizes and fecundity is higher, possibly because of a higher food availability in the montane rainforest habitat.

  5. A novel species of Euspondylus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes Mountains of central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Tiffany M; Adams, Grant

    2015-10-21

    The South American gymnophthalmid genus Euspondylus is distributed from Venezuela through Peru, with its highest diversity occurring in Peru. Euspondylus paxcorpus sp. nov. is a new species from Junín, Peru possessing prefrontal scales and represented by 60 specimens. The new species differs from all other species by the combination of four supraoculars with supraocular/supraciliary fusion, 5-7 occipitals, a single palpebral scale, five supralabials and infralabials, quadrangular dorsal scales with low keels arranged in transverse series only, 40-45 in a longitudinal count and 22-28 in a transverse count, 12 rows of ventrals in a transverse count and 23-25 in a longitudinal count, and no sexual dimorphism in coloration. The discovery of E. paxcorpus increases the known number of Euspondylus species to 13. Because the coloration patterns of the specimens were greatly different after preservation in alcohol, caution should be used when identifying Euspondylus species from museum specimens.

  6. Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri C. C. Lima; Fagner R. Delfim; Gentil A. Pereira-Filho; Washington L. S. Vieira; Gindomar Gomes Santana; Kleber S. Vieira

    2008-01-01

    The Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest was investigated in relation to species richness and habitat use. Fourteen species of amphibian anurans pertaining to the families Bufonidae, Brachycephalidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae were recorded. The reptiles were represented by 37 species, distributed in the families Gekkonidae, Gymnophthalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Typ...

  7. An annoted checklist of the lizards of Kenya | Spawls | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This checklist records the 99 species of lizards known at present from Kenya, and which are divided amongst eight families: Gekkonidae 33 species, Agamidae seven, Chamaeleonidae 17, Scincidae 22, Lacertidae 12, Cordylidae five, Varanidae two, Amphisbaenidae one. Brief data on the distribution of all species is given, ...

  8. Sintopy of two Tropidurus lizard species (Squamata: Tropiduridae in a rocky Cerrado habitat in Central Brazil Sintopia de duas espécies de Tropidurus (Squamata: Tropiduridae em um habitat de Cerrado rupestre no Brasil Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Faria

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ecology of Tropidurus itambere and T. oreadicus that occur syntopically in rocky habitats of Cerrado vegetation in central Brazil during the dry season (April to September 2000. The two species are ecologically similar, but somewhat differentiated in vertical microhabitat use. The two species preferred rocky surface microhabitat. Both species demonstrated a unimodal activity pattern, with a peak between 10 and 15 h. Their diets were similar in composition and prey size. The most frequent item used by both species was ants, whereas the most important preys volumetrically were termites and ants. Small morphological differences observed between the two Tropidurus species could explain minor microhabitat divergence: T. itambere is slightly smaller, heavier, and more robust, and uses lower perches. T. oreadicus is larger, lankier, with longer extremities (tail, fore- and hindlegs, and uses a larger vertical microhabitat range. These ecological differences are slight, when compared with those observed between sympatric species of Tropidurus in spatially more heterogeneous landscapes. Considering the slight ecomorphological divergence between the two Tropidurus species and their high abundance in outcrops, we suggest that interspecific territoriality is the mechanism of coexistence.Estudamos a ecologia de Tropidurus itambere e T. oreadicus que ocorrem sintopicamente em habitats rochosos da vegetação de Cerrado, do Brasil Central, durante a estação seca (de abril até setembro de 2000. As duas espécies são ecologicamente similares, mas diferem no uso vertical do microhabitat, sendo a superfície das rochas o microhabitat mais usado pelas duas espécies. Ambas as espécies tiveram padrão de atividade unimodal, com pico entre as 10 e 15 h. Suas dietas foram similares na composição e tamanho de presa. O alimento mais freqüente das duas espécies de lagartos foi formiga, enquanto as presas volumetricamente mais importantes foram cupins e formigas. Pequenas diferenças morfológicas foram observadas entre as duas espécies de Tropidurus, que poderiam estar relacionadas ao uso do microhabitat. T. itambere é relativamente menor, mais pesado e robusto, usando poleiros mais baixos. T. oreadicus é maior, mais esguio, com extremidades mais longas (cauda, membros anteriores e posteriores, usando uma faixa vertical maior do microhabitat. Estas diferenças ecológicas são pequenas quando comparadas com as diferenças observadas entre espécies simpátricas de Tropidurus em paisagens espacialmente mais heterogêneas. Considerando a pequena divergência ecomorfológica entre as duas espécies de Tropidurus e sua alta abundância nos afloramentos, sugerimos que a territorialidade interespecífica é o mecanismo de coexistência.

  9. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MABUYA BERENGERAE, MABUYA PERGRAVIS (SQUAMATA: SCINCIDAE Y CONIOPHANES ANDRESENSIS (SQUAMATA: COLUBRIDAE Y EVALUACIÓN DE SU ESTADO DE AMENAZA EN LAS ISLAS DE SAN ANDRÉS Y PROVIDENCIA, COLOMBIA

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    JOSÉ RANCES CAICEDO-PORTILLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta nueva información sobre la taxonomía, la distribución y la historia natural de los lagartos Mabuya berengerae y M. pergravis; así como de la serpiente Coniophanes andresensis, tres especies endémicas y poco conocidas de las islas de San Andrés y Providencia, las cuales se creían muy raras e incluso extintas. A pesar del poco tiempo de estudio en las islas, se evidenció que los lagartos no son raros, encontrándose hasta ocho ejemplares cada media hora. La evaluación del estado de conservación según los parámetros de la IUCN para las tres especies, clasifica a M. berengerae y M. pergravis como especies casi amenazadas (NT y a C. andresensis como una especie en peligro crítico de extinción (CR. La pequeña área de distribución geográfica, el impacto antrópico y la introducción de especies exóticas pueden ser las principales causas de la disminución de la población de C. andresensis. Se analizaron algunos caracteres taxonómicos en M. berengerae (hasta ahora conocida de un solo ejemplar, encontrándose ciertas discrepancias que hacen necesaria su redefinición. Se recomienda realizar programas de investigación básica, conservación y educación, así como proteger los hábitats naturales de las islas.

  10. Sistemática filogenética de las lagartijas del género Stenocercus (Squamata: Iguania de los Andes del norte Phylogenetic systematics of lizards of the genus Stenocercus (Squamata: Iguania from the northern Andes

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    Omar Torres-Carvajal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Stenocercus está compuesto por 61 especies que se distribuyen principalmente en los Andes y tierras bajas aledañas (0-4 000 m, desde el norte de Colombia y Venezuela hasta el centro de Argentina. En este trabajo se realizaron análisis de parsimonia e inferencia bayesiana para estudiar las relaciones filogenéticas entre las 20 especies de Stenocercus que habitan en los Andes del norte (Ecuador, Colombia y Venezuela, utilizando datos morfológicos y moleculares por separado y en combinación. Los análisis dieron como resultado topologías similares indicando que las especies de Stenocercus de los Andes del norte están divididas en 2 clados. Uno contiene 6 especies distribuidas entre el sur de Ecuador y sur de Colombia, mientras que el otro tiene 13 especies distribuidas desde el sur de Ecuador hasta el norte de Colombia y Venezuela. Los resultados también sugieren que la reciente formación de los Andes del norte ha tenido gran influencia sobre la evolución de Stenocercus.The genus Stenocercus is composed of 61 species that occur mainly in the Andes and adjacent lowland areas (0-4 000 m from northern Colombia and Venezuela to central Argentina. In this study, I performed parsimony and Bayesian analyses to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the 20 species of Stenocercus that occur in the northern Andes (Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela; I analyzed morphological, molecular, and combined datasets. These analyses resulted in similar topologies, which indicate that species of Stenocercus from the northern Andes are nested within 2 major clades. One of these clades contains 6 species occurring between southern Ecuador and southern Colombia, whereas the other clade includes 13 species that occur from southern Ecuador to northern Colombia and Venezuela. The results also suggest that the recent uplift of the northern Andes has had a major impact on the evolution of Stenocercus.

  11. A new species of Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parasitizing Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata from northeastern Argentina Una especie nueva de Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parásita de Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata del noreste de Argentina

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    Lía Inés Lunaschi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae from a Spiny Lava Lizard, Tropidurus spinulosus, collected in Chaco Province, Argentina, is described. This is the second species of Mathevotaenia described from Neotropical reptiles. The new species is mainly characterized by having a relatively small strobila, 24 mm in total length, with about 100 craspedote proglottids, and 19-24 testes per proglottid. Among the South American species of Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis is most similar to the new species by having similar body length and number of testes, but the major differences between both species include the size of suckers, neck, proglottids, testes and egg capsules, and the shape of the genital atrium and ovary (with 10-13 lobules on each side in M. argentinensis,, and 4-7 lobules in M. chaquensis n. sp.. A key to the species of the South American members of the Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946 is presented.Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae es descrita parasitando al lagarto de los quebrachales, Tropidurus spinulosus, procedente de la Provincia del Chaco, Argentina. Esta es la segunda especie de Mathevotaenia descrita parasitando reptiles Neotropicales. La nueva especie está caracterizada principalmente por tener un estróbilo relativamente pequeño, 24 mm de largo, con aproximadamente 100 proglótides craspedotas y 19-24 testículos por proglótide. Entre las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis es la más semejante a la nueva especie por presentar similar longitud del cuerpo y número de testículos, pero difieren en el tamaño de las ventosas, cuello, proglótides, testículos y huevos. Además difieren en la forma del atrio genital y del ovario (10-13 lóbulos a cada lado enM. argentinensis vs. 4-7 lóbulos en M. chaquensis n. sp.. Se presenta una clave para la determinación de las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946.

  12. Hábitos alimentares de Enyalius perditus (Squamata, Leiosauridae no Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brasil Feeding habits of Enyalius perditus (Squamata, Leiosauridae from the Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Maria de Sousa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi analisado a dieta de Enyalius perditus Jackson, 1978 e suas variações de acordo com disponibilidade de alimento no Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Três áreas de matas foram amostradas, utilizando-se armadilhas de queda e adesivas para captura dos lagartos e itens-presa disponíveis. Os lagartos (n= 55 foram dissecados e o conteúdo estomacal analisado. O Índice de eletividade mostrou que larvas foram importantes volumetricamente na dieta de E. perditus, enquanto que formigas e isópodos foram importantes numericamente. A quantidade de itens nas dietas de machos e fêmeas diferiram estatisticamente, talvez como uma conseqüência da maior quantidade de formigas ingeridas pelas fêmeas e isópodos e larvas pelos machos. Baseado no comportamento alimentar, os machos são mais semelhantes aos forrageadores ativos e as fêmeas, aos predadores senta-e-espera.The present study was carried out to describe the diet, and its variations according to food availability, in Enyalius perditus Jackson, 1978 from Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Three areas were chosen in the forest fragments; pit falls and glue traps were used to capture lizards and their preys. Lizards (n=55 were dissected in order to analyze the stomach content. The Electivity Index showed that insect larvae were volumetrically important in the diet of E. perditus, while ants and woodlices where numerically important. The quantity of diet items have differed significantly between males and females, perhaps, as a consequence of the higher quantity of ants ingested by female lizards and larvae ingested by males lizards. Based upon alimentary behavior, the male lizards resemble the active forragers and the females sit and wait forragers.

  13. Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae preys on the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Dipsadidae predando o marsupial arborícola Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae

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    S. Muñoz-Leal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas chamissonis, the Chilean long-tailed snake, is a diurnal predator mainly of Liolaemus lizards, but also of amphibians, birds, rodents and juvenile rabbits. Dromiciops gliroides (Colocolo opossum is an arboreal marsupial endemic of temperate rainforest of southern South America. Little information is available about this marsupial's biology and ecology. Here we report the predation of one Colocolo opossum by an adult female P. chamissonis in a mixed Nothofagus forest, composed mainly by N. dombeyi, N. glauca and N. alpina trees, in the "Huemules de Niblinto" National Reserve, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Since these two species have different activity and habitat use patterns, we discuss how this encounter may have occurred. Although it could just have been an opportunistic event, this finding provides insights into the different components of food chains in forest ecosystems of Chile.Philodryas chamissonis, cobra de cauda comprida ("Culebra de cola larga", é uma cobra diurna, predadora principalmente de lagartos do gênero Liolaemus, mas também de anfíbios, aves, roedores e coelhos jovens. Dromiciops gliroides (colocolo é um marsupial arborícola endêmico das florestas temperadas do sul da América do Sul. Há pouca informação disponível sobre a biologia e a ecologia deste marsulpial. É reportada, neste estudo, a predação de um colocolo por uma fêmea adulta de P. chamissonis, em uma floresta mista de Nothofagus, composta principalmente por árvores N. dombeyi, N. glauca e N. alpina, na Reserva Nacional de Huemules de Niblinto, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Uma vez que estas duas espécies possuem diferentes padrões de atividade e de uso de habitat, discute-se como este evento poder ter ocorrido. Embora este possa ter sido apenas um evento oportunístico, o achado fornece novas informações sobre os diferentes componentes da cadeia alimentar nos ecossistemas florestais do Chile.

  14. A new species of Stenocercus (Squamata, Iguania from central-western Brazil with a key to Brazilian Stenocercus

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    Omar Torres-Carvajal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Stenocercus from central-western Brazil differs from other Stenocercus by the following combination of characters: head and body scales strongly keeled, posthumeral and postfemoral mite pockets absent, nostrils laterally oriented, supraciliary scales not enlarged or projected, and caudal fracture planes absent. Morphologically, the new species more closely resembles S. prionotus and S. caducus. The latter species has been reported in Brazil based on misidentified specimens from Mato Grosso that correspond to the new species described herein. However, it is very likely that S. caducus occurs in Brazil because it has been reported from geographically close areas. Therefore, I recognize seven species of Stenocercus from Brazil and provide a dichotomous key to assist in the identification of specimens.

  15. Circumstantial evidences for mimicry of scorpions by the neotropical gecko Coleodactylus brachystoma (Squamata, Gekkonidae in the Cerrados of central Brazil

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    Reuber Albuquerque Brandão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few records of invertebrates mimicry by reptiles. In the Cerrados of central Brazil, the small Coleodactylus brachystoma is an endemic species common in the islands and margins of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam reservoir. When cornered, this lizard folds the tail over the body exposing the pale-orange ventral surface. Lizard behavior, tail length and color pattern confer to this lizard a strong resemblance with syntopic buthid scorpions Rhopalurus agamenon, Tytius matogrossensis, and Anantheris balzani. Lizards and scorpions share the same tail color, size, and shape. Ecologically, they use the same microhabitats, are exposed to the same potential predators, and present similar behaviors when threatened.

  16. Expression of phenotypic plasticity in hatchlings of the lizard Calotes versicolor (Squamata: Agamidae: influence of nest moisture

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    Bhagyashri A. Shanbhag

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Calotes versicolor breed from late May to early October. The breeding activity begins with the onset of the southwest monsoon. The eggs laid in early breeding season experience more wet conditions than those of the late breeding season. We studied the influence of nest moisture levels on the phenotypic traits of hatchlings by burying the eggs in 5-cm-deep sand nests with ~50%(wet nest or ~20% (relatively dry nest moisture to simulate nesting conditions of early and late breeding seasons. A group of eggs were subjected to standard laboratory incubation procedure in which eggs are half-buried in the moist sand and the other half exposed to air. Hatching time and hatchling body size varied with the treatment. The eggs from dry nests hatched later and hatchlings were the biggest but possessed least amount of residual yolk compared to those of 'wet nest' and also 'lab incubated' groups. In these hatchlings head and limb sizes were significantly larger than that of the other two groups. The findings show: (1 a developmental plasticity in the lizard, (2 that under low moist conditionslarger body size is preferred, and (3 that the trade-off between somatic growth of embryos and future energy reserves (residual yolk of hatchlings is influenced by the soil moisture in C. versicolor.

  17. An endemic new species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from an isolated dry   forest in southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauro, Caroll Z; García-Bravo, Antonio; Venegas, Pablo J

    2015-04-10

    We describe a new species of Ameiva from an interandean dry forest in central-southern Peru. Ameiva reticulata sp. nov. represents the fifth species in the genus known to occur in Peru. The new species is similar to the species of the A. ameiva complex such as A. ameiva, A. atrigularis, A. pantherina, and A. praesignis, and is distinguished from these by a smaller size, a lower count of dorsal scales along the middorsal line and scales across the midbody, and by the gular coloration.

  18. Two new species of Andean gymnophthalmid lizards of the genus Euspondylus (Reptilia, Squamata from central and southern Peru

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    Germán Chávez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of lizards assigned to the genus Euspondylus from the montane forests of the Peruvian Andes in the Pasco Department (central Peru and Ayacucho Department (southern Peru both at elevations of 2550 and 3450 m, respectively, are described. The new species are distinguishable from all other Peruvian and Ecuadorian species of Euspondylus by a unique combination of morphometric, scalation and color pattern characteristics. Natural history data for the new species and for E. spinalis are also provided.

  19. Two new species of Andean gymnophthalmid lizards of the genus Euspondylus (Reptilia, Squamata) from central and southern Peru.

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    Chávez, Germán; Siu-Ting, Karen; Duran, Vilma; Venegas, Pablo J

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of lizards assigned to the genus Euspondylus from the montane forests of the Peruvian Andes in the Pasco Department (central Peru) and Ayacucho Department (southern Peru) both at elevations of 2550 and 3450 m, respectively, are described. The new species are distinguishable from all other Peruvian and Ecuadorian species of Euspondylus by a unique combination of morphometric, scalation and color pattern characteristics. Natural history data for the new species and for Euspondylus spinalis are also provided.

  20. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts

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    Beatriz Badilla

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the capacity of leaf (Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, and Satureja viminea and root (Uncaria tomentosa extracts to inhibit edema induced by Bothrops asper snake venom. Edema-forming activity was studied plethysmographically in the rat hind paw model. Groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with various doses of each extract and, one hour later, venom was injected subcutaneously in the right hind paw. Edema was assessed at various time intervals. The edematogenic activity was inhibited in those animals that received an injection U. tomentosa, C. nutans or L. speciosa extract. The extract of U. baccifera showed a slight inhibition of the venom effect. Extract from S. viminea and, to a lesser extent that of U. leptuphylla, induced a pro-inflammatory effect, increasing the edema at doses of 250 mg/kg at one and two hours. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 245-252. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se investigó la capacidad de los extractos de las hojas de Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, Satureja viminea y de la raíz de Uncaria tomentosa para inhibir el edema inducido por el veneno de Bothrops asper por métodos pletismométricos. Los grupos de ratas fueron inyectados intraperitonealmente con varias dosis de cada extracto y una hora mas tarde se inyectó veneno por vía subcutánea en la pata trasera derecha de la rata. Se evaluó el edema en distintos intervalos de tiempo. Los resultados muestran que la actividad edematogénica fue inhibida en los animales que recibieron los extractos de raíz de U. tomentosa, hojas de C. nutans y L. speciosa. Los extractos de hojas de U. baccifera mostraron leve inhibición del efecto del veneno. El extracto de hojas de S. viminea y en menor grado el de U. leptuphylla indujeron un efecto pro inflamatorio.

  1. New species of Allopharynx (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) and other helminths in Uranoscodon superciliosus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Vitt, Laurie J

    2005-12-01

    Allopharynx daileyi n. sp. (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) from the small intestine of the tropidurid lizard Uranoscodon superciliosus from Amazonian Brazil is described and illustrated. Of the 11 currently recognized species of Allopharynx, we consider Allopharynx megorchis Simha, 1961 a synonym of Allopharynx mehrai (Gogate, 1935) Price 1938 and Allopharynx puertoricensis Acholonu, 1976 a synonym of Allopharynx riopedrensis Garcia-Diaz; thus, A. daileyi becomes the 10th species assigned to the genus. The trematode species Mesocoelium monas and 2 species of Nematoda, Africana chabaudi and Cosmocerca vrcibradici, were also present.

  2. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae in Costa Rica

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    G. Alvarado

    Full Text Available Abstract Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884 was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845. This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812 on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM of the specimens are given.

  3. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida) as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, G; Sánchez-Monge, A

    2015-11-01

    Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884) was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845). This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812) on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM) of the specimens are given.

  4. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J

    2006-06-01

    We tested the capacity of leaf (Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, and Satureja viminea) and root (Uncaria tomentosa) extracts to inhibit edema induced by Bothrops asper snake venom. Edema-forming activity was studied plethysmographically in the rat hind paw model. Groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with various doses of each extract and, one hour later, venom was injected subcutaneously in the right hind paw. Edema was assessed at various time intervals. The edematogenic activity was inhibited in those animals that received an injection U. tomentosa, C. nutans or L. speciosa extract. The extract of U. baccifera showed a slight inhibition of the venom effect. Extract from S. viminea and, to a lesser extent that of U. leptuphylla, induced a pro-inflammatory effect, increasing the edema at doses of 250 mg/kg at one and two hours.

  5. Uterine and chorioallantoic angiogenesis and changes in the uterine epithelium during gestation in the viviparous lizard, niveoscincus conventryi (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; Parker, Scott L; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    We used immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to quantify uterine vascularity and to describe uterine surface morphology during gestation in pregnant females of the lecithotrophic lizard Niveoscincus coventryi. As uterine angiogenesis and epithelial cell morphology are thought to be under progesterone control, we studied the effect of a progesterone receptor antagonist (mifepristone) on uterine and chorioallantoic microvasculature and features of the uterine epithelial surfaces. Although intussuceptive angiogenesis was observed in both, uterine and chorioallantoic, vascular beds during gestation, the only significant increases were in the diameters of the uterine vessels. An ellipsoid vessel-dense area grows in the mesometrial hemisphere of the developing conceptus, which parallels the expansion of the allantois to form the chorioallantoic placenta. Uterine surface topography changed during gestation. In particular, uterine blood vessels bulge over the luminal surface to form marked ridges on the uterine embryonic hemisphere, especially during the last stage of pregnancy, and ciliated cells are maintained in the embryonic and abembryonic hemispheres but disappear in both the mesometrial and antimesometrial poles. This distinct regionalization of uterine ridges and ciliated cells in the uterine surface and in the shape of the epithelial component of the chorion might be related to the function of both chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentae during gestation. There was no significant difference between females treated with or without mifepristone, which may be related to the partial function of mifepristone as a progestin antagonist and/or with the function and time of action of progesterone in the uterus during gestation in N. coventryi. Differences in the pattern of angiogenesis and uterine surface morphology during gestation among squamates may be related to the functional diversity of the uterine component of the different placentae and probably reflect its diverse evolutionary history. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Note on the diet of Ameiva edracantha (Squamata, Teiidae in Cerros de Amotape National Park, Tumbes, Peru

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    Juan C. Jordán

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Ameiva edracantha Bocourt 1874, a terrestrial diurnal teiid lizard distributed in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador is described for the first time. Stomach contents of fifteen individuals collected from quebrada La Angostura were analyzed. Lepidopteran larvae, coleopterans, orthopterans and spiders were the dominant preys in the lizard’s diet. Snout-vent length and head length, width and height were not correlated to prey length, width and volume. Other parameters such as profitability and prey target selection could be involved in prey selection by A. edracantha.

  7. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae

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    L. Verrastro

    Full Text Available Knowledge of a species’ diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard’s diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, “sit-and-wait” or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often.

  8. Diet and foraging of the endemic lizard Cnemidophorus littoralis (Squamata, Teiidae in the restinga de Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ

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    V. A. Menezes

    Full Text Available We investigated the diet and foraging of the endemic teiid lizard Cnemidophorus littoralis in a restinga habitat in Jurubatiba, Macaé - RJ. The stomach contents were removed, analyzed and identified to the Order level. There was no relationship between C. littoralis morphological variables and number, length or volume of preys. Termites (48.7% and larvae (35.5% were the most important prey items which occurred in the examined lizards´ stomachs. The diet did not differ between males and females. Cnemidophorus littoralis is an active forager and predominantly consumes relatively sedentary prey or prey that is aggregated in the environment. We also found an intact and undigested hatchling of the crepuscular/nocturnal gekkonid lizard Hemidactylus mabouia in the stomach of an adult male of C. littoralis, which indicates that C. littoralis is a potential source of mortality for individuals of H. mabouia in the restinga de Jurubatiba.

  9. Among-Individual Variation in Desert Iguanas (Squamata: Dipsosaurus dorsalis): Endurance Capacity Is Positively Related to Home Range Size.

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    Singleton, Jennifer M; Garland, Theodore

    Among species of lizards, endurance capacity measured on a motorized treadmill is positively related to daily movement distance and time spent moving, but few studies have addressed such relationships at the level of individual variation within a sex and age category in a single population. Both endurance capacity and home range size show substantial individual variation in lizards, rendering them suitable for such studies. We predicted that these traits would be positively related because endurance capacity is one of the factors that has the potential to limit home range size. We measured the endurance capacity and home range size of adult male desert iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). Lizards were field captured for measurements of endurance, and home range data were gathered using visual identification of previously marked individuals. Endurance was significantly repeatable between replicate trials, conducted 1-17 d apart ([Formula: see text] for log-transformed values, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The log of the higher of two endurance trials was positively but not significantly related to log body mass. The log of home range area was positively but not significantly related to log body mass, the number of sightings, or the time span from first to last sighting. As predicted, log endurance was positively correlated with log home range area ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]; for body-mass residual endurance values: [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]). These results suggest that endurance capacity may have a permissive effect on home range size. Alternatively, individuals with larger home ranges may experience training effects (phenotypic plasticity) that increase their endurance.

  10. Geographic body size and shape variation in a mainland anolis (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from northwestern South America (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Espinosa, Martha L; Barragan Contreras, Leidy Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Anolis auratus is a widely distributed species, from Costa Rica in Central America, through northern South America, including Colombia, Venezuela, northern Brazil, Surinam and the Guyanas. In Colombia, its widespread distribution across different life zones suggests that these lizards occupy different environments and exhibit different microhabitat use in different geographic areas. On the other hand, some observations suggest that this species prefers open areas, selecting grasslands over brushy areas, and thus, an alternative hypothesis is that microhabitat use is similar among different populations. In Anolis, body variables related to locomotion (body size and shape) defines structural microhabitat use, so two distinct patterns could be expected in this species: Conservative or highly variable body size and shape throughout the species distribution. To test these predictions, we characterized geographic variation in morphometric traits of this species in Colombia. Females and males were similar in body size, but exhibited differences in some variables related to body shape. These characteristics also varied among males and females from different regions, suggesting heterogeneous use of structural microhabitat, between sexes and among populations. As an alternative, phylogenetic divergence among populations could also account for the observed differences. Absence of ecological and phylogenetic data limits our ability to identify the underlying causes of this pattern. However, we provide a general framework to explore hypotheses about evolution of body size and shape in this species.

  11. A new species of Spauligodon (Nematoda; Oxyuroidea; Pharyngodonidae) and other Nematodes in Cyrtodactylus epiroticus (Squamata; Gekkonidae) from Papua New Guinea.

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    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2017-12-20

    Spauligodon papuensis sp. nov. from the large intestines of Cyrtodactylus epiroticus (Gekkonidae) from Papua New Guinea is described and illustrated. Spauligodon papuensis sp. nov. represents the 54th species assigned to the genus and the second species from the Oceanic Region. The new species is separated from congeners by the unique combination of aspinose filamentous tail and no spicule in the male; and spinose filamentous tail, fusiform, flanged eggs, and postbulbar vulva in the female. Four additional species of nematodes were also found in C. epiroticus: mature specimens of Cosmocerca zugi, Falcaustra papuensis, Physalopteroides milnensis and larvae of Abbreviata sp.

  12. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the Liolaemus rothi complex and a new species of lizard from Auca Mahuida Volcano (Squamata: Liolaemini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Luciano Javier; Olave, Melisa; Perez, Cristian Hernan Fulvio; Perez, Daniel Roberto; Morando, Mariana

    2013-01-21

    A new species of lizard of the genus Liolaemus from Neuquén Province, western Argentina, is described. The new species is a member of the Liolaemus rothi species complex, and mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data show it as sister taxon of the clade composed of (L. hermannunezi (L. tromen + L. loboi)), differing in size, squamation, coloration, and sexual dimorphism from the other species of this group. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. has a dark body coloration with series of notched blotches on the dorsum, with bright spots, and a very iridescent yellow-green coloration in natural light. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. is found only in the Auca Mahuida volcano and is terrestrial, dwelling on the stony slopes with sandy soil between 1300 m and the volcano summit.

  13. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) III: a new species from Tablas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Drew R; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Feller, Kathryn D; Ashford, Alissa; Kouri, Josh; Nguyen, Daniel; Shauberger, Kathryn; Sheatsley, Kyra; Winfrey, Claire; Wong, Rachel; Sanguila, Marites B; Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D

    2016-06-28

    Studies of the diversity of Philippine amphibians and reptiles have resulted in the continued description of cryptic species. Species formerly thought to range across multiple recognized faunal regions are now considered to be assemblages of multiple unique species, each restricted to a single faunal region. This pattern continues to hold true when considering Philippine skinks of the genus Brachymeles. Recent studies have resulted in the description of numerous unique species with many exhibiting various degrees of digit loss or limb reduction, as well as suggesting that unique lineages are still present in the B. bonitae Complex. In this paper, we describe a new species of fossorial skink within this species complex from Tablas Island based on collections made nearly 50 years ago. Although no genetic data are available for the new species, examinations of morphological data (qualitative traits, meristic counts, and mensural measurements) support its distinction from all other members of the genus. Brachymeles dalawangdaliri sp. nov. is differentiated from other members of the genus based on a suite of unique phenotypic characteristics, including a small body size (SVL 66.0-80.9 mm), bidactyl fore-limbs, digitless, unidactyl, or bidactyl hind limbs, a high number of presacral vertebrae (49), the absence of auricular openings, and distinct dorsal head scale patterns. The description of the new species increases the diversity of endemic vertebrates recognized to occur in the Romblon Island Group in the central Philippines.

  14. Redescription of the rare Philippine false gecko Pseudogekko brevipes (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) and description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Drew R; Watters, Jessa L; Köhler, Gunther; Whitsett, Collin; Huron, Nicholas A; Brown, Rafe M; Diesmos, Arvin C; Siler, Cameron D

    2015-09-22

    Recent investigations into the species diversity of false geckos (genus Pseudogekko Taylor) have revealed several cryptic species, highlighting the need for a more thorough understanding of diversity within this enigmatic genus of endemic Philippine geckos. Newly available genetic data reveal that two of the four currently recognized species are complexes of multiple deeply divergent evolutionary lineages. In this paper we evaluate species diversity in one of these complexes, P. brevipes Boettger, and describe one additional new species. For nearly a century, P. brevipes has been recognized as a single, "widespread" species with a geographic range spanning two major faunal regions and several island groups. Poor understanding of this species has persisted due to both limited sampling and its apparent rarity. We evaluate both morphological and genetic data to define species limits in P. brevipes, and find character-based evidence to justify the recognition of two unique evolutionary lineages, one of which we describe as a new species (P. atiorum sp. nov.). The species included in this study have allopatric distributions and differ from congeners by numerous diagnostic characters of external morphology, and therefore should be recognized as full species in accordance with lineage-based species concepts. This newly described species increases the total number of species of Pseudogekko to seven.

  15. Off the scale: a new species of fish-scale gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Geckolepis with exceptionally large scales

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    Mark D. Scherz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The gecko genus Geckolepis, endemic to Madagascar and the Comoro archipelago, is taxonomically challenging. One reason is its members ability to autotomize a large portion of their scales when grasped or touched, most likely to escape predation. Based on an integrative taxonomic approach including external morphology, morphometrics, genetics, pholidosis, and osteology, we here describe the first new species from this genus in 75 years: Geckolepis megalepis sp. nov. from the limestone karst of Ankarana in northern Madagascar. The new species has the largest known body scales of any gecko (both relatively and absolutely, which come off with exceptional ease. We provide a detailed description of the skeleton of the genus Geckolepis based on micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT analysis of the new species, the holotype of G. maculata, the recently resurrected G. humbloti, and a specimen belonging to an operational taxonomic unit (OTU recently suggested to represent G. maculata. Geckolepis is characterized by highly mineralized, imbricated scales, paired frontals, and unfused subolfactory processes of the frontals, among other features. We identify diagnostic characters in the osteology of these geckos that help define our new species and show that the OTU assigned to G. maculata is probably not conspecific with it, leaving the taxonomic identity of this species unclear. We discuss possible reasons for the extremely enlarged scales of G. megalepis in the context of an anti-predator defence mechanism, and the future of Geckolepis taxonomy.

  16. FIRST RECORD OF Hemidactylus agrius (SQUAMATA, GEKKONIDAE IN THICKETS OF Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae IN THE BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueiuto Silva Jorge

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although highly diverse, few species of geckos (including the families Gekkonidae, Phylodactylidae and Sphaerodactylidae have been reported from bromeliad habitats, where the main goal of the present study is to provide preliminary information regarding the biology Hemidactylus agrius in association with  bromeliad (Encholirium spectabile growing on rock outcrops in the Agreste region, northeastern of Brazil, where the field work was carried out from December 2009 through September 2010 during a survey of the herpetofauna in Santa Maria municipality, during this study we report the occurrence of Hemidactylus agrius in touceiras of Encholirium spectabile, where in one night more than fifteen exemplars were observed, this report represent a great importance of conservation of this species, because this is considered a rare species and this report is a good and new notice for conservation of the H. agrius population in association with bromeliads of the genera Encholirium.

  17. Sex determination in Madagascar geckos of the genus Paroedura (Squamata: Gekkonidae): are differentiated sex chromosomes indeed so evolutionary stable?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubová, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, M.; Farkačová, K.; Altmanová, M.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2014), s. 441-452 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : sex chromosomes * heterochromatin * reptiles * sex determination * FISH * ITSs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.478, year: 2014

  18. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  19. Lizards from the end of the world: phylogenetic relationships of the Liolaemus lineomaculatus section (Squamata: Iguania: Liolaemini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitman, M Florencia; Avila, Luciano J; Sites, Jack W; Morando, Mariana

    2011-05-01

    The Liolaemus lineomaculatus section is a geographically widely distributed group of lizards from the Patagonian region of southern South America, and includes 18 described species representing the most southerly distributed Liolaemus taxa (the genus includes 228 species and extends from Tierra del Fuego north to south-central Peru). Despite high species diversity, the phylogenetic relationships of this section are unknown. In the present work we sampled all described species in the L. lineomaculatus section as well as currently undescribed candidate species to reconstruct the first complete phylogenetic hypothesis for the clade. Our data set included four anonymous nuclear loci, three nuclear protein-coding loci, and two mitochondrial genes. We compared results obtained with three different phylogenetic methods for the concatenated data set (Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference) with a coalescent-based species tree approach (BEST), and recovered congruent, strongly-supported topological arrangements across all methods. We identified four main clades within the L. lineomaculatus section: the lineomaculatus, magellanicus, somuncurae, and kingii+archeforus groups, for which we estimated divergence times. We discuss the taxonomic implications of these results and how the future integration of phylogeographic, niche modeling and morphological approaches will allow testing biogeographical hypotheses in this clade. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrastructure of spermatid development within the testis of the Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus (Squamata: Elapidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gribbins, Kevin M.; Freeborn, Layla R.; Sever, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about spermatid development during spermiogenesis in snakes, as there is only one complete study in ophidians, which details the spermatid ultrastructure within the viperid, Agkistrodon piscivorus. Thus, the following study will add to our understanding of the ontogenic steps of spermiogenesis in snakes by examining spermatid maturation in the elapid, Pelamis platurus, which were collected in Costa Rica in 2009. The spermatids of P. platurus share many similar ultrastructural ...

  1. Ultrastructure of spermatid development within the testis of the Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus (Squamata: Elapidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin M; Freeborn, Layla R; Sever, David M

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about spermatid development during spermiogenesis in snakes, as there is only one complete study in ophidians, which details the spermatid ultrastructure within the viperid, Agkistrodon piscivorus . Thus, the following study will add to our understanding of the ontogenic steps of spermiogenesis in snakes by examining spermatid maturation in the elapid, Pelamis platurus , which were collected in Costa Rica in 2009. The spermatids of P. platurus share many similar ultrastructural characteristics to that described for other squamates during spermiogenesis. Three notable differences between the spermatids of P. platurus and those of other snakes is a round and shorter epinuclear lucent zone, enlarged caudal nuclear shoulders, and more prominent 3 and 8 peripheral fibers in the principal and endpieces. Also, the midpiece is much longer in P. platurus and is similar to that reported for all snakes studied to date. Other features of chromatin condensation and morphology of the acrosome complex are similar to what has been observed in A. piscivorus and other squamates. Though the spermatids in P. platurus appear to be quite similar to other snakes and lizards studied to date, some differences in subcellular details are still observed. Analysis of developing spermatids in P. platurus and other snakes could reveals morphologically conserved traits between different species along with subtle changes that could help determine phylogenetic relationships once a suitable number of species have been examined for ophidians and other squamates.

  2. Two newly recognized species of Hemidactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smíd, Jiří; Moravec, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Gvoždík, Václav; Nasher, Abdul Karim; Busais, Salem M; Wilms, Thomas; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A recent molecular phylogeny of the Arid clade of the genus Hemidactylus revealed that the recently described H. saba and two unnamed Hemidactylus species from Sinai, Saudi Arabia and Yemen form a well-supported monophyletic group within the Arabian radiation of the genus. The name 'Hemidactylus saba species group' is suggested for this clade. According to the results of morphological comparisons and the molecular analyses using two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (cmos, mc1r, rag1, rag2) genes, the name Hemidactylus granosus Heyden, 1827 is resurrected from the synonymy of H. turcicus for the Sinai and Saudi Arabian species. The third species of this group from Yemen is described formally as a new species H. ulii sp. n. The phylogenetic relationships of the members of 'Hemidactylus saba species group' are evaluated and the distribution and ecology of individual species are discussed.

  3. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-08

    I present distribution data of all Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae and Tropiduridae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 40 species-level taxa, belonging to 11 genera. This represents four more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 41,243 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian musea, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (62.5%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa are widespread in Amazonia, one is restricted to eastern Amazonia, three to western Amazonia, five to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), two to northwestern Amazonia, one to southern Amazonia, nine to southwestern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Five species have unique distributions and five species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates). The first herpetological gazetteer for the Brazilian Amazonia with about 3,600 georeferenced localities was also produced.

  4. Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) as a bioindicator of heavy metal (aluminum and zinc) pollution in Vila Velha, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Raiza Menezes Venturim; Pim, Fernanda; Júnior, Hermínio Arias Nalini; de Abreu, Adriana Trópia; Pimentel, Elisângela Flavia; de Cerqueira, Lorena Oliveira; Junior, Paulo Dias Ferreira; Endringer, Denise Coutinho

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization is responsible for numerous environmental changes including pollution. Information on the susceptibility of reptiles to environmental contaminants is relatively scarce. Tropidurus torquatus represents a potential bioindicator of heavy metal pollution. Levels of heavy metals in tissues from T. torquatus depend on bioavailability and vary among different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal concentration in liver and fat tissue of T. torquatus from three distinct populations in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The study areas included coastal rocky outcrops, dunes, and mountain rocky outcrops; each area had a different climate, vegetation, and level of anthropogenic influence. Fifty-one individuals were captured. Biometrics and sexes were determined, and stomach contents were identified. The tissue samples were digested with nitric acid and analyzed via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn) contents. The concentration of zinc in Tropidurus torquatus was higher in liver than in fat tissue (432 ± 1380 mg kg -1 ), and that of aluminum was higher in fat tissue (765 ± 1455 mg.kg -1 ). The animals' diet may be related to heavy metal contamination. The study suggests that T. torquatus could be used for soil biomonitoring with liver as a bioindicator for aluminum contamination and fat tissue as a bioindicator for zinc contamination. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  5. A new species of karst-dwelling bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khammouane Province, central Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-02-10

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from Khammouane Province, central Laos based on morphological features and molecular data. Morphologically, Cyrtodactylus bansocensis sp. nov. is differentiated from other congeners by a unique combination of the following characters: medium size, SVL reaching 74.0 mm; dorsal pattern consisting of four light transverse bands between limb insertions; supranasals in contact with each other; dorsal tubercles at midbody in 14-15 irregular rows; lateral folds present without interspersed tubercles; ventral scales between ventrolateral folds 34-35; precloacal and femoral pores in males 34, separated by four poreless scales in the male holotype and in a continuous row in the male paratype; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales present; postcloacal tubercles 5-7 on each side; dorsal tubercles present at tail base; and subcaudal scales transversely enlarged. Molecular analyses revealed the new species to be closely related to Cyrtodactylus rufford, which is also found in Khammouane Province.

  6. Cyrtodactylus rufford, a new cave-dwelling bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khammouane Province, central Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Calame, Thomas; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-01-21

    We describe a new species of the gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus from Khammouane Province, central Laos based on morphological and molecular data. Morphologically, Cyrtodactylus rufford sp. nov. differs from its congeners by a unique combination of the following characters: medium size, SVL reaching 72.5 mm; dorsal pattern with three or four light transverse bands between limb insertions; one intersupranasal; 14-16 irregular dorsal tubercle rows at midbody, weakly developed in the paravertebral region; 27-29 ventral scale rows between ventrolateral folds; 42-43 precloacal and femoral pores in a continuous row in males, enlarged femoral and precloacal scales present; 4 or 5 postcloacal tubercles on each side; dorsal tubercles present at base of tail; medial subcaudal scales enlarged. Molecular analyses show that the new species is closely related to C. khammouanensis, which was originally described from Khammouane Province.

  7. Redescription of Parapharyngodon micipsae (Seurat 1917) (Nematoda Pharyngodonidae) from the new host Tarentola parvicarinata Joger 1980 (Squamata Gekkonidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašová, Š.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hodová, I.; Koubek, Petr; Koubková, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2009), s. 243-255 ISSN 0394-6975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : parasite * Nematoda * gecko * Senegal * West Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.706, year: 2009

  8. Vulnerability to climate warming of Liolaemus pictus (Squamata, Liolaemidae), a lizard from the cold temperate climate in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, Erika Leticia; Fernández, Jimena Beatriz; Ibargüengoytía, Nora Ruth

    2016-02-01

    The vulnerability of populations and species to global warming depends not only on the environmental temperatures, but also on the behavioral and physiological abilities to respond to these changes. In this sense, the knowledge of an organism's sensitivity to temperature variation is essential to predict potential responses to climate warming. In particular, it is interesting to know how close species are to their thermal limits in nature and whether physiological plasticity is a potential short-term response to warming climates. We exposed Liolaemus pictus lizards, from northern Patagonia, to either 21 or 31 °C for 30 days to compare the effects of these treatments on thermal sensitivity in 1 and 0.2 m runs, preferred body temperature (T pref), panting threshold (T pant), and critical minimum temperature (CTMin). Furthermore, we measured the availability of thermal microenvironments (operative temperatures; T e) to measure how close L. pictus is, in nature, to its optimal locomotor performance (T o) and thermal limits. L. pictus showed limited physiological plasticity, since the acclimation temperature (21 and 31 °C) did not affect the locomotor performance nor did it affect T pref, the T pant, or the CTMin. The mean T e was close to T o and was 17 °C lower than the CTMax. The results suggest that L. pictus, in a climate change scenario, could be vulnerable to the predicted temperature increment, as this species currently lives in an environment with temperatures close to their highest locomotor temperature threshold, and because they showed limited acclimation capacity to adjust to new thermal conditions by physiological plasticity. Nevertheless, L. pictus can run at 80 % or faster of its maximum speed across a wide range of temperatures near T o, an ability which would attenuate the impact of global warming.

  9. The Diet and Sexual Differences of the Caspian Bent-Toed Gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius (Squamata: Gekkonidae, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Hojati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caspian bent-toed gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius, is one of the most common nocturnal lizards of Iran with widespread distribution especially in the northern provinces. This research was done in order to study the diet and sexual dimorphism of this species in Sari County from 5 May to 20 October. During this research, 40 specimens of them including 20 males and 20 females were studied for diet and 140 specimens including 70 adult males and 70 adult females were studied for sexual dimorphism. Prey items identified were insects that belong to 15 species of 8 families and 6 orders. The most common prey items were Culex pipiens and Musca domestica. There is no significant difference between diets of males and females. Results show that the adult males in addition of having the apparent femoral and preanal pores are heavier than females and have larger body, head, and tail length.

  10. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Brizuela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province. The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds. The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for the family Anguidae exhumed in Argentina.

  11. Nematodes associated with Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata, Iguanidae) in Semi-arid areas of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, D A; Brito, S V; Teixeira, A A M; Ribeiro, S C; Araujo-Filho, J A; Lima, V F; Pereira, A M A; Almeida, W O

    2017-01-01

    Nematodes were analyzed in Iguana iguana, a large lizard Iguanidae that is widely distributed throughout the Americas. The aims of the study were investigate the helminths associated with the lizard, I. iguana in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil and analyze the parasitological indices (prevalence, and mean intensity of infection). A total of 18 specimens of I. iguana were examined (8 males and 10 females). The overall prevalence of infection was 66.6% (12/18), while in males, it was 75% (6/8) and in females, 60% (6/10). Iguana iguana was identified as a new host for Physaloptera sp., Atractis sp., Piratuba sp. and Subulura sp. This registered contributes to the knowledge of helminth diversity associated with this host.

  12. Nematodes associated with Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata, Iguanidae in Semi-arid areas of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Teles

    Full Text Available Abstract Nematodes were analyzed in Iguana iguana, a large lizard Iguanidae that is widely distributed throughout the Americas. The aims of the study were investigate the helminths associated with the lizard, I. iguana in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil and analyze the parasitological indices (prevalence, and mean intensity of infection. A total of 18 specimens of I. iguana were examined (8 males and 10 females. The overall prevalence of infection was 66.6% (12/18, while in males, it was 75% (6/8 and in females, 60% (6/10. Iguana iguana was identified as a new host for Physaloptera sp., Atractis sp., Piratuba sp. and Subulura sp. This registered contributes to the knowledge of helminth diversity associated with this host.

  13. Atlas de Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae. Anatomía externa, osteología y bibliografía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero, Ricardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Los lagartos que en Argentina se conocen como "iguana roja" o "caraguay" pertenecen al género Tupinambis, uno de los saurios de mayor talla del continente; tienen importancia económica, tanto por su cuero como por su carne. Se reconocen seis especies actuales, que se distribuyen en América del Sur desde Colombia hasta el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina (Cei, 1993. Por su amplia distribución y abundancia son utilizados como animales de laboratorio por lo que es importante el conocimiento detallado de su anatomía. Es por ello que aquí presentamos en un Atlas fotográfico la morfología externa y osteología de Tupinambis rufescens.

  14. [Displacements of the green iguana (Iguana iguana) (Squamata: Iguanidae) during the dry season in La Palma, Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Mávil, Jorge E; Vogt, Richard C; Gadsden-Esparza, Héctor

    2007-06-01

    The green iguana (Iguana iguana) is said to be primarily sedentary, although the females travel long distances to nest. Displacement patterns must be known to help predict the effects of environmental disturbance on iguanas' survival. We studied nesting season (February-July) movements in La Palma, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico (18 degrees 33' N, 95 degrees 03' W). Individual movements and activity were monitored by radio tracking. The transmitters were implanted surgically in eight adult iguanas (four males and four females). Snout vent length (SVL) was used to determine the relationship between size of the body and size of home range. To estimate the size of home range, three or more points were used. Minimum convex polygons estimates of home range were calculated with McPAAL. The iguanas were radio-located between 23 and 30 occasions, mainly in trees (56% between 3-9 m); only 4% were localized under a height of 3 m (forest floor). The occupation area mean was larger for males (9,158.06+/-3,025.3 m2 vs. 6,591.24+/-4,001.1 m2) although the differences were not significant (t= 0.51, p>0.05). SVL was correlated with home range (r= 0.76; gl= 7; piguanas use the riparian vegetation for foraging. The females display two strategies for nesting: 1) moving to the sandy area near the sea or, 2) laying eggs near the river, in loam. Iguanas responded to habitat fragmentation and reduction by modifying their nesting strategy.

  15. Phylogeny, biogeography, and evolution of two Mediterranean snakes, Malpolon monspessulanus and Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Squamata, Colubridae), using mtDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Pleguezuelos, J M

    2006-08-01

    Variation in 815bp of mitochondrial DNA from two gene fragments (300bp of cytochrome b and 395-515bp of 12S rRNA) for 26 Malpolon monspessulanus, and cytochrome b for a further 21 individuals, indicates that this species originated in the Maghreb area of Northwest Africa. Here, an estimated 3.5-6Mya, it divided into the western M. m. monspessulanus, and an eastern clade including M. m. insignitus and M. m. fuscus. The very limited genetic differentiation between Maghreb and Southwest European populations of this form suggests that it arrived in the Iberian Peninsula only recently. Population genetics and demographic tests indicate subsequent expansion in this area around 83,000-168,000 year ago. Because present populations of Malpolon arrived recently, mid-Pliocene and at least some Pleistocene fossils of the genus Malpolon in Southwest Europe are probably derived from an earlier invasion from the Maghreb, possibly as early as the end of the Miocene period, 5.3-5.9Mya, when there was a temporary land bridge across the site of the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea desiccated. The descendants of this earlier invasion must have eventually become extinct, perhaps during one of the Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast to the western M. m. monspessulanus, the greater genetic divergence found in the eastern clade of M. monspessulanus suggests that it dispersed at an earlier date and probably over a longer period, spreading eastwards through northern Libya and Egypt to Syria, Iraq, and Iran, and around the Mediterranean Sea through Turkey into the Aegean archipelagos and the Balkan peninsula. The western and eastern units of M. monspessulanus have different dorsal color pattern, differences in skull structure and exhibit an 8.4% uncorrected genetic divergence in the combined gene fragments investigated here. It is consequently recommended that they should be treated as separate species: M. monspessulanus (sensu stricto) and Malpolon insignitusstat. nov., the latter including the subspecies Malpolon insignitus fuscuscomb. nov. The same combined mitochondrial gene fragments used in Malpolon were investigated in 20 individuals of Hemorrhois hippocrepis, and of cytochrome b alone in a further 17. They indicate that this species also originated in the Maghreb and again invaded the Iberian Peninsula quite recently. Some of the most recent invasions of the Iberian Peninsula by reptiles and amphibian taxa could probably be anthropogenic in origin. Some other species including M. monspessulanus and H. hippocrepis, may have crossed naturally, by "hopping" across the Strait of Gibraltar via temporary islands on the shallowest parts that were exposed during sea-level fall associated with Pleistocene glaciations.

  16. A new species of Pseudocalotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from the Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra with an Estimation of its phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Michael B; Shaney, Kyle; Hamidy, Amir; Kurniawan, Nia; Smith, Eric N

    2017-06-11

    We describe a new species of Pseudocalotes from montane forests of the central, western coast of Sumatra. The combination of 3 or 4 interoculabials, slightly enlarged and heavily keeled scales on the lower flanks, a white scapular spot, a relatively long fifth toe, bicarinate lamellae at the base of Toe III, absence of a postrictal modified scale, and three rows of paravertebrals directed dorsally and posteriorly distinguishes the new species from its congeners on Sumatra and Java. Among the new characters defined in this study, counts of subdigital lamellae within the "span of Toe V" proved particularly useful for diagnosing species of Pseudocalotes. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences identified a monophyletic group containing the Sumatran and Javan Pseudocalotes. Based on the phylogeny, we define a P. cybelidermus Group containing P. cybelidermus and P. guttalineatus and a P. tympanistriga Group containing P. tympanistriga, P. rhammanotus, and the new species. Combinations of five morphological characters define each of these two clades. As currently defined, Pseudocalotes is polyphyletic; Javan and Sumatran species are more closely related to other draconines such as Dendragama boulengeri than they are to some mainland species.

  17. Conservation assessments in climate change scenarios: spatial perspectives for present and future in two Pristidactylus (Squamata: Leiosauridae) lizards from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoli, Ignacio; Avila, Luciano Javier

    2017-02-26

    The consequences of global climate change can already be seen in many physical and biological systems and these effects could change the distribution of suitable areas for a wide variety of organisms to the middle of this century. We analyzed the current habitat use and we projected the suitable area of present conditions into the geographical space of future scenarios (2050), to assess and quantify whether future climate change would affect the distribution and size of suitable environments in two Pristidactylus lizard species. Comparing the habitat use and future forecasts of the two studied species, P. achalensis showed a more restricted use of available resource units (RUs) and a moderate reduction of the potential future area. On the contrary, P. nigroiugulus uses more available RUs and has a considerable area decrease for both future scenarios. These results suggest that both species have a moderately different trend towards reducing available area of suitable habitats, the persistent localities for both 2050 CO2 concentration models, and in the available RUs used. We discussed the relation between size and use of the current habitat, changes in future projections along with the protected areas from present-future and the usefulness of these results in conservation plans. This work illustrates how ectothermic organisms might have to face major changes in their availability suitable areas as a consequence of the effect of future climate change.

  18. Prenatal development of the sound transmitting apparatus in different embryonic stages of Malpolon monsspesulanus (squamata-serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakrory, A I; Abu-Taira, A M; El-Din, E Y Salah; Mohamed, Y B

    2018-01-15

    The developmental investigation of sound transmitting apparatus is important in understanding the ontogenetic processes behind morphological diversity. The development of sound conducting apparatus was studied in Montpellier snake; Malpolon monspessulanus at 6.5, 7.2, 8.3 and 9.3 cm total body lengths using light microscopy study. The columella auris firstly appeared as undifferentiated rod shape mesenchymal cells. As the growth proceeded, it chondrified and differentiates into two main parts. In addition, the viscerocranium components which participate in formation of sound transmitting apparatus undergo critical organization. In more advanced stages, procartilagenous stylohyal chondrified and fuse with the well organized quadrate. These data considered as a base for functional and molecular mechanisms of sound transmitting apparatus studies and identification of diseases that may infect them.

  19. A new color pattern of the Bungarus candidus complex (Squamata: Elapidae) from Vietnam based on morphological and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Nguyen, Thang Quoc; Le, Ngan Thanh Thi; Nguyen, Luan Thanh; Vo, Ba Dinh; Vindum, Jens V; Murphy, Robert W; Che, Jing; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2017-05-18

    Kraits with black and white bands from Nui Chua National Park, central Vietnam are morphologically similar to the Burmese Krait, Bungarus magnimaculatus, however, analysis of molecular data finds them to be nested within the B. candidus complex.

  20. A fossil Diploglossus (Squamata, Anguidae) lizard from Basse-Terre and Grande-Terre Islands (Guadeloupe, French West Indies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Corentin; Boistel, Renaud; Casagrande, Fabrice; Grouard, Sandrine; Bailon, Salvador

    2016-06-01

    Today, Diploglossine lizards (Anguidae) are common on the Greater Antillean Islands (West Indies), where they are represented by many endemic species. However these lizards are very rare on the Lesser Antillean Islands, where they are only represented by a single species, the Montserrat galliwasp (Diploglossus montisserrati). Here, we show that diploglossine lizards were present in the past on other Lesser Antillean islands, by reporting the discovery of Anguidae fossil remains in two Amerindian archaeological deposits and in a modern deposit. These remains are compared to skeletons of extant diploglossine lizards, including D. montisserrati, using X-ray microtomography of the type specimen of this critically endangered lizard. We also conducted a histological study of the osteoderms in order to estimate the putative age of the specimen. Our results show that the fossil specimens correspond to a member of the Diploglossus genus presenting strong similarities, but also minor morphological differences with D. montisserrati, although we postulate that these differences are not sufficient to warrant the description of a new species. These specimens, identified as Diploglossus sp., provide a new comparison point for the study of fossil diploglossine lizards and reflect the historical 17th century mentions of anguid lizards, which had not been observed since.

  1. Lack of satellite DNA species-specific homogenization and relationship to chromosomal rearrangements in monitor lizards (Varanidae, Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Thapana, Watcharaporn; Suntronpong, Aorarat; Singchat, Worapong; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Phatcharakullawarawat, Rattanin; Muangmai, Narongrit; Peyachoknagul, Surin; Matsubara, Kazumi; Ezaz, Tariq; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2017-08-16

    Satellite DNAs (stDNAs) are highly repeated sequences that constitute large portions of any genome. The evolutionary dynamics of stDNA (e.g. copy number, nucleotide sequence, location) can, therefore, provide an insight into genome organization and evolution. We investigated the evolutionary origin of VSAREP stDNA in 17 monitor lizards (seven Asian, five Australian, and five African) at molecular and cytogenetic level. Results revealed that VSAREP is conserved in the genome of Asian and Australian varanids, but not in African varanids, suggesting that these sequences are either differentiated or lost in the African varanids. Phylogenetic and arrangement network analyses revealed the existence of at least four VSAREP subfamilies. The similarity of each sequence unit within the same VSAREP subfamily from different species was higher than those of other VSAREP subfamilies belonging to the same species. Additionally, all VSAREP subfamilies isolated from the three Australian species (Varanus rosenbergi, V. gouldii, and V. acanthurus) were co-localized near the centromeric or pericentromeric regions of the macrochromosomes, except for chromosomes 3 and 4 in each Australian varanid. However, their chromosomal arrangements were different among species. The VSAREP stDNA family lack homogenized species-specific nucleotide positions in varanid lineage. Most VSAREP sequences were shared among varanids within the four VSAREP subfamilies. This suggests that nucleotide substitutions in each varanid species accumulated more slowly than homogenization rates in each VSAREP subfamily, resulting in non-species-specific evolution of stDNA profiles. Moreover, changes in location of VSAREP stDNA in each Australian varanid suggests a correlation with chromosomal rearrangements, leading to karyotypic differences among these species.

  2. Hidden diversity within the lizard genus Liolaemus: Genetic vs morphological divergence in the L. rothi complex (Squamata:Liolaeminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave, Melisa; Avila, Luciano J; Sites, Jack W; Morando, Mariana

    2017-02-01

    Currently, Liolaemus is the second most species-rich reptile genus in the world (257 species), and predictions of its real diversity suggest that it may be the most diverse genus. Originally, Liolaemus species were described as widely distributed and morphologically variable taxa, but extensive sampling in previously unexplored geographic areas, coupled with molecular and more extensive morphological studies, have discovered an unexpectedly high number of previously undetected species. Here, we study the level of molecular vs. morphological divergence within the L. rothi complex, combining a total of 14 loci (2 mitochondrial and 12 nuclear loci) for 97 individuals, as well as morphological data (nine morphometric and 15 color pattern variables), that represent all six described species of the L. rothi complex, plus two candidate species. We use the multi-coalescent species delimitation program iBPP and resolve strong differences in molecular divergence; and each species is inferred as an independent lineage supported by high posterior probabilities. However, morphological differences are not that clear, and our modeling of morphological characters suggests differential selection pressures implying some level of morphological stasis. We discuss the role of natural selection on phenotypic traits, which may be an important factor in "hiding" the real diversity of the genus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A new species of the Cyrtodactylus irregularis complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Gia Lai Province, Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Dung, Tran VAN; Nguyen, Truong Quang; LE, Minh Duc; Ziegler, Thomas

    2017-12-05

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from Gia Lai Province, Central Highlands of Vietnam based on morphological and molecular differences. Cyrtodactylus gialaiensis sp. nov. is differentiated from other congeners by a unique combination of the following characters: Size small, maximum known SVL reaching 62.8 mm; dorsal pattern consisting of six or seven dark transverse bands between limb insertions; intersupranasals two or three; dorsal tubercles at midbody in 16-21 irregular rows, strongly developed on flanks; lateral folds poorly defined with interspersed tubercles; ventral scales between ventrolateral folds 38-45; precloacal pores nine or 10 in males, eight pitted scales in the adult female, in a continuous row; femoral pores absent; enlarged femoral scales present; postcloacal tubercles two or three; dorsal tubercles present to half of tail; subcaudal scales not enlarged. In molecular analyses, the new species is weakly supported as a member of the Cyrtodactylus irregularis species group with a minimum pairwise genetic distance of 13.7% from others within the group.

  4. Ultrastructure of spermatid development within the testis of the Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus (Squamata: Elapidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin M.; Freeborn, Layla R.; Sever, David M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about spermatid development during spermiogenesis in snakes, as there is only one complete study in ophidians, which details the spermatid ultrastructure within the viperid, Agkistrodon piscivorus. Thus, the following study will add to our understanding of the ontogenic steps of spermiogenesis in snakes by examining spermatid maturation in the elapid, Pelamis platurus, which were collected in Costa Rica in 2009. The spermatids of P. platurus share many similar ultrastructural characteristics to that described for other squamates during spermiogenesis. Three notable differences between the spermatids of P. platurus and those of other snakes is a round and shorter epinuclear lucent zone, enlarged caudal nuclear shoulders, and more prominent 3 and 8 peripheral fibers in the principal and endpieces. Also, the midpiece is much longer in P. platurus and is similar to that reported for all snakes studied to date. Other features of chromatin condensation and morphology of the acrosome complex are similar to what has been observed in A. piscivorus and other squamates. Though the spermatids in P. platurus appear to be quite similar to other snakes and lizards studied to date, some differences in subcellular details are still observed. Analysis of developing spermatids in P. platurus and other snakes could reveals morphologically conserved traits between different species along with subtle changes that could help determine phylogenetic relationships once a suitable number of species have been examined for ophidians and other squamates. PMID:28144497

  5. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and the first record of C. otai from Son La Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong Quang; Pham, Anh VAN; Ziegler, Thomas; Ngo, Hanh Thi; LE, Minh Duc

    2017-10-30

    We describe a new species of Cyrtodactylus on the basis of four specimens collected from the limestone karst forest of Phu Yen District, Son La Province, Vietnam. Cyrtodactylus sonlaensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining Indochinese bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: maximum SVL of 83.2 mm; dorsal tubercles in 13-15 irregular rows; ventral scales in 34-42 rows; ventrolateral folds prominent without interspersed tubercles; enlarged femoral scales 15-17 on each thigh; femoral pores 14-15 on each thigh in males, absent in females; precloacal pores 8, in a continuous row in males, absent in females; postcloacal tubercles 2 or 3; lamellae under toe IV 18-21; dorsal head with dark brown markings, in oval and arched shapes; nuchal loop discontinuous; dorsum with five brown bands between limb insertions, third and fourth bands discontinuous; subcaudal scales distinctly enlarged. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species is nested in a clade consisting of C. huongsonensis and C. soni from northern Vietnam and C. cf. pulchellus from Malaysia based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. In addition, we record Cyrtodactylus otai Nguyen, Le, Pham, Ngo, Hoang, Pham & Ziegler for the first time from Son La Province based on specimens collected from Van Ho District.

  6. Arrival and diversification of mabuyine skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) in the Neotropics based on a fossil-calibrated timetree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anieli Guirro; Schrago, Carlos G

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of South American Mabuyinae skinks holds significant biogeographic interest because its sister lineage is distributed across the African continent and adjacent islands. Moreover, at least one insular species, Trachylepis atlantica , has independently reached the New World through transoceanic dispersal. To clarify the evolutionary history of both Neotropical lineages, this study aimed to infer an updated timescale using the largest species and gene sampling dataset ever assembled for this group. By extending the analysis to the Scincidae family, we could employ fossil information to estimate mabuyinae divergence times and carried out a formal statistical biogeography analysis. To unveil macroevolutionary patterns, we also inferred diversification rates for this lineage and evaluated whether the colonization of South American continent significantly altered the mode of Mabuyinae evolution. A time-calibrated phylogeny was inferred under the Bayesian framework employing fossil information. This timetree was used to (i) evaluate the historical biogeography of mabuiyines using the statistical approach implemented in BioGeoBEARS; (ii) estimate macroevolutionary diversification rates of the South American Mabuyinae lineages and the patterns of evolution of selected traits, namely, the mode of reproduction, body mass and snout-vent length; (iii) test the hypothesis of differential macroevolutionary patterns in South American lineages in BAMM and GeoSSE; and (iv) re-evaluate the ancestral state of the mode of reproduction of mabuyines. Our results corroborated the hypothesis that the occupation of the South American continent by Mabuyinae consisted of two independent dispersion events that occurred between the Oligocene and the Miocene. We found significant differences in speciation rates between the New World and the remaining Mabuyinae clades only in GeoSSE. The influence of phenotypic traits on diversification rates was not supported by any method. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that the ancestor of South American mabuyine was likely viviparous. Our analyses further corroborated the existence of a transoceanic connection between Africa and South America in the Eocene/Oligocene period (Atlantogea). Following colonization of the isolated South America and subsequent dispersal through the continent by the ancestral mabuyine stock, we detected no difference in macroevolutionary regimes of New World clades. This finding argued against the ecological opportunity model as an explanation for the diversity of living mabuyines.

  7. A new species of Aspidura Wagler, 1830 (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae) from Sri Pada sanctuary (Peak Wilderness), Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis; Vidanapathirana, Dulan Ranga; Kandambi, H K Dushantha; Pyron, R Alexander; Wickramasinghe, Nethu

    2017-11-13

    We describe a new species, Aspidura ravanai sp. nov., representing the eighth species of the genus known from Sri Lanka. The new species is readily distinguished from all other congeners by its colour pattern, scalation, and genetic distinctiveness. Our molecular results indicated that Aspidura began diversifying in the Miocene approximately 18 Ma, and A. ravanai sp. nov. diverged from its likely sister lineage A. trachyprocta at least 6.2 Ma. The species is currently known only from the type locality, on the western slopes of Sri Pada Peak in the central highlands of Sri Lanka.

  8. Microhabitat use by Cnemidophorus vacariensis (Squamata: Teiidae in the grasslands of the Araucaria Plateau, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Caruccio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microhabitat use by Cnemidophorus vacariensis Feltrim & Lema, 2000 as studied between October 2006 and September 2007 in two rocky formations in the municipality of Bom Jesus. The area was searched randomly between 8:00 am and 6:00 pm and the microhabitat used by the lizards was recorded. Our observations revealed that C. vacariensis has terrestrial habits and prefers open areas. Burrows are the main microhabitat used by the species (56.38%. When in activity, 54.76% of the individuals were observed under rocks, and 38.1% on the ground where herbaceous vegetation was present. The rocks under which they constructed their burrows were on average significantly thicker during warmer seasons temperatures (x¯ = 13,45cm with respect to colder seasons (x¯ = 9,85cm. The rocks selected by the adults (x¯ = 12.94 cm were on average significantly thicker than those selected by the juveniles (x¯ = 9.86cm. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes with respect to rock thickness.

  9. A new species of Alopoglossus lizard (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae from the tropical Andes, with a molecular phylogeny of the genus

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    Omar Torres-Carvajal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Alopoglossus from the Pacific slopes of the Andes in northern Ecuador based on morphological and molecular evidence. The new species differs most significantly from all other congeners ina double longitudinal row of widened gular scales, lanceolate dorsal scales in transverse rows, 29–32 dorsal scales in a transverse row at midbody, and 4 longitudinal rows of ventrals at midbody. It is most similar in morphology to A. festae, the only species of Alopoglossus currently recognized in western Ecuador. We analyze the phylogenetic relationships among species of Alopoglossus based on the mitochondrial gene ND4. Cis-Andean [east of the Andes] and Trans-Andean [west of the Andes] species are nested in two separate clades, suggesting that the uplift of these mountains had an important effect in the diversification of Alopoglossus. In addition, we present an updated key to the species of Alopoglossus.

  10. A Staging Table of Post-Ovipositional Development for the South American Collared Lizard Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata: Tropiduridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp Py-Daniel, Tainã; Kennedy Soares De-Lima, Anderson; Campos Lima, Fabiano; Pic-Taylor, Aline; Rodrigues Pires Junior, Osmindo; Sebben, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    The mouse, chicken, African clawed frog, and zebrafish are considered ¨model organisms¨ due to their extensive embryological and genetic characterization. However, they are far from representative of known diversity, impairing phylogenetic analyses of developmental patterns. Since squamates have historically received limited attention in developmental studies, we here describe the developmental sequence for Tropidurus torquatus, and provide the first post-ovipositional developmental series for the lizard family Tropiduridae. Fifteen developmental stages are described based on morphological traits such as the eye and accessory visual structures, pharyngeal arches, fusion of facial primordia, limb development, pigmentation, and scales. Organogenesis is already in progression at oviposition (Stage 28), with embryos continuing to develop at the incubation temperature of 30°C ± 1°C, and hatching after 75 ± 5 days, at Stage 42. Comparisons with other lizards show a conserved embryonic sequence, however developmental timing differences were found in features such as the pharyngeal arches, endolymphatic sacs, pigmentation and scales. The development of the phallic and cranial lip of the cloaca anlages are compared with that of other lizards. The order of T. torquatus fore- and hindlimb formation differs from that most commonly observed in lizards. The abundance and close association of this species with urban environments, as well as the ease of capturing and managing females, makes T. torquatus an attractive source of developmental data for future experimental and ontogenetic studies. Anat Rec, 300:277-290, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Taxonomic reassessment of two subspecies of Chinese skink in Taiwan based on morphological and molecular investigations (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Okamoto, Taku; Lin, Si-Min; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese skink, Plestiodon chinensis (Gray, 1838), is widely distributed across continental China, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula, and offshore islets, and consists of several subspecies. Here morphological and molecular methods have been used to reassess the taxonomic status and distributions of P. c. formosensis (Van Denburgh, 1912) and P. c. leucostictus (Hikida, 1988), which are endemic to Taiwan and Green Island (an islet off the east coast of Taiwan), respectively. It can be confirmed that the eastern Taiwanese populations of P. c. formosensis exhibit similar juvenile color patterning and genetic composition to the islet subspecies P. c. leucostictus , and are distinct from consubspecific populations in western Taiwan. Therefore, the eastern Taiwanese populations are assigned to P. c. leucostictus , and this subspecies is recognized as a distinct species, Plestiodon leucostictus (Hikida, 1988), based on their unique juvenile coloration and highly divergent DNA sequences. Our results also revealed that P. c. formosensis in western Taiwan is close to nominotypical subspecies from the continent, suggesting the necessity of a comprehensive taxonomic analysis in the future.

  12. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae in the southern amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

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    RW. Ávila

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  13. A new species of Rock Gecko of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Belitung Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Hamidy, Amir; Sidik, Irvan; Gunalen, Danny

    2017-11-30

    A new species of rock gecko of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch is described from Belitung Island, Indonesia. The new species is differentiated from all other species in the Southern Sunda clade (sensu Grismer et al. 2014a) by having a unique combination of characters including: (1) a maximum SVL of 54.1 mm, (2) five or six postmental scales, (3) enlarged submetacarpal scales on the first finger, (4) enlarged submetatarsal scales on the first toe, (5) keeled ventral scales, (6) absence of precloacal pores, (7) absence of enlarged femoral scales, (8) absence of shield-like subtibial scales, (9) caudal tubercles encircling the tail, (10) an interrupted median row of enlarged keeled subcaudals, (11) presence of a distinct furrow on the lateral surface of the tail (12) 22-24 lamellae beneath fourth toe, and (13) two postcloacal tubercles on each side of the tail base.

  14. A new species of large-bodied, tuberculate Hemidactylus Oken (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Eastern Ghats, India.

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    Giri, Varad B; Bauer, Aaron M; Mohapatra, Pratyush P; Srinivasulu, Chelmala; Agarwal, Ishan

    2017-11-13

    A distinct new gecko of the genus Hemidactylus is described from Andhra Pradesh, India. This large-sized (snout to vent length up to at least 105 mm), scansorial Hemidactylus is characterized by dorsal scalation of small granules intermixed with large, pointed, trihedral tubercles that form 16-17 fairly regularly arranged longitudinal rows at midbody; 9-11 subdigital lamellae below the first and 11-13 below the fourth digit; 6-8 strongly pointed and keeled enlarged tubercles on the original tail; 20-23 femoral pores separated by 4 poreless scales in males; 11-13 supralabials and 9-11 infralabials. This is the third vertebrate endemic to the Mahendragiri Range, highlighting the significance of this topographically complex region.

  15. Early stages of divergence: phylogeography, climate modeling, and morphological differentiation in the South American lizard Liolaemus petrophilus (Squamata: Liolaemidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Frank M; Feltrin, Natalia; Avila, Luciano J; Sites, Jack W; Morando, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the phylogeographic structure within the Patagonian lizard Liolaemus petrophilus and tests for patterns of between-clade morphological divergence and sexual dimorphism, as well as demographic and niche changes associated with Pleistocene climate changes. We inferred intraspecific relationships, tested hypotheses for historical patterns of population expansion, and incorporated ecological niche modeling (ENM) with standard morphological and geometric morphometric analyses to examine between-clade divergence as indirect evidence for adaptation to different niches. The two inferred haploclades diverged during the early Pleistocene with the Southern clade depicting the genetic signature of a recent population increase associated with expanding niche envelope, whereas the Northern clade shows stable populations in a shrinking niche envelope. The combination of molecular evidence for postisolation demographic change and ENM, suggest that the two haploclades have responded differently to Pleistocene climatic events. PMID:22837827

  16. Off the scale: a new species of fish-scale gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae:Geckolepis) with exceptionally large scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, Mark D; Daza, Juan D; Köhler, Jörn; Vences, Miguel; Glaw, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The gecko genus Geckolepis , endemic to Madagascar and the Comoro archipelago, is taxonomically challenging. One reason is its members ability to autotomize a large portion of their scales when grasped or touched, most likely to escape predation. Based on an integrative taxonomic approach including external morphology, morphometrics, genetics, pholidosis, and osteology, we here describe the first new species from this genus in 75 years: Geckolepis megalepis sp. nov. from the limestone karst of Ankarana in northern Madagascar. The new species has the largest known body scales of any gecko (both relatively and absolutely), which come off with exceptional ease. We provide a detailed description of the skeleton of the genus Geckolepis based on micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) analysis of the new species, the holotype of G. maculata , the recently resurrected G. humbloti , and a specimen belonging to an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) recently suggested to represent G. maculata . Geckolepis is characterized by highly mineralized, imbricated scales, paired frontals, and unfused subolfactory processes of the frontals, among other features. We identify diagnostic characters in the osteology of these geckos that help define our new species and show that the OTU assigned to G. maculata is probably not conspecific with it, leaving the taxonomic identity of this species unclear. We discuss possible reasons for the extremely enlarged scales of G. megalepis in the context of an anti-predator defence mechanism, and the future of Geckolepis taxonomy.

  17. The gold tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758) sensu lato (Squamata: Teiidae): evidence for an established population in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jake R.; Ketterlin, Jennifer K.; Rochford, Michael R.; Irwin, Rodney; Krysko, Kenneth L.; Duquesnel, James G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Reed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Gold tegus, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758), are generalist predators from South America and are ecologically similar to Argentine black and white tegus (Salvator merianae), a successful invader in Florida. We trapped gold tegus in Broward and Miami-Dade counties, Florida, USA. In Miami-Dade County, collection occurred from 2008 through 2016. We combined new trapping records with previous literature records. Ten gold tegus of both sexes and multiple size classes over a nine year period indicate a reproducing population in Miami-Dade County. Tupinambis teguixin is the sixth established non-native teiid species in Florida. Additionally, we report Tupinambis teguixin from Sarasota and Lee counties, Florida, USA. Determining population status in those counties requires further study. It is critical to differentiate this species fromSalvator merianae during removal efforts. The possibility of eradicating Tupinambis teguixin exists if proper identification enables reliable monitoring of the populations.

  18. Does the grass snake (Natrix natrix) (Squamata: Serpentes: Natricinae) fit the amniotes-specific model of myogenesis?

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    Lewandowski, Damian; Dubińska-Magiera, Magda; Posyniak, Ewelina; Rupik, Weronika; Daczewska, Małgorzata

    2017-07-01

    In the grass snake (Natrix natrix), the newly developed somites form vesicles that are located on both sides of the neural tube. The walls of the vesicles are composed of tightly connected epithelial cells surrounding the cavity (the somitocoel). Also, in the newly formed somites, the Pax3 protein can be observed in the somite wall cells. Subsequently, the somite splits into three compartments: the sclerotome, dermomyotome (with the dorsomedial [DM] and the ventrolateral [VL] lips) and the myotome. At this stage, the Pax3 protein is detected in both the DM and VL lips of the dermomyotome and in the mononucleated cells of the myotome, whereas the Pax7 protein is observed in the medial part of the dermomyotome and in some of the mononucleated cells of the myotome. The mononucleated cells then become elongated and form myotubes. As myogenesis proceeds, the myotome is filled with multinucleated myotubes accompanied by mononucleated, Pax7-positive cells (satellite cells) that are involved in muscle growth. The Pax3-positive progenitor muscle cells are no longer observed. Moreover, we have observed unique features in the differentiation of the muscles in these snakes. Specifically, our studies have revealed the presence of two classes of muscles in the myotomes. The first class is characterised by fast muscle fibres, with myofibrils equally distributed throughout the sarcoplasm. In the second class, composed of slow muscle fibres, the sarcoplasm is filled with lipid droplets. We assume that their storage could play a crucial role during hibernation in the adult snakes. We suggest that the model of myotomal myogenesis in reptiles, birds and mammals shows the same morphological and molecular character. We therefore believe that the grass snake, in spite of the unique features of its myogenesis, fits into the amniotes-specific model of trunk muscle development.

  19. Origins and biogeography of the Anolis crassulus subgroup (Squamata: Dactyloidae) in the highlands of Nuclear Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Erich P; Townsend, Josiah H

    2017-12-21

    Recent studies have begun to reveal the complex evolutionary and biogeographic histories of mainland anoles in Central America, but the origins and relationships of many taxa remain poorly understood. One such group is the Anolis (Norops) crassulus species subgroup, which contains ten morphologically similar highland taxa, the majority of which have restricted distributions. The nominal taxon A. crassulus has a disjunct distribution from Chiapas, Mexico, through Guatemala, in the highlands of El Salvador, and in the Chortís Highlands of Honduras. We test the relationships of these species using multiple mitochondrial and nuclear loci in concatenated and multispecies coalescent frameworks, in an effort to both resolve long-standing taxonomic confusion and present new insights into the evolution and biogeography of these taxa. Sequences of multiple mitochondrial and nuclear loci were generated for eight of the ten species of the Anolis crassulus species subgroup. We analyzed phylogenetic relationships and estimated divergence times and ancestral ranges of the subgroup, recovering a monophyletic subgroup within Anolis. Within the nominal taxon Anolis crassulus, we recovered multiple genetically distinct lineages corresponding to allopatric populations, and show that the Chortís Highland lineage split from the others over 13 MYA. Additionally, distinct mitochondrial lineages are present within the taxa A. heteropholidotus and A. morazani, and importantly, samples of A. crassulus and A. sminthus previously used in major anole phylogenetic analyses are not recovered as conspecific with those taxa. We infer a Chortís Highland origin for the ancestor of this subgroup, and estimate cladogenesis of this subgroup began approximately 22 MYA. Our results provide new insights into the evolution, biogeography, and timing of diversification of the Anolis crassulus species subgroup. The disjunctly distributed Anolis crassulus sensu lato represents several morphologically conserved, molecularly distinct anoles, and several other species in the subgroup contain multiple isolated lineages.

  20. Overlap of female reproductive cycles explains shortened interclutch interval in a lizard with invariant clutch size (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Paroedura picta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Hana; Starostová, Zuzana; Kubička, Lukáš; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    Variable clutch size is unambiguously an ancestral state in reptiles. Only several lizard lineages have evolved so-called invariant clutch size, where all females lay just one or two eggs per clutch. This mode of reproduction is characteristic for geckos. In some gecko lineages, decreased fecundity in a single clutch is compensated by conspicuous shortening of interclutch intervals. The proximate mechanism of high clutch frequency in these geckos is not known. Here, we document that three subsequently laid clutches develop simultaneously in females of the Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta). The extremely short interclutch intervals in this species-even as short as a week-thus could be attributed to the overlap of female reproductive cycles. Such overlap should be associated with altered female hormonal cycles. Based on measurements of hormonal levels, we suggest that cycles of estradiol and progesterone during reproductive cycles of females in P. picta are largely independent. Thus, in contrast to the presumable ancestral reptile state, higher levels of progesterone do not seem to interfere with vitellogenesis in this species. We discuss potential consequences of this derived mode of reproduction, such as possible simultaneous maternal transfer of nutrients and other yolk components to several subsequent clutches.

  1. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata) del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Brizuela; Marcos M. Cenizo; Daniel A. Tassara

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province). The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds). The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for th...

  2. Effects of season, sex and age on the diet of Homonota fasciata (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) from Monte region of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Cocilio, Rodrigo A. Nieva; Blanco, Graciela M.; Acosta, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the diet of the gecko Homonota fasciata (Duméril & Bibron, 1836) in a population from Monte of San Juan Province, Argentina, and to analyze possible temporal, sexual, and ontogenetic variations in feeding behavior. We determined the total volume, number, and occurrence frequency of each prey item and calculated the relative importance indexes. We also assessed trophic diversity and trophic equity. Homonota fasciata had a generalist and diverse diet bas...

  3. Escape tactics and effects of perch height and habituation on flight initiation distance in two Jamaican anoles (Squamata: Polychrotidae

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    William E Cooper, Jr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Escape by Anolis lizards is influenced by microhabitats and fight initiation distance increases with predation risk. Differences in microhabitat use among ecomorphs affect escape behavior, but only two studies have reported ecomorphological differences in flight initiation distance among Greater Antillean species. I studied effects of predation risk and microhabitats on escape behavior by conducting field experiments using two species of anoles, Anolis lineatopus and A. grahami, on the campus of the University of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica. Because ecomorphological variation of anoles has evolved independently within each island of the Greater Antilles, but relationships between ecomorphs and escape behaviors are poorly known, I characterized microhabitat use and escape tactics, and determined relationships between flight initiation distance and two risk factors, habituation to human presence and perch height, in Anolis lineatopus, a trunk-ground anole and A. grahami, a trunk-crown anole. Sample sizes for A. lineatopus and A. grahami were 214 and 93, for microhabitat use and escape destinations, 74 and 34 for human presence and 125 and 34 for perch height. The two species occurred in similar microhabitats and exhibited similar escape tactics, but exhibited key differences expected for their ecomorphs. Both species were sighted frequently on the ground and on trees, but A. lineatopus were more frequently on ground and were perched lower than A. grahami. Both species escaped from ground to trees and when on trees hid on far sides and escaped without changing climbing direction with equal frequency. The frequency of fleeing upward was greater for A. grahami than A. lineatopus. Both species exhibited habituation by having shorter flight initiation distances in areas with more frequent exposure to people. In both species flight initiation distance increased as perch height decreased because, lizards had to climb farther to be out of reach when perched lower. The relationship between flight initiation distance and perch height may apply to other anole ecomorphs that flee upward when low perched on trees. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1199-1209. Epub 2010 December 01.

  4. Escape tactics and effects of perch height and habituation on flight initiation distance in two Jamaican anoles (Squamata: polychrotidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William E

    2010-12-01

    Escape by Anolis lizards is influenced by microhabitats and fight initiation distance increases with predation risk. Differences in microhabitat use among ecomorphs affect escape behavior, but only two studies have reported ecomorphological differences in flight initiation distance among Greater Antillean species. I studied effects of predation risk and microhabitats on escape behavior by conducting field experiments using two species of anoles, Anolis lineatopus and A. grahami, on the campus of the University of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica. Because ecomorphological variation of anoles has evolved independently within each island of the Greater Antilles, but relationships between ecomorphs and escape behaviors are poorly known, I characterized microhabitat use and escape tactics, and determined relationships between flight initiation distance and two risk factors, habituation to human presence and perch height, in Anolis lineatopus, a trunk-ground anole and A. grahami, a trunk-crown anole. Sample sizes for A. lineatopus and A. grahami were 214 and 93, for microhabitat use and escape destinations, 74 and 34 for human presence and 125 and 34 for perch height. The two species occurred in similar microhabitats and exhibited similar escape tactics, but exhibited key differences expected for their ecomorphs. Both species were sighted frequently on the ground and on trees, but A. lineatopus were more frequently on ground and were perched lower than A. grahami. Both species escaped from ground to trees and when on trees hid on far sides and escaped without changing climbing direction with equal frequency. The frequency of fleeing upward was greater for A. grahami than A. lineatopus. Both species exhibited habituation by having shorter flight initiation distances in areas with more frequent exposure to people. In both species flight initiation distance increased as perch height decreased because, lizards had to climb farther to be out of reach when perched lower. The relationship between flight initiation distance and perch height may apply to other anole ecomorphs that flee upward when low perched on trees.

  5. Escape tactics and effects of perch height and habituation on flight initiation distance in two Jamaican anoles (Squamata: Polychrotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Cooper, Jr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Escape by Anolis lizards is influenced by microhabitats and fight initiation distance increases with predation risk. Differences in microhabitat use among ecomorphs affect escape behavior, but only two studies have reported ecomorphological differences in flight initiation distance among Greater Antillean species. I studied effects of predation risk and microhabitats on escape behavior by conducting field experiments using two species of anoles, Anolis lineatopus and A. grahami, on the campus of the University of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica. Because ecomorphological variation of anoles has evolved independently within each island of the Greater Antilles, but relationships between ecomorphs and escape behaviors are poorly known, I characterized microhabitat use and escape tactics, and determined relationships between flight initiation distance and two risk factors, habituation to human presence and perch height, in Anolis lineatopus, a trunk-ground anole and A. grahami, a trunk-crown anole. Sample sizes for A. lineatopus and A. grahami were 214 and 93, for microhabitat use and escape destinations, 74 and 34 for human presence and 125 and 34 for perch height. The two species occurred in similar microhabitats and exhibited similar escape tactics, but exhibited key differences expected for their ecomorphs. Both species were sighted frequently on the ground and on trees, but A. lineatopus were more frequently on ground and were perched lower than A. grahami. Both species escaped from ground to trees and when on trees hid on far sides and escaped without changing climbing direction with equal frequency. The frequency of fleeing upward was greater for A. grahami than A. lineatopus. Both species exhibited habituation by having shorter flight initiation distances in areas with more frequent exposure to people. In both species flight initiation distance increased as perch height decreased because, lizards had to climb farther to be out of reach when perched lower. The relationship between flight initiation distance and perch height may apply to other anole ecomorphs that flee upward when low perched on trees. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1199-1209. Epub 2010 December 01.El escape de las largarijas Anolis está influenciado por el microhábitat y la distancia de iniciación de escape incrementa el riesgo de depredación. Las diferencias en el uso de microhábitats entre ecomorfos afecta el comportamiento de escape, pero sólo dos estudios han reportado diferencias ecomorfológicas en la distancia de iniciación de escape entre las especies de las Antillas Mayores. Se estudió el efecto de riesgo de depredación y la influencia del microhábitat en el comportamiento de escape, mediante la realización de experimentos de campo con Anolis lineatopus y A. grahami, en el campus de la Universidad West Indies en Mona, Jamaica. Debido a que las variaciones ecomorfológicas de Anolis han evolucionado independientemente en cada isla de las Antillas Mayores, la relación entre ecomorfos y el comportamiento de escape son pobremente conocidos. Se caracteriza el uso del microhábitat y las tácticas de escape, se determinan las relaciones entre la distancia de iniciación de escape y los dos factores de riesgo (habituación a presencia humana y altura a la que se posan de Anolis lineatopus, una lagartija que habita en troncos-tierra y A. grahami, una lagartija de troncos-partes más altas. Los tamaños de muestra para A. lineatopus y A. grahami fueron: 214 y 93, para uso del microhábitat y destinos de escape 74, para presencia humana 34 y para perchas altas 125 y 34. Las dos especies se presentan en microhábitats similares y mostraron tácticas de escape parecidas, pero exhibieron diferencias claves esperadas para sus ecomorfos. Ambas especies fueron vistas con frecuencia en el suelo y en los árboles, pero A. lineatopus fue encontrada más frecuentemente en el suelo y debajo de A. grahami. Ambas especies escaparon del suelo a esconderse en los árboles y huían con igual frecuencia sin cambiar de dirección. La frecuencia de huir hacia arriba fue mayor para A grahami. Ambas especies mostraron habituación al tener distancias más cortas de iniciación de escape en zonas con exposición frecuente a la gente y la distancia de iniciación de escape incrementa cuando la altura de la percha disminuye, porque las lagartijas tienden a subir más al estar fuera de nuestro alcance cuando se posan en la parte baja. La relación entre la distancia de iniciación de escape y altura de la percha puede aplicar a otros ecomorfos de Anolis que huyen hacia arriba cuando están posados en las partes bajas de los árboles.

  6. Dragons in the mist: three new species of Pseudocalotes Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae) from the sky island archipelago of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Quah, Evan S H; Wood, Perry L Jr; Anuar, Shahrul; Muin, Abdul; Davis, Hayden R; Murdoch, Matthew L; Grismer, Jesse L; Cota, Michael; Cobos, Anthony J

    2016-07-07

    An integrative taxonomic analysis is used to delimit and describe three new species of Pseudocalotoes from the sky island archipelago of the Banjaran (=mountain range) Titiwangsa of Peninsular Malaysia. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov., from Fraser's Hill, Pahang is basal to the sister species P. larutensis from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Banjaran Bintang and the new species P. rhaegal sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a flat rostrum; seven postrostrals; an interparietal; 11 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one scale between the rostral and nasal; nine supralabials; eight infralabials; 10 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; five or six sublabials; five or six chinshields; 47 smooth, wide, gular scales; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; enlarged upper and lower posttemporals; a single enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; three large scales bordering the dorsal margin of the ear opening; large pretympanic scales; eight scales in the nuchal crest not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the tip of the tail; keeled and non-plate-like scales on flanks; 51 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on third toe enlarged and spinose; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.52; HL/SVL 0.31; no elbow or knee patches; and a male dewlap color of lime-green bearing a central yellow spot. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. is differentiated from all other Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a convex rostrum; 6-8 postrostrals; an interparietal; nine or 10 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one or two scales between the rostral and nasal scales; eight or nine supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; 11 or 12 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; four or five chinshields; 40-45 smooth, wide, gular scales; no transverse gular fold; a weak antehumeral fold; three or four enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; no large scales bordering the upper margin of the ear opening or in the pretympanic region; 6-8 enlarged nuchal crest scales not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the base of the tail; weakly keeled, non-plate-like scales on the flanks; 52-58 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19-21 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 22-26 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third enlarged and rounded; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.50-0.54; HL/SVL 0.28-0.30; no elbow or knee patches; and female dewlap color yellow bearing a purple base. The analyses also indicated that the new species, P. viserion sp. nov. from Genting Highlands, Pahang in the southern section of the Banjaran Titiwangsa is the sister species of P. flavigula from Cameron Highlands 121 km to the north and can be separated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of three postrostrals; 10 circumorbitals; four or five canthals; 5-7 superciliaries; rostral and nasals in contact; supralabials contacting the nasal; six or seven supralabials; six or seven infralabials; two or three postmentals; 47 or 48 smooth, flat, gular scales; three chinshields; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; 7-9 nuchal crest scales lacking gaps and not extending beyond midbody; weakly keeled and plate-like scales on the flanks; 35-38 midbody scales; ventrals smaller than dorsals; 22 or 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 26 or 27 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third toe not modified; subdigital scales not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.62; no white marking below the eye; dewlap in males yellow; and no elbow or knee patches. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. most likely occurs in syntopy with P. flavigula in Tanah Rata at Cameron Highlands and its discovery adds to a growing body of literature detailing the recent descriptions of several new, upland, closely related, sympatric species in Peninsular Malaysia. Another new population referred to here as Pseudocalotes sp. nov. from the Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Betong District, Yala Province, Thailand is discussed. The discovery and description of these three new Pseudocalotes from the upland regions of Peninsular Malaysia continues to underscore the remarkably high herpetological diversity and ecological complexity in this sky island archipelago that is still underestimated, unappreciated, and unprotected.

  7. Intraspecific variation in body size and shape in an andean highland anole species, Anolis ventrimaculatus (Squamata: Dactyloidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Espinosa, Martha L; Ortega-León, Angela M; Zamora-Abrego, Joan G

    2013-03-01

    Variation in body characteristics related to lizard locomotion has been poorly studied at the intraspecific level in Anolis species. Local adaptation due to habitat heterogeneity has been reported in some island species. However, studies of mainland species are particularly scarce and suggest different patterns: high variability among highland lizards and poorly differentiated populations in one Amazonian species. We characterized inter population variation of body size and shape in the highland Andean Anolis ventrimaculatus, an endemic species from Western Colombia. A total of 15 morphometric variables were measured in specimens from the reptile collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Colombia. The study included individuals from seven different highland localities. We found size and shape sexual dimorphism, both of which varied among localities. Patterns of variation in body proportions among populations were different in both males and females, suggesting that either sexual or natural selective factors are different in each locality and between sexes. Since this species exhibits a fragmented distribution in highlands, genetic divergence may also be a causal factor of the observed variation. Ecological, behavioral, additional morphological as well as phylogenetic data, may help to understand the evolutionary processes behind the geographic patterns found in this species.

  8. Single large or several small? The influence of prey size on feeding performance of Philodryas nattereri (Squamata: Serpentes

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    Sara Catunda Pereira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the energetic return and feeding time on Philodryas nattereri kept in captivity. Snakes were fed biweekly for 60 days (four feeding trials, in two different feeding treatments (single and multiple prey items. The energetic return revealed no significant difference between the feeding treatments; however, we found a negative relationship between snake size and prey handling time during a feed using multiple prey items. In P. nattereri, when large preys are as easy to find as small ones, there seems to be no difference in energetic return.

  9. Distribution record of Tantilla alticola Boulenger, 1903 (Squamata: Colubridae) in Coclé Province, Republic of Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Edward; Ruane, Sara; Knight, Karin; Knight, James; Ray, Julie

    2013-01-01

    A single specimen of Tantilla alticola was collected from Parque Nacional G. D. Omar Torrijos Herrera of Coclé Province, Republic of Panama. This record fills in a gap in the distribution for this species within the cloud forests of Central America.

  10. A large and unusually colored new snake species of the genus Tantilla (Squamata; Colubridae) from the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Pablo J.

    2016-01-01

    A new colubrid species of the genus Tantilla from the dry forest of the northern Peruvian Andes is described on the basis of two specimens, which exhibit a conspicuous sexual dimorphism. Tantilla tjiasmantoi sp. nov. represents the third species of the genus in Peru. The new species is easily distinguished from its congeners by the combination of scalation characteristics and the unusual transversely-banded color pattern on the dorsum. A detailed description of the skull morphology of the new species is given based on micro-computed tomography images. The habitat of this new species is gravely threatened due to human interventions. Conservation efforts are urgently needed in the inter-Andean valley of the Maranon River. PMID:27994975

  11. A large and unusually colored new snake species of the genus Tantilla (Squamata; Colubridae from the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Koch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new colubrid species of the genus Tantilla from the dry forest of the northern Peruvian Andes is described on the basis of two specimens, which exhibit a conspicuous sexual dimorphism. Tantilla tjiasmantoi sp. nov. represents the third species of the genus in Peru. The new species is easily distinguished from its congeners by the combination of scalation characteristics and the unusual transversely-banded color pattern on the dorsum. A detailed description of the skull morphology of the new species is given based on micro-computed tomography images. The habitat of this new species is gravely threatened due to human interventions. Conservation efforts are urgently needed in the inter-Andean valley of the Maranon River.

  12. A large and unusually colored new snake species of the genus Tantilla (Squamata; Colubridae) from the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J.

    2016-01-01

    A new colubrid species of the genus Tantilla from the dry forest of the northern Peruvian Andes is described on the basis of two specimens, which exhibit a conspicuous sexual dimorphism. Tantilla tjiasmantoi sp. nov. represents the third species of the genus in Peru. The new species is easily distinguished from its congeners by the combination of scalation characteristics and the unusual transversely-banded color pattern on the dorsum. A detailed description of the skull morphology of the new...

  13. A morfologia de Stenocercus dumerilii Steindachner (1867) (Squamata, Iguanidae) e suas implicações filogenéticas

    OpenAIRE

    HERNÁNDEZ RUZ, Emil José

    2004-01-01

    O estudo teve por objetivo incluir Stenocercus dumerilii (Steindachner, 1867) no contexto dos estudos filogenéticos recentes realizados com Tropidurinae*. Apresenta-se uma descrição da escutelação, crânio, cintura escapular, esqueleto abdominal e hemipênis, com ênfase nos caracteres utilizados na literatura em análises filogenéticas envolvendo o gênero Stenocercus. O estudo baseou-se em 65 exemplares fixados, dois exemplares diafanizados e dois hemipénis evertidos. Constatou-se que S. dumeril...

  14. First record of Urotheca dumerilli (Bibron, 1840) (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in Cauca state, Colombia and notes on natural history

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Pérez, Luis Enrique; Zúñiga-Baos, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Urotheca dumerilli has been rediscovered after 44 years through a single specimen collected at sector El Cóndor, Parque Nacional Natural Munchique, municipality of El Tambo, Cauca State, Colombia. Herein we present the coloration in life and description of fully everted hemipenis of the species for first time, with notes on geographical distribution and natural history.

  15. In the shadows: Phylogenomics and coalescent species delimitation unveil cryptic diversity in a Cerrado endemic lizard (Squamata: Tropidurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Fabricius M C B; Colli, Guarino R; Lemmon, Alan; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2017-02-01

    The recognition of cryptic diversity within geographically widespread species is gradually becoming a trend in the highly speciose Neotropical biomes. The statistical methods to recognise such cryptic lineages are rapidly advancing, but have rarely been applied to genomic-scale datasets. Herein, we used phylogenomic data to investigate phylogenetic history and cryptic diversity within Tropidurus itambere, a lizard endemic to the Cerrado biodiversity hotspot. We applied a series of phylogenetic methods to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and a coalescent Bayesian species delimitation approach (BPP) to clarify species limits. The BPP results suggest that the widespread nominal taxon comprises a complex of 5 highly supported and geographically structured cryptic species. We highlight and discuss the different topological patterns recovered by concatenated and coalescent species tree methods for these closely related lineages. Finally, we suggest that the existence of cryptic lineages in the Cerrado is much more common than traditionally thought, highlighting the value of using NGS data and coalescent techniques to investigate patterns of species diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A large and unusually colored new snake species of the genus Tantilla (Squamata; Colubridae) from the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J

    2016-01-01

    A new colubrid species of the genus Tantilla from the dry forest of the northern Peruvian Andes is described on the basis of two specimens, which exhibit a conspicuous sexual dimorphism. Tantilla tjiasmantoi sp. nov. represents the third species of the genus in Peru. The new species is easily distinguished from its congeners by the combination of scalation characteristics and the unusual transversely-banded color pattern on the dorsum. A detailed description of the skull morphology of the new species is given based on micro-computed tomography images. The habitat of this new species is gravely threatened due to human interventions. Conservation efforts are urgently needed in the inter-Andean valley of the Maranon River.

  17. Formal recognition of the species of Oreosaurus (Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago J. Sánchez-Pacheco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Oreosaurus is one of the two genera extracted from the former Riama sensu lato, which was recently recognized as polyphyletic. Oreosaurus is a small clade (five named and two undescribed species of montane gymnophthalmid lizards and exhibits an exceptional distributional pattern. Its nominal and undescribed species are discontinuously distributed on the Cordillera de la Costa of Venezuela, the tepuis from the Chimantá massif in Venezuela, the highlands of the island of Trinidad, and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia (SNSM. Herein, we describe the species of Oreosaurus that is endemic to the SNSM. Historically, this species associates with two names that are currently nomina nuda: Proctoporus serranus and P. specularis. Formal nomenclatural recognition of Oreosaurus serranus sp. n. renders specularis a permanently unavailable name for this taxon. Oreosaurus serranus sp. n. is the sister of all remaining congeners, and differs primarily from them in having only one pair of genial scales, as well as a unique pattern of scutellation. We provide an identification key to the species of Oreosaurus.

  18. DNA barcoding of Vietnamese bent-toed geckos (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) and the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Yang, Jun-Xiao; Le, Thanh-Ngan Thi; Nguyen, Luan Thanh; Orlov, Nikolai L; Hoang, Chung Van; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Rao, Ding-Qi; Hoang, Thao Ngoc; Che, Jing; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-03-26

    Species of bent-toed gecko (Cyrtodactylus) in Vietnam have been described at a rate of nearly four species per year since 2007 mostly based on morphological data. A tool that guides species delimitation will accelerate the rate of documentation, and at a time when the recognition of species greatly benefits conservation. We use DNA barcoding using COI (550 bp) to re-examine the levels of genetic divergence and taxonomic status of 21 described species of Vietnamese bent-toed geckos. Tree-based analyses resolve all sampled species and identify potential undescribed taxa. Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances between the described species average 21.0±4.2% and range from 4.3% to 28.7%. Further, our analyses discover two potentially new species from Vietnam, two from Laos and one from China. Herein we describe the new species Cyrtodactylus puhuensis sp. nov. from Vietnam on the basis of both genetics and morphology. Genetically, it differs from the remaining species by an average K2P distance of 24.0±1.8%. Morphologically, the new species is diagnosed by its medium-size (snout-vent length 79.24 mm and tail length 82.59 mm, for the single known individual), in having a series of moderately enlarged transverse subcaudals and a series of moderately enlarged femoral scales that extend from precloacal scales, in possessing femoral scales without pores, with males having five precloacal pores, and in exhibiting 8 supralabials, 10 infralabials, 23 narrow subdigital lamellae on its fourth toe, and 36 transverse ventrals.

  19. Photographic evidence of interspecies mating in geckos of the Lepidodactylus lugubris unisexual-bisexual complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, Donald W.; Cianchini, Carlos; Taborosi, Danko; Fisher, Robert N.; Bauer, Aaron; Ineich, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    An interspecies mating between unisexual Lepidodactylus lugubris and a male of the bisexual Lepidodactylus moestus was photographed by Carlos Cianchini on Kosrae [Island], FSM, at 18:15 h on 22 August 2013 (Figure 1). The mating pair was on a window frame inside a house at Pukusruk Wan village (05°21'01" N, 163°00'41" E, elev. 28 m a.s.l.) on the northeastern side of the island. This is the first direct evidence of mating between these two species.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of Semaphore geckos (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae: Pristurus) with an assessment of the taxonomy of Pristurus rupestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Arnaud; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Červenka, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Sindaco, Roberto; Robinson, Michael D; Morales, Hernan; Mazuch, Tomáš; Price, Thomas; Amat, Fèlix; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Wilms, Thomas; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Cluchier, Alexandre; Viglione, Julien; Carranza, Salvador

    2014-07-09

    A molecular phylogeny of the sphaerodactylid geckos of the genus Pristurus is inferred based on an alignment of 1845 base pairs (bp) of concatenated mitochondrial (12S) and nuclear (acm4, cmos, rag1 and rag2) genes for 80 individuals, representing 18 of the 23-26 species, and the three subspecies of P. rupestris. The results indicate that P. rupestris is polyphyletic and includes two highly divergent clades: the eastern clade, found in coastal Iran and throughout the Hajar Mountain range in northern Oman and eastern UAE; and the western clade, distributed from central coastal Oman, through Yemen, Saudi Arabia and north to southern Jordan. Inferred haplotype networks for the four nuclear genes show that the eastern and western clades of "P. rupestris" are highly differentiated and do not share any alleles. Moreover, although the two clades are differentiated by a morphological multivariate analysis, no one character or set of characters was found to be diagnostic. Based on the molecular analysis of specimens from the type locality of P. rupestris rupestris, the name P. rupestris is applied to the eastern clade. The name that should apply to the western clade cannot be clarified until morphological and genetic data for "P. rupestris" is available from the vicinity of Bosaso, Somalia, and therefore we refer to it as Pristurus sp. 1. The phylogenetic tree of Pristurus supports the hypothesis that P. celerrimus is sister to all the other species in the analyses and that the Socotra Archipelago was independently colonized a minimum of two times.

  1. Sex determination in Madagascar geckos of the genus Paroedura (Squamata: Gekkonidae): are differentiated sex chromosomes indeed so evolutionary stable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubová, Martina; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, Michail; Farkačová, Klára; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-12-01

    Among amniote vertebrates, geckos represent a clade with exceptional variability in sex determination; however, only a minority of species of this highly diverse group has been studied in this respect. Here, we describe for the first time a female heterogamety in the genus Paroedura, the group radiated in Madagascar and adjacent islands. We identified homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome in Paroedura masobe, Paroedura oviceps, Paroedura karstophila, Paroedura stumpffi, and Paroedura lohatsara. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed that female-specific sequences are greatly amplified in the W chromosome of P. lohatsara and that P. gracilis seems to possess a derived system of multiple sex chromosomes. Contrastingly, neither CGH nor heterochromatin visualization revealed differentiated sex chromosomes in the members of the Paroedura picta-Paroedura bastardi-Paroedura ibityensis clade, which is phylogenetically nested within lineages with a heterochromatic W chromosome. As a sex ratio consistent with genotypic sex determination has been reported in P. picta, it appears that the members of the P. picta-P. bastardi-P. ibityensis clade possess homomorphic, poorly differentiated sex chromosomes and may represent a rare example of evolutionary loss of highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe revealed a telomere-typical pattern in all species and an accumulation of telomeric sequences in the centromeric region of autosomes in P. stumpffi and P. bastardi. Our study adds important information for the greater understanding of the variability and evolution of sex determination in geckos and demonstrates how the geckos of the genus Paroedura provide an interesting model for studying the evolution of the sex chromosomes.

  2. Formal recognition of the species ofOreosaurus(Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pacheco, Santiago J; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Marques-Souza, Sergio; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Murphy, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    Oreosaurus is one of the two genera extracted from the former Riama sensu lato , which was recently recognized as polyphyletic. Oreosaurus is a small clade (five named and two undescribed species) of montane gymnophthalmid lizards and exhibits an exceptional distributional pattern. Its nominal and undescribed species are discontinuously distributed on the Cordillera de la Costa of Venezuela, the tepuis from the Chimantá massif in Venezuela, the highlands of the island of Trinidad, and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia (SNSM). Herein, we describe the species of Oreosaurus that is endemic to the SNSM. Historically, this species associates with two names that are currently nomina nuda : Proctoporus serranus and P. specularis . Formal nomenclatural recognition of Oreosaurus serranus sp. n. renders specularis a permanently unavailable name for this taxon. Oreosaurus serranus sp. n. is the sister of all remaining congeners, and differs primarily from them in having only one pair of genial scales, as well as a unique pattern of scutellation. We provide an identification key to the species of Oreosaurus .

  3. Hábitos alimentares de Enyalius perditus (Squamata, Leiosauridae) no Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Bernadete Maria de; Cruz,Carlos Alberto Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    No presente estudo foi analisado a dieta de Enyalius perditus Jackson, 1978 e suas variações de acordo com disponibilidade de alimento no Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Três áreas de matas foram amostradas, utilizando-se armadilhas de queda e adesivas para captura dos lagartos e itens-presa disponíveis. Os lagartos (n= 55) foram dissecados e o conteúdo estomacal analisado. O Índice de eletividade mostrou que larvas foram importantes volumetricamente na dieta de E. perditu...

  4. A new species of arboreal forest-dwelling gecko (Hemidactylus: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from coastal Kenya, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonza, Patrick K; Bauer, Aaron M

    2014-04-09

    A new species of Hemidactylus, H. mrimaensis sp. nov., is described from coastal kaya forests of Kenya. This small-sized, arboreal gecko may be distinguished from its probable close relative, the sympatric H. mabouia, by its more slender habitus, golden color, small adult body length (maximum SVL 50 mm in females) and features of scalation including keeled dorsal tubercles in 11-14 longitudinal rows, pointed tubercles on tail larger than those on the dorsum, and 32-34 precloacal pores in males. This gecko may be endemic to the coastal forests and given the ongoing threats to this habitat, the species is of high conservation concern.

  5. A new species of Tropidophorus Duméril & Bibron, 1839 (Squamata: Sauria: Scincidae) from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Yong Min; Karin, Benjamin R; Bauer, Aaron M; Das, Indraneil

    2017-05-03

    A new species of the genus Tropidophorus is described from Putai, upper Baleh, Kapit districts, Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). Tropidophorus sebi sp. nov. is diagnosable from congeners from Borneo by the combination of the following characters: head shields present, dorsal and lateral scales smooth; parietal scales in two pairs; supraciliaries eight; supraoculars four; supralabials seven; infralabials four; postmental undivided; longitudinal scale rows 58; ventrals 53; transverse scale rows at midbody 34; subcaudals 98; preanals enlarged, single; and subdigital lamellae of Toe IV 19. In addition, we determine the phylogenetic position of this species within the Tropidophorus group based on mitochondrial markers, and present a key to identification of the known Bornean species in the genus.

  6. Comparative cytogenetics of two species of ground skinks: Scincella assata and S. cherriei (Squamata: Scincidae: Lygosominae from Chiapas, Mexico

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    Riccardo Castiglia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard karyotypes of two species of the genus Scincella, S. assata and S. cherriei, both from Chiapas State, Mexico, were described for the first time. The diploid chromosome number was 28 in S. assata, whereas 30 in S. cherriei. The karyotypes of the two species, while differing in the number of microchromosomes, 14-15 in S. assata and 16-17 in S. cherriei, share four pairs of large metacentric, two pairs of medium-sized metacentric, and one particular pair (number 7 of chromosomes. Female S. assata carries chromosome pair 7 composed of two identical medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes. This chromosome pair is heteromorphic in males of both species, i.e., one component of the pair is similar to the homomorphic chromosomes 7 of the S. assata female, while the other is nearly one-half the size of its counterpart and resembles a microchromosome. The homology of such externally different elements is deducted from the presence of an asymmetric bivalent in spermatocytes at diplotene-diakinesis. Female S. cherriei was not available. We suspect that the two Scincella species possess an XY sex determination system, as previously reported for the North American congeneric species, S. lateralis.

  7. Home-range size and overlap within an introduced population of the Cuban Knight Anole, Anolis equestris (Squamata: Iguanidae

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    Paul M. Richards

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the spatial relationships of terrestrial lizards, but arboreal species remain poorly studiedbecause they are difficult to observe. The conventional view of home-range size and overlap among territorial, polygynous species of lizards is that: (1 male home ranges are larger than those of females; (2 male home ranges usually encompass, or substantiallyoverlap, those of several females; and (3 male home-range overlap varies but often is minimal, but female home ranges frequently overlap extensively. However, the paucity of pertinent studies makes it difficult to generalize these patterns to arboreal lizards. Weinvestigated home-range size and overlap in the arboreal Knight Anole, Anolis equestris, and compared our findings to published home-range data for 15 other species of Anolis. Using radiotelemetry and mark-recapture/resight techniques, we analyzed the home rangesof individuals from an introduced population of Knight Anoles in Miami, Florida. The home ranges of both sexes substantially overlapped those of the same- and different-sex individuals. In addition, male and female home ranges did not differ significantly, an unusual observation among lizard species. If one compares both male and female home ranges to those of other Anolis species, Knight Anoles have significantly larger home ranges, except for two species for which statistical comparisons were not possible. Our results suggest that home ranges and sex-specific spatial arrangements of canopy lizards may differ from those of more terrestrial species.

  8. GEOGRAPHIC BODY SIZE AND SHAPE VARIATION IN A MAINLAND Anolis (SQUAMATA: DACTYLOIDAE FROM NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA (COLOMBIA

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    Marta Lucia Calderón- Espinosa

    2014-05-01

    Anolis auratus se distribuye desde Costa Rica en Centro América, el norte de Sur América, incluyendo Colombia, Venezuela, norte de Brasil, Surinam y las Guyanas. En Colombia, su amplia distribución en distintas zonas de vida sugiere que estos lagartos ocupan distintos ambientes, y por tanto, posiblemente exhiben variación geográfica en el uso de microhabitat. Por otra parte, algunas observaciones sugieren que estos lagartos prefieren zonas abiertas, seleccionando pastizales y por tanto, una hipótesis alternativa es que usan el mismo microhabitat en toda su distribución. En Anolis, las variables corporales

  9. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism and heteroplasmy in populations of the three species of Tropidurus of the nanuzae group (Squamata, Tropiduridae

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    José Carlos Passoni

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The nanuzae group of lizards includes three species, Tropidurus nanuzae, T. divaricatus and T. amathites. The first species is found along Serra do Espinhaço, in eastern Brazil, and the other two in the northern region of the Brazilian State of Bahia, in continental dunes on both margins of the São Francisco River. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP of the mtDNA in these species were detected in 53 restriction sites. Site and fragment length polymorphisms were characterized, and cases of heteroplasmy involving length variation were observed. In T. divaricatus, these variations involved changes of 50-200 bp, probably in the control region of the molecule. In T. amathites, variation was apparently due to duplication/deletion of a 400-bp segment. Fragment length mutation rate varied among the species, being smaller in T. amathites than in T. divaricatus. Relatively low nucleotide diversity values were detected in these populations, the smallest being found in T. nanuzae. The most polymorphic population was T. divaricatus from Alagoado, followed by that of the same species from Ibiraba, suggesting both probable recovery of mtDNA genetic diversity after putative reductions in population size, and recent population expansion.O grupo nanuzae de lagartos compreende três espécies, Tropidurus nanuzae, T. divaricatus e T. amathites. A primeira é encontrada ao longo da Serra do Espinhaço, na região leste do Brasil, e as outras duas na região norte do Estado da Bahia, nas dunas continentais do Rio São Francisco, em margens opostas. Essas três espécies foram analisadas quanto a polimorfismos de tamanho de fragmentos de restrição (RFLP do DNAmit, tendo sido caracterizados 53 sítios de restrição. Polimorfismos de sítio e de tamanho de alguns fragmentos específicos foram caracterizados, bem como casos de heteroplasmia envolvendo variações de tamanho. Em T. divaricatus, estas variações correspondem a 50-200 pb, provavelmente localizadas na região controle da molécula; em T. amathites, a variação é provavelmente devida a uma duplicação ou deleção de um segmento de 400 pb. A taxa de mutação envolvendo tamanho de fragmentos mostrou-se menor em T. amathites, quando comparada a T. divaricatus. Índices relativamente baixos de diversidade de nucleotídeos foram detectados em todas as populações analisadas, os menores sendo encontrados nas populações de T. nanuzae. T. divaricatus de Alagoado mostrou-se a população mais polimórfica, seguida da população de Ibiraba. É sugerido que estas duas populações possam estar recuperando a diversidade quanto ao DNAmit após possíveis reduções nos tamanhos populacionais. O maior grau de polimorfismo encontrado em T. divaricatus talvez reflita uma expansão populacional recente nesta espécie.

  10. Intraspecific variation in body size and shape in an Andean highland anole species, Anolis ventrimaculatus (Squamata: Dactyloidae

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    Martha L. Calderón-Espinosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation in body characteristics related to lizard locomotion has been poorly studied at the intraspecific level in Anolis species. Local adaptation due to habitat heterogeneity has been reported in some island species. However, studies of mainland species are particularly scarce and suggest different patterns: high variability among highland lizards and poorly differentiated populations in one Amazonian species. We characterized inter population variation of body size and shape in the highland Andean Anolis ventrimaculatus, an endemic species from Western Colombia. A total of 15 morphometric variables were measured in specimens from the reptile collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Colombia. The study included individuals from seven different highland localities. We found size and shape sexual dimorphism, both of which varied among localities. Patterns of variation in body proportions among populations were different in both males and females, suggesting that either sexual or natural selective factors are different in each locality and between sexes. Since this species exhibits a fragmented distribution in highlands, genetic divergence may also be a causal factor of the observed variation. Ecological, behavioral, additional morphological as well as phylogenetic data, may help to understand the evolutionary processes behind the geographic patterns found in this species.La diversificación fenotípica al interior de una especie en características de dimensiones corporales relacionadas con la locomoción de los lagartos, se ha estudiado poco en especies de Anolis. Los datos de algunas especies de isla revelan patrones distintos de variación geográfica y sugieren que la adaptación local, debida a la heterogeneidad del hábitat, ocurre a este nivel. Los estudios de especies de continente son particularmente escasos y sugieren patrones distintos: un lagarto altoandino altamente variable y poblaciones poco diferenciadas en una especie amazónica. Caracterizamos la variación inter poblacional en el tamaño y forma del cuerpo del lagarto altoandino Anolis ventrimaculatus, especie endémica del Oeste de Colombia. Encontramos variación geográfica en el dimorfismo sexual en tamaño y forma. El patrón de variación en las proporciones corporales entre poblaciones fue distinto en machos y en hembras, sugiriendo que las presiones de selección sexual o natural son diferentes en cada localidad. Dado que la especie exhibe una distribución fragmentada en alta montaña, la divergencia genética entre poblaciones puede ser otro factor causal de la variación observada. Datos ecológicos, etológicos y morfológicos adicionales, así como información filogenética puede contribuir al entendimiento de los procesos evolutivos responsables del patrón de variación geográfica encontrado en esta especie.

  11. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

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    Leonardo B. Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825, as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation on lepidopteran larvae, coleopteran larvae and adults, and orthopteran nymphs and adults occurred in the wet season; however, hymenopterans/Formicidae were the most important prey items. The number of food items was similar between lizard species in both seasons; however the overlap for number of prey was smaller in the wet season. Preys ingested by T. hispidus during the wet season were also larger than those consumed by T. semitaeniatus. Seasonal comparisons of foraging intensity between the two species differed, mainly in the wet season, when T. hispidus exhibited less movement and fewer attacks on prey, and more time spent stationary if compared to T. semitaeniatus. Although both lizards are sit-and-wait foragers, T. semitaeniatus is more active than T. hispidus. The diet and foraging behavior of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus overlap under limiting conditions during the dry season, and are segregative factors that may contribute to the coexistence of these species in the wet season.

  12. Diet, microhabitat use, and thermal preferences of Ptychoglossus bicolor (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae in an organic coffee shade plantation in Colombia

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    Jaime M. Anaya-Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ptychoglossus bicolor is a small gymnophthalmid lizard distributed in the Magdalena Valley of Colombia. We studied ecological features of diet, microhabitat use, and thermal preferences of a population found in an organic coffee shade plantation at the Cordillera Oriental of the Colombian Andes. The studied population had a diet composed predominantly of isopods. The Relative Importance Index of isopods was 98.8%; there were no significant monthly differences in the full stomach content and volume of isopods eaten during the sampling year, neither between rainy and dry seasons. A large number of lizards were found active in the leaf-litter, buried around coffee tree roots, and under or in rotting logs. Lizard body temperature was positively correlated with substrate temperature and air temperature; sex differences in body temperature were not significant. At the studied locality we did not find lizards out of the coffee fields. Our results suggested that these lizards successfully cope with the conditions offered by the organic coffee areas as a result of the cultivation system. Thus, this population might be vulnerable to any modification of the habitat that changes microhabitat availability and abundance of isopods.Ptychoglossus bicolor es un pequeño lagarto de la familia Gymnophthalmidae, que habita el valle del Río Magdalena de Colombia. Se estudiaron las características ecológicas de la dieta, uso de microhábitat y preferencias termales de una población que habita una plantación de café orgánico bajo sombra en la Cordillera Oriental colombiana. La dieta en esta población está dominada por isópodos. El Índice Valor de Importancia Relativa fue del 98.8% y no hubo diferencias mensuales significativas en el contenido estomacal y el volumen de isópodos consumidos durante el año, ni tampoco entre las estaciones de lluvia y seca. Un gran número de lagartos fueron encontrados activos entre la hojarasca, enterrados junto a las raíces de los árboles y bajo o dentro de troncos en descomposición. La temperatura corporal estuvo positivamente correlacionada con las temperaturas del suelo y del aire y no hubo diferencias significativas en temperatura corporal entre los sexos. En esta localidad no encontramos lagartos fuera de los campos de cultivo de café. Nuestros resultados sugieren que estos lagartos sobrellevan exitosamente las condiciones ofrecidas por los cafetales orgánicos como resultado del sistema de cultivo. Así, esta población podría ser vulnerable a cualquier modificación del hábitat que cambie la disponibilidad de microhábitats y la abundancia de isópodos.

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goldberg, Stephen R. Vol 41, No 1 (2006) - Articles Reproductive cycle of the Namaqua sand lizard, Pedioplanis namaquensis (Squamata: Lacertidae), from southern Africa Abstract · Vol 41, No 2 (2006) - Articles Reproductive cycle of the Namib giant ground gecko, Chondrodactylus angulifer (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

  14. Análisis descriptivo de la miología flexora y extensora del miembro anterior de Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae

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    Silvia Moro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la musculatura de la extremidad anterior de Polychrus acutirostris. Se analizó la anatomía de los músculos flexores y extensores, tomándose en cuenta para cada uno los sitios de origen e inserción y las características principales. Los objetivos principales de este trabajo son: contribuir a la identificación de los complejos musculares del antebrazo y la mano; actualizar la nomenclatura de ciertos músculos complicados, y presentar un modelo de la musculatura de la extremidad anterior de un lagarto arborícola, que permita comparar con la anatomía muscular de lagartos con otros hábitos locomotores.The musculature of the forelimb of Polychrus acutirostris is described. The anatomy of the flexor and extensor muscles was analyzed, with a record of the sites of origin and insertion and main characteristics for each muscle. The main purposes of this work are: to contribute to the identification of the muscular complexes of the forearm and manus; to update the nomenclature of certain complicated muscles; and to present a model of the forelimb musculature of an arboreal lizard, to allow comparisons with the muscular anatomy of lizards with other locomotor habits.

  15. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  16. The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus; Squamata: Varanidae) as a sentinel species for lead and cadmium contamination in sub-Saharan wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Berny, Philippe, E-mail: p.berny@vetagro-sup.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile (France); Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, F-69622, Villeurbanne (France); Buffrenil, Vivian de [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 48, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, Departement Histoire de la Terre, UMR 7207 CR2P (France)

    2011-10-15

    Wetland pollution is a matter of concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Though regularly exploited, the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), a large amphibious lizard, is not threatened. This work aims at assessing the value of this varanid as a sentinel species in surveys of environmental contamination by metals. Lead and cadmium quantifications were performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bone, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle in 71 monitors from three unevenly polluted sites in Mali and Niger, plus a reference site. The effects of sex, size and fat reserves as well as factors related to the sampling strategy (tissue sampled, sampling site) were studied with a mixed linear model. Metal contamination is moderate at the four sites but clear differences nevertheless occur. Lead levels are generally maximal in bone, with a gender-independent median value 320 ng.g{sup -1}. Median cadmium concentrations never exceed 70.2 ng.g{sup -1} in females (kidney) and 57.5 ng.g{sup -1} in males (intestine). Such levels should have no detrimental effects on the monitors. Lead and cadmium levels in muscles are generally below 200 and 20 ng.g{sup -1}, respectively, and should provoke no health hazard to occasional consumers of monitor meat. Metal organotropisms are consistent with those observed in other studies about Squamates: for lead: bone > [kidney, intestine, liver] > muscle in males and [bone, kidney] > [intestine, liver] > muscle in females; for cadmium: [liver, intestine, kidney] > [bone, muscle] for both genders. Females are more contaminated, especially in their kidneys. In this tissue, median values in ng.g{sup -1} are 129.7 and 344.0 for lead and 43.0 and 70.2 for cadmium, for males and females, respectively. Nile monitors can reveal subtle differences in local pollution by metals; moreover, the spatial resolution of the pollution indication that they give seems to be very sharp. The practical relevance of this new tool is thus validated.

  17. A metapopulation of the lizard Anguis fragilis (Squamata: Anguidae on a local scale in Dorset, Great Britain, as indicated by spatial distribution and movement

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    Thomas Haley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A metapopulation is a group of spatially structured populations, consisting of distinct units (subpopulations that are separated by space or barriers, and connected by dispersal movements. Evidence derived from Gaussian finite-mixture models and dispersal events suggests that slow-worms may exist in a metapopulation. The Gaussian finite-mixture models showed that slow-worms are aggregated into individual subpopulations; the movement data revealed that males are more likely to migrate than females and that they have the ability to travel sufficiently far to bridge subpopulations. Therefore, the evidence supports the metapopulation theory and that slow-worms exist in multiple small subpopulations instead of one large homogenous population.

  18. Ecología trófica de la lagartija Stenocercus modestus(Squamata: Tropiduridae en una zona urbana, Lima, Perú

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    José Pérez Z.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stenocercus modestus es una especie endémica del Desierto Costero del departamento de Lima, y enfrenta importantes amenazas a la conservación de sus poblaciones. Evaluamos la dieta de esta especie mediante el análisis del contenido estomacal de 17 individuos. La dieta de S. modestusestá compuesta principalmente por insectos, siendo los ítems alimentarios más importantes los coleópteros, arañas e himenópteros. La la-gartija S. modestuspresenta una dieta generalista, a juzgar por la considerable amplitud de su nicho trófico.

  19. Effect of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae leaf extract combined with anti-venom serum on experimental Crotalus durissus (Squamata: Viperidae envenomation in rats

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    Rafael Stuani Floriano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Crotalic envenomation represents the highest number of deaths when compared to other snakebite envenomations of medical interest. Crotalic venom has important characteristics such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and clotting and hemolytic action. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory aspects of Crotalus durissus terrificus experimental envenomation in Wistar rats treated with antivenom and the aqueous extract of the plant Mikania glomerata. The animals were divided into three groups: Group C (control; Group VS-venom and antivenom; Group VSM-venom, antivenom and aqueous extract of M. glomerata. Crotalic poison caused clinical and laboratory alterations in Wistar mice. Significant linical alterations were: temperature decrease, edema in the venom inoculated member, sedation and a locomotion decrease in groups VS and VSM when compared with group C. A faster recovery from sedation was observed only for animals of group VSM when compared to VS. There was an increase in the number of leukocytes, neutrophils and creatine kinase in the VS and VSM groups, compared to group C. Wistar rats showed a high resistance to crotalic venom. Additional studies with different doses, time of treatment, different administration methods and histopathological and immunological studies are necessary to understand the action of M. glomerata in crotalic accidents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 929-937. Epub 2009 December 01.El envenamiento crotálico representa el número más alto de muertes cuando es comparado con envenenamientos por mordeduras de otras serpientes de interés médico. El veneno crotálico tiene importantes características de acción neurotóxica, miotoxicidad, nefrotoxicidad, coagulación y acción hemolítica. Este trabajo evaluó los aspectos clínicos y de laboratorio del envenenamiento experimental con el veneno de la serpiente Crotalus durissus terrificus en las ratas Wistar tratadas con suero antiofídico y extracto acuoso de M. glomerata. Los animales fueron separados en tres diferentes grupos: grupo control (C; grupo veneno+suero (VS, grupo veneno+suero+extracto acuoso de M. glomerata (VSM. El veneno crotálico causó alteraciones clínicas y diferencias en los análisis sanguíneos practicados a los ratones Wistar evaluados. Las alteraciones clínicas más importantes fueron una disminución de la temperatura, edema en el miembro inoculado de veneno, la sedación y una disminución de la locomoción en los grupos VS y VSM comparado con el grupo C. Una rápida recuperación de la sedación estadísticamente significativa fue observada en los animales del grupo VSM al compararse con los del grupo VS. Los análisis sanguíneos mostraron un aumento en el número de leucocitos, neutrofilos y creatina quinasa en los grupos VS y VSM comparados con el grupo C. Los ratones Wistar mostraron una alta resistencia al veneno del crótalo. Estudios adicionales con variación en las dosis, tiempo de tratamiento, y métodos de administración, así como la realización de estudios histopatológicos e inmunológicos son importantes para comprender la acción de M. glomerata en accidentes crotálicos.

  20. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae from a transitional forest in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivanildo P. Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855 in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate, but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing the effect of the substrate temperature. Males and females differed significantly in perch height use above ground (males perched higher but the sexes did not differ in the trunk perimeter used. Gonatodes humeralis tended to use the larger tree trunks available in its environment and selected trunks with deeper leaf litter at the base. It is hypothesized that choosing tree trunks with deeper leaf litter is a defensive behavior against predation.

  1. Predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae by the curl-crested jay Cyanocorax cristatellus (Aves, Corvidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

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    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris by the Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus in a Cerrado area of the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, central Brazil, thus increasing knowledge of the diet of this bird species.

  2. Predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae by the curl-crested jay Cyanocorax cristatellus (Aves, Corvidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

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    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris by the Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus in a Cerrado area of the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, central Brazil, thus increasing knowledge of the diet of this bird species.

  3. The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus; Squamata: Varanidae) as a sentinel species for lead and cadmium contamination in sub-Saharan wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Berny, Philippe; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Buffrenil, Vivian de

    2011-01-01

    Wetland pollution is a matter of concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Though regularly exploited, the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), a large amphibious lizard, is not threatened. This work aims at assessing the value of this varanid as a sentinel species in surveys of environmental contamination by metals. Lead and cadmium quantifications were performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bone, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle in 71 monitors from three unevenly polluted sites in Mali and Niger, plus a reference site. The effects of sex, size and fat reserves as well as factors related to the sampling strategy (tissue sampled, sampling site) were studied with a mixed linear model. Metal contamination is moderate at the four sites but clear differences nevertheless occur. Lead levels are generally maximal in bone, with a gender-independent median value 320 ng.g -1 . Median cadmium concentrations never exceed 70.2 ng.g -1 in females (kidney) and 57.5 ng.g -1 in males (intestine). Such levels should have no detrimental effects on the monitors. Lead and cadmium levels in muscles are generally below 200 and 20 ng.g -1 , respectively, and should provoke no health hazard to occasional consumers of monitor meat. Metal organotropisms are consistent with those observed in other studies about Squamates: for lead: bone > [kidney, intestine, liver] > muscle in males and [bone, kidney] > [intestine, liver] > muscle in females; for cadmium: [liver, intestine, kidney] > [bone, muscle] for both genders. Females are more contaminated, especially in their kidneys. In this tissue, median values in ng.g -1 are 129.7 and 344.0 for lead and 43.0 and 70.2 for cadmium, for males and females, respectively. Nile monitors can reveal subtle differences in local pollution by metals; moreover, the spatial resolution of the pollution indication that they give seems to be very sharp. The practical relevance of this new tool is thus validated.

  4. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica

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    Josiah Townsend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to B. lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas.

  5. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis) from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H; Medina-Flores, Melissa; Wilson, Larry David; Jadin, Robert C; Austin, James D

    2013-01-01

    A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by having 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to Bothriechis lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas.

  6. Plasma concentrations of progesterone and estradiol and the relation to reproduction in Galápagos land iguanas, Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus (Squamata, Iguanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Michela; Sancesario, Giulia; Pastore, Donatella; Bernardini, Sergio; Carrión, Jorge E; Carosi, Monica; Vignoli, Leonardo; Lauro, Davide; Gentile, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    In a combined approach, endocrine and ultrasonic analyses were performed to assess reproduction of two syntopic populations of terrestrial Galápagos iguanas the Conolophus marthae (the Galápagos Pink Land Iguana) and C. subcristatus on the Volcán Wolf (Isabela Island). The ELISA methods (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were used to measure plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and 17β-estradiol (E2) from samples collected over the course of three different seasons: July 2010, June 2012-2014. As for C. subcristatus, the large number of females with eggs in 2012 and 2014 were associated with increased plasma P4 concentrations and the corresponding absence of females with eggs in July 2010 when concentrations of both hormones levels were basal indicating reproduction was still ongoing in June and had ended in July. In C. marthae, even though there was a positive relationship between egg-development stages and hormone concentrations, P4 concentrations were basal through the three years that samples were collected, with some females having a lesser number of eggs compared with C. subcristatus. In C. marthae P4 and E2 patterns did not allow for defining a specific breeding season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic diversity of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Gekko gecko Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in Southeast Asia determined with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Watee Kongbuntad; Chairat Tantrawatpan; Warayutt Pilap; Kamonwan Jongsomchai; Tawin Chanaboon; Panida Laotongsan; Trevor N. Petney; Weerachai Saijuntha

    2016-01-01

    Red-spotted tokay geckos, Gekko gecko, are distributed mainly in Southeast Asia. They are a traditional Chinese medicine, with the massive hunting for exports dramatically decreasing their numbers. Information on the genetic diversity of these geckos in Southeast Asia is very limited. This study aims to explore intrapopulation and interpopulation genetic variation and the genetic structure of 16 populations collected from different localities in Thailand, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and...

  8. Genetic diversity of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Gekko gecko Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in Southeast Asia determined with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watee Kongbuntad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Red-spotted tokay geckos, Gekko gecko, are distributed mainly in Southeast Asia. They are a traditional Chinese medicine, with the massive hunting for exports dramatically decreasing their numbers. Information on the genetic diversity of these geckos in Southeast Asia is very limited. This study aims to explore intrapopulation and interpopulation genetic variation and the genetic structure of 16 populations collected from different localities in Thailand, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Relatively high genetic diversity occurred at both the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels. Genetic differentiation with FST values ranging between 0.006–0.892 was found. Five distinct genetic groups of the red-spotted tokay populations could be classified. A group of populations from northern Thailand showed the highest genetic differentiation from the other groups. Moreover, there was a substantial genetic subdivision depending on the genetic groups with FCT=0.664 and FSC=0.185. This genetic structure is related to geographical distribution and distance between populations, R2=0.5614, p<0.001. Our findings of pronounced genetic structuring and the concomitant conservation genetic consequences if further population loss occurs mean that management actions should therefore focus on the conservation of all of the main sites where tokay geckos still occur.

  9. Reproducción y dieta de una población de Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata, Scincidae en Córdoba, Argentina

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    Liliana Aun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron estudiados los aspectos reproductivos y la dieta de Mabuya dorsivittata, una especie de lagarto vivíparo de la localidad de Alto Alegre (Córdoba. La hembra de menor tamaño, con folículos yemados midió de LHC 41 mm. El tamaño de la camada varió entre 5 – 10 embriones por hembra. Los machos de menor tamaño con espermatozoos en los testículos midieron de LHC 31 mm. Hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el peso de las gónadas versus el estadio reproductivo (b= 0,524, R= 0,254, P< 0,001. En los machos hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el volumen testicular y el estadio reproductivo (R2= 0,851, b= 0,929, P< 0,002. El incremento de cuerpos grasos en hembras y machos se relacionó con el periodo de gestación, especialmente en las hembras, decreciendo en las últimas fases, indicando un costo energético alto en los últimos meses del crecimiento embrionario. En cuanto a la dieta, las hembras se alimentaron principalmente de Araneae (suelo como ítem fundamental, y de Scarabeidae, Araneae (otras y Acridiidae como ítem secundario y los machos se alimentaran de Isopoda, Acridiidae y Araneae (otras como ítem fundamental y de Tettigonidae como ítem secundario. Hubo diferencias significativas en la selección trófica entre sexos.

  10. A new species of Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkota: Gekkonidae)  from Qara Dagh Mountains, Kurdistan Region, with a key to the genus in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei-Mahroo, Barbod; Ghaffari, Hanyeh; Ghafoor, Aram; Amini, Saywan

    2017-12-12

    We describe a new species of gecko of the genus Hemidactylus from the oak woodlands of Zagros Forest Steppe of Qara Dagh Mountains, Sulaimani, northeastern Iraq, based on morphological and molecular characteristics. Hemidactylus kurdicus sp. nov. is distinguished from all other related Arid clade Hemidactylus species in the Middle East by having a single pair of postmental scales; it differs H. turcicus, H. robustus, H. ulii, H. sinaitus, H. shihraensis and H. yerburii based on the number of lamellae under the first and fourth toes of pes. Mitochondrial DNA including CytB and 12S identify a consistent divergence between H. kurdicus and H. persicus. An identification key to the genus Hemidactylus in Iraq is presented.

  11. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) II: a new species from the northern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Cameron D; Davis, Drew R; Freitas, Elyse S; Huron, Nicholas A; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Papeș, Monica; Amrein, Andrew; Anwar, Alyssa; Cooper, Dontae; Hein, Tucker; Manning, Annalisa; Patel, Neeral; Pinaroc, Lauren; Diesmos, Arvin C; Diesmos, Mae L; Oliveros, Carl H; Brown, Rafe M

    2016-06-28

    We describe a new digitless scincid lizard of the genus Brachymeles from northern Luzon and Camiguin Norte islands in the Philippines. This species belongs to the Brachymeles bonitae Complex, and both molecular and morphological data confirm that this species is distinct from all other congeners. Formerly considered to be a single widespread species, this group of species has been the focus of recent systematic reviews. Here we describe a new species in the B. bonitae Complex, recognized currently to constitute five species. Brachymeles ilocandia sp. nov. is the second digitless and the seventeenth non-pentadactyl species in genus. The description of this species brings the total number of species in the genus to 40, and provides new insight into unique distribution patterns of species of the northern Philippines.

  12. Systematic revision of the Parvoscincus decipiens (Boulenger, 1894) complex of Philippine forest skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Lygosominae) with descriptions of seven new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkem, Charles W; Brown, Rafe M

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of external morphological characters, color pattern, and DNA sequence data, plus consideration of biogeographical patterns, leads us to the hypothesis that the Parvoscincus decipiens complex of Philippine forest skinks consists of a minimum of eight highly divergent, phenotypically distinct, cohesive evolutionary lineages. We rectify this taxonomic underestimation of species diversity with formal descriptions of seven new species (P. abstrusus sp. nov., P. agtorum sp. nov., P. arvindiesmosi sp. nov., P aurorus sp. nov., P banahaoensis sp. nov., P. jimmymcguirei sp. nov., and P. palaliensis sp. nov.) and highlight geographical sampling deficiencies, which, if addressed with additional fieldwork, should lead to additional new species discoveries. Due to the difficulty of identifying non-overlapping differences in scalation on similarly sized, small-bodied skinks, species level diversity in diminutive Philippine forest skinks is undoubtedly substantially underestimated.

  13. The first cytogenetic description of Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839 from Northern Sardinia reveals the highest diploid chromosome number among sphaerodactylid geckos (Sphaerodactylidae, Squamata

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    Ekaterina Gornung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of a sphaerodactylid gecko Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839 was assembled for the first time in this species. It is made of 2n = 42 gradually decreasing in size chromosomes, the highest chromosome number so far acknowledged in the family Sphaerodactylidae. The second chromosome pair of the karyotype appears slightly heteromorphic in the male individual. Accordingly, FISH with a telomeric probe revealed an uneven distribution of telomeric repeats on the two homologues of this pair, which may be indicative of an XY sex-determination system in the species, to be further investigated.

  14. The phylogenetic position of Lygodactylus angularis and the utility of using the 16S rDNA gene for delimiting species in Lygodactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae

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    Riccardo Castiglia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The African genus Lygodactylus Gray, is composed of roughly 60 species of diurnal geckos that inhabit tropical and temperate Africa, Madagascar, and South America. In this study, we assessed the phylogenetic position of L. angularis, for which molecular data were so far lacking, by means of sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene. We also compared intraspecific vs. interspecific genetic divergences using an extended data set (34 species, 153 sequences, to determine whether a fragment of this gene can be useful for species identification and to reveal the possible existence of new cryptic species in the genus. The analysis placed L. angularis in a monophyletic group together with members of “fischeri” and “picturatus” groups. Nevertheless, the independence of the “angularis” lineage is supported by the high genetic divergence. Comparison of intraspecific vs. interspecific genetic distances highlights that, assuming an equal molecular rate of evolution among the studied species for the used gene, the threshold value useful for recognising a candidate new species can be tentatively placed at 7%. We identified four species that showed an intraspecific divergence higher than, or close to, the 7% threshold: L. capensis (8.7%, L. gutturalis (9.3%, L. madagascariensis (6.5% and L. picturatus (8.1%. Moreover, two species, L. mombasicus and L. verticillatus, are paraphyletic in terms of gene genealogy. Thus, the study shows that a short fragment of the 16S rDNA gene can be an informative tool for species-level taxonomy in the genus Lygodactylus.

  15. Reproduction in a gecko assemblage (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae in the Marañon Region (Peru and comments on the largest gecko in the New World

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    Janina Aurich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction is described for four phyllodactylid geckos, Phyllopezus maranjonensis, Phyllodactylus delsolari, P. thompsoni and P. reissii from the upper Marañon Valley, Peru. Observations were made between March and May 2010 and voucher specimens, already housed in the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK, were X-rayed to check for gravid females. Gravid female P. maranjonensis, P. delsolari and P. reissii contain two eggs, whereas P. thompsoni produces a single egg that is deposited in leaf litter or crevices of stone walls. It is likely that females of all of these species produce multiple clutches in one year; the reproductive period seems to be extended in at least two species. Furthermore, measurements of numerous specimens of all four species are presented herein, revealing that Phyllopezus maranjonensis is the largest species of New World geckos.

  16. Three new karst-dwelling Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata; Gekkoniade from Peninsular Thailand and the phylogenetic placement of C. punctatonuchalis and C. vandeventeri

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    Perry Lee Wood Jr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Rock Geckos Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov., C. phangngaensis sp. nov., and C. thachanaensis sp. nov. of the chanthaburiensis and siamensis groups are described from the Thai portion of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. These new species are distinguished from all other species in their two respective groups based on a unique combination of morphological characteristics, which is further supported by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2. Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the chanthaburiensis group by having a smaller maximum SVL 38 mm, 13 paravertebral tubercles, enlarged femoral scales, no caudal bands, and a 19.5–23.0% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2. Cnemaspis phangngaensis sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the siamensis group by having the unique combination of 10 infralabial scales, four continuous pore-bearing precloacal scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, lacking tubercles on the lower flanks, having ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly present, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paraveterbral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudals, and a 8.8–25.2% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2. Cnemaspis thachanaensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species in the siamensis group by having 10 or 11 supralabial scales 9–11 infralabial scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paravertebral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudal scales, lacking a single enlarged subcaudal scale row, lacking postcloaclal tubercles in males, the presence of an enlarged submetatarsal scale at the base if the 1st toe, and a 13.4–28.8% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2. The new phylogenetic analyses place C. punctatonuchalis and C. vandeventeri in the siamensis group with C. punctatonuchalis as the sister species to C. huaseesom and C. vandeventeri as the sister species to C. siamensis, corroborating previous hypotheses based on morphology. The discovery of three new karst-dwelling endemics brings the total number of nominal Thai Cnemaspis species to 15 and underscores the need for continued field research in poorly known areas of the Thai-Malay Peninsula, especially those that are threatened and often overlooked as biodiversity hot spots.

  17. Differentiation of sex chromosomes and karyotypic evolution in the eye-lid geckos (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae), a group with different modes of sex determination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, M.; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Rens, W.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2010), s. 809-820 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP206/06/P282 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : reptile cytogenetics * FISH * neo-sex hromosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.130, year: 2010

  18. Redescription of Cyrtodactylus fumosus (Müller, 1895 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae, with a revised identification key to the bent-toed geckos of Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Mecke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The binominal Cyrtodactylus fumosus has frequently been used for populations of bent-toed geckos occurring on some Indonesian islands, including Java, Bali, Sulawesi, and Halmahera. Unfortunately, incorrect usage of this name for different geographic lineages has resulted in confusion about the true identity of C. fumosus. Examination of the type specimen and additional specimens from Rurukan and Mount Masarang, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, revealed that this population is distinct from other forms heretofore called ‘fumosus’ by a combination of unique morphological characters. In order to stabilize the taxonomy of C. fumosus sensu stricto, and to prevent further confusion, we provide a comprehensive redescription of this species, whose distribution we herein restrict to North Sulawesi. Cyrtodactylus fumosus is one of the most distinctive species among the six bent-toed geckos recorded from Sulawesi, and it differs from Sulawesi congeners by the presence of (1 precloacofemoral scales, including three pore-bearing scales on each thigh, separated from 10 or 11 pore-bearing scales in the precloacal region by 9-11 interscales in males, (2 a precloacal groove in adult males, (3 flat dorsal tubercles in 4-7 irregularly arranged longitudinal rows at midbody, and (4 a distinct lateral fold lacking tubercles. We also provide a revised identification key to the bent-toed gecko species of Sulawesi.

  19. Differentiation of sex chromosomes and karyotypic evolution in the eye-lid geckos (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae), a group with different modes of sex determination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, M.; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Kratochvíl, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2010), s. 748-748 ISSN 0967-3849. [19th International Colloquium on animal cytogenetics and gene mapping. 06.06.-09.06.2010, Krakow] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sex chromosomes * karyotypic evolution * eye-lid geckos Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. The phylogenetic position of Lygodactylus angularis and the utility of the 16S rDNA gene for delimiting species in Lygodactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Castiglia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The African genus Lygodactylus Gray, is composed of about 60 species of diurnal geckos inhabiting tropical and temperate Africa, Madagascar and South America. In this paper we analysed, by means of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene, the phylogenetic position of one species for which molecular data are lacking, L. angularis. Moreover, we compared the intraspecific vs interspecific genetic divergence using an extended dataset (37 species, 160 haplotypes, to determine whether a fragment of the same gene can be useful for species identification and to reveal the possible presence of new cryptic species in the genus. Lygodactylus angularis resulted in a monophyletic group together with members of the “fisheri” group and of the “picturatus” group. Nevertheless, the independence of the “angularis” lineage is supported by the high genetic divergence. Comparison of intraspecific vs interpecific genetic distances highlights that the threshold values useful for recognising a candidate new species can be tentatively placed at 7%. We identified four species that showed an intraspecific divergence higher than or near the 7% threshold: L. capensis (8.7%, L. gutturalis (9.3%, L. madagascariensis (6.5% and L. picturatus (8.1%. Moreover two species, L. mombasicus and L. verticillatus are paraphyletic in terms of gene genealogy. This study shows that a short fragment of the 16S rDNA gene can be an informative tool for species-level taxonomy in the genus Lygodactylus.

  1. Microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes at different stages of heteromorphism and heterochromatinization in two lizard species (Squamata: Eublepharidae: Coleonyx elegans and Lacertidae: Eremias velox)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, L.; Kejnovský, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2011), s. 90-96 ISSN 1471-2156 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/10/0930 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : repeated dna-sequences * Y-chromosome * determining mechanisms Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.475, year: 2011

  2. Molecular phylogeny, species limits, and biogeography of the Brazilian endemic lizard genus Enyalius (Squamata: Leiosauridae): an example of the historical relationship between Atlantic Forests and Amazonia.

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    Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Bertolotto, Carolina Elena Viña; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Freire, Eliza Maria Xavier; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado

    2014-12-01

    The endemic Brazilian Enyalius encompasses a diverse group of forest lizards with most species restricted to the Atlantic Forest (AF). Their taxonomy is problematic due to extensive variation in color pattern and external morphology. We present the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus based on 2102 bp of the mtDNA (cyt-b, ND4, and 16S) and nuclear (c-mos) regions, uncovering all previously admitted taxa (9 spp). Different methods of tree reconstruction were explored with Urostrophus vautieri, Anisolepis grilli and A. longicauda as outgroups. The monophyly of Enyalius and its split into two deeply divergent clades (late Oligocene and early Miocene) is strongly supported. Clade A assembles most lineages restricted to south and southeastern Brazil, and within it Enyalius brasiliensis is polyphyletic; herein full species status of E. brasiliensis and E. boulengeri is resurrected. Clade B unites the Amazonian E. leechii as sister-group to a major clade containing E. bilineatus as sister-group to all remaining species from northeastern Brazil. We detected unrecognized diversity in several populations suggesting putative species. Biogeographical analyses indicate that Enyalius keeps fidelity to shadowed forests, with few cases of dispersal into open regions. Ancient dispersal into the Amazon from an AF ancestor may have occurred through northeastern Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India

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    S.K. Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 were undertaken in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India during the monsoons (July following quadrat sampling that was time-constrained. The study revealed that the area is one of the preferable habitats for the species. A population analysis showed that the relative abundance of the subadults was higher, followed by juveniles and adults during the study period. The beginning of activity of the lizards was found to vary over the study period depending on prevailing weather conditions. The activity pattern was bimodal, except across rain events. The study revealed two important ecological findings about these lizards; complete sealing of burrow during rains which differed from partial sealing on normal days and complete diurnal cycle of body colour changes during the monsoon. Feeding was the predominant activity of this lizard followed by basking, resting and chasing each other. The adult lizards were found to be strictly herbivorous, in spite of an abundance of insects available in the area during the period. Subadults and juveniles were found to eat both plant parts, as well as insects. Microhabitat use such as inside grass clumps was found to be higher followed by barren ground, under shade and on stones.

  4. [Taxonomy of some microteids (Squamata) from Venezuela, I: variation and geographic distribution of Euspondylus acutirostris and description of a new Euspondylus from northeast Venezuela].

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    Mijares-Urrutia, A; Celsa Señaris, J; Arends, A

    2000-01-01

    Only two species of the microteiid lizard genus Euspondylus (E. acutirostris and E. phelpsorum) had been reported from Venezuela. New records of the poorly known gymnophthalmid lizard Euspondylus acutirostris are reported extending its known range along the Coastal Range and Sierra de Aroa (north-central Venezuela) and Sierra de San Luis (northwestern Venezuela), all records occurring at the cloud forest above 1000 m. Seven body measurements were included and morphological variation is described based on at least 17 new specimens. Sexual dimorphism is determined in, at least, eight characteristics of size and squamation. Specimens were found in epiphytic bromeliads and the ground. The populations from Sierra de Aroa and Sierra de San Luis (only one specimen known from each locality), differ from those of the Coastal Range (supposedly the nominal population) in some morphological and coloration features, suggesting that the former two could represent different taxonomical entities. A new species of Euspondylus is described based on a female (taken within a bromeliad) from Cerro El Humo, Sucre, northeastern Venezuela. It differs from congeners mainly by having keeled scales on the limbs and a very acute snout.

  5. Sea ice meiofauna abundance in coastal fast ice off Barrow, Alaska, with a focus on Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta), July 12, 2005 - April 4, 2006 (NODC Accession 0064869)

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fast ice along the Alaskan coastline forms in November/December and reaches a thickness of 1.5-1.8m by April. Break-up usually occurs between late June and...

  6. Molecular phylogeny, biogeography and insights into the origin of parthenogenesis in the Neotropical genus Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae): Ancient links between the Atlantic Forest and Amazonia.

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    Pellegrino, Katia C M; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Harris, D James; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Sites, Jack W

    2011-11-01

    Leposoma is a conspicuous component of leaf litter herpetofauna of South and Central American rainforests. The 15 bisexual and one parthenogenetic species are allocated to the parietale and scincoides groups based on morphology. Phylogenetic analyses of 1830 bp (mtDNA+nuclear) were performed on 63 specimens of four species from Amazonian and Panamanian rainforests, and six species and one undescribed form from the Atlantic Forest. Different methods of tree reconstruction were explored, with Anotosaura vanzolinia and Colobosauroides cearensis as outgroups. The monophyly of the parietale and scincoides groups is strongly supported. Contrary to previous hypotheses suggesting a recent contact between Atlantic and Amazon forests, our estimates point to an initial split in Miocene. The position of Leposoma baturitensis, endemic to relictual forests in the semiarid Caatingas northeastern Brazil, and its divergence from the remaining species of the Atlantic Forest, suggests an ancient isolation with no indication of a secondary contact with forests of the eastern coast. Our data do not permit unambiguous assignment of parental species of the unisexual Leposoma percarinatum or the mechanism involved in the origin of parthenogenesis, but revealed two highly divergent diploid and triploid lineages within L. percarinatum, indicating that the unisexuals represent a species complex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quaternary range and demographic expansion of Liolaemus darwinii (Squamata: Liolaemidae) in the Monte Desert of Central Argentina using Bayesian phylogeography and ecological niche modelling.

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    Camargo, Arley; Werneck, Fernanda P; Morando, Mariana; Sites, Jack W; Avila, Luciano J

    2013-08-01

    Until recently, most phylogeographic approaches have been unable to distinguish between demographic and range expansion processes, making it difficult to test for the possibility of range expansion without population growth and vice versa. In this study, we applied a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to reconstruct both demographic and range expansion in the lizard Liolaemus darwinii of the Monte Desert in Central Argentina, during the Late Quaternary. Based on analysis of 14 anonymous nuclear loci and the cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA gene, we detected signals of demographic expansion starting at ~55 ka based on Bayesian Skyline and Skyride Plots. In contrast, Bayesian relaxed models of spatial diffusion suggested that range expansion occurred only between ~95 and 55 ka, and more recently, diffusion rates were very low during demographic expansion. The possibility of population growth without substantial range expansion could account for the shared patterns of demographic expansion during the Last Glacial Maxima (OIS 2 and 4) in fish, small mammals and other lizards of the Monte Desert. We found substantial variation in diffusion rates over time, and very high rates during the range expansion phase, consistent with a rapidly advancing expansion front towards the southeast shown by palaeo-distribution models. Furthermore, the estimated diffusion rates are congruent with observed dispersal rates of lizards in field conditions and therefore provide additional confidence to the temporal scale of inferred phylogeographic patterns. Our study highlights how the integration of phylogeography with palaeo-distribution models can shed light on both demographic and range expansion processes and their potential causes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ecología de Phyllodactylus angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae de la Reserva Nacional de Paracas, Perú

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    José Pérez Z.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se desconocen muchos aspectos de la ecología de Phyllodactylus angustidigitus (Dixon & Huey 1970 y P. gerrhopygus (Weigmann, 1834. En el presente trabajo investigamos algunos aspectos del nicho de P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus en la Reserva Nacional de Paracas (RNP. Se evaluó y comparó la distribución, uso de hábitats (nicho espacial, horarios de actividad (nicho temporal y dieta (nicho trófico de estas dos especies de gecónidos. Adicionalmente, se estimó la oferta de recursos alimentarios mediante el uso de trampas pit-fall. Phyllodactylus angustidigitus estuvo presente en la mayoría de las localidades evaluadas, y fue registrado en los hábitats de desierto y lomas. Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus fue registrado únicamente en la Península de Paracas y en el oasis de Sta. Cruz, en los hábitats de desierto, lomas y oasis. Ambas especies fueron registradas en actividad sólo en horarios nocturnos. La dieta de P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus estuvo caracterizada principalmente por el consumo de insectos. Ambas especies presentaron dietas de tipo generalistas, debido a la amplitud del nicho trófico, y oportunistas, debido a la semejanza en la composición de sus dietas con la oferta estimada de recursos alimentarios en el medio ambiente. Las dietas de ambas especies fueron semejantes. Adicionalmente, la cercanía filogenética entre P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus producen semejanzas en el nicho espacial (uso de hábitats, temporal (horarios de actividad, y en sus dietas. Estas importantes similitudes en el uso de los recursos del medio, pueden derivar en una potencial competencia por los recursos de su medio ambiente entre estos gecónidos simpátricos. La información proporcionada en este trabajo demuestra la necesidad de diseñar una adecuada estrategia para garantizar el estado de conservación de P. angustidigitus.

  9. Microanatomical and histological features in the long bones of Mosasaurine mosasaurs (Reptilia, Squamata)--implications for aquatic adaptation and growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssaye, Alexandra; Lindgren, Johan; Pellegrini, Rodrigo; Lee, Andrew H; Germain, Damien; Polcyn, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    During their evolution in the Late Cretaceous, mosasauroids attained a worldwide distribution, accompanied by a marked increase in body size and open ocean adaptations. This transition from land-dwellers to highly marine-adapted forms is readily apparent not only at the gross anatomic level but also in their inner bone architecture, which underwent profound modifications. The present contribution describes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the internal organization (microanatomy) and tissue types and characteristics (histology) of propodial and epipodial bones in one lineage of mosasauroids; i.e., the subfamily Mosasaurinae. By using microanatomical and histological data from limb bones in combination with recently acquired knowledge on the inner structure of ribs and vertebrae, and through comparisons with extant squamates and semi-aquatic to fully marine amniotes, we infer possible implications on mosasaurine evolution, aquatic adaptation, growth rates, and basal metabolic rates. Notably, we observe the occurrence of an unusual type of parallel-fibered bone, with large and randomly shaped osteocyte lacunae (otherwise typical of fibrous bone) and particular microanatomical features in Dallasaurus, which displays, rather than a spongious inner organization, bone mass increase in its humeri and a tubular organization in its femora and ribs. The dominance of an unusual type of parallel-fibered bone suggests growth rates and, by extension, basal metabolic rates intermediate between that of the extant leatherback turtle, Dermochelys, and those suggested for plesiosaur and ichthyosaur reptiles. Moreover, the microanatomical features of the relatively primitive genus Dallasaurus differ from those of more derived mosasaurines, indicating an intermediate stage of adaptation for a marine existence. The more complete image of the various microanatomical trends observed in mosasaurine skeletal elements supports the evolutionary convergence between this lineage of secondarily aquatically adapted squamates and cetaceans in the ecological transition from a coastal to a pelagic lifestyle.

  10. Microanatomical and histological features in the long bones of Mosasaurine mosasaurs (Reptilia, Squamata--implications for aquatic adaptation and growth rates.

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    Alexandra Houssaye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During their evolution in the Late Cretaceous, mosasauroids attained a worldwide distribution, accompanied by a marked increase in body size and open ocean adaptations. This transition from land-dwellers to highly marine-adapted forms is readily apparent not only at the gross anatomic level but also in their inner bone architecture, which underwent profound modifications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present contribution describes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the internal organization (microanatomy and tissue types and characteristics (histology of propodial and epipodial bones in one lineage of mosasauroids; i.e., the subfamily Mosasaurinae. By using microanatomical and histological data from limb bones in combination with recently acquired knowledge on the inner structure of ribs and vertebrae, and through comparisons with extant squamates and semi-aquatic to fully marine amniotes, we infer possible implications on mosasaurine evolution, aquatic adaptation, growth rates, and basal metabolic rates. Notably, we observe the occurrence of an unusual type of parallel-fibered bone, with large and randomly shaped osteocyte lacunae (otherwise typical of fibrous bone and particular microanatomical features in Dallasaurus, which displays, rather than a spongious inner organization, bone mass increase in its humeri and a tubular organization in its femora and ribs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dominance of an unusual type of parallel-fibered bone suggests growth rates and, by extension, basal metabolic rates intermediate between that of the extant leatherback turtle, Dermochelys, and those suggested for plesiosaur and ichthyosaur reptiles. Moreover, the microanatomical features of the relatively primitive genus Dallasaurus differ from those of more derived mosasaurines, indicating an intermediate stage of adaptation for a marine existence. The more complete image of the various microanatomical trends observed in mosasaurine skeletal elements supports the evolutionary convergence between this lineage of secondarily aquatically adapted squamates and cetaceans in the ecological transition from a coastal to a pelagic lifestyle.

  11. Primer registro de Phyllodactylus sentosus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae para el valle del río Chillón, Lima, Perú

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    Diego Olivera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El gecko de Lima Phyllodactylus sentosus (Dixon & Huey, 1970 identificado como en peligro crítico de extinción ha sido registrado sólo en algunas localidades entre los valles de los ríos Rímac y Lurín, en el centro y sur de la ciudad de Lima, Región Lima, sin embargo, su distribución hacia el norte no está documentada. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez la presencia de P. sentosus en la Huaca Tambo Inga, ubicada en el margen derecho del valle del río Chillón en el distrito de Puente Piedra, extendiendo su distribución 19 km al noreste.

  12. Deep divergence and structure in the Tropical Oceanic Pacific: a multilocus phylogeography of a widespread gekkonid lizard (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Gehyra oceanica)

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    Tonione, Maria A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Zhu, Catherine; Moritz, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Aim The islands of the Tropical Oceanic Pacific (TOP) host both local radiations and widespread, colonizing species. The few phylogeographical analyses of widespread species often point to recent human-aided expansions through the Pacific, suggesting that the communities are recently assembled. Here we apply multilocus data to infer biogeographical history of the gekkonid lizard, Gehyra oceanica, which is widespread, but for which prior analyses suggested a pre-human history and in situ diversification. Location Tropical Oceanic Pacific. Methods We generated a data set including mtDNA and diagnostic SNPs for 173 individuals of G. oceanica spanning Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. For a subset of these individuals, we also sequenced nuclear loci. From these data, we performed maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to reveal major clades. We also performed Bayesian clustering analyses and coalescence–based species delimitation tests to infer the number of species in this area. Results We found evidence for six independent evolutionary lineages (candidate species) within G. oceanica that diverged between the Pliocene and the early Pleistocene, with high diversity through northern Melanesia, and pairing of northern Melanesian endemic taxa with widespread lineages across Micronesia and Polynesia. Main conclusions The islands of northern Melanesia not only have unrecognized diversity, but also were the source of independent expansions of lineages through the more remote northern and eastern Pacific. These results highlight the very different evolutionary histories of island faunas on remote archipelagos versus those across Melanesia and point to the need for more intensive studies of fauna within Melanesia if we are to understand the evolution of diversity across the tropical Pacific.

  13. Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae em Hydrodynastes gigas (Squamata: Colubridae no estado Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil - Nota Prévia

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    Cristine Dossin Bastos Fischer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A Hydrodynastes giga, (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 vulgarmente conhecida como surucucu-do-pantanal, é uma serpente de grande porte, que ocorre no norte, centro-oeste, sudeste e sul do Brasil e que pode ser parasitada por ectoparasitos como os carrapatos do gênero Amblyomma. Em dezembro de 2007 foram coletados manualmente três carrapatos de uma serpente H. gigas no pantanal de Miranda, MS, Brasil (19º51'-19º58'S; 56º17'-56º24'W. Os carrapatos foram armazenados e enviados para o Laboratório de Parasitologia do Hospital Veterinário da ULBRA, Canoas, RS, onde foi realizada a identificação de três machos da espécie Amblyomma dissimile. A presente nota faz o primeiro relato de A. dissimile parasitando serpentes da espécie H. gigas no pantanal de Miranda, MS, Brasil.

  14. Histology of tooth attachment tissues and plicidentine in Varanus (Reptilia: Squamata), and a discussion of the evolution of amniote tooth attachment.

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    Maxwell, Erin E; Caldwell, Michael W; Lamoureux, Denis O; Budney, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Few recent studies have examined the histological basis for tooth attachment in squamates. In the past few years, a surge of interest in this topic has led to the intriguing suggestion that the major tissues derived from the tooth germ (enamel, dentine, cementum and alveolar bone), are conservative and are present in all amniotes. In this study, we describe the histology and development of the tooth attachment complex in Varanus rudicollis, the rough-neck monitor. We provide the first published evidence for the role of cementum and alveolar bone in tooth attachment in varanoid lizards. In Varanus, cementum is deposited on the external surface of the tooth root as well as at the base of the tooth, where it plays a role in the attachment of the tooth to the jawbone. Alveolar bone is also involved in tooth ankylosis. Our results support the hypothesis that the major tooth germ tissues are found in all amniotes. We provide insights into the structure and development of plicidentine, defined as infolding of the dentine around the tooth base. This feature is unique to varanoids among extant tetrapods and is the third tissue implicated in tooth attachment in Varanus. Plicidentine develops asymmetrically along the labial-lingual axis of a tooth. Varanus is characterized by the presence of both primary and higher-order lamellae, which anastomose to form a honeycomb-like surface that then interacts with the more basal attachment tissues. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Microendemicity in the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates with the description of two new species of geckos of the genus Asaccus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae).

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    Carranza, Salvador; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Jayasinghe, Sithum; Wilms, Thomas; Els, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is the highest mountain range in Eastern Arabia. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals with strong Indo-Iranian affinities. Among vertebrates, the rock climbing nocturnal geckos of the genus Asaccus represent the genus with the highest number of endemic species in the Hajar Mountains. Recent taxonomic studies on the Zagros populations of Asaccus have shown that this genus is much richer than it was previously thought and preliminary morphological and molecular data suggest that its diversity in Arabia may also be underestimated. A total of 83 specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus (including specimens of the two new species described herein), six other Asaccus species from the Hajar and the Zagros Mountains and two representatives of the genus Haemodracon were sequenced for up to 2,311 base pairs including the mitochondrial 12S and cytb and the nuclear c-mos, MC1R and ACM4 genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches and the former method was also used to calibrate the phylogenetic tree. Haplotype networks and phylogenetic trees were inferred from the phased nuclear genes only. Sixty-one alcohol-preserved adult specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus from the northern Hajar Mountains were examined for 13 morphometric and the five meristic variables using multivariate methods and were also used to diagnose and describe the two new species. The results of the molecular and morphological analyses indicate that the species originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus is, in fact, an assemblage of three different species that started diversifying during the Mid-Miocene. The molecular phylogenies consistently recovered the Hajar endemic A. montanus as sister taxon to all the other Asaccus species included in the analyses, rendering the Arabian species of Asaccus polyphyletic. Using this integrative approach we have uncovered a very old diversification event that has resulted in a case of microendemicity, where three morphologically and ecologically similar medium-sized lizard species coexist in a very short and narrow mountain stretch. Asaccus caudivolvulus is restricted to a small coastal area of the UAE and at risk from heavy development, while the two new species described herein are widely distributed across the northern tip of the Hajar Mountains and seem to segregate in altitude when found in close proximity in the Musandam Peninsula (Oman). Similarly to other integrative analyses of Hajar reptiles, this study highlights the high level of diversity and endemicity of this arid mountain range, underscoring its status as one of the top hotspots of reptile diversity in Arabia.

  16. Comparative skull anatomy of terrestrial and crevice-dwelling Trachylepis skinks (Squamata: Scincidae with a survey of resources in scincid cranial osteology.

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    Daniel J Paluh

    Full Text Available Skinks account for more than 25% of all lizard species; however, representatives of fewer than a quarter of all species have been characterized osteologically. All but a few of the available cranial descriptions concentrate solely on characters that can be seen externally on the intact skull. Mabuyid skinks of the genus Trachylepis are the dominant, fully limbed skinks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and nearly all species have the same generalized body plan. Although a few rock crevice-dwelling species possess slight body depression, extreme dorsoventral depression is observed only in Trachylepis laevis. We investigated the detailed skull anatomy of three Trachylepis skinks (T. laevis, T. sulcata, and T. gonwouoi, a recently described species allied to T. affinis using high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography. Our goals were to review the scincid cranial osteology literature in a phylogenetic context, provide a detailed anatomical atlas for the mabuyid lineage, and investigate the morphological adaptations of the highly modified T. laevis. Our results demonstrate that there is significant morphological variation between these three taxa, including the loss and fusion of structures, as well as changes in the shape, scale, and relationship between individual elements. Trachylepis laevis possesses several osteological modifications that have produced a reducton in head depth that are likely functional consequences of extreme rupicolous habits, including a flat skull roof, many strongly recumbent elements, and a depressed neurocranium.We hypothesize these modifications may correspond to descreased bite force and increased capabilities of cranial kinesis. Our study is the first element-by-element description of a skink using computed tomography technology.

  17. Establishing a New Species Encephalitozoon pogonae for the Microsporidian Parasite of Inland Bearded Dragon Pogona vitticeps Ahl 1927 (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

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    Sokolova, Yuliya Y; Sakaguchi, Kanako; Paulsen, Daniel B

    2016-07-01

    The microsporidium parasitizing Inland Bearded Dragons Pogona vitticeps, and developing primarily in macrophages within foci of granulomatous inflammation of different organs, is described as a new species Encephalitozoon pogonae. Establishing the new species was based on sequencing the ITS-SSUrDNA region of the ribosomal gene and consequent SSUrDNA-inferred phylogenetic analyses, as well as on comparison of pathogenesis, host specificity, and ultrastructure among Encephalitozoon species and isolates. The new species is closely related to E. lacertae and E. cuniculi. Analysis of the literature suggests that this microsporidium has been reported previously as an unidentified microsporidian species or isolate of E. cuniculi and may represent a common infection in bearded dragons. All stages of E. pogonae develop in parasitophorous vacuoles. Uninucleate spores on methanol-fixed smears measured 2.1 × 1.1 μm, range 1.7-2.6 × 0.9-1.7 μm; on ultrathin sections spores measured 0.8-1.1 × 1.8-2.2 μm. Ultrastructural study revealed 3-6 polar filament coils, a mushroom-shaped polar disk, and a polar sac embracing half of the volume occupied by the lamellar polaroplast. In activated spores, polar filament everted eccentrically. The overall morphology and intracellular development of E. pogonae were similar to other Encepahalitozoon spp. We also review the existing data on microsporidia infecting reptiles. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  18. Description of the hemipenial morphology of Tupinambis quadrilineatus Manzani and Abe, 1997 (Squamata, Teiidae) and new records from Piauí, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcélia Basto; de Lima-Filho, Geraldo Rodrigues; Cronemberger, Áurea Aguiar; Carvalho, Leonardo Sousa; Manzani, Paulo Roberto; Vieira, Jânia Brito

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Few data are available on the morphology of the hemipenis of teiid lizards, especially those of the recently-defined genus Tupinambis, a widely-distributed group of large-bodied lizards. This study provides an illustrated description of the hemipenis of Tupinambis quadrilineatus, which is similar to that of other representatives of the Tupinambinae subfamily. New records of the species from the state of Piauí, in northeastern Brazil, are also presented. PMID:24363597

  19. Homonota fasciata Duméril y Bibron, 1839 (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Corrientes (República Argentina

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    Falcione, Camila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron, 1839. República Argentina, Provincia de Corrientes, Departamento Bella Vista, Cuarta Sección, Colonia Progreso, Loma Sur, Toropí (28°35'55" S; 59°03'38" W (Figura 1. Colectores: Eduardo Etchepare, María del Rosario Ingaramo, Camila Falcione y Roberto Aguirre. 05 de abril de 2011. Se colectaron 4 ejemplares adultos (2 machos y 2 hembras y 1 juvenil, depositados en la Colección Herpetológica de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNEC-11212, UNNEC-11213, UNNEC- 11214, UNNEC-11215 y UNNEC-11216.

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and progesterone receptors in the ovary and placenta during gestation of the placentotrophic lizard Mabuya sp (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Méndez, Melissa; Quintero-Silva, Jennifer; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2018-02-27

    In squamates, progesterone (P) plays a key role in the inhibition of uterine mobility during egg retention in oviparous species, and during gestation in viviparous species. The corpus luteum (CL) is the main organ responsible for the production of P; however, in some species, the CL degenerates early and the P needed for gestation maintenance should be produced in other tissues. Mabuya sp (Scincidae) is a viviparous lizard with a prolonged gestation, it produces microlecithal eggs and, consequently, has an obligate placentotrophy related with a highly complex placenta. Its CL degenerates at early stages of gestation and therefore, other sources of P should exist. The aim of this study was to determine and localize by immunohistochemistry the production of P by detection of the enzyme 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and P receptors (PR) during gestation in the ovary and placenta of Mabuya sp. Positive and negative control sections were used. The ovary of this species localizes 3β-HSD and PR in the same tissues. The CL of the ovaries of females at early stages of gestation were positive for both molecules, whereas they did not localize from mid gestation to the end of pregnancy. Previtellogenic and vitellogenic follicles labelled for both molecules in the follicular epithelium and thecae. The placenta of Mabuya sp. demonstrated the potential for P production from mid gestation to the end of gestation in the uterine and chorionic tissues. PR were located in the uterine tissues throughout gestation, with a decrease towards its completion. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of 3β-HSD mainly in the ovary of early pregnant females and in the placental tissues at mid gestation stages. Therefore, the chorioallantoic placenta of Mabuya sp. has an endocrine function producing the P needed for gestation and replacing the CL from mid gestation to the end of pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrating early detection with DNA barcoding: species identification of a non-native monitor lizard (Squamata: Varanidae) carcass in Mississippi, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Hopken, Matthew W.; Steen, David A.; Falk, Bryan G.; Piaggio, Antoinette J.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of invasive species is critical to increasing the probability of successful management. At the primary stage of an invasion, invasive species are easier to control as the population is likely represented by just a few individuals. Detection of these first few individuals can be challenging, particularly if they are cryptic or otherwise characterized by low detectability. The engagement of members of the public may be critical to early detection as there are far more citizen s on the landscape than trained biologists. However, it can be difficult to assess the credibility of public reporting, especially when a diagnostic digital image or a physical specimen in good condition are lacking. DNA barcoding can be used for verification when morphological identification of a specimen is not possible or uncertain (i.e., degraded or partial specimen). DNA barcoding relies on obtaining a DNA sequence from a relatively small fragment of mitochondrial DNA and comparing it to a database of sequences containing a variety of expertly identified species. He rein we report the successful identification of a degraded specimen of a non-native, potentially invasive reptile species (Varanus niloticus) via DNA barcoding, after discovery and reporting by a member of the public.

  2. So Far Away, Yet So Close: Strong Genetic Structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae), a Species with Restricted Geographic Distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felappi, Jéssica F.; Vieira, Renata C.; Fagundes, Nelson J. R.; Verrastro, Laura V.

    2015-01-01

    The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings. PMID:25692471

  3. A replacement name for Sphenomorphus keiensis (Kopstein, 1926) from the southeastern Moluccas, Indonesia (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) with a redescription of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shea, G.M.; Michels, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Lygosoma keiensis Kopstein, 1926 is demonstrated to be a junior primary homonym of Lygosoma cyanogaster keiensis Sternfeld, 1918. The junior homonym, now placed in Sphenomorphus, is given the replacement name S. capitolythos, and redescribed from the holotype, the only known specimen.

  4. A new species of Trachylepis (Squamata: Scincidae) from Central Africa and a key to the Trachylepis of West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kaitlin E; N, Walter P Tapondjou; Welton, Luke J; Bauer, Aaron M

    2017-05-16

    A new species of skink, Trachylepis gonwouoi sp. nov. is described from Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo. It differs from all other species of Trachylepis in Central-West Africa by a combination of number of keels on dorsal scales (3-5); moderate SVL (maximum size of 80 mm); number of scale rows at midbody (28-34); number of supracilliaries (6-10); a well defined lateral white stripe, bordered by black, extending from under the eye to the insertion of the hind limb; and a ventral color in life of bright blue-green. Trachylepis gonwouoi sp. nov. was found in association with disturbed forest at elevations from 50 to 1050m. This species is syntopic with T. affinis and T. maculilabris. In order to aid in the identification of Trachylepis in West and Central Africa with the addition of T. gonwouoi sp. nov., we provide an updated key to the Trachylepis found from Mauritania through the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This key combines previous literature that treated Western and Central African taxa separately and represents the most comprehensive key for Trachylepis in West-Central Africa to date.

  5. Revision of the phylogeny and chorology of the tribe Iphisini with the revalidation ofColobosaura kraepeliniWerner, 1910 (Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciali, Pier; Martínez, Nicolás; Köhler, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    The family Gymnophthalmidae contains nearly 235 species with a distribution range from southern Mexico to central Argentina as well as in the Antilles. Among gymnophthalmids, the genus Colobosaura is a member of the tribe Iphisini, and currently is considered monotypic ( C. modesta ). The diversity of the tribe was studied recently, with the erection of several new genera. In this work genetic and morphological data of specimens of Colobosaura recently collected in Paraguay were analyzed. Genetic (16S barcode) data indicate that these samples are not conspecific with C. modesta and they are allocated to the nominal species C. kraepelini . Because the original primary type of the latter taxon is considered to be lost, a neotype (SMF 101370) is designated for this species and a redescription provided based on our material. Colobosaura kraepelini is distributed in the Humid Chaco, being the only member of the whole tribe in this ecoregion.

  6. Cryptic, Sympatric Diversity in Tegu Lizards of the Tupinambis teguixin Group (Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae) and the Description of Three New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowers, Michael J.; Lehtinen, Richard M.; Charles, Stevland P.; Colli, Guarino R.; Peres, Ayrton K.; Hendry, Catriona R.; Pyron, R. Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita). Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympatric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists. PMID:27487019

  7. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartorello R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva store Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and that the purinergic agonist ATP triggers a rapid and transient increase of [Ca2+]c by mobilization of the cation from internal stores. We also reported the ability of the second messenger IP3 to discharge the ER calcium pool of the ER. Here we characterize the purinoceptor present in the cytoplasmic membrane of the RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva by the selective use of ATP analogues and pyrimidine nucleotides. The nucleotides UTP, UDP, GTP, and ATPgammaS triggered a dose-dependent response, while interestingly 2MeSATP, 2ClATP, alpha, ß-ATP, and ADP failed to do so in a 1- to 200-µm con- centration. The EC50 obtained for the compounds tested was 41.77 µM for UTP, 48.11 µM for GTP, 53.11 µM for UDP, and 30.78 µM for ATPgammaS. The present data indicate that the receptor within the RBCs of Ameiva ameiva is a P2Y4-like receptor due to its pharmacological similarity to the mammalian P2Y4 receptor.

  8. Anatomía visceral de Feylinia grandisquamis (Squamata: Scincidae. Comparaciones con otros escamados de patrón corporal semejante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gómez, Juan Manuel

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Feylinia grandisquamis es un síncido africano caracterizado por contar con el cuerpo alargado y las extremidades ausentes. En el presente trabajo se describe en detalle la anatomía de las vísceras de Feylinia grandisquamis, y algunos aspectos de su variación intraespecífica. Los resultados se comparan con otro género de Scincidae (Anomalopus y representantes de grandes grupos de escamados que exhiben patrones corporales semejantes (Lialis burtonis, Amphisbaena darwinii, Boa constrictor, Ophiodes striatus, Anguis fragilis. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: a determinar la morfología de las vísceras de Feylinia; b los aspectos de su variación intraespecífica; c discutir convergencias y paralelismos con Saurios, Anfisbénidos y Ofidios. Feylinia grandisquamis is an African Scincid characterized for a snakeshaped body and total absence of limbs. In this work the visceral anatomy of Feylinia grandisquamis is described, as well as aspects of its intraspecific variation. The results are compared with another scincid (Anomalopus and representatives of other Squamate groups with similar body plans (Lialis burtonis, Amphisbaena darwinii, Boa constrictor, Ophiodes striatus, Anguis fragilis. The objectives were: a To determine the visceral anatomy of Feylinia; b The aspects of its intraespecific variation; and c Discuss convergences and parallelisms with possible occurrence in Lizards, Amphisbaenids and Ophidia.

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of blue-crested lizard, Calotes mystaceus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 (Squamata: Agamidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Khumkratok, Sutthira; Wongpakam, Komgrit; Thanonkeo, Sudarat; Senakhun, Chadaporn; Appamaraka, Sombat; Yodsiri, Surapon; Thongnetr, Weera; Pilap, Warayutt; Kongbuntad, Watee; Tawong, Wittaya; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Petney, Trevor N; Tantrawatpan, Chairat

    2017-06-01

    The blue-crested lizard, Calotes mystaceus Duméril & Bibron, 1837, is listed as a protected wild animal in Thailand. Its population is likely to be dramatically reduced due to massive hunting in several areas in this country. Basic information on its population genetics is therefore needed to facilitate its conservation. Thus, in this study we investigated the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) sequence variation of 238 individualC.mystaceus from 42 different geographical localities of the north, west, central, east and northeast regions of Thailand. High genetic diversity and genetic differentiation at the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels was observed.We detected 63 unique haplotypes and 12 common/shared haplotypes. The phylogenetic analysis reveals two major lineages, I and II. These two lineages are separated by mountain ranges, which play an important role as natural barriers blocking gene flow. Our finding reveal at least two cryptic lineages represented in C. mystaceus populations in Thailand. However, a comprehensive investigation of the morphology, biology, ecology and genetic diversity of C. mystaceus in other regions within its area of distribution is needed.

  10. Análisis comparativo de la composición de tres comunidades de Squamata de la Sierra Grande de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The differences and similarities of lizard assemblages can be explaned by historical or ecological factors or by the interaction of both. To examine these hypothesis we selected three communities with similar environmental influences in the Sierra Grande de Córdoba (Argentina. The sites selected where: Villa Las Rosas (31°56', 65°03', dep. San Javier on the west side of the Sierra, Tanti (310,22, 64°36' dep. Punilla on the east side of the Sierra and Achiras (33°10', 64°59' dep. Rio Cuarto on the southem extreme of the Sierra. All these sites have more than eight species of lizards. The diversity of each site is described and the novelties, sustitutions and absences for each locality are discussed and compared with three external communities. A phylogenetic hypothesis of the species involved in this study is need to resolve the biogeographic problems.

  11. Nuclear markers support the mitochondrial phylogeny of Vipera ursinii-renardi complex (Squamata: Viperidae) and species status for the Greek meadow viper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizsei, Edvárd; Jablonski, Daniel; Roussos, Stephanos A; Dimaki, Maria; Ioannidis, Yannis; Nilson, Göran; Nagy, Zoltán T

    2017-01-31

    Meadow vipers (Vipera ursinii-renardi complex) are small-bodied snakes that live in either lowland grasslands or montane subalpine-alpine meadows spanning a distribution from France to western China. This complex has previously been the focus of several taxonomic studies which were based mainly on morphological, allozyme or immunological characters and did not clearly resolve the relationships between the various taxa. Recent mitochondrial DNA analyses found unexpected relationships within the complex which had taxonomical consequences for the detected lineages. The most surprising was the basal phylogenetic position of Vipera ursinii graeca, a taxon described almost 30 years ago from the mountains of Greece. We present here new analyses of three nuclear markers (BDNF, NT3, PRLR; a first for studies of meadow and steppe vipers) as well as analyses of newly obtained mitochondrial DNA sequences (CYT B, ND4).Our Bayesian analyses of nuclear sequences are concordant with previous studies of mitochondrial DNA, in that the phylogenetic position of the graeca clade is a clearly distinguished and distinct lineage separated from all other taxa in the complex. These phylogenetic results are also supported by a distinct morphology, ecology and isolated distribution of this unique taxon. Based on several data sets and an integrative species concept we recommend to elevate this taxon to species level: Vipera graeca Nilson & Andrén, 1988 stat. nov.

  12. A revision of the Oligodon taeniatus (Günther, 1861) group (Squamata: Colubridae), with the description of three new species from the Indochinese Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, P.; Vogel, G.; van Rooijen, J.

    2008-01-01

    The group of Asian colubrid species morphologically similar to Oligodon taeniatus (Günther, 1861), previously containing only O. taeniatus, Oligodon mouhoti (Günther, 1864) and Oligodon barroni (Smith, 1916), is revised on the basis of variation in external morphology and dentition of 175 specimens.

  13. Microendemicity in the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates with the description of two new species of geckos of the genus Asaccus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Sithum; Wilms, Thomas; Els, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Background The Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is the highest mountain range in Eastern Arabia. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals with strong Indo-Iranian affinities. Among vertebrates, the rock climbing nocturnal geckos of the genus Asaccus represent the genus with the highest number of endemic species in the Hajar Mountains. Recent taxonomic studies on the Zagros populations of Asaccus have shown that this genus is much richer than it was previously thought and preliminary morphological and molecular data suggest that its diversity in Arabia may also be underestimated. Methods A total of 83 specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus (including specimens of the two new species described herein), six other Asaccus species from the Hajar and the Zagros Mountains and two representatives of the genus Haemodracon were sequenced for up to 2,311 base pairs including the mitochondrial 12S and cytb and the nuclear c-mos, MC1R and ACM4 genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches and the former method was also used to calibrate the phylogenetic tree. Haplotype networks and phylogenetic trees were inferred from the phased nuclear genes only. Sixty-one alcohol-preserved adult specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus from the northern Hajar Mountains were examined for 13 morphometric and the five meristic variables using multivariate methods and were also used to diagnose and describe the two new species. Results The results of the molecular and morphological analyses indicate that the species originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus is, in fact, an assemblage of three different species that started diversifying during the Mid-Miocene. The molecular phylogenies consistently recovered the Hajar endemic A. montanus as sister taxon to all the other Asaccus species included in the analyses, rendering the Arabian species of Asaccus polyphyletic. Discussion Using this integrative approach we have uncovered a very old diversification event that has resulted in a case of microendemicity, where three morphologically and ecologically similar medium-sized lizard species coexist in a very short and narrow mountain stretch. Asaccus caudivolvulus is restricted to a small coastal area of the UAE and at risk from heavy development, while the two new species described herein are widely distributed across the northern tip of the Hajar Mountains and seem to segregate in altitude when found in close proximity in the Musandam Peninsula (Oman). Similarly to other integrative analyses of Hajar reptiles, this study highlights the high level of diversity and endemicity of this arid mountain range, underscoring its status as one of the top hotspots of reptile diversity in Arabia. PMID:27602305

  14. A new species of the durophagous mosasaur Carinodens (Squamata, Mosasauridae) and additional material of Carinodens belgicus from the Maastrichtian phosphates of Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, A. S.; Bardet, Nathalie; Bouya, B.

    2009-01-01

    Five new dentaries, representing three individuals of the poorly known durophagous mosasaur Carinodens are described from the Maastrichtian phosphates of Morocco. Contrary to previous assumptions, the dentary of Carinodens holds 17-18 teeth, rather than 13. One pair of dentaries represents a new

  15. A new blue-tailed Monitor lizard (Reptilia, Squamata, Varanus) of the Varanus indicus group from Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijola, Valter; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Lindqvist, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Varanus from Mussau Island, north-east of New Guinea. The new species is a member of the Varanus indicus species group and is distinguished from all other members by both morphological and molecular genetic characters. It is the third species of Varanus reported from the Bismarck Archipelago and the first record of a yellow tongued member of the Varanus indicus species group from a remote oceanic island. The herpetofauna of Mussau Island has not been well studied but the discovery of this new species is in accordance with recent findings indicating that the island may harbor several unknown endemic vertebrates. The distribution of the closely related Varanus finschi is also discussed in the light of recent fieldwork and a review of old records. PMID:27103877

  16. How does a viviparous semifossorial lizard reproduce? Ophiodes intermedius (Squamata: Anguidae) from subtropical climate in the Wet Chaco region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Martín A; Boretto, Jorgelina M; Ibargüengoytía, Nora R

    2017-04-01

    The best predictors of reproductive patterns are commonly associated with climate factors, but evolutionary history also plays an important role. The semifossorial and viviparous lizard Ophiodes intermedius from the Wet Chaco region of Argentina showed an annual cycle with asynchrony between males and females and an unusual pattern for subtropical climates, with vitellogenesis beginning in autumn, ovulation and copulation in spring, and births occurring in summer. Males exhibited annual variation of testicular size associated with spermatogenic activity, reaching their maximum gonadal activity in late summer (March), but sperm storage in the epididymis and/or deferent duct occurred throughout the year. Females showed an extended reproductive cycle beginning in mid-autumn (May) with vitellogenesis and finishing with births from late spring to mid-summer (December to February). Litter size varied from 4 to 9 offspring. Females reached sexual maturity at a larger snout-vent length and, overall, showed greater body size than males, while males exhibited larger heads than females. Fat body cycles indicated that females use lipid reserves to support vitellogenesis and embryo development, while males allocate lipid resources to the search for females, courtship and copulation rather than to gametogenesis. Ophiodes intermedius differed from other species of the genus in litter size, gestation period, timing of birth and the minimum size at sexual maturity, probably as a result of the influence of ecological, historical and phylogenetic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. New species of Liolaemus (Reptilia, Squamata, Liolaemini) of the Liolaemus donosobarrosi clade from northwestern Patagonia, Neuquén province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Luciano Javier; Perez, Cristian Hernán Fulvio; Minoli, Ignacio; Medina, Cintia Debora; Sites, Jack W Jr; Morando, Mariana

    2017-12-07

    Two new species of the Liolaemus donosobarrosi clade are described. Liolaemus tirantii sp. nov. and Liolaemus calliston sp. nov. differ from other members of their clade by a combination of coloration characters, morphometric and molecular traits. Liolaemus tirantii sp. nov. is known from three localities separated only a few kilometers from each other and Liolaemus calliston sp. nov. is known only from the type locality. Both species inhabit a region strongly impacted by oil and gas extraction but their conservation status is unknown.

  18. Reptilia, Squamata, Iguanidae, Anolis heterodermus Duméril, 1851: Distribution extension, first record for Ecuador and notes on color variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Carvajal, O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first record of A. heterodermus for Ecuador based on four specimens from Chilmá Bajo, province ofCarchi, ca. 120 km NE from the nearest record (departamento Putumayo, municipio de Santiago, Colombia reported in theliterature. Two additional records for Ecuador are listed in the Herpnet database, from specimens deposited at the CarnegieMuseum of Natural History and collected 18 km SE from Maldonado (ca. 8 km NW from Chilmá Bajo. We also presentinformation about color variation in the recently collected specimens.

  19. To heat or to save time? Thermoregulation in the lizard Zootoca vivipara (Squamata: Lacertidae) in different thermal environments along an altitudinal gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gvoždík, Lumír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2002), s. 479-492 ISSN 0008-4301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : common lizard * body temperature * behavioral thermoregulation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2002

  20. Primer registro de Phyllodactylus sentosus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) para el valle del río Chillón, Lima, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Olivera; Luis Castillo; Gerardo Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    El gecko de Lima Phyllodactylus sentosus (Dixon & Huey, 1970) identificado como en peligro crítico de extinción ha sido registrado sólo en algunas localidades entre los valles de los ríos Rímac y Lurín, en el centro y sur de la ciudad de Lima, Región Lima, sin embargo, su distribución hacia el norte no está documentada. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez la presencia de P. sentosus en la Huaca Tambo Inga, ubicada en el margen derecho del valle del río Chillón en el distrito de ...

  1. Microendemicity in the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates with the description of two new species of geckos of the genus Asaccus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Carranza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE is the highest mountain range in Eastern Arabia. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals with strong Indo-Iranian affinities. Among vertebrates, the rock climbing nocturnal geckos of the genus Asaccus represent the genus with the highest number of endemic species in the Hajar Mountains. Recent taxonomic studies on the Zagros populations of Asaccus have shown that this genus is much richer than it was previously thought and preliminary morphological and molecular data suggest that its diversity in Arabia may also be underestimated. Methods A total of 83 specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus (including specimens of the two new species described herein, six other Asaccus species from the Hajar and the Zagros Mountains and two representatives of the genus Haemodracon were sequenced for up to 2,311 base pairs including the mitochondrial 12S and cytb and the nuclear c-mos, MC1R and ACM4 genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches and the former method was also used to calibrate the phylogenetic tree. Haplotype networks and phylogenetic trees were inferred from the phased nuclear genes only. Sixty-one alcohol-preserved adult specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus from the northern Hajar Mountains were examined for 13 morphometric and the five meristic variables using multivariate methods and were also used to diagnose and describe the two new species. Results The results of the molecular and morphological analyses indicate that the species originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus is, in fact, an assemblage of three different species that started diversifying during the Mid-Miocene. The molecular phylogenies consistently recovered the Hajar endemic A. montanus as sister taxon to all the other Asaccus species included in the analyses, rendering the Arabian species of Asaccus polyphyletic. Discussion Using this integrative approach we have uncovered a very old diversification event that has resulted in a case of microendemicity, where three morphologically and ecologically similar medium-sized lizard species coexist in a very short and narrow mountain stretch. Asaccus caudivolvulus is restricted to a small coastal area of the UAE and at risk from heavy development, while the two new species described herein are widely distributed across the northern tip of the Hajar Mountains and seem to segregate in altitude when found in close proximity in the Musandam Peninsula (Oman. Similarly to other integrative analyses of Hajar reptiles, this study highlights the high level of diversity and endemicity of this arid mountain range, underscoring its status as one of the top hotspots of reptile diversity in Arabia.

  2. Re-examination of Hemidactylus tenkatei van Lidth de Jeude, 1895: Populations from Timor provide insight into the taxonomy of the H. brookii Gray, 1845 complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathriner, Andrew; O'shea, Mark; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2014-11-27

    Recent herpetofaunal investigations in Timor-Leste revealed populations similar to Hemidactylus brookii Gray, 1845 in four of 13 districts. In order to properly identify these populations, we examined their relationships to other H. brookii-complex populations, notably those from nearby Roti Island, Indonesia (to which the name H. tenkatei van Lidth de Jeude, 1895 has been applied) and topotypic Bornean samples. We evaluated both meristic and mensural data from a set of specimens that included the type material of H. brookii and H. tenkatei, and we generated nuclear (RAG1) and mitochondrial (ND2) DNA sequence data for Timor-Leste specimens and a topotypical Bornean specimen presumed to represent H. brookii sensu stricto. Morphologically, Timorese geckos are clearly distinct from H. brookii and identical to H. tenkatei. Our molecular data show that the Bornean specimen thought to be H. brookii is genetically congruent with Timor-Leste specimens, and this specimen is therefore identified as H. tenkatei. Our data also reveal that the Burmese species H. subtriedroides Annandale, 1905 is distinct from both H. tenkatei and H. brookii. While the current data do not allow us to determine with certainty whether H. tenkatei is the oldest available name for these widespread forms, it is the only name that can be reliably applied at this time.

  3. Hiding in plain sight: a new species of bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from West Timor, collected by Malcolm Smith in 1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathriner, Andrew; Bauer, Aaron M; O'shea, Mark; Sanchez, Caitlin; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2014-12-24

    We describe a new species of bent-toed gecko from a single specimen initially collected in 1924 by Malcolm Smith on Timor Island in the Lesser Sunda Archipelago of Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus celatus sp. nov. is distinguished from all other congeners by the following combination of characters: small adult size; without spinose tubercles on the ventrolateral body fold and along the lateral margin of the tail; 16 longitudinal rows of tubercles at midbody; 42 ventral scales between the ventrolateral folds at midbody; no transversely enlarged, median subcaudal scales; 17 subdigital lamellae (seven basal + ten distal) under the fourth toe; no abrupt transition between postfemoral and ventral femoral scale series. The specimen is the earliest confirmed record of the genus Cyrtodactylus for Timor, and it is the first putatively endemic gecko species described from this island. 

  4. Variación estacional de la dieta de Liolaemus wiegmanii (Squamata: Tropiduridae en un agroecosistema del sur de Córdoba, Argentina

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    Aun, Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el espectro trófico de Liolaemus weigmannii, procedente de Laguna Oscura, Departamento Río Cuarto (33°50'S y 64°50'W, Córdoba, Argentina. Se analizaron la composición y diversidad alimentaria mediante el análisis de los contenidos estomacales. Se concluye que la dieta consiste principalmente de insectos, predominando las hormigas como las presas mas abundantes y frecuentes pero las larvas y langostas son las que aportan casi la mitad del volumen ingerido. Estacionalmente se observa que tanto en numerosidad como en frecuencia el item presa más importante a lo largo de todas las estaciones es Formicidae, excepto para las hembras de la segunda primavera que consumieron principalmente dípteros. A partir del otoño del segundo año de estudio, otras presas además de las hormigas, fueron importantes los coreidos, arañas, larvas y las langostas. Se observaron algunas diferencias de consumo entre sexos. Seasonal variation in the diet of Liolaemus wiegmannii from Laguna Oscura, Departamento Río Cuarto (33°50'S 64°50'W, Córdoba Argentina was studied during two seasons. The composition, diversity and preference of the diet were studied from stomach contents. The most numerous and frequent prey during all periods were ants, except females during the second spring preferred fijes. Larvae and locusts represented almost the 50 of the volume of the stomach content. During the second year other prey where consumed frequently including Correidae, spiders, larvae and small locusts. Some differences where observed between sexes.

  5. First records of the Chihuahuan Black-headed Snake, Tantilla wilcoxi Stejneger, 1902 (Squamata: Colubridae), in the Mexican state of Jalisco

    OpenAIRE

    Carbajal-Márquez, Rubén; Arenas-Monroy, José; Quintero-Díaz, Gustavo; González-Saucedo, Zaira; García-Balderas, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Based on three specimens, we document the occurrence of Tantilla wilcoxi in the Mexican state of Jalisco. This species was found at two localities, 2.9 km apart, both in the ecotone between xerophytic scrub and oak forest in the arid plains of the municipality of Ojuelos de Jalisco in the northeastern portion of the state.

  6. Commentary on the type material of Tantilla gracilis Baird and Girard, 1853 and Tantilla nigriceps Kennicott, 1860 (Reptilia: Squamata), with a neotype designation for T. nigriceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, S.W.; Wilson, L.D.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that USNM 2040 and not UMMZ 3781 (originally part of lot USNM 4500) was most likely the holotype of Tantilla gracilis. The type specimens of Tantilla nigriceps have been lost or destroyed. It is not possible to determine from the original description of Tantilla nigriceps if this name represents what is currently known as T. nigriceps or T. hobartsmithi. In order to attribute the name T. nigriceps firmly to the species as currently recognized, we designate a neotype.

  7. A revised geographical range for Liolaemus elongates Koslowsky, 1896 (Squamata: Liolaemini in Argentina: review of reported and new-data based distribution with new localities

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    Ignacio Minoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effective geographical ranges of species is central to species-oriented conservation and management. In this paper, we review the geographical distribution of Liolaemus elongatus Koslowsky, 1896 with three new records for northern Chubut and southern Río Negro provinces, Argentina. Based on detailed locality records pooled from multiple data sources, including new records obtained for this study, we revise the range of L. elongatus sensu stricto and provide geographical distribution maps comparing the previously recognized range to that proposed herein. Our results show that L. elongatus possesses a much more limited geographic distribution than previously thought, being restricted to areas south of 38°S latitude; the newly proposed range is merely half the species formerly recognized geographical distribution.

  8. Rediscovery of the earless microteiid lizard Anotosaura collaris Amaral, 1933 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae): a redescription complemented by osteological, hemipenial, molecular, karyological, physiological and ecological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Teixeira, Mauro; Vechio, Francisco Dal; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Nisa, Carolina; Guerrero, Agustín Camacho; Damasceno, Roberta; Roscito, Juliana Gusson; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Recoder, Renato Sousa

    2013-10-31

    More than a century after its discovery by Ernest Garbe, and almost 80 years after its original description, we obtained a series of specimens of the earless gymnophthalmid Anotosaura collaris, the type species of the genus, up to now known only by a single specimen. On the basis of the material obtained at and close to the type locality we redescribe the species, adding information about the external and hemipenial morphology, osteology and karytoype. Molecular data confirm its sister relationship with Anotosaura vanzolinia as well as the close relationship of Anotosaura with the Ecpleopodini Colobosauroides and Dryadosaura. We supplement this information with thermophysiological, ecogeographical, karyotypic and ecological data.

  9. Autoecologia do lagarto Anotosaura vanzolinia (squamata: gymnophthalmidade) em àrea de caatinga no estado da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Bruno Halluan Soares de

    2014-01-01

    Os objetivos desse trabalho foram analisar aspectos da história natural de populações do lagarto Gymnophthalmidae Anotosaura vanzolinia presente na Paraíba, através de informações sobre uso do microhabitat, morfometria, dieta e reprodução. Os dados utilizados nesse estudo são provenientes de coletas realizadas no parque florestal Complexo Aluízio Campos e em um fragmento florestal localizado no distrito de São José da Mata, ambos na Paraíba. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente entre março...

  10. Estudos cromossômicos e moleculares em espécies de lagartos microteídeos, com ênfase na tribo Ecpleopodini (Gymnophthalmidae, Squamata)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Maria Laguna

    2011-01-01

    Os dados obtidos neste trabalho contribuem para o conhecimento da família Gymnophthalmidae, acrescentando dados genéticos de três novos genes para a tribo Ecpleopodini e descrição de 11 novos cariótipos para a família, pertencentes às tribos Ecpleopodini, Heterodactylini, Iphisiini e Gymnophthalmini. As análises filogenéticas obtidas para a tribo Gymnophthalmini pretenderam investigar o posicionamento de Scriptosaura Catimbau, espécie descrita recentemente que apresenta 2n=48, que foi recuper...

  11. Skull osteology of the Eocene amphisbaenian Spathorhynchus fossorium (Reptilia, Squamata) suggests convergent evolution and reversals of fossorial adaptations in worm lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Maisano, Jessica A

    2016-11-01

    The fossorial amphisbaenians, or worm lizards, are characterized by a suite of specialized characters in the skull and postcranium, however fossil evidence suggests that at least some of these shared derived traits evolved convergently. Unfortunately the lack of detailed knowledge of many fossil taxa has rendered a more precise interpretation difficult. Here we describe the cranial anatomy of the oldest-known well-preserved amphisbaenian, Spathorhynchus fossorium, from the Eocene Green River Formation, Wyoming, USA, using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT). This taxon possesses one of the most strongly reinforced crania known among amphisbaenians, with many dermal bones overlapping each other internally. In contrast to modern taxa, S. fossorium has a paired orbitosphenoid, lacks a true compound bone in the mandible, and possesses a fully enclosed orbital rim. The last feature represents a highly derived structure in that the jugal establishes contact with the frontal internally, reinforcing the posterior orbital margin. S. fossorium also possesses a strongly modified Vidian canal with a previously unknown connection to the ventral surface of the parabasisphenoid. Comparison with the closely related fossil taxon Dyticonastis rensbergeri reveals that these derived traits are also shared by the latter species and potentially represent synapopmorphies of an extinct Paleogene clade of amphisbaenians. The presence of a reinforced orbital rim suggests selection against the loss of a functional eye and indicates an ecology potentially different from modern taxa. Given the currently accepted phylogenetic position of Spathorhynchus and Dyticonastis, we predict that supposedly 'unique' cranial traits traditionally linked to fossoriality such as a fused orbitosphenoid and the reduction of the eye show a more complex character history than previously assumed, including both parallel evolution and reversals to superficially primitive conditions. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  12. External morphology and osteology of Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886), with a taxonomic revision of the Pontic and Small-Caucasus populations (Squamata: Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Oscar; Ilgaz, Çetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Avci, Aziz; Üzüm, Nazan

    2013-01-01

    A broad sample of Darevskia rudis from the main part of its range was reviewed with regard to external morphology (discriminant, UPGMA, MST and ANOVA analyses) and osteology. Darevskia bithynica is raised to species rank, with two subspecies: D. b. bithynica and D. b. tristis. The other subspecies are fairly similar (D. r. rudis being the most different). Two singular populations are described as subspecies: D. r. mirabilis ssp. nov. from Kaçkar Mountains, geographically adjoins the otherwise different D. r. bischoffi and D. r. bolkardaghica ssp. nov., which is geographically isolated but that seems to be very closely related to D. r. obscura.

  13. Comparative skull anatomy of terrestrial and crevice-dwelling Trachylepis skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) with a survey of resources in scincid cranial osteology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluh, Daniel J; Bauer, Aaron M

    2017-01-01

    Skinks account for more than 25% of all lizard species; however, representatives of fewer than a quarter of all species have been characterized osteologically. All but a few of the available cranial descriptions concentrate solely on characters that can be seen externally on the intact skull. Mabuyid skinks of the genus Trachylepis are the dominant, fully limbed skinks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and nearly all species have the same generalized body plan. Although a few rock crevice-dwelling species possess slight body depression, extreme dorsoventral depression is observed only in Trachylepis laevis. We investigated the detailed skull anatomy of three Trachylepis skinks (T. laevis, T. sulcata, and T. gonwouoi, a recently described species allied to T. affinis) using high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography. Our goals were to review the scincid cranial osteology literature in a phylogenetic context, provide a detailed anatomical atlas for the mabuyid lineage, and investigate the morphological adaptations of the highly modified T. laevis. Our results demonstrate that there is significant morphological variation between these three taxa, including the loss and fusion of structures, as well as changes in the shape, scale, and relationship between individual elements. Trachylepis laevis possesses several osteological modifications that have produced a reducton in head depth that are likely functional consequences of extreme rupicolous habits, including a flat skull roof, many strongly recumbent elements, and a depressed neurocranium.We hypothesize these modifications may correspond to descreased bite force and increased capabilities of cranial kinesis. Our study is the first element-by-element description of a skink using computed tomography technology.

  14. Insights into chameleons of the genus Trioceros (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) in Cameroon, with the resurrection of Chamaleon serratus Mertens, 1922

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barej, M. F.; Ineich, I.; Gvoždík, Václav; Lhermitte-Vallarino, N.; Gonwouo, N.L.; Le Breton, M.; Bott, U.; Schmitz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2010), s. 211-229 ISSN 2190-7307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Chameleon serratus * Cameroon * insights Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  15. A molecular and morphological characterization of Oliver's parrot snake, Leptophis coeruleodorsus (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae) with the description of a new species from Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C; Charles, Stevland P; Lehtinen, Richard M; Koeller, Krista L

    2013-01-01

    Currently, two snake species of the genus Leptophis occur in Trinidad and Tobago. One, L. stimsoni, is endemic to Trinidad's Northern Range and known from relatively few specimens. The second is the diurnal, arboreal, brightly colored parrot snake Leptophis coeruleodorsus Oliver. It was originally described based on 23 specimens from Trinidad, Tobago, and four locations in northern Venezuela but remains poorly known. It was later assigned as a subspecies of Leptophis ahaetulla; a widespread, polytypic species. Here we compare 11 specimens of the L. ahaetulla Group using DNA sequences from two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and 16S, 1,383 bp total) from island and mainland populations, report on the variation in the morphology of 54 museum specimens of Leptophis a. coeruleodorsus; describe the previously undescribed holotype of L. coeruleodorsus Oliver, and restrict its type locality. Additionally, we describe a new species of Leptophis from the island of Tobago that can be distinguished from L. coeruleodorsus on the basis of snout shape, upper labial architecture, elongated prefrontal scales, and ventral scale counts. The new Leptophis raises the number of endemic Tobago amphibians and reptiles to 11 taxa.

  16. A new species of Bachia Gray, 1845 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Eastern Brazilian Cerrado, and data on its ecology, physiology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mauro; Recoder, Renato Sousa; Camacho, Agustín; De Sena, Marco Aurélio; Navas, Carlos Arturo; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2013-02-19

    A new species of Bachia of the bresslaui group, Bachia geralista sp. nov., is described from Planalto dos Gerais, an old and partially dissected plateau extending along the Cerrados of Bahia, Minas Gerais and Tocantins states, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to B. bresslaui, with which it has been confused; however head scalation resembles other species from sandy spots within the Cerrado (B. psamophila and B. oxyrhina). Like in B. psamophila and B. oxyrhina, the shovel-shaped snout of the new species is highly prominent, a typical trait of psammophilous habits in other gymnophthalmids. The examination of specimens of B. bresslaui from several populations within the Cerrado revealed great variation among localities, leading to the reidentification of a specimen from Utiariti, Mato Grosso, previously referred to in the literature as the second record of B. bresslaui, as the recently described B. didactyla, suggesting that cryptic diversity might remain still undiscovered within this genus in the Cerrado. Despite occurring in a relatively open Cerrado, thermal physiology of Bachia geralista sp. nov. restricts its occurrence to shaded microhabitats within this habitat.

  17. Reproducción y variación de grupos de tamaño en una población de Liolaemus koslowskyi (Squamata: Liolaemini

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    Martori, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El patrón reproductivo, la tasa de crecimiento y la supervivencia son las principales características de la historia de vida de los organismos, el tamaño o edad en que un individuo adquiere su madurez sexual, el tamaño de la puesta y la fenología reproductiva inciden sobre el reclutamiento y por lo tanto sobre la estabilidad poblacional. Se seleccionaron diferentes ambientes representativos del área de estudio, unas para realizar la extracción de las muestras reproductivas y otras para la observación de la dinámica poblacional. Se obtuvieron 12 muestras reproductivas desde el mes de octubre de 1998 al mes de febrero de 2000, durante ese período se estudiaron 413 hembras, x= 55,48; (35-65, ds = 4,08 y 472 machos, x = 57,75; (42-69, ds = 4,66. La proporción de sexos fue similar, el macho reproductivo más pequeño medió 46 mm, la hembra con folículos yemados más pequeña midió 47 mm, se puedo registrar la presencia de los folículos yemados desde octubre a enero, los huevos en oviducto desde noviembre a febrero, no hay evidencia de más de una postura por temporada. La fecundación se produce durante noviembre, coincidiendo con los valores máximos de los volúmenes testiculares, se observó una correlación negativa entre la actividad reproductiva y el ciclo de cuerpos grasos en ambos sexos, los huevos fueron puestos a partir de diciembre y los primeros neonatos se observaron a partir de enero. Se apreció una leve correlación negativa entre la tasa de crecimiento individual y el tamaño del lagarto, Durante el período de estudio se realizaron 2199 avistajes y se estimó la proporción de cada grupo de tamaño para cada mes, se destacó el mes de enero por la presencia de 15% de individuos recién nacidos, la mayor tasa de actividad en la parcela correspondió a enero, febrero y marzo de 1999, disminuyendo en el otoño y registrando una suspensión de actividad en junio y julio, se observó una menor tasa de actividad en el segundo verano. The reproductive pattern, the rate of growth and the survival are the main characteristics of the life history of organisms, the size or age in that an individual acquires his sexual maturity, the size of the maturity and the reproductive fenology affect the recruitment and therefore the stability of the populational size. Different representative sites of the study area were selected, to carry out the extraction of the reproductive samples and for the observation of the populational dynamics, 12 samples were obtained from October 1998 to February 2000, during that period 413 females were studied, x = 55.48; (35-65 ds = 4.08 and 472 males, x = 57.75; (42-69 ds = 4.66. The proportion of sexes was similar, the smallest reproductive male measured 46 mm, the smallest female with vitelogenic follicles measured 47 mm. The presence of vitelogenic follicles was observed from October to January, eggs in oviduct from November to February, there were no evidence of more than one clutch per season, and fecundation takes place during the month of November, coinciding the maximum values of the testicular volumes. Negative correlation between the reproductive activity and the cycle of fat bodies was observed in both sexes, the eggs are laid from December and the first hatchlings are observed in January. There was a negative correlation between the rate of individual growth and the size of the lizard. During the period of study 2199 lizards where observed and the proportion of each size group was calculated for every month, in January 15% of recently born individuals were observed in the site, the highest activity rate in the site corresponded to January, February and March of 1999, diminishing in autumn and no activity was registered in June and July. The second season presented less activity than the first one.

  18. Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae with descriptions of three new species from Peru

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    Cesar Aguilar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Species delimitation studies based on integrative taxonomic approaches have received considerable attention in the last few years, and have provided the strongest hypotheses of species boundaries. We used three lines of evidence (molecular, morphological, and niche envelopes to test for species boundaries in Peruvian populations of the Liolaemus walkeri complex. Our results show that different lines of evidence and analyses are congruent in different combinations, for unambiguous delimitation of three lineages that were “hidden” within known species, and now deserve species status. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that L. walkeri, L. tacnae and the three new species are strongly separated from other species assigned to the alticolor-bibronii group. Few conventional morphological characters distinguish the new species from closely related taxa and this highlights the need to integrate other sources of data to erect strong hypothesis of species limits. A taxonomic key for known Peruvian species of the subgenus Lioalemus is provided.

  19. A review of Cordylus machadoi (Squamata: Cordylidae) in southwestern Angola, with the description of a new species from the Pro-Namib desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Edward L; Ceríaco, Luis M P; Bandeira, Suzana; Valerio, Hilaria; Bates, Michael F; Branch, William R

    2016-01-07

    The girdled lizard genus Cordylus is represented in Angola by two species, Cordylus angolensis and C. machadoi, separated from their nearest congeners by over 700 km. Here we describe a new species, Cordylus namakuiyus sp. nov., endemic to the arid lowlands west of the southern Angolan escarpment. Phylogenetic analysis using three mitochondrial and eight nuclear genes shows that the low-elevation forms and the proximate, high-elevation species C. machadoi are genetically divergent and reciprocally monophyletic, and together form the earliest diverging lineage of the northern Cordylus clade. Morphological data, collected using computed tomography and traditional techniques (scalation and morphology), identify consistent phenotypic differences between these high- and low-elevation species and allows for a detailed description of the osteology and osteodermal arrangements of the new species. A series of 50 specimens, collected during the 1925 Vernay expedition to southwestern Angola and housed at the American Museum of Natural History, are assigned to the new species, although the identity of Cordylus from northern Namibia remains ambiguous and requires further investigation.

  20. A ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosome System in the Thick-Tailed Gecko (Underwoodisaurus milii; Squamata: Gekkota: Carphodactylidae), a Member of the Ancient Gecko Lineage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Martina; Rens, W.; Rovatsos, M.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 3 (2014), s. 190-196 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : interstitial telometric signals * lizard * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.561, year: 2014

  1. So far away, yet so close: strong genetic structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae, a species with restricted geographic distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica F Felappi

    Full Text Available The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings.

  2. Microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes at different stages of heteromorphism and heterochromatinization in two lizard species (Squamata: Eublepharidae: Coleonyx elegans and Lacertidae: Eremias velox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochvíl Lukáš

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accumulation of repetitive sequences such as microsatellites during the differentiation of sex chromosomes has not been studied in most squamate reptiles (lizards, amphisbaenians and snakes, a group which has a large diversity of sex determining systems. It is known that the Bkm repeats containing tandem arrays of GATA tetranucleotides are highly accumulated on the degenerated W chromosomes in advanced snakes. Similar, potentially homologous, repetitive sequences were found on sex chromosomes in other vertebrates. Using FISH with probes containing all possible mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide sequences and GATA, we studied the genome distribution of microsatellite repeats on sex chromosomes in two lizard species (the gecko Coleonyx elegans and the lacertid Eremias velox with independently evolved sex chromosomes. The gecko possesses heteromorphic euchromatic sex chromosomes, while sex chromosomes in the lacertid are homomorphic and the W chromosome is highly heterochromatic. Our aim was to test whether microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes corresponds to the stage of their heteromorphism or heterochromatinization. Moreover, because the lizards lie phylogenetically between snakes and other vertebrates with the Bkm-related repeats on sex chromosomes, the knowledge of their repetitive sequence is informative for the determination of conserved versus convergently evolved repetitive sequences across vertebrate lineages. Results Heteromorphic sex chromosomes of C. elegans do not show any sign of microsatellite accumulation. On the other hand, in E. velox, certain microsatellite sequences are extensively accumulated over the whole length or parts of the W chromosome, while others, including GATA, are absent on this heterochromatinized sex chromosome. Conclusion The accumulation of microsatellite repeats corresponds to the stage of heterochromatinization of sex chromosomes rather than to their heteromorphism. The lack of GATA repeats on the sex chromosomes of both lizards suggests that the Bkm-related repeats on sex chromosomes in snakes and other vertebrates evolved convergently. The comparison of microsatellite sequences accumulated on sex chromosomes in E. velox and in other eukaryotic organisms suggests that historical contingency, not characteristics of particular sequences, plays a major role in the determination of which microsatellite sequence is accumulated on the sex chromosomes in a particular lineage.

  3. A preliminary assessment of the Nactus pelagicus species group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in New Guinea and a new species from the Admiralty Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    The Slender-toed Geckos (Nactus) currently have four recognized species in New Guinea, and these species divide into two sister clades: a pelagicus clade and a vankampeni clade (Heinicke et al. 2010). The latter contains three dwarf species. The former consists of five bisexual populations, of which numerous New Guinea populations are uncharacterized nomenclaturally and lumped under the epithet ‘pelagicus.’ This report and description of a new species of the pelagicus group from Manus Island in the Admiralty Islands encourages us to offer a preliminary assessment of morphology and diversity in New Guinea ‘pelagicus’ populations.

  4. At the end of the line: independent overwater colonizations of the Solomon Islands by a hyperdiverse trans-Wallacean lizard lineage (Cyrtodactylus: Gekkota: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M.; Travers, Scott L; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Pikacha, Patrick; Fisher, Robert N.

    2018-01-01

    The islands of East Melanesia have generated key insights into speciation processes and community assembly. However, when and how these islands began to form, emerge and accumulate endemic taxa remains poorly understood. Here, we show that two divergent lineages within the world’s most diverse genus of geckos (Cyrtodactylus) occur in the Solomon Islands. One large-bodied species is nested within a radiation from far eastern New Guinea, with inferred colonization, spread and diversification since the late Miocene. In contrast, a newly sampled and relatively small species with a restricted distribution on Guadalcanal Island is a relict that diverged from extant congeners around the early to mid-Miocene. Similar Miocene divergences from extralimital relatives have been inferred for other endemic bird, bat and lizard lineages in East Melanesia. In contrast, across all lineages (including divergent relictual lineages), there is little evidence for endemic in situ diversification within East Melanesia predating the Pliocene (especially in the Solomon Islands). While some East Melanesian endemic lineages may have origins on progenitor islands during the Miocene or even earlier, current evidence suggests the in situ diversification and assembly of extant biological communities commenced around the end of the Miocene.

  5. Taxonomic revision of the Australian arid zone lizards Gehyra variegata and G. montium (Squamata, Gekkonidae) with description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Mark N; Sistrom, Mark J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Hutchinson, Rhonda G

    2014-06-09

    The taxonomy of central Australian populations of geckos of the genus Gehyra has been uncertain since chromosomal studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s revealed considerable heterogeneity and apparently independent patterns of morphological and karyotypic diversity. Following detailed molecular genetic studies, species boundaries in this complex have become clearer and we here re-set the boundaries of the three named species involved, G. variegata (Duméril & Bibron, 1836), G. montium Storr, 1982, and G. nana King, 1982, and describe three new species. Two of the new species, G. moritzi and G. pulingka, include populations formerly assigned to either G. montium or G. nana Storr, 1982, while the third, G. versicolor, includes all of the eastern Australian populations formerly assigned to G. variegata.

  6. Species on the rocks: Systematics and biogeography of the rock-dwelling Ptyodactylus geckos (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) in North Africa and Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Červenka, Jan; Crochet, Pierre-André; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Wilms, Thomas; Geniez, Philippe; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Brito, José C; Carranza, Salvador

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the diversity of species in the Palearctic and the processes that have generated it is still weak for large parts of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia. Reptiles are among their most remarkable representatives, with numerous groups well adapted to the diverse environments. The Ptyodactylus geckos are a strictly rock-dwelling genus with homogeneous morphology distributed across mountain formations and rocky plateaus from the western African ranges in Mauritania and the Maghreb to the eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, with an isolated species in southern Pakistan. Here, we use a broad sampling of 378 specimens, two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (c-mos, MC1R, ACM4, RAG2) markers in order to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus and place its diversification in a temporal framework. The results reveal high levels of intraspecific variability, indicative of undescribed diversity, and they do not support the monophyly of one species (P. ragazzii). Ptyodactylus species are allopatric across most of their range, which may relate to their high preference for the same type of structural habitat. The onset of their diversification is estimated to have occurred in the Late Oligocene, while that of several deep clades in the phylogeny took place during the Late Miocene, a period when an increase in aridification in North Africa and Arabia initiated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Hemidactylus geckos (Squamata: Gekkonidae) of the Indian subcontinent reveals a unique Indian radiation and an Indian origin of Asian house geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Rohini; Karanth, K Praveen

    2010-10-01

    Represented by approximately 85 species, Hemidactylus is one of the most diverse and widely distributed genera of reptiles in the world. In the Indian subcontinent, this genus is represented by 28 species out of which at least 13 are endemic to this region. Here, we report the phylogeny of the Indian Hemidactylus geckos based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers sequenced from multiple individuals of widely distributed as well as endemic congeners of India. Results indicate that a majority of the species distributed in India form a distinct clade whose members are largely confined to the Indian subcontinent thus representing a unique Indian radiation. The remaining Hemidactylus geckos of India belong to two other geographical clades representing the Southeast Asian and West-Asian arid zone species. Additionally, the three widely distributed, commensal species (H. brookii, H. frenatus and H. flaviviridis) are nested within the Indian radiation suggesting their Indian origin. Dispersal-vicariance analysis also supports their Indian origin and subsequent dispersal out-of-India into West-Asian arid zone and Southeast Asia. Thus, Indian subcontinent has served as an important arena for diversification amongst the Hemidactylus geckos and in the evolution and spread of its commensal geckos. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differentiation of sex chromosomes and karyotypic evolution in the eye-lid geckos (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae), a group with different modes of sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorná, Martina; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Rens, Willem; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2010-11-01

    The eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae) include both species with temperature-dependent sex determination and species where genotypic sex determination (GSD) was suggested based on the observation of equal sex ratios at several incubation temperatures. In this study, we present data on karyotypes and chromosomal characteristics in 12 species (Aeluroscalabotes felinus, Coleonyx brevis, Coleonyx elegans, Coleonyx variegatus, Eublepharis angramainyu, Eublepharis macularius, Goniurosaurus araneus, Goniurosaurus lichtenfelderi, Goniurosaurus luii, Goniurosaurus splendens, Hemitheconyx caudicinctus, and Holodactylus africanus) covering all genera of the family, and search for the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Phylogenetic mapping of chromosomal changes showed a long evolutionary stasis of karyotypes with all acrocentric chromosomes followed by numerous chromosomal rearrangements in the ancestors of two lineages. We have found heteromorphic sex chromosomes in only one species, which suggests that sex chromosomes in most GSD species of the eyelid geckos are not morphologically differentiated. The sexual difference in karyotype was detected only in C. elegans which has a multiple sex chromosome system (X(1)X(2)Y). The metacentric Y chromosome evolved most likely via centric fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes involving loss of interstitial telomeric sequences. We conclude that the eyelid geckos exhibit diversity in sex determination ranging from the absence of any sexual differences to heteromorphic sex chromosomes, which makes them an interesting system for exploring the evolutionary origin of sexually dimorphic genomes.

  9. GROW-OUT OF ABALONE Haliotis squamata IN FLOATING CAGES FED DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF SEAWEED AND WITH REDUCTION OF STOCKING DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is a herbivore marine animal which feeds on seaweed. Abalone culture has a good prospect in terms of price, market share and simple culture technique. Thus, a study was conducted with the aim of finding out an effective and efficient abalone culture technique in terms of feed use and density. In this study, a 42 cm diameter plastic container with a 22 cm height was used. Three vertically arranged containers were used as the experimental group which were put into a net box and hung onto a raft so that the containers were placed in a 4 m depth below the sea surface. The juvenile of abalones being used came from a hatchery production that has been adapted to cages environment with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. feed. The initial density of abalones was 450 for each container, with the initial weight of 2.6-3.2 g and the 2.5-2.7 cm shell lengths. The abalones were fed with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. seaweeds with different Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportions, i.e. 100/0% (A; 80/20% (B; and 60/40% (C as the treatments. Each treatment consisted of two replications. After three months of rearing period, densities of abalones were reduced to be 190 for each experimental unit. Weight and shell length of abalones were measured every month by measuring 25 abalone samples from each experimental unit. The result of the experiment showed that the increase in the Ulva sp. proportion in the feed increased the growth of abalones and decreased the feed conversion. Feeding with Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportion of 60%/40% allowed the best growth of abalones. The decrease of abalone density in the experimental unit after three months of rearing also produced an increase in their growth.

  10. Aspectos ecológicos de Mabuya arajara Rebouças-Spieker, 1981 (Squamata, scincidae) na encosta da chapada do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Ribeiro, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Mabuya arajara (Scincidae) é um lagarto encontrado em alguns Brejos-de-altitude do estado do Ceará, escassamente estudado quanto a aspectos de sua biologia e ecologia. Nesse estudo avaliamos o período de atividade, o uso do hábitat, a ecologia térmica, a dieta, a reprodução e os parasitas pulmonares associados ao lagarto em um ambiente de Mata-úmida da Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Brasil, entre os meses de Setembro de 2009 e Julho de 2010. Foram capturados 131 lagartos para análise dos dados. O...

  11. Variación diaria de la temperatura corporal en dos especies de lagartos nocturnos (Squamata, Gekkonidae, Homonota con comentarios sobre el uso de refugios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, Félix B.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poco es lo que se conoce sobre la variación de la temperatura corporal de lagartos nocturnos. Se sabe que algunos lagartos nocturnos termorregulan durante el día. El tamaño corporal y el comportamiento, a su vez, pueden estar relacionados con la inercia térmica. Individuos de Homonota borelli y H. darwini fueron expuestos a tres situaciones, a refugios cálidos (la temperatura nunca fue menor a los 34 ºC, b refugios con una temperatura inferior a los 28-30 ºC, y c se les permitió escoger entre cada una de las opciones anteriores. La temperatura corporal en general y el patrón diario fueron similares en ambas especies siendo más altas durante el día. Cuando los lagartos eligieron los refugios, se observaron diferencias entre las especies, H. borelli usó más los refugios con fuente de calor en tanto que H. darwini usó refugios sin fuente de calor. El tamaño corporal y la distribución geográfica podrían estar relacionados con las diferencias observadas. Very little is known about diel variation in body temperature among nocturnal lizards. Some nocturnal lizards thermoregulate during the day, and body size plus behaviour may be related to the amount of thermal inertia. Lizards of the species Homonota borelli and H. darwini were either exposed to three different situations a a heated retreat site (never below than 34 º C, b a retreat with a temperature lower than 28-30 º C, and c where lizards were allowed to choose between a warm or a cool retreat. Body temperatures and diel pattern were similar for both species. Body temperatures were higher during the day. When lizards choose for retreats, differences were observed, H. darwini preferred cool retreats, whereas H. borelli used the warmer ones. Body size, coloration and geographic distribution may be related to the different patterns observed.

  12. On two new species of Pseudogonatodes Ruthven, 1915 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae), with remarks on the distribution of some other sphaerodactyl lizards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.; Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Two new species of Pseudogonatodes Ruthven, 1915, are described, one from the Rio Juruá Basin, in the state of Acre, Brazil (Amazonian rainforest), the other from Rancho Grande, in the state Aragua, Venezuela (cloud forest). Both have granular dorsals and relatively numerous fourth toe lamellae, of

  13. Uso do Implante Visível de Elastômero Fluorescente (IVE para marcação de lagartos Phyllopezus pollicaris (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragner Paulo Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p271 Esse estudo teve como objetivo relatar o uso do Implante Visível de Elastômero Fluorescente (IVE e sua eficiência na marcação de lagartos Phyllopezus pollicaris em uma área de caatinga no Nordeste do Brasil. A marcação dos indivíduos foi realizada durante os meses de abril á setembro de 2012. Quarenta indivíduos foram marcados na região dorsal com as cores fluorescentes: vermelho, amarelo, verde e laranja. Vinte lagartos foram recapturados e apresentaram uma boa retenção do elastômero. Apenas dois espécimes apresentam suas marcações um pouco fragmentadas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a utilização de IVE para marcação e recaptura de lagartos foi eficiente devido à alta taxa de retenção nos indivíduos recapturados e baixa taxa de fragmentação das marcações.

  14. Gender differences in seasonal movement of dice snakes in Histria, southeastern Romania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kärvemo, S.; Carlsson, M.; Tudor, M.; Sloboda, M.; Mihalca, A. D.; Ghira, I.; Bel, L.; Modrý, David

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, 20 September 2011 (2011), s. 245-254 ISSN 0934-6643 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Squamata * Natrix tessellata * dice snake * seasonal movements * activity patterns * sex ratio Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  15. Reproductive cycle of the Namaqua sand lizard, Pedioplanis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Squamata: Lacertidae), from southern Africa. Stephen R. Goldberg. Abstract. The reproductive cycle of the Namaqua sand lizard, Pedioplanis namaquensis, from southern Africa is described from histological examination of gonadal material from ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Procavia capensis) and guinea pig ( Cavia porcellus), Abstract PDF. l.S. McNairn, N. Fairall. Vol 35, No 1 (2000), Relationships of the Pachydactylus rugosus group of geckos (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae), Abstract. Trip Lamb, Aaron M. Bauer.

  17. Experimental introduction of Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae in Praia das Neves, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: a descriptive study 18 years later Introdução experimental de Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae em Praia das Neves, Espírito Santo, Brasil: um estudo descritivo 18 anos depois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hermínia B. Soares

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the results of the introduction into Praia das Neves, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, of Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, a lizard species threatened with extinction. Since there are few studies that evaluate how species establish and adapt to new environments, it is useful to assess to what extent the introduction of a critically endangered species into an area similar to where it originally occurred can help reduce its decline in number of individuals and avoid its possible extinction. This study presents the first results of an ongoing monitoring survey set up after the experimental introduction. We analyze how the introduced population uses space and food and we compare these characteristics to that of the original population at Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro state. We also compare morphological measurementss of specimens from both populations. Both make similar use of the microhabitat, but there are differences in their diets. We recommend that the introduced population, potential competitors, predators, parasites, and the habitat characteristics continue to be monitored, so as to insure that this species will not become a threat to Praia das Neves beach community.Esse artigo examina o resultado da introdução, em Praia das Neves, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, de Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, uma espécie de lagarto ameaçada de extinção. Como existem poucos estudos que avaliam como espécies estabelecem-se e adaptam-se a novos ambientes, é útil conhecer em que extensão a introdução de uma espécie criticamente em perigo em uma área similar àquela onde ocorria naturalmente pode ajudar a reduzir seu declínio em número de indivíduos e evitar sua possível extinção. Esse estudo apresenta os primeiros resultados de um monitoramento em andamento, iniciado depois da introdução experimental. Analisamos o uso do espaço pela população introduzida e sua alimentação, e comparamos essas características com a da população original em Barra de Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Também comparamos as medidas morfológicas das duas populações. Ambas fazem uso similar do microhabitat, mas há diferenças nas suas dietas. Recomendamos que a população introduzida e seus competidores potenciais, predadores e parasitos, e as características do habitat continuem a ser monitorados, para garantir que essa espécie não se torne uma ameaça à comunidade de Praia das Neves.

  18. Use of sleeping perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae in the fragmented tropical rainforest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico Uso de perchas para dormir por la lagartija Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae en el bosque tropical fragmentado de Los Tuxtlas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of nocturnal perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis is described. Bimonthly surveys were made throughout a year in small fragments and continuous tropical rainforest areas at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Twenty three juvenile individuals and 7 adults were recorded sleeping during the sampling time (18:00 - 23:00 h.. All individuals were found on leaves of plants of 14 species. Perch height ranged from 41.0 to 140.5 cm (mean: 90.1 cm juveniles; 80.6 cm adults and the most frequent sleeping position observed was with the body oriented along the longitudinal axis of the leaf and the head facing the stem of the plant. This apparently vulnerable position can permit the perception of external stimuli such as proximity of predators; although, eco-physiological factors may also influence selection of sleeping perch sites.Se describe el uso de perchas nocturnas por parte de la lagartija Anolis uniformis. Durante un año se ralizaron muestreos bimensuales en fragmentos pequeños y áreas continuas de bosque tropical perennifolio en Los Tuxtlas, México. Se registraron 23 individuos juveniles y 7 adultos durmiendo durante las horas de muestreo (18:00 a 23:00 hrs. Todos los individuos fueron encontrados en hojas de plantas pertenecientes a 14 especies. La altura de las perchas varió entre 41.0 y 140.5 cm (promedio: 90.1 cm juveniles; 80.6 cm adultos y la posición más frecuente de las lagartijas al dormir fue con el cuerpo extendido a lo largo del eje longitudinal de la hoja y la cabeza dirigida hacia el tallo de la planta. Esta posición, aparentemente vulnerable, puede permitir la percepción de estímulos externos como la aproximación de depredadores; sin embargo, factores eco-fisiológicos pueden también influir en la selección de sitios para dormir.

  19. Ecología del crecimiento de una lagartija del género Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae en la Reserva de la Biosfera, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México Growth ecology of a lizard of the genus Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae from the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GASTÓN ZAMORA-ABREGO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos el crecimiento corporal de una nueva especie de lagartija endémica del género Xenosaurus Peters, ubicada en la Reserva de la Biósfera, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. Se estimaron las tasas de crecimiento corporal y se analizaron a partir de los modelos de crecimiento de Von Bertalanffy, logístico por longitud y logístico por peso. Para describir el patrón de crecimiento de estas lagartijas, utilizamos el modelo logístico por longitud debido a que fue el modelo que tuvo el mejor ajuste a las tasas observadas de crecimiento corporal. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras en el parámetro característico de crecimiento ni en la talla asintótica proyectada. Por lo tanto, se construyó una sola curva de crecimiento para ambos sexos. Los machos alcanzan la madurez sexual a los 24 meses, mientras que las hembras lo hacen hasta los 37 meses. Las tasas de crecimiento independientes de la talla no fueron estadísticamente diferentes entre años (2001, 2002 y 2003, ni entre estaciones (estación húmeda y seca. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la variación en el crecimiento corporal de esta especie, no es causada exclusivamente por las variaciones ambientales, sino más bien por una compleja combinación de factores ambientales y bases genéticas.We analyzed variation in body growth of a new lizard species of the genus Xenosaurus Peters that is endemic to the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. We calculated body growth rates and analyzed them by means of the Von Bertalanffy, logistic-by-length, and logistic-by-weight growth models. We used the logistic-by-length model to describe the growth pattern of these lizards because this model provided the best fit to the observed body growth rates. No significant differences were found between males and females in the characteristic growth parameter or in the projected asymptotic size. Therefore, a single growth curve was constructed for both sexes. Males reach maturity at 24 months, whereas females at 37 months. Size-independent growth rates were not statistically different among years (2001, 2002 and 2003 or between season (wet and dry season. Our results suggest that variation in body growth of this species is not caused exclusively by environmental variation, but rather by a complex combination of environmental and genetic factors.

  20. Ecología del crecimiento de una lagartija del género Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae) en la Reserva de la Biosfera, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México Growth ecology of a lizard of the genus Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae) from the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México

    OpenAIRE

    J. GASTÓN ZAMORA-ABREGO; J. JAIME ZÚÑIGA-VEGA; ANGELA M. ORTEGA-LEÓN

    2012-01-01

    Analizamos el crecimiento corporal de una nueva especie de lagartija endémica del género Xenosaurus Peters, ubicada en la Reserva de la Biósfera, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. Se estimaron las tasas de crecimiento corporal y se analizaron a partir de los modelos de crecimiento de Von Bertalanffy, logístico por longitud y logístico por peso. Para describir el patrón de crecimiento de estas lagartijas, utilizamos el modelo logístico por longitud debido a que fue el modelo que tuvo el mejor ...

  1. Reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil Ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus y Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae en una área de caatinga del nordeste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO B. RIBEIRO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 in an area of caatinga in the Serido of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, from October 2006 to May 2008. In both species, the females were reproductively active from the middle of the dry season to the beginning of the rainy season. Female reproductive activity was influenced by precipitation, whereas males exhibited spermatozoa in their testes throughout the year, and their reproductive activity was not related to any of the climatic variables analyzed. Mean clutch size (± SD was 8.1 ± 2.0 and 2.1 ± 0.6 eggs in T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus, respectively, and was significantly related to female body size only in T. hispidus. The fat stock varied inversely with reproductive activity in the two species, and there was no difference in fat body mass between females and males. The effects of precipitation on the length of the breeding season of these two Tropidurus species suggest that their reproductive cycles are related to the microclimatic conditions suitable for embryo development, as well as for the neonates' emergence and survival especially during the rainy season, which may offer greater food availability to the hatchlings.Este estudio evaluó los ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 y T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 en una área de caatinga en el Seridó de Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, de octubre de 2006 a mayo de 2008. En ambas especies, las hembras se encontraron reproductivamente activas a partir de mediados de la estación seca para el inicio de la temporada de lluvias. La actividad reproductiva de las hembras fue influenciada por las precipitaciones, mientras que los machos presentaron espermatozoides en los testículos durante todo el año, y su actividad reproductiva no fue relacionada con ninguna de las variables climáticas analizadas. El tamaño medio (± DE de la nidada fue de 8.1 ± 2.0 y 2.1 ± 0.6 huevos en T. hispidus y T. semitaeniatus, respectivamente, y se relacionó significativamente con el tamaño corporal de la hembra solo en T. hispidus. La reserva de grasa varió inversamente con la actividad reproductiva en las dos especies, y no hubo diferencia en la cantidad de grasa corporal entre hembras y machos. Los efectos de la precipitación sobre la duración de la temporada reproductiva de estas dos especies de Tropidurus sugieren que sus ciclos reproductivos están relacionados con las condiciones microclimáticas adecuadas para el desarrollo del embrión, así como para la emergencia de los recién nacidos y su supervivencia, especialmente durante la temporada de lluvias, que es la que puede ofrecer una mayor disponibilidad de alimentos para las crías.

  2. Variation in parental investment and relative clutch mass of the spiny-tail iguana, Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae in central México Variación en la inversión parental y masa relativa de la nidada en la iguana de cola espinosa Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae en el centro de México

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    Rubén Castro-Franco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured the length, width, volume, and weight of 871 freshly laid eggs of 28 clutches of Ctenosaura pectinata. The iguanas were obtained from a tropical dry forest area in central Mexico. The relative clutch mass was related positively to the average egg weight but not to average egg volume. Unlike what usually occurs in lizards, where the body length strongly predicts egg production, in C. pectinata clutch size and egg size were not correlated with female weight or snout-vent length. Observed differences revealed variation in the weight-size of the egg within an individual clutch. Therefore, there is not an optimization of the egg in the studied population of Ctenosaura, as usually occurs in small lizards. This variation associated with reproduction takes place in the middle of the dry season, and may be interpreted as an adaptation to facilitate the adjustment of different phenotypes in environments with extreme drought.Medimos la longitud, amplitud, volumen, y peso de 871 huevos recién puestos de 28 nidadas de Ctenosaura pectinata. Las iguanas fueron obtenidas en un área de bosque tropical seco en el centro de México. La masa relativa de la nidada estuvo relacionada positivamente con el peso promedio de los huevos pero no con el volumen promedio del huevo. A diferencia de lo que ocurre usualmente en lagartijas, donde la longitud del cuerpo determina la producción de huevos, en C. pectinata el tamaño de la puesta y el tamaño del huevo no se correlacionan con el peso y tamaño de las hembras. Las diferencias observadas revelan variación en el tamaño y peso de los huevos dentro de las puestas individuales. En consecuencia, no hay una optimización del huevo en la población estudiada de Ctenosaura, como usualmente ocurre en lagartijas de tamaño pequeño. Esta variación asociada con la reproducción tiene lugar a mitad de la estación seca, y puede ser interpretada como una adaptación para facilitar el ajuste de diferentes fenotipos en ambientes con sequía extrema.

  3. Species delimitation with ABC and other coalescent-based methods: a test of accuracy with simulations and an empirical example with lizards of the Liolaemus darwinii complex (Squamata: Liolaemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Arley; Morando, Mariana; Avila, Luciano J; Sites, Jack W

    2012-09-01

    Species delimitation is a major research focus in evolutionary biology because accurate species boundaries are a prerequisite for the study of speciation. New species delimitation methods (SDMs) can accommodate nonmonophyletic species and gene tree discordance as a result of incomplete lineage sorting via the coalescent model, but do not explicitly accommodate gene flow after divergence. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) can incorporate gene flow and estimate other relevant parameters of the speciation process while testing alternative species delimitation hypotheses. We evaluated the accuracy of BPP, SpeDeSTEM, and ABC for delimiting species using simulated data and applied these methods to empirical data from lizards of the Liolaemus darwinii complex. Overall, BPP was the most accurate, ABC showed an intermediate accuracy, and SpeDeSTEM was the least accurate under most simulated conditions. All three SDMs showed lower accuracy when speciation occurred despite gene flow, as found in previous studies, but ABC was the method with the smallest decrease in accuracy. All three SDMs consistently supported the distinctness of southern and northern lineages within L. darwinii. These SDMs based on genetic data should be complemented with novel SDMs based on morphological and ecological data to achieve truly integrative and statistically robust approaches to species discovery. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Demografía y ecología de anidación de la iguana verde, Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae, en dos poblaciones explotadas en la Depresión Momposina, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Muñoz

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la demografía y ecología de anidación de dos poblaciones de Iguana iguana que enfrentan explotación severa y alteración del hábitat, en la Depresión Momposina, Colombia. Los atos de transectos lineales fueron analizados con el modelo de Fourier para estimar la densidad de grupos sociales. El tamaño promedio de grupo y la densidad general de iguanas varió dentro y entre poblaciones (1.05 - 6.0 grupos/ha, y 1.5 - 13.7 iguanas/ha respectivamente. Las estimaciones de densidad fueron mucho menores que las reportadas en áreas más protegidas en Panamá y Venezuela. Las densidades de las iguanas fueron considerablemente mayores en sitios localizados a lo largo de los ríos (2.5 iguanas/grupo que en sitios en el margen de las ciénagas (1.5 iguanas/grupo, probablemente debido a diferencias en la vegetación. No hubo correlación entre las estimaciones de densidad y la de abundancia relativa (número de iguanas vistas/hora/persona, debido a diferencias en detectabilidad de los grupos de iguanas entre los sitios. La proporción sexual hallada (1:2.5 machos: hembras, es probablemente el resultado del sistema de apareamiento polígamo de esta especie, en vez de indicar un verdadero sesgo demográfico. Se monitoreó 34 nidos los cuales sufrieron poca depredación por vertebrados. Sin embargo si fueron afectados por inundaciones, pisoteo por ganado e infestación por larvas de mosca Phoridae. El tamaño de huevos por nidada en estas poblaciones fue de 29.4 menor que cualquier otro reporte de la literatura, con la excepción de las poblaciones de Iguana que habitan la isla altamente xérica de Curaçao, implicando que las hembras adultas en nuestra área son inusualmente pequeñas. Probablemente éste es el resultado de la explotación prolongada y excesiva de estas poblaciones en vez de ser una respuesta adaptativa a condiciones ambientales extremas.We studied the demography and nesting ecology of two populations of Iguana iguana that face heavy exploitation and habitat modification in the Momposina Depression, Colombia. Lineal transect data was analyzed using the Fourier model to provide estimates of social group densities, which was found to differ both within and among populations (1.05 - 6.0 groups/ha. Mean group size and overall iguana density estimates varied between populations as well (1.5 -13.7 iguanas/ha. The density estimates were far lower than those reported from more protected areas in Panama and Venezuela. Iguana densities were consistently higher in sites located along rivers (2.5 iguanas/group than in sites along the margin of marshes, probably due to vegetational differences (1.5 iguanas/group. There was no correlation between density estimates and estimates of relative abundance (number of iguanas seen/hour/person due to differing detectabilities of iguana groups among sites. The adult sex ratio (1:2.5 males:females agreed well with other reports in the literature based upon observation of adult social groups, and probably results from the polygynous mating system in this species rather than a real demographic skew. Nesting in this population occurs from the end of January through March and hatching occurs between April and May. We monitored 34 nests, which suffered little vertebrate predation, perhaps due to the lack of a complete vertebrate fauna in this densely inhabited area, but nests suffered from inundation, cattle trampling, and infestation by phorid fly larvae. Clutch sizes in these populations were lower than all other published reports except for the iguana population on the highly xeric island of Curaçao, implying that adult females in our area are unusually small. We argue that this is more likely the result of the exploitation of these populations rather than an adaptive response to environmentally extreme conditions.

  5. A new species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae), from Jawa Timur Province, Java, Indonesia, with taxonomic remarks on C. fumosus (Müller, 1895).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lukas; Mecke, Sven; Kieckbusch, Max; Mader, Felix; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2016-01-26

    A new species of the gekkonid lizard genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 is described from Klakah, Lumajang Regency, Jawa Timur Province, Java, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus klakahensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other congeners by the presence of (1) a deep precloacal groove in males, (2) three rows of enlarged precloacofemoral scales, of which the third row bears 37-38 pores in males, (3) three or four rows of enlarged scales between the precloacofemoral scale rows and the cloaca, forming distinct chevrons, (4) raised and strongly keeled dorsal tubercles in 15-19 rows at midbody, (5) an indistinct lateral fold, (6) 17-20 subdigital lamellae under the 4th toe, and (7) subcaudal scales which are not transversely enlarged. Cyrtodactylus klakahensis sp. nov. is only the third bent-toed gecko species described from Java, indicating that the diversity of this genus on this island has been neglected in the past. Furthermore, we confirm that C. fumosus (Müller, 1895) is a species that possesses a precloacal groove in males and is most likely restricted to northern Sulawesi. That species is defined by a single female holotype (NMB-REPT 2662). Specimens in museum collections catalogued as C. fumosus from localities elsewhere are misidentified and likely represent undescribed species.

  6. An inconspicuous, conspicuous new species of Asian pipesnake, genus Cylindrophis (Reptilia: Squamata: Cylindrophiidae), from the south coast of Jawa Tengah, Java, Indonesia, and an overview of the tangled taxonomic history of C. ruffus (Laurenti, 1768).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckbusch, Max; Mecke, Sven; Hartmann, Lukas; Ehrmantraut, Lisa; O'shea, Mark; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2016-03-20

    We describe a new species of Cylindrophis currently known only from Grabag, Purworejo Regency, Jawa Tengah Pro-vince (Central Java), Java, Indonesia. Cylindrophis subocularis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the presence of a single, eponymous subocular scale between the 3rd and 4th or 4th and 5th supralabial, preventing contact between the 4th or 5th supralabial and the orbit, and by having the prefrontal in narrow contact with or separated from the orbit. We preface our description with a detailed account of the tangled taxonomic history of the similar and putatively wide-ranging species C. ruffus, which leads us to (1) remove the name Scytale scheuchzeri from the synonymy of C. ruffus, (2) list the taxon C. rufa var. javanica as species inquirenda, and (3) synonymize C. mirzae with C. ruffus. We provide additional evidence to confirm that the type locality of C. ruffus is Java. Cylindrophis subocularis sp. nov. is the second species of Asian pipesnake from Java.

  7. Primer registro de Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758 para el departamento de La Paz, Bolivia. Comentarios sobre la extensión de la distribución geográfica para Plica umbra (Linnaeus 1758, (Squamata: Tropiduridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de la especie Plica plica y tres de Plica umbra fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Todos los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Capital de Provincia Ixiamas, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas, Cantón Ixiamas, Capital de Cantón Tahua.

  8. Tail loss incidence in the Chihuahuan fringe toed-lizard Uma paraphygas (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) Incidencia de autotomía caudal en la lagartija de arena de Chihuahua Uma paraphygas (Sauria: Phrynosomatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamaliel Castañeda; Cristina García-De la Peña; Héctor Gadsden; Armando J. Contreras-Balderas; William E. Cooper

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed lizard population density and tail loss frequency in 2 populations of Uma paraphygas to determine if the proportion of lizards with tail loss was different between populations, sexes, and age classes. Also, we estimated unbroken and regenerated tail growth rates for adult males and females, and juveniles. Data were collected between fall 1997 and summer 1999. Tail loss incidence was relatively low overall, but was significantly higher at the site (Dune 1) with lower vegetation cov...

  9. Ámbito hogareño de Aspidoscelis cozumela(Squamata, Teiidae: una lagartija partenogenética microendémica de Isla Cozumel, México

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    Oswaldo Hernández-Gallegos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Home range is defined as the area within which an individual moves to acquire resources necessary to increase their fitness and may vary inter and intra-specifically with biotic and abiotic factors. This study details the home range of the parthenogenic lizard, Aspidoscelis cozumela,an active forager microendemic to Cozumel Island, México, with high preference for open sand beaches. The home range of A. cozumelawas compared with other species of Aspidoscelis(gonochoric and parthenogenetic and other lizards that occupy coastal habitats. Furthermore, the biotic and abiotic factors that may influence home range were analyzed. This study was conducted in the beach located on the East side of the island (area of 4 000 m2 that is composed primarily of halophyte vegetation with high levels of sunlight. From 1999 to 2001, nine samples were taken which included the dry, rainy, "nortes", and breeding seasons. During each sampling, capture-mark-recapture techniques were conducted and the date, time of day, and snout-vent length (SVL were recorded to the nearest millimeter. Individuals were located in the study area using a bi-coordinate reference using 10 x 10 m subdivisions of the habitat. Home range and home range overlap were calculated using the convex polygon method in McPaal and home range/SVL correlation was tested using Pearson's correlation. To calculate females home range, three or more recaptures were considered. A total of 20 home ranges that averaged 45.1 ± 14.0 m2 were obtained and no correlation between SVL and home range size was detected (p = 0.9229, n = 20. However, removing individuals with outlier home ranges (females with home ranges > 100 m2, n = 2 resulted in a positive correlation with SVL (r = 0.61, p = 0.0072, n = 18. A 22.9 ± 5.7% overlap in home range was also detected. The small home range of A. cozumelarepresents the smallest home range within the Aspidoscelisgenus recorded to date (including both parthenogenetic and gonochoric species and contrasts the theoretical predictions of broad home ranges for widely foraging species. Thermoregulatory benefits and a high population density may explain the small home range of A. cozumela.Although this species is highly adapted to the environmental conditions present on the open sand beaches, anthropogenic effects on these habitats by the development of tourism infrastructure may jeopardize their existence on Cozumel Island.

  10. New records of helminths of Sceloporus pyrocephalus Cope (Squamata, Phrynosomatidae from Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, with the description of a new species of Thubunaea Seurat, 1914 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae

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    Edgar Uriel Garduño-Montes de Oca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 61 specimens of the Red-headed Spiny Lizard Sceloporus pyrocephalus Cope (Phrynosomatidae collected during the breeding season (June/July 2003, 2004 and 2005 from Western Mexico were examined for helminths. The morphological characterization of the helminths found was made through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Nine taxa of helminths were identified, two cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. and Oochoristica sp., and seven nematodes: Parapharyngodon ayotzinapaensis Garduño-Montes de Oca, Mata-López & León-Règagnon, 2016, Parapharyngodon tikuinii Garduño-Montes de Oca, Mata-López & León-Règagnon, 2016, Parapharyngodon sp., Physalopterinae gen. sp., Skrjabinoptera scelopori Caballero-Rodríguez, 1971, Strongyluris similis Caballero, 1938 and a new species of Thubunaea Seurat, 1914. Larvae of Mesocestoides sp. and Physalopterinae gen. sp. were found in the body cavity and digestive tract, respectively. Excluding the species of Parapharyngodon Chatterji, 1933, S. pyrocephalus is recorded for the first time as a host of the remaining seven taxa of helminths. Additionally, Thubunaea leonregagnonae sp. n. is described and illustrated as a new nematode species, parasite of S. pyrocephalus from Mexico. This new species can be differentiated from the majority of its congeners by the absence of spicules, the particular pattern of caudal papillae in males and the small ratio of oesophagus length:male total body length (0.1–0.16.

  11. A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Gunther; Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo; Petersen, Claus Bo P; De La Cruz, Fausto R Méndez

    2014-09-19

    We revise the species of anoles occurring along the Pacific versant of Mexico west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla. Based on our analyses of morphological and molecular genetic data, we recognize 21 species, six of which we describe as new (i.e., Anolis carlliebi sp. nov., A. immaculogularis sp. nov., A. nietoi sp. nov., A. sacamecatensis sp. nov., A. stevepoei sp. nov., and A. zapotecorum sp. nov.). Furthermore, we synonymize Anolis forbesi Smith & Van Gelder 1955 with Anolis microlepidotus Davis 1954. Of the recognized species, six have smooth ventral scales (i.e., Anolis dunni, A. gadovii, A. liogaster, A. omiltemanus, A. peucephilus, and A. taylori) and 14 have keeled ventral scales (i.e., A. boulengerianus, A. carlliebi, A. immaculogularis, A. megapholidotus, A. microlepidotus, A. nebuloides, A. nebulosus, A. nietoi, A. quercorum, A. sacamecatensis, A. stevepoei, A. subocularis, A. unilobatus, and A. zapotecorum). In one species, A. macrinii, the ventral scales vary from smooth to weakly keeled. For each species we provide color descriptions in life, color photographs in life, descriptions and illustration of hemipenis morphology (if available), description of external morphology, distribution maps based on the specimensexamined, comments on the conservation status, and natural history notes. Finally, we provide a dichotomous key for the identification of the 21 species of anoles occurring along the Pacific versant of Mexico west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla. 

  12. Taxonomic analysis of Paraguayan samples ofHomonota fasciataDuméril & Bibron (1836) with the revalidation ofHomonota horridaBurmeister (1861) (Reptilia: Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) and the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciali, Pier; Morando, Mariana; Medina, Cintia D; Köhler, Gunther; Motte, Martha; Avila, Luciano J

    2017-01-01

    Homonota is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal lizards characterized by the following combination of characters: absence of femoral pores, infradigital lamellae not dilated, claws without sheath, inferior lamellae laterally not denticulate, and presence of a ceratobranchial groove. Currently the genus is composed of 10 species assembled in three groups: two groups with four species, and the fasciata group with only two species. Here, we analyzed genetic and morphologic data of samples of Homonota fasciata from Paraguay; according to Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, the Paraguay population represents an undescribed species. Additionally, morphological analysis of the holotype of H. fasciata (MNHN 6756) shows that it is morphologically different from the banded, large-scaled Homonota commonly referred to as " H. fasciata ". Given the inconsistency between morphological characters of the name-bearing type of H. fasciata and the species commonly referred to as H. fasciata , we consider them as different taxa. Thus, H. fasciata is a species inquirenda which needs further studies, and we resurrect the name H. horrida for the banded, large-scaled Homonota . The undescribed species from Paraguay is similar to H. horrida , but can be differentiated by the high position of the auditory meatus relative to the mouth commissure (vs. low position in H. horrida ); and less developed tubercles on the sides of the head, including a narrow area between the orbit and the auditory meatus covered with small granular scales with or without few tubercles (vs. several big tubercles on the sides of the head even in the area between the orbit and the auditory meatus). The new species is distributed in the Dry Chaco in South America. With the formal description of this species, the actual diversity of the genus Homonota is increased to 12 species. Furthermore, we infer phylogenetic relationships for 11 of the 12 described species of the genus, based on 11 molecular markers (two mitochondrial and nine nuclear genes), with concatenated and species tree approaches.

  13. New records of helminths ofSceloporus pyrocephalusCope (Squamata, Phrynosomatidae) from Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, with the description of a new species ofThubunaeaSeurat, 1914 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oca, Edgar Uriel Garduño-Montes; López-Caballero, Jorge D; Mata-López, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    A total of 61 specimens of the Red-headed Spiny Lizard Sceloporus pyrocephalus Cope (Phrynosomatidae) collected during the breeding season (June/July 2003, 2004 and 2005) from Western Mexico were examined for helminths. The morphological characterization of the helminths found was made through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Nine taxa of helminths were identified, two cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. and Oochoristica sp., and seven nematodes: Parapharyngodon ayotzinapaensis Garduño-Montes de Oca, Mata-López & León-Règagnon, 2016, Parapharyngodon tikuinii Garduño-Montes de Oca, Mata-López & León-Règagnon, 2016, Parapharyngodon sp., Physalopterinae gen. sp., Skrjabinoptera scelopori Caballero-Rodríguez, 1971, Strongyluris similis Caballero, 1938 and a new species of Thubunaea Seurat, 1914. Larvae of Mesocestoides sp. and Physalopterinae gen. sp. were found in the body cavity and digestive tract, respectively. Excluding the species of Parapharyngodon Chatterji, 1933, S. pyrocephalus is recorded for the first time as a host of the remaining seven taxa of helminths. Additionally, Thubunaea leonregagnonae sp. n. is described and illustrated as a new nematode species, parasite of S. pyrocephalus from Mexico. This new species can be differentiated from the majority of its congeners by the absence of spicules, the particular pattern of caudal papillae in males and the small ratio of oesophagus length:male total body length (0.1-0.16).

  14. Regeneration of adhesive tail pad scales in the New Zealand gecko (Hoplodactylus maculatus)(Reptilia;Squamata;Lacertilia) can serve as an experimental model to analyze setal formation in lizards generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2017-07-18

    During the regeneration of the tail in the arboreal New Zealand gecko ( Hoplodactylus maculatus ) a new set of tail scales, modified into pads bearing setae 5-20 μm long, is also regenerated. Stages of the formation of these specialized scales from epidermal pegs that invaginate the dermis of the regenerating tail are described on the basis of light and electron microscopic images. Within the pegs a differentiating clear layer interfaces with the spinulae and setae of the Oberhäutchen according to a process similar to that described for the digital pads. A layer of clear cytoplasm surrounds the growing tiny setae and eventually cornifies around them and their spatular ends, later leaving the new setae freestanding on the epidermal surface. The fresh adhesive pads help the gecko to maintain the prehensile function of its regenerated tail as together with the axial skeleton (made of a cylinder of elastic cartilage) the pads allow the regenerated tail to curl around twigs and small branches just like the original tail. The regeneration of caudal adhesive pads represents an ideal system to study the cellular processes that determine setal formation under normal or experimental manipulation as the progressive phases of the formation of the setae can be sequentially analyzed.

  15. [Artículo Retractado/Retracted Article]:BYCATCH OF HELICOPS ANGULATUS (LINNAEUS 1758 (REPTILIA: SQUAMATA: COLUBRIDAE IN HOOP-TRAPS USED TO CAPTURE FRESH WATER TURTLES ON THE COAST OF PARÁ, BRAZIL

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    Emil José Hernández Ruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Between September, 2007, and August, 2009, six field excursions were conducted on the northern Brazilian coast (Romana and Maiandeua islands, state of Pará for the collection of specimens of freshwater turtles (Rhinoclemmys punctularia and Kinosternon scorpioides in natural ponds. Hoop-nets were used and 35 specimens of brown-banded water snakes, Helicops angulatus, were captured as bycatch in the traps. Thus, in addition to turtles, the procedure may be useful for the sampling populations of aquatic snakes. RESUMEN Entre septiembre de 2007 y agosto de 2009, seis excursiones de campo se llevaron a cabo en la costa norte de Brasil (islas Romana y Maiandeua, estado de Pará para la recolección de especímenes de tortugas de agua dulce (Rhinoclemmys punctularia y Kinosternon scorpioides en posos naturales. Utilizamos trampas en embudo. 35 ejemplares de la serpiente acuática Helicops angulatus, fueron capturados como pesca incidental en las trampas. Por lo tanto, además de las tortugas, el procedimiento puede ser útil para la toma de muestras de las poblaciones de serpientes acuáticas.

  16. Cryptic speciation within Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) (Squamata: Pareatidae), the description of a new species from Peninsular Malaysia, and the resurrection of A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jude, 1923) from Sumatra: an integrative taxonomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, Ariel I; Wood, Perry L; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Greer, Lee F; Ahmad, Norhayati; Grismer, L Lee

    2013-01-01

    A review of the taxonomic status of the Asian Slug Snake, Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) based on an integrative taxonomic approach using molecular, morphological, color pattern, and ecological data indicate it is composed of three well supported monophyletic lineages: (1) Pulau Tioman and Fraser's Hill, Pahang and Bukit Larut, Perak; Peninsular Malaysia; (2) its sister lineage from Northern Sumatra; and (3) the remaining basal lineage from Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, we consider the high sequence divergence (6.3%-10.2%) between these lineages (especially in areas of sympatry) and discrete differences in their morphology, color pattern, and microhabitat preference as evidence they are not conspecific. As such, we resurrect the name A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jeude, 1923) for the Sumatra populations, restrict the name A. vertebralis to the populations from Pulau Tioman, Genting Highlands, Fraser's Hill, Gunung Benom, and Bukit Larut that contain terrestrial, banded adults; and consider A. lasgalenensis sp. nov. to be restricted to the populations from Fraser's Hill, Cameron Highlands, and Bukit Larut that contain arboreal, unbanded adults.

  17. Taxonomic analysis of Paraguayan samples of Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron (1836 with the revalidation of Homonota horrida Burmeister (1861 (Reptilia: Squamata: Phyllodactylidae and the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Cacciali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Homonota is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal lizards characterized by the following combination of characters: absence of femoral pores, infradigital lamellae not dilated, claws without sheath, inferior lamellae laterally not denticulate, and presence of a ceratobranchial groove. Currently the genus is composed of 10 species assembled in three groups: two groups with four species, and the fasciata group with only two species. Here, we analyzed genetic and morphologic data of samples of Homonota fasciata from Paraguay; according to Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, the Paraguay population represents an undescribed species. Additionally, morphological analysis of the holotype of H. fasciata (MNHN 6756 shows that it is morphologically different from the banded, large-scaled Homonota commonly referred to as “H. fasciata”. Given the inconsistency between morphological characters of the name-bearing type of H. fasciata and the species commonly referred to as H. fasciata, we consider them as different taxa. Thus, H. fasciata is a species inquirenda which needs further studies, and we resurrect the name H. horrida for the banded, large-scaled Homonota. The undescribed species from Paraguay is similar to H. horrida, but can be differentiated by the high position of the auditory meatus relative to the mouth commissure (vs. low position in H. horrida; and less developed tubercles on the sides of the head, including a narrow area between the orbit and the auditory meatus covered with small granular scales with or without few tubercles (vs. several big tubercles on the sides of the head even in the area between the orbit and the auditory meatus. The new species is distributed in the Dry Chaco in South America. With the formal description of this species, the actual diversity of the genus Homonota is increased to 12 species. Furthermore, we infer phylogenetic relationships for 11 of the 12 described species of the genus, based on 11 molecular markers (two mitochondrial and nine nuclear genes, with concatenated and species tree approaches.

  18. Reverze pohlaví u ještěra s genotypově určeným pohlavím (Squamata: Acrodonta: Pogona vitticeps)

    OpenAIRE

    Ehl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sex determination among reptiles is a very variable matter across it's taxa. We meet there temperature sex determination and genotypic sex determination with many independent transitions between them. It is a group suitable to study evolution of sex determination, sex chromosomes and sex determination genes. Rare cases of sex reversal caused by extreme incubation temperature or exogenous hormones have been reported in recent years. In case of Acrodont lizard, Pogona vitticeps, was reported se...

  19. Mixed-Up Sex Chromosomes: Identification of Sex Chromosomes in the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y System of the Legless Lizards of the Genus Lialis (Squamata: Gekkota: Pygopodidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovatsos, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, M.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 4 (2016), s. 282-289 ISSN 1424-8581 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : fluorescence in situ hybridization * interstitial telometric repeats * male heterogamety Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.354, year: 2016

  20. Sexual differences in size and shape of the Mosor rock lizard [Dinarolacerta mosorensis (Kolombatović, 1886] (squamata: lacertidae: A case study of the Lovćen mountain population (Montenegro

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    Ljubisavljević Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual differences in size and shape of the Mosor rock lizard, Dinarolacerta mosorensis (Kolombatović, 1886, from Lovćen Mountain (Montenegro were examined on the basis of the intersex variation pattern of nine morphometric, eight pholidotic, and four qualitative traits. Sexual dimorphism was apparent for all morphometric characters except snout-vent length, while scalation and dorsal pattern exhibited small differences between sexes. The value of the sexual size difference (SSD index based on snout-vent length was 1.028. The sex-specific allometric slopes for head dimensions and interlimb distance significantly diverged. Head dimensions, especially head height, showed strong positive allometry in males, while interlimb distance was the only character which showed positive allometry in females. Generally, males had significantly greater body size than females. This was true of all body measurements except interlimb distance. The influence of sexual and natural selection on the examined traits is discussed.