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Sample records for amphioxus branchiostoma floridae

  1. Amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae has orthologs of vertebrate odorant receptors

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    Taylor John S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs in the detection of environmental stimuli. Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs. Gene duplication and gene loss in different vertebrate lineages have lead to an enormous amount of variation in OR gene repertoire among species; some fish have fewer than 100 OR genes, while some mammals possess more than 1000. Fascinating features of the vertebrate olfactory system include allelic exclusion, where each olfactory neuron expresses only a single OR gene, and axonal guidance where neurons expressing the same receptor project axons to common glomerulae. By identifying homologous ORs in vertebrate and in non-vertebrate chordates, we hope to expose ancestral features of the chordate olfactory system that will help us to better understand the evolution of the receptors themselves and of the cellular components of the olfactory system. Results We have identified 50 full-length and 11 partial ORs in Branchiostoma floridae. No ORs were identified in Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analysis places the B. floridae OR genes in a monophyletic clade with the vertebrate ORs. The majority of OR genes in amphioxus are intronless and many are also tandemly arrayed in the genome. By exposing conserved amino acid motifs and testing the ability of those motifs to discriminate between ORs and non-OR GPCRs, we identified three OR-specific amino acid motifs common in cephalochordate, fish and mammalian and ORs. Conclusion Here, we show that amphioxus has orthologs of vertebrate ORs. This conclusion demonstrates that the receptors, and perhaps other components of vertebrate olfaction, evolved at least 550 million years ago. We have also identified highly conserved amino acid motifs that may be important for maintaining

  2. Characterization, developmental expression and evolutionary features of the huntingtin gene in the amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae

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    Cattaneo Elena

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by the expansion of an N-terminal polyQ stretch in the huntingtin protein. In order to investigate the hypothesis that huntingtin was already involved in development of the nervous system in the last common ancestor of chordates, we isolated and characterised the huntingtin homologue from the amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae. In the present paper the amphioxus general term must be referred to Branchiostoma floridae. Results In this report, we show that the exon-intron organization of the amphioxus huntingtin gene is highly conserved with that of other vertebrates species. The AmphiHtt protein has two glutamine residues in the position of the typical vertebrate polyQ tract. Sequence conservation is greater along the entire length of the protein than in a previously identified Ciona huntingtin. The first three N-terminal HEAT repeats are highly conserved in vertebrates and amphioxus, although exon rearrangement has occurred in this region. AmphiHtt expression is detectable by in situ hybridization starting from the early neurula stage, where it is found in cells of the neural plate. At later stages, it is retained in the neural compartment but also it appears in limited and well-defined groups of non-neural cells. At subsequent larval stages, AmphiHtt expression is detected in the neural tube, with the strongest signal being present in the most anterior part. Conclusion The cloning of amphioxus huntingtin allows to infer that the polyQ in huntingtin was already present 540 million years ago and provides a further element for the study of huntingtin function and its evolution along the deuterostome branch.

  3. The amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae genome contains a highly diversified set of G protein-coupled receptors

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    Schiöth Helgi B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are one of the largest families of genes in mammals. Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus is one of the species most closely related species to vertebrates. Results Mining and phylogenetic analysis of the amphioxus genome showed the presence of at least 664 distinct GPCRs distributed among all the main families of GPCRs; Glutamate (18, Rhodopsin (570, Adhesion (37, Frizzled (6 and Secretin (16. Surprisingly, the Adhesion GPCR repertoire in amphioxus includes receptors with many new domains not previously observed in this family. We found many Rhodopsin GPCRs from all main groups including many amine and peptide binding receptors and several previously uncharacterized expansions were also identified. This genome has however no genes coding for bitter taste receptors (TAS2, the sweet and umami (TAS1, pheromone (VR1 or VR2 or mammalian olfactory receptors. Conclusion The amphioxus genome is remarkably rich in various GPCR subtypes while the main GPCR groups known to sense exogenous substances (such as Taste 2, mammalian olfactory, nematode chemosensory, gustatory, vomeronasal and odorant receptors in other bilateral species are absent.

  4. Evidence for stasis and not genetic piracy in developmental expression patterns of Branchiostoma lanceolatum and Branchiostoma floridae, two amphioxus species that have evolved independently over the course of 200 Myr.

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    Somorjai, Ildiko; Bertrand, Stéphanie; Camasses, Alain; Haguenauer, Anne; Escriva, Hector

    2008-12-01

    Cephalochordates, the most basal extant group in the phylum Chordata, are represented chiefly by about 20 species of the genus Branchiostoma, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. In recent years, insights into the evolutionary origin of the vertebrates have been gained from molecular genetic studies during the development of three of these amphioxus species (Branchiostoma floridae in North America, Branchiostoma lanceolatum in Europe, and Branchiostoma belcheri in East Asia). In spite of an estimated divergence time of 100-200 Myr among these species, all three are remarkably similar morphologically, and students of amphioxus have tacitly assumed that such resemblances arise during ontogeny from nearly identical networks of developmental genes. We felt that this assumption needed to be reexamined because instances are known--even in comparisons of closely related species--where characters seeming homologous on the basis of morphology actually develop under the control of conspicuously divergent genetic programs (a phenomenon termed "genetic piracy"). In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that morphological similarities reflect strict conservation of developmentally important genes' expression patterns in order to assess whether the developmental genetics of different amphioxus species show evidence of genetic piracy. To these ends, we cloned 18 genes implicated in different developmental functions in B. lanceolatum and compared their gene expression patterns with the known expression patterns of their orthologous genes in B. floridae. We show that, for the most part, conservation of gene expression parallels that of morphology in these two species. We also identified some differences in gene expression, likely reflecting experimental sensitivity, with the exception of Pax1/9, which may result from true developmental specificities in each amphioxus species. Our results demonstrate that morphological conservation reflects stasis in developmental gene

  5. ARTIFICIAL CULTURE OF AMPHIOXUS (BRANCHIOSTOMA BELCHERI TSINGTAUENSE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Mature amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense) collected by trawl in June, 1994 from Qingdao Shazikou sea area bottom sands, were cultured under controlled indoor conditions, where they spawned and their eggs were fertilized and hatched into larvae which gradually settled at the bottom and dug into the sands after 40-50 days culture in a water trough outdoors. The total survival rate of the larvae(LSR)was 5.5% before they went into the sands, 1.9% in 4 months, 0.7% in 10 months. The survival rate of the young fish which had dug into the sands (YSR) was 35.6% in 4 months, and 12.6% in 10 months. The amphioxus number tended to be constant from the 11th month on. In the first five months after incubation, the amphioxus body length increased by an average of about 1.5 mm a month, and about 0.4 mm a month from Dec. to May of next year. The maximum length after ten months was 24 mm; the average was about 11 mm. After two years culture in the water trough, the maximum length could reach 34-35 mm, when the amphioxus gonads began to develop.

  6. Differential regulation of ParaHox genes by retinoic acid in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae).

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    Osborne, Peter W; Benoit, Gérard; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Ferrier, David E K

    2009-03-01

    The ParaHox cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Like the Hox cluster, the ParaHox cluster displays spatial and temporal regulation of the component genes along the anterior/posterior axis in a manner that correlates with the gene positions within the cluster (a feature called collinearity). The ParaHox cluster is however a simpler system to study because it is composed of only three genes. We provide a detailed analysis of the amphioxus ParaHox cluster and, for the first time in a single species, examine the regulation of the cluster in response to a single developmental signalling molecule, retinoic acid (RA). Embryos treated with either RA or RA antagonist display altered ParaHox gene expression: AmphiGsx expression shifts in the neural tube, and the endodermal boundary between AmphiXlox and AmphiCdx shifts its anterior/posterior position. We identified several putative retinoic acid response elements and in vitro assays suggest some may participate in RA regulation of the ParaHox genes. By comparison to vertebrate ParaHox gene regulation we explore the evolutionary implications. This work highlights how insights into the regulation and evolution of more complex vertebrate arrangements can be obtained through studies of a simpler, unduplicated amphioxus gene cluster. PMID:19103191

  7. Consecutive spawnings of Chinese amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, in captivity.

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    Guang Li

    Full Text Available Cephalochordate amphioxus is a promising model animal for studying the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of vertebrates because its unique phylogenetic position, simple body plan and sequenced genome. However, one major drawback for using amphioxus as a model organism is the restricted supply of living embryos since they are available only during spawning season that varies from a couple of days to several months according to species. Therefore we are aiming to develop methods for obtaining viable amphioxus embryos in non-spawning season. In the current study, we found that Branchiostoma belcheri could develop their gonads and spawn consecutively in the laboratory when cultured in a low density at a high temperature (25-28 °C supplied with sufficient food and proper cleanness. Among the approximate 150 observed animals, which spawned spontaneously between November and December 2011, 10% have spawned twice, 10% three times, and 80% four times, through April 2012. The quality and quantity of the gametes reproduced in the consecutive spawning have no obvious difference with those spawned once naturally. Spawning intervals varied dramatically both among different animals (from 1 to 5 months and between intervals of a single individual (from 27 to 74 days for one animal. In summary, we developed a method with which, for the first time, consecutive spawnings of amphioxus in captivity can be achieved. This has practical implications for the cultivation of other amphioxus species, and eventually will greatly promote the utilization of amphioxus as a model system.

  8. Synergistic actions of complement and lysozyme in clearance of Escherichia coli from amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangfeng Wang; Shicui Zhang; Zhimeng Zhuang; Zhiping Wang

    2009-01-01

    Amphioxus appears to lack free circulating blood cells. How it clears invading pathogens from its body remains unknown to date. We demonstrate here that amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri is capable of efficiently eliminating the invading bacterium Escherichia coil from its humorai fluid, and the complement and lysozyme are both involved in the elimination of the invading pathogen. Both the com-plement and lysozyme act in concert against the invading bacterium, but the complement appears to play a more dominant role than the lysozyme.

  9. Antioxidant enzyme activities in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense

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    WEI Ran; ZHANG Shicui; WANG Changfa; PANG Qiuxiang

    2007-01-01

    Information regarding antioxidant enzymes in amphioxus remains lacking, and this study was carried out to examine the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense.Results show that (1) CuZn-SOD, CAT and GPX activities in the whole amphioxus B. belcheri tsingtauense were basically at the same levels in male and female amphioxus, whereas both T-SOD and Mn-SOD activities in male amphioxus were significantly higher than that in the female (P<0.05); (2) The testis had significantly higher T-SOD and CuZn-SOD activities than the ovary (P<0.05); (3) CuZn-SOD activity was undetectable in the guts of male and female amphioxus; (4) For both male and female amphioxus, the activities of CAT and GPX in the gonads including testis and ovary were the lowest (P<0.05)among the tissues examined; (5) The gut and gill had the same level GPX activities while the gut had a higher CAT activity; (6) There was no clear difference in CAT and GPX activities in the corresponding tissues between male and female amphioxus. The study on SOD, CAT and GPX activities in different genders and tissues of the protochordate provides data for future comparison of amphioxus antioxidant enzymes with those of invertebrates and vertebrates.

  10. Complete sequence of the amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) mitochondrial genome: relations to vertebrates.

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    Spruyt, N; Delarbre, C; Gachelin, G; Laudet, V

    1998-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum has been determined. This mitochondrial genome is small (15 076 bp) because of the short size of the two rRNA genes and the tRNA genes. In addition, this genome contains a very short non-coding region (57 bp) with no sequence reminiscent of a control region. The organisation of the coding genes, as well as of the two rRNA genes, is identical to that of the sea lamprey. Some differences in the ...

  11. Developmental expression pattern of calmodulin gene in amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing; Geng, Jinpei; Fang, Shaoqing; Su, Zhiping; Zhang, Jingxuan; Xu, Hongyan; Wang, Ying; Lu, Min; Yin, Weili; Meng, Guangxiao

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the developmental expression pattern of AmphiCaM in cephalochordate amphioxus ( Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense). We cultured and sampled the animals at different developmental stages (eggs and larvae), and used in-situ hybridization and northern blotting to document the spatial and temporal changes in AmphiCaM expression. The alimentary tract dominates the development from the late neurula stage to the adult stage. AmphiCaM expression increased significantly in the alimentary tract during the late neurula stage and remained elevated in the adults. Our results indicate that AmphiCaM is involved in the differentiation of the alimentary tract in amphioxus; and furthermore, provide an insight into the change in function of CaM genes during evolution.

  12. Free amino acids in the nervous system of the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. A comparative study

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    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The cephalochordate amphioxus is the closest invertebrate relative to vertebrates. In this study, using HPLC technique, free L-amino acids (L-AAs and D-aspartic acid (D-Asp have been detected in the nervous system of the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Among other amino acids glutamate, aspartate, glycine, alanine and serine are the amino acids found at the greatest concentrations. As it occurs in the nervous system of other animal phyla, glutamate (L-Glu and aspartate (L-Asp are present at very high concentrations in the amphioxus nervous system compared to other amino acids, whereas the concentration of taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is very low. Interestingly, as it is the case in vertebrates, D-aspartic acid is present as an endogenous compound in amphioxus nervous tissues. The physiological function of excitatory amino acids, and D-aspartate in particular, are discussed in terms of evolution of the nervous system under an Evo-fun (Evolution of function perspective.

  13. N-Methyl-D-aspartic Acid (NMDA in the nervous system of the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum

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    Garcia-Fernàndez Jordi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid is a widely known agonist for a class of glutamate receptors, the NMDA type. Synthetic NMDA elicits very strong activity for the induction of hypothalamic factors and hypophyseal hormones in mammals. Moreover, endogenous NMDA has been found in rat, where it has a role in the induction of GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone in the hypothalamus, and of LH (Luteinizing Hormone and PRL (Prolactin in the pituitary gland. Results In this study we show evidence for the occurrence of endogenous NMDA in the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. A relatively high concentration of NMDA occurs in the nervous system of this species (3.08 ± 0.37 nmol/g tissue in the nerve cord and 10.52 ± 1.41 nmol/g tissue in the cephalic vesicle. As in rat, in amphioxus NMDA is also biosynthesized from D-aspartic acid (D-Asp by a NMDA synthase (also called D-aspartate methyl transferase. Conclusion Given the simplicity of the amphioxus nervous and endocrine systems compared to mammalian, the discovery of NMDA in this protochordate is important to gain insights into the role of endogenous NMDA in the nervous and endocrine systems of metazoans and particularly in the chordate lineage.

  14. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in the developing gonads of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The localization of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is dealed with in the developing gonads of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense. It was found by NADPH-diaphorase staining that (1) NOS activity was present in the nuclear membranes of germinal vesicles during the entire period of oocyte development; (2) NOS was localized in both the nuclear membranes and the perinuclear region of cytoplasm in the vitellogenetic oocytes; (3) NOS was relocated in the cortical layer in the mature egg; (4) NOS activity was present in spermatocytes, but not in the spermatogonia in the middle of October; (5) NOS was detected in both spermatozoa and spermatids as well as spermatocytes during the breeding season. This is the first report on the distribution pattern of NOS in the developing gonads in protochordates. These results suggest a role for NOS in the functioning of the nuclear membranes and yolk synthesis during oogenesis and in cell division and differentiation during spermatogenesis.

  15. Expression and localization of a novel phosducin-like protein from amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri

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    SAREN Gaowa; ZHAO Yonggang

    2009-01-01

    A full length amphioxus cDNA, encoding a novel phosducin-like protein (Amphi-PhLP),was identified for the first time from the gut cDNA library of Branchiostoma belched. It is comprised of 1 550 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 241 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 28 kDa. In situ hybridization histocbemistry revealed a tissue-specific expression pattern of Amphi-PhLP with the high levels in the ovary, and at a lower level in the hind gut and testis, hepatic caecum, gill, endostyle, and epipharyngeal groove, while it was absent in the muscle, neural tube and notochord. In the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the expression plasmid pEGFP-NIIAmphi-PhLP, the fusion protein was targeted in the cytoplasm of CHO cells, suggesting that Amphi-PhLP is a cytosolic protein. This work may provide a framework for further understanding of the physiological function of Amphi-PhLP in B. belcheri.

  16. Actin gene family in Branchiostoma belched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved cytoskeletal protein that is found in essentially all eukaryotic cells,which plays a paramount role in several basic functions of the organism, such as the maintenance of cellshape, cell division, cell mobility and muscle contraction. However, little is known about actin gene family inChinese amphioxusBranchiostoma belcheri). Here we systemically analyzed the actin genes family inBranchiostoma belched and found that amphioxus contains 33 actin genes. These genes have undergoneextensive expansion through tandem duplications by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, we also providedevidence indicating that actin genes have divergent functions by specializing their EST data in both Bran-chiostoma belched and Branchiostoma florida. Our results provided an alternative explanation for the evolu-tion of actin genes, and gave new insights into their functional roles.

  17. The evolution of genes encoding for green fluorescent proteins: insights from cephalochordates (amphioxus)

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    Jia-Xing Yue; Holland, Nicholas D.; Holland, Linda Z.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2016-01-01

    Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was originally found in cnidarians, and later in copepods and cephalochordates (amphioxus) (Branchiostoma spp). Here, we looked for GFP-encoding genes in Asymmetron, an early-diverged cephalochordate lineage, and found two such genes closely related to some of the Branchiostoma GFPs. Dim fluorescence was found throughout the body in adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, and, as in Branchiostoma floridae, was especially intense in the ripe ovaries. Spectra of the fluo...

  18. A sperm-mediated GFP gene transfer in amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaoense)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dan; ZHANG Peijun

    2005-01-01

    @@ The cephalochordate amphioxus is the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrate and has emerged as an important animal model for evolutionary developmental biology research[1]. Many insights into the evolution of the vertebrate body plan can be gained by comparing vertebrate embryogenesis with that of the amphioxus. Investigation of the gene regulation during amphioxus embryogenesis will provide us clues to clarify how changes of gene regulation affect the body plan evolution at this turning point and thus will throw light on the origin and evolution of the vertebrate.

  19. Study on genetic diversity and resource conservation of amphioxus(Branchiostoma balcheri Gray) population

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    ZHOU Hantao; GAO Yuanyuan; CHEN Xu; YE Fan; LIAN Yuwu

    2005-01-01

    Amphioxus is the ancestor of vertebrates 5×108 a ago, it is a typical transitional sample of evolution from invertebrates to vertebrates.Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) technologies were applied to detect the genetic variation of 3 bulking samples and individually sampled populations in nowadays Xiamen sea areas (Xiekou, Nanxian and Huangcuo) where the amphioxuses are alive. For the bulking sampled populations, 5 ISSR and 10 RAPD primers generated 357bands, of which 181 (50.7%) were polymorphic. Nei index and UPGMA statistical analysis indicated that amphioxuses in these 3areas could be divided into 2 groups. The genetic distance between animals in Nanxian and Huangcuo areas was 0.07 and classified into 1 group, while the population in Xiekou belonged to another group because its genetic distances in Nanxian and Huangcuo were 0.12 and 0.14, respectively. The result was in accordance with the morphological comparison among animals from those areas. For individually sampled population, Shannon' s index of genetic diversity was used to partition the diversity of the animals among these 3sea areas, and the results showed that the indices in populations ofXiekou, Nanxian and Huangcuo, were 0.583, 0.482 and 0.374,respectively. The linear regression equation analysis for amphioxus' genetic diversity versus the environment factors revealed that granularity/sorting coefficient and water depth were the most important factors that affect amphioxus genetic diversity. On the basis of the results, the suggestions for amphioxus resource conservation in Xiamen sea areas are put forward.

  20. Ribosomal Protein Genes S23 and L35 from Amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense: Identification and Copy Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian LI; Shi-Cui ZHANG; Zhen-Hui LIU; Hong-Yan LI

    2005-01-01

    The complete cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences of the ribosomal proteins S23 (AmphiS23) and L35 (AmphiL35) from amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense were identified in this study. AmphiS23 cDNA is 546 bp long and encodes a protein of 143 amino acids. It has a predicted molecular mass of 15,851 Da and a pI of 10.7. AmphiL35 cDNA comprises 473 bp, and codes for a protein of 123 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 14,543 Da and a pI of 10.8. AmphiS23 shares more than 83% identity with its homologues in the vertebrates and more than 84% identity with those in the invertebrates. AmphiL35 is more than 63% identical to its counterparts in the vertebrates and more than 52% identical to those in the invertebrates, Southern blot analysis demonstrated the existence of 1-2 copies of the S23 gene and 2-3 copies of the L35 gene in the genome of amphioxus B. belcheri tsingtauense. This is in sharp contrast to the presence of 6-13 copies of the S23 gene and 15-17 copies of the L35 gene in the rat genome. It is clear that the housekeeping genes like S23 and L35 underwent a large-scale duplication in the vertebrate lineage, reinforcing the gene/genome duplication hypothesis.

  1. Developmental Expression of an Amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) Gene Encoding a GATA Transcription Factor%文昌鱼一个GATA基因在胚胎发育中的表达图式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张煜; 毛炳宇

    2009-01-01

    GATA factors are evolutionarily conserved and play crucial roles during embryonic development in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrate GATAs can be divided into two subgroups, the GATA1/2/3 and the GATA4/5/6 classes. Through genomic analysis, we have identified three GATA factors, representing the GATA1/2/3 and GATA4/5/6 subfamilies respectively, and one GATA like protein in the genome of the basal chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae, cephalochordata). Partial sequence of GATA123 in the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri (BbGATA123) was cloned and its expression pattern during early embryonic development was studied. Expression of BbGATA123 is first detected in the mesendoderm during gastrulation. Interestingly, in the late neurula and early larva stages, it is expressed strongly in the cerebral vesicle and the mid gut region. Its expression is compared to Otx, a gene known crucial for the development of anterior structures. Our observations suggest that GATA123, together with Otx, might play an important role in the development of amphioxus cerebral vesicle, the counterpart of the vertebrate brain.%GATA基因在脊椎动物和非脊椎动物的发育中行使重要的功能,该家族的成员在进化上也足非常保守的.脊椎动物的GATA基因分为两个亚群:GATA1/2/3和GATA4/5/6.通过生物信息分析,在文吕鱼的基因缓中找到了3个GATA基因:一个GATA1/2/3业家族基因,两个GATA4/5/6亚家族基因:还找到一个类GATA基因.还克隆了白氏文昌鱼(Branchiostoma belcheri)GATA123的一段序列,并研究了它在早期胚胎发育中的表达图式.结果表明GATA123在原肠胚的中内胚层表达,而在神经胚晚期和幼体早期,GATA123在脑泡和消化道中部区域表达.这种表达模式与头部发育的重要基因Otx相类似.结果提示在文吕鱼脑泡的发育过程中GATA123和Otx很可能共同发挥着重要的作用.

  2. Distribution of α-MSH-like immunoreactive cells in the nervous system, Hatschek's pit and other tissues of amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqiang Fang; Youzhu Weng; Haixia Song

    2008-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in the nervous system, Hatschek's pit and other tissues of amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) was performed using the antibody against synthetic α-MSH. The results revealed that α-MSH-like immunoreactive cells were distributed at the dorsal side and ventral side of brain vesicle, the dorsal side and the surrounding of nerve tube, and in the epithelial cells of Hatschek's pit, the zone 1, 3, and 6 of endostyle and gut. The immunoreactive substance was also found in the primary oocytes of the small and large growth stage of ovary and early stage spermatogenic cells in testis. These findings indicate that α-MSH is an ancient and highly conserved hormone and it is extensively distributed in amphioxus. Although Hatschek's pit in amphioxus does not have a structure of the intermediate lobe of vertebrate adenohypophysis, it has already hosted α-MSH-like endocrine cells, implying that the functional differentiation of α-MSH-like cells occurred earlier than the differentiation of the tissue structure. The results of the present study provided a new evidence for the endocrinology of Hatschek's pit and for the origin and evolution of vertebrate adenohypophysis.

  3. Characterization of SoxB2 and SoxC genes in Amphi-oxus (Branchiostoma belcheri):Implications for their evolutionary conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Most Sox genes directly affect cell fate determination and differentiation. In this study,we isolated two Sox genes:SoxB2 and SoxC from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri),the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates. Alignments of SoxB2 and SoxC protein sequences and their vertebrate homologs show high conservation of their HMG domains. Phylogenic analysis shows that amphioxus SoxB2 and SoxC fall out of the vertebrate branches,suggesting that vertebrate homologs might arise from gene duplications during evolution. The two genes possess similar spatial and temporal expression patterns during embryogenesis and in adults. They are both maternally inherited. During neurulation,they are expressed in the neural ectoderm and archenterons. In adults,they are expressed not only in the nerve cord,but also in the gut,midgut diverticulum,gill and oocytes. These results suggest that amphioxus SoxB2 and SoxC might co-function and have conserved functions in the nervous system and gonads as their vertebrate homologs.

  4. Characterization, Evolution and Tissue-specific Expression of AmphiCalbin, a Novel Gene Encoding EF-hand Calcium-binding Protein in Amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LUAN; Shicui ZHANG; Zhenhui LIU; Chunxin FAN; Guangdong JI; Lei LI

    2007-01-01

    An amphioxus full-length cDNA, AmphiCalbin, encoding a novel EF-hand calcium-binding protein (EFCaBP), was isolated from the gut cDNA library of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri. It consists of 1321 bp with a 636 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 211 amino acids with a molecular mass of approximately 24.5 kDa. The phylogenetic analysis offers two interesting inferences. First, AmphiCalbin clusters with a group of unnamed EFCaBPs that are differentiated from other identified EFCaBPs. Second,AmphiCalbin falls at the base of the vertebrate unnamed EFCaBPs clade, probably representing their prototype.This is also corroborated by the fact that AmphiCalbin has an exon-intron organization identical to that of vertebrate unnamed EFCaBP genes. Both tissue-section in situ hybridization and whole-mount in situ hybridization prove a tissue-specific expression pattern of AmphiCalbin, with high levels of expression in the digestive system and gonads. It is proposed that AmphiCalbin might play a role in the digestive system and gonads. These observations lay the foundation for further understanding of the function of the unnamed EFCaBPs.

  5. Expression, purification and polyclonal antibody generation of p23,an Hsp90 cochaperone, in the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bosheng; ZHANG Shicui; PANG Qiuxiang; LIU Zhenhui; LIANG Yujun

    2006-01-01

    The cDNA of amphioxus p23, a highly conserved co-chaperone for Hsp90, was cloned into a bacterial expression vector pGEX-6P-1 and the GST-tagged fusion protein was produced in Eschherichia coli cells. The recombinant p23 was purified by affinity purification, and its molecular mass was estimated to be approximately 22 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The N-terminus of purified p23 was sequenced, and the resulting amino acid sequence matches exactly the predicted residues deduced from the amphioxus p23 gene. Besides, polyclonal antibodies against the recombinant p23 were generated, and these antibodies not only recognized specifically the fusion protein GST-p23 from induced E. coli cells, purified GST-p23 and p23 protein, but also reacted with the total protein extracted from the adult amphioxus and formed a single positive band. These results pave the way for identifying its tissue and subcellular localization, and may open the door to clarifying its structure and mechanisms of biological role.

  6. A family of GFP-like proteins with different spectral properties in lancelet Branchiostoma floridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushegian Arcady

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the green fluorescent protein (GFP family share sequence similarity and the 11-stranded β-barrel fold. Fluorescence or bright coloration, observed in many members of this family, is enabled by the intrinsic properties of the polypeptide chain itself, without the requirement for cofactors. Amino acid sequence of fluorescent proteins can be altered by genetic engineering to produce variants with different spectral properties, suitable for direct visualization of molecular and cellular processes. Naturally occurring GFP-like proteins include fluorescent proteins from cnidarians of the Hydrozoa and Anthozoa classes, and from copepods of the Pontellidae family, as well as non-fluorescent proteins from Anthozoa. Recently, an mRNA encoding a fluorescent GFP-like protein AmphiGFP, related to GFP from Pontellidae, has been isolated from the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, a cephalochordate (Deheyn et al., Biol Bull, 2007 213:95. Results We report that the nearly-completely sequenced genome of Branchiostoma floridae encodes at least 12 GFP-like proteins. The evidence for expression of six of these genes can be found in the EST databases. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that a gene encoding a GFP-like protein was present in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria. We synthesized and expressed two of the lancelet GFP-like proteins in mammalian cells and in bacteria. One protein, which we called LanFP1, exhibits bright green fluorescence in both systems. The other protein, LanFP2, is identical to AmphiGFP in amino acid sequence and is moderately fluorescent. Live imaging of the adult animals revealed bright green fluorescence at the anterior end and in the basal region of the oral cirri, as well as weaker green signals throughout the body of the animal. In addition, red fluorescence was observed in oral cirri, extending to the tips. Conclusion GFP-like proteins may have been present in the primitive Metazoa. Their

  7. Evolution of Retinoid and Steroid Signaling: Vertebrate Diversification from an Amphioxus Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Albalat, Ricard; Brunet, Frédéric; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Although the physiological relevance of retinoids and steroids in vertebrates is very well established, the origin and evolution of the genetic machineries implicated in their metabolic pathways is still very poorly understood. We investigated the evolution of these genetic networks by conducting an exhaustive survey of components of the retinoid and steroid pathways in the genome of the invertebrate chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). Due to its phylogenetic position at the base of ...

  8. The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda Z.; Albalat, Ricard; Azumi, Kaoru; Benito-Gutiérrez, Èlia; Blow, Matthew J.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Brunet, Frederic; Butts, Thomas; Candiani, Simona; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Gissi, Carmela; Godzik, Adam; Hallböök, Finn; Hirose, Dan; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kasahara, Masanori; Kasamatsu, Jun; Kawashima, Takeshi; Kimura, Ayuko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kozmik, Zbynek; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Laudet, Vincent; Litman, Gary W.; McHardy, Alice C.; Meulemans, Daniel; Nonaka, Masaru; Olinski, Robert P.; Pancer, Zeev; Pennacchio, Len A.; Pestarino, Mario; Rast, Jonathan P.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Roch, Graeme; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Sasakura, Yasunori; Satake, Masanobu; Satou, Yutaka; Schubert, Michael; Sherwood, Nancy; Shiina, Takashi; Takatori, Naohito; Tello, Javier; Vopalensky, Pavel; Wada, Shuichi; Xu, Anlong; Ye, Yuzhen; Yoshida, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumiko; Yu, Jr-Kai; Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Holland, Peter W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development, nuclear receptor genes, genes encoding components of the endocrine and immune systems, and conserved cis-regulatory enhancers. The amphioxus genome contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling, including a fifteenth Hox gene. This set includes many genes that were co-opted in vertebrates for new roles in neural crest development and adaptive immunity. However, where amphioxus has a single gene, vertebrates often have two, three, or four paralogs derived from two whole-genome duplication events. In addition, several transcriptional enhancers are conserved between amphioxus and vertebrates—a very wide phylogenetic distance. In contrast, urochordate genomes have lost many genes, including a diversity of homeobox families and genes involved in steroid hormone function. The amphioxus genome also exhibits derived features, including duplications of opsins and genes proposed to function in innate immunity and endocrine systems. Our results indicate that the amphioxus genome is elemental to an understanding of the biology and evolution of nonchordate deuterostomes, invertebrate chordates, and vertebrates. PMID:18562680

  9. The evolution of genes encoding for green fluorescent proteins: insights from cephalochordates (amphioxus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Holland, Nicholas D.; Holland, Linda Z.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2016-06-01

    Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was originally found in cnidarians, and later in copepods and cephalochordates (amphioxus) (Branchiostoma spp). Here, we looked for GFP-encoding genes in Asymmetron, an early-diverged cephalochordate lineage, and found two such genes closely related to some of the Branchiostoma GFPs. Dim fluorescence was found throughout the body in adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, and, as in Branchiostoma floridae, was especially intense in the ripe ovaries. Spectra of the fluorescence were similar between Asymmetron and Branchiostoma. Lineage-specific expansion of GFP-encoding genes in the genus Branchiostoma was observed, largely driven by tandem duplications. Despite such expansion, purifying selection has strongly shaped the evolution of GFP-encoding genes in cephalochordates, with apparent relaxation for highly duplicated clades. All cephalochordate GFP-encoding genes are quite different from those of copepods and cnidarians. Thus, the ancestral cephalochordates probably had GFP, but since GFP appears to be lacking in more early-diverged deuterostomes (echinoderms, hemichordates), it is uncertain whether the ancestral cephalochordates (i.e. the common ancestor of Asymmetron and Branchiostoma) acquired GFP by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from copepods or cnidarians or inherited it from the common ancestor of copepods and deuterostomes, i.e. the ancestral bilaterians.

  10. Expression of Fox genes in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eAldea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Forkhead box (Fox genes code for transcription factors that play important roles in different biological processes. They are found in a wide variety of organisms and appeared in unicellular eukaryotes. In metazoans, the gene family includes many members that can be subdivided into 24 classes. Cephalochordates are key organisms to understand the functional evolution of gene families in the chordate lineage due to their phylogenetic position as an early divergent chordate, their simple anatomy and genome structure. In the genome of the cephalochordate amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae, 32 Fox genes were identified, with at least one member for each of the classes that were present in the ancestor of bilaterians. In this work we describe the expression pattern of 13 of these genes during the embryonic development of the Mediterranean amphioxus, Branchiostoma lanceolatum. We found that FoxK and FoxM genes present an ubiquitous expression while all the others show specific expression patterns restricted to diverse embryonic territories. Many of these expression patterns are conserved with vertebrates, suggesting that the main functions of Fox genes in chordates were present in their common ancestor.

  11. Immunolocalization of aromatase, estrogen and estrogen receptor α and β in the epithelium of digestive tract and enteric neurons of amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yongqiang; WENG Youzhu; YE Rongzhong; LIU Lili

    2005-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of aromatase, estrogen and estrogen receptor in the digestive tract and enteric neurons of amphioxus is investigated. It was found that immunoreactive proteins of aromatase, estrogen and ER-α and β are expressed in hepatic diverticulum, epithelial cells of anterior and posterior region of midgut, as well as in enteric neurons, while hindgut showed immunonegative. The results suggest that digestive tract of amphioxus may be able to synthesize estrogen and possess endocrine function, like rat gastric epithelium and enteric neurons in mammals. The present study provides authentic morphological evidence for explaining the action mechanism of estrogen in regulating the digestive function of gut and the functional evolution of estrogen, which has important theoretical significance in amphioxus.

  12. Evolution of retinoid and steroid signaling: vertebrate diversification from an amphioxus perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalat, Ricard; Brunet, Frédéric; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Although the physiological relevance of retinoids and steroids in vertebrates is very well established, the origin and evolution of the genetic machineries implicated in their metabolic pathways is still very poorly understood. We investigated the evolution of these genetic networks by conducting an exhaustive survey of components of the retinoid and steroid pathways in the genome of the invertebrate chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). Due to its phylogenetic position at the base of chordates, amphioxus is a very useful model to identify and study chordate versus vertebrate innovations, both on a morphological and a genomic level. We have characterized more than 220 amphioxus genes evolutionarily related to vertebrate components of the retinoid and steroid pathways and found that, globally, amphioxus has orthologs of most of the vertebrate components of these two pathways, with some very important exceptions. For example, we failed to identify a vertebrate-like machinery for retinoid storage, transport, and delivery in amphioxus and were also unable to characterize components of the adrenal steroid pathway in this invertebrate chordate. The absence of these genes from the amphioxus genome suggests that both an elaboration and a refinement of the retinoid and steroid pathways took place at the base of the vertebrate lineage. In stark contrast, we also identified massive amplifications in some amphioxus gene families, most extensively in the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, which, based on phylogenetic and genomic linkage analyses, were likely the result of duplications specific to the amphioxus lineage. In sum, this detailed characterization of genes implicated in retinoid and steroid signaling in amphioxus allows us not only to reconstruct an outline of these pathways in the ancestral chordate but also to discuss functional innovations in retinoid homeostasis and steroid-dependent regulation in both cephalochordate and vertebrate evolution

  13. Verification, Characterization and Tissue-specific Expression of UreG, a Urease Accessory Protein Gene, from the Amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Yu XUE; Shi-Cui ZHANG; Nai-Guo LIU; Zhen-Hui LIU

    2006-01-01

    UreG genes have been found in bacteria, fungi and plants but have not yet identified in animals,although a putative UreG-like gene has been documented in sea urchin. In the course of a large-scale sequencing of amphioxus gut cDNA library, we have identified a cDNA with high similarity to UreG genes. Both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nested polymerase chain reaction, as well as in situ hybridization histochemistry, verified that the cDNA represented an amphioxus UreG gene (AmphiUreG) rather than a microbial contaminant of the cDNA library. This is further supported by the presence of urease activity in amphioxus gut, gill and ovary. AmphiUreG encodes a deduced protein of 200 amino acid residues including a highly conserved P-loop, beating approximately 46%-49%, 44%-48%, and 29%-37% similarity to fungal,plant and bacterial UreG proteins, respectively. It shows a tissue-specific expression pattern in amphioxus,and is especially abundant in the digestive system. This is the first UreG gene identified in animal species.

  14. Induction of ectodermal cells from vegetal-endodermal blastomeres of amphioxus ( Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaunese) embryos by the calcium ionophore A23187

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Cui; Zheng, Jia-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Mao, Bing-Yu

    1999-06-01

    Timing of vegetal-endodermal cell determination in amphioxus embryos remains uncertain. We tentatively tested effects of A23187, the calcium ionophore, on the development of vegetal blastomeres isolated at the 16-cell stage. It was found that when vegetal blastomeres committed to endoderm were treated with A23187 prior to gastrulation, they were transformed into ectodermal cells as evidenced by the cell morphology and function characteristic of epidermis. However, the developmental fate of the same blastomeres untreated or treated with DMSO at the same stage or of those treated with A23187 after gastrulation remained unchanged. Thus, vegetal-endodermal cells in amphioxus embryos are not irreversibly determined before the gastrula stage, and artificial increase in intracelluar Ca2+ concentration can induce transdetermination of the predetermined endodermal cells into ectodermal cells.

  15. Distribution of growth hormone-like immunoreactive cells and somatostatin receptors in the nervous system and Hatschek's pit of amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using immunohistochemical method and double staining technique, the localization of growth hormone (GH) and somatostatin receptors in the nervous system and Hatschek's pit of amphioxus has been investigated. The results showed that the growth hormone-like nerve cells and endocrine cells as well as three subtypes-of somatostatin receptors exist in the nervous system and Hatschek's pit, and GH-like nerve cells and endocrine cells co-exist with three subtypes of somatostatin receptors in the brain vesicle and Hatschek's pit. It is suggested that a primitive control system of inhibitory growth hormone secretion in Hatschek's pit could have been developed in amphioxus, as in vertebrates. The present study provides new evidence for the endocrinology and the evolution of Hatschek's pit.

  16. Particularity and universality of a putative Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) gene from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri): insights into the function and evolution of GNBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ping; Zhou, Lu; Song, Xiaojun; Qian, Jinjun; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2012-10-01

    Gram-negative bacteria-binding proteins (GNBPs) are important pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), which can initiate host defense in response to pathogen surface molecules. The roles of GNBP in innate immunity of arthropods and molluscs have recently been reported. However, the GNBP gene has not been characterized in the species of higher evolutionary status yet. In this study, we identified and characterized an amphioxus GNBP gene (designated as AmphiGNBP). First, we identified and cloned the AmphiGNBP and found that the AmphiGNBP encodes a putative protein with 558 amino acids, which contains a conserved β-1, 3-glucan recognizing and binding domain. Second, we found that the AmphiGNBP encodes two extra WSC (cell Wall integrity and Stress response Component) domains, which are unique in AmphiGNBP protein. The two WSC domains of AmphiGNBP protein coupled with the expansion of amphioxus immunity repertoire might undergo intensive domain shuffling during the age of the Cambrian explosion. Finally, we found that the AmphiGNBP was mainly expressed in immune tissues, such as hepatic cecum and intestine, and the expression of AmphiGNBP was affected after LPS stimulation. In conclusion, our findings disclose the particularity and universality of AmphiGNBP and provide profound insights into the function and evolution of GNBP. PMID:22986589

  17. The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnam, Nicholas H.; Butts, Thomas; Ferrier, David E.K.; Furlong, Rebecca F.; Hellsten, Uffe; Kawashima, Takeshi; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Terry, Astrid; Yu, Jr-Kai; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Dubchak, Inna; Garcia-Fernandez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Horton, Amy C.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Kohara, Yuji; Kuroki, Yoko; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Pennacchio, Len A.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Satou, Yutaka; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Schmutz[, Jeremy; Shin-I, Tadasu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Fujiyama, Asao; Holland, Linda Z.; Holland, Peter W. H.; Satoh, Nori; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-04-01

    Lancelets ('amphioxus') are the modern survivors of an ancient chordate lineage with a fossil record dating back to the Cambrian. We describe the structure and gene content of the highly polymorphic {approx}520 million base pair genome of the Florida lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, and analyze it in the context of chordate evolution. Whole genome comparisons illuminate the murky relationships among the three chordate groups (tunicates, lancelets, and vertebrates), and allow reconstruction of not only the gene complement of the last common chordate ancestor, but also a partial reconstruction of its genomic organization, as well as a description of two genome-wide duplications and subsequent reorganizations in the vertebrate lineage. These genome-scale events shaped the vertebrate genome and provided additional genetic variation for exploitation during vertebrate evolution.

  18. Analysis of Nutritive Compositions in Amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri and Its Nutritional Evaluation%文昌鱼营养成分分析及营养学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁惠; 张士璀

    2006-01-01

    文昌鱼(Branchiostoma belcheri)隶属脊椎动物门(Chordata)头索动物亚门(Cephalochordata)文昌鱼科(Branchiostomidae),是由无脊椎动物进化到脊椎动物的过渡物种。自1774年Pallas发现文昌鱼以来,它一直受到动物学界重视,是研究包括人类在内的脊椎动物起源与进化的极其珍贵的模式动物。文昌鱼呈不连续块状分布于世界各大海区,但总体数量有限,我国已把文昌鱼列为二级保护动物。新近,文昌鱼生殖生物学和幼虫培育研究取得进展,人工养殖成为可能。文昌鱼虽可食用,但对其营养价值研究甚少。Svetashev等发现文昌鱼体内脂肪含量低,但不饱和脂肪酸含量却相对较高,约占湿重的1.6%。有关文昌鱼蛋白质、氨基酸(AA)、维生素和无机盐成分分析,迄今未见报道。

  19. Expression analysis of eight amphioxus genes involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Jing; LI, Guang; QIAN, Guang-Hui; HUA, Jun-Hao; WANG, Yi-Quan

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the embryonic development of metazoans. Although the pathway has been studied extensively in many model animals, its function in amphioxus, the most primitive chordate, remains largely uncharacterized. To obtain basic data for functional analysis, we identified and isolated seven genes (Lrp5/6, Dvl, APC, CkIα, CkIδ, Gsk3β, and Gro) of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway from the amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that amphioxus had fewer members of each gene family than that found in vertebrates. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that the genes were maternally expressed and broadly distributed throughout the whole embryo at the cleavage and blastula stages. Among them, Dvl was expressed asymmetrically towards the animal pole, while the others were evenly distributed in all blastomeres. At the mid-gastrula stage, the genes were specifically expressed in the primitive endomesoderm, but displayed different patterns. When the embryo developed into the neurula stage, the gene expressions were mainly detected in either paraxial somites or the tail bud. With the development of the embryo, the expression levels further decreased gradually and remained only in some pharyngeal regions or the tail bud at the larva stage. Our results suggest that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway might be involved in amphioxus somite formation and posterior growth, but not in endomesoderm specification. PMID:27265651

  20. No more than 14: the end of the amphioxus Hox cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hox gene cluster has been a key paradigm for a generation of developmental and evolutionary biologists. Since its discovery in the mid-1980's, the identification, genomic organization, expression, colinearity, and regulation of Hox genes have been immediate targets for study in any new model organism, and metazoan genome projects always refer to the structure of the particular Hox cluster(s. Since the early 1990's, it has been dogma that vertebrate Hox clusters are composed of thirteen paralogous groups. Nonetheless, we showed that in the otherwise prototypical cephalochordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae, the Hox cluster contains a fourteenth Hox gene, and very recently, a 14th Hox paralogous group has been found in the coelacanth and the horn shark, suggesting that the amphioxus cluster was anticipating the finding of Hox 14 in some vertebrate lineages. In view of the pivotal place that amphioxus occupies in vertebrate evolution, we thought it of considerable interest to establish the limits of its Hox gene cluster, namely resolution of whether more Hox genes are present in the amphioxus cluster (e.g., Hox 15. Using two strategies, here we report the completion and characterization of the Hox gene content of the single amphioxus Hox cluster, which encompasses 650 kb from Hox1 to Evx. Our data have important implications for the primordial Hox gene cluster of chordates: the prototypical nature of the single amphioxus Hox cluster makes it unlikely that additional paralogous groups will be found in any chordate lineage. We suggest that 14 is the end.

  1. Vertebrate-like regeneration in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus

    OpenAIRE

    Somorjai, Ildikó M. L.; Rajmund L. Somorjai; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Escrivà, Hector

    2011-01-01

    An important question in biology is why some animals are able to regenerate, whereas others are not. The basal chordate amphioxus is uniquely positioned to address the evolution of regeneration. We report here the high regeneration potential of the European amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Adults regenerate both anterior and posterior structures, including neural tube, notochord, fin, and muscle. Development of a classifier based on tail regeneration profiles predicts the assignment of yo...

  2. Amphioxus: beginning of vertebrate and end of invertebrate type GnRH receptor lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Javier A; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2009-06-01

    In vertebrates, activation of the GnRH receptor is necessary to initiate the reproductive cascade. However, little is known about the characteristics of GnRH receptors before the vertebrates evolved. Recently genome sequencing was completed for amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae. To understand the GnRH receptors (GnRHR) from this most basal chordate, which is also classified as an invertebrate, we cloned and characterized four GnRHR cDNAs encoded in the amphioxus genome. We found that incubation of GnRH1 (mammalian GnRH) and GnRH2 (chicken GnRH II) with COS7 cells heterologously expressing the amphioxus GnRHRs caused potent intracellular inositol phosphate turnover in two of the receptors. One of the two receptors displayed a clear preference for GnRH1 over GnRH2, a characteristic not previously seen outside the type I mammalian GnRHRs. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the four receptors into two paralogous pairs, with one pair grouping basally with the vertebrate GnRH receptors and the other grouping with the octopus GnRHR-like sequence and the related receptor for insect adipokinetic hormone. Pharmacological studies showed that octopus GnRH-like peptide and adipokinetic hormone induced potent inositol phosphate turnover in one of these other two amphioxus receptors. These data demonstrate the functional conservation of two distinct types of GnRH receptors at the base of chordates. We propose that one receptor type led to vertebrate GnRHRs, whereas the other type, related to the mollusk GnRHR-like receptor, was lost in the vertebrate lineage. This is the first report to suggest that distinct invertebrate and vertebrate GnRHRs are present simultaneously in a basal chordate, amphioxus. PMID:19264870

  3. Broken colinearity of the amphioxus Hox cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual-Anaya Juan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most eumetazoans studied so far, Hox genes determine the identity of structures along the main body axis. They are usually linked in genomic clusters and, in the case of the vertebrate embryo, are expressed with spatial and temporal colinearity. Outside vertebrates, temporal colinearity has been reported in the cephalochordate amphioxus (the least derived living relative of the chordate ancestor but only for anterior and central genes, namely Hox1 to Hox4 and Hox6. However, most of the Hox gene expression patterns in amphioxus have not been reported. To gain global insights into the evolution of Hox clusters in chordates, we investigated a more extended expression profile of amphioxus Hox genes. Results Here we report an extended expression profile of the European amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum Hox genes and describe that all Hox genes, except Hox13, are expressed during development. Interestingly, we report the breaking of both spatial and temporal colinearity for at least Hox6 and Hox14, which thus have escaped from the classical Hox code concept. We show a previously unidentified Hox6 expression pattern and a faint expression for posterior Hox genes in structures such as the posterior mesoderm, notochord, and hindgut. Unexpectedly, we found that amphioxus Hox14 had the most divergent expression pattern. This gene is expressed in the anterior cerebral vesicle and pharyngeal endoderm. Amphioxus Hox14 expression represents the first report of Hox gene expression in the most anterior part of the central nervous system. Nevertheless, despite these divergent expression patterns, amphioxus Hox6 and Hox14 seem to be still regulated by retinoic acid. Conclusions Escape from colinearity by Hox genes is not unusual in either vertebrates or amphioxus and we suggest that those genes escaping from it are probably associated with the patterning of lineage-specific morphological traits, requiring the loss of those developmental

  4. Interplay Between Amphioxus Complement with Sea Bass Macrophages: Opsonic Activity of Amphioxus Humoral Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Junli; LIU Min; ZHANG Shicui

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the existence of a complement system in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum.However,whether it has an opsonic activity similar to that of vertebrates remains unknown.We demonstrated that the humoral fluid (HF)of amphioxus promoted the phagocytosis of yeast cells with sea bass (Lateolabraxjaponicus) macrophages,whereas the C3-depleted and heated HF significantly lost the phagocytosis-promoting capacity.In addition,the precipitation of factor B (Bf) led to a marked loss of opsonic activity.Moreover,C3 fragments in the HF were found to bind to yeast cell surfaces.The results indicate that the amphioxus complement system is an important element involved in the opsonic activity,which promotes the sea bass macrophage phagocytosis by tagging yeast cells with C3 fragments via the activation of alternative complement pathway.

  5. Spatiotemporal expression of Pax genes in amphioxus: Insights into Pax-related organogenesis and evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The expression of four AmphiPax genes in 16 developmental stages and different organs in amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) was investigated, finding those genes expressed throughout amphioxus life with temporal-specific (especially during embryogenesis and metamorphosis) and spatial-specific patterns. This study suggests that duplicated Pax genes in vertebrates might maintain most of their ancestral functions and also expand their expression patterns after the divergence of protochordates and vertebrates.

  6. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawbridge Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of herpesviruses. Results We sequenced the genome of a neurotropic virus linked to a fatal ganglioneuritis devastating parts of a valuable wild abalone fishery in Australia. We show that the newly identified virus forms part of an ancient clade with its nearest relatives being a herpesvirus infecting bivalves (oyster and, unexpectedly, one we identified, from published data, apparently integrated within the genome of amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate. Predicted protein sequences from the abalone virus genome have significant similarity to several herpesvirus proteins including the DNA packaging ATPase subunit of (putative terminase and DNA polymerase. Conservation of amino acid sequences in the terminase across all herpesviruses and phylogenetic analysis using the DNA polymerase and terminase proteins demonstrate that the herpesviruses infecting the molluscs, oyster and abalone, are distantly related. The terminase and polymerase protein sequences from the putative amphioxus herpesvirus share more sequence similarity with those of the mollusc viruses than with sequences from any of the vertebrate herpesviruses analysed. Conclusions A family of mollusc herpesviruses, Malacoherpesviridae, that was based on a single virus infecting oyster can now be further established by including a distantly related herpesvirus infecting abalone, which, like many vertebrate viruses is neurotropic. The genome of Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus provides evidence for the

  7. Molecular cloning of amphioxus uncoupling protein and assessment of its uncoupling activity using a yeast heterologous expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Invertebrates, for example amphioxus, do express uncoupling proteins. → Both the sequence and the uncoupling activity of amphioxus UCP resemble UCP2. → UCP1 is the only UCP that can form dimer on yeast mitochondria. -- Abstract: The present study describes the molecular cloning of a novel cDNA fragment from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) encoding a 343-amino acid protein that is highly homologous to human uncoupling proteins (UCP), this protein is therefore named amphioxus UCP. This amphioxus UCP shares more homology with and is phylogenetically more related to mammalian UCP2 as compared with UCP1. To further assess the functional similarity of amphioxus UCP to mammalian UCP1 and -2, the amphioxus UCP, rat UCP1, and human UCP2 were separately expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the recombinant yeast mitochondria were isolated and assayed for the state 4 respiration rate and proton leak, using pYES2 empty vector as the control. UCP1 increased the state 4 respiration rate by 2.8-fold, and the uncoupling activity was strongly inhibited by GDP, while UCP2 and amphioxus UCP only increased the state 4 respiration rate by 1.5-fold and 1.7-fold in a GDP-insensitive manner, moreover, the proton leak kinetics of amphioxus UCP was very similar to UCP2, but much different from UCP1. In conclusion, the amphioxus UCP has a mild, unregulated uncoupling activity in the yeast system, which resembles mammalian UCP2, but not UCP1.

  8. Molecular cloning of amphioxus uncoupling protein and assessment of its uncoupling activity using a yeast heterologous expression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kun [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Guoxun [Department of Hematology, Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Lv, Zhiyuan; Wang, Chen [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Jiang, Xueyuan, E-mail: xueyuanjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Li, Donghai, E-mail: lidonghai@gmail.com [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Chenyu, E-mail: cyzhang@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Invertebrates, for example amphioxus, do express uncoupling proteins. {yields} Both the sequence and the uncoupling activity of amphioxus UCP resemble UCP2. {yields} UCP1 is the only UCP that can form dimer on yeast mitochondria. -- Abstract: The present study describes the molecular cloning of a novel cDNA fragment from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) encoding a 343-amino acid protein that is highly homologous to human uncoupling proteins (UCP), this protein is therefore named amphioxus UCP. This amphioxus UCP shares more homology with and is phylogenetically more related to mammalian UCP2 as compared with UCP1. To further assess the functional similarity of amphioxus UCP to mammalian UCP1 and -2, the amphioxus UCP, rat UCP1, and human UCP2 were separately expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the recombinant yeast mitochondria were isolated and assayed for the state 4 respiration rate and proton leak, using pYES2 empty vector as the control. UCP1 increased the state 4 respiration rate by 2.8-fold, and the uncoupling activity was strongly inhibited by GDP, while UCP2 and amphioxus UCP only increased the state 4 respiration rate by 1.5-fold and 1.7-fold in a GDP-insensitive manner, moreover, the proton leak kinetics of amphioxus UCP was very similar to UCP2, but much different from UCP1. In conclusion, the amphioxus UCP has a mild, unregulated uncoupling activity in the yeast system, which resembles mammalian UCP2, but not UCP1.

  9. Structural and functional insights into the ligand-binding domain of a nonduplicated retinoid X nuclear receptor from the invertebrate chordate amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocchini-Valentini, Giuseppe D; Rochel, Natacha; Escriva, Hector; Germain, Pierre; Peluso-Iltis, Carole; Paris, Mathilde; Sanglier-Cianferani, Sarah; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Moras, Dino; Laudet, Vincent

    2009-01-16

    Retinoid X nuclear receptors (RXRs), as well as their insect orthologue, ultraspiracle protein (USP), play an important role in the transcription regulation mediated by the nuclear receptors as the common partner of many other nuclear receptors. Phylogenetic and structural studies have shown that the several evolutionary shifts have modified the ligand binding ability of RXRs. To understand the vertebrate-specific character of RXRs, we have studied the RXR ligand-binding domain of the cephalochordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae), an invertebrate chordate that predates the genome duplication that produced the three vertebrates RXRs (alpha, beta, and gamma). Here we report the crystal structure of a novel apotetramer conformation of the AmphiRXR ligand-binding domain, which shows some similarity with the structures of the arthropods RXR/USPs. AmphiRXR adopts an apo antagonist conformation with a peculiar conformation of helix H11 filling the binding pocket. In contrast to the arthropods RXR/USPs, which cannot be activated by any RXR ligands, our functional data show that AmphiRXR, like the vertebrates/mollusk RXRs, is able to bind and be activated by RXR ligands but less efficiently than vertebrate RXRs. Our data suggest that amphioxus RXR is, functionally, an intermediate between arthropods RXR/USPs and vertebrate RXRs. PMID:18986992

  10. A snapshot of the population structure of Branchiostoma lanceolatum in the Racou beach, France, during its spawning season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Desdevises

    Full Text Available A methodology for inducing spawning in captivity of the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum has been developed recently with animals collected at the Racou beach, in the southern coast of France. An increasing amount of laboratories around the world are now working on the evolution of developmental mechanisms (Evo-Devo using amphioxus collected in this site. Thus, today, the development of new aquaculture techniques for keeping amphioxus in captivity is needed and the study of the natural conditions at which amphioxus is exposed in the Racou beach during their spawning season becomes necessary. We have investigated the amphioxus distribution, size frequency, and population structure in the Racou beach during its natural spawning season using multivariate methods (redundancy analysis and multiple regression. We found a clear preference of amphioxus for sandy sites, something that seems to be a general behaviour of different amphioxus species around the world. We have also estimated the amphioxus growth rate and we show how the animals are preferentially localized in shallow waters during April and June.

  11. Identification, evolution and expression of an insulin-like peptide in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Lecroisey

    Full Text Available Insulin is one of the most studied proteins since it is central to the regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism in vertebrates and its expression and release are disturbed in diabetes, the most frequent human metabolic disease worldwide. However, the evolution of the function of the insulin protein family is still unclear. In this study, we present a phylogenetic and developmental analysis of the Insulin Like Peptide (ILP in the cephalochordate amphioxus. We identified an ILP in the European amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum that displays structural characteristics of both vertebrate insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGFs. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that amphioxus ILP represents the sister group of both vertebrate insulin and IGF proteins. We also characterized both temporal and spatial expression of ILP in amphioxus. We show that ilp is highly expressed in endoderm and paraxial mesoderm during development, and mainly expressed in the gut of both the developing embryo and adult. We hypothesize that ILP has critical implications in both developmental processes and metabolism and could display IGF- and insulin-like functions in amphioxus supporting the idea of a common ancestral protein.

  12. Identification, evolution and expression of an insulin-like peptide in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecroisey, Claire; Le Pétillon, Yann; Escriva, Hector; Lammert, Eckhard; Laudet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Insulin is one of the most studied proteins since it is central to the regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism in vertebrates and its expression and release are disturbed in diabetes, the most frequent human metabolic disease worldwide. However, the evolution of the function of the insulin protein family is still unclear. In this study, we present a phylogenetic and developmental analysis of the Insulin Like Peptide (ILP) in the cephalochordate amphioxus. We identified an ILP in the European amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum that displays structural characteristics of both vertebrate insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGFs). Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that amphioxus ILP represents the sister group of both vertebrate insulin and IGF proteins. We also characterized both temporal and spatial expression of ILP in amphioxus. We show that ilp is highly expressed in endoderm and paraxial mesoderm during development, and mainly expressed in the gut of both the developing embryo and adult. We hypothesize that ILP has critical implications in both developmental processes and metabolism and could display IGF- and insulin-like functions in amphioxus supporting the idea of a common ancestral protein. PMID:25774519

  13. Amphioxus spawning behavior in an artificial seawater facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou, Maria; Colin, Audrey; Schulz, Jasmin; Laudet, Vincent; Peyrieras, Nadine; Nicolas, Jean-François; Schubert, Michael; Hirsinger, Estelle

    2011-06-15

    Owing to its phylogenetic position at the base of the chordates, the cephalochordate amphioxus is an emerging model system carrying immense significance for understanding the evolution of vertebrate development. One important shortcoming of amphioxus as a model organism has been the unavailability of animal husbandry protocols to maintain amphioxus adults away from the field. Here, we present the first report of successful maintenance and spawning of Branchiostoma lanceolatum adults in a facility run on artificial seawater. B. lanceolatum has been chosen for this study because it is the only amphioxus species that can be induced to spawn. We provide a step-by-step guide for the assembly of such a facility and discuss the day-to-day operations required for successful animal husbandry of B. lanceolatum adults. This work also includes a detailed description of the B. lanceolatum spawning behavior in captivity. Our analysis shows that the induced spawning efficiency is not sex biased, but increases as the natural spawning season progresses. We find that a minor fraction of the animals undergo phases of spontaneous spawning in the tanks and that this behavior is not affected by the treatment used to induce spawning. Moreover, the induced spawning efficiency is not discernibly correlated with spontaneous spawning in the facility. Last, we describe a protocol for long-term cryopreservation of B. lanceolatum sperm. Taken together, this work represents an important step toward further establishing amphioxus as a laboratory animal making it more amenable to experimental research, and hence assists the coming of age of this emerging model. PMID:21271675

  14. An amphioxus orthologue of the estrogen receptor that does not bind estradiol: Insights into estrogen receptor evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudet Vincent

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of nuclear receptors (NRs and the question whether the ancestral NR was a liganded or an unliganded transcription factor has been recently debated. To obtain insight into the evolution of the ligand binding ability of estrogen receptors (ER, we comparatively characterized the ER from the protochordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae, and the ER from lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, a basal vertebrate. Results Extensive phylogenetic studies as well as signature analysis allowed us to confirm that the amphioxus ER (amphiER and the lamprey ER (lampER belong to the ER group. LampER behaves as a "classical" vertebrate ER, as it binds to specific DNA Estrogen Responsive Elements (EREs, and is activated by estradiol (E2, the classical ER natural ligand. In contrast, we found that although amphiER binds EREs, it is unable to bind E2 and to activate transcription in response to E2. Among the 7 natural and synthetic ER ligands tested as well as a large repertoire of 14 cholesterol derivatives, only Bisphenol A (an endocrine disruptor with estrogenic activity bound to amphiER, suggesting that a ligand binding pocket exists within the receptor. Parsimony analysis considering all available ER sequences suggest that the ancestral ER was not able to bind E2 and that this ability evolved specifically in the vertebrate lineage. This result does not support a previous analysis based on ancestral sequence reconstruction that proposed the ancestral steroid receptor to bind estradiol. We show that biased taxonomic sampling can alter the calculation of ancestral sequence and that the previous result might stem from a high proportion of vertebrate ERs in the dataset used to compute the ancestral sequence. Conclusion Taken together, our results highlight the importance of comparative experimental approaches vs ancestral reconstructions for the evolutionary study of endocrine systems: comparative analysis of extant ERs suggests that the

  15. The Transcriptome of an Amphioxus, Asymmetron lucayanum, from the Bahamas: A Window into Chordate Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Yu, Jr-Kai; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Holland, Linda Z

    2014-01-01

    Cephalochordates, the sister group of tunicates plus vertebrates, have been called “living fossils” due to their resemblance to fossil chordates from Cambrian strata. The genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae shares remarkable synteny with vertebrates and is free from whole-genome duplication. We performed RNA sequencing from larvae and adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, a cephalochordate distantly related to B. floridae. Comparisons of about 430 orthologous gene groups among both...

  16. The cult of amphioxus in German Darwinism; or, our gelatinous ancestors in Naples' blue and balmy bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Biologists having rediscovered amphioxus, also known as the lancelet or Branchiostoma, it is time to reassess its place in early Darwinist debates over vertebrate origins. While the advent of the ascidian-amphioxus theory and challenges from various competitors have been, documented, this article offers a richer account of the public appeal of amphioxus as a primitive ancestor. The focus is on how the 'German Darwin' Ernst Haeckel persuaded general magazine and newspaper readers to revere this "flesh of our flesh and blood of our blood", and especially on Das neue Laienbrevier des Haeckelismus (The new lay breviary of Haeckelism) by Moritz Reymond with cartoons by Fritz Steub. From the late 1870s these successful little books of verse introduced the Neapolitan discoveries that made the animal's name and satirized Haeckel's rise as high priest of its cult. One song is reproduced and translated here, with a contemporary "imitation" by the Canadian palaeontologist Edward John Chapman, and extracts from others. Predating the American "It's a long way from amphioxus" by decades, these rhymes dramatize neglected 'species politics' of Darwinism and highlight the roles of humour in negotiating evolution. PMID:26013195

  17. Comment: 62 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Florida lancelet (amphioxus) Branchiostoma floridae Branchiostoma_floridae_L.png イメージを差し替えました (イメージの天地が逆でした) ttamura 2009/04/29 21:28:13 ...

  18. Evolutionary origin of GnIH and NPFF in chordates: insights from novel amphioxus RFamide peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Osugi

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a newly identified hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits pituitary hormone secretion in vertebrates. GnIH has an LPXRFamide (X = L or Q motif at the C-terminal in representative species of gnathostomes. On the other hand, neuropeptide FF (NPFF, a neuropeptide characterized as a pain-modulatory neuropeptide, in vertebrates has a PQRFamide motif similar to the C-terminal of GnIH, suggesting that GnIH and NPFF have diverged from a common ancestor. Because GnIH and NPFF belong to the RFamide peptide family in vertebrates, protochordate RFamide peptides may provide important insights into the evolutionary origin of GnIH and NPFF. In this study, we identified a novel gene encoding RFamide peptides and two genes of their putative receptors in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum. Molecular phylogenetic analysis and synteny analysis indicated that these genes are closely related to the genes of GnIH and NPFF and their receptors of vertebrates. We further identified mature RFamide peptides and their receptors in protochordates. The identified amphioxus RFamide peptides inhibited forskolin induced cAMP signaling in the COS-7 cells with one of the identified amphioxus RFamide peptide receptors expressed. These results indicate that the identified protochordate RFamide peptide gene is a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes, suggesting that the origin of GnIH and NPFF may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. GnIH gene and NPFF gene may have diverged by whole-genome duplication in the course of vertebrate evolution.

  19. Characterization and expression of a cDNA, AmphiSDHD,encoding the amphioxus cytochrome b small subunit in mitochondrial succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lifang; ZHANG Shicui; ZHUANG Zhimeng; LIU Zhenhui; LI Hongyan; XIA Jianjun

    2005-01-01

    In this study, an amphioxus cDNA, AmphiSDHD, encoding the cytochrome b small subunit in mitochondrial succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, was isolated from the gut cDNA library of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense. It is 1429 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 465 bp coding for a protein of 154 amino acids. The deduced protein contains a mitochondrial targeting presequence of 65 amino acids rich in basic residues like arginine and hydroxy residues such as serine and threonine. Alignment of the amino acid sequences of AmphiSDHD and other eukaryotic SDHD proteins showed that AmphiSDHD has three transmembrane segments, and includes two histidine residues in the second transmembrane segment that are the putative binding sites for the heme b molecule. The phylogenetic tree constructed suggests that AmphiSDHD appears more closely related to vertebrate SDHD proteins than invertebrate ones. Northern blotting demonstrated that AmphiSDHD is ubiquitously expressed in amphioxus, being in line with the fact that SDHD is a house-keeping protein.

  20. Evolution of AANAT: expansion of the gene family in the cephalochordate amphioxus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT family is divided into structurally distinct vertebrate and non-vertebrate groups. Expression of vertebrate AANATs is limited primarily to the pineal gland and retina, where it plays a role in controlling the circadian rhythm in melatonin synthesis. Based on the role melatonin plays in biological timing, AANAT has been given the moniker "the Timezyme". Non-vertebrate AANATs, which occur in fungi and protists, are thought to play a role in detoxification and are not known to be associated with a specific tissue. Results We have found that the amphioxus genome contains seven AANATs, all having non-vertebrate type features. This and the absence of AANATs from the genomes of Hemichordates and Urochordates support the view that a major transition in the evolution of the AANATs may have occurred at the onset of vertebrate evolution. Analysis of the expression pattern of the two most structurally divergent AANATs in Branchiostoma lanceolatum (bl revealed that they are expressed early in development and also in the adult at low levels throughout the body, possibly associated with the neural tube. Expression is clearly not exclusively associated with the proposed analogs of the pineal gland and retina. blAANAT activity is influenced by environmental lighting, but light/dark differences do not persist under constant light or constant dark conditions, indicating they are not circadian in nature. bfAANATα and bfAANATδ' have unusually alkaline (> 9.0 optimal pH, more than two pH units higher than that of vertebrate AANATs. Conclusions The substrate selectivity profiles of bfAANATα and δ' are relatively broad, including alkylamines, arylalkylamines and diamines, in contrast to vertebrate forms, which selectively acetylate serotonin and other arylalkylamines. Based on these features, it appears that amphioxus AANATs could play several roles, including detoxification and biogenic amine

  1. Amphioxus: a peaceful anchovy fillet to illuminate Chordate Evolution (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The genome of the amphioxus is on the horizon. With Linda Holland and Jeremy Gibson-Brown at the forefront, with all the amphioxus community behind, and with the Joint Genome Institute, the amphioxus genome will see the light this year, 2006. Hope that it will reflect the “prototypical” preduplicative genome of vertebrates. It may answer definitively what the human genome did not: Are we vertebrates octaploid? Will it shed light on the novelties that helped non-chordates to be chordates? And more, will amphioxus, with a simpler genome, be developed to a senior “experimental model system”, allowing the testing of molecular functions in a non-duplicated genome background and allowing genetic modification to “recapitulate” evolution? Thanks to an outstanding collaboration between labs, the laboratory culture of amphioxus is underway after years of hard work in the field. 2007 looks promising for amphioxus research.

  2. Exploring developmental, functional, and evolutionary aspects of amphioxus sensory cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gouki Satoh

    2006-01-01

    Amphioxus has neither elaborated brains nor definitive sensory organs, so that the two may have evolved in a mutually affecting manner and given rise to the forms seen in extant vertebrates. Clarifying the developmental and functional aspects of the amphioxus sensory system is thus pivotal for inferring the early evolution of vertebrates. Morphological studies have identified and classified amphioxus sensory cells; however, it is completely unknown whether the morphological classification mak...

  3. Developmental expression of amphioxus RACK1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate RACK1 plays a key role in embryonic development. This paper described the cloning, phy- logenetic analysis and developmental expression of AmphiRACK1, the RACK1 homologous gene in amphioxus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that amphioxus RACK1 was located at the base of verte- brate clade. AmphiRACK1 expression in lithium-treated embryos was also examined. During embryonic development, AmphiRACK1 was expressed strongly in cerebral vesicles, neural tubes and somites. In lithium-treated embryos, the segmental expression of AmphiRACK1 in somites became blurry and decreased. Its expression in cerebral vesicles and neural tubes was also weaker or disappeared. In the adult animal, AmphiRACK1 transcripts were detected in the epithelium of midgut diverticulus and gut, wheel organ, gill blood vessels and testis.

  4. Endogenous green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Amphioxus

    OpenAIRE

    Deheyn, D. D.; K. Kubokawa; McCarthy, J. K.; Murakami, A.; Porrachia, M.; Rouse, G.W.; Holland, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) are well known for their intensive use in cellular and molecular biology in applications that take advantage of the GFPs self-folding and built-in fluorophore characteristics as biomarker. Occurrence and function of GFPs in nature is less known. For a long time GFPs were described only from some cnidarians, and it is only recently that they were also found in copepod crustaceans. Here we describe the occurrence of a GFP from three species of amphioxus, namely...

  5. A neurochemical map of the developing amphioxus nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candiani Simona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphioxus, representing the most basal group of living chordates, is the best available proxy for the last invertebrate ancestor of the chordates. Although the central nervous system (CNS of amphioxus comprises only about 20,000 neurons (as compared to billions in vertebrates, the developmental genetics and neuroanatomy of amphioxus are strikingly vertebrate-like. In the present study, we mapped the distribution of amphioxus CNS cells producing distinctive neurochemicals. To this end, we cloned genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and/or transporters of the most common neurotransmitters and assayed their developmental expression in the embryo and early larva. Results By single and double in situ hybridization experiments, we identified glutamatergic, GABAergic/glycinergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurons in developing amphioxus. In addition to characterizing the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the developing amphioxus CNS, we observed that cholinergic and GABAergic/glycinergic neurons are segmentally arranged in the hindbrain, whereas serotonergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons are restricted to specific regions of the cerebral vesicle and the hindbrain. We were further able to identify discrete groups of GABAergic and glutamatergic interneurons and cholinergic motoneurons at the level of the primary motor center (PMC, the major integrative center of sensory and motor stimuli of the amphioxus nerve cord. Conclusions In this study, we assessed neuronal differentiation in the developing amphioxus nervous system and compiled the first neurochemical map of the amphioxus CNS. This map is a first step towards a full characterization of the neurotransmitter signature of previously described nerve cell types in the amphioxus CNS, such as motoneurons and interneurons.

  6. 文昌鱼线粒体基因组特征分析及分子标记探讨%Analysis of the characteristics of mitochondrial genomes and exploration of molecular markers in amphioxus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申欣; 田美; 孟学平; 程汉良

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes have been widely used in metazoan molecular phylogeny and genetic research. Amphioxus, as research model animals, occupies an important position in the origin and evolution of vertebrates. The basic characteristics of amphioxus mitochondrial genomes were fully revealed by our comprehensive analysis of 51 mitochondrial genome sequences from seven species. Amphioxus mitochondrial genomes contain 37 standard metazoan genes. Three types of gene arrangements were found in amphioxus mitochondrial genomes. Gene arrangements of Branchiostoma and Epigonichthys are most similar to those of typical vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. Therefore, gene arrangement shared by Branchiostoma and Epigonichthys represents the ancestral amphioxus gene order. In contrast, gene rearrangements were found in three species of the genus Asymmetron. The Ka/Ks ratios of the 13 amphioxus mitochondrial protein-coding genes were much lower than one (range between 0 and 0.3363), indicating a strong purifying selection (negative selection). The genetic variation analysis of main genes (13 protein coding genes and two ribosomal RNA genes) among and within amphioxus species shows that genes had5, had4 and had2 are ideal molecular markers supplementary to the coxl gene, and will provide useful information on conservation of amphioxus biological diversity and the utilization of biological resources.%线粒体基因组已被广泛应用于后生动物分子系统发育和群体遗传的研究。文昌鱼(Amphioxus)作为研究脊椎动物起源和进化的模式动物,在脊椎动物起源和进化研究中占据极为重要的位置。作者综合分析文昌鱼2科7个种的51条线粒体基因组全序列,全面揭示了文昌鱼线粒体基因组的基本特征。文昌鱼线粒体基因组均编码后生动物标准的37个基因,文昌鱼线粒体基因组共有3种基因排列方式,其中文昌鱼属和侧殖丈昌鱼属共有的基因排列与脊椎

  7. The transcriptome of an amphioxus, Asymmetron lucayanum, from the Bahamas: a window into chordate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Yu, Jr-Kai; Putnam, Nicholas H; Holland, Linda Z

    2014-10-01

    Cephalochordates, the sister group of tunicates plus vertebrates, have been called "living fossils" due to their resemblance to fossil chordates from Cambrian strata. The genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae shares remarkable synteny with vertebrates and is free from whole-genome duplication. We performed RNA sequencing from larvae and adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, a cephalochordate distantly related to B. floridae. Comparisons of about 430 orthologous gene groups among both cephalochordates and 10 vertebrates using an echinoderm, a hemichordate, and a mollusk as outgroups showed that cephalochordates are evolving more slowly than the slowest evolving vertebrate known (the elephant shark), with A. lucayanum evolving even more slowly than B. floridae. Against this background of slow evolution, some genes, notably several involved in innate immunity, stand out as evolving relatively quickly. This may be due to the lack of an adaptive immune system and the relatively high levels of bacteria in the inshore waters cephalochordates inhabit. Molecular dating analysis including several time constraints revealed a divergence time of ∼120 Ma for A. lucayanum and B. floridae. The divisions between cephalochordates and vertebrates, and that between chordates and the hemichordate plus echinoderm clade likely occurred before the Cambrian. PMID:25240057

  8. Amphioxus: a peaceful anchovy fillet to illuminate Chordate Evolution (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez

    2006-01-01

    The genome of the amphioxus is on the horizon. With Linda Holland and Jeremy Gibson-Brown at the forefront, with all the amphioxus community behind, and with the Joint Genome Institute, the amphioxus genome will see the light this year, 2006. Hope that it will reflect the “prototypical” preduplicative genome of vertebrates. It may answer definitively what the human genome did not: Are we vertebrates octaploid? Will it shed light on the novelties that helped non-chordates to be cho...

  9. 白氏文昌鱼FADD的克隆及功能研究%MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FAS-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN (FADD) FROM BRANCHIOSTOMA BELCHERI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 黄贝; 高谦; 聂品

    2009-01-01

    FADD (Fas-associated death domain protein) , also termed MORT1, plays a critical role in the apoptotic signaling pathways of both CD95 ( Fas/AP0-l ) and certain members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfami-ly, and is well conserved in vertebrates, especially in mammals. To reveal the features of FADD in lower animals, we have characterized FADD from amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri (Chordata, Cephalochordata) , which is a model animal, and have an insight into the origin and evolution of apoptotic signaling system of the vertebrate. Branchiostoma belcheri FADD (bbFADD) cDNA and genomic DNA sequences were obtained by using RACE-PCR and Genomic Walking, respectively. The full-length cDNA of bbFADD consisted of 1239 base pairs (bp) encoding 217 amino acid residues (aa) with a death effector domain (DED) (12-95~(th); 84 aa) near the N-terminal and a death domain (DD) (129-211(st); 83 aa) by the C-terminal. bbFADD genomic sequence, the length of which was 2840 bp, consisted of three exons and two introns in the gene coding region. The structure of bbFADD gene was different from that of its vertebrate counterparts, with two exons. The result of multiple alignments among FADDs from various species supported that DED and DD regions were more conservative than other regions. Furthermore, the 33~(rd) phenylalanine residue ( F33) of bbFADD amino acid sequence, which was equivalent to the 25~(th) phenylalanine residue ( F25) in human FADD. This site, which was crucial to mediate FADD self-association, was well conserved through sea urchin and human. Homology analysis showed that the percent identity and the percent similarity between bbFADD and vertebrate FADDs were 27.5%-30.0% and 44.7%-55.3%, while 35.1%-36.9% and 51.1%-52.0% between bbFADD and sea urchin FADD, respectively. In NJ phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences of FADDs, B. belcheri was grouped with sea urchin with the suggestion that comparing with lower vertebrate, fish, amphioxus was

  10. Active metabolism of thyroid hormone during metamorphosis of amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Mathilde; Hillenweck, Anne; Bertrand, Stéphanie; Delous, Georges; Escriva, Hector; Zalko, Daniel; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Laudet, Vincent

    2010-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), and more precisely the 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)) acetic derivative 3,3',5-triiodothyroacetic acid (TRIAC), have been shown to activate metamorphosis in amphioxus. However, it remains unknown whether TRIAC is endogenously synthesized in amphioxus and more generally whether an active TH metabolism is regulating metamorphosis. Here we show that amphioxus naturally produces TRIAC from its precursors T(3) and l-thyroxine (T(4)), supporting its possible role as the active TH in amphioxus larvae. In addition, we show that blocking TH production inhibits metamorphosis and that this effect is compensated by exogenous T(3), suggesting that a peak of TH production is important for advancement of proper metamorphosis. Moreover, several amphioxus genes encoding proteins previously proposed to be involved in the TH signaling pathway display expression profiles correlated with metamorphosis. In particular, thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and deiodinases gene expressions are either up- or down-regulated during metamorphosis and by TH treatments. Overall, these results suggest that an active TH metabolism controls metamorphosis in amphioxus, and that endogenous TH production and metabolism as well as TH-regulated metamorphosis are ancestral in the chordate lineage. PMID:21558188

  11. Protochordate amphioxus is an emerging model organism for comparative immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shicui Zhang; Yujun Liang; Guangdong Jia; Zhimeng Zhuang

    2009-01-01

    Protochordate amphioxus is an extant invertebrate regarded quite recently as a basal chordate. It has a vertebrate-like body plan including a circulation system with an organization similar to that of vertebrates. However, amphioxus is less complex than vertebrates for having a genome uncomplicated by extensive genomic duplication, and lacking lymphoid organs and free circulating blood cells.Recent studies on immunity have demonstrated the presence in amphioxus of both the constituent elements of key molecules involved in adaptive immunity such as proto-major histocompatibility complex (proto-MHC), V region-containing chitin-binding protein (VCBP)and V and C domain-bearing protein (VCP), and the complement system operating via the alternative and lectin pathways resembling those seen in vertebrates. In addition, the acute phase response profile in amphioxus has been shown to be similar to that observed in vertebrates. These findings together with the relative structural and genomic simplicity make amphioxus an ideal organism for gaining insights into the origin and evolution of the vertebrate immune system, especially adaptive immunity, and the composition and mech-anisms of the vertebrate innate immunity.

  12. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ERα are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ERα in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  13. An amphioxus Krox gene: insights into vertebrate hindbrain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R D; Panopoulou, G D; Holland, P W; Shimeld, S M

    2000-10-01

    The transcription factor Krox-20 has roles in the maintenance of segmentation and specification of segment identity in the vertebrate hindbrain. Overt hindbrain segmentation is a vertebrate novelty, and is not seen in invertebrate chordates such as amphioxus and tunicates. To test if the roles of Krox-20 are also derived, we cloned a Krox-20 related gene, AmphiKrox, from amphioxus. AmphiKrox is related to a small family of vertebrate Krox genes and is expressed in the most anterior region of the amphioxus brain and in the club shaped gland, a secretory organ that develops in the anterior pharynx. Neither expression domain overlaps with the expression of AmphiHox-1, -2, -3 or -4, suggesting that the roles of Krox-20 in hindbrain segmentation and in Hox gene regulation were acquired concomitant with the duplication of Krox genes in vertebrate evolution. PMID:11180801

  14. Identification and biochemical characterization of polyamine oxidases in amphioxus: Implications for emergence of vertebrate-specific spermine and acetylpolyamine oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Liu, Baobao; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-01-10

    Polyamine oxidases (PAOs) have been identified in a wide variety of animals, as well as in fungi and plant. Generally, plant PAOs oxidize spermine (Spm), spermidine (Spd) and their acetylated derivatives, N(1)-acetylspermine (N(1)-Aspm) and N(1)-acetylspermidine (N(1)-Aspd), while yeast PAOs oxidize Spm, N(1)-Aspm and N(1)-Aspd, but not Spd. By contrast, two different enzymes, namely spermine oxidase (SMO) and acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), specifically catalyze the oxidation of Spm and N(1)-Aspm/N(1)-Aspd, respectively. However, our knowledge on the biochemical and structural characterization of PAOs remains rather limited, and their evolutionary history is still enigmatic. In this study, two amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum) PAO genes, named Bjpao1 and Bjpao2, were cloned and characterized. Both Bjpao1 and Bjpao2 displayed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. Notably, rBjPAO1 oxidized both spermine and spermidine, but not N(1)-acetylspermine, whereas rBjPAO2 oxidizes both spermidine and N(1)-acetylspermine, but not spermine. To understand structure-function relationship, the enzymatic activities of mutant BjPAOs that were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in E. coli were examined, The results indicate that the residues H64, K301 and T460 in rBjPAO1, and H69, K315 and T467 in rBjPAO2 were all involved in substrate binding and enzyme catalytic activity to some extent. Based on our results and those of others, a model depicting the divergent evolution and functional specialization of vertebrate SMO and APAO genes is proposed. PMID:26367330

  15. The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holland, L. Z.; Albalat, R.; Azumi, K.; Gutierrez, E.B.; Blow, M.J.; Bronner-Fraser, M.; Brunet, F.; Butts, T.; Candiani, S.; Dishaw, L. J.; Ferrier, D.E.K.; Garcia-Fernandez, J.; Gibson-Brown, J.J.; Gissi, C.; Godzik, A.; Hallbook, F.; Hirose, D.; Hosomichi, K.; Ikuta, T.; Inoko, H.; Kasahara, M.; Kasamatsu, J.; Kawashima, T.; Kimura, A.; Kobayashi, M.; Kozmik, Zbyněk; Kubokawa, K.; Laudet, V.; Litman, G.W.; McHardy, A.; Meulemans, D.; Nonaka, M.; Olinski, R.P.; Pancer, Z.; Pennacchio, L.A.; Pestarino, M.; Rast, J.P.; Rigoutsos, I.; Robinson-Rechavi, M.; Roch, G.; Saiga, H.; Sasakura, Y.; Satake, M.; Satou, Y.; Schubert, M.; Sherwood, N.; Shiina, T.; Takatori, N.; Tello, J.; Vopálenský, Pavel; Wada, S.; Xu, A.; Ye, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshizaki, F.; Yu, J.K.; Zhang, Q.; Zmasek, C.M.; De Jong, P.J.; Osoegawa, K.; Putnam, N. H.; Rokhsar, D. S.; Satoh, N.; Holland, P.W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 7 (2008), s. 1100-1111. ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : evolution * amphioxus genome * opsin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.176, year: 2008

  16. The single amphioxus Mox gene: insights into the functional evolution of Mox genes, somites, and the asymmetry of amphioxus somitogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, Carolina; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

    2002-06-15

    Mox genes are members of the "extended" Hox-cluster group of Antennapedia-like homeobox genes. Homologues have been cloned from both invertebrate and vertebrate species, and are expressed in mesodermal tissues. In vertebrates, Mox1 and Mox2 are distinctly expressed during the formation of somites and differentiation of their derivatives. Somites are a distinguishing feature uniquely shared by cephalochordates and vertebrates. Here, we report the cloning and expression of the single amphioxus Mox gene. AmphiMox is expressed in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) during early amphioxus somitogenesis and in nascent somites from the tail bud during the late phase. Once a somite is completely formed, AmphiMox is rapidly downregulated. We discuss the presence and extent of the PSM in both phases of amphioxus somitogenesis. We also propose a scenario for the functional evolution of Mox genes within chordates, in which Mox was co-opted for somite formation before the cephalochordate-vertebrate split. Novel expression sites found in vertebrates after somite formation postdated Mox duplication in the vertebrate stem lineage, and may be linked to the increase in complexity of vertebrate somites and their derivatives, e.g., the vertebrae. Furthermore, AmphiMox expression adds new data into a long-standing debate on the extent of the asymmetry of amphioxus somitogenesis. PMID:12051829

  17. Immunohistochemical study of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components in the notochord and notochordal sheath of amphioxus

    OpenAIRE

    Bočina, Ivana; Saraga-Babić, Mirna

    2006-01-01

    A major cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins of the amphioxus notochordal cells and sheath were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. The three-layered amphioxus notochordal sheath strongly expressed fish collagen type I in its outer and middle layers, while in the innermost layer expression did not occur. The amphioxus notochordal sheath was reactive to applied anti-human antibodies for intermediate filament proteins such as cytokeratins, desmin and vimentin, as well as to mi...

  18. A gene catalogue of the amphioxus nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Èlia Benito-Gutiérrez

    2006-01-01

    The elaboration of extremely complex nervous systems is a major success of evolution. However, at the dawn of the post-genomic era, few data have helped yet to unravel how a nervous system develops and evolves to complexity. On the evolutionary road to vertebrates, amphioxus occupies a key position to tackle this exciting issue. Its “simple” nervous system basically consists of a dorsal nerve cord and a diffuse net of peripheral neurons, which contrasts greatly with the complexity...

  19. Acquisition of the dorsal structures in chordate amphioxus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morov, Arseniy R.; Ukizintambara, Tharcisse; Sabirov, Rushan M.

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of dorsal structures, such as notochord and hollow nerve cord, is likely to have had a profound influence upon vertebrate evolution. Dorsal formation in chordate development thus has been intensively studied in vertebrates and ascidians. However, the present understanding does not explain how chordates acquired dorsal structures. Here we show that amphioxus retains a key clue to answer this question. In amphioxus embryos, maternal nodal mRNA distributes asymmetrically in accordance with the remodelling of the cortical cytoskeleton in the fertilized egg, and subsequently lefty is first expressed in a patch of blastomeres across the equator where wnt8 is expressed circularly and which will become the margin of the blastopore. The lefty domain co-expresses zygotic nodal by the initial gastrula stage on the one side of the blastopore margin and induces the expression of goosecoid, not-like, chordin and brachyury1 genes in this region, as in the oral ectoderm of sea urchin embryos, which provides a basis for the formation of the dorsal structures. The striking similarity in the gene regulations and their respective expression domains when comparing dorsal formation in amphioxus and the determination of the oral ectoderm in sea urchin embryos suggests that chordates derived from an ambulacrarian-type blastula with dorsoventral inversion. PMID:27307516

  20. Acquisition of the dorsal structures in chordate amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morov, Arseniy R; Ukizintambara, Tharcisse; Sabirov, Rushan M; Yasui, Kinya

    2016-06-01

    Acquisition of dorsal structures, such as notochord and hollow nerve cord, is likely to have had a profound influence upon vertebrate evolution. Dorsal formation in chordate development thus has been intensively studied in vertebrates and ascidians. However, the present understanding does not explain how chordates acquired dorsal structures. Here we show that amphioxus retains a key clue to answer this question. In amphioxus embryos, maternal nodal mRNA distributes asymmetrically in accordance with the remodelling of the cortical cytoskeleton in the fertilized egg, and subsequently lefty is first expressed in a patch of blastomeres across the equator where wnt8 is expressed circularly and which will become the margin of the blastopore. The lefty domain co-expresses zygotic nodal by the initial gastrula stage on the one side of the blastopore margin and induces the expression of goosecoid, not-like, chordin and brachyury1 genes in this region, as in the oral ectoderm of sea urchin embryos, which provides a basis for the formation of the dorsal structures. The striking similarity in the gene regulations and their respective expression domains when comparing dorsal formation in amphioxus and the determination of the oral ectoderm in sea urchin embryos suggests that chordates derived from an ambulacrarian-type blastula with dorsoventral inversion. PMID:27307516

  1. Dispersal of NK homeobox gene clusters in amphioxus and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Graham N.; L Filipe C Castro; McLay, Kirsten; Bird, Christine; Coulson, Alan; Holland, Peter W. H.

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster genome has six physically clustered NK-related homeobox genes in just 180 kb. Here we show that the NK homeobox gene cluster was an ancient feature of bilaterian animal genomes, but has been secondarily split in chordate ancestry. The NK homeobox gene clusters of amphioxus and vertebrates are each split and dispersed at two equivalent intergenic positions. From the ancestral NK gene cluster, only the Tlx–Lbx and NK3–NK4 linkages have been retained in chordates. Thi...

  2. Amphioxus: a peaceful anchovy fillet to illuminate Chordate Evolution (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The cephalochordate amphioxus occupies a central place in evolutionary thoughts to the origin of Vertebrates. With a prototypical vertebrate-like body plan and a preduplicative genome, the friendly lancelet seems to be in morphological and genetic motionless since its separation from the major branch of evolution that eventually ended up in our corner in the Animal Kingdom. This makes it an ideal model system with which, with the current development of genomic and experimental tools, an Evo-Devo approach to the understanding of the origin of vertebrates looks proper, reliable, and excitingly promising.

  3. Insights from amphioxus into the evolution of vertebrate cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meulemans

    Full Text Available Central to the story of vertebrate evolution is the origin of the vertebrate head, a problem difficult to approach using paleontology and comparative morphology due to a lack of unambiguous intermediate forms. Embryologically, much of the vertebrate head is derived from two ectodermal tissues, the neural crest and cranial placodes. Recent work in protochordates suggests the first chordates possessed migratory neural tube cells with some features of neural crest cells. However, it is unclear how and when these cells acquired the ability to form cellular cartilage, a cell type unique to vertebrates. It has been variously proposed that the neural crest acquired chondrogenic ability by recruiting proto-chondrogenic gene programs deployed in the neural tube, pharynx, and notochord. To test these hypotheses we examined the expression of 11 amphioxus orthologs of genes involved in neural crest chondrogenesis. Consistent with cellular cartilage as a vertebrate novelty, we find that no single amphioxus tissue co-expresses all or most of these genes. However, most are variously co-expressed in mesodermal derivatives. Our results suggest that neural crest-derived cartilage evolved by serial cooption of genes which functioned primitively in mesoderm.

  4. Immunohistochemical study of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components in the notochord and notochordal sheath of amphioxus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A major cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins of the amphioxus notochordal cells and sheath were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. The three-layered amphioxus notochordal sheath strongly expressed fish collagen type I in its outer and middle layers, while in the innermost layer expression did not occur. The amphioxus notochordal sheath was reactive to applied anti-human antibodies for intermediate filament proteins such as cytokeratins, desmin and vimentin, as well as to microtubule components (ß-tubulin, particularly in the area close to the epipharyngeal groove. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was expressed in some notochordal cells and in the area of the notochordal attachment to the sheath. Thus muscular nature of notochordal cells was shown by immunohistochemistry in tissue section. Our results confirm that genes encoding intermediate filament proteins, microtubules and microfilaments are highly conserved during evolution. Collagen type I was proven to be the key extracellular matrix protein that forms the amphioxus notochordal sheath.

  5. How much does the amphioxus genome represent the ancestor of chordates?

    OpenAIRE

    Louis A.; Roest Crollius H.; Robinson-Rechavi M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main motivations to study amphioxus is its potential for understanding the last common ancestor of chordates, which notably gave rise to the vertebrates. An important feature in this respect is the slow evolutionary rate that seems to have characterized the cephalochordate lineage, making amphioxus an interesting proxy for the chordate ancestor, as well as a key lineage to include in comparative studies. Whereas slow evolution was first noticed at the phenotypic level, it has also ...

  6. The evolution and regulation of the mucosal immune complexity in the basal chordate amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengfeng; Wang, Xin; Yan, Qingyu; Guo, Lei; Yuan, Shaochun; Huang, Guangrui; Huang, Huiqing; Li, Jun; Dong, Meiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2011-02-15

    Both amphioxus and the sea urchin encode a complex innate immune gene repertoire in their genomes, but the composition and mechanisms of their innate immune systems, as well as the fundamental differences between two systems, remain largely unexplored. In this study, we dissect the mucosal immune complexity of amphioxus into different evolutionary-functional modes and regulatory patterns by integrating information from phylogenetic inferences, genome-wide digital expression profiles, time course expression dynamics, and functional analyses. With these rich data, we reconstruct several major immune subsystems in amphioxus and analyze their regulation during mucosal infection. These include the TNF/IL-1R network, TLR and NLR networks, complement system, apoptosis network, oxidative pathways, and other effector genes (e.g., peptidoglycan recognition proteins, Gram-negative binding proteins, and chitin-binding proteins). We show that beneath the superficial similarity to that of the sea urchin, the amphioxus innate system, despite preserving critical invertebrate components, is more similar to that of the vertebrates in terms of composition, expression regulation, and functional strategies. For example, major effectors in amphioxus gut mucous tissue are the well-developed complement and oxidative-burst systems, and the signaling network in amphioxus seems to emphasize signal transduction/modulation more than initiation. In conclusion, we suggest that the innate immune systems of amphioxus and the sea urchin are strategically different, possibly representing two successful cases among many expanded immune systems that arose at the age of the Cambrian explosion. We further suggest that the vertebrate innate immune system should be derived from one of these expanded systems, most likely from the same one that was shared by amphioxus. PMID:21248255

  7. Identification, Evolution and Expression of an Insulin-Like Peptide in the Cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Lecroisey; Yann Le Pétillon; Hector Escriva; Eckhard Lammert; Vincent Laudet

    2015-01-01

    Insulin is one of the most studied proteins since it is central to the regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism in vertebrates and its expression and release are disturbed in diabetes, the most frequent human metabolic disease worldwide. However, the evolution of the function of the insulin protein family is still unclear. In this study, we present a phylogenetic and developmental analysis of the Insulin Like Peptide (ILP) in the cephalochordate amphioxus. We identified an ILP in the Eur...

  8. AcEST: BP912620 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s) Value tr|Q6BWC3|Q6BWC3_DEBHA DEHA2B12452p OS=Debaryomyces hansenii GN=... 35 2.4 tr|Q6D941|Q6D941_ERWCT Putative membra...|Q6D941|Q6D941_ERWCT Putative membrane protein OS=Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica GN=ECA0778 PE=4 SV=1...SLAAST 264 P+ A ST Sbjct: 168 SPTAAVST 175 >tr|B6L4B7|B6L4B7_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae... Sbjct: 168 SPTAAVST 175 >tr|B6L3E0|B6L3E0_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae ...EV +S TI Sbjct: 59 EPEWSKSNPDIEYKFEVIKSGTI 81 >tr|O45024|O45024_BRAFL Amphioxus Otx transcription factor OS=Branchiostoma floridae

  9. On Branchiostoma californiense (Cephalochordata from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Vargas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The cephalochordates are represented by the lancelets, of which species of the genus Branchiostoma are the best known. In recent years, these organisms have been the center of activity of studies focusing on the phylogenetic relationships of the chordates. In 1980, a survey of the benthos at 48 stations in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, yielded 265 specimens of the lancelet Branchiostoma californiense. A total of 48 specimens was also collected at an intertidal flat in the mid upper estuary. Of the 48 subtidal stations, only eight had B. californiense, and these sites all had a sand fraction above 72%. The remaining stations ranged in their sand content from as low as 1% to as high as 92%, with an average of 25.9%, with 29 stations having a sand content lower than 72%. Lower salinities and muddy sediments may limit the distribution of the lancelet further upstream. This information is useful when changes over decades in the ecology of the estuary need to be evaluated against the background of local, regional, and global dynamics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1143-1148. Epub 2010 December 01.Los cefalocordados están representados por los anfioxos, de los que especies del género Branchiostoma son los más conocidos. En los últimos años, estos organismos han sido muy estudiados, principalmente sus relaciones filogenéticas. Durante 1980, realizamos un muestreo del bentos en 48 estaciones del Golfo de Nicoya, costa Pacífica de Costa Rica y reportamos 265 ejemplares del anfioxo, Branchiostoma californiense. También recolectamos un total de 48 individuos en una planicie fangosa de la zona entre mareas de la región superior media del estuario. De las 48 estaciones solamente en ocho encontramos especímenes de B. californiense y estos sitios tenían un porcentaje de arena superior al 72%. Las otras estaciones tenían un porcentaje de arena en un ámbito tan bajo como 1% y tan alto como 92%, con un promedio de 25.9%, 29

  10. The cephalochordate amphioxus: a key to reveal the secrets of nuclear receptor evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecroisey, Claire; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily are transcription factors characterized by a particular mode of function, which is related to the conserved nature of their molecular structure. NR proteins usually contain a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD) allowing them to directly bind to DNA and regulate target gene expression in a ligand-dependent manner. In this review, we are summarizing our current understanding of the NR diversity in the cephalochordate amphioxus, which represents the best available proxy for the last common chordate ancestor both in terms of morphology and genome organization. The amphioxus genome encodes 33 NRs, which is more than expected based on its phylogenetic position, with at least one representative of all major NR groups, excepting NR1E and NR1I/J. This elevated number of receptor genes shows that the amphioxus NR complement has experienced some secondary modifications that are most evident in the NR1H group, which is characterized by three members in humans and ten representatives in amphioxus. By highlighting specific examples of the NR repertoire, including the receptors for retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, estrogen and steroids as well as the bile acid and oxysterol receptors of the NR1H group, we are illustrating the functional diversity of these receptors in amphioxus. We conclude that the amphioxus NRs are valuable models for assessing the evolutionary interplay between receptors and their ligands and that more integrative and comparative approaches are required for assessment of the evolutionary plasticity of receptor-ligand interactions revealed by the studies of amphioxus NRs. PMID:22441553

  11. A SINE in the genome of the cephalochordate amphioxus is an Alu element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements of about 300 bp, termed “short interspersed nucleotide elements or SINEs are common in eukaryotes. However, Alu elements, SINEs containing restriction sites for the AluI enzyme, have been known only from primates. Here I report the first SINE found in the genome of the cephalochordate, amphioxus. It is an Alu element of 375 bp that does not share substantial identity with any genomic sequences in vertebrates. It was identified because it was located in the FoxD regulatory region in a cosmid derived from one individual, but absent from the two FoxD alleles of BACs from a second individual. However, searches of sequences of BACs and genomic traces from this second individual gave an estimate of 50-100 copies in the amphioxus genome. The finding of an Alu element in amphioxus raises the question of whether Alu elements in amphioxus and primates arose by convergent evolution or by inheritance from a common ancestor. Genome-wide analyses of transposable elements in amphioxus and other chordates such as tunicates, agnathans and cartilaginous fishes could well provide the answer.

  12. Metal dealing at the origin of the Chordata phylum: the metallothionein system and metal overload response in amphioxus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guirola

    Full Text Available Non-vertebrate chordates, specifically amphioxus, are considered of the utmost interest for gaining insight into the evolutionary trends, i.e. differentiation and specialization, of gene/protein systems. In this work, MTs (metallothioneins, the most important metal binding proteins, are characterized for the first time in the cephalochordate subphylum at both gene and protein level, together with the main features defining the amphioxus response to cadmium and copper overload. Two MT genes (BfMT1 and BfMT2 have been identified in a contiguous region of the genome, as well as several ARE (antioxidant response element and MRE (metal response element located upstream the transcribed region. Their corresponding cDNAs exhibit identical sequence in the two lancelet species (B. floridae and B. lanceolatum, BfMT2 cDNA resulting from an alternative splicing event. BfMT1 is a polyvalent metal binding peptide that coordinates any of the studied metal ions (Zn, Cd or Cu rendering complexes stable enough to last in physiological environments, which is fully concordant with the constitutive expression of its gene, and therefore, with a metal homeostasis housekeeping role. On the contrary, BfMT2 exhibits a clear ability to coordinate Cd(II ions, while it is absolutely unable to fold into stable Cu (I complexes, even as mixed species. This identifies it as an essential detoxification agent, which is consequently only induced in emergency situations. The cephalochordate MTs are not directly related to vertebrate MTs, neither by gene structure, protein similarity nor metal-binding behavior of the encoded peptides. The closest relative is the echinoderm MT, which confirm proposed phylogenetic relationships between these two groups. The current findings support the existence in most organisms of two types of MTs as for their metal binding preferences, devoted to different biological functions: multivalent MTs for housekeeping roles, and specialized MTs that evolve

  13. The Amphioxus SoxB Family: Implications for the Evolution of Vertebrate Placodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meulemans, Marianne Bronner-Fraser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranial placodes are regions of thickened ectoderm that give rise to sense organs and ganglia in the vertebrate head. Homologous structures are proposed to exist in urochordates, but have not been found in cephalochordates, suggesting the first chordates lacked placodes. SoxB genes are expressed in discrete subsets of vertebrate placodes. To investigate how placodes arose and diversified in the vertebrate lineage we isolated the complete set of SoxB genes from amphioxus and analyzed their expression in embryos and larvae. We find that while amphioxus possesses a single SoxB2 gene, it has three SoxB1 paralogs. Like vertebrate SoxB1 genes, one of these paralogs is expressed in non-neural ectoderm destined to give rise to sensory cells. When considered in the context of other amphioxus placode marker orthologs, amphioxus SoxB1 expression suggests a diversity of sensory cell types utilizing distinct placode-type gene programs was present in the first chordates. Our data supports a model for placode evolution and diversification whereby the full complement of vertebrate placodes evolved by serial recruitment of distinct sensory cell specification programs to anterior pre-placodal ectoderm.

  14. The Nodal signaling pathway controls left-right asymmetric development in amphioxus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Vladimír; Yong, L.W.; Lu, T.M.; Huang, S.W.; Kozmik, Zbyněk; Yu, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, Feb 17 (2015). ISSN 2041-9139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20839P; GA MŠk LH12047 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Nodal signaling * Amphioxus * Left-right asymmetry * Mouth opening * Embryonic development Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.034, year: 2014

  15. A study of neural-related microRNAs in the developing amphioxus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candiani Simona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs regulating expression of protein coding genes at post-transcriptional level and controlling several biological processes. At present microRNAs have been identified in various metazoans and seem also to be involved in brain development, neuronal differentiation and subtypes specification. An approach to better understand the role of microRNAs in animal gene expression is to determine temporal and tissue-specific expression patterns of microRNAs in different model organisms. Therefore, we have investigated the expression of six neural related microRNAs in amphioxus, an organism having an important phylogenetic position in terms of understanding the origin and evolution of chordates. Results In amphioxus, all the microRNAs we examined are expressed in specific regions of the CNS, and some of them are correlated with specific cell types. In addition, miR-7, miR-137 and miR-184 are also expressed in endodermal and mesodermal tissues. Several potential targets expressed in the nervous system of amphioxus have been identified by computational prediction and some of them are coexpressed with one or more miRNAs. Conclusion We identified six miRNAs that are expressed in the nervous system of amphioxus in a variety of patterns. miR-124 is found in both differentiating and mature neurons, miR-9 in differentiated neurons, miR-7, miR-137 and miR-184 in restricted CNS regions, and miR-183 in cells of sensory organs. Therefore, such amphioxus miRNAs may play important roles in regional patterning and/or specification of neuronal cell types.

  16. Ancient homeobox gene loss and the evolution of chordate brain and pharynx development : deductions from amphioxus gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Butts, Thomas; Holland, Peter W. H.; Ferrier, David Ellard Keith

    2010-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode a large superclass of transcription factors with widespread roles in animal development. Within chordates there are over 100 homeobox genes in the invertebrate cephalochordate amphioxus and over 200 in humans. Set against this general trend of increasing gene number in vertebrate evolution, some ancient homeobox genes that were present in the last common ancestor of chordates have been lost from vertebrates. Here, we describe the embryonic expression of four amphioxus de...

  17. Retinoic acid influences anteroposterior positioning of epidermal sensory neurons and their gene expression in a developing chordate (amphioxus)

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Michael; Holland, Nicholas D; Escriva, Hector; Holland, Linda Z; Laudet, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    In developing chordates, retinoic acid (RA) signaling patterns the rostrocaudal body axis globally and affects gene expression locally in some differentiating cell populations. Here we focus on development of epidermal sensory neurons in an invertebrate chordate (amphioxus) to determine how RA signaling influences their rostrocaudal distribution and gene expression (for AmphiCoe, a neural precursor gene; for amphioxus islet and AmphiERR, two neural differentiation genes; and for AmphiHox1, -3...

  18. Metal Dealing at the Origin of the Chordata Phylum: The Metallothionein System and Metal Overload Response in Amphioxus

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Guirola; Sílvia Pérez-Rafael; Mercè Capdevila; Oscar Palacios; Sílvia Atrian

    2012-01-01

    Non-vertebrate chordates, specifically amphioxus, are considered of the utmost interest for gaining insight into the evolutionary trends, i.e. differentiation and specialization, of gene/protein systems. In this work, MTs (metallothioneins), the most important metal binding proteins, are characterized for the first time in the cephalochordate subphylum at both gene and protein level, together with the main features defining the amphioxus response to cadmium and copper overload. Two MT genes (...

  19. The Amphioxus SoxB Family: Implications for the Evolution of Vertebrate Placodes

    OpenAIRE

    Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Cranial placodes are regions of thickened ectoderm that give rise to sense organs and ganglia in the vertebrate head. Homologous structures are proposed to exist in urochordates, but have not been found in cephalochordates, suggesting the first chordates lacked placodes. SoxB genes are expressed in discrete subsets of vertebrate placodes. To investigate how placodes arose and diversified in the vertebrate lineage we isolated the complete set of SoxB genes from amphioxus and analyzed their exp...

  20. Melanopsin-expressing amphioxus photoreceptors transduce light via a phospholipase C signaling cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Angueyra

    Full Text Available Melanopsin, the receptor molecule that underlies light sensitivity in mammalian 'circadian' receptors, is homologous to invertebrate rhodopsins and has been proposed to operate via a similar signaling pathway. Its downstream effectors, however, remain elusive. Melanopsin also expresses in two distinct light-sensitive cell types in the neural tube of amphioxus. This organism is the most basal extant chordate and can help outline the evolutionary history of different photoreceptor lineages and their transduction mechanisms; moreover, isolated amphioxus photoreceptors offer unique advantages, because they are unambiguously identifiable and amenable to single-cell physiological assays. In the present study whole-cell patch clamp recording, pharmacological manipulations, and immunodetection were utilized to investigate light transduction in amphioxus photoreceptors. A G(q was identified and selectively localized to the photosensitive microvillar membrane, while the pivotal role of phospholipase C was established pharmacologically. The photocurrent was profoundly depressed by IP₃ receptor antagonists, highlighting the importance of IP₃ receptors in light signaling. By contrast, surrogates of diacylglycerol (DAG, as well as poly-unsaturated fatty acids failed to activate a membrane conductance or to alter the light response. The results strengthen the notion that calcium released from the ER via IP₃-sensitive channels may fulfill a key role in conveying--directly or indirectly--the melanopsin-initiated light signal to the photoconductance; moreover, they challenge the dogma that microvillar photoreceptors and phoshoinositide-based light transduction are a prerogative of invertebrate eyes.

  1. Coherent Raman scattering microscopy for label-free imaging of live amphioxus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhilong; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xiannian; Shen, Jie; Chen, Junyuan; Huang, Yanyi

    2012-03-01

    The existence of notochord distinguishes chordates from other phyla. Amphioxus is the only animal that keeps notochord during the whole life. Notochord is a unique organ for amphioxus, with its vertically arranged muscular notochordal plates, which is different from notochords in embryos of other chordates. We use stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy as a non-invasive technique to image the chemical components in amphioxus notochord. SRS provides chemical specificity as spontaneous Raman does and offers a higher sensitivity for fast acquisition. Unlike coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, SRS microscopy doesn't have non-resonant background and can better differentiate different components in the specimen. We verify that the notochord is a protein-rich organ, which agrees well with the result of conventional staining methods. Detailed structures in notochordal plates and notochordal sheath are revealed by SRS microscopy with diffraction limited resolution. Our experiment shows that SRS microscopy is an excellent imaging tool for biochemical research with its intrinsic chemical selectivity, high spatiotemporal resolution and native 3D optical sectioning ability.

  2. Structure of the red fluorescent protein from a lancelet (Branchiostoma lanceolatum): a novel GYG chromophore covalently bound to a nearby tyrosine

    OpenAIRE

    Pletnev, Vladimir Z.; Pletneva, Nadya V.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Souslova, Ekaterina A.; Fradkov, Arkady F.; Chudakov, Dmitry M.; Chepurnykh, Tatyana; Yampolsky, Ilia V.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Dauter, Zbigniew; Pletnev, Sergei

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the novel red emitting fluorescent protein from lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Chordata) revealed an unusual five residues cyclic unit comprising Gly58-Tyr59-Gly60 chromophore, the following Phe61 and Tyr62 covalently bound to chromophore Tyr59.

  3. Retinoic acid signaling acts via Hox1 to establish the posterior limit of the pharynx in the chordate amphioxus

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Michael; Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Nicholas D; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Holland, Linda Z

    2004-01-01

    In the invertebrate chordate amphioxus, as in vertebrates, retinoic acid (RA) specifies position along the anterior/posterior axis with elevated RA signaling in the middle third of the endoderm setting the posterior limit of the pharynx. Here we show that AmphiHox1 is also expressed in the middle third of the developing amphioxus endoderm and is activated by RA signaling. Knockdown of AmphiHox1 function with an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide shows that AmphiHox1 mediates the role of RA ...

  4. Characterization and developmental expression of AmphiMef2 gene in amphioxus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Myocyte enhancer factor 2 proteins are members of MADS family of transcription factors, which can control the expression of muscle-specific genes in vertebrates. However, not all Mef2 genes are essential for muscle development in invertebrates. Here we have isolated a full-length cDNA from amphioxus, designated AmphiMef2. The predicted amino acid sequence has highly conserved MADS and MEF2 domains, showing higher identity with the corresponding regions of its homologues in vertebrates than those in invertebrates. Results from whole-mount in situ hybridization show that the expression of AmphiMef2 initially appears in the presomitic mesoderm at early neurula stage, then the transcripts are detected in both the somites and the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm. At 36 h larval stage, the expression is only detected in the posterior somites. By 48 h larval stage, the expression is shifted to the preoral pit (a homologous organ to the vertebrate adenohypophysis) and persists until at least 72 h larval stage. The results suggest that AmphiMef2 may be not only involved in the myogenesis but also the development or function of the preoral pit in amphioxus.

  5. An amphioxus Gli gene reveals conservation of midline patterning and the evolution of hedgehog signalling diversity in chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M Shimeld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hedgehog signalling, interpreted in receiving cells by Gli transcription factors, plays a central role in the development of vertebrate and Drosophila embryos. Many aspects of the signalling pathway are conserved between these lineages, however vertebrates have diverged in at least one key aspect: they have evolved multiple Gli genes encoding functionally-distinct proteins, increasing the complexity of the hedgehog-dependent transcriptional response. Amphioxus is one of the closest living relatives of the vertebrates, having split from the vertebrate lineage prior to the widespread gene duplication prominent in early vertebrate evolution. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that amphioxus has a single Gli gene, which is deployed in tissues adjacent to sources of hedgehog signalling derived from the midline and anterior endoderm. This shows the duplication and divergence of the Gli gene family, and hence the origin of vertebrate Gli functional diversity, was specific to the vertebrate lineage. However we also show that the single amphioxus Gli gene produces two distinct transcripts encoding different proteins. We utilise three tests of Gli function to examine the transcription regulatory capacities of these different proteins, demonstrating one has activating activity similar to Gli2, while the other acts as a weak repressor, similar to Gli3. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that vertebrates and amphioxus have evolved functionally-similar repertoires of Gli proteins using parallel molecular routes; vertebrates via gene duplication and divergence, and amphioxus via alternate splicing of a single gene. Our results demonstrate that similar functional complexity of intercellular signalling can be achieved via different evolutionary pathways.

  6. Differential mesodermal expression of two amphioxus MyoD family members (AmphiMRF1 and AmphiMRF2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Michael; Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Holland, Linda Z.; Holland, Nicholas D.

    2003-01-01

    To explore the evolution of myogenic regulatory factors in chordates, we isolated two MyoD family genes (AmphiMRF1 and AmphiMRF2) from amphioxus. AmphiMRF1 is first expressed at the late gastrula in the paraxial mesoderm. As the first somites form, expression is restricted to their myotomal region. In the early larva, expression is strongest in the most anterior and most posterior somites. AmphiMRF2 transcription begins at mid/late gastrula in the paraxial mesoderm, but never spreads into its most anterior region. Through much of the neurula stage, AmphiMRF2 expression is strong in the myotomal region of all somites except the most anterior pair; by late neurula expression is downregulated except in the most posterior somites forming just rostral to the tail bud. These two MRF genes of amphioxus have partly overlapping patterns of mesodermal expression and evidently duplicated independent of the diversification of the vertebrate MRF family.

  7. Roles of retinoic acid and Tbx1/10 in pharyngeal segmentation: amphioxus and the ancestral chordate condition

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, Demian; Chen, Jie; Theodosiou, Maria; Carvalho, João E; Alvarez, Susana; de Lera, Angel R.; Holland, Linda Z.; Schubert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Although chordates descend from a segmented ancestor, the evolution of head segmentation has been very controversial for over 150 years. Chordates generally possess a segmented pharynx, but even though anatomical evidence and gene expression analyses suggest homologies between the pharyngeal apparatus of invertebrate chordates, such as the cephalochordate amphioxus, and vertebrates, these homologies remain contested. We, therefore, decided to study the evolution of the chordate hea...

  8. Localization of aromatase in the nervous system, Hatschek's pit and gonad of amphioxus by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry%芳香化酶在文昌鱼神经系统、哈氏窝和性腺特异性定位:原位杂交和免疫细胞化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方永强; 翁幼竹; 黄威权; 孙岚

    2003-01-01

    芳香化酶活性发现在脊椎动物脑、脑垂体和性腺中,但在文昌鱼脑和哈氏窝的组织特异性定位尚无可利用资料.本文用免疫细胞化学和原位杂交技术,首次发现芳香化酶活性组织特异性定位在幼年和性腺发育不同时期雌、雄文昌鱼神经系统(脑和脊髓)、轮器、哈氏窝和性腺中.芳香化酶蛋白和转录物在前脑、中脑、脊髓、轮器和哈氏窝十分丰富,而后脑、早期卵巢和精巢不够丰富;没有芳香化酶表达的部位是哈氏窝另两种细胞(不规则形细胞和带纤毛粘液细胞)以及成熟卵巢和精巢;芳香化酶免疫活性物质分布在胞质,核为阴性.芳香化酶在文昌鱼神经系统、哈氏窝和性腺的分布模式与低等脊椎动物中的分布模式极为类似,尤其是芳香化酶在脑内调节哈氏窝分泌活动的神经内分泌中枢表达,并形成类似脊椎动物的文昌鱼原始的脑-芳香化酶调节系统.这些结果有力地证明,文昌鱼脑和哈氏窝高水平的芳香化酶活性像在其它脊椎动物中一样,对局部介导睾酮芳香化起着关键作用,同时还可能影响脑-芳香化酶系统参与调节哈氏窝的分泌活动[动物学报49(6):800~806,2003].%Aromatase activity has been found in the brain and pituitary as well as gonads of vertebrates, but no information is available on the specific localization in the brain and Hatschek's pit (primitive pituitary) of amphioxus (Branchios-toma belcheri). Using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization, we studied definitive tissue specific localization of aromatase in the nervous system (brain and spinal cord), wheel organ, Hatschek's pit and gonads at young and adult female and male amphioxus at different stages of gonadal development. Aromatase protein and its mRNA were abundant in the forebrain, midbrain, spinal cord, wheel organ and Hatschek's pit, but not abundant in the hindbrain or early ovary and testis. No aromatase expression

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a single variable domain of the immunoglobulin superfamily in amphioxus, Amphi-IgSF-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Liu, Yanjie; Chen, Rong; Wang, Zhenbao; Tariq, Mansoor; Xia, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Amphioxus is regarded as an essential animal model for the study of immune evolution. Discovery of new molecules with the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) variable (V) domain in amphioxus would help in studying the evolution of IgSF V molecules in the immune system. A protein was found which just contains only one IgSF V domain in amphioxus, termed Amphi-IgSF-V; it has over 30% sequence identity to the V domains of human immunoglobulins and mammalian T-cell receptors. In order to clarify the three-dimensional structure of this new molecule in amphioxus, Amphi-IgSF-V was expressed, purified and crystallized, and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.95 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 53.9, c = 135.5 Å. The Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 2.58 Å3 Da−1 and 52.38%, respectively. The results will provide structural information to study the evolution of IgSF V molecules in the immune system. PMID:25084385

  10. Evolutionary conservation of the presumptive neural plate markers AmphiSox1/2/3 and AmphiNeurogenin in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L. Z.; Schubert, M.; Holland, N. D.; Neuman, T.

    2000-01-01

    Amphioxus, as the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, can give insights into the evolutionary origin of the vertebrate body plan. Therefore, to investigate the evolution of genetic mechanisms for establishing and patterning the neuroectoderm, we cloned and determined the embryonic expression of two amphioxus transcription factors, AmphiSox1/2/3 and AmphiNeurogenin. These genes are the earliest known markers for presumptive neuroectoderm in amphioxus. By the early neurula stage, AmphiNeurogenin expression becomes restricted to two bilateral columns of segmentally arranged neural plate cells, which probably include precursors of motor neurons. This is the earliest indication of segmentation in the amphioxus nerve cord. Later, expression extends to dorsal cells in the nerve cord, which may include precursors of sensory neurons. By the midneurula, AmphiSox1/2/3 expression becomes limited to the dorsal part of the forming neural tube. These patterns resemble those of their vertebrate and Drosophila homologs. Taken together with the evolutionarily conserved expression of the dorsoventral patterning genes, BMP2/4 and chordin, in nonneural and neural ectoderm, respectively, of chordates and Drosophila, our results are consistent with the evolution of the chordate dorsal nerve cord and the insect ventral nerve cord from a longitudinal nerve cord in a common bilaterian ancestor. However, AmphiSox1/2/3 differs from its vertebrate homologs in not being expressed outside the CNS, suggesting that additional roles for this gene have evolved in connection with gene duplication in the vertebrate lineage. In contrast, expression in the midgut of AmphiNeurogenin together with the gene encoding the insulin-like peptide suggests that amphioxus may have homologs of vertebrate pancreatic islet cells, which express neurogenin3. In addition, AmphiNeurogenin, like its vertebrate and Drosophila homologs, is expressed in apparent precursors of epidermal chemosensory and

  11. Census Snapshot: Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Baumle, Amanda K; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in Florida. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in Florida. In many ways, the almost 55,000 same-sex couples living in Florida are similar to married couples. Accordin...

  12. Late Gale in Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A severe gale in August of 1856 caused a lot of destruction in Florida. Ships and warehouses were damaged, a lighthouse was destroyed, crops were ruined, and...

  13. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  14. Woodville Karst Plain, North Florida

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Map showing the largest mapped underwater cave systems and conduit flow paths confirmed by tracer testing relative to surface streams, sinkholes and potentiometric surface of the Florida aquifer in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

  15. AmphiFoxQ2, a novel winged helix/forkhead gene, exclusively marks the anterior end of the amphioxus embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Nicholas D.; Holland, Linda Z.

    2003-01-01

    A full-length FoxQ-related gene (AmphiFoxQ2) was isolated from amphioxus. Expression is first detectable in the animal/anterior hemisphere at the mid blastula stage. The midpoint of this expression domain coincides with the anterior pole of the embryo and is offset dorsally by about 20 degrees from the animal pole. During the gastrula stage, expression is limited to the anterior ectoderm. By the early neurula stage, expression remains in the anterior ectoderm and also appears in the adjacent anterior mesendoderm. By the early larval stages, expression is detectable in the anteriormost ectoderm and in the rostral tip of the notochord. AmphiFoxQ2 is never expressed anywhere except at the anterior tip of amphioxus embryos and larvae. This is the first gene known that exclusively marks the anterior pole of chordate embryos. It may, therefore, play an important role in establishing and/or maintaining the anterior/posterior axis.

  16. The function and developmental expression of alternatively spliced isoforms of amphioxus and Xenopus laevis Pax2/5/8 genes: revealing divergence at the invertebrate to vertebrate transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Short, S.; Kozmik, Zbyněk; Holland, L. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 318, č. 7 (2012), s. 555-571. ISSN 1552-5007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/2141; GA MŠk LH12047 Grant ostatní: NSF(US) MCB 06-20019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Pax2/5/8 * alternative splicing * eye development * amphioxus * Xenopus laevis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.123, year: 2012

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of Amphioxus genes of the proprotein convertase family, including aPC6C, a marker of epithelial fusions during embryology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Bertrand, Alain Camasses, Mathilde Paris, Nicholas D. Holland, Hector Escriva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprotein convertases (PCs comprise a family of subtilisin-like endoproteases that activate precursor proteins (including, prohormones, growth factors, and adhesion molecules during their transit through secretory pathways or at the cell surface. To explore the evolution of the PC gene family in chordates, we made a phylogenetic analysis of PC genes found in databases, with special attention to three PC genes of the cephalochordate amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative to the vertebrates. Since some vertebrate PC genes are essential for early development, we investigated the expression pattern of the C isoform of the amphioxus PC6 gene (aPC6C. In amphioxus embryos and larvae, aPC6C is expressed at places where epithelia fuse. Several kinds of fusions occur: ectoderm-to-ectoderm during neurulation; mesoderm-to-ectoderm during formation of the preoral ciliated pit; and endoderm-to-ectoderm during formation of the mouth, pharyngeal slits, anus, and external opening of the club-shaped gland. Presumably, at all these sites, aPC6C is activating proteins favoring association between previously disjunct cell populations.

  18. Conservation: saving Florida's manatees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    Robert K. Bonde of the U.S. Geological Survey writes about the protected population of manatees in Crystal River, Florida, including information about the threats they face as they migrate in and out of protected waters. Photographer Carol Grant shares images of "Angel," a newborn manatee she photographed early one winter morning.

  19. Florida Educational Facilities, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    This publication describes Florida school and community college facilities completed in 1999, including photographs and floor plans. The facilities profiled are: Buchholz High School (Alachua County); Gator Run Elementary School (Broward); Corkscrew Elementary School (Collier); The 500 Role Models Academy of Excellence (Miami-Dade); Caribbean…

  20. Structure of the red fluorescent protein from a lancelet (Branchiostoma lanceolatum): a novel GYG chromophore covalently bound to a nearby tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of the novel red emitting fluorescent protein from lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Chordata) revealed an unusual five residues cyclic unit comprising Gly58-Tyr59-Gly60 chromophore, the following Phe61 and Tyr62 covalently bound to chromophore Tyr59. A key property of proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family is their ability to form a chromophore group by post-translational modifications of internal amino acids, e.g. Ser65-Tyr66-Gly67 in GFP from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria (Cnidaria). Numerous structural studies have demonstrated that the green GFP-like chromophore represents the ‘core’ structure, which can be extended in red-shifted proteins owing to modifications of the protein backbone at the first chromophore-forming position. Here, the three-dimensional structures of green laGFP (λex/λem = 502/511 nm) and red laRFP (λex/λem ≃ 521/592 nm), which are fluorescent proteins (FPs) from the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Chordata), were determined together with the structure of a red variant laRFP-ΔS83 (deletion of Ser83) with improved folding. Lancelet FPs are evolutionarily distant and share only ∼20% sequence identity with cnidarian FPs, which have been extensively characterized and widely used as genetically encoded probes. The structure of red-emitting laRFP revealed three exceptional features that have not been observed in wild-type fluorescent proteins from Cnidaria reported to date: (i) an unusual chromophore-forming sequence Gly58-Tyr59-Gly60, (ii) the presence of Gln211 at the position of the conserved catalytic Glu (Glu222 in Aequorea GFP), which proved to be crucial for chromophore formation, and (iii) the absence of modifications typical of known red chromophores and the presence of an extremely unusual covalent bond between the Tyr59 Cβ atom and the hydroxyl of the proximal Tyr62. The impact of this covalent bond on the red emission and the large Stokes shift (∼70 nm) of laRFP was verified

  1. Structure of the red fluorescent protein from a lancelet (Branchiostoma lanceolatum): a novel GYG chromophore covalently bound to a nearby tyrosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletnev, Vladimir Z., E-mail: vzpletnev@gmail.com; Pletneva, Nadya V.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Souslova, Ekaterina A.; Fradkov, Arkady F.; Chudakov, Dmitry M.; Chepurnykh, Tatyana; Yampolsky, Ilia V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Wlodawer, Alexander [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Dauter, Zbigniew [National Cancer Institute, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pletnev, Sergei, E-mail: vzpletnev@gmail.com [National Cancer Institute, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); SAIC-Frederick, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-01

    The crystal structure of the novel red emitting fluorescent protein from lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Chordata) revealed an unusual five residues cyclic unit comprising Gly58-Tyr59-Gly60 chromophore, the following Phe61 and Tyr62 covalently bound to chromophore Tyr59. A key property of proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family is their ability to form a chromophore group by post-translational modifications of internal amino acids, e.g. Ser65-Tyr66-Gly67 in GFP from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria (Cnidaria). Numerous structural studies have demonstrated that the green GFP-like chromophore represents the ‘core’ structure, which can be extended in red-shifted proteins owing to modifications of the protein backbone at the first chromophore-forming position. Here, the three-dimensional structures of green laGFP (λ{sub ex}/λ{sub em} = 502/511 nm) and red laRFP (λ{sub ex}/λ{sub em} ≃ 521/592 nm), which are fluorescent proteins (FPs) from the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Chordata), were determined together with the structure of a red variant laRFP-ΔS83 (deletion of Ser83) with improved folding. Lancelet FPs are evolutionarily distant and share only ∼20% sequence identity with cnidarian FPs, which have been extensively characterized and widely used as genetically encoded probes. The structure of red-emitting laRFP revealed three exceptional features that have not been observed in wild-type fluorescent proteins from Cnidaria reported to date: (i) an unusual chromophore-forming sequence Gly58-Tyr59-Gly60, (ii) the presence of Gln211 at the position of the conserved catalytic Glu (Glu222 in Aequorea GFP), which proved to be crucial for chromophore formation, and (iii) the absence of modifications typical of known red chromophores and the presence of an extremely unusual covalent bond between the Tyr59 C{sup β} atom and the hydroxyl of the proximal Tyr62. The impact of this covalent bond on the red emission and the large Stokes shift (

  2. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  3. Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David L.; T-Raissi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This final report describes the R&D activities and projects conducted for NASA under the 6-year NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities grant program. Contained within this report are summaries of the overall activities, one-page description of all the reports funded under this program and all of the individual reports from each of the 29 projects supported by the effort. The R&D activities cover hydrogen technologies related to production, cryogenics, sensors, storage, separation processes, fuel cells, resource assessments and education. In the span of 6 years, the NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities program funded a total of 44 individual university projects, and employed more than 100 faculty and over 100 graduate research students in the six participating universities. Researchers involved in this program have filed more than 20 patents in all hydrogen technology areas and put out over 220 technical publications in the last 2 years alone. This 6 year hydrogen research program was conducted by a consortium of six Florida universities: Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida State University (FSU) and Florida A&M University (FAMU) in Tallahassee, University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, University of South Florida (USF) in Tampa, and University of Florida (UF) in Gainesville. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida managed the research activities of all consortium member universities except those at the University of Florida. This report does not include any of the programs or activities conducted at the University of Florida, but can be found in NASA/CR-2008-215440-PART 1-3.

  4. The retinoic acid signaling pathway regulates anterior/posterior patterning in the nerve cord and pharynx of amphioxus, a chordate lacking neural crest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva, Hector; Holland, Nicholas D.; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Laudet, Vincent; Holland, Linda Z.

    2002-01-01

    Amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, has a notochord, segmental axial musculature, pharyngeal gill slits and dorsal hollow nerve cord, but lacks neural crest. In amphioxus, as in vertebrates, exogenous retinoic acid (RA) posteriorizes the embryo. The mouth and gill slits never form, AmphiPax1, which is normally downregulated where gill slits form, remains upregulated and AmphiHox1 expression shifts anteriorly in the nerve cord. To dissect the role of RA signaling in patterning chordate embryos, we have cloned the single retinoic acid receptor (AmphiRAR), retinoid X receptor (AmphiRXR) and an orphan receptor (AmphiTR2/4) from amphioxus. AmphiTR2/4 inhibits AmphiRAR-AmphiRXR-mediated transactivation in the presence of RA by competing for DR5 or IR7 retinoic acid response elements (RAREs). The 5' untranslated region of AmphiTR2/4 contains an IR7 element, suggesting possible auto- and RA-regulation. The patterns of AmphiTR2/4 and AmphiRAR expression during embryogenesis are largely complementary: AmphiTR2/4 is strongly expressed in the cerebral vesicle (homologous to the diencephalon plus anterior midbrain), while AmphiRAR expression is high in the equivalent of the hindbrain and spinal cord. Similarly, while AmphiTR2/4 is expressed most strongly in the anterior and posterior thirds of the endoderm, the highest AmphiRAR expression is in the middle third. Expression of AmphiRAR is upregulated by exogenous RA and completely downregulated by the RA antagonist BMS009. Moreover, BMS009 expands the pharynx posteriorly; the first three gill slit primordia are elongated and shifted posteriorly, but do not penetrate, and additional, non-penetrating gill slit primordia are induced. Thus, in an organism without neural crest, initiation and penetration of gill slits appear to be separate events mediated by distinct levels of RA signaling in the pharyngeal endoderm. Although these compounds have little effect on levels of AmphiTR2/4 expression, RA

  5. Dengue in Florida (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Rey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Florida (USA, particularly the southern portion of the State, is in a precarious situation concerning arboviral diseases. The geographic location, climate, lifestyle, and the volume of travel and commerce are all conducive to arbovirus transmission. During the last decades, imported dengue cases have been regularly recorded in Florida, and the recent re-emergence of dengue as a major public health concern in the Americas has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of imported cases. In 2009, there were 28 cases of locally transmitted dengue in Key West, and in 2010, 65 cases were reported. Local transmission was also reported in Martin County in 2013 (29 cases, and isolated locally transmitted cases were also reported from other counties in the last five years. Dengue control and prevention in the future will require close cooperation between mosquito control and public health agencies, citizens, community and government agencies, and medical professionals to reduce populations of the vectors and to condition citizens and visitors to take personal protection measures that minimize bites by infected mosquitoes.

  6. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  7. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Florida. The state of Florida has 67 regular school districts as well as additional special districts comprised of developmental research schools and other schools that serve special populations. In 1973, the Florida Legislature adopted the Florida Education Finance…

  8. Characterization of bbtTICAM from amphioxus suggests the emergence of a MyD88-independent pathway in basal chordates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ManyiYang; ShaochunYuan; Shengfeng Huang; Jun Li; Liqun Xu; Huiqing Huang; Xin Tao; Jian peng; Anlong Xu

    2011-01-01

    The MyD88-independent pathway,one of the two crucial TLR signaling routes,Is thought to be a vertebrate innovation.However,a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) adaptor,designated bbtTICAM,which was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus,links this pathway to invertebrates.The protein architecture of bbtTICAM is similar to that of vertebrate TICAM1 (TIR-containing adaptor molecule-1,also known as TRIF),while phylogenetic analysis based on the TIR domain indicated that bbtTICAM is the oldest ortholog of vertebrate TICAMI and TICAM2(TIR-containing adaptor molecule-2,also known as TRAM).Similar to human TICAM1,bbtTICAM activates NF-κB in a MyD88-independent manner by interacting with receptor interacting protein (RIP) via its RHIM motif.Such activation requires bbtTICAM to form homodimers in endosomes,and it may be negatively regulated by amphioxus SARM (sterile a and armadillo motif-containing protein) and TRAF2.However,bbtTICAM did not induce the production of type I interferon.Thus,our study not only presents the ancestral features of vertebrate TICAM I and TICAM2,but also reveals the evolutionary origin of the MyD88-independent pathway from basal chordates,which will aid in understanding the development of the vertebrate TLR network.

  9. Retinoic acid signaling targets Hox genes during the amphioxus gastrula stage: insights into early anterior-posterior patterning of the chordate body plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Demian; Holland, Nicholas D; Sémon, Marie; Alvarez, Susana; de Lera, Angel Rodriguez; Laudet, Vincent; Holland, Linda Z; Schubert, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies of vertebrate development have shown that retinoic acid (RA) signaling at the gastrula stage strongly influences anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning of the neurula and later stages. However, much less is known about the more immediate effects of RA signaling on gene transcription and developmental patterning at the gastrula stage. To investigate the targets of RA signaling during the gastrula stage, we used the basal chordate amphioxus, in which gastrulation involves very minimal tissue movements. First, we determined the effect of altered RA signaling on expression of 42 genes (encoding transcription factors and components of major signaling cascades) known to be expressed in restricted domains along the A-P axis during the gastrula and early neurula stage. Of these 42 genes, the expression domains during gastrulation of only four (Hox1, Hox3, HNF3-1 and Wnt3) were spatially altered by exposure of the embryos to excess RA or to the RA antagonist BMS009. Moreover, blocking protein synthesis with puromycin before adding RA or BMS009 showed that only three of these genes (Hox1, Hox3 and HNF3-1) are direct RA targets at the gastrula stage. From these results we conclude that in the amphioxus gastrula RA signaling primarily acts via regulation of Hox transcription to establish positional identities along the A-P axis and that Hox1, Hox3, HNF3-1 and Wnt3 constitute a basal module of RA action during chordate gastrulation. PMID:19914237

  10. Hox genes are not always Colinear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sara Monteiro, David E.K. Ferrier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The deuterostomes are the clade of animals for which we have the most detailed understanding of Hox cluster organisation. With the Hox cluster of amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae we have the best prototypical, least derived Hox cluster for the group, whilst the urochordates present us with some of the most highly derived and disintegrated clusters. Combined with the detailed mechanistic understanding of vertebrate Hox regulation, the deuterostomes provide much of the most useful data for understanding Hox cluster evolution. Considering both the prototypical and derived deuterostome Hox clusters leads us to hypothesize that Temporal Colinearity is the main constraining force on Hox cluster organisation, but until we have a much deeper understanding of the mechanistic basis for this phenomenon, and know how widespread across the Bilateria the mechanism(s is/are, then we cannot know how the Hox cluster of the last common bilaterian operated and what have been the major evolutionary forces operating upon the Hox gene cluster.

  11. Florida annual general canvass statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains annual quantities and value for all seafood products that are landed and sold by established seafood dealers and brokers in Florida. These...

  12. Teaching CPR to Florida's Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnes, Jill W.; Crone, Ernest G.

    1980-01-01

    A program in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction for Florida's school children is described. Program guidelines and support services are detailed for other schools wishing to implement such a program. (JN)

  13. South Florida Sports Fishing Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information on the number and distribution of recreational fishing trips off of the coast of Southern Florida.

  14. Florida Panther Reintroduction Feasibility Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary and final report of a Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission study to evalaute initial stocking of mountain lion populations in northern...

  15. Spaceport Florida Authority: Business Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Spaceport Florida Authority (SFA) was established under Florida Statute by the Governor and Legislature to assist the development of our nation's space transportation industry and to generate new space-related jobs, investment and opportunities statewide. Included in the Authorities' business plan is the statement of work and list of team members involved in creating the report, SFA's current operating concept, market analysis, assessment of accomplishments, a sample operating concept and a "roadmap to success".

  16. 文昌鱼SMYD家族基因的系统进化分析%Phylogenetic Analysis of the Amphioxus SMYD Gene Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭泉阳; 李红岩

    2015-01-01

    SMYD( SET and MYND domain containing,SMYD)是一类含有SET功能域的蛋白,在染色体的调节、基因的表达、细胞生长周期的控制、细胞的分裂、分化及发育等方面具有重要作用。目前已知在果蝇、脊椎动物中均含有Smyd基因,且这些基因的进化、表达及功能均有很多研究,但关于脊索动物SMYD家族基因的研究则很少。本文对头索动物文昌鱼的基因组进行搜索,发现文昌鱼有6个可能的Smyd基因。对Smyd基因在染色体上的位置分析结果显示:文昌鱼Smyd相关基因同其他已经研究过的物种如爪蟾、小鼠、人等一样,均是散在分布于不同的染色体上。对这些基因的功能域的分析结果显示:文昌鱼的3个Smyd基因,斑马鱼的2个Smyd基因和人的4个Smyd基因除了含有SET功能域之外,还有另外一个SCOP功能域。基因结构的分析表明:脊椎动物的基因结构比较保守,但无脊椎动物及脊索动物的基因结构则保守性较差。而系统进化分析的结果则显示,文昌鱼Smyd相关的6个基因中只有两个与其他物种同源性较高,其余四个则相对较低。本文旨在对文昌鱼SMYD家族基因进行初步的系统进化分析,但脊索动物文昌鱼的Smyd基因在体内到底执行什么样的功能,其功能又是如何实现的,都有待于进一步研究。%SMYD( SET and MYND domain containing,SMYD) are a class of proteins containing the SET func-tional domains. They play an important role in the regulation of chromosomal gene expression,cell cycle con-trol, cell division, differentiation and development. It is known that drosophila and vertebrates contain Smyd genes and scholars have done much research on the expression, function and evolution of these genes. Howev-er, research on the chordate SMYD family genes is limited. This article searched the cephalochordate amphioxus genome and found that amphioxus had six possible Smyd genes. Analysis of the functional

  17. 78 FR 43881 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site, Davie, Broward County, Florida; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site, Davie, Broward County, Florida; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement with Jap. Tech, Inc. concerning the Florida Petroleum... Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocesssors Site by...

  18. AcEST: BP920045 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1_SCHPO Putative regulator of V-ATPase in vacuolar membrane protein 1 OS=Schizosaccharomyces pombe GN=ra...nt) OS=Felis silves... 33 7.0 >tr|B6NT37|B6NT37_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein (Fragment) OS=Branchiostoma florida...YN3|B6NYN3_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein (Fragment) OS=Branchiostoma floridae GN=BRAFLDRAFT_239184 ...B6LHB2_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein (Fragment) OS=Branchiostoma floridae GN=BRAFLDRAFT_206286 PE=4...DECSGANGGCAQACANTISSFYCSC 922 >tr|B6KZ70|B6KZ70_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein (Fragment) OS=Branchiostoma floridae

  19. Proteomic characterization and evolutionary analyses of zona pellucida domain-containing proteins in the egg coat of the cephalochordate, Branchiostoma belcheri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Qianghua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zona pellucida domain-containing proteins (ZP proteins have been identified as the principle constituents of the egg coat (EC of diverse metazoan taxa, including jawed vertebrates, urochordates and molluscs that span hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary divergence. Although ZP proteins generally contain the zona pellucida (ZP structural modules to fulfill sperm recognition and EC polymerization functions during fertilization, the primary sequences of the ZP proteins from the above-mentioned animal classes are drastically different, which makes it difficult to assess the evolutionary relationships of ZP proteins. To understand the origin of vertebrate ZP proteins, we characterized the egg coat components of Branchiostoma belcheri, an invertebrate species that belongs to the chordate subphylum Cephalochordata. Results Five ZP proteins (BbZP1-5 were identified by mass spectrometry analyses using the egg coat extracts from both unfertilized and fertilized eggs. In addition to the C-terminal ZP module in each of the BbZPs, the majority contain a low-density lipoprotein receptor domain and a von Willebrand factor type A (vWFA domain, but none possess an EGF-like domain that is frequently observed in the ZP proteins of urochordates. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immuno-histochemical analyses of B. belcheri ovaries showed that the five BbZPs are synthesized predominantly in developing eggs and deposited around the extracellular space of the egg, which indicates that they are bona fide egg coat ZP proteins. BbZP1, BbZP3 and BbZP4 are significantly more abundant than BbZP2 and BbZP5 in terms of gene expression levels and the amount of mature proteins present on the egg coats. The major ZP proteins showed high polymorphism because multiple variants are present with different molecular weights. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between the ZP proteins from cephalochordates, urochordates and vertebrates

  20. Pipelines jockey to serve Florida gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Florida Gas Transmission Corp. (FGT), Houston, appears to have taken the lead in competition to serve Florida's growing gas markets. Florida Power and Light (FPL), Miami, decided to reserve transportation capacity on FGT's proposed Phase III expansion rather than the Sun Coast pipeline proposed by United Gas Pipe Line Co. (UGPL), Houston, and Coastal Corp. unit ANR Pipeline Co., Detroit (OGJ, Aug. 31, p. 31). Withdrawal of FPL, Florida's largest electric utility, from Sun Coast left the proposed 560 mile, 400 MMcfd intrastate gas transmission pipeline with only one major prospective client, Florida Power Corp., St. Petersburg. That forces UGPL and ANR to dissolve the partnership

  1. Intussusception in a Florida manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, D J; White, F H; Woodard, J C; Thompson, N P

    1975-10-01

    An intussusception resulting from an embedded fishhook and a mass of nylon cord, monofilament line, and wire was determined to be the cause of death in a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Pathologic findings are given along with information on bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda), pesticide residues (DDE, PCB's and dieldrin), and parasites (Chiorchis fabaceus). PMID:1195505

  2. CLONING OF QINGDAO AMPHIOXUS HEDGEHOG GENE,A MOLECULE INVOLVED IN INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING OF DEVELOPMENT%青岛文昌鱼发育信号传导相关基因hedgehog的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛炳宇; 张燕君; 张红卫

    2001-01-01

    hedgehog家族基因在动物胚胎多种发育过程的信号传导中起着关键作用.采用简并引物、套式PCR和RT-PCR方法获得青岛文昌鱼hedgehog基因片段,并对其所推测的氨基酸序列与hh基因家族成员小鼠Shh、Ihh、Dhh,鸡、爪蟾和斑马鱼Shh及果蝇hh等的相应片段进行同源性分析.它们的同源性分别为56%,53%,50%,53%,53%,53%和45%.研究结果支持文昌鱼具有1个,可能也仅有1个hedgehog家族基因.%The degenerate primers were designed according to the conserved sequences of hedgehog gene family. A single hh gene fragment of Qindao amphioxus was cloned by PCR and RT-PCR. The homology analysis of deduced amino acid sequence showed that Qingdao amphioxus hh had 56%, 53%, 50%, 53%, 53%, 53% and 45% similarities with mouse Shh, Ihh, Dhh, chick, Xenopus, zebrafish Shh, and Drosophila hh respectively. The results showed that amphioxus contained one and probably only one hh gene.

  3. 2008 NWFWMD (Northwest Florida Water Management District) Florida LiDAR: Inland Okaloosa County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of inland Okaloosa County, Florida not covered in the 2008 Florida Department of Emergency...

  4. Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhar, Sara E.; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A.

    2009-01-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the ...

  5. Benthic Habitats of Estero Bay Area, Florida 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data produced for the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) in partnership with the South Florida Water...

  6. Benthic Habitats of Estero Bay Area, Florida 1999 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data produced for the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) in partnership with the South Florida Water...

  7. Benthic Habitats of Estero Bay Area, Florida 1999 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data produced for the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) in partnership with the South Florida Water...

  8. Commissioner's Roundtable for Women in Educational Leadership in Florida. Proceedings (Tallahassee, Florida, November 20, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The proceedings of this roundtable discuss the current status of Florida women in educational leadership and ways to expand their opportunities for advancement. The report begins with an introduction and opening remarks by Florida's Assistant Commissioner of Education, Laurey T. Stryker and Florida Commissioner of Education, Betty Castor. A…

  9. Florida Has Power-Library Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Mixon, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the Florida Power-Library School (FPLS) program. She describes the why, who, what and how of the Florida Power-Library School initiative, as well as the favorable results for schools. Schools successfully completing this process see relationships among staff and community members strengthened. Library media…

  10. Lessons Learned from the Florida Teletraining Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Barbara L.; And Others

    The Florida Teletraining Project (FTP) was funded by the Department of Defense to test the feasibility of using a video teletraining network (VTT) (two-way audio/two-way compressed video) to present military instruction to reservists in Florida. The program was to be conducted by two-year community colleges in collaboration with armed forces…

  11. Budget Cuts Cast Shadow over Florida's Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    While colleges across the nation are coping with the recession, public universities in Florida, a state with finances that resemble a Ponzi scheme, have spent years doing without. The recession hit Florida early, and in a big way. Without an income tax, state government has long depended on property and sales taxes. As real estate and tourism have…

  12. THE COMPARISON OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF LANCELETS Branchiostoma belcheri Tsingtaunese CULTURED UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS%不同环境条件下文昌鱼耗氧的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嫣; 朱锦天

    2002-01-01

    文昌鱼 ( Branchiostoma belcheri Tsingtauense Tchang et Koo)属于脊索动物门 ( Chordata)头索动物亚门 ( Cephalochordata)文昌鱼科 ( Branchiostomidae). 在系统演化上 , 它是介于无脊椎动物到脊椎动物的过渡类型 . 据 Carrol 1988年认为文昌鱼是和脊椎动物亲 缘关系最近的现存的无脊椎动物 [9]. 因此它成为了研究脊椎动物起源的珍贵材料 . 文昌鱼也 有一定的经济价值 , 其营养丰富 , 味道鲜美 . 但是据方永强等 1978年的调查结果 , 由于栖息 环境改变和环境污染 , 近年来文昌鱼种群及数量都在锐减 [6]. 为了保护这种具有特殊学术意 义的动物 , 开展全人工养殖的研究是十分必要和急需的 .

  13. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  14. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides. PMID:19392675

  15. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Mammal Research: Exotic Ungulates in Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review, of the exotic ungulate industry in Florida was made by mailing questionnaires to exotic ungulate permittees, phone interviews, interviews with exotic...

  17. Permit Review - Florida Gas Transmission Company (FGT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Branch of Air Quality Permit Review for Florida Gas Transmission Company and their expansion of Compressor Station Number 10 in Wiggins, Mississippi. The facility...

  18. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and...

  19. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  20. Peninsular Florida future scenarios integrated project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a integrated scenario project to the Florida state line that incorporates updated critical land and water identification project layers with a decision...

  1. Mercury contamination in Florida panthers [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a result of the death of an apparently healthy, radio-collared female Florida panther (Felis concolor qoryi) (FP#27) in Everglades National Park in July 1989, we...

  2. Benthic Habitats of the Florida Keys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic habitats of the Florida Keys were mapped from a series of 450 aerial photographs. Ecologists outlined the boundaries of specific habitat types by...

  3. 2004 St. Johns County, Florida Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is the bare earth lidar data for St. Johns County, Florida, acquired in early January and February of 2004. This data was collected to develop...

  4. Contaminant concentrations in Florida raptor eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inviable eggs from the nests of Florida bald eagles and ospreys were collected opportunistically from 1987 through 1989. Egg contents were analyzed for...

  5. 2006 Volusia County Florida LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is the lidar data for Volusia County, Florida, approximately 1,432 square miles, acquired in early March of 2006. A total of 143 flight lines of Lidar...

  6. Insecticide tolerance of Culex nigripalpus in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boike, A H; Rathburn, C B; Floore, T G; Rodriguez, H M; Coughlin, J S

    1989-12-01

    Larval susceptibility tests of Culex nigripalpus populations from various areas of Florida have shown resistance to several organophosphorus insecticides since 1984. Although the degree of resistance is low (2 to 7 times), it can be termed tolerance and appears to be the greatest for fenthion, followed by temephos, naled and malathion. It is suggested that pesticide runoff from lawns, golf courses and agricultural and urban areas may play a role in developing resistance in Florida mosquito populations. PMID:2614401

  7. Geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Robert B.; Vacher, H. L.; Shinn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses the geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys, and focuses on the islands formed of Pleistocene limestone. These islands, which are crossed when driving from Miami to Key West, are typically regarded as "the Florida Keys." The outstanding and fragile character of ecosystems on and around the Florida Keys has prompted State and Federal efforts to protect and preserve the remaining public portions of the region. The Florida Keys were largely ignored during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, although the waters just offshore provided a major shipping thoroughfare to and from the New World. The Florida Keys are now recognized as one of the great recreational and environmental resources of the United States. The islands are outposts of a laid-back, tropical resort culture that has as its foundation warmth and clear water. A significant part of the attraction is fishing, diving, and boating around the area's coral reefs, which the islands protect. But the reefs were not always so highly valued. The Florida Keys that have protected the reefs for millennia, may now be the source of the agents that may accomplish what Agassiz thought was beyond man's power a century ago.

  8. 2005 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Manatee District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  9. 33 CFR 165.728 - Jacksonville, Florida-safety zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. (d) The Captain of the Port Jacksonville, Florida will activate... (STJ) and its berth inside the Mayport Basin (Ribault Bay), Mayport, Florida. The prescribed...

  10. Florida State University superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As early as the fall of 1977 it was decided that the future research needs of their nuclear structure laboratory required an increase in energy capability to at least 8 MeV per nucleon for the lighter ions, and that these needs could be met by the installation of a 17 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The chief problem with this proposal was the high cost. It became apparent that a far less expensive option was to construct a linear accelerator to boost the energy from their existing 9 MV tandem. The options open to them among linac boosters were well represented by the room temperature linac at Heidelberg and the superconducting Stony Brook and Argonne systems. By the Spring of 1979 it had been decided that both capital cost and electric power requirements favored a superconducting system. As regards the two superconducting resonator technologies - the Argonne niobium-copper or the Caltech-Stony Brook lead plated copper - the Argonne resonators, though more expensive to construct, had the advantages of more boost per resonator, greater durability of the superconducting surface and less stringent beam bunching requirements. In 1980 pilot funding from the State of Florida enabled the construction of a building addition to house the linac and a new target area, and the setting up of a small, three resonator, test booster. Major funding by the NSF for the laboratory upgrade started in 1984. With these funds they purchased their present helium liquefaction and transfer system and constructed three large cryostats, each housing four Argonne beta = 0.105 resonators and two superconducting solenoids. The last large cryostat was completed and installed on-line early this year and the linac was dedicated on March 20. Nuclear physics experiments using the whole linac began in early June. 4 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  11. Florida Progress Corporation 1991 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florida Progress Corporation is a utility holding company with assets of 5 billion dollars. Its principal subsidiary is the Florida Power Corporation; others are the Electric Fuels Corporation, the Mid-Continent Life Assurance Company, the Talquin Corporation, the Progress Credit Corporation and Advanced Separation Technologies Incorporated. The annual report describes achievements during the year. To meet growing energy demand Florida Power is building new peaking and base-load generating units, purchasing power from neighbouring utilities and cogenerators, and building more bulk power transmission line capacity in the state. Emphasis has been placed on meeting load growth by demand-site management. Attention is given to balancing energy needs with concerns for the environment, and there is an award-winning recycling program. The Electric Fuels Corporation major area of business is coal mining and transportation services. Advanced Separation Technologies has sold several of its patented ion separation machines. The report includes consolidated financial statements for the year ended 31 December 1991

  12. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for... tomatoes grown in Florida. Assessments upon Florida tomato handlers are used by the Committee to...

  13. Water Use in Florida, 2005 and Trends 1950-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Water is among Florida's most valued resources. The State has more than 1,700 streams and rivers, 7,800 freshwater lakes, 700 springs, 11 million acres of wetlands, and underlying aquifers yielding quantities of freshwater necessary for both human and environmental needs (Fernald and Purdum, 1998). Although renewable, these water resources are finite, and continued growth in population, tourism, and agriculture will place increased demands on these water supplies. The permanent population of Florida in 2005 totaled 17.9 million, ranking fourth in the Nation (University of Florida, 2006); nearly 86 million tourists visited the State (Orlando Business Journal, 2006). In 2005, Florida harvested two-thirds of the total citrus production in the United States and ranked fifth in the Nation net farm income (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2006). Freshwater is vital for sustaining Florida's population, economy, and agricultural production. Accurate estimates reflecting water use and trends in Florida are compiled in 5-year intervals by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the Northwest Florida, St. Johns River, South Florida, Southwest Florida, and Suwannee River Water Management Districts (Marella, 2004). This coordinated effort provides the necessary data and information for planning future water needs and resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present the highlights of water use in Florida for 2005 along with some significant trends in withdrawals since 1950.

  14. An Analysis of Florida Physical Educators' Knowledge of Bicycle Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Daniel P.; Egberts, John B.; Spengler, J. O.; Zhang, James J.; Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Bicycling among youth is a popular activity, but like all modes of travel it is not without risk. Florida has a particularly high rate of bicycle-related fatalities and injuries. To reduce such risks, the Florida Department of Transportation and Florida Department of Education have developed a youth bicycle safety educational program (Florida…

  15. 7 CFR 915.332 - Florida avocado maturity regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Florida avocado maturity regulation. 915.332 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Container and Pack Regulations § 915.332 Florida avocado maturity regulation....

  16. 7 CFR 915.305 - Florida Avocado Container Regulation 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Florida Avocado Container Regulation 5. 915.305... AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Container and Pack Regulations § 915.305 Florida Avocado Container Regulation 5. (a) No handler shall handle any avocados for the fresh market from the production area to...

  17. Landscape Analysis of Adult Florida Panther Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Frakes

    Full Text Available Historically occurring throughout the southeastern United States, the Florida panther is now restricted to less than 5% of its historic range in one breeding population located in southern Florida. Using radio-telemetry data from 87 prime-aged (≥3 years old adult panthers (35 males and 52 females during the period 2004 through 2013 (28,720 radio-locations, we analyzed the characteristics of the occupied area and used those attributes in a random forest model to develop a predictive distribution map for resident breeding panthers in southern Florida. Using 10-fold cross validation, the model was 87.5 % accurate in predicting presence or absence of panthers in the 16,678 km2 study area. Analysis of variable importance indicated that the amount of forests and forest edge, hydrology, and human population density were the most important factors determining presence or absence of panthers. Sensitivity analysis showed that the presence of human populations, roads, and agriculture (other than pasture had strong negative effects on the probability of panther presence. Forest cover and forest edge had strong positive effects. The median model-predicted probability of presence for panther home ranges was 0.81 (0.82 for females and 0.74 for males. The model identified 5579 km2 of suitable breeding habitat remaining in southern Florida; 1399 km2 (25% of this habitat is in non-protected private ownership. Because there is less panther habitat remaining than previously thought, we recommend that all remaining breeding habitat in south Florida should be maintained, and the current panther range should be expanded into south-central Florida. This model should be useful for evaluating the impacts of future development projects, in prioritizing areas for panther conservation, and in evaluating the potential impacts of sea-level rise and changes in hydrology.

  18. Biodiversity in a Florida Sandhill Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Robertson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This project compares two transects of land in the University of South Florida's Botanical Gardens for their biodiversity. The transects were chosen to represent a Florida sandhill ecosystem and the individual Longleaf Pine, Saw Palmetto, Turkey Oak, Laurel Oak and Live Oak specimens were counted. All other species above waist height were counted as "other"?. Once the individuals were counted, the Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indices were calculated. Since the Shannon-Wiener index incorporates several diversity characteristics, it is typically more reliable than Simpson's. However, both biodiversity indices agreed that transect B was more diverse than transect A.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of tropomyosin in amphioxus%文昌鱼tropomyosin基因的克隆、进化分析及其胚胎发育与成体中的表达模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忻怡; 林浴霜; 张红卫

    2012-01-01

    In amphioxus, we found a mesoderm related gene, tropomyosin, which encodes a protein comprising 284 amino acid residues, sharing high identities with other known Tropomyosin proteins both in vertebrates and invertebrates. Phylogenetically, amphioxus Tropomyosin fell outside the invertebrate clade and was at the base of the vertebrate protein family clade, indicating that it may represent an independent branch. From the early neurula to the larva stage, whole-mount in situ hybridization and histological sections found transcripts of amphioxus tropomyosin gene. Weak tropomyosin expression was first detected in the wall of the archenteron at about 10 hours-post-fertilization neurula stage, while intense expression was revealed in the differentiating presumptive notochord and the muscle. Transcripts of tropomyosin were then expressed in the formed notochord and somites. Gene expression seemed to continue in these developing organs throughout the neurular stages and remained till 72-hours, during the early larval stages. In situ study still showed tropomyosin was also expressed in the neural tube, hepatic diverticulum, notochord and the spaces between myotomes in adult amphioxus. Our results indicated that tropomyosin may play an important role in both embryonic development and adult life.%Tropomyosin是一种分布广泛而且在进化上十分保守的蛋白,是肌肉形成和收缩过程中重要的调节蛋白质.通过RT-PCR和RACE技术得到文昌鱼tropomyosin基因全长,编码一个含284个氨基酸残基的蛋白质,将文昌鱼Tropomyosin和在其他物种中的同源物进行比对建树,发现其在功能域上高度保守并且只有一个拷贝,符合动物分类学中各物种的进化地位.胚胎整体原位杂交实验得知,tropomyosin在文昌鱼早期发育的表达,最早从原肠胚末期神经胚早期开始,定位于分化中的中内胚层.到神经胚期,tropomyosin的表达出现在发育中的体节和脊索中.随着发育的进

  20. Southern Florida's River of Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Florida's Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobeeto the Gulf of Mexico. In places this remarkable 'river of grass' is 80 kilometers wide. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer show the Everglades region on January 16, 2002. Each image covers an area measuring 191 kilometers x 205 kilometers. The data were captured during Terra orbit 11072.On the left is a natural color view acquired by MISR's nadir camera. A portion of Lake Okeechobee is visible at the top, to the right of image center. South of the lake, whose name derives from the Seminole word for 'big water,' an extensive region of farmland known as the Everglades Agricultural Area is recognizable by its many clustered squares. Over half of the sugar produced in United States is grown here. Urban areas along the east coast and in the northern part of the image extend to the boundaries of Big Cypress Swamp, situated north of Everglades National Park.The image on the right combines red-band data from the 46-degree backward, nadir and 46-degree forward-viewing camera angles to create a red, green, blue false-color composite. One of the interesting uses of the composite image is for detecting surface water. Wet surfaces appear blue in this rendition because sun glitter produces a greater signal at the forward camera's view angle. Wetlands visible in these images include a series of shallow impoundments called Water Conservation Areas which were built to speed water flow through the Everglades in times of drought. In parts of the Everglades, these levees and extensive systems such as the Miami and Tamiami Canals have altered the natural cycles of water flow. For example, the water volume of the Shark River Slough, a natural wetland which feeds Everglades National Park, is influenced by the Tamiami Canal. The unique and intrinsic value of the Everglades is now widely recognized, and efforts to restore the natural

  1. 2004 - 2008 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar Project: Southwest Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a topographic survey conducted for a coalition of GIS practitioners, including the Florida Division of...

  2. 2007 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar Project: Southwest Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a topographic survey conducted for a coalition of GIS practitioners, including the Florida Division of...

  3. Richard Florida : loovsektor on majanduskasvu mootor / Richard Florida ; interv. Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Florida, Richard

    2008-01-01

    USA majandus- ja ühiskonnateadlane Richard Florida loovklassi teooriast, selle osast majanduskasvu tagamisel, seosest ühiskonna tolerantsuse ja ühiskonna majandusliku edukuse vahel, sotsiaalse sidususe takistavast rollist loovuse motiveerimisel

  4. An ecological characterization of the Florida Panhandle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, S.H.; Reidenauer, J.A.; Means, D.B.

    1988-10-01

    The Florida Panhandle extends from the Ochlockonee River basin west to the Florida-Alabama border and north to the Georgia and Alabama borders; it contains some of the most rapidly developing regions in the entire State. Because of the damaging effects of development, some attention must be given to the region's estuaries, coast, wetlands, and to habitats of endemic species. Development has already damaged some of these areas as well as the seagrass beds and oyster reefs of the western panhandle area. Other potentially affected areas include native upland ecosystems, salt marshes, river floodplains, and steephead areas. Research, growth management legislation, and consideration of the Florida Panhandle ecosystem as a whole are all necessary to ensure the future of the different Florida Panhandle areas. No steps can be taken or decisions made for their longevity until certain data gaps are filled; the gaps range from biological baseline studies of estuaries to the local impacts of rising sea level. 38 refs., 95 figs., 49 tabs.

  5. Faculty Salaries: Florida Community Colleges, Fall 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    Information on the salaries of full-time professional personnel is presented in this report for each of the 28 Florida community colleges. Six tables are included, covering: (1) scheduled salary ranges for instructional personnel, showing the minimum and maximum salaries for each official salary schedule used to pay instructional staff; (2) annual…

  6. 40 CFR 81.310 - Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Clearwater areas are maintenance areas for the 1-hour NAAQS for purposes of 40 CFR part 51 subpart X. Florida.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 81.310 see the List of CFR Sections Affected.../92 Unclassifiable The area encompassed within a radius of (5) kilometers centered at UTM...

  7. 77 FR 42352 - Florida Disaster #FL-00072

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00072 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925... Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC...

  8. 78 FR 48763 - Florida Disaster #FL-00090

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00090 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  9. South Florida embraces waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that some regions have prepared for these days of disposal shortage with comprehensive waste plans that include a strong WTE presence. Witness Broward County, Florida's program, 12 years in planning by public and private entities, Broward is the second most populated county in the state, with 1.3 million residents and a heavy tourist population, which, together, produce 1.6 million tons of waste annually. The disposal program includes Waste Management, Inc.'s expansion of a 400-acre Central Disposal Sanitary Landfill, the county's new 588-acre landfill, composting, and curbside pickup for recyclables. And, this south Florida plan would not be complete without the two brand new combustion plants. Clean Air and Water Acts notwithstanding, the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation can induce standards stricter than the federal government's due to the sensitive South Florida ecology. Wheelabrator was prepared for all eventualities with its design which uses state-of-the-art scrubbers, bag houses, and monitoring to track and capture the trace amounts of lead, cadmium, and mercury, which end up in the ash. In fact, tests at other Wheelabrator facilities using similar technology showed that heavy metals in leachate from the residue showed up in concentrations as much as 200 times lower than the EPA criteria for toxicity

  10. Decentralization and Educational Reform in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lawrence C.

    In 1973 Florida embarked on an ambitious adventure to improve the quality of public education by decentralizing many aspects of educational decision-making to the school site. The strategy incorporated a comprehensive reform of the state's school finance system, the development of a management information and accounting system, requirements for…

  11. Glossary of Reading Terms for Florida Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This glossary is a compilation of terms commonly used in the area of reading. It is intended to serve as a guide for Florida educators at both the administrative level and the classroom level. Its purpose is to provide a clearer and more accurate means of communication and to encourage more consistent usage and understanding of the reading terms…

  12. Florida Teachers' Attitudes about Teaching Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Samantha R.; Meisels, Gerry G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of Florida teachers reveals many differences in comfort level with teaching evolution according to the state's science teaching standards, general attitudes and beliefs about evolution, and the extent to which teachers are criticized, censured, disparaged, or reprehended for their beliefs about the teaching of evolution.

  13. Commercial Refrigeration Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    The program guide for commercial refrigeration technology courses in Florida identifies primary considerations for the organization, operation, and evaluation of a vocational education program. Following an occupational description for the job title for refrigeration mechanic, and its Dictionary of Occupational Titles code, are six sections…

  14. Management of watermelon vine decline in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), the causal agent of watermelon vine decline (WVD) in Florida, is vectored by the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Biotype “B”). Watermelon plants mechanically inoculated at different growth stages from transplant to fruit formation with SqVYV developed WVD sy...

  15. Intervention with Haitian Entrants in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmayer, Susan M.; And Others

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the Haitian Perinatal Intervention Project, which provided services to Haitian women and children in south Florida. The project's goals were to help Haitian mothers obtain health services for themselves and their infants and to provide information concerning child care and cognitive stimulation.…

  16. Florida Residents' Preferred Approach to Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Although there is widespread support for sexuality education, whether to use an abstinence-only or comprehensive approach is hotly debated. This study assessed Florida residents preferred approach to school-based sexuality education. The 641 respondents were selected by random digit dialing, using methods to ensure ethnic and geographic…

  17. USGS research on Florida's isolated freshwater wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Arturo E.; Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Metz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has studied wetland hydrology and its effects on wetland health and ecology in Florida since the 1990s. USGS wetland studies in Florida and other parts of the Nation provide resource managers with tools to assess current conditions and regional trends in wetland resources. Wetland hydrologists in the USGS Florida Water Science Center (FLWSC) have completed a number of interdisciplinary studies assessing the hydrology, ecology, and water quality of wetlands. These studies have expanded the understanding of wetland hydrology, ecology, and related processes including: (1) the effects of cyclical changes in rainfall and the influence of evapotranspiration; (2) surface-water flow, infiltration, groundwater movement, and groundwater and surfacewater interactions; (3) the effects of water quality and soil type; (4) the unique biogeochemical components of wetlands required to maintain ecosystem functions; (5) the effects of land use and other human activities; (6) the influences of algae, plants, and invertebrates on environmental processes; and (7) the effects of seasonal variations in animal communities that inhabit or visit Florida wetlands and how wetland function responds to changes in the plant community.

  18. College-Level Testing in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, Myron R.

    1986-01-01

    The faculties of the postsecondary institutions in Florida, using the authority of the State Board of Education, have implemented a testing program that increases the assurance that all students who complete their sophomore year in college have achieved the communication and computation skills expected of them. (Author/MLW)

  19. Orimulsion fails to come to Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, J.

    1998-10-01

    On 24th June the Governor of Florida and his Cabinet voted 6-1 against the use of Venezuelan-produced Orimulsion. The state`s biggest utility, Florida Power and Light (FPL), had been seeking permission for its use for almost four years in its 1,600 megawatt (MW) Manatee county power plant south of Tampa. It was a landmark decision. The use of Orimulsion - a fossil fuel made of natural bitumen, to which water and a surfactant is added to turn it into an emulsion - was being contemplated on a commercial basis in the United States for the first time. The legal, economic and environmental factors behind this decision are given with an analysis of why Orimulsion, forecast to be the 1990s major new fuel, has not succeeded as predicted.

  20. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  1. Genetic restoration of the Florida panther.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Warren E; Onorato, David P; Roelke, Melody E; Land, E Darrell; Cunningham, Mark; Belden, Robert C; McBride, Roy; Jansen, Deborah; Lotz, Mark; Shindle, David; Howard, JoGayle; Wildt, David E; Penfold, Linda M; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Oli, Madan K; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2010-09-24

    The rediscovery of remnant Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in southern Florida swamplands prompted a program to protect and stabilize the population. In 1995, conservation managers translocated eight female pumas (P. c. stanleyana) from Texas to increase depleted genetic diversity, improve population numbers, and reverse indications of inbreeding depression. We have assessed the demographic, population-genetic, and biomedical consequences of this restoration experiment and show that panther numbers increased threefold, genetic heterozygosity doubled, survival and fitness measures improved, and inbreeding correlates declined significantly. Although these results are encouraging, continued habitat loss, persistent inbreeding, infectious agents, and possible habitat saturation pose new dilemmas. This intensive management program illustrates the challenges of maintaining populations of large predators worldwide. PMID:20929847

  2. Certification of solar products - The Florida experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POST,HAROLD N.; ROLAND,JAMES D.; VENTRE,GERARD G.; HUGGINS,JAMES C.

    2000-02-02

    Florida legislation enacted in 1976 directed the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to develop standards for solar energy systems manufactured or sold in the state, establish criteria for testing the performance of solar energy systems, and provide a means to display compliance with approved performance tests for these systems. This mandate has been effectively implemented for both solar domestic water heating and solar pool heating systems. With growing interest and markets for photovoltaic systems, plans are presently being developed to expand the scope of the mandate to include photovoltaic technology. This paper discusses four complementary facets of a photovoltaic (PV) system certification program. They include PV module performance characterization and rating; PV system design review and approval; examination and authorization of photovoltaic system installers; and inspection and acceptance testing of PV system installation. The suggested photovoltaic system process builds on lessons learned from over 20 years of testing, certifying and labeling of solar thermal collectors, and the certification of solar thermal systems.

  3. Certification of solar products - The Florida experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florida legislation enacted in 1976 directed the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to develop standards for solar energy systems manufactured or sold in the state, establish criteria for testing the performance of solar energy systems, and provide a means to display compliance with approved performance tests for these systems. This mandate has been effectively implemented for both solar domestic water heating and solar pool heating systems. With growing interest and markets for photovoltaic systems, plans are presently being developed to expand the scope of the mandate to include photovoltaic technology. This paper discusses four complementary facets of a photovoltaic (PV) system certification program. They include PV module performance characterization and rating; PV system design review and approval; examination and authorization of photovoltaic system installers; and inspection and acceptance testing of PV system installation. The suggested photovoltaic system process builds on lessons learned from over 20 years of testing, certifying and labeling of solar thermal collectors, and the certification of solar thermal systems

  4. Food Waste Auditing at Three Florida Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ann C. Wilkie; Ryan E. Graunke; Camilo Cornejo

    2015-01-01

    School cafeterias are a significant source of food waste and represent an ideal opportunity for diverting food waste from landfills. In this study, cafeteria waste audits were conducted at three Florida schools. Food waste comprised the largest fraction of school cafeteria waste streams, ranging from 47% to 58%, followed by milk, paper products (tissue, milk cartons, pasteboard, paper plates, and cardboard), and plastics (plastic wrap, packaging, and utensils). Metal and glass comprised the s...

  5. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E.; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via...

  6. Light $O^{++}$ Mesons: Scalargators in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Light scalar mesons abound in hadron processes, like the alligators in the Florida Everglades. Moreover, scalars are intimately tied to the vacuum structure of QCD. They are the product of many decays. Consequently, a rich source of recent information about them has come from experiments producing heavy flavour mesons. Indeed, scalars will continue to dominate many of the processes to be studied at forthcoming facilities like BESIII in Beijing, FAIR at GSI Darmstadt and the GlueX experiment a...

  7. Searching for Paradise in the Florida Everglades

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the process by which the cultural history of Royal Palm Hammock, the most visited site within Everglades National Park, Florida, informs the landscape's natural history. To understand this process, I analyze the scientific literature, including naturalists' fieldwork reports, surveys, fieldnotes and other archival material spanning the late 1800s to the mid-1930s, as well as ethnographic interviews conducted with local Everglades hunters who depended ...

  8. Winter Habitat Preferences for Florida Manatees and Vulnerability to Cold

    OpenAIRE

    Laist, David W.; Taylor, Cynthia; Reynolds, John E.

    2013-01-01

    To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provi...

  9. Accelerated sea level rise and Florida Current transport

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J.; Sweet, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Florida Current is the headwater of the Gulf Stream and is a component of the North Atlantic western boundary current from which a geostrophic balance between sea surface height and mass transport directly influence coastal sea levels along the Florida Straits. A linear regression of daily Florida Current transport estimates does not find a significant change in transport over the last decade; however, a nonlinear trend extracted from empirical mode decomposition...

  10. The Cost of Employment Discrimination against Transgender Residents of Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor NT; Herman, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    The State of Florida spends more than a half million dollars each year as the result of employment discrimination against transgender residents. Currently, 10 counties and 14 cities in Florida have ordinances prohibiting discrimination based on gender identity in public and private sector employment, but nearly 22,000 transgender adult residents are not covered by these laws. Employment discrimination against transgender adults in Florida costs the state an estimated $570,000 annually in stat...

  11. IMPACT OF SPATIAL PRICE DISCRIMINATION WITHIN FLORIDA DAIRY COOPERATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Nubern, Christopher A.; Kilmer, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The trend toward deregulation and the relatively high prices in the Florida milk market have increased competition for milk supplies between Florida dairy cooperatives (FDCs) and other cooperatives like Dairymen Incorporated and Southern Milk Sales. Because of the increased competition in the Florida markets, the FDCs may need to implement a discriminatory spatial pricing policy. The discriminatory pricing policy allows the FDCs to expand their membership by absorbing some of the transportati...

  12. Larra bicolor Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae): its distribution throughout Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, J. Howard; Leppla, Norman C.; Sprenkel, Richard K.; Blount, Ann C.; Mizell, Russ F.

    2009-01-01

    We document the presence of Larra bicolor Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in 46 of Florida's 67 counties. The species is represented by two stocks. The first (released in 1981) originated in Pará, Brazil, but was obtained from Puerto Rico, and became established in Broward County in southern Florida. The second (released in 1988) originated in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, and became established in Alachua County in northern Florida. The Bolivian stock, aided by additional satellite ...

  13. Florida Red Tides, Manatee Brevetoxicosis, and Lung Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Colbert, Debborah E.; Dalpra, Dana; Newton, Elizabeth A. C.; Gaspard, Joseph; Littlefield, Brandi; Manire, Charles

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, 149 Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris, died along the southwest coast of Florida. Necropsy pathology results of these animals indicated that brevetoxin from the Florida red tide, Karenia brevis, caused their death. A red tide bloom had been previously documented in the area where these animals stranded. The necropsy data suggested the mortality occurred from chronic inhalation and/or ingestion. Inhalation theories include high doses of brevetoxin deposited/stored in th...

  14. Accelerated sea level rise and Florida Current transport

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J.; W. Sweet

    2015-01-01

    The Florida Current is the headwater of the Gulf Stream and is a component of the North Atlantic western boundary current from which a geostrophic balance between sea surface height and mass transport directly influence coastal sea levels along the Florida Straits. A linear regression of daily Florida Current transport estimates does not find a significant change in transport over the last decade, however, a nonlinear trend extracted from empirical mode dec...

  15. Masticophis flagellum selects florida scrub habitat at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of space by individual animals strongly influences the spatial extent, abundance, and growth rates of their populations. We analyzed the spatial ecology and habitat selection of Masticophis flagellum (the coachwhip) at three different scales to determine which habitats are most important to this species. Home ranges and mean daily displacements of M. flagellum in Florida were large compared to individuals in other populations of this species. Home ranges contained a greater proportion of Florida scrub habitat than did the study site as a whole, and individuals selected Florida scrub habitat within their home ranges. For both selection of the home range within the study site and selection of habitats within the home range, mesic cutthroat and hydric swamp habitats were avoided. Standardized selection ratios of Florida scrub patches were positively correlated with lizard abundance. Several non-mutually exclusive mechanisms, including foraging success (prey abundance, prey vulnerability, and foraging efficiency), abundance of refugia, and thermoregulatory opportunity may underlie the selection of Florida scrub by M. flagellum. Historic rarity and anthropogenic loss and fragmentation of Florida scrub habitat, coupled with the long-distance movements, large home ranges, and selection of Florida scrub by M. flagellum, indicate that large contiguous tracts of land containing Florida scrub will be essential for the persistence of M. flagellum in central Florida. ?? 2009 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  16. Florida Bay: A history of recent ecological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, J.W.; Robblee, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Florida Bay is a unique subtropical estuary at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. Recent ecological changes (seagrass die-off, algal blooms, increased turbidity) to the Florida Bay ecosystem have focused the attention of the public, commercial interests, scientists, and resource managers on the factors influencing the structure and function of Florida Bay. Restoring Florida Bay to some historic condition is the goal of resource managers, but what is not clear is what an anthropogenically-unaltered Florida Bay would look like. While there is general consensus that human activities have contributed to the changes occurring in the Florida Bay ecosystem, a high degree of natural system variability has made elucidation of the links between human activity and Florida Bay dynamics difficult. Paleoecological analyses, examination of long-term datasets, and directed measurements of aspects of the ecology of Florida Bay all contribute to our understanding of the behavior of the bay, and allow quantification of the magnitude of the recent ecological changes with respect to historical variability of the system.

  17. 2012 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Lake Manatee

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Information System (GIS). Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) regularly uses digital topographic information to support regulatory, land...

  18. Larval abundance, distribution, and spawning habits of spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) in Florida Bay, Everglades National Park, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Allyn B.

    2003-01-01

    The spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) is one of the most sought after recreational fish in Florida Bay, and it spends its entire life history within the bay (Rutherford et al.,1989b). The biology of adult spotted seatrout in Florida Bay is well known (Rutherford et al., 1982, 1989b) as is the distribution and abundance of juveniles within the bay. The habitats and diets of juveniles are well documented (Hettler, 1989; Chester and Thayer, 1990; Thayer et al., 1999; Florida Department o...

  19. South Florida Ecosystem Program: quantifying freshwater discharge for coastal hydraulic control structures in eastern Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Amit; Swain, Eric D.

    1996-01-01

    The South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program is an intergovernmental effort, involving a number of agencies, to reestablish and maintain the ecosystem of south Florida. One element of the restoration effort is the development of a firm scientific basis for resource decision making. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the agencies, provides scientific information as part of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program. The USGS began their ow program, called the South Florida Ecosystem Program, in fiscal year 1995 for the purpose of gathering hydrologic, cartographic, and geologic data that relate to the mainland of south Florida, Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys and Reef ecosystems. As part of the South Florida Ecosystem Program, the USGS, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), has conducted a study to determine discharge ratings for 16 coastal hydraulic control structures in eastern Dade County, Fla. (fig. 1 ). Discharge data are needed to quantify water that can be made available for water supply and ecosystem restoration and to calibrate regional hydrologic models.

  20. 75 FR 54657 - University of Florida; University of Florida Training Reactor; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... UFTR. In addition, samples are collected of water, soil, and vegetation at twenty-two locations within...-central part of Florida about midway between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. The reactor is housed in a vault-type building which serves as a confinement. The Nuclear Reactor Building and its...

  1. Florida manatee avoidance technology: A pilot program by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Katherine; Haubold, Elsa

    2003-10-01

    Since 1976, approximately 25% of the annual Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) mortality has been attributed to collisions with watercraft. In 2001, the Florida Legislature appropriated $200,000 in funds for research projects using technological solutions to directly address the problem of collisions between manatees and watercraft. The Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission initially funded seven projects for the first two fiscal years. The selected proposals were designed to explore technology that had not previously been applied to the manatee/boat collision problem and included many acoustic concepts related to voice recognition, sonar, and an alerting device to be put on boats to warn manatees. The most promising results to date are from projects employing voice-recognition techniques to identify manatee vocalizations and warn boaters of the manatees' presence. Sonar technology, much like that used in fish finders, is promising but has met with regulatory problems regarding permitting and remains to be tested, as has the manatee-alerting device. The state of Florida found results of the initial years of funding compelling and plans to fund further manatee avoidance technology research in a continued effort to mitigate the problem of manatee/boat collisions.

  2. California avocados in Florida? Finding the perfect avocado for production in East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a high-value fruit where most U.S. consumption is supplied using imported product. Cultivars with good fruit quality and horticultural traits may provide a useful alternative crop in east-central Florida and possibly in other locations throughout the state. A port...

  3. 78 FR 9307 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the assessment... the marketing order which regulates the handling of tomatoes grown in Florida. Assessments...

  4. 77 FR 44648 - Florida; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... affected by this major disaster: Baker, Bradford, Columbia, Pasco, and Wakulla Counties for Individual... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Florida; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Florida (FEMA-4068-DR), dated July 3, 2012, and...

  5. Florida's Adult Homeless Literacy Training & Basic Skills Assistance Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    Some facts about the homeless population in Florida are the following: (1) 40,000 persons in Florida are homeless on any given day, with 40 percent of the total being families; (2) 65 percent are new homeless (not chronic); (3) 30 percent of the homeless are addicted to drugs or alcohol and 20 percent are mentally ill; (4) causes of homelessness…

  6. Update on Sensory Evaluation of University of Florida Strawberry Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Florida strawberry breeding program has evaluated eating quality of fruit from advanced selections using sensory taste panels. Selections FL 05-107, FL 06-38 and FL 09-127 were compared with the commercial cultivars ‘Strawberry Festival’ and FLorida Radiance’ during two consecutive...

  7. Dengue Outbreak in Key West, Florida, USA, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Gregory, Christopher J.; Kintziger, Kristina W.; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Gallagher, Glen R.; Barber, Jean M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Stanek, Danielle R.; Tomashek, Kay M.; Blackmore, Carina G.M.

    2012-01-01

    After 3 dengue cases were acquired in Key West, Florida, we conducted a serosurvey to determine the scope of the outbreak. Thirteen residents showed recent infection (infection rate 5%; 90% CI 2%–8%), demonstrating the reemergence of dengue in Florida. Increased awareness of dengue among health care providers is needed.

  8. Support for Research and Service in Florida Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Tina M.; Henry, Deborah B.

    2007-01-01

    Following a 2003 survey that benchmarked the research and publication activities of Florida librarians, administrative support for these efforts was investigated. Library administrators were asked to identify various types and funding levels of travel and research assistance. Results suggest that Florida librarians receive support comparable to…

  9. Fighting Back: The Fate of the State in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumonville, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Florida has been one of the states hit hardest by the recent financial crisis. Since 2007, Florida State University (FSU) administration says, the university's budget has been cut by over $38 million. The state budget approved by the legislature on May 8, 2009, requires FSU to make another cut of more than $43 million from the institution's…

  10. 33 CFR 110.186 - Port Everglades, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Everglades, Florida. 110.186... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.186 Port Everglades, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds. The... entrance to Port Everglades, is an area bounded by a line connecting points with the following...

  11. 7 CFR 1006.2 - Florida marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Florida marketing area. 1006.2 Section 1006.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order...

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of the Fox (Forkhead) gene family in the Bilateria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, Francoise; Yu, Jr Kai; Liberles, David A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Shimeld, Sebastian M.

    2003-01-01

    The Forkhead or Fox gene family encodes putative transcription factors. There are at least four Fox genes in yeast, 16 in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and 42 in humans. Recently, vertebrate Fox genes have been classified into 17 groups named FoxA to FoxQ. Here, we extend this analysis to invertebrates, using available sequences from D. melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae (Ag), Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce), the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis (Ci) and amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae (Bf), from which we also cloned several Fox genes. Phylogenetic analyses lend support to the previous overall subclassification of vertebrate genes, but suggest that four subclasses (FoxJ, L, N and Q) could be further subdivided to reflect their relationships to invertebrate genes. We were unable to identify orthologs of Fox subclasses E, H, I, J, M and Q1 in D. melanogaster, A. gambiae or C. elegans, suggesting either considerable loss in ecdysozoans or the evolution of these subclasses in the deuterostome lineage. Our analyses suggest that the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes had a minimum complement of 14 Fox genes.

  13. Physical Characterization of Florida International University Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HANSEN, ERICHK.

    2004-08-19

    Florida International University shipped Laponite, clay (bentonite and kaolin blend), and Quality Assurance Requirements Document AZ-101 simulants to the Savannah River Technology Center for physical characterization and to report the results. The objectives of the task were to measure the physical properties of the fluids provided by FIU and to report the results. The physical properties were measured using the approved River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant characterization procedure [Ref. 1]. This task was conducted in response to the work outlined in CCN066794 [Ref. 2], authored by Gary Smith and William Graves of RPP-WTP.

  14. Light $O^{++}$ Mesons: Scalargators in Florida

    CERN Document Server

    Pennington, M R

    2010-01-01

    Light scalar mesons abound in hadron processes, like the alligators in the Florida Everglades. Moreover, scalars are intimately tied to the vacuum structure of QCD. They are the product of many decays. Consequently, a rich source of recent information about them has come from experiments producing heavy flavour mesons. Indeed, scalars will continue to dominate many of the processes to be studied at forthcoming facilities like BESIII in Beijing, FAIR at GSI Darmstadt and the GlueX experiment at JLab, making an understanding (or at least an excellent and theoretically consistent description) essential for the physics missions of these facilities.

  15. Enfermedades del Aguacate en La Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens H. E.

    1942-04-01

    Full Text Available El aguacate cultivado bajo las condiciones ambienciales de La Florida, está sujeto a ser atacado por varias enfermedades parasitarias. Algunas de estas son de menor importancia y no requieren métodos de represión especiales; otras al contrario son más severas y requieren atención cada año; y otras además están sujetas a las condiciones climatológicas, y su intensidad dependerá principalmente de las condiciones meteorológicas durante algunos períodos críticos en el crecimiento del árbol.

  16. Prescribed Fire is Cool on Florida Highway

    OpenAIRE

    Caster, Jeff; McBurney, Willson; Farley, Patricia; Rodriguez, Rose; Green, Lane; McGorty, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Though unprecedented in the sunshine state, plans for a prescribed fire on US319/SR61, Kate Ireland Parkway in north Florida sparked enthusiasm and excitement among roadside managers. The recently expanded high speed corridor passes for ten miles through the Red Hills Region (www.ttrs.org/rhcp); a rural landscape that is host to America’s largest remnant of the great longleaf pine forest (www.longleafalliance.org). Prescribed fire is a necessary and popular landscape management tool used by g...

  17. Light O++ Mesons: Scalargators in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light scalar mesons abound in hadron processes, like the alligators in the Florida Everglades. Moreover, scalars are intimately tied to the vacuum structure of QCD. They are the product of many decays. Consequently, a rich source of recent information about them has come from experiments producing heavy flavour mesons. Indeed, scalars will continue to dominate many of the processes to be studied at forthcoming facilities like BESIII in Beijing, FAIR at GSI Darmstadt and the GlueX experiment at JLab, making an understanding (or at least an excellent and theoretically consistent description) essential for the physics missions of these facilities.

  18. 77 FR 74923 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and South Florida...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... December 18, 2012 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and South Florida Inland Flowing Waters; Water Quality...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF21 Water Quality Standards for the State of...

  19. Eating quality of old and new university of Florida strawberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Florida strawberry breeding program has developed cultivars highly adapted to west-central Florida since the 1970s. In this trial, four advanced selections and 11 released cultivars, from ‘Florida Belle’ (1975) to ‘Florida Radiance’ (2008), were grown in a randomized complete block...

  20. 7 CFR 915.306 - Florida avocado grade, pack, and container marking regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Florida Avocados (7 CFR 51.3050 through 51.3069). ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Florida avocado grade, pack, and container marking... AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Container and Pack Regulations § 915.306 Florida avocado...

  1. History and Status of Eucalyptus Improvement in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Rockwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first organized Eucalyptus research in Florida was begun by the Florida Forests Foundation in 1959 in southern Florida. This research was absorbed by the USDA Forest Service and the Florida Division of Forestry in 1968. In the early 1970s, the Eucalyptus Research Cooperative formed to provide additional support emphasized E. grandis, E. robusta, E. camaldulensis, and E. tereticornis and developed cultural practices for commercial plantations in southern Florida. In 1978, this cooperative united with the Hardwood Research Cooperative at North Carolina State University until 1985 when the 14-year effort ended after three severe freezes from 1983 to 1985. Eucalyptus planting and research were continued with a Florida-wide focus by the University of Florida and collaborators starting in 1980. The collective accomplishments in terms of genetic resources and commercial planting are summarized. For example, fast-growing, freeze-resilient E. grandis seedlings are produced by advanced generation seed orchards, five E. grandis cultivars are commercially available, as are E. amplifolia and Corymbia torelliana seeds. Genetic improvement of these and other species is ongoing due to beneficial collaborations. Short Rotation Woody Crop systems are promising for increasing productivity and extending uses beyond conventional pulpwood to applications such as windbreaks, dendroremediation, and energy wood.

  2. ASK Florida; a climate change education professional development program for middle school teachers in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    A series of professional development workshops covering the fundamentals of climate change have been developed and facilitated for two groups of middle school science teachers in three Florida counties. The NASA-supported joint venture between Florida State University's Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) and the University of South Florida's (USF's) Coalition for Science Literacy, ASK Florida, focuses on expanding and deepening teachers' content knowledge of a wide range of climate change topics, connecting local and regional changes to the global picture, and supporting classroom implementation and effective teaching practices. Education experts from USF, climate scientists from COAPS, and Hillsborough county teachers and science coaches coordinated and developed the workshop content, which is based on Florida's Next Generation Sunshine State Standards in science, science curriculum guides for 6th grade, and teacher interest. Several scientists have facilitated activities during the workshop, including professors in meteorology and climatology, research scientists in the field, a NOAA program manager, the state climatologists for Florida, and others. Having these climate scientists present during the workshop provides teachers an opportunity to interact directly with the scientists and gain insight into the climatology field. Additionally, we host an open-forum discussion panel during which teachers can ask the experts about any topics of interest. Activities are designed to enhance the scientific skill level of the teachers. Introductory activities reinforce teachers' abilities to distinguish facts from opinions and to evaluate sources. Other activities provide hands-on experience using actual scientific data from NASA and other agencies. For example, teachers analyze precipitation data to create distributions of Florida rainfall, examine sea level trends at various locations, identify Atlantic hurricane frequencies during the phases of ENSO

  3. Potential Impacts of Avocado Imports from Mexico on the Florida Avocado Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nalampang, Sikavas; Tantiwongampai, Wirusana; Evans, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in agricultural policies shape the way markets and industries react. A recent policy issue expecting to have impacts on Florida Greenskin avocado industry is an entry of Mexican Hass avocados to all states in the United States in 2007. After 93 years of banning Mexican Hass avocados in Florida, the allowance of Hass variety from Mexico to Florida in 2007 may lead a different path to the Florida Greenskin avocado industry. This research addresses this issue by incorporating Florida avo...

  4. Economic Analysis of the Florida Minimum Wage Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette Wicks-Lim; Mark D. Brenner; Robert Pollin

    2004-01-01

    On the November 2004 ballot, citizens of Florida will have the opportunity to vote on a proposal to raise the statewide minimum wage to $6.15 per hour. The measure also calls for tipped workers getting a raise from the current federal mandate of $2.13 to $3.13. The measure includes an automatic cost-of-living adjustment, by which further raises in the statewide minimum wage would occur automatically at the national inflation rate. If Florida voters approve this measure, Florida will become th...

  5. Integrated Science: Florida Manatees and Everglades Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.; Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Slone, Daniel H.; Decker, Jeremy; Butler, Susan M.; Doyle, Terry; Snow, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting and monitoring restoration effects on Florida manatees, which are known to make extended movements, will be incomplete if modeling and monitoring are limited to the smaller areas defined by the various res-toration components. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) efforts, thus far, have focused on (1) collecting manatee movement data throughout the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) region, and (2) developing an individual-based model for manatees to illustrate manatee responses to changes in hydrology related to the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (PSRP). In 2006, new regional research was begun to extend an Everglades hydrology model into the TTI region; extend the manatee movement model into the southern estuaries of Everglades National Park (ENP); and integrate hydrology and manatee data, models, and monitoring across the TTI region and ENP. Currently (2008), three research tasks are underway to develop the necessary modeling components to assess restoration efforts across the Greater Everglades Ecosystem.

  6. Contaminant concentrations in manatees in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Moore, J.F.; Kochman, H.I.

    1984-01-01

    The status of the endangered manatee (Trichehus manatus) in relation to organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, lead, cadmium, copper, iron, and selenium was investigated in Florida from 1977 to 1981. Concentrations of organochlorines in blubber, mercury in muscle and liver, lead in liver, and lead and cadmium in kidneys did not indicate high exposure to these contaminants. Only cadmium in kidneys showed a positivde correlation with relative age. Copper concentrations in livers of these aquatic herbivores were significantly elevated in areas of high herbicidal copper usage after adjustment for significant age-related effects. Liver copper concentrations comparable to those associated with toxic effects in some domestic species were found in manatees from areas of high copper herbicide use. The use of copper herbicides for control of aquatic plants should be carefully managed in areas used intensively by manatees.

  7. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  8. Richard Florida: Cities and the creative class

    OpenAIRE

    Brodnjak, Mirela

    2008-01-01

    En interpellant une nouvelle génération de chercheurs et d’urbanistes, dans son essai très controversé « Cities and the creative class », Richard Florida annonce sa théorie humaniste selon laquelle la compétitivité, la croissance et le développement des villes ou des régions ne dépendent plus de leur proximité aux matières premières alimentant les industries et la densité de leurs réseaux de communications, mais plutôt de leur capacité à attirer et à conserver les travailleurs créatifs, scien...

  9. The American Crocodile in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkiss, Michael S.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive crocodile monitoring programs conducted during the late 1970s and early 1980s in southern Florida resulted in an optimistic outlook for recovery of the protected species population. However, some areas with suitable crocodile habitat were not investigated, such as Biscayne Bay and the mainland shorelines of Barnes and Card Sounds. The objective of our study was to determine status and habitat use of crocodiles in the aforementioned areas. Spotlight and nesting surveys were conducted from September 1996 to December 2005. The results revealed annual increases in the number of crocodiles. Crocodiles preferred protected habitats such as canals and ponds. Fewer crocodiles were observed in higher salinity water. The distribution and abundance of crocodilians in estuaries is directly dependent on timing, amount, and location of freshwater delivery, providing an opportunity to integrate habitat enhancement with ongoing ecosystem restoration and management activities.

  10. Hotel Polynesian Village Florida- (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welton Becket y Asociados, Arquitectos

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available This hotel unit with 500 rooms is located in a beautiful plot situated along the beach of a laguna in Disneyland, Florida. It consists of 10 individual pavilions, two units with two stories and six with three stories, in addition to a main building with two stories —offices, W.C.s, bar shops, banquet halls, etc.— and a monorail station connected with the covered passages, and with a view of the beautiful horizon that reminds one of the South Sea in the last century. The building for the guests is formed by metal structure modules of 9.10 x 4.50 x 2.70 m, that are placed on top of each other. Each one weighs 7 t and they are all completely equipped.Este conjunto hotelero, de 500 habitaciones, se halla enclavado en un hermoso solar situado a lo largo de la playa de una laguna del Mundo de Walt Disney, en Florida. Consta de diez pabellones individuales, dos unidades de dos plantas y seis de tres alturas, además de un edificio principal de dos plantas —oficinas, servicios, bar, tiendas, salones de banquetes, etc.— y una estación del monorraíl enlazada con los paseos cubiertos con vistas al bello horizonte, que recuerda el de los Mares del Sur, en el siglo pasado. Los edificios para huéspedes están formados por módulos de 9,14 X 4,57 X 2,74 m, con estructura metálica, que se colocan uno sobre otro. Cada uno pesa 7 t y van completamente equipados con todas sus instalaciones necesarias.

  11. Key West, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Key West, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  12. 2007 Northwest Water Manangement District Lidar: Gadsden County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management...

  13. South Florida Seagrass Fish and Invertebrate Assessment Network (FIAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The South Florida Fish and Invertebrate Assessment Network (FIAN) is a monitoring project within the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). It is an...

  14. POPS IN ALLIGATOR LIVERS FROM LAKE APOPKA, FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive disorders in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida, have been observed for several years. Such disorders are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disrupting contaminants occurring in the Lake due to pesticide spills and ...

  15. Environmental Contaminants Evaluation of St. Andrew Bay, Florida: Volume 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 1985 and 1997, a general survey of St. Andrew Bay, Florida, was conducted to measure chemical contaminant concentrations in the sediments and selected...

  16. The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study, Grain Size Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study was funded by NOAA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Program. Dr. L.J. Doyle produced grain size analyses in...

  17. 2008 Florida Division of Emergency Management Lidar: Middle Suwannee River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR Survey for the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD), Florida. The LiDAR aerial acquisition was conducted in January of 2008, and the breaklines...

  18. 3 Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Found in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160740.html 3 Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Found in Florida A first for continental U.S.; 95 other tested mosquitoes Zika-free, officials say To use the sharing features ...

  19. Seagrass from Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (NODC Accession 0123059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a subset of the Unified Map representing Seagrass areas. Version 1.1 - December 2013. The Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (Unified Reef Map) provides...

  20. Architecture of the Florida Power Grid as a Complex Network

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yan; Rikvold, Per Arne

    2013-01-01

    We study the Florida high-voltage power grid as a technological network embedded in space. Measurements of geographical lengths of transmission lines, the mixing of generators and loads, the weighted clustering coefficient, as well as the organization of edge conductance weights show a complex architecture quite different from random-graph models usually considered. In particular, we introduce a parametrized mixing matrix to characterize the mixing pattern of generators and loads in the Florida Grid, which is intermediate between the random mixing case and the semi-bipartite case where generator-generator transmission lines are forbidden. Our observations motivate an investigation of optimization (design) principles leading to the structural organization of power grids. We thus propose two network optimization models for the Florida Grid as a case study. Our results show that the Florida Grid is optimized not only by reducing the construction cost (measured by the total length of power lines), but also throug...

  1. MODIS water quality algorithms for northwest Florida estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synoptic and frequent monitoring of water quality parameters from satellite is useful for determining the health of aquatic ecosystems and development of effective management strategies. Northwest Florida estuaries are classified as optically-complex, or waters influenced by chlo...

  2. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  3. Daytona Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Daytona Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  4. Lower Florida Keys National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Lower Florida Keys NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the refuges' vision...

  5. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  6. Gadsden, a Florida County in Word and Picture

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Company A of the Fourth Florida Infantry was mustered into Confederate service at Fort Mallory on St. Vincent's Island. Most of their first year of service was...

  7. Water-management models in Florida from LANDSAT-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higer, A. L.; Cordes, E. H.; Coker, A. E.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    ERTS-1 is described as a near real time, data relay system for south Florida water quantity and quality monitoring. An ecological model of the Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park is also presented.

  8. Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  9. Accelerated sea level rise and Florida Current transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Sweet, W.

    2015-07-01

    The Florida Current is the headwater of the Gulf Stream and is a component of the North Atlantic western boundary current from which a geostrophic balance between sea surface height and mass transport directly influence coastal sea levels along the Florida Straits. A linear regression of daily Florida Current transport estimates does not find a significant change in transport over the last decade; however, a nonlinear trend extracted from empirical mode decomposition (EMD) suggests a 3 Sv decline in mean transport. This decline is consistent with observed tide gauge records in Florida Bay and the straits exhibiting an acceleration of mean sea level (MSL) rise over the decade. It is not known whether this recent change represents natural variability or the onset of the anticipated secular decline in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC); nonetheless, such changes have direct impacts on the sensitive ecological systems of the Everglades as well as the climate of western Europe and eastern North America.

  10. Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus If confirmed, cases would be first instances of ... Broward County, north of Miami. Infection with the Zika virus, which in most cases is transmitted by mosquitoes, ...

  11. EVALUATION OF THE COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA LANDFILL MINING DEMONSTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the landfill mining process as demonstrated under the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program by the Collier County (Florida) Solid Waste Management Department. Landfill mining is the ...

  12. EVALUATION OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA LANDFILL MINING DEMONSTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the landfill mining process as demonstrated under the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program by the Collier County (Florida) Solid Waste Management Department. Landfill mining is the ...

  13. Geological Study of Monica Pintado mine. Florida town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the geological study carried in Monica Pintado mine in Florida town by photointepretation - scale 1.20.000. In the area were found rocks granites, deep metamorfites and black granite

  14. Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on Florida Panther NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  15. EAARL Coastal Topography-Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2009: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements...

  16. Accelerated sea level rise and Florida Current transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Florida Current is the headwater of the Gulf Stream and is a component of the North Atlantic western boundary current from which a geostrophic balance between sea surface height and mass transport directly influence coastal sea levels along the Florida Straits. A linear regression of daily Florida Current transport estimates does not find a significant change in transport over the last decade; however, a nonlinear trend extracted from empirical mode decomposition (EMD suggests a 3 Sv decline in mean transport. This decline is consistent with observed tide gauge records in Florida Bay and the straits exhibiting an acceleration of mean sea level (MSL rise over the decade. It is not known whether this recent change represents natural variability or the onset of the anticipated secular decline in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC; nonetheless, such changes have direct impacts on the sensitive ecological systems of the Everglades as well as the climate of western Europe and eastern North America.

  17. Accelerated sea level rise and Florida Current transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Florida Current is the headwater of the Gulf Stream and is a component of the North Atlantic western boundary current from which a geostrophic balance between sea surface height and mass transport directly influence coastal sea levels along the Florida Straits. A linear regression of daily Florida Current transport estimates does not find a significant change in transport over the last decade, however, a nonlinear trend extracted from empirical mode decomposition suggests a 3 Sv decline in mean transport. This decline is consistent with observed tide gauge records in Florida Bay and the Straits, all exhibiting an acceleration of mean sea level rise over the decade. It is not known whether this recent change represents natural variability or the onset of the anticipated secular decline in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, nonetheless, such changes have direct impacts on the sensitive ecological systems of the Everglades as well as the climate of western Europe and eastern North America.

  18. A Regional Land Use Drought Index for Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Han Cheng; Fidelia Nnadi; Yuei-An Liou

    2015-01-01

    Drought index is a useful tool to assess and respond to drought. However, current drought indices could not fully reveal land use effects and they have limitations in applications. Besides, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), strongly influences the climate of Florida. Hence, understanding ENSO patterns on a regional scale and developing a new land use drought index suitable for Florida are critical in agriculture and water resources planning and management. This paper presents a 32 km high ...

  19. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Kelen Patrick T; Downs Joni A; Stark Lillian M; Loraamm Rebecca W; Anderson James H; Unnasch Thomas R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005–2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV...

  20. Citrus blackfly in Florida: Eradication or bio-control?

    OpenAIRE

    Tefertiller, Kenneth R.; McKee, Vernon C.; Perry, Vernon G.

    1991-01-01

    The citrus blackfly (CBF) invaded south Florida in January 1976. It was considered by scientists to be a major threat to the Florida citrus industry located in the central part of the state. The CBF was successfully contained in a 1000 square mile tri-county quarantined area surrounding Ft. Lauderdale for several months before breaking out to an area near the commercial citrus production area. During this time federal and state research agencies were evaluating a bio-control approach involvin...

  1. Panthers and Forests in South Florida: an Ecological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Roy T. McBride; Louis J. Gross; Oron L. Bass, Jr.; E. Jane Comiskey; Rene Salinas

    2002-01-01

    The endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) survives in an area of pronounced habitat diversity in southern Florida, occupying extensive home ranges that encompass a mosaic of habitats. Twenty-one years of daytime monitoring via radiotelemetry have provided substantial but incomplete information about panther ecology, mainly because this method fails to capture movement and habitat use between dusk and dawn, when panthers are most active. Broad characterizations of panther habitat su...

  2. Inland Transport of Aerosolized Florida Red Tide Toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Pierce, Richard; Cheng, Yung Sung; Henry, Michael S.; Blum, Patricia; Osborn, Shannon; Nierenberg, Kate; Pederson, Bradley A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Reich, Andrew; Naar, Jerome; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Backer, Lorraine C.; Baden, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Florida red tides, an annual event off the west coast of Florida, are caused by the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins, brevetoxins, which kill fish, sea birds, and marine mammals, as well as sickening humans who consume contaminated shellfish. These toxins become part of the marine aerosol, and can also be inhaled by humans and other animals. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant increase in symptoms and decrease lung function in a...

  3. Review of Florida Red Tide and Human Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Lora E.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C.; Walsh, Cathy J.; Nierenberg, Kate; Clark, John; Reich, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Julie; Benson, Janet; Cheng, Yung Sung; Naar, Jerome; Pierce, Richard; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Abraham, William M.; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature describing research performed over the past decade on the known and possible exposures and human health effects associated with Florida red tides. These harmful algal blooms are caused by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, and similar organisms, all of which produce a suite of natural toxins known as brevetoxins. Florida red tide research has benefited from a consistently funded, long term research program, that has allowed an interdisciplinary team of resea...

  4. Financial Benefits of Florida Generic Orange Juice Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Arthur M.; Canter, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The benefits to Florida orange growers of generic orange juice advertising are assessed using additive, nonlinear, regional econometric models, measuring the impact of category and brand marketing efforts on category demand while controlling for pricing and various other factors. The study shows that generic marketing efforts increased orange juice category demand by 8.3 percent, resulting in increased orange prices and a benefit-to-cost ratio to Florida growers of 3.5 to 1. Branded promotion...

  5. 2007 - 2008 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar Project: Blocks 1 - 10 (Southeast Florida and Keys)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a topographic survey conducted for the State of Florida Division of Emergency Management LiDAR Project....

  6. Large-scale predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Brian A; Wolf, Dan A; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We observed predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on large numbers of Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox) in two small lakes in North Central Florida, USA during a period of unusually low water levels. Carcasses were strewn on the shoreline and accumulated around floating boat docks, where some residents observed turtles being killed. We found 76 carcasses, including predominantly skeletons, and two live, severely injured turtles from one lake; however, numerous remains undoubtedly were unrecovered. The otters frequently eviscerated the turtles and removed the head and one or more appendages, including the phallus of mature males. In skeletal remains, injuries inflicted by otters were nonspecific, indistinguishable from damage caused by scavengers, or easily missed in incomplete carcasses. This report of large-scale mortality of freshwater turtles in Florida suggests that otters could have a significant impact on local turtle populations. PMID:25098299

  7. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Cape Florida, 2005 - 2006 (NODC Accession 0014185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This ongoing project began in 1988. A total of 38 subsurface recording thermographs have been deployed in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS)and at...

  8. 2007 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar: Herbert Hoover Dike Project Area (Southeastern Florida, Lake Okeechobee Surrounding Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was collected by Merrick & Company from September through December of 2007 for the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM). The project area...

  9. Harmful algal toxins of the Florida red tide (Karenia brevis): natural chemical stressors in South Florida coastal ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, R. H.; Henry, M S

    2008-01-01

    The Florida red tide is a descriptive name for high concentrations of the harmful marine alga, Karenia brevis. Although most prevalent along the south-west Florida coast, periodic blooms have occurred throughout the entire US and Mexico Gulf coasts and the Atlantic coast to North Carolina. This dinoflagellate produces a suite of polyether neurotoxins, called brevetoxins, that cause severe impacts to natural resources, as well as public health. These naturally produced biotoxins may represent ...

  10. Age, differential growth and mortality rates in unexploited populations of Florida gar, an apex predator in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murie, D.J.; Parkyn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Herod, J.J.; Loftus, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus DeKay, were sampled in two canal systems in south Florida during 2000-2001 to estimate age, growth and mortality as part of the Everglades ecosystem-restoration effort. Tamiami (C-4) and L-31W canal systems had direct connections to natural wetlands of the Everglades and harboured large Florida gar populations. Of 476 fish aged, maximum ages were 19 and 10years for females and males, respectively. Maximum sizes were also larger for females compared with males (817 vs 602 mm total length). Overall, female Florida gar from both Tamiami and L-31W were larger at age than males from L-31W that, in turn, were larger at any given age than males from Tamiami. Females also had lower rates of annual mortality (Z = 0.21) than males from L-31W (Z = 0.31) or males from Tamiami (Z = 0.54). As a large and long-lived apex predator in the Everglades, Florida gar may structure lower trophic levels. Regional- and sex-specific population parameters for Florida gar will contribute to the simulation models designed to evaluate Everglades restoration alternatives. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Food Waste Auditing at Three Florida Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C. Wilkie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available School cafeterias are a significant source of food waste and represent an ideal opportunity for diverting food waste from landfills. In this study, cafeteria waste audits were conducted at three Florida schools. Food waste comprised the largest fraction of school cafeteria waste streams, ranging from 47% to 58%, followed by milk, paper products (tissue, milk cartons, pasteboard, paper plates, and cardboard, and plastics (plastic wrap, packaging, and utensils. Metal and glass comprised the smallest fraction of the waste stream. Average total waste generation ranged from 50.5 to 137.6 g·student−1·day−1. The mean generation rates for food waste ranged from 24.7 to 64.9 g·student−1·day−1. The overall average for cafeteria waste generation among all three schools was 102.3 g·student−1·day−1, with food waste alone contributing 52.2 g·student−1·day−1. There are two primary approaches to diverting school food waste from landfills: reduction and recycling. Food waste can be reduced through educating students and staff in order to change behaviors that cause food waste. Food waste can be collected and recycled through composting or anaerobic digestion in order to generate beneficial end products, including soil amendments and bioenergy. Over 75% of the cafeteria waste measured in this study could be recycled in this manner.

  12. Deglacial climate variability in central Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.A.; Bernhardt, C.E.; Brooks, G.R.; Cronin, T. M.; Edgar, T.; Larson, R.

    2007-01-01

    Pollen and ostracode evidence from lacustrine sediments underlying modern Tampa Bay, Florida, document frequent and abrupt climatic and hydrological events superimposed on deglacial warming in the subtropics. Radiocarbon chronology on well-preserved mollusk shells and pollen residue from core MD02-2579 documents continuous sedimentation in a variety of non-marine habitats in a karst-controlled basin from 20 ka to 11.5 ka. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), much drier and cooler-than-modern conditions are indicated by pollen assemblages enriched in Chenopodiaceae and Carya, with rare Pinus (Pinus pollen increased to 20–40% during the warming of the initial deglaciation (∼ 17.2 ka), reaching near modern abundance (60–80%) during warmer, moister climates of the Bølling/Allerød interval (14.7–12.9 ka). Within the Bølling/Allerød, centennial-scale dry events corresponding to the Older Dryas and Intra-Allerød Cold Period indicate rapid vegetation response (

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Program on the South Florida Ecosystem; proceedings of South Florida Restoration Science Forum, May 17-19, 1999, Boca Raton, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerould, Sarah; Higer, Aaron

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the forum is to highlight the powerful connection between science and management decisions in restoration efforts. The public's investment in science is paying off in support of better management decisions and restoration of imperiled south Florida Ecosystems, including the internationally recognized, globally significant Everglades. The forum affords a unique opportunity for elected officials and other policy- and decision makers, along with the general public, to see--under one roof--highlights of the most significant restoration science and management efforts underway. The forum promotes the link between science and management. Scientists and decisionmakers will come together to discuss the needs of each in order to ensure that plans for restoration are based in science and are the most cost effective and highest quality possible. Continued vigilance over south Florida ecosystems is essential to prevent further harm and to restore them. Representatives from numerous federal, state, local, and nongovernmental entities are organizing the forum for the Science Coordination Team of the South Florida Ecosystem Working Group. The U.S. Geological Survey and the South Florida Water Management District are the primary hosts of the forum.

  14. Genetic Introgression and the Survival of Florida Panther Kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Nichols, James D; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2010-11-01

    Estimates of survival for the young of a species are critical for population models. These models can often be improved by determining the effects of management actions and population abundance on this demographic parameter. We used multiple sources of data collected during 1982-2008 and a live recapture-dead recovery modeling framework to estimate and model survival of Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) kittens (age 0 - 1 year). Overall, annual survival of Florida panther kittens was 0.323 ± 0.071 (SE), which was lower than estimates used in previous population models. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released into occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression program to restore genetic variability. We found that kitten survival generally increased with degree of admixture: F(1) admixed and backcrossed to Texas kittens survived better than canonical Florida panther and backcrossed to canonical kittens. Average heterozygosity positively influenced kitten and older panther survival, whereas index of panther abundance negatively influenced kitten survival. Our results provide strong evidence for the positive population-level impact of genetic introgression on Florida panthers. Our approach to integrate data from multiple sources was effective at improving robustness as well as precision of estimates of Florida panther kitten survival, and can be useful in estimating vital rates for other elusive species with sparse data. PMID:21113436

  15. 2005 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Little Manatee District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  16. Shifting Diagnostic Systems for Defining Intellectual Disability in Death Penalty Cases: Hall vs. Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Mina; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The case of Hall vs. Florida tested Florida's so called "bright line rule" in determining intellectual disability in capital cases. The Supreme Court Decision reflects a more general trend from categorical to dimensional approaches in psychiatric diagnostic systems.

  17. 2005/2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Peace River South (including Carter Creek)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  18. Hurricane Wilma Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Florida Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida coast after Hurricane Wilma made landfall. The regions photographed range from Key West to Sixmile Bend, Florida....

  19. 2004 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Lake Hancock District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  20. IKONOS Imagery for southern Florida used to map shallow-water seafloor habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, National Park...

  1. Scleria lacustris (Cyperaceae), an aquatic and wetland sedge introduced to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacono, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    A non-native species of Scleria, S. lacustris is reported from six counties and three major hydrologic regions in Florida. Biogeography and habitat in Florida are addressed. A description, key features and illustration are presented.

  2. 2008 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) LiDAR: Inland Okaloosa County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of inland Okaloosa County, Florida not covered in the 2008 Florida Department of Emergency...

  3. 78 FR 57099 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 915 Avocados Grown in South Florida... proposed rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee... of Florida avocados handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order, which...

  4. The synapsin gene family in basal chordates: evolutionary perspectives in metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bernardi Fiorenza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synapsins are neuronal phosphoproteins involved in several functions correlated with both neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. The comprehension of the basal role of the synapsin family is hampered in vertebrates by the existence of multiple synapsin genes. Therefore, studying homologous genes in basal chordates, devoid of genome duplication, could help to achieve a better understanding of the complex functions of these proteins. Results In this study we report the cloning and characterization of the Ciona intestinalis and amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae synapsin transcripts and the definition of their gene structure using available C. intestinalis and B. floridae genomic sequences. We demonstrate the occurrence, in both model organisms, of a single member of the synapsin gene family. Full-length synapsin genes were identified in the recently sequenced genomes of phylogenetically diverse metazoans. Comparative genome analysis reveals extensive conservation of the SYN locus in several metazoans. Moreover, developmental expression studies underline that synapsin is a neuronal-specific marker in basal chordates and is expressed in several cell types of PNS and in many, if not all, CNS neurons. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that synapsin genes are metazoan genes present in a single copy per genome, except for vertebrates. Moreover, we hypothesize that, during the evolution of synapsin proteins, new domains are added at different stages probably to cope up with the increased complexity in the nervous system organization. Finally, we demonstrate that protochordate synapsin is restricted to the post-mitotic phase of CNS development and thereby is a good marker of postmitotic neurons.

  5. Distribution, Hosts, and Morphological Characteristics of Tylenchulus palustris in Florida and Bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, Roberta L.; Inserra, R. N.; Esser, R. P.; Langdon, K. R.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the geographical distribution and hosts of Tylenchulus palustris were conducted over a 3-year period in Florida and Bermuda. Tylenchulus palustris was found on Aster elliottii and Liquidambar styraciflua roots in swamps of northern and central Florida. It was detected also on Borrichia arborescens and B. frutescens roots in tidal marshes of northern Florida and coastal rocklands of southern Florida and Bermuda. Posterior bodies of T. palustris swollen females from Bermuda did not d...

  6. NASA Applied Sciences' DEVELOP National Program: Summer 2010 Florida Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Zachary C.; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    The main agricultural areas in South Florida are located within the fertile land surrounding Lake Okeechobee. The Atlantic Watershed monthly rainfall anomalies showed a weak but statistically significant correlation to the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI). No other watershed s anomalies showed significant correlations with ONI or the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). During La Nina months, less sea breeze days and more disturbed days were found to occur compared to El Nino and neutral months. The increase in disturbed days can likely by attributed to the synoptic pattern during La Nina, which is known to be favorable for tropical systems to follow paths that affect South Florida. Overall, neither sea breeze rainfall patterns nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida s main agricultural areas were found to be strongly influenced by the El Nino Southern Oscillation during our study time.

  7. Funding Florida's Schools: Adequacy, Costs, and the State Constitution. Policy Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, Florida voters passed a unique amendment to the state constitution requiring the state to make "adequate provision...for a uniform, efficient, safe, secure, and high quality system of free public schools." This brief examines how Florida courts are likely to interpret this constitutional amendment and whether Florida's funding system will…

  8. Florida Public Health Training Center: Evidence-Based Online Mentor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Kathryn A.; Alsac-Seitz, Biray; Mescia, Nadine; Brown, Lisa M.; Hyer, Kathy; Liburd, Desiree; Rogoff, David P.; Troutman, Adewale

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an Online Mentor Program (OMP) designed to support and facilitate mentorships among and between Florida Department of Health (FDOH) employees and USF College of Public Health students using a Web-based portal. The Florida Public Health Training Center (FPHTC) at the University of South Florida (USF) College of Public Health…

  9. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... entered into four (4) settlements for past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida...

  10. 78 FR 13339 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement with 2238 NW. 86th Street Inc. concerning the Florida Petroleum... Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocesssors Site by...

  11. 76 FR 20296 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans: Florida; Prevention of Significant Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans: Florida; Prevention of... certain parts of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration construction permit program in Florida... significant emissions rate for mercury in the Florida regulations is intended to apply as a...

  12. 78 FR 3458 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3, Draft Environmental Assessment Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... canal. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), also has been documented at CREC. Designated critical habitat for the Florida manatee is... sawfish.... E Marine Mammals: Trichechus manatus Florida manatee....... E/CH latirostris....

  13. 78 FR 30782 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Change in Minimum Grade Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 915 Avocados Grown in South Florida... prescribed under the Florida avocado marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of avocados grown in South Florida, and is administered locally by the Avocado Administrative Committee...

  14. Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

  15. Winter habitat preferences for Florida manatees and vulnerability to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laist, David W; Taylor, Cynthia; Reynolds, John E

    2013-01-01

    To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provide the first attempt to quantify the proportion of animals using the three principal refuge types (power plants, springs, and passive thermal basins) statewide and for each subpopulation. Statewide across all years, 48.5% of all manatees were counted at power plant outfalls, 17.5% at natural springs, and 34.9 % at passive thermal basins or sites with no known warm-water features. Atlantic Coast and Southwest Florida subpopulations comprised 82.2% of all manatees counted (45.6% and 36.6%, respectively) with each subpopulation relying principally on power plants (66.6% and 47.4%, respectively). The upper St. Johns River and Northwest Florida subpopulations comprised 17.8% of all manatees counted with almost all animals relying entirely on springs (99.2% and 88.6% of those subpopulations, respectively). A record high count of 5,076 manatees in January 2010 revealed minimum sizes for the four subpopulations of: 230 manatees in the upper St. Johns River; 2,548 on the Atlantic Coast; 645 in Northwest Florida; and 1,774 in Southwest Florida. Based on a comparison of carcass recovery locations for 713 manatees killed by cold stress between 1999 and 2011 and the distribution of known refuges, it appears that springs offer manatees the best protection against cold stress. Long-term survival of Florida manatees will require improved efforts to enhance and protect manatee access to and use of warm-water springs as power plant outfalls are shut down. PMID:23527063

  16. Misvotes, undervotes and overvotes: The 2000 presidential election in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Agresti, Alan; Presnell, Brett

    2002-01-01

    The 2000 presidential election was the most controversial U.S. election in recent history, mainly due to the disputed outcome of the election in Florida. Elsewhere in this issue, Richard Smith analyzes the high vote for Pat Buchanan in Palm Beach county. As background for his article, we summarize this and other voting-related issues that may have affected the outcome of the election in Florida, such as the undervote in counties that used a punch-card ballot and the overvote...

  17. Pilot Demonstration of Phased Retrofits in Florida Homes (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and Florida Power and Light are pursuing a collaborative energy research/utility partnership to retrofit a large number of homes using a phased approach. The project is creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of home retrofit - simple and deep. Acting as a pilot, this project is expected to provide the information necessary to significantly reduce energy use through much larger community-scale projects in collaboration with utilities, program administrators and other market leader stakeholders.

  18. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II. Shallow Plus Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The BAPIRC team and Florida Power and Light (FPL) electric utility pursued a pilot phased energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida by creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of retrofit - simple and deep. For this Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, a total of 56 homes spread across the utility partner's territory in east central Florida, southeast Florida, and southwest Florida were instrumented between August 2012 and January 2013, and received simple pass-through retrofit measures during the period of March 2013 - June 2013. Ten of these homes received a deeper package of retrofits during August 2013 - December 2013.

  19. Florida's Manatee. An Educator's Guide. Third Edition Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz-Quincy, Debbie

    This revised and updated guide provides resources for teaching about the Florida manatee, a nearly hairless, thick-skinned marine mammal without hindlimbs and with paddle-like forelimbs. The manatee (an endangered species) is sometimes called a sea cow. The guide includes: (1) a vocabulary list; (2) a list of suggested readings; (3) an annotated…

  20. Florida Tech professor gets three-year grant

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Dr. Marc Baarmand, Florida Tech associate professor of physics, has received a three-year grant from the U.S. Department of Energy's Division of High Energy Physics, to conduct research with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment" (1/3 page).

  1. Florida Vocational Program Guide for Basic Precision Machining, Precision Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide has been developed to provide information that will be useful to local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committee members, regional coordinating councils, and others charged with the responsibility of offering vocational education programs in Florida. It identifies the major…

  2. Florida Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…

  3. Soil macroinvertebrates along a successional gradient in central Florida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Ali, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 3 (2004), s. 386-390. ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil macroinvertebrates * successional gradient * central Florida Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.786, year: 2004

  4. Healthful and nutritional components in select Florida tropical fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (v...

  5. Orange rust: A new surgarcane disease in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust of sugarcane was observed approximately 5 miles east of Belle Glade, Florida on CP 80-1743 (a complex hybrid of Sacharum L. species) during the lsat week of June 2007. Orange rust pustules are cinnamon-orange in color, oval and smaller than the darker brown elongate rust pustules of the ...

  6. Environmental Contaminants Evaluation of St. Joseph Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) conducted field work in St. Joseph Bay, Florida, for 2-week periods during each of the summers of 1991, 1992, and 1993....

  7. South Africans and Mexicans in Florida: intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambou, Elie

    2011-01-01

    Newly arriving immigrants from Southern Africa and Mexicans do not get on well in the sunbelt state of Florida. A persistent theme emerging from discussions with South Africans on their relationship with Mexicans is that both sides perceive the other as culturally ethnocentric. The antagonistic relationship between both social groups is due to strong ethnic bonds and the clash of cultures. PMID:21905325

  8. School Choice: The Fiscal Impact of Home Education in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Lenford C.; Bogan, Yolanda K. H.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a description of home-based education in the state of Florida and addresses the financial queries that often arise in the debate regarding the probative value of homeschooling and its effects on the financial coffers of state legislatures. This simple analysis of home-based education and its financial implications for Florida…

  9. 77 FR 21492 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-12 and.... Assessments upon tomato handlers are used by the Committee to fund reasonable and necessary expenses of...

  10. 76 FR 77775 - University of Florida, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Microscope. Manufacturer: FEI Co., Czech Republic. Intended Use: See notice at 76 FR 70410, November 14, 2011... Microscope. Manufacturer: FEI Co., Czech Republic. Intended Use: See notice at 76 FR 70410, November 14, 2011... International Trade Administration University of Florida, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision...

  11. Secondary Metabolites from Three Florida Sponges with Antidepressant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kochanowska, Anna J.; Rao, Karumanchi V.; Childress, Suzanne; El-Alfy, Abir; Matsumoto, Rae R.; Kelly, Michelle; Stewart, Gina S.; Sufka, Kenneth J.; Mark T. Hamann

    2008-01-01

    Brominated indole alkaloids are a common class of metabolites reported from sponges of the order Verongida. Herein we report the isolation, structure determination, and activity of metabolites from three Florida sponges, namely, Verongula rigida (order Verongida, family Aplysinidae), Smenospongia aurea, and S. cerebriformis (order Dictyoceratida, family Thorectidae). All three species were investigated chemically, revealing similarities in secondary metabolites. Brominated compounds, as well ...

  12. Florida and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Florida's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  13. Making Online Professional Development Work for Florida Project Learning Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Lindsey C.; Monroe, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    Large distances and small budgets had made it challenging for Florida Project Learning Tree (PLT) to conduct in-person workshops with volunteer 4-H leaders to disseminate the PreK-8 guide. An online version of a PLT workshop was developed to overcome these barriers. Formative evaluation data suggested that the program effectively introduced PLT to…

  14. Reforming the Structure of Florida's Accountability System. Policy Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Sherman

    2004-01-01

    The legal definition of Florida's public education system includes its local public schools, charter schools, voucher schools, and schools contracted to provide special education services. The constitutional mandate for a "uniform, efficient, safe, secure, and high-quality system of free public schools" suggests that the expectations of a high…

  15. Improving efficiency of sugarcane genotype selection in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Canal Point (CP) sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding program has consistently developed high yielding cultivars for the organic (muck) soils of South Florida, but cultivar development has not been as successful for sand soils in this region. The objective of this study was to improve this progra...

  16. Natural radioactivity in the environment: the Florida phosphate study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some topics discussed are: effects of phosphate mining on public health and the environment; concentrations of uranium and daughter products in phosphate ore; investigations of phosphate mining areas by the Florida Division of Health; development of an instrument for aerial survey of background radiation; evaluation of drinking water supplies; and use of waste products from mining operations for construction material

  17. Research Update on Mature Watermelon Vine Decline in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature watermelon vine decline and fruit rot (MWVD) is a new, emerging disease that has caused devastating losses in the watermelon production region of southwest Florida since 2003 (Roberts et al., 2005). During the past few years, watermelon plants have been affected in each fall (September-Decem...

  18. 75 FR 1803 - Lower Florida Keys Refuges, Monroe County, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... established for some protected species, species suites, habitats, and cultural resources. The effects of... process through a notice in the Federal Register on May 9, 2003 (68 FR 25058). The Lower Florida Keys... climatically distinct islands provide a haven for a diversity of native flora and fauna, including...

  19. 77 FR 43412 - Florida Disaster Number FL-00071

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster Number FL-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  20. 77 FR 43412 - Florida Disaster Number FL-00072

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster Number FL-00072 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  1. Babesia microti in rodents and raccoons from northeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kerry; Savick, Kyla; Butler, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Human babesiosis in the United States is caused most commonly by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, Babesia microti . Although a few reports have described evidence of Babesia species in animals in Florida, to date Babesia microti specifically has not been reported from Florida or most other southern states. To determine if the organism is present in vertebrates in the region, small mammals were trapped and sampled at 2 sites in northeastern Florida, and DNA extracts from blood samples were screened for B. microti DNA via PCR assays targeting portions of the nuclear small subunit rRNA (18S rDNA) and beta-tubulin genes. Amplified fragments from representative samples of PCR-positive hosts were sequenced and compared phylogenetically to reference strains of Babesia species. The B. microti strains found in cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus ) most closely resembles B. microti sensu stricto strains that are pathogenic to humans, and strains found in raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) most closely resembles previously described raccoon-related strains of B. microti sensu lato. The results of this study suggest that B. microti is prevalent among cotton rats and raccoons at some sites in northeast Florida and may pose a risk to humans in the region. PMID:22646851

  2. Research, Publication, and Service Patterns of Florida Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Deborah B.; Neville, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to establish benchmarks for comparison to national trends, a web-based survey explored the research, publication, and service activities of Florida academic librarians. Participants ranked the importance of professional activities to the tenure/promotion process. Findings suggest that perceived tenure and promotion demands do…

  3. Consumption of bird eggs by invasive Burmese Pythons in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Carla J.; Reed, Robert N.; Snow, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Burmese Pythons (Python molurus bivittatus or P. bivittatus) have been reported to consume 25 species of adult birds in Everglades National Park, Florida (Dove et al. 2011), but until now no records documented this species eating bird eggs. Here we report three recent cases of bird-egg consumption by Burmese Pythons and discuss egg-eating in basal snakes.

  4. Effects of the Gulf Oil Spill in Escambia County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Kelcey Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the British Petroleum Gulf Oil Spill on resource change, psychological stress, and resilience for business owners, residents, and workers in Escambia County, Florida. This study was based on Hobfoll's (1988, 1989) Conservation of Resources theory. All business owners, residents, and…

  5. Suggested Performance Competencies for Chief Student Affairs Officers in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    As an informational aid for Florida community college administrators, this manual outlines a set of performance competencies for chief student affairs officers (CSAO's). A professional mission statement for CSAO's is presented first, followed by a brief discussion of the use of the manual in writing job descriptions, selecting candidates for CSAO…

  6. Identification of Groundnut ringspot virus in tomato in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato plants with symptoms of a tospovirus infection were observed in south Florida from November 2009 through February 2010. Serological testing confirmed the presence of a tospovirus and molecular tests including PCR and sequencing were used to confirm the presence of Groundnut ringspot virus (G...

  7. Basic Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a basic gasoline engine mechanics program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes a…

  8. Cable Television Franchising in Florida: An Analysis of Selected Franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Lucia M.

    Cable Television franchises in 20 Florida communities were analyzed to determine rates and citizens' rights of access as required by FCC regulations. It was found that rates ranged from $4.95 to $8.75, with the average monthly service at $5.65. Fees had little to do with an overall citizens' rights; the companies with higher rates generally made…

  9. Resilience of Florida Keys coral communities following large scale disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    The decline of coral reefs in the Caribbean over the last 40 years has been attributed to multiple chronic stressors and episodic large-scale disturbances. This study assessed the resilience of coral communities in two different regions of the Florida Keys reef system between 199...

  10. Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida's red tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    A Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Bloom affected coastal waters shallower than 50 m off west-central Florida from January 2005 through January 2006, showing a sustained anomaly of ???1 mg chlorophyll m-3 over an area of up to 67,500 km2. Red tides occur in the same area (approximately 26-29??N, 82-83??W) almost every year, but the intense 2005 bloom led to a widespread hypoxic zone (dissolved oxygen red tides off west-central Florida. SGD inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in Tampa Bay alone are ???35% of that discharged by all central Florida rivers draining west combined. We propose that the unusual number of hurricanes in 2004 resulted in high runoff, and in higher than normal SGD emerging along the west Florida coast throughout 2005, initiating and fueling the persistent HAB. This mechanism may also explain recurrent red tides in other coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Controversy over Biomass Plant at Florida State Heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that Florida State University officials are gearing up for what could be another bruising battle this month over a proposed biomass plant that could bring the campus cleaner, cheaper energy and monetary support for alternative-energy research. Or, it could bring noise and pollution to a nearby neighborhood, according to…

  12. Florida's Public Education Spending. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes and explains Florida's education finance system. It explains the sources of revenue and the expenditure of funds, reporting figures for each of the state's 67 districts. It also analyzes the trend in current expenditures --that is, the day-to-day operating costs of schools--to address the question of whether they have been…

  13. BACTERIAL METHYLMERCURY DEGRADATION IN FLORIDA EVERGLADES PEAT SEDIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methylmercury (MeHg) degradation was investigated along an eutrophication gradient in the Florida Everglades by quantifying 14CH4 and 14CO2 production after incubation of anaerobic sediments with [14C]MeHg. Degradation rate constants (k) were consistently <=0.1 d-1 and decreased ...

  14. The hydrology of Lake Rousseau, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Lake Rousseau, about 4 miles southwest of Inglis, Florida, was formed in 1909 by impoundment of the Withlacooche River by Inglis Dam, west of Dunnellon, Florida. The lake was to have been part of the Cross-Florida Barge Canal; a lock and channel associated with the presently inactive project were completed in 1969. Lake Rousseau is about 11 miles long, covers about 4,000 acres, and contains about 34,000 acre-feet of water at the normal pool elevation of 27.5 feet above mean sea level. Inflow to the lake is relatively constant and responds slowly to rainfall. The estimated 100-year peak inflow, 10,400 cubic feet per second, is only 19 percent higher than the 100-year high monthly inflow. Water in Lake Rousseau is a calcium-bicarbonate type and is hard. Mean total phosphorus and organic nitrogen concentrations are considerably lower in Lake Rousseau than in north-central Florida lakes which have been considered to be eutrophic by other investigators, however, the lake supports of prolific aquatic plant community. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations near the water surface are occasionally less than 3 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Managing Adaptive Challenges: Learning with Principals in Bermuda and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Maslin-Ostrowski, Patricia; Hoffman, Alexander M.; Barbaro, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We interviewed eight principals from Bermuda and Florida about how they identify and manage their most pressing challenges. Their challenges are composed of both adaptive and technical work, requiring leaders to learn to diagnose and manage them. Challenges focused on change and were traced to accountability contexts, yet accountability was not…

  16. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Kelen Patrick T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005–2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Methods Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN. The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. Results The DBSCAN algorithm identified five distinct regional spatial clusters that contained 360 of the 438 horse cases. The local clustering resulted in 18 separate clusters containing 105 of the 438 cases. Both the compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis indicated that the top five habitats positively associated with horse cases were rural residential areas, crop and pastureland, upland hardwood forests, vegetated non-forested wetlands, and tree plantations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in Florida tree plantations are a focus for epizootic transmission of EEEV. It appears both the abundance and proximity of tree plantations are factors associated with increased risk of EEE in horses and therefore humans. This association helps to explain why there is are spatially distinct differences in the amount of EEE horse cases across Florida.

  17. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; Φ ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Φ ST global = 0.78 (P < 0.001)). The genetic division with Florida, low diversity, small population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.

  18. The Statewide Conference of the Florida Allied Health Articulation Project (Orlando, Florida, June 21, 1989). Proceedings and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallahassee Community Coll., FL.

    This document contains the proceedings of a conference on articulation in the allied health care field in Florida. The following presentations are included: "Welcome and Program Overview" (Laurey Stryker); "Health Care Challenges and Choices: Alternate Pathways to the 21st Century" (Robert E. Kinsinger); "Findings and Recommendations of the Allied…

  19. Florida-focused climate change lesson demonstrations from the ASK Florida global and regional climate change professional development workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of Florida-focused climate change activities will be featured as part of the ASK Florida global and regional climate change professional development workshops. In a combined effort from Florida State University's Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) and University of South Florida's Coalition for Science Literacy (CSL), and supported by NASA's NICE initiative, the ASK Florida professional development workshops are a series of workshops designed to enhance and support climate change information and related pedagogical skills for middle school science teachers from Title-I schools in Florida. These workshops took place during a two-year period from 2011 to 2013 and consisted of two cohorts in Hillsborough and Volusia counties in Florida. Featured activities include lab-style exercises demonstrating topics such as storm surge and coastal geometry, sea level rise from thermal expansion, and the greenhouse effect. These types of labs are modified so that they allow more independent, inquiry thinking as they require teachers to design their own experiment in order to test a hypothesis. Lecture based activities are used to cover a broad range of topics including hurricanes, climate modeling, and sink holes. The more innovative activities are group activities that utilize roll-playing, technology and resources, and group discussion. For example, 'Climate Gallery Walk' is an activity that features group discussions on each of the climate literacy principles established by the United States Global Change Research Program. By observing discussions between individuals and groups, this activity helps the facilitators gather information on their previous knowledge and identify possible misconceptions that will be addressed within the workshops. Furthermore, 'Fact or Misconception' presents the challenge of identifying whether a given statement is fact or misconception based on the material covered throughout the workshops. It serves as a way to

  20. Studies of nuclei using radioactive beams. [Space Astronomy Lab. , Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1989-07-01

    The 12 month period from May 1988 to July 1989 represents the first full year of our 18 month pilot program in nuclear structure research. In this period, research was initiated to develop a capability for radioactive secondary beams at Argonne National Laboratory using the Atlas and the new Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA), which is currently under construction. Two major new detector facilities are currently in the final stages of design and testing. The Large-Area, Scintillator Telescope (LAST) detector is fully operational and will be shipped to Argonne National Laboratory in August for fit-tests and in-beam calibrations. The first segments of a new sixteen-segment neutron multiplicity detector have been built and tested. The remaining segments are currently being constructed. Research was continued in the areas of (1) Coulomb excitation studies of rare earth and actinide nuclei; (2) In-beam, gamma-ray spectroscopy of nuclei in the mass 100 region, and (3) Advanced detector design. Several journal articles and abstracts were published or submitted for publication in the reporting period, and others are currently in preparation. Three graduate students participated in the program, one from the University of Florida and two from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

  1. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida's elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group's research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a large-scale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment's high-resolution spectrometer's assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University's three-year proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University's high-energy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group

  2. Hydrologic Conditions in Florida during Water Year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Richard Jay; Tomlinson, Stewart A.; Irvin, Ronald B.; Fulcher, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Record-high and record-low hydrologic conditions occurred during water year 2007 (October 1, 2006 - September 30, 2007) based on analyses of precipitation, surface-water flows, lake elevations, and ground-water levels. For example, the streamgage at Suwannee River at White Springs in northwest Florida recorded an annual streamflow of 103 cubic feet per second during 2007, or about 6 percent of the period-of-record average since monitoring began in 1906. Lake Okeechobee in south Florida reached record-low elevations (8.82 feet on July 2) since monitoring began in 1912. Several wells throughout the State registered period-of-record lowest daily maximum water levels.

  3. A Florida Redbelly Turtle is spotted at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A Florida Redbelly Turtle casts a suspicious look as he is being photographed on the grounds of Kennedy Space Center. The Redbelly turtle inhabits ponds, lakes, sloughs, marshes and mangrove- bordered creeks, in a range that encompasses Florida from the southern tip north to the Apalachicola area of the panhandle. Active year-round, it is often seen basking on logs or floating mats of vegetation. Adults prefer a diet of aquatic plants. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  4. Green local governments in Florida: assessment of sustainability performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brinkmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability performance of local governments that adopted the Florida Green Building Coalition’s Green Local Government standard was evaluated using a web-based review and survey of 26 local governments within the context of the Three Es of environment, equity, and economic development. The results indicate that while many local governments exhibit a broad commitment to sustainability as evidenced by the inclusion of sustainability in formal documents, such efforts are not present across all government functions or departments. In addition, while local issues are often addressed, interrelated sustainability goals of equity and economic development are not clearly articulated. Most local governments in the state instead tend to focus on environmental protection through initiatives such as storm-water management improvements. Nevertheless, the use of specific benchmarking tools by Florida governments can serve as a model for other states.

  5. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  6. Arbovirus Transmission by Culex nigripalpus in Florida, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Vitek, Christopher J; Stephanie L. Richards; Mores, Christopher N; Day, Jonathan F.; Lord, Cynthia C.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the transmission patterns of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV and SLEV) could result in an increased ability to predict transmission risk to humans. To examine transmission patterns between vector and host, we trapped mosquitoes in three Florida counties from June to November 2005 by using chicken-baited lard can mosquito traps. These traps were used to monitor for presence of WNV and SLEV in mosquitoes and subsequent trans...

  7. Estimating the Carbon Footprint of Florida Orange Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas H. Spreen; Dwivedi, Puneet; Goodrich-Schneider, Renee

    2010-01-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive study which attempts to create a baseline of global warming impact (expressed in total greenhouse gas emission and measured in terms of carbon equivalent) associated with the production and consumption of a gallon of orange juice available in the form of NFC (Not from Concentrate) and FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) in Florida. A detailed life‐cycle approach is adopted and greenhouse gas emissions of all the steps in the supply chain starting fr...

  8. Establishing a Viral Hepatitis Prevention and Control Program: Florida's Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Baldy, Linda M.; Urbas, Cheryl; Harris, Jennie L.; Stephen Jones, T.; Reichert, Philip E.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the Florida State Legislature established and funded the statewide Hepatitis Prevention Program (HPP) to address growing concern about hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its potential public health burden. HPP supports county health departments' (CHDs') provision of viral hepatitis prevention services to at-risk adults through free hepatitis A and B vaccine in most CHDs and hepatitis serologic testing and statewide viral hepatitis-related education, consultation, and referral services. Some...

  9. Multisite Case Study of Florida's Millennium High School Reform Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Mullen

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study should have immediate utility for the United States and beyond its borders. School-to-work approaches to comprehensive reform are increasingly expected of schools while legislative funding for this purpose gets pulled back. This multisite case study launches the first analysis of the New Millennium High School (NMHS model in Florida. This improvement program relies upon exemplary leadership for preparing students for postsecondary education

  10. ALTERNATIVE FLUID MILK PROCUREMENT SYSTEMS FOR FLORIDA DAIRY FARMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nubern, Christopher A.; Kilmer, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    This article evaluates the effects of alternative fluid milk procurement strategies on the aggregate net revenue of Florida cooperative members. They are (1) supplemental milk obtained from import sources, (2) supplemental milk obtained from a supply plant, (3) increased supply as a result of an expanded production area, and (4) supplemental milk obtained through pooling arrangements with regional dairy cooperatives. The final ranking of a scenario appears to be dependent primarily on the tot...

  11. Underwater Visual Acuity of Florida Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Gordon B.; Colbert, Debborah E.; Gaspard III, Joseph C.; Littlefield, Brandie; Fellner, Wendi

    2003-01-01

    In Experiment 1 underwater visual acuity was assessed in two Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus Latirostris, using grating stimuli in three conditions: Vertical gratings presented in freshwater, vertical gratings in saltwater, and horizontal gratings in saltwater. All stimuli were tested in a free-swimming format from a minimum distance of one meter. Substantial differences were found between the two subjects. One subject’s minimum angles of resolution (MAR) were 56 min for vertical stimuli...

  12. Remarkable movements of an American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Hord, Lindsey; Aldecoa, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Here we present the remarkable movements of an individual Crocodylus acutus (American Crocodile) over a 14-year period. The crocodile was originally marked in Homestead, FL as a young-of-the-year in 1999, and was later recaptured multiple times more than 388 km away along the southwest coast of Florida. After several relocations and numerous sightings, this individual who has become known as Yellow Number 1 was found back within the same canal system in which it was first captured.

  13. Critical transitions in peatland development in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, S. C.; de Boer, H. J.; Wassen, M. J.; Eppinga, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    Terrestrial organic sediments cores from Southern Florida and the Everglades show two distinct episodes of initiation of peatland development between 4.5-6.5 ka and 2.0-3.5 ka and a mysterious interrupt separating these peat development phases. As peat development is highly sensitive to changes in groundwater, precipitation and evaporation, the reconstructed pattern of Southern Florida peatland development may provide novel insight in the response of Florida ecosystems to Holocene climate change. In this paper we propose and substantiate three hypotheses to explain these two distinct episodes of peat initiation: (1) a gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene derived from proxies and climate models, (2) decreased drainage due to Holocene sea level rise depending on local topography and, (3) increased climatic variability from mid- to late-Holocene. The three hypotheses were tested in a model of peat accumulation and decomposition by means of specific forcings based upon climatic regional proxy data sets. The model results suggest that long-term average precipitation was sufficient for peat development throughout the Holocene, thereby not explaining the onset of peatland development at 6.5 ka. Although sea level rise and the local topography could explain this first period of peatland initiation, it could not account for the decline in peatland initiation after 4.5 ka. Instead, this period of reduced peatland initiation between 3.5-4.5 ka may be explained by an increase of multidecadal variability in precipitation. Multidecadal droughts decreased simulated hydroperiods and made peatlands vulnerable to erosion and fires. As peatland development is highly non-linear we show that peat heights may suddenly decrease from a dry to a wet low equilibrium by increased precipitation variability. The results further suggest that multidecadal climate variability after 4 ka can explain the second episode of peatland initiation. We conclude that the role of

  14. Inspection Technology, Detection and Compliance: Evidence from Florida Restaurant Inspections

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Ginger Zhe; Lee, Jungmin

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we show that a small innovation in inspection technology can make substantial differences in inspection outcomes. For restaurant hygiene inspections, the state of Florida has introduced a handheld electronic device, the portable digital assistant (PDA), which reminds inspectors of 1,000 potential violations that may be checked for. Using inspection records from July 2003 to June 2009, we find that the adoption of PDA led to 11% more detected violations and subsequently restau...

  15. Seasonal Forecast of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Transmission, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Jonathan F Day; Stieglitz, Marc; Zebiak, Stephen; Cane, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Disease transmission forecasts can help minimize human and domestic animal health risks by indicating where disease control and prevention efforts should be focused. For disease systems in which weather-related variables affect pathogen proliferation, dispersal, or transmission, the potential for disease forecasting exists. We present a seasonal forecast of St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission in Indian River County, Florida. We derive an empirical relationship between modeled land surfa...

  16. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    OpenAIRE

    Dave EGGEMAN; Marsha WARD; Ellen DONLAN; Scott HARDIN

    2011-01-01

    Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus) was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds) was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the...

  17. Serologic Evidence of Widespread Everglades Virus Activity in Dogs, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Coffey, Lark L.; Crawford, Cynda; Dee, James; Miller, Ryan; Freier, Jerome; Weaver, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    Everglades virus (EVEV), an alphavirus in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex, circulates among rodents and vector mosquitoes in Florida and occasionally infects humans. It causes febrile disease, sometimes accompanied by neurologic manifestations. Although previous surveys showed high seroprevalence in humans, EVEV infections may be underdiagnosed because the disease is not severe enough to warrant a clinic visit or the undifferentiated presentations complicate diagnosis. Documented E...

  18. Rapid Recent Warming of Coral Reefs in the Florida Keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzello, Derek P

    2015-01-01

    Coral reef decline in the Florida Keys has been well-publicized, controversial, and polarizing owing to debate over the causative agent being climate change versus overfishing. The recurrence of mass bleaching in 2014, the sixth event since 1987, prompted a reanalysis of temperature data. The summer and winter of 2014 were the warmest on record. The oldest known in-situ temperature record of any coral reef is from Hens and Chickens Reef (H&C) in the Florida Keys, which showed significant warming from 1975-2014. The average number of days ≥31.5 and 32(o)C per year increased 2670% and 2560%, respectively, from the mid-1990 s to present relative to the previous 20 years. In every year after 1992 and 1994, maximum daily average temperatures exceeded 30.5 and 31°C, respectively. From 1975-1994, temperatures were climate models and satellite-based sea temperatures. These data show that thermal stress is increasing and occurring on a near-annual basis on Florida Keys reefs due to ocean warming from climate change. PMID:26567884

  19. Monitoring cryptic amphibians and reptiles in a Florida state park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M; Meshaka, Walter E; Severson, Robert; Severson, Mary Ann; Kaufman, Greg; Groninger, N Paige; Smith, Henry T

    2016-04-01

    We monitored cryptic herpetofauna at Savannas Preserve State Park, Florida, by combining artificial cover counts with a quantitative paradigm for constructing and calculating population indices. Weekly indices were calculated from two consecutive days of data collection each week for 7 months from mid-winter to mid-summer in three habitats. Seventeen species were observed at least once, and time trends using index values were followed for six species. Among these, abundance and seasonal pattern information were obtained for an exotic species (greenhouse frog) and a species identified by the Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals as threatened (Florida scrub lizard). We identified winter as the optimal time in this area to monitor populations for conducting annual assessments. This combined observation and indexing approach could provide managers or researchers with an economical means to quantitatively index population trends for multiple cryptic herpetofauna species simultaneously. Using artificial cover to sample within a population indexing design can be generalized beyond monitoring herpetofauna. Other forms of artificial cover that can be used as observation stations include aquatic artificial substrates, artificial tree cavities, artificial reefs, and other artificial aquatic structures and artificial sea grass units, among many others, and a wide range of taxa are suitable for population monitoring using artificial cover as observation stations in the approach we present, including insects, soil invertebrates, micro and macro aquatic invertebrates, fish, crustaceans, and small mammals. PMID:26739988

  20. EAARL Submarine Topography - Northern Florida Keys Reef Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Travers, Laurinda J.; Wilson, Iris

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains 32 Lidar-derived bare earth topography maps and GIS files for the Northern Florida Keys Reef Tract. These lidar-derived submarine topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.

  1. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P. [and others

    1995-12-01

    This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida`s elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group`s research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a large-scale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment`s high-resolution spectrometer`s assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University`s three-year proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University`s high-energy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group.

  2. Illness associated with red tide--Nassau County, Florida, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A "red tide" is a harmful algal bloom that occurs when toxic, microscopic algae in seawater proliferate to a higher-than-normal concentration (i.e., bloom), often discoloring the water red, brown, green, or yellow. Red tides can kill fish, birds, and marine mammals and cause illness in humans. Florida red tide is caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, which produces toxins called brevetoxins and is most commonly found in the Gulf of Mexico; however, K. brevis blooms also can occur along the Atlantic coast. On September 25, 2007, a cluster of respiratory illnesses was reported to the Nassau County Health Department (NCHD) in northeastern Florida. All of the ill persons were employed at a beach restoration worksite by a dredging company operating at Fernandina Beach; they reported symptoms of eye or respiratory irritation (e.g., coughing, sneezing, sniffling, and throat irritation). NCHD and the Florida Department of Health promptly conducted epidemiologic and environmental investigations and determined the illnesses likely were associated with exposure to a red tide along the Atlantic coast. These actions highlight the importance of rapid investigation of health concerns with potential environmental causes to enable timely notification of the public and prevent further illness. PMID:18600196

  3. Inland Transport of Aerosolized Florida Red Tide Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Pierce, Richard; Cheng, Yung Sung; Henry, Michael S; Blum, Patricia; Osborn, Shannon; Nierenberg, Kate; Pederson, Bradley A; Fleming, Lora E; Reich, Andrew; Naar, Jerome; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Backer, Lorraine C; Baden, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Florida red tides, an annual event off the west coast of Florida, are caused by the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins, brevetoxins, which kill fish, sea birds, and marine mammals, as well as sickening humans who consume contaminated shellfish. These toxins become part of the marine aerosol, and can also be inhaled by humans and other animals. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant increase in symptoms and decrease lung function in asthmatics after only one hour of beach exposure during an onshore Florida red tide bloom.This study constructed a transect line placing high volume air samplers to measure brevetoxins at sites beginning at the beach, moving approximately 6.4 km inland. One non-exposure and 2 exposure studies, each of 5 days duration, were conducted. No toxins were measured in the air during the non-exposure period. During the 2 exposure periods, the amount of brevetoxins varied considerably by site and by date. Nevertheless, brevetoxins were measured at least 4.2 kilometers from the beach and/or 1.6 km from the coastal shoreline. Therefore, populations sensitive to brevetoxins (such as asthmatics) need to know that leaving the beach may not discontinue their environmental exposure to brevetoxin aerosols. PMID:20161504

  4. Review of Florida Red Tide and Human Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C; Walsh, Cathy J; Nierenberg, Kate; Clark, John; Reich, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Julie; Benson, Janet; Cheng, Yung Sung; Naar, Jerome; Pierce, Richard; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Abraham, William M; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Zaias, Julia; Wanner, Adam; Mendes, Eliana; Shalat, Stuart; Hoagland, Porter; Stephan, Wendy; Bean, Judy; Watkins, Sharon; Clarke, Tainya; Byrne, Margaret; Baden, Daniel G

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature describing research performed over the past decade on the known and possible exposures and human health effects associated with Florida red tides. These harmful algal blooms are caused by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, and similar organisms, all of which produce a suite of natural toxins known as brevetoxins. Florida red tide research has benefited from a consistently funded, long term research program, that has allowed an interdisciplinary team of researchers to focus their attention on this specific environmental issue-one that is critically important to Gulf of Mexico and other coastal communities. This long-term interdisciplinary approach has allowed the team to engage the local community, identify measures to protect public health, take emerging technologies into the field, forge advances in natural products chemistry, and develop a valuable pharmaceutical product. The Review includes a brief discussion of the Florida red tide organisms and their toxins, and then focuses on the effects of these toxins on animals and humans, including how these effects predict what we might expect to see in exposed people. PMID:21218152

  5. Economic impact on the Florida economy of energy price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial disturbance in oil supplies is likely to generate a large price upsurge and a downturn in the level of economic activity. Each of these two effects diminishes demand by a certain amount. The specific price surge required to reduce demand to the lower level of supply can be calculated with an oil demand function and with empirical estimations of the association between price spikes and declines in economic activity. The first section presents an energy demand model for Florida, which provides the price and income elasticities needed. The second section includes theoretical explanations and empirical estimations of the relationship between price spikes and recessions. Based on historical evidence, it seems that Florida's and the nation's economic systems are very sensitive to oil price surges. As price spikes appear damaging to the economy, it could be expected that reductions in the price of oil are beneficial to the system. That is likely to be the case in the long run, but no empirical evidence of favorable short-term effects of oil price decreases was found. Several possible explanations and theoretical reasons are offered to explain this lack of association. The final section presents estimates of the effect of oil disruptions upon specific industries in Florida and the nation

  6. Echocardiographic evaluation of clinically healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Trevor J; Estrada, Amara H; Sosa, Ivan S; Powell, Melanie; Maisenbacher, Herbert W; de Wit, Martine; Ball, Ray L; Walsh, Michael T

    2013-06-01

    Antemortem studies pertaining to the manatee cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems are limited despite reports of cardiac disease in postmortem specimens. The objective of this project was to develop a technique for echocardiography in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Because of their unique anatomy, a ventral approach was employed by use of an echocardiography table designed specifically for this study. Fourteen clinically healthy, free-ranging and captive Florida manatees underwent echocardiography between the fall of 2011 and winter of 2012. Eight females and six males of various age categories were included in the study. Clear visualization of all valves and chambers was accomplished, and length and width measurements of the left atrium, peak aortic flow velocity, and ejection fraction percentage were calculated in most animals. Abnormalities observed during the study included atrioventricular regurgitation and severe right-atrial enlargement. Based on the results of this study, echocardiography in the Florida manatee is possible, which has both clinical and research implications in larger epidemiologic studies evaluating diseases of the cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular systems. PMID:23805547

  7. The passage of Florida's Statute on Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maun, A R; Williams, R S; Graber, B; Myers, W G

    1994-11-01

    Until 1993, there were no statutes in the United States covering gestational surrogacy contracts, disposition of stored embryos and gametes, parentage of children born from donated gametes and embryos, and the inheritance rights of cryopreserved embryos of deceased donors. In March 1993, the Florida Assisted Reproductive Technology Act was passed to address some of these issues and to minimize the expense and emotional cost of related courtroom proceedings. Authors of the bill believed that motherhood of a newborn in the eyes of the law should be determined by two factors: genetic inheritance and the original intent of the woman to become the parent of record. The bill included the assumption that, in the cases of children born of gestational surrogacy, the commissioning genetic parents would be the "natural parents" of the child. Some of the reasons for legislative success of the statute include: 1) clear need for statutory guidance in cases involving reproductive technology, 2) relevance of the issue to cost containment (ie, judicial costs) in an era of health care reform, 3) careful use of scientific terminology and the support of the medical community, 4) involvement of a skilled legislative team, 5) participation of physician specialists in the development of the bill (ie, practicing gynecologists in assisted reproductive technology programs), 6) participation of the State of Florida legislative staff, and 7) consultation with appropriate lobbying groups (eg, Florida Catholic Conference). The successful legislative process that was followed to achieve passage of this bill can serve as an example for other states to emulate. PMID:7936533

  8. Seasonal shifts in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus prevalence in the vector Diaphorina citri in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, Timothy A.; Brlansky, Ronald H.; Rogers, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Psyllid populations at six locations in central Florida and one location in southern Florida were sampled monthly and the proportion of adult psyllids carrying Liberibacter asiaticus was measured using QPCR of pooled samples. The Florida Automated Weather Network was used to estimate environmental conditions at these locations. Prevalence was highest during the last three months of the year, but psyllids with Liberibacter asiaticus could be found at all times. Fluctuations in prevalence assoc...

  9. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Caitlin E Jacobs; Main, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    Calf (Bos taurus) depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2) develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model co...

  10. Characterization of Florida red tide aerosol and the temporal profile of aerosol concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Zhou, Yue; Pierce, Richard H.; Henry, Mike; Baden, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    Red tide aerosols containing aerosolized brevetoxins are produced during the red tide bloom and transported by wind to coastal areas of Florida. This study reports the characterization of Florida red tide aerosols in human volunteer studies, in which an asthma cohort spent 1 h on Siesta Beach (Sarasota, Florida) during aerosolized red tide events and non-exposure periods. Aerosol concentrations, brevetoxin levels, and particle size distribution were measured. Hourly filter samples were taken ...

  11. On the Driving Mechanism of the Annual Cycle of the Florida Current Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Czeschel, Lars; Eden, Carsten; Greatbatch, Richard John

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in setting the annual cycle of the Florida Current transport are revisited using an adjoint model approach. Adjoint sensitivities of the Florida Current transport to wind stress reproduce a realistic seasonal cycle with an amplitude of ~1.2 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1). The annual cycle is predominantly determined by wind stress forcing and related coastal upwelling (downwelling) north of the Florida Strait along the shelf off the North American coast. Fast barotropic waves ...

  12. Longevity of Imidacloprid Soil Drench on Citrus Nursery Stock for Sale at Retail Stores in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Halbert, Susan E.; Manjunath, Keremane L.; Ramadugu, Chandrika; Richard F. Lee

    2014-01-01

    The Florida psyllid testing project (Manjunath et al. 2008, Halbert et al. 2012) showed that about 10% of regulatory samples of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama collected by Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry (FDACS/DPI) inspectors from plants for sale in Florida were positive for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). Most of the commercial nurseries that produce the plants do not have psyllids or Las, so the most likely source of contamination is ...

  13. Affordable Housing Needs Assessment Methodology: The Adaptation of the Florida Model to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mozart Vitor Serra; William J. O’Dell; Joseli Macedo; Marc T. Smith; Maria da Piedade Morais; Santiago F. Varella; Diep Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the adaptation of the “Florida Affordable Housing Needs Assessment Methodology” (Noll et al., 1997) to Brazil. This was a task developed jointly by the Florida team with researchers from IPEA and the World Bank. The Affordable Housing Needs Assessment Methodology, developed by the Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing for the State of Florida, is based on household estimates calculated from household formation rates and population-by-age projections. The Brazilian Model w...

  14. Changes in Work Habits of Lifeguards in Relation to Florida Red Tide

    OpenAIRE

    Nierenberg, Kate; Kirner, Karen; Hoagland, Porter; Ullmann, Steven; LeBlanc, William G.; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, is responsible for Florida red tides. Brevetoxins, the neurotoxins produced by K. brevis blooms, can cause fish kills, contaminate shellfish, and lead to respiratory illness in humans. Although several studies have assessed different economic impacts from Florida red tide blooms, no studies to date have considered the impact on beach lifeguard work performance. Sarasota County experiences frequent Florida red tides and staffs lifeguards at its beache...

  15. 2003 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Merrick and Company produced one foot contours, spot elevations, and obscured areas for the Southwest Florida Water Management District.

  16. University of Florida training reactor. Annual progress report, September 1, 1984-August 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual progress report of the University of Florida Training Reactor discusses: reactor operation; personnel; modifications made to the reactors; reactor maintenance; and testing of reactor systems

  17. 75 FR 39656 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... (member), Research and Monitoring (alternate), South Florida Ecosystem Restoration (member), Tourism--Lower Keys (member), Tourism Lower Keys (alternate), and Tourism Upper Keys (member). Applicants...

  18. Land Use and Land Cover - BROWNFIELD AREAS IN FLORIDA - APRIL 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains Brownfield Boundaries. Brownfields are defined by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) as abandoned, idled, or underused...

  19. 77 FR 38273 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    .../Scale (alternate), South Florida Ecosystem Restoration (alternate), Submerged Cultural Resources (member), Submerged Cultural Resources (alternate), Tourism--Upper Keys (member), and Tourism--Upper Keys...

  20. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Pilot Demonstration of Phased Retrofits in Florida Homes - Central and South Florida Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-08-01

    In this pilot project, the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Florida Power and Light are collaborating to retrofit a large number of homes using a phased approach to both simple and deep retrofits. This project will provide the information necessary to significantly reduce energy use through larger community-scale projects in collaboration with utilities, program administrators and other market leader stakeholders.

  1. Life History, Diet, Abundance and Distribution, and Length-Frequencies of Selected Invertebrates in Florida Bay, Everglades National Park, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Allyn B.; LaCroix, Michael W.; Cheshire, Robin T.; Thayer, Gordon W.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents information on the life history, diet, abundance and distribution, and length-frequency distributions of five invertebrates in Florida Bay, Everglades National Park. Collections were made with an otter trawl in basins on a bi-monthly basis. Non-parametric statistics were used to test spatial and temporal differences in the abundance of invertebrates when numbers were appropriate (i. e., $25). Invertebrate species are presented in four sections. The sections on Life H...

  2. An Assessment of a Nowcast/Forecast System for the Straits of Florida/Florida Current Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher N.K. Mooers; Inkweon Bang

    2005-01-01

    The Florida Current (FC) largely fills the Straits of Florida and is variable on a broad spectrum of time and space scales. Some portions of the variability are due to variable forcing by tides, winds, heating/cooling, and throughflow; other portions are due to intrinsic instabilities of the FC. To predict, as well as to better understand this complex regime, a nowcast/forecast system (East Florida Shelf Information System (EFSIS)) has been implemented and assessed (http://efsis. rsmas. miami. edu). EFSIS is based on an implementation of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) with mesoscale - admitting resolution on a curvilinear grid. It is forced by a mesoscale numerical weather prediction system (called Eta) run operationally by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), eight tidal constituents from a global tidal model, and lateral boundary conditions from an operational global ocean prediction model, i.e., the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM).Real-time observations of coastal sea level, coastal sea surface temperature, coastal HF radar-derived surface current maps,and FC volume transport are used to verify and validate EFSIS. EFSIS is part of an evolving strategy for real-time predictive coastal ocean modeling methodology, and for fostering the understanding of the variability of the regime on several time and space scales. Here, some of the verification and validation results are provided, as well as diagnostic analyses of dynamical servations and numerical circulation models to yield a credible sequence of synoptic views of coastal ocean circulation for the first time.

  3. Evolution of selenoproteins in the metazoan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selenocysteine (Sec containing proteins, selenoproteins, are an important group of proteins present throughout all 3 kingdoms of life. With the rapid progression of selenoprotein research in the post-genomic era, application of bioinformatics methods to the identification of selenoproteins in newly sequenced species has become increasingly important. Although selenoproteins in human and other vertebrates have been investigated, studies of primitive invertebrate selenoproteomes are rarely reported outside of insects and nematodes. Result A more integrated view of selenoprotein evolution was constructed using several representative species from different evolutionary eras. Using a SelGenAmic-based selenoprotein identification method, 178 selenoprotein genes were identified in 6 invertebrates: Amphimedon queenslandica, Trichoplax adhaerens, Nematostella vectensis, Lottia gigantean, Capitella teleta, and Branchiostoma floridae. Amphioxus was found to have the most abundant and variant selenoproteins of any animal currently characterized, including a special selenoprotein P (SelP possessing 3 repeated Trx-like domains and Sec residues in the N-terminal and 2 Sec residues in the C-terminal. This gene structure suggests the existence of two different strategies for extension of Sec numbers in SelP for the preservation and transportation of selenium. In addition, novel eukaryotic AphC-like selenoproteins were identified in sponges. Conclusion Comparison of various animal species suggests that even the most primitive animals possess a selenoproteome range and variety similar to humans. During evolutionary history, only a few new selenoproteins have emerged and few were lost. Furthermore, the massive loss of selenoproteins in nematodes and insects likely occurred independently in isolated partial evolutionary branches.

  4. Characterization of the neurohypophysial hormone gene loci in elephant shark and the Japanese lamprey: origin of the vertebrate neurohypophysial hormone genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Sydney

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasopressin and oxytocin are mammalian neurohypophysial hormones with distinct functions. Vasopressin is involved mainly in osmoregulation and oxytocin is involved primarily in parturition and lactation. Jawed vertebrates contain at least one homolog each of vasopressin and oxytocin, whereas only a vasopressin-family hormone, vasotocin, has been identified in jawless vertebrates. The genes encoding vasopressin and oxytocin are closely linked tail-to-tail in eutherian mammals whereas their homologs in chicken, Xenopus and coelacanth (vasotocin and mesotocin are linked tail-to-head. In contrast, their pufferfish homologs, vasotocin and isotocin, are located on the same strand of DNA with isotocin located upstream of vasotocin and separated by five genes. These differences in the arrangement of the two genes in different bony vertebrate lineages raise questions about their origin and ancestral arrangement. To trace the origin of these genes, we have sequenced BAC clones from the neurohypophysial gene loci in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii, and in a jawless vertebrate, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum. We have also analyzed the neurohypophysial hormone gene locus in an invertebrate chordate, the amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae. Results The elephant shark neurohypophysial hormone genes encode vasotocin and oxytocin, and are linked tail-to-head like their homologs in coelacanth and non-eutherian tetrapods. Besides the hypothalamus, the two genes are also expressed in the ovary. In addition, the vasotocin gene is expressed in the kidney, rectal gland and intestine. These expression profiles indicate a paracrine role for the two hormones. The lamprey locus contains a single neurohypophysial hormone gene, the vasotocin. The synteny of genes in the lamprey locus is conserved in elephant shark, coelacanth and tetrapods but disrupted in teleost fishes. The amphioxus locus encodes a single

  5. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Tommy Williams Homes Initial Performance of Two Zero Energy Homes, Gainesville, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    Tommy Williams Homes worked with PNNL, Florida HERO, Energy Smart Home Plans, and Florida Solar Energy Center to design and test two zero energy homes. Energy use was 30% lower in one home and 60% lower in the other.

  6. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2005 (NODC Accession 0058099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  7. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2003 (NODC Accession 0058097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  8. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2004 (NODC Accession 0058098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  9. Photosynthetically active and ultraviolet radiation at SEAKEYS station Molasses Reef (MLRF) in the Florida Keys, 2011 (NODC Accession 0098080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florida Institute of Oceanography's (FIO) SEAKEYS (Sustained Ecological Research Related to Management of the Florida Keys Seascape) program began in 1989 and...

  10. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2006 (NODC Accession 0058100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  11. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2007 (NODC Accession 0058101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for beach mice, red wolf, and Florida black bear for the Florida Panhandle. Vector polygons in this data...

  13. AcEST: DK958345 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se OS=Flaveria bidentis PE=... 31 6.6 sp|Q54UJ6|Y3968_DICDI Uncharacterized transmembrane protein ...VLAFAYNTNDTING 324 >tr|B6MEQ8|B6MEQ8_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae GN=BRA...r|B6MEQ5|B6MEQ5_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae GN=BRAFLDRAFT_81533 PE=4 SV...P7|B6NZP7_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae GN=BRAFLDRAFT_101038 PE=4 SV=1 Le...PJ26|B3PJ26_CELJU Cholesterol oxidase OS=Cellvibrio japonic... 83 2e-14 tr|A3WHL9|A3WHL9_9SPHN Putative uncharac

  14. AcEST: DK954114 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available +P L HPH Sbjct: 510 CELQWNLDQAKRFKEMTTEIESLPSCTDTEPDNIPALHAHPH 551 >tr|Q5FIC2|Q5FIC2_LACAC Putative membrane protein OS=Lactobaci...HS2|B6MHS2_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae GN=BRAFLDRAFT_82540 PE=4 SV=1 Le...>tr|B6LA43|B6LA43_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae GN=BRAFLDRAFT_68121 PE=4 ...>sp|Q61SK8|MEP1_CAEBR MOG interacting and ectopic P-granules protein 1 OS=Caenorhabditis briggsae GN=mep-1 P...terized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae Align length 101 Score (bit) 42.0 E-value 0.

  15. 48 CFR 1852.247-71 - Protection of the Florida manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manatee. 1852.247-71 Section 1852.247-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.247-71 Protection of the Florida manatee. As prescribed in 1847.7001, insert the following clause: Protection of the Florida Manatee (MAR 1989) (a) Pursuant to the Endangered Species Act...

  16. 33 CFR 165.767 - Security Zone; Manbirtee Key, Port of Manatee, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Port of Manatee, Florida. 165.767 Section 165.767 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.767 Security Zone; Manbirtee Key, Port of Manatee, Florida. (a) Regulated area. The following area... extending 500 yards from the island's shoreline, in all directions, not to include the Port Manatee...

  17. If Animals Could Talk: Bald Eagle, Bear, Florida Panther, Gopher Tortoise, Indigo Snake, Manatee, Otter, Raccoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinellas County District School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    In this series of booklets, eight Florida animals describe their appearance, habitats, food, behavior, and relationships with humans. Each entry is written for elementary students from the animal's point of view and includes a bibliography. Contained are the life stories of the bald eagle, black bear, Florida panther, gopher tortoise, Eastern…

  18. Genetic structure of Florida green turtle rookeries as indicated by mitochondrial DNA control region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamblin, Brian M.; Bagley, Dean A.; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M.; Desjardin, Nicole A.; Martin, R. Erik; Hart, Kristen M.; Naro-Maciel, Eugenia; Rusenko, Kirt; Stiner, John C.; Sobel, Debra; Johnson, Chris; Wilmers, Thomas; Wright, Laura J.; Nairn, Campbell J.

    2014-01-01

    Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nesting has increased dramatically in Florida over the past two decades, ranking the Florida nesting aggregation among the largest in the Greater Caribbean region. Individual beaches that comprise several hundred kilometers of Florida’s east coast and Keys support tens to thousands of nests annually. These beaches encompass natural to highly developed habitats, and the degree of demographic partitioning among rookeries was previously unresolved. We characterized the genetic structure of ten Florida rookeries from Cape Canaveral to the Dry Tortugas through analysis of 817 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 485 nesting turtles. Two common haplotypes, CM-A1.1 and CM-A3.1, accounted for 87 % of samples, and the haplotype frequencies were strongly partitioned by latitude along Florida’s Atlantic coast. Most genetic structure occurred between rookeries on either side of an apparent genetic break in the vicinity of the St. Lucie Inlet that separates Hutchinson Island and Jupiter Island, representing the finest scale at which mtDNA structure has been documented in marine turtle rookeries. Florida and Caribbean scale analyses of population structure support recognition of at least two management units: central eastern Florida and southern Florida. More thorough sampling and deeper sequencing are necessary to better characterize connectivity among Florida green turtle rookeries as well as between the Florida nesting aggregation and others in the Greater Caribbean region.

  19. 78 FR 14236 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    .... Ninety percent of the volume of citrus produced in Florida is sold for processing into juice, which is... Florida (order). The Citrus Administrative Committee (Committee) is responsible for local administration of the order. This action would require all fresh citrus handlers to provide the Committee with...

  20. Siting Study Framework and Survey Methodology for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Projects in Offshore Southeast Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinick, Charles [Dehlsen Associates, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2011-09-26

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progess to Investigate areas offshore southeast Florida that appeared most suitable for siting of marine and hydrokinetic energy conversion facilities that may be proposed in the Atlantic Ocean offshore of southeast Florida.

  1. Progress in strawberry breeding at the University of Florida: An historical variety trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strawberry breeding program of the University of Florida develops varieties that are highly adapted to west-central Florida, where approximately 8,500 acres of strawberries were grown during the 2009-10 season. In order to gain insight into breeding progress over time, three advanced selections ...

  2. Fruit quality measures from a historical trial of University of Florida strawberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strawberry breeding program of the University of Florida develops varieties that are highly adapted to west-central Florida, where approximately 8,800 acres of strawberries were grown during the 2009-10 season. In order to gain insight into breeding progress over time, two advanced selections an...

  3. 78 FR 61003 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Florida Bonneted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Florida bonneted bat's historical distribution is provided in the proposed listing rule (77 FR 60750). We... bonneted bat as an endangered species (77 FR 60750). After careful consideration of all public and peer... details about the Florida bonneted bat can be found in the proposed listing rule (77 FR 60750)....

  4. Cluster of Serogroup W135 Meningococci, Southeastern Florida, 2008–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Timothy J.; Mejia-Echeverry, Alvaro; Fiorella, Paul; Leguen, Fermin; Livengood, John; Kay, Robyn; Hopkins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Recently, 14 persons in southeastern Florida were identified with Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 invasive infections. All isolates tested had matching or near-matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and belonged to the multilocus sequence type 11 clonal complex. The epidemiologic investigation suggested recent endemic transmission of this clonal complex in southeastern Florida.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE COW FRESHENING DISTRIBUTIONS ON MILK PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS IN FLORIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Kilmer, Richard L.; Morrill, John; Thomas H. Spreen; DeLorenzo, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal swings in milk production in Florida result in a need to import milk on a seasonal basis. A linear programming analysis is used to analyze alternate freshening-date distributions and project the cost savings to Florida dairy farmers from reduced milk imports.

  6. Motivating Factors of Florida Community and State College Information Technology Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Wendy Louise

    2013-01-01

    In this study the core job characteristics that contribute to the internal motivational factors and job satisfaction of information technology faculty members working at a community or state college in Florida were investigated. Fifty-four information technology faculty members working at a community or state college in Florida completed the Job…

  7. 76 FR 28130 - Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida, (OTS No. 15445) on May 6, 2011. Dated: May...

  8. AP Report to the Nation: A Closer Look at the Nation and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawtell, Ellen A.; Gillie, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Patricia Z.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2012, the College Board published The 8th Annual AP Report to the Nation. This session provides a deeper dive into key information for the United States with an emphasis on Florida, and participants hear how one school in Florida utilizes AP Potential™ to help build their AP Program. Participants also learn about AP participation and…

  9. 75 FR 53694 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site located in Davie, Broward County... Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov :...

  10. 76 FR 5216 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Florida Power Corporation (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-72, which.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. The facility consists...

  11. Legal and policy options to minimize adverse effects of mosquito control pesticides on Florida's saltwater fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, John C.

    1992-01-01

    This report examines the regulation of mosquito control activities in Florida and makes legal and institutional recommendations to improve protection of non-target estuarine and marine organisms. Some of the more important recommendations for modification of mosquito control in Florida include: clarification of ambiguous mosquito control pesticide labels; strengthening of surveillance and reporting requirements; strengthening of enforcement efforts and authority; increased u...

  12. Impacts of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne on Two Nourished Beaches along the Southeast Florida Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedet, L.; Campbell, T.; Finkl, C.W.; Stive, M.J.F.; Spadoni, R.

    2005-01-01

    Site inspections and beacli profile surveys of nourislied beaclies in the city of Boca Raton, and Town of Palm Beach, Florida show that the nourished beaches protected the shore from hurricane impacts in 2004. Striking the southeast coast of Florida within 20 days of each other. Hurricane Frances (S

  13. Risk in Daily Newspaper Coverage of Red Tide Blooms in Southwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongchao; Garrison, Bruce; Ullmann, Steven G.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E.; Hoagland, Porter

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated newspaper coverage of Florida red tide blooms in four metropolitan areas of Southwest Florida during a 25-year period, 1987-2012. We focused on how journalists framed red tide stories with respect to environmental risk, health risk, and economic risk. We determined risk to be a key factor in this news coverage, being an…

  14. Nursing Education in Florida. Report 5. Report and Recommendations of the Postsecondary Education Planning Commission, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Postsecondary Education Planning Commission, Tallahassee.

    As directed by the Florida State Legislature, the Postsecondary Education Commission examined Florida's needs in the area of nursing education. Following the executive summary, the introduction reviews the commission charge and activities. Major topics addressed include: the nursing profession (introduction, history, licensure, careers, and…

  15. 76 FR 20239 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans: Florida; Prevention of Significant Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans: Florida; Prevention of... revision includes changes to certain parts of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD... provided a clarification that the significant emissions rate for mercury in the Florida regulations...

  16. 77 FR 26793 - Florida Power and Light Company, St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 2, Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power and Light Company, St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 2, Exemption 1.0 Background The Florida..., which authorizes operation of St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 2 (St. Lucie, Unit 2). The license provides... margins of safety of Appendix G of Section XI of the ASME Code [Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code].''...

  17. 76 FR 77563 - Florida Power & Light Company; St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power & Light Company; St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0 Background The Florida..., which authorizes operation of St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 1 (St. Lucie, Unit 1). The license provides... ASME Code [Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code].'' The regulations in 10 CFR part 50, Appendix G...

  18. Oil characterization and distribution in shoreline sediments of Pensacola Bay, Florida following the Deepwater Horizon spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier islands of Northwest Florida were heavily oiled during the Deepwater Horizon spill, but less is known about the impacts to the shorelines of the associated estuaries. Shoreline sediment oiling was investigated at 18 sites within the Pensacola Bay, Florida system prior to...

  19. 33 CFR 165.765 - Regulated Navigation Area; Port Everglades Harbor, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Everglades Harbor, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. 165.765 Section 165.765 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.765 Regulated Navigation Area; Port Everglades Harbor, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (a) Location. The following area in Port Everglades harbor is a regulated navigation area: all waters of...

  20. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company... other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental...

  1. President Ilves külas Tampa, Floridas / Jüri Linask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linask, Jüri

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest Lõuna-Florida Tampa ülikoolis (University of South Florida School of Business). Riigipea rääkis Eesti majandustõusust ja tehnoloogilisest arengust, NATO küberkaitsekeskuse asutamisest Tallinnas ning vastas kuulajate küsimustele. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  2. Content analysis of newspaper coverage of the Florida panther.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K; Langin, Cynthia; Carlton, J Stuart; Kaid, Lynda Lee

    2012-02-01

    Populations of large carnivores are declining globally, and analysis of public discourse about carnivores is useful for understanding public opinion and influences on management and policy. Portrayal of carnivores in the media affects public perceptions and support for their conservation. We conducted a content analysis of 513 articles about Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) published from 2003 to 2006 in newspapers with local circulation in core panther habitat in southwest Florida and papers with statewide circulation to compare the differences in the amount of coverage and portrayals of panther risks to people and property on the basis of proximity of human communities to panthers. Local papers published significantly more news articles and significantly longer news articles primarily about panthers. Articles in local and statewide papers used both episodic frames, which focus on specific occurrences (e.g., a panther sighting or predation) and thematic frames, which focus on general trends (e.g., abundance of panthers over time). Local articles more often emphasized risks that panthers might harm people, pets, or livestock than statewide papers. Our results are consistent with theory that proximity to human-carnivore conflict influences perceptions and salience of risks posed by large carnivores. Most articles mentioned panthers as a secondary topic, which we believe was a result of the relevance an endangered carnivore has in discussions of public land management, development, and regulations in Florida. Claims made by sources quoted in each article had a neutral to positive depiction of panthers, and most quotations were from federal and state agency scientists. We suggest continued use by the media of agency sources provides the opportunity for clear, concordant messages about panther management. Content analysis provides a way to monitor media portrayal of carnivores for consistency with agency outreach goals. PMID:21978166

  3. Evaluating the Quality of Colorectal Cancer Care in the State of Florida: Results From the Florida Initiative for Quality Cancer Care

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Erin M; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Malafa, Mokenge; Fulp, William; Fletcher, Michelle; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Smith, Jesusa Corazon R.; Brown, Richard; Levine, Richard; Cartwright, Thomas; Abesada-Terk, Guillermo; Kim, George; Alemany, Carlos; Faig, Douglas; Sharp, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Although the quality of care delivered within the Florida Initiative for Quality Cancer Care practices seems to be high, several components of care were identified that warrant further scrutiny on a systemic level and at individual centers.

  4. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  5. Disney characters greet prime ASTP crewmen to Florida's Disney World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Two Walt Disney comic cartoon characters, Donald Duck and Pluto, were on hand to greet a group of Apollo-Soyuz Test Project crewmen on their arrival at Disney World near Orlando. From left, are interpreter K. S. Samofal, interpreter Nicholas Timacheff, Cosmonaut Vladimir A. Shatalov, Astronaut Vance D. Brand, Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov (squeezing Pluto's nose) and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford. The astronauts and cosmonauts were in Florida for a three-day inspection tour of the Kennedy Space Center where they looked over ASTP launch facilities and flight hardware.

  6. The Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Raines

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the design, manufacture, and scientific performance of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmol- ogy (FISICA, a fully cryogenic all-reective image slicing integral _eld unit (IFU for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph (Elston et al. 2003. We find that FISICA is capable of delivering excellent scientific re- sults. It now operates as a turnkey instru- ment at the KPNO 4-m telescope via collab- oration with the instrument team, who can assist with the proposal preparation and ob- servations, as well as provide the data reduc- tion tools for integral field spectroscopy.

  7. Hurricane risk management and climate information gatekeeping in southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuer, G.; Bolson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical storms provide fresh water necessary for healthy economies and health ecosystems. Hurricanes, massive tropical storms, threaten catastrophic flooding and wind damage. Sea level rise exacerbates flooding risks from rain and storm surge for coastal communities. Climate change adaptation measures to manage this risk must be implemented locally, but actions at other levels of government and by neighboring communities impact the options available to local municipalities. When working on adaptation local decision makers must balance multiple types of risk: physical or scientifically described risks, legal risks, and political risks. Generating usable or actionable climate science is a goal of the academic climate community. To do this we need to expand our analysis to include types of risk that constrain the use of objective science. Integrating physical, legal, and political risks is difficult. Each requires specific expertise and uses unique language. An opportunity exists to study how local decision makers manage all three on a daily basis and how their risk management impacts climate resilience for communities and ecosystems. South Florida's particular vulnerabilities make it an excellent case study. Besides physical vulnerabilities (low elevation, intense coastal development, frequent hurricanes, compromised ecosystems) it also has unique legal and political challenges. Federal and state property rights protections create legal risks for government action that restricts land use to promote climate adaptation. Also, a lack of cases that deal with climate change creates uncertainty about the nature of these legal risks. Politically Florida is divided ideologically and geographically. The regions in the southeast which are most vulnerable are predominantly Hispanic and under-represented at the state level, where leadership on climate change is functionally nonexistent. It is conventional wisdom amongst water managers in Florida that little climate adaptation

  8. RECOVERY OF FRESHWATER STORED IN SALINE AQUIFERS IN PENINSULAR FLORIDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Michael L.

    1986-01-01

    Subsurface freshwater storage has been operationally tested at seven sites in central and south Florida. Injection was into a high chloride water aquifer at six sites, and into a high sulfate water aquifer at the seventh. Recovery efficiency has ranged from 0 to 75 percent in high chloride water aquifers, and has exceeded 100 percent in the high sulfate water aquifer. Computer modeling techniques were used to examine the geohydrologic, design, and management factors governing the recovery efficiency of subsurface freshwater storage. The modeling approach permitted many combinations of geohydrologic and operational conditions to be studied at relatively low cost.

  9. Hunting for Exoplanets at Florida Gulf Coast University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Lezcano, Andy; Fine, Stephanie; Humes, Cassandra; King, Alex; Patel, Keval; Rivers, Dakota; Sinclair, Kelsey; Stacey, Enzo; Vural, Leyla; Zimmer, Jenna

    2016-06-01

    Honors Program participants at Florida Gulf Coast University must complete two of four required "Honors Experiences". One student option is a research experience, and we have developed a "Planet Hunters" course to provide an astronomical research track. In the course, students spend the first semester learning astronomical background and exoplanet detection techniques, while the second semester is devoted to planet searches in Kepler and K2 data, using student-oriented software tools developed specifically for the task. In this poster, we present the tools, data sets, and results obtained by students participating in the first year of the course, along with lessons learned for future implementation.

  10. Mycobacteriosis in two captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsuneo; Shibuya, Hisashi; Ohba, Shigeo; Nojiri, Toshio; Shirai, Wataru

    2003-06-01

    Two male Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) died at the marine aquarium in Inagi City, Tokyo, Japan. Acid-fast bacteria were demonstrated in tuberculoid nodules in the lungs from both manatees. Mycobacterium marinum and M. fortuitum were isolated from one manatee; M. marinum and M. kansasii were cultured from the second animal. This report confirms the pathogenicity and potentially fatal outcome of mycobacterial infection in manatees. In addition, the pathologic response to infection with these mycobacteria in manatees is similar to that associated with Mycobacterium spp. in other animals. PMID:12885137

  11. Helminth parasites of the bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, J.M.; Foster, Garry W.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Forrester, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty species of helminths (9 trematodes, 9 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans), including 9 new host records, were collected from 40 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from Florida. Intensities of infection were low and no lesions were attributed to the parasites. No species were considered specialists in bald eagles; 5 species were considered raptor generalists and the remainder, generalists in other orders of fish-eating birds. An undescribed species of Hamatospiculum was found in 3 birds. Most of the common helminths were acquired from eating fish intermediate hosts.

  12. Litter dynamics and phenology of Melaleuca quinquenervia in south Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Van, T. K.; Rayachhetry, M. B.; Center, T.D.; Pratt, P.D.

    2002-01-01

    We monitored litterfall biomass at six different sites of melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake) forested wetlands in South Florida from July 1997 to June 1999. Annual litterfall of melaleuca varied between sites from 6.5 to 9.9 t dry wt ha(-1) yr(1) over the two-year period. Litterfall was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in scasonally flooded habitats (9.3 t ha(-1) yr(1)) than in non-flooded (7.5 t ha(-1) yr(1)) and permanently flooded habitats (8.0 t ha(-1) yr(1)). Leaf fal...

  13. Water-management model in Florida from LANDSAT-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higer, A. L.; Cordes, E. H.; Coker, A. E.; Rogers, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A prototype data acquisition and dissemination network and its effectiveness in improving and/or solving hydrologic problems in southern Florida are evaluated. The network utilized LANDSAT MSS imagery and in situ monitoring by LANDSAT-DCS. Results show water level and rain fall measurements were collected and disseminated in less than two hours, a significant improvement over conventional methods which took up to two months. Improved network performance has also aided the development of water budgets and water distribution to the people, funa, and flora in the area. Imagery from LANDSAT was also found to enhance the utility of ground measurements.

  14. Theoretical elementary particle research at the University of Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This is the annual progress report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DoE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present the group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie), two Associate Professors (Qiu, Woodard), and one Assistant Professor (Kennedy). In addition, the group has four postdoctoral research associates and three graduate students. The research of the group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics including both theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years and an outline of the current research program.

  15. Autochthonous borderline tuberculoid leprosy in a man from Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villada, Gabriel; Zarei, Mina; Romagosa, Ricardo; Forgione, Patrizia; Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Romanelli, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is a chronic contagious granulomatous disease principally affecting the skin and peripheral nervous system, caused by Mycobacterium leprae. In this report, we present a case of autochthonous leprosy in a man from Florida as the first human case reported from this region. Authors believe dermatologists need to be aware of the possibility of autochthonous transmission of leprosy in the Eastern-Southern United States, and should consider leprosy in any patient with atypical skin lesions, even when a history of contact with armadillo is missing. PMID:27255063

  16. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Florida's Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarath, S. U.

    2005-12-01

    Global warming and the resulting melting of polar ice sheets could increase global sea levels significantly. Some studies have predicted mean sea level increases in the order of six inches to one foot in the next 25 to 50 years. This could have severe irreversible impacts on low-lying areas of Florida's Everglades. The key objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of a one foot sea level rise on Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (CSSS) nesting areas within the Everglades National Park (ENP). A regional-scale hydrologic model is used to assess the sensitivities of this sea-level rise scenario. Florida's Everglades supports a unique ecosystem. At present, about 50 percent of this unique ecosystem has been lost due to urbanization and farming. Today, the water flow in the remnant Everglades is also regulated to meet a variety of competing environmental, water-supply and flood-control needs. A 30-year, eight billion dollar (1999 estimate) project has been initiated to improve Everglades' water flows. The expected benefits of this restoration project will be short-lived if the predicted sea level rise causes severe impacts on the environmentally sensitive areas of the Everglades. Florida's Everglades is home to many threatened and endangered species of wildlife. The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow population in the ENP is one such species that is currently listed as endangered. Since these birds build their nests close to the ground surface (the base of the nest is approximately six inches from the ground surface), they are directly affected by any sea level induced ponding depth, frequency or duration change. Therefore, the CSSS population serves as a good indicator species for evaluating the negative impacts of sea level rise on the Everglades' ecosystem. The impact of sea level rise on the CSSS habitat is evaluated using the Regional Simulation Model (RSM) developed by the South Florida Water Management District. The RSM is an implicit, finite-volume, continuous

  17. 青岛胶州湾口海域秋季文昌鱼的分布及栖息环境的特征%The distribution and habitat use of Branchiostoma belcheri at the mouth of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao in Autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁伟; 王俊; 林群; 王成华; 孙坚强

    2011-01-01

    为了准确掌握青岛胶州湾口海域文昌鱼(Branchiostoma belcheri)的分布特征,2009年11月作者选择了北沙海域和南沙海域,共设34个站位,采用箱式采泥器对文昌鱼资源及栖息环境进行了调查.在北沙海域发现了较为集中的文昌鱼栖息地,栖息密度为162 ind./m2,平均生物量为11.93g/m2;优势体长为30-40 mm,年龄组以Ⅲ龄鱼为主.在南沙海域,文昌鱼栖息密度为17.33 ind./m2,平均生物量为0.57g/m2;年龄结构没有明显的优势组群,基本为Ⅱ龄和Ⅲ龄,在体长组成上出现了20-25 mm这一较小的峰值.北沙的沉积物类型以砾质砂和砂为主,而南沙保护区里的沉积物以砂和粉砂质砂为主,文昌鱼适合生长于砂质类型的沉积物中,水深10-20 m.比较发现青岛文昌鱼保护区的文昌鱼正在逐步减少,应在北沙海域设定规模合适的文昌鱼保护区.%We assessed fish communities using bottom gillnet surveys in 7 coral reefs (Beijiao Reef, Hua-guang Reef, Jinyin Island, Dongdao Island, Langhua Reef, Yuzhuo Reef and Yongxing Island) of the Xisha Islands in May, 2003 and analyzed species composition and diversity, dominant species, and community pattern using the software Primer. A total of 146 fish species belonging to 31 families and 10 orders were collected during the survey. Fishes in the coral reefs were dominated by the typical tropical species, including members of the families Scaridae, Chaetodontidae and Lutjanidae. According to the Index of Relative Importance (IRI), the six most dominant fish species were Myripristis murdjan, Lutjanus kasmira, Paracaesio sordidus, Caesio diagramma, Axinurus thynnoides and Hexanchus griseus, respectively. Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') ranged from 1.91 to 3.33 among reefs, with an average of 2.81. Overall, diversity indices for the Xisha Islands were higher than those found in the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, all of which are found at a higher latitude

  18. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

  19. Juvenile and small resident fishes of Florida Bay, a critical habitat in the Everglades National Park, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Allyn B.; Thayer, Gordon; LaCroix, Michael; Cheshire, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This compendium presents information on the life history, diet, and abundance and distribution of 46 of the more abundant juvenile and small resident fish species, and data on three species of seagrasses in Florida Bay, Everglades National Park. Abundance and distribution of fish data were derived from three sampling schemes: (1) an otter trawl in basins (1984–1985, 1994–2001), (2) a surface trawl in basins (1984–1985), and (3) a surface trawl in channels (1984–1985). Results from surfa...

  20. An epizootic of Florida manatees associated with a dinoflagellate bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Rathbun, G.B.; Bonde, R.K.; Buergelt, C.D.; Odell, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 10-wk period in early 1982, 39 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were found dead in the lower Caloosahatchee River and nearby waters of southwestern Florida. Two were killed by boats. The remainder showed no evidence of trauma. Lesions indicative of infectious agents were not identified, and bacteriological and contaminant residue findings were unremarkable. Nonspecific lesions of congestion and hemorrhage were identified in brain tissue. Numerous reports were also received of manatee morbidity. Some distressed manatees showed no biochemical lesions in clinical analyses of blood samples and recovered quickly. Timing of manatee illnesses coincided with fish and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) mortality and morbidity. A widespread bloom of the dinoflagellate red tide organism (Gymnodinium breve) also coincided with these incidents. G. breve produces potent neurotoxins (brevetoxins). Circumstantial evidence links these events, and possible routes of exposure may include ingestion of filter-feeding ascidians. Ecological conditions that magnified the extent of the epizootic included an early dispersal of manatees into the area from a nearby winter aggregation site and unusually high salinities that facilitated the inshore spread of the red tide bloom. Management responses to future episodes of red tide in manatee areas are suggested.

  1. Intense Southwest Florida hurricane landfalls over the past 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolani, Christian; Muller, Joanne; Collins, Jennifer; Savarese, Michael; Squiccimara, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has proposed that human-induced sea surface temperature (SST) warming has led to an increase in the intensity of hurricanes over the past 30 years. However, this notion has been challenged on the basis that the instrumental record is too short and unreliable to reveal long-term trends in hurricane activity. This study addresses this limitation by investigating hurricane-induced overwash deposits (paleotempestites) behind a barrier island in Naples, FL, USA. Paleotempestologic proxies including grain size, percent calcium carbonate, and fossil shells species were used to distinguish overwash events in two sediment cores spanning the last one thousand years. Two prominent paleotempestites were observed in the top 20 cm of both cores: the first identified as Hurricane Donna in 1960 whereas an older paleotempestite (1900-1930) could represent one of three documented storms in the early 1900s. An active period of hurricane overwash from 1000 to 500 yrs. BP and an inactive period from 500 to 150 yrs. BP correlate with reconstructed SSTs from the Main Development Region (MDR) of the North Atlantic Ocean. We observe an increased number of paleotempestites when MDR SSTs are warmer, coinciding with the Medieval Warm Period, and very few paleotempestites when MDR SSTs are cooler, coinciding with the Little Ice Age. Results from this initial Southwest Florida study indicate that MDR SSTs have been a key long-term climate driver of intense Southwest Florida hurricane strikes.

  2. Parasitism of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in North Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Liburd, Oscar E

    2013-06-01

    Blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson), is a key pest of blueberries in Florida. As a larva, this insect feeds in developing flower and leaf buds. Management of D. oxycoccana relies principally on chemical insecticides; however, efficacy is limited because D. oxycoccana is sheltered within the plant during most of its life cycle. Natural enemies, particularly parasitoids, may play an important role in regulating D. oxycoccana populations. To determine the seasonal dynamics and parasitism rates of eulophid and platygastrid wasps parasitizing D. oxycoccana larvae, we sampled D. oxycoccana larvae by collecting infested blueberry leaf buds from a minimally-managed farm in north central Florida. Midge larvae were examined under a microscope to determine parasitism status of host instars. Parasitism rates ranged from 25 to 40% over the 3-yr study. Percent parasitization was significantly higher in third instars than first or second instars. Midge larvae in the centers of leaf buds were significantly less likely to be parasitized than larvae in outer layers of leaf buds. Thirty-seven percent of midge larvae had been parasitized multiple times, suggesting these parasitoids do not discriminate between parasitized and unparasitized hosts. Implications for pesticide use in relation to the conservation of natural enemies and management of D. oxycoccana populations are discussed. PMID:23726050

  3. Efficient scale for photovoltaic systems and Florida's solar rebate program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a critical view of Florida's photovoltaic (PV) subsidy system and proposes an econometric model of PV system installation and generation costs. Using information on currently installed systems, average installation cost relations for residential and commercial systems are estimated and cost-efficient scales of installation panel wattage are identified. Productive efficiency in annual generating capacity is also examined under flexible panel efficiency assumptions. We identify potential gains in efficiency and suggest changes in subsidy system constraints, providing important guidance for the implementation of future incentive programs. Specifically, we find that the subsidy system discouraged residential applicants from installing at the cost-efficient scale but over-incentivized commercial applicants, resulting in inefficiently sized installations. - Highlights: ► Describe a PV solar incentive system in the U.S. state of Florida. ► Combine geocoded installation site data with a detailed irradiance map. ► Estimate installation and production costs across a large sample. ► Identify inefficiencies in the incentive system. ► Suggest changes to policy that would improve economic efficiency.

  4. Occupational radiation exposure in the Florida phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium and its decay series are associated with phosphate deposits; consequently, phosphate mining and chemical processing present the potential for exposure to 'technologically enhanced natural radiation'. Exposure to Florida phosphate workers was studied by determining the radium content of various materials in mining and processing and measuring gamma radiation, airborne short-lived radon progeny and airborne long-lived alpha radioactivity. Radiation exposures were generally within occupational limits and levels were sufficiently low to qualify most areas as non-restricted areas. However, several areas and operations were identified as potentially requiring restricted area procedures. Radium is concentrated in sediment and scale in phosphoric acid production tanks, filters, and piping, and it was recommended that special close-contact operations such as cleaning and maintenance in these areas be individually evaluated to determine the need for further survey and personnel monitoring. While airborne radon progeny concentrations were below permissible levels in well-ventilated rock-loading tunnels, high occupancy of poorly ventilated tunnels presents the opportunity for cumulative exposures on the order of occupational limits. Improved ventilation and continued surveillance were recommended for these tunnels and any other occupied spaces of limited ventilation containing significant inventories of phosphate rock or products. Airborne long-lived alpha radioactivity concentrations in selected dry rock and fertilizer handling operations prompted a recommendation of further surveillance and possible reduction of dustiness, decrease of occupancy and/or provision of respiratory protection. This work was performed under a contract from the Florida Phosphate Council. (author)

  5. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasts for East-Central Florida Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winfred C.

    2013-01-01

    The forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL, (NWS MLB) identified a need to make more accurate lightning forecasts to help alleviate delays due to thunderstorms in the vicinity of several commercial airports in central Florida at which they are responsible for issuing terminal aerodrome forecasts. Such forecasts would also provide safer ground operations around terminals, and would be of value to Center Weather Service Units serving air traffic controllers in Florida. To improve the forecast, the AMU was tasked to develop an objective lightning probability forecast tool for the airports using data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The resulting forecast tool is similar to that developed by the AMU to support space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) for use by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) in previous tasks (Lambert and Wheeler 2005, Lambert 2007). The lightning probability forecasts are valid for the time periods and areas needed by the NWS MLB forecasters in the warm season months, defined in this task as May-September.

  6. Behavior of plutonium oxide particulates in a simulated Florida environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.C.; Patterson, J.H.; Coffelt, K.P.

    1985-08-01

    The behavior of /sup 238/Pu oxide particles (20 to 74 ..mu..m in diameter) deposited on a soil surface was studied by using an environmental test chamber. The soil was obtained from Florida orange groves, and the chamber was set up to simulate a Florida climate. After more than 9 months and more than 60 simulated rainfalls, the plutonium oxide particles remained on top of the soil and showed no evidence of having moved down into the soil column. Plutonium was released into the soil drainages at the rate of 18 ng/m/sup 2//L. This release, which represents a minute portion of the source, appears to correlate with the volume of the drainage rather than with time and probably consists of plutonium attached to very fine soil particles. The average concentration of plutonium observed in the air was 7 fCi/L, which on an absolute basis, represents 8 x 10/sup -12/% of the source material. Thus the generation of airborne plutonium constitutes an insignificant release pathway in terms of the original source. However, the air concentration during, and especially at the beginning of, a rainfall was typically much higher (1400 fCi/L). This concentration decayed rapidly after the end of the rainfall. These results are compared with those from past experiments, and their implications are discussed.

  7. Ecological correlates of invasion impact for Burmese pythons in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.N.; Willson, J.D.; Rodda, G.H.; Dorcas, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    An invasive population of Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) is established across several thousand square kilometers of southern Florida and appears to have caused precipitous population declines among several species of native mammals. Why has this giant snake had such great success as an invasive species when many established reptiles have failed to spread? We scored the Burmese python for each of 15 literature-based attributes relative to predefined comparison groups from a diverse range of taxa and provide a review of the natural history and ecology of Burmese pythons relevant to each attribute. We focused on attributes linked to spread and magnitude of impacts rather than establishment success. Our results suggest that attributes related to body size and generalism appeared to be particularly applicable to the Burmese python's success in Florida. The attributes with the highest scores were: high reproductive potential, low vulnerability to predation, large adult body size, large offspring size and high dietary breadth. However, attributes of ectotherms in general and pythons in particular (including predatory mode, energetic efficiency and social interactions) might have also contributed to invasion success. Although establishment risk assessments are an important initial step in prevention of new establishments, evaluating species in terms of their potential for spreading widely and negatively impacting ecosystems might become part of the means by which resource managers prioritize control efforts in environments with large numbers of introduced species.

  8. Viral papillomatosis in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Gregory D; Ewing, Ruth Y; Lowe, Mark; Sweat, Mark; Decker, Susan J; Walsh, Catherine J; Ghim, Shin-je; Jenson, A Bennett

    2002-02-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is one of the most endangered marine mammals in American coastal waters. Naturally resistant to infectious disease, the manatee immune system appears highly developed to protect it against the harsh marine environment and the effects of human-related injury. In 1997, seven captive Florida manatees developed multiple, cutaneous, pedunculated papillomas over a period of 6 months. Approximately 3 years later, four of the seven manatees developed multiple, cutaneous, sessile papillomas topically and clinically distinct from the initial lesions, some of which are still present. Histologic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features indicated that the two distinct phenotypic lesions were caused by papillomaviruses (PVs). Preliminary immunologic data correlated with daily clinical observations suggested that the manatees were immunologically suppressed and that the papillomas were caused by activation of latent PV infections and reinoculation from active infections. The emergence of PV-induced papillomas in captive manatees, the possibility of activation of latent infection or transmission of active infection to free-ranging manatees, and the underlying cause of immune suppression predisposing manatees to develop viral papillomatosis are serious concerns for the future management of this highly endangered species. PMID:11784121

  9. Science Support for Climate Change Adaptation in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Laura M.; Harvey, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    Earth's changing climate is among the foremost conservation challenges of the 21st century, threatening to permanently alter entire ecosystems and contribute to extinctions of species. Lying only a few feet above sea level and already suffering effects of anthropogenic stressors, south Florida's ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate change. Recent research accounting for the gravitational effects of melting ice sheets predicts that sea level rise on U.S. coastlines will be much higher than global averages (Gomez et al. 2010), and the Miami-Dade Climate Change Advisory Task Force predicts that local sea level rise will be at least 3 to 5 ft. (0.9 m to 1.5 m) by 2100 (MDCCATF 2008). In a 5 ft. scenario, up to 873 additional square miles of the Everglades would be inundated with saltwater (see maps below). Accelerated sea level rise is likely to be accompanied by increasing temperatures (IPCC 2007a) and more intense tropical storms and hurricanes (Webster et al. 2005). In addition, changes in amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall in south Florida may lead to more severe droughts and floods (SFWMD 2009).

  10. Visualizing Water Quality Sampling-Events in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, M. D.

    2015-07-01

    Water quality sampling in Florida is acknowledged to be spatially and temporally variable. The rotational monitoring program that was created to capture data within the state's thousands of miles of coastline and streams, and millions of acres of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds may be partly responsible for inducing the variability as an artifact. Florida's new dissolved-oxygen-standard methodology will require more data to calculate a percent saturation. This additional data requirement's impact can be seen when the new methodology is applied retrospectively to the historical collection. To understand how, where, and when the methodological change could alter the environmental quality narrative of state waters requires addressing induced bias from prior sampling events and behaviors. Here stream and coastal water quality data is explored through several modalities to maximize understanding and communication of the spatiotemporal relationships. Previous methodology and expected-retrospective calculations outside the regulatory framework are found to be significantly different, but dependent on the spatiotemporal perspective. Data visualization is leveraged to demonstrate these differences, their potential impacts on environmental narratives, and to direct further review and analysis.

  11. Florida seagrass habitat evaluation: A comparative survey for chemical quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael A. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States)]. E-mail: lewis.michael@epa.gov; Dantin, Darrin D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States); Chancy, Cynthia A. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States); Abel, Kathryn C. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL 32514 (United States); Lewis, Christopher G. [Department of Water and Soil Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32103 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Contaminant concentrations were determined for media associated with 13 Florida seagrass beds. Concentrations of 10 trace metals were more commonly detected in surface water, sediment and two seagrass species than PAHs, pesticides and PCBs. Concentrations of copper and arsenic in surface water exceeded Florida aquatic life criteria more frequently than other trace elements. Total organic carbon, mercury, chromium, zinc, total chlordane, total PAHs, total PCBs, DDD and DDE were significantly greater in seagrass-rooted sediments than adjacent non-vegetated sediments. Total DDT, DDD, DDE, total chlordane, arsenic, copper and nickel exceeded proposed sediment quality guidelines at six of 13 grass beds. Pesticides, PAHs, and PCBs were below detection in seagrass tissues. Mercury, cadmium, nickel, lead and silver were detected in 50% or more of the tissues for Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Spatial, interspecific and tissue differences were usually an order of magnitude or less. - Some anthropogenic contaminants were prevalent in seagrass and their rooted sediments but the biological significance is unknown.

  12. Florida seagrass habitat evaluation: A comparative survey for chemical quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminant concentrations were determined for media associated with 13 Florida seagrass beds. Concentrations of 10 trace metals were more commonly detected in surface water, sediment and two seagrass species than PAHs, pesticides and PCBs. Concentrations of copper and arsenic in surface water exceeded Florida aquatic life criteria more frequently than other trace elements. Total organic carbon, mercury, chromium, zinc, total chlordane, total PAHs, total PCBs, DDD and DDE were significantly greater in seagrass-rooted sediments than adjacent non-vegetated sediments. Total DDT, DDD, DDE, total chlordane, arsenic, copper and nickel exceeded proposed sediment quality guidelines at six of 13 grass beds. Pesticides, PAHs, and PCBs were below detection in seagrass tissues. Mercury, cadmium, nickel, lead and silver were detected in 50% or more of the tissues for Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Spatial, interspecific and tissue differences were usually an order of magnitude or less. - Some anthropogenic contaminants were prevalent in seagrass and their rooted sediments but the biological significance is unknown

  13. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  14. Behavior of plutonium oxide particulates in a simulated Florida environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of 238Pu oxide particles (20 to 74 μm in diameter) deposited on a soil surface was studied by using an environmental test chamber. The soil was obtained from Florida orange groves, and the chamber was set up to simulate a Florida climate. After more than 9 months and more than 60 simulated rainfalls, the plutonium oxide particles remained on top of the soil and showed no evidence of having moved down into the soil column. Plutonium was released into the soil drainages at the rate of 18 ng/m2/L. This release, which represents a minute portion of the source, appears to correlate with the volume of the drainage rather than with time and probably consists of plutonium attached to very fine soil particles. The average concentration of plutonium observed in the air was 7 fCi/L, which on an absolute basis, represents 8 x 10-12% of the source material. Thus the generation of airborne plutonium constitutes an insignificant release pathway in terms of the original source. However, the air concentration during, and especially at the beginning of, a rainfall was typically much higher (1400 fCi/L). This concentration decayed rapidly after the end of the rainfall. These results are compared with those from past experiments, and their implications are discussed

  15. Effects of Climate Change on Fishery Species in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Jonathan M.

    2009-07-01

    Recreational and commercial fishery species in Florida and elsewhere are under serious stress from overfishing and many types of habitat and water quality degradation. Climate change may add to that stress by affecting an array of biological processes, although the range of some subtropical and tropical species may expand northward in the state. It is expected to trigger sea level rise and changes in hurricanes and precipitation levels in Florida and elsewhere. Perhaps the most significant impacts of climate change on fishery species will also associated with changes in seagrasses and mangroves that function as Essential Nursery Habitats. Seagrasses in estuarine and coastal areas are limited by water depth and light penetration. Increases in sea level and in precipitation-induced turbidity may restrict the extent of seagrass habitats and their role in fishery production. Expanded efforts to reduce nutrient and sediment loading into seagrass habitats may help minimize the potential loss of a valuable fish nursery habitat. Mangroves have also been affected by human activities, and are the subject of restoration efforts in many areas. Potential sea level rise may cause an expansion of mangrove habitats in the Everglades, at the expense of freshwater habitats. This potential tradeoff of habitats should be considered by the water flow and habitat restoration programs in the Everglades.

  16. Proceedings fo the Seventeenth Annual Sea Turtle Symposium, 4-8 March 1997, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Epperly, Sheryan P.; Braun, Joanne

    1998-01-01

    The 17th Annual Sea Turtle Symposium was held at the Delta Orlando Resort in Orlando, Florida U.S.A. from March 4-8, 1997. The symposium was hosted by Florida Atlantic University, Mote Marine Laboratory, University of Central Florida, University of Florida, Florida Atlantic University and the Comité Nacional para la Conservación y Protección de las Totugas Marinas. The 17th was the largest symposium to date. A total of 720 participants registered, including sea turtle biologists, stu...

  17. AcEST: DK956229 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Q2EEX5 Definition sp|Q2EEX5|YCF78_HELSJ Uncharacterized membrane protein ycf78 OS=Helicosporidium....done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q2EEX5|YCF78_HELSJ Uncharacterized membra...s GN=recA PE... 29 9.4 >sp|Q2EEX5|YCF78_HELSJ Uncharacterized membrane protein ycf78 OS=Helicosporidium sp. ...r|B6LAN1|B6LAN1_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae ...GP 174 >tr|B6PLH6|B6PLH6_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae

  18. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase IV: Central Florida Flow Regime Based Climatologies of Lightning Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2009-01-01

    The threat of lightning is a daily concern during the warm season in Florida. Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. Previously, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) calculated the gridded lightning climatologies based on seven flow regimes over Florida for 1-, 3- and 6-hr intervals in 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-NM diameter range rings around the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) and eight other airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) county warning area (CWA). In this update to the work, the AMU recalculated the lightning climatologies for using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The AMU included all data regardless of flow regime as one of the stratifications, added monthly stratifications, added three years of data to the period of record and used modified flow regimes based work from the AMU's Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool, Phase II. The AMU made changes so the 5- and 10-NM radius range rings are consistent with the aviation forecast requirements at NWS MLB, while the 20- and 30-NM radius range rings at the SLF assist the Spaceflight Meteorology Group in making forecasts for weather Flight Rule violations during Shuttle landings. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface with the new data.

  19. Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 87-042-1869, Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Jacksonville, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornella, G.A.; Mathias, C.G.T.

    1988-02-01

    In response to a request from the State of Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Jacksonville, Florida, an evaluation was made of working conditions at public health laboratories to investigate outbreaks of red rashes, dryness, and chapping of skin among employees. Exposure to the oxidase reagents used in the preliminary identification of Neisseria-gonorrhoeae cultures was reported by 54 of 99 workers completing a questionnaire. In skin-patch tests using oxidase reagents, seven of 27 individuals tested positive for allergic contact dermatitis to oxidase reagents. A relationship was also noted between those who were nonsensitized victims of dermatitis and the degree of exposure they had to the oxidase reagents. There is a health hazard from exposure to oxidase compounds at these public health laboratories. The authors recommend that more extensive patch testing be carried out and those workers testing positive be transferred to other areas of the facility. Those workers who are not sensitive should wear disposable vinyl gloves when working with oxidase reagents. Work practices should be changed to minimize accidental spillage.

  20. Fishery gear interactions from stranded bottlenose dolphins, Florida manatees and sea turtles in Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimey, Nicole M; Hudak, Christine A; Powell, Jessica R; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Foley, Allen; Farmer, Nicholas A; White, Linda; Minch, Karrie

    2014-04-15

    Documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. This study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) stranding in Florida waters during 1997-2009. Fishery gear interactions for all species combined were 75.3% hook and line, 18.2% trap pot gear, 4.8% fishing nets, and 1.7% in multiple gears. Total reported fishery gear cases increased over time for dolphins (p<0.05), manatees (p<0.01), loggerheads (p<0.05) and green sea turtles (p<0.05). The proportion of net interaction strandings relative to total strandings for loggerhead sea turtles increased (p<0.05). Additionally, life stage and sex patterns were examined, fishery gear interaction hotspots were identified and generalized linear regression modeling was conducted. PMID:24613263

  1. Variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Samuel D; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Klieve, Athol; Bonde, Robert K; Burgess, Elizabeth A; Lanyon, Janet M

    2014-03-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through PERMANOVA, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season. PMID:24215517

  2. Subsurface storage of liquids in the Floridan aquifer system in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Frederick W.

    1989-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system in south Florida is composed chiefly of carbonate rocks that range in age from early Miocene to Paleocene. The top of the Floridian aquifer system generally occurs at depths ranging from 500 to 1,000 ft, and the average thickness is about 3,000 ft. It is divided into three general hydrogeologic units that include Upper Floridan aquifer, the middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. Groundwater movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer is generally from the area of highest head in central Florida, eastward to the Straits of Florida, westward to the Gulf of Mexico, and, to a much lesser extent, southward. Injection of nontoxic liquid wastes into deep, saline parts of the Floridan aquifer system as a pollution-control measure began in 1943 with injection of oilfield brine in southwest Florida. Since then, the practice has quickly expanded, and many high capacity municipal and industrial injection wells are now in operation in southeast Florida. The principal use of the Floridan aquifer system in south Florida is for subsurface storage of liquid waste. The Boulder Zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer is extensively used as a receptacle for injected treated municipal wastewater, oilfield brine and, to a lesser extent, industrial wastewater. Pilot studies indicate a potential for cyclic storage of freshwater in the Upper Floridan aquifer in south Florida. (USGS)

  3. Water Use and Quality Footprints of Biofuel Crops in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Hendricks, G.; Helsel, Z.; Knowles, J.

    2013-12-01

    The use of biofuel crops for future energy needs will require considerable amounts of water inputs. Favorable growing conditions for large scale biofuel production exist in the sub-tropical environment of South Florida. However, large-scale land use change associated with biofuel crops is likely to affect the quantity and quality of water within the region. South Florida's surface and ground water resources are already stressed by current allocations. Limited data exists to allocate water for growing the energy crops as well as evaluate the accompanying hydrologic and water quality impacts of large-scale land use changes. A three-year study was conducted to evaluate the water supply and quality impacts of three energy crops: sugarcane, switchgrass, and sweet sorghum (with a winter crop). Six lysimeters were used to collect the data needed to quantify crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels in groundwater and discharge (drainage and runoff). Each lysimeter (4.85 x 3.65 x 1.35 m) was equipped to measure water input, output, and storage. The irrigation, runoff, and drainage volumes were measured using flow meters. Groundwater samples were collected bi-weekly and drainage/runoff sampling was event based; samples were analyzed for nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) species. Data collected over the three years revealed that the average annual ETc was highest for sugarcane (1464 mm) followed by switchgrass and sweet sorghum. Sweet sorghum had the highest total N (TN) concentration (7.6 mg/L) in groundwater and TN load (36 kg/ha) in discharge. However, sweet sorghum had the lowest total P (TP) concentration (1.2 mg/L) in groundwater and TP load (9 kg/ha) in discharge. Water use footprint for ethanol (liter of water used per liter of ethanol produced) was lowest for sugarcane and highest for switchgrass. Switchgrass had the highest P-load footprint for ethanol. No differences were observed for the TN load footprint for ethanol. This is the

  4. System robustness analysis for drought risk management in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, D.; Bouwer, L.; Barnes, J.; Mens, M.; Obeysekera, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is a frequently returning natural hazard in Florida, with at least one severe drought to be expected every decade. These droughts have had many impacts such as loss of agricultural products, inadequate public water supply and salt water intrusion into freshwater aquifers. Furthermore, climate change projections for South Florida suggest that dry spells are likely to be more frequent and prolonged, with negative impacts on water supply management for all users. In this study a System Robustness Analysis was conducted in order to analyse the effectiveness of strategies to limit the socio-economic impact of droughts under climate change. System Robustness Analysis (SRA) aims to support decision making by quantifying how well a system, with and without additional measures, can remain functioning under a range of external disturbances. Two system characteristics add up to system robustness: Resistance is the ability to withstand disturbances without responding (zero impact), and resilience is the ability to recover from the response to a disturbance. SRA can help to provide insight into the sensitivity of a system to changing magnitudes of extreme weather events. A regional-scale hydrologic and water management model is used to simulate the effect of changing precipitation and evaporation forcing on agricultural and urban water supply and demand in South Florida. The complex water management operational rules including water use restrictions are simulated in the model. Based on model runs with a various climate scenarios, drought events with a wide range of severity are identified and for each event the socio-economic impacts are determined. Here, a drought is defined as a reduced streamflow in the upstream Kissimmee basin, which contributes most to Lake Okeechobee, the major surface water storage in the system. The drought severity is characterized by the maximum drought deficit volume. Drought impacts are analyzed for several users in Miami Dade County. From

  5. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2011-01-01

    The AMU added three years of data to the POR from the previous work resulting in a 22-year POR for the warm season months from 1989-2010. In addition to the flow regime stratification, moisture and stability stratifications were added to separate more active from less active lighting days within the same flow regime. The parameters used for moisture and stability stratifications were PWAT and TI which were derived from sounding data at four Florida radiosonde sites. Lightning data consisted of NLDN CG lightning flashes within 30 NM of each airfield. The AMU increased the number of airfields from nine to thirty-six which included the SLF, CCAFS, PAFB and thirty-three airfields across Florida. The NWS MLB requested the AMU calculate lightning climatologies for additional airfields that they support as a backup to NWS TBW which was then expanded to include airfields supported by NWS JAX and NWS MFL. The updated climatologies of lightning probabilities are based on revised synoptic-scale flow regimes over the Florida peninsula (Lambert 2007) for 5-, 10-, 20- and 30-NM radius range rings around the thirty-six airfields in 1-, 3- and 6-hour increments. The lightning, flow regime, moisture and stability data were processed in S-PLUS software using scripts written by the AMU to automate much of the data processing. The S-PLUS data files were exported to Excel to allow the files to be combined in Excel Workbooks for easier data handling and to create the tables and charts for the Gill. The AMU revised the Gill developed in the previous phase (Bauman 2009) with the new data and provided users with an updated HTML tool to display and manipulate the data and corresponding charts. The tool can be used with most web browsers and is computer operating system independent. The AMU delivered two Gills - one with just the PWAT stratification and one with both the PWAT and TI stratifications due to insufficient data in some of the PWATITI stratification combinations. This will allow

  6. Research objectives to support the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration initiative-Water Conservation Areas, Lake Okeechobee, and the East/West waterways

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchens, Wiley M.

    1994-01-01

    The South Florida Ecosystem encompasses an area of approximately 28,000 km2 comprising at least 11 major physiographic provinces, including the Kissimmee River Valley, Lake Okeechobee, the Immokalee Rise, the Big Cypress, the Everglades, Florida Bay, the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Biscayne Bay, the Florida Keys, the Florida Reef Tract, and nearshore coastal waters. South Florida is a heterogeneous system of wetlands, uplands, coastal areas, and marine areas, dominated by the watershe...

  7. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pause, K.C.; Nourisson, C.; Clark, A.; Kellogg, M.E.; Bonde, R.K.; McGuire, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are marine mammals that inhabit the coastal waters and rivers of the southeastern USA, primarily Florida. Previous studies have shown that Florida manatees have low mitochondrial DNA variability, suggesting that nuclear DNA loci are necessary for discriminatory analyses. Here we report 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci with an average of 4.2 alleles per locus, and average heterozygosity of 50.1%. These loci have been developed for use in population studies, parentage assignment, and individual identification. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Automated tracking of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, R. C.; Breedlove, J.; Jenkins, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic, physical, biological and environmental factors involved in the automated remote tracking of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) are identified. The current status of the manatee as an endangered species is provided. Brief descriptions of existing tracking and position locating systems are presented to identify the state of the art in these fields. An analysis of energy media is conducted to identify those with the highest probability of success for this application. Logistic questions such as the means of attachment and position of any equipment to be placed on the manatee are also investigated. Power sources and manateeborne electronics encapsulation techniques are studied and the results of a compter generated DF network analysis are summarized.

  9. The impact of debris on the Florida manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, C.A.; Barros, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    The endangered Florida manatee ingests debris while feeding. From 1978 through 1986, 439 salvaged manatees were examined. Debris was in the gastrointestinal tract of 63 (14.4%) and four died as a direct result of debris ingestion. Monofilament fishing line was the most common debris found (N=49). Plastic bags, string, twine, rope, fish hooks, wire, paper, cellophane, synthetic sponges, rubber bands, and stockings also were recovered. Entanglement in lines and nets killed 11 manatees from 1974 through 1985. Numerous free-ranging manatees have missing or scarred flippers from entanglements, or debris still encircling one or both flippers. We recommend local cleanups, education of the public, and fishing restrictions in high use areas to significantly reduce harm to manatees.

  10. Integrated solid waste management of Palm Beach County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the Palm Beach County, Florida integrated municipal solid waste management system (IMSWMS), the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWMS.

  11. Mickey Mouse greets prime ASTP crewmen to Florida's Disney World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A space-suited Mickey Mouse character welcomes the prime crewmen of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) to Florida's Disney World near Orlando. The crewmen made a side-trip to Disney World during a three-day inspection tour of the Kennedy Space Center. Receiving the Disney World welcome are, left to right, Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet crew; Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot of the American crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American crew; Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet crew; Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American crew; and Cosmonaut Vladimir A. Shatalov, Chief of Cosmonaut Training for the U.S.S.R.

  12. Florida state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with DOE, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Florida. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  13. Migration of Florida sub-adult Bald Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, E.K.; Meyers, J.M.; Millsap, B.A.; Haley, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry locations accurate within 1 km to identify migration routes and stopover sites of 54 migratory sub-adult Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) hatched in Florida from 1997 to 2001. We measured number of days traveled during migration, path of migration, stopover time and locations, and distance traveled to and from winter and summer areas for each eagle (1?5 years old). Eagles used both Coastal Plain (n = 24) and Appalachian Mountain (n = 26) routes on their first migration north. Mountain migrants traveled farther (X = 2,112 km; 95% CI: 1,815-2,410) than coastal migrants (X = 1,397 km; 95% CI: 1,087?1,706). Eagles changed between migration routes less often on northbound and southbound movements as they matured (X2 = 13.22, df = 2, P Bald Eagles in the eastern United States.

  14. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuharik, J. C.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Ross, J. P.

    2003-08-01

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  15. Survival of young American alligators on a Florida lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A.R.; Hines, T.C.; Abercrombie, C.L.; Nichols, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A capture-recapture study was conducted on Orange Lake, Florida, from 1979 through 1984 to estimate survival rates of young in an American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) populations. Hatchlings remained together in sibling groups (pods) for at least their 1st year and then began to disperse during their 2nd spring and summer. Mortality through mid-November of their 1st year was negligible. Jolly-Seber (JS) survival estimates of hatchlings for 6 and 12 months were 76 and 41%, respectively. The 2-year JS estimate for the 1980 cohort was 8%. Minimum-Known-Alive (MKA) survival values were 72 and 46% of JS estimates for 6 months and 1 year of age. Survival during the 2nd 6 months of life (spring-summer) tended to be lower than survival during the 1st 6 months (fall-winter).

  16. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant

  17. Assessment of health impacts of radon exposures in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on residential radon levels, from a statewide Florida survey, that were used in an analysis of over 150,000 medically treated episodes of malignancies and other serious illnesses and conditions in whites, blacks and Hispanics from all counties in the state. No evidence of an increased percentage of cancer was found in any sex or ethnic group from the areas with the highest radon exposure levels. Age adjustment of data did not affect the results. The highest radon exposures were associated with some of the lowest cancer rates and contradict the risk assessment hypothesis based on extrapolation from exposures in mining. Points for DOE and EPA errors in risk assessment methods are reviewed; predictions from risk assessment should be empirically tested as in the case of any other scientific hypothesis before being used as a basis for public policy. Thus, the authors find that cancer risks of residential radon have been vastly overstated

  18. Panthers and Forests in South Florida: an Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy T. McBride

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi survives in an area of pronounced habitat diversity in southern Florida, occupying extensive home ranges that encompass a mosaic of habitats. Twenty-one years of daytime monitoring via radiotelemetry have provided substantial but incomplete information about panther ecology, mainly because this method fails to capture movement and habitat use between dusk and dawn, when panthers are most active. Broad characterizations of panther habitat suitability have nonetheless been derived from telemetry-based habitat selection studies, focusing narrowly on forests where daytime resting sites are often located. The resulting forest-centered view of panthers attributed their restricted distribution and absence of population growth in the mid-1990s to a scarcity of unfragmented forest for expansion. However, the panther population has doubled since the beginning of genetic restoration in 1995, increasing five-fold in public areas described as unsuitable based on forest criteria. Although the forest-centered view no longer explains panther distribution, it continues to shape management decisions and habitat conservation policies. The assumptions and limitations of this view therefore merit critical examination. We analyze the role of forests in the ecology of the Florida panther. To address the absence of nighttime telemetry data, we use innovative telemetry mapping techniques and incorporate information from field observations indicating habitat use during active hours (e.g., tracks, scats, urine markers, and kill sites. We consider daytime telemetry data in the context of panther home ranges and breeding units. We analyze home range size in relation to the amount of forest within each range, concluding that percent forest cover is a poor predictor of size. We apply fractal analysis techniques to characterize the relative density of forest cover associated with daytime locations and interpret the results in

  19. Solar radio-transmitters on snail kites in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Beissinger, S.R.; Fuller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of one- and two-stage solar radio-transmitters in tracking the movements and survival of adult and fledgling Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were evaluated between 1979 and 1983 in southern Florida. Transmitters were attached to birds with back-pack arrangements using teflon ribbon straps. Accessory plastic shields minimized feather coverage of the solar cells. Intact transmitters were seen on birds up to 47 mo after installation. Operating lives ranged from 8 to 21 mo for one-stage, and 10 to 14 mo for two-stage transmitters. Because survival of adult and nestling radio-marked kites was high, we conclude that our transmitter-attachment method had little effect on the birds.

  20. Florida state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with DOE, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Florida. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations