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Sample records for amphibole

  1. Universal single grain amphibole thermobarometer for mantle rocks - preliminary calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor

    2017-04-01

    Calibration of S-Al- K-Na-Ca distribution in the structure of the mantle amphiboles (Cr- hornblende, pargasite, kaersutite) using experimental data (Niida, Green, 1999; Wallace Green, 1991, Conceicao, Green, 2004; Medard et al, 2006; Safonov, Butvina, 2013; 2016; Pirard, Hermann, 2015 etc) allows to obtain an equation for pressure estimates in 0.5 - 4.5 GPa interval. Regression calculated pressures with experimental values (R 0.82) and precision 5 kbar allow to use barometer for a wide range of mantle rocks from peridotite to pyroxenites and megacrystals. For the higher pressures (Cr- pargasite richterite) calibration is carried by the cross- correlations with the estimates calculated for the natural associations obtained using clino- and orthopyroxene. IT was used KD =Si/(8-Al-2.2*Ti)*(Na+K))/Ca for the following equation: P(GPa)=0.0035*(4+K/(Na+K))*2*Mg)/Fe+3.75*(K+Na)/Ca))*KD*ToK**0.75/ (1+3.32*Fe)-ln(1273/ToK*5*(8*Mg-Al*2 +3*Ti+8*Cr+3*K)/10 Th advantage of this barometer comparing with the previous (Ridolfi, Renzulli, 2012) is that is working with all mantle amphibole types. For the calculations of the PT parameters of the natural xenocrysts it was used monomineral version of Gar-Amph termometer (Ravna et al., 2000) in combination with the received barometer. Contents of Ca- Mg and Fe in associated garnets were calculated usinf the regressions obtained from natural and experimental associations. Aplication of the mantle amphibole thermobarometry for the reconstruction of sections of the cratonic mantle lithosphere of Yakutia show that amphibloles are distributed in various parts of mantle sections in deifferent mantle terranes of Yakutia. The most abundant amphoboles from Alakite region are distributed within all mantle section. In the SCLM beneat Yubileyaya pipe thehalf of them belong to the spinel garnet facie refering to the upper pyroxenitic suit and Cr- hornblende - mica viens. The second group reffer to the eclogite pyroxenite layer in the middle part of

  2. Thermally-induced amphibole reaction rim development: EBSD insights into microlite orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Sarah; Lavallée, Yan; Larsen, Jessica; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    Amphibole is an important mineral present in many calc-alkaline volcanic deposits. A hydrous phase, volcanic amphibole is only stable at pressures greater than 100 MPa (approx. 4 km), temperature less than ~860-870 oC, and in melts containing at least 4 wt % H2O. When removed from their thermal and barometric stability field, amphiboles decompose to form aggregate rims of anhydrous minerals. The thickness, texture, and mineralogy of these rims are thought to be reflective of the process driving amphibole disequilibrium (e.g. heating, decompression, etc). However, significant overlap in rim thicknesses and microlite textures means that distinguishing between processes it not simple. This study employed backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to examine both experimental heating-indced amphibole reaction rims and natural amphibole reaction rim from Augustine Volcano. We collected crystal orientation maps of amphibole reaction rims to investigate if different types of disequilibrium produce different patterns of microlite orientation. We identified two types of reaction rim: Type 1- reaction rim microlites are generally oriented at random and share little or no systematic relationship with the crystallographic orientation of the host amphibole, and; Type 2- reaction rim microlites exhibit a topotactic relationship with the host amphibole (they share the same crystallographic orientation). Experimentally produced heating reaction rims are without exception Type 2. However the natural reaction rims are evenly distributed between Types 1 and 2. Further experimental data on decompression induced reaction rim formation is needed to investigate if Type 1 reaction rims resemble the breakdown of amphibole due to decompression. If so, reaction rim microlite orientation could provide a clear method for distinguishing between heating and decompression processes in amphibole bearing magmas.

  3. A review of the compositional variation of amphiboles in alkaline plutonic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Roger H.

    1990-12-01

    Compositional data for amphiboles occurring in alkaline plutonic complexes are reviewed and a standard procedure for plotting these data in an isometric prism is proposed. The main compositional trend found in both oversaturated and undersaturated complexes of either miascitic or peralkaline affinity is referred to as the primary magmatic trend. Amphiboles range in composition from magnesian hastingsitic hornblende and ferro-edenitic hornblende through katophorite to ferro-richterite and arfvedsonite. Individual complexes differ with respect to the amphibole {Mg}/{Fe} and {Si}/{Al} ratio and the extent of Na-enrichment. Extensive or limited ranges in the composition of amphiboles may occur in a given complex. A subtrend found only in oversaturated complexes is from ferro-edenitic hornblende to ferro-actinolite. This trend termed the ferro-actinolitic subtrend is found only in low temperature non-peralkaline residua. Some aluminous nepheline syenites and associated alkali gabbros contain amphiboles which range in composition from kaersutite through ferroan pargasitic hornblende to hastingsite. This trend termed the primary miascitic magmatic trend is is one of decreasing {Mg}/{Fe}, at essentially constant {Si}/{Al} and Ca content. Na-enrichment does not occur. Amphiboles formed by reactions of preexisting phases with hydrothermal or deuteric fluids are termed the late stage reaction assemblage. Amphibole compositional trends from calcic through sodic-calcic to sodic amphiboles reflect decreasing temperature and oxygen fugacity at or below the QFM oxygen buffer. The compositional trends are of use in determining petrogenetic relationships between apparently consanguineous syenites.

  4. Amphibole Thermometry and a Comparison of Results from Plutonic and Volcanic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, T. M.; Putirka, K. D.; De Los Reyes, A. M. A.; Ratschbacher, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work (Ridolfi and Renzulli 2014) shows that amphiboles can be used to infer magmatic temperatures, even without knowledge of co-existing liquids. Here, we apply this approach, using new calibrations, to investigate felsic-mafic magma interactions, in a volcanic (Lassen Volcanic Center, a Cascade volcano) and plutonic (the Jurassic Guadalupe Igneous Complex) system. Preliminary data suggest that volcanic processes, as might be expected, preserve higher temperatures than plutonic materials (on average, volcanic amphiboles recorded 907±57.3°C while plutonic amphiboles recorded 764±59.7°C). We also find that the average T of a given mineral grain decreases with increased mineral size such that those crystallized below 800°C sometimes reach sizes beyond ~1mm, while those near 900°C appear truncated to ~0.3mm. It is not clear if T is the only control on amphibole crystal growth; however, our results would imply that larger grains not only require more time to grow but require continued undercooling. Significant cooling or heating is also recorded in many volcanically- and plutonically-grown grains, which may reflect transitioning between magmas of different T and composition. Core-to-rim cooling trends (with a common T of drop of 80oC) likely represent mafic-to-felsic magma transitions, whereas core-to-rim heating of similar magnitudes indicate a felsic-mafic transition. Some grains, though, exhibit a constant T (in the range 700-900°C) from core to rim, which perhaps indicates some shielding from magma mixing processes. Amphiboles might thus provide a reliable record of the intensity of magma mingling and mixing experienced by any particular enclave. Interestingly, volcanically-derived amphiboles appear to mostly record cooling towards the rims, while their plutonic counterparts tend to experience heating. It would thus appear that at Lassen, amphiboles are unaffected by later mafic magma recharge, but at the GIC, the plutonic amphiboles are more likely to

  5. Amphiboles and their host rocks in the high-grade metamorphic Precambrin of Rogaland/Vest-Agder, Sw. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.G.C.

    1978-01-01

    In the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian of the Sirdal-¢rsdal area, Rogaland/Vest-Agder,south-west Norway, the Ca-amphiboles show a change in pleochroic colours, not only with changes in metamorphic grade, but also to some extend in bulk composition. A regional study was performed on the amphiboles

  6. Early Onset of Atypical Proliferative Lesions in the Lungs of a Libby Amphibole (LA) Exposed Rat Model of Cardiovascular Disease-Associated Iron Overlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Miners and residents of Libby, Montana have increased incidences of asbestos-related diseases associated with exposure to amphibole contaminated vermiculite. Amphiboles have been shown to bind endogenous iron and modulate fiber induced inflammatory response. We hypoth...

  7. Effects of Libby amphibole asbestos exposure on two rat models of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological data suggests that occupational exposure to the amphibole-containing vermiculite in Libby, MT was associated with increased risk for developing autoimmune diseases and had an odds ratio of 3.23 for developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our goal was to determine wh...

  8. Volatile (Li, B, F and Cl) mobility during amphibole breakdown in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debret, Baptiste; Koga, Kenneth T.; Cattani, Fanny; Nicollet, Christian; Van den Bleeken, Greg; Schwartz, Stephane

    2016-02-01

    Amphiboles are ubiquitous minerals in the altered oceanic crust. During subduction, their breakdown is governed by continuous reactions up to eclogitic facies conditions. Amphiboles thus contribute to slab-derived fluid throughout prograde metamorphism and continuously record information about volatile exchanges occurring between the slab and the mantle wedge. However, the fate of volatile elements and especially halogens, such as F and Cl, in amphibole during subduction is poorly constrained. We studied metagabbros from three different localities in the Western Alps: the Chenaillet ophiolite, the Queyras Schistes Lustrés and the Monviso meta-ophiolitic complexes. These samples record different metamorphic conditions, from greenschist to eclogite facies, and have interacted with different lithologies (e.g. sedimentary rocks, serpentinites) from their formation at mid-oceanic ridge, up to their devolatilization during subduction. In the oceanic crust, the initial halogen budget is mostly stored in magmatic amphibole (F = 300-7000 ppm; Cl = 20-1200 ppm) or in amphibole corona (F = 100-7000 ppm; Cl = 80-2000 ppm) and titanite (F = 200-1500 ppm; Cl govern the halogen fluxes between the crust and the overlying mantle and/or the plate interface in subduction zones. Li and B are poorly stored in the oceanic crust (< 5 ppm). In subduction zones, prograde metamorphism of metagabbros is first marked by the crystallization of glaucophane at the expense of magmatic and amphibole coronas. This episode is accompanied with a decrease of halogen concentrations in amphiboles (< 200 ppm of F and Cl) suggesting that these elements can be transferred to the mantle wedge by fluids. In the Queyras Schistes Lustrés complex, the intense deformation and the abundant devolatilization of metasedimentary rocks produce large fluid flows that promote rock chemical hybridization (metasomatic mixing with hybrid composition between metasedimentary rock and metagabbro) at the metasedimentary rock

  9. How deep, how hot: comparing pressure and temperature estimates from amphibole and rhyolite-MELTS thermobarometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukcu, A. S.; Gualda, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurately constraining the pressure and temperature of magma residence is problematic, but it is key to understanding the structure and evolution of magmatic systems. Various thermometers exist (Fe-Ti oxides, Ti-in-zircon, Zr-in-sphene, etc.), but there are fewer barometers that can be applied to volcanic rocks. Most barometers capitalize on amphibole, a relatively common mineral whose composition is sensitive to pressure and temperature changes. Glass composition is a function of pressure for magmas saturated in quartz and feldspar, and a new thermobarometer based on rhyolite-MELTS simulations using glass (matrix glass and crystal-hosted glass inclusions) compositions has been recently proposed. We compare results from amphibole and matrix glass thermobarometry. We focus on outflow high-silica rhyolite pumice from the Peach Spring Tuff (CA-NV-AZ, USA), which are characterized by sanidine+plagioclase×quartz+amphibole+sphene in a high-silica rhyolite glass matrix. Compositional variations in amphibole are slight and described by edenite and Ti-Tschermak substitution, with little Al-Tschermak substitution, suggesting small changes in temperature but not in pressure. Plagioclase compositions are also nearly homogeneous. Thus, we expect thermobarometry results to cluster around a single pressure and temperature, making these samples excellent candidates for comparing thermobarometers. Amphibole×plagioclase thermobarometry reveals: - Amphibole-plagioclase: results vary widely depending on the calibration (e.g. 150-420 MPa, 520-730 °C); combined Anderson & Smith (1995) barometer with Holland & Blundy (1990) thermometer is most consistent, suggesting crystallization at 230 MPa, 680 °C. - Amphibole-only: calibrations give significantly different results (75-115 MPa, 770-960 °C [Ridolfi et al. 2010]; 400-950 MPa, 800-950°C [Ridolfi & Renzulli 2012]). Results suggest the recent re-calibration is particularly unreliable for these rocks, and the earlier calibration is

  10. Amphibole trace elements as indicators of magmatic processes at Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, T. R.; Rowe, M. C.; Kent, A.; Thornber, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Amphibole has the capability of incorporating a wide variety of trace elements resulting from a range of magmatic processes. Prior studies have used trace elements such as Li and Cu in amphibole to investigate volatile mobility associated with magma ascent regarding the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (Rowe et al. 2008). In order to investigate magmatic processes associated with the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens we have measured a range of fluid-mobile trace elements in conjunction with major element compositions of amphibole phenocrysts in dacite lava. Major elements and volatiles (Cl, F) were measured by electron microprobe analysis at Washington State University and trace elements (Li, Sc, Co, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Ce, W, and Pb) were analyzed by laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS at Oregon State University. Amphibole crystallization temperatures were calculated after Ridolfi et al. (2010). Core to rim transects were measured by electron microprobe to evaluate volatile concentrations and temperature profiles across individual phenocrysts. Core temperatures from 17 days and 226 days post eruption are consistently hotter than the rim temperatures 997 to 881 degrees C, respectively. Amphiboles from the end of the eruption (811 days post eruption) appear to be more complex, with phenocrysts having both increasing and decreasing temperatures toward the rims. The overall calculated temperature range of the amphiboles at the end of the eruption is 1022 to 919 degrees C. There is much diversity in the concentrations of Li and Cu within the phenocrysts in both the samples and throughout the eruption. Concentrations steadily increase in the beginning of the eruption then drop dramatically toward the middle, slowly increase toward the end eruption. Overall concentrations of Sr, Sb, Co, Sn, Mo, Ba, Ce, Sc, and Y do not change over the course of the eruption but do vary sample to sample. Preliminary data for Zn, Sb, Ag, and W suggest the

  11. The role of amphibole in Merapi arc magma petrogenesis: insights from petrology and geochemistry of lava hosted xenoliths and xenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, J. P.; Troll, V. R.; Schulz, B.; Dallai, L.; Freda, C.; Schwarzkopf, L. M.; Annersten, H.; Skogby, H.

    2010-05-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the role of amphibole in the differentiation of arc magmas. The geochemical composition of these magmas suggests that deep to mid crustal fractionation of amphibole has occurred. However, this phase is typically an infrequent modal phenocryst phase in subduction zone eruptive deposits(1). Nevertheless, erupted material only represents a portion of the magmatism produced in subduction zone settings, with many opportunities for melts to stall on route to the surface. This discrepancy between whole rock geochemistry and petrological interpretation of arc magmas has lead many scientists to postulate that, at mid to deep crustal levels, there may be significant volumes of amphibole bearing lithologies. Amphibole instability at shallow levels can also contribute to its scarcity in eruptive deposits. This argument is strengthened by field and petrological evidence, including the widespread occurrence of amphibole-rich intrusive rocks in exhumed orogenicbelts formed during subduction zone activity, e.g. the Adamello batholith (2),as well as the presence of amphibole-rich xenoliths and xenocrysts preserved in arc lavas worldwide, e.g. in Indonesia, Antilles, and Central America. Thus, amphibole appears to play an integral role in subduction zone magmatism and identifying and constraining this role is central to understanding arc magma petrogenisis. Amphibole-rich melts or bodies in the deep to mid crust could be a significant hydrous reservoir for intra-crustal melts and fluids (1). In this preliminary study, we have carried out petrological and geochemical analyses of recent basaltic andesite and amphibole bearing crystalline igneous inclusions and xenocrysts from Merapi volcano in Java, Indonesia. The basaltic andesite geochemistry is consistent with amphibole fractionation and the crystalline inclusions are cogenetic to the Merapi magmatic system. These inclusions are likely to represent fractionation residues reflecting

  12. The dispersion of fibrous amphiboles by glacial processes in the area surrounding Libby, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Adams, David T.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining operations began at a world-class vermiculite deposit at Vermiculite Mountain near Libby, Montana, circa 1920 and ended in 1990. Fibrous and asbestiform amphiboles intergrown with vermiculite ore are suspected to be a causative factor in an abnormally high number of cases of respiratory diseases in former mine and mill workers, and in residents of Libby. The question addressed in this report is whether some of the amphibole from Vermiculite Mountain could have been dispersed by Pleistocene glacial processes rather than by human activity after vermiculite mining began. The history of Pinedale glaciation in the Libby area provides a framework for estimating the presence and distribution of asbestiform amphiboles derived from Vermiculite Mountain and found in naturally occurring sediments of Glacial Lake Kootenai that underlie the Libby Valley area. There were two situations where sediments derived from Vermiculite Mountain were deposited into Glacial Lake Kootenai: (1) as lake-bottom sediments derived from meltwater flowing down Rainy Creek when the valley south of Vermiculite Mountain was free of ice but active ice still covered Vermiculite Mountain; and (2) as lake-bottom sediments eroded from the Rainy Creek outwash and re-deposited during a re-advance of the Purcell Trench Glacier lobe near Moyie Springs, Idaho.

  13. Mineralogy and Morphology of Amphiboles Observed in Soils and Rocks in El Dorado Hills, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, G.P.; Lowers, H.A.; Swayze, G.A.; Van Gosen, B. S.; Sutley, S.J.; Brownfield, I.K.

    2006-01-01

    From the Executive Summary: At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted an independent study of amphiboles in rocks and soils in the El Dorado Hills, California, area. The purpose of this study is to investigate specific issues regarding the presence of 'naturally occurring asbestos' raised by an USEPA activity-based sampling study and subsequent criticisms of that study outlined in a review prepared by The R.J. Lee Group (RJLG).

  14. Different slip systems controlling crystallographic preferred orientation and intracrystalline deformation of amphibole in mylonites from the Neyriz mantle diapir, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyaszadeh, Ramin; Prior, David J.; Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Mansouri, Hadiseh

    2018-02-01

    A deformed layered gabbro and a mylonitic gabbro sample from the marginal shear zone of the Neyriz mantle diapir in Iran were analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Both samples have the common amphibole crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) in which (100) lies perpendicular to foliation and parallel to lineation. Amphibole grains in the layered gabbro sample have little internal deformation, whereas in the mylonitic gabbro sample the amphibole grains are strongly distorted and contain low angle grain boundaries. There is a subtle change in CPO as a function of grain size in the mylonitic gabbro. Coarse grains (porphyroclasts) have a (100) CPO oriented with the main foliation reference frame whilst fine grains have a (100) CPO oriented with the C‧ shear bands. Detailed analysis of porphyroclast distortions and subgrain boundary trace analysis suggests that hard slip systems, most particularly (110) control intracrystalline deformation. Schmid factor analysis suggest that these slip systems are not involved in foliation formation but are linked kinematically to C‧ shear bands. It is unlikely that the slip systems that control intracrystalline deformation are important in CPO formation. We interpret that subgrain rotation recrystallization lead to grain size reduction and the elongate recrystallized grains were rotated towards the C‧ shear bands by grain boundary sliding. This rigid body rotation, possibly in combination with easy slip on (100) are considered the main cause of CPO formation. Amphibole zonation patterns in the layered gabbro sample suggest that oriented growth of amphibole may have contributed to CPO.

  15. Amphibole Fractional Crystallization and Delamination in Arc Roots: Implications for the `Missing' Nb Reservoir in the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, F.; Chatterjee, R. N.; Stockli, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    Most geologic processes should not fractionate Nb from Ta but Earth's major silicate reservoirs have subchondritic Nb/Ta values. Nb/Ta of >10000 basalts and basaltic andesites from different tectonic settings (GEOROC) cluster around 16, indistinguishable from upper mantle values. In contrast, Nb/Ta in more evolved arc volcanics have progressively lower values, reaching continental crust estimates, and correlate negatively with SiO2 (see figure) and positively with TiO2 and MgO. This global trend suggests that differentiation processes in magmatic arcs could explain bulk crustal Nb/Ta estimates. Understanding processes that govern fractionation of Nb from Ta in arcs can provide key insights on continental crust formation and help identify Earth's `missing' Nb reservoir. Ti-rich phases (rutile, titanite and ilmenite) have DNb/DTa values in the evolved liquid. Lack of correlation between Nb/Ta and K2O in global volcanic rocks implies that biotite plays a minor role in fractionating Nb from Ta during differentiation. Experimental petrology and evidence from exposed arc sections indicate that amphibole fractionation and delamination of island arc roots can explain the andesitic composition of bulk continental crust. Experimental studies have shown that amphibole Mg# correlate with DNb/DTa and amphibole could effectively fractionate Nb from Ta. Preliminary data from lower to middle crustal amphiboles from preserved arcs show sub- to super-chondritic Nb/Ta up to >60. This suggests that delamination of amphibole-rich cumulates can be a viable mechanism for the preferential removal of Nb from the continental crust. Future examination of Nb/Ta ratios in lower crustal amphiboles from various preserved arcs will provide improved constraints on the Nb-Ta paradox of the silicate Earth.

  16. Mantle amphibole control on arc and within-plate chemical signatures: Quaternary lavas from Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirkhah, M.; Allen, M. B.; Neill, I.; Emami, M. H.; McLeod, C.

    2012-04-01

    New analyses of Quaternary lavas from Kurdistan Province in west Iran shed light on the nature of collision zone magmatism. The rocks are from the Turkish-Iranian plateau within the Arabia-Eurasia collision. Compositions are typically basanite, hawaiite and alkali basalt. Sr-Nd isotope values are close to BSE, which is similar to Quaternary alkali basalts of NW Iran, but distinct from a depleted source melting under Mount Ararat. The chemical signatures suggests variable melting of two distinct sources. One inferred source produced melts with La/Nb from~3.5 to~1.2, which we model as the result of depletion of amphibole during ≤1% melting in the garnet stability field. We infer phlogopite in the source of potassic lavas from Takab. Lithosphere delamination or slab break-off mechanisms for triggering melting are problematic, as the lithosphere is~150-200km thick. It is possible that the negative dT/dP section of the amphibole peridotite solidus was crossed as a result of lithospheric thickening in the collision zone. This explanation is conditional upon the mantle source being weakly hydrated and so only containing a small proportion of amphibole, which can be exhausted during small degrees of partial melting. Our model maybe viable for other magmatic areas within orogenic plateaux, e.g. northern Tibet. Depletion of mantle amphibole may also help explain larger scale transitions from arc to within-plate chemistry in orogens, such as the Palaeogene Arabia-Eurasia system.

  17. Origin of amphibole-rich beach sands from Tila-Mati, Karwar, central-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The pocket beach at Tila-Mati, Karwar, central west coast of India, is characterised by the occurrence of amphibole-rich (chiefly tremolite-actinolite) coarse sand in the zone of minimal impact of waves and currents. In the total sediment, grain...

  18. Amphiboles and their host rocks in the high-grade metamorphic Precambrin of Rogaland/Vest-Agder, Sw. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.G.C.

    1978-01-01

    In the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian of the Sirdal-¢rsdal area, Rogaland/Vest-Agder,south-west Norway, the Ca-amphiboles show a change in pleochroic colours, not only with changes in metamorphic grade, but also to some extend in bulk composition. A regional study was performed on the

  19. Role of Cardiovascular Disease-associated iron overload in Libby amphibole-induced acute pulmonary injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by asbestos is thought to be mediated through redox-cycling of fiber-bound and bioavailable iron (Fe). We hypothesized that Libby amphibole (LA)-induced cute lung injury will be exacerbated in rat models of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated Fe-ove...

  20. Amphiboles as indicators of mantle source contamination: Combined evaluation of stable H and O isotope compositions and trace element ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demény, A.; Harangi, S.; Vennemann, T.W.; Casillas, R.; Horváth, P.; Milton, A.J.; Mason, P.R.D.; Ulianov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope and trace element compositions of igneous amphiboles from different tectonic settings (ocean island basalts, intraplate alkaline basalts, subduction-related andesitic complexes) were compiled to help understand the role of fluids and melts in subduction-related mantle metasomatism

  1. Amphibole and felsic veins from the gabbroic oceanic core complex of Atlantis Bank (Southwest Indian Ridge, IODP Hole U1473A): when the fluids meets the melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, A.; Tribuzio, R.; Antonicelli, M.; Zanetti, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a petrological/geochemical investigation of brown amphibole and felsic veins drilled during IODP 360 expedition at Atlantis Bank, a gabbroic oceanic core complex from Southwest Indian Ridge. The main purpose of this study is to unravel the role of seawater and magmatic components in the origin of these veins. Brown amphibole veins were collected at 90-170 mbsf. These veins typically include minor modal amounts of plagioclase and are associated with alteration halos made up of brown amphibole and whitish milky plagioclase in host gabbros. Two sets of late magmatic felsic veins, which mostly consist of plagioclase and minor brown amphibole, were selected. Amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry (Holland and Blundy, 1994) documents that crystallization of brown amphibole and felsic veins occurred in the 850-700 °C interval. In the brown amphibole veins, amphibole and plagioclase have relatively low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and significant Cl (0.2-0.3 wt%). The development of these veins at near surface levels is therefore attributed to seawater-derived fluids migrating downward through cracks developing in the exhuming gabbro. To explain the high temperature estimates for the development of these shallow veins, however, the seawater-derived fluids must have interacted not only with the gabbros, but also with a high temperature magmatic component. This petrogenetic hypothesis is consistent with oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of amphiboles from shallow veins in adjacent Hole 735B gabbros (Alt and Bach, 2006). Trace element compositions of amphibole and plagioclase from the felsic veins show formation by silicate melts rich in incompatible elements. In addition, Cl concentrations in amphibole from the felsic veins are low, thereby indicating that the melts feeding these veins had low or no seawater component. We cautiously propose that: (i) the felsic veins were generated by SiO2-rich melts residual after crystallization of Fe

  2. Elasticity of Pargasite Amphibole: A Hydrous Phase at Mid Lithospheric Discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Mookherjee, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mid Lithospheric Discontinuity (MLD) is characterized by a low shear wave velocity ( 3 to 10 %). In cratons, the depth of MLD varies between 80 and 100 km. The reduction of the shear wave velocity at MLD is similar to what is observed in the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Such low velocity at MLD could be caused by partial melting, temperature induced grain boundary sliding, changes in the elastic anisotropy, and/or metasomatism which may lead to the formation of hydrous phases including mica and amphibole. Thus, it is clear that in order to assess the role of metasomatism at MLD, we need better constraints on the elasticity of hydrous phases. However, such elasticity data are scarce. In this study, we explore elasticity of pargasite amphibole [NaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2] using density functional theory (DFT) with local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We find that the pressure-volume results can be adequately described by a finite strain equation with the bulk modulus, K0 being 102 and 85 GPa for LDA and GGA respectively. We also determined the full elastic constant tensor (Cij) using the finite difference method. The bulk modulus, K0 determined from the full elastic constant tensor is 104 GPa for LDA and 87 GPa for GGA. The shear modulus, G0 determined from the full elastic constant tensor is 64 GPa for LDA and 58 GPa for GGA. The bulk and shear moduli predicted with LDA are 5 and 1 % stiffer than the recent results [1]. In contrast, the bulk and shear moduli predicted with GGA are 12 and 10 % softer compared to the recent results [1]. The full elastic constant tensor for pargasite shows significant anisotropy. For instance, LDA predicts compressional (AVP) and shear (AVS) wave anisotropy of 22 and 20 % respectively. At higher pressure, elastic moduli stiffen. However, temperature is likely to have an opposite effect on the elasticity and this remains largely unknown for pargasite. Compared to the major mantle

  3. Particle Size Characterization of Water-Elutriated Libby Amphibole 2000 and RTI International Amosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, Heather; Bern, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data on particle characterization analyzed by scanning electron microscopy on Libby amphibole collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2000 (LA2000) and amosite material collected by RTI International (RTI amosite). The particle characterization data were generated to support a portion of the Libby Action Plan. Prior to analysis, the raw LA2000 and RTI amosite materials were subjected to a preparation step. Each sample was water-elutriated by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park using the methods generally described in another published report and then delivered to the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Microbeam Laboratory for analysis. Data presented here represent analyses performed by the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Microbeam Laboratory and USEPA National Enforcement Investigations Center. This report consists of two Excel spreadsheet files developed by USEPA, Region 8 Superfund Technical Assistance Unit and describe the particle size characterization of the LA2000 and RTI amosite, respectively. Multiple tabs and data entry cells exist in each spreadsheet and are defined herein.

  4. Prevention of disease caused by fluoro-edenite fibrous amphibole: the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few months after the publication of the monographic section of Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità second issue of 2014 "Health impact of fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition", the carcinogenicity of fluoro-edenite was assessed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC in the frame of Monograph 111. The IARC Working Group concluded that there is sufficient evidence in humans that exposure to fluoroedenite fibrous amphibole causes mesothelioma, and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Fluoro-edenite was allocated to Group 1 (the agent is carcinogenic to humans. Now, in view of the recent IARC evaluation, preventive action in Biancavilla requires an upgrade. First of all, environmental monitoring has to be further implemented. All operations of house cleaning should be performed employing wet tools, in order to avoid dust-raising. It is very important that environmental and biological monitoring be related to epidemiological surveillance. The recently approved act of the Sicilian Government concerning a plan of health interventions in Biancavilla will favour cooperation between national, regional and local health institutions with the common goal of improving the quality and appropriateness of diagnostic and therapeutics procedures offered by the health services.

  5. Exposure to Sumas Mountain chrysotile induces similar gene expression changes as Libby Amphibole but has greater effect on long-term pathology and lung function

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Rat-respirable fractions (aer...

  6. Oxo-amphiboles in mantle xenoliths: evidence for H2O-rich melt interacting with the lithospheric mantle of Harrow Peaks (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, S.; Bonadiman, C.; Biagioni, C.; Comodi, P.; Coltorti, M.; Zucchini, A.; Ottolini, L.

    2015-12-01

    Amphiboles are the most widespread hydrous metasomatic phases in spinel-bearing mantle peridotites from Harrow Peaks (HP), Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica). They occur both in veinlets and disseminated in the peridotite matrix (preferentially associated with clinopyroxene and spinel grains). Four amphibole crystals were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and micro-Mössbauer spectroscopy; these crystal-chemical data allow to constrain upper mantle conditions during growth of these amphiboles and the role of volatile circulation during metasomatic processes in the Antarctic region. The HP amphiboles have low Mg# values (69.3-84.1), high TiO2 (2.74-5.30 wt%) and FeOtot contents (3.40 to 6.90 wt%). The Fe3+/Fetot ratios are significantly high (0.53-0.66). The W-site is mainly occupied by O2- (0.984-1.187 apfu) plus OH (H2O: 0.70-1.01 wt%) and minor F (0.04-0.24 wt%) and Cl (0.03-0.08 wt%). Consequently, HP amphiboles are actually characterized by a significant oxo component. The aH2O values were calculated at 1.5 GPa by dehydration equilibrium equations written as H2O-buffering equilibria among end-member components of amphibole and coexisting peridotite phases. Three out of four HP amphibole-bearing peridotites have values of aH2O ranging from 0.122 to 0.335; whereas one sample has aH2O remarkably higher (0.782) approaching an ideal H2O basalt solubility. The HP fO2 values, determined by the olivine-spinel-orthopyroxene oxygeobarometer (ΔQFM = -1.77 : +0.01), are remarkably different from those calculated on the basis of the amphibole dehydration equilibrium and the application of the dissociation reaction (ΔQFM = -2.60 : +6.8). The high aH2O and the extremely high fO2 values, determined by the oxy-amphibole equilibrium with respect to the redox conditions recorded by the co-existing anhydrous minerals (close to QFM buffer), revealed that: i) the amphibole

  7. Stoichiometry-based estimates of ferric iron in calcic, sodic-calcic and sodic amphiboles: a comparison of various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualda Guilherme A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An important drawback of the electron microprobe is its inability to quantify Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in routine work. Although these ratios can be calculated, there is no unique criterion that can be applied to all amphiboles. Using a large data set of calcic, sodic-calcic, and sodic amphibole analysis from A-type granites and syenites from southern Brazil, weassess the choices made by the method of Schumacher (1997, Canadian Mineralogist, 35: 238-246, which uses the average between selected maximum and minimum estimates. Maximum estimates selected most frequently are: 13 cations excluding Ca, Na, and K (13eCNK - 66%; sum of Si and Al equal to 8 (8SiAl - 17%; 15 cations excluding K (15eK - 8%. These selections are appropriate based on crystallochemical considerations. Minimum estimates are mostly all iron as Fe2+ (all Fe2 - 71%, and are clearly inadequate. Hence, maximum estimates should better approximate the actual values. To test this, complete analyses were selected from the literature, and calculated and measured values were compared. 13eCNK and maximum estimates are precise and accurate (concordance correlation coefficient- r c " 0.85. As expected, averages yield poor estimates (r c = 0.56. We recommend, thus, that maximum estimates be used for calcic, sodic-calcic, and sodic amphiboles.

  8. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluid evolution of the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit; using Amphibole and Plagioclas mineral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Pourkaseb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The formation of porphyry copper deposits is attributed to the shallow emplacement, and subsequent cooling of the hydrothermal system of porphyritic intrusive rocks (Titley and Bean, 1981. These deposits have usually been developed along the chain of subduction-related volcanic and calc-alkalin batholiths (Sillitoe, 2010. Nevertheless, it is now confirmed that porphyry copper systems can also form in collisional and post collisional settings (Zarasvandi et al., 2015b. Detailed studies on the geochemical features of ore-hosting porphyry Cu-Mo-Au intrusions indicate that they are generally adakitic, water and sulfur- riched, and oxidized (Wang et al., 2014. For example, high oxygen fugacity of magma has decisive role in transmission of copper and gold to the porphyry systems as revealed in (Wang et al., 2014. In this regard, the present work deals with the mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit. The data is used to achieve the physical and chemical conditions of magma and its impact on mineralization. Moreover, the results of previous studies on the hydrothermal system of the Dalli deposit such as Raman laser spectroscopy and fluid inclusion studies are included for determination of the evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal conditions. Materials and methods In order to correctly characterize the physical and chemical conditions affecting the trend of mineralization, 20 least altered and fractured samples of diorite and quartz-diorite intrusions were chosen from boreholes. Subsequently, 20 thin-polished sections were prepared in the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Finally, mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase were determined using electron micro probe analyses (EMPA in the central lab of the Leoben University. Results Amphibole that is one of the the main rock-forming minerals can form in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Accordingly, amphibole chemistry can be

  9. Crystallography of hornblende amphibole in LAP04840 R chondrite and implication for its metamorphic history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kouhei; Mikouchi, Takashi; Sugiyama, Kazumasa

    2009-01-01

    LAP04840 is an unusual R chondrite that includes abundant hornblende amphibole. LAP04840 shows a texture of equilibrated chondrite composed of 59.3% olivine, 13.5% orthopyroxene, 13.3% hornblende, 6.2% plagio-clase, 6.0% Fe-Ni sulfide, and 1.7% accessory minerals. Hornblende replaces olivine and pyroxene in both chondrules and matrices, suggesting its secondary origin. All major phases in LAP04840 are homogeneous: olivine (Fa 37 ), orthopyroxene (En 70 Wo 1 ), and plagioclase (An 8 Or 2 ). Hornblende is also nearly homogeneous, but the total sum by electron microprobe analysis is 96-98 wt%, suggesting the presence of Fe 3+ and a hydroxyl group. Synchrotron Fe-XANES analysis gives a Fe 3+ /ΣFe ratio of ∼0.6 and micro-FT-IR analysis confirms the presence of a hydroxyl group. Thus, the structural formula is (Na 0.40 K 0 . 04 ) (Ca 1.46 Mn 0.02 Fe 0.06 2+ Na 0.46 ) (Al 0.08 Fe 0.43 2+ Fe 0.75 3+ Cr 0.08 Mg 3.60 ) (Si 7.02 Al 0.98 )O 22 (OH) 2 . Single crystal X-ray diffraction of LAP04840 hornblende gives the following lattice constants: a=9.7957(9) A, b=18.0788(12) A, c=5.2949(5) A, β=104.747(3)deg. The relatively short distances of [M(1)-O=2.069 A], [M(2)-O=2.081 A], and [M(3)-O=2.058 A] suggest the feasible preference of small Fe 3+ at these sites. The mineralogy and petrology of LAP04840 are consistent with its classification as an R6 chondrite. However, the presence of hornblende and biotite is quite unique among not only R chondrites but also asteroidal meteorites in general. The presence of these hydrous minerals suggests metamorphism under high pressure and an aqueous environment probably at depth in the parent body. A thermometer using hornblende and plagioclase equilibria gives T=670-690degC. Further, a barometer using Al content in hornblende gives P=∼0.1 GPa. Although these estimates bear some uncertainties, it is likely that the size of the R chondrite parent body was large enough to induce such metamorphism. (author)

  10. Dynamics of metamorphism processes by the fractal textures analysis of garnets, amphiboles and pyroxenes of Lapland Granulite Belt, Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłosz A. Huber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available About thousand analyzes of garnet, amphibole and pyroxene crystals from selected samples of amphibolite and granulite rocks from Lapland Granulite Belt in Kandalaksha region (Kola Peninsula has been made. Indicated fractal-box dimension of studied minerals has a good correlation with tectonic zones, lead to a new insight in the dynamics of processes, which has modified the examined region. Fractal-box dimension makes the textural analysis more precise, because it consents for the mathematic and repeated review of crystals topology depending directly on processes which had created them.

  11. Brine/Rock Interaction in Deep Oceanic Layered Gabbros: Petrological Evidence from Cl-Rich Amphibole, High-Temperature Hydrothermal Veins, and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin Sala, A. M.; Koepke, J.; Almeev, R. R.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Zihlmann, B.; Wolff, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Evidence of high temperature brine/rock interaction is found in hydrothermal veins and dykelets that cross-cut layered olivine gabbros in the deep palaeocrust of the Sumail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman. Here we present petrological and geochemical data from these samples, and an experimental attempt to simulate brine/gabbro interaction using externally heated cold seal pressure vessels. The studied natural veins and dykelets contain pargasite, hornblende, actinolite, and Cl-rich pargasite with up to 5 wt% Cl, showing a range of formation conditions from magmatic to metamorphic (hydrothermal) and thus a complex history of brine/rock interaction. In addition, the isotopic study of the radiogenic 87/86Sr and stable 18O in different amphibole types provide an estimate for the extent of seawater influence as alteration agent in the veins of the studied samples. Experiments performed at 750 °C and 200 MPa with different starting materials (chlorine-free amphibole, olivine gabbro powder) and 20 wt% NaCl aqueous brine, illustrate the process by which gabbro-hosted amphibole-rich veins evolve at subsolidus temperatures in the presence of a seawater-derived fluid. Our results demonstrate a decrease in olivine, plagioclase and magnetite content in favour of hastingsite, pargasite and magnesiohornblende, a decrease of IVAl and Ti in the starting amphibole, and an increase in Cl in amphibole, up to 0.2 Cl wt%. Our experiments show the change of magmatic pargasite towards more magnesium and silica-rich end members with results comparable to mildly chlorine-rich pargasites and hornblendes found in the natural samples studied. However, the experimental setup also presents limitations in the attainment of very high-chlorine amphibole (up to 5 wt%). Our analytical and experimental results provide further evidence for the existence of a hydrothermal cooling system in the deep oceanic crust.

  12. Amphibole stability using new thermobarometric formulations on calc-alkaline magmas of Volcán Doña Inés, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, R. A.; Walker, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Location and delineation of subvolcanic magma chambers have heavily relied on geophysical, particularly seismic, data. However, new and improved thermobarometric formulations can yield equally important constraints on the depths and conditions of magmatic storage and movement. The objective of this study was to utilize the single phase thermobarometric algorithms of Ridolfi et al. (2010) to determine the conditions of amphibole stability in the volcanic system beneath Volcán Doña Inés, a large stratovolcano from the Mid-Late Miocene magmatic arc in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, Chile. According to Moulds (1989), Doña Inés had three main eruptive vents: the main central vent; a second vent low on its flanks, called Loma Doña Inés; and a sister cone, called Gemelas. The barometric, thermometric, hygrometric, and oxygen fugacity formulations of Ridolfi et al. (2010) are based on the total aluminum (AlT) content, the silicon index (Si*), the octahedral aluminum index ([6]Al*), and the magnesium index (Mg*) of the amphibole grains, respectively. For this study, 120 amphiboles from 20 andesite-dacite samples from Doña Inés were analyzed approximately 30 times per grain with an electron microprobe. Amphibole compositions range from tschermakitic pargasite, to magnesiohornblende, to magnesiohastingsite, with the central vent crystals exhibiting the widest variability. Preliminary results from the thermobarometer indicate that amphibole crystallization beneath the central vent occurred between 213-928 ± 102 MPa and 872-1016 ± 22 *C, with magmatic water contents of approximately 5.2-9.9 ± 1.5 wt%. Conditions of formation of amphibole at Loma Doña Inés were between 230-405 ± 37 MPa and 901-980 ± 22 *C, with approximately 5.4-6.2 ± 0.9 wt% magmatic H2O and were similar at the sister cone Gemelas: 259-309 ± 34 MPa, 902-952 ± 22 *C, and 5.1-6.2 ± 0.9 wt% magmatic H2O. Temperatures obtained from amphibole stability agree well with the previous from

  13. The LaPaz Icefield 04840 meteorite: Mineralogy, metamorphism, and origin of an amphibole- and biotite-bearing R chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanta, M. C.; Treiman, A. H.; Dyar, M. D.; Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Rumble, D., III; Essene, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    The R chondrite meteorite LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 04840 is unique among metamorphosed, non-carbonaceous chondrites in containing abundant OH-bearing silicate minerals: ˜13% ferri-magnesiohornblende and ˜0.4% phlogopite by volume. Other minerals include olivine (Fo 62), orthopyroxene (En 69Fs 30Wo 1), albite (An 8Ab 90Or 2), magnetite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and apatite. Ferromagnesian minerals are rich in Fe 3+, as determined by Mössbauer spectrometry and electron microprobe chemical analyses. Fe 3+/Fe tot values are olivine ⩽5%, amphibole 80%, phlogopite 65%, and magnetite 42%. Mineral compositions are nearly constant across grains and the section, except for a small variability in amphibole compositions reflecting the edenite exchange couple ( ANa + IVAl ↔ A□ + Si). These mineral compositions, the absence of Fe-Ni metal, and the oxygen isotope data support its classification as an R (Rumuruti) chondrite. LAP 04840 is classified as petrologic grade 5, based on the chemical homogeneity of its minerals, and the presence of distinctly marked chondrules and chondrule fragments in a fine-grained crystalline matrix. The mineral assemblage of LAP 04840 allows calculation of physical and chemical conditions at the peak of its metamorphism: T = 670 ± 60 °C from a amphibole-plagioclase thermometer; PO between 250 and 500 bars as constrained by the assemblage phlogopite + orthopyroxene + olivine + feldspar and the absence of diopside; P unconstrained; f at QFM + 0.5 log units; log(f/fO)≈-5.8;log(f/fO)≈-3.3;andlog(f/f)≈-2.6. The hydrogen in LAP 04840 is very heavy, an average δD value of +3660 ± 75‰ in the magnesiohornblende. Only a few known sources of hydrogen have such high δD and are suitable sources for LAP 04840: ordinary chondrite phyllosilicates (as in the Semarkona chondrite), and insoluble organic matter (IOM) in ordinary chondrites and CR chondrites. Hydrogen from the IOM could have been released by oxidation, and then reacted with an anhydrous

  14. New Insights into Trace Element Partitioning in Amphibole from Multiple Regression Analysis, with Application to the Magma Plumbing System of Mt. Lamington (Papua New Guinea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Humphreys, M.; Cooper, G.; Davidson, J.; Macpherson, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new multiple regression (MR) analysis of published amphibole-melt trace element partitioning data, with the aim of retrieving robust relationships between amphibole crystal-chemical compositions and trace element partition coefficients (D). We examined experimental data for calcic amphiboles of kaersutite, pargasite, tschermakite (Tsch), magnesiohornblende (MgHbl) and magnesiohastingsite (MgHst) compositions crystallized from basanitic-rhyolitic melts (n = 150). The MR analysis demonstrates the varying significance of amphibole major element components assigned to different crystallographic sites (T, M1-3, M4, A) as independent variables in controlling D, and it allows us to retrieve statistically significant relationships for REE, Y, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, Zr, Nb (n > 25, R2 > 0.6, p-value Ridolfi & Renzulli 2012) with lower Rb and Sr and higher Pb, relative to a hot, andesitic-dacitic melt (950-1,000±50 ºC; 60-70±5 wt % SiO2) where MgHst are crystallized. REE and Nb contents are similar in both types of melts despite higher REE and Nb in MgHbl-Tsch. Therefore, the REE compositional disparity between MgHst and MgHbl-Tsch is driven by the difference in the DREE, rather than the melt REE concentrations.

  15. Characterization of Libby, MT amphibole (LA) elongated particles for toxicology studies: Field Collection, sample preparation, dose characterization, and particle counting methods using SEM/EDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1999, the US EPA and USGS have been studying the chemistry, mineralogy, and morphology of the amphiboles from the Rainy Creek Complex of Libby, MT (LA), following an increased incidence of lung and pleural diseases. LA material collected in 2000 (LA2000) was described in M...

  16. Amphibole as an archivist of magmatic crystallization conditions: problems, potential, and implications for inferring magma storage prior to the paroxysmal 2010 eruption of Mount Merapi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Saskia; Martel, Caroline; Pichavant, Michel; Kushnir, Alexandra

    2014-06-01

    Amphibole is widely employed to calculate crystallization temperature and pressure, although its potential as a geobarometer has always been debated. Recently, Ridolfi et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:45-66, 2010) and Ridolfi and Renzulli (Contrib Mineral Petrol 163:877-895, 2012) have presented calibrations for calculating temperature, pressure, fO2, melt H2O, and melt major and minor oxide composition from amphibole with a large compositional range. Using their calibrations, we have (i) calculated crystallization conditions for amphibole from eleven published experimental studies to examine the problems and the potential of the new calibrations; and (ii) calculated crystallization conditions for amphibole from basaltic-andesitic pyroclasts erupted during the paroxysmal 2010 eruption of Mount Merapi in Java, Indonesia, to infer pre-eruptive conditions. Our comparison of experimental and calculated values shows that calculated crystallization temperatures are reasonable estimates. Calculated fO2 and melt SiO2 content yields potentially useful estimates at moderately reduced to moderately oxidized conditions and intermediate to felsic melt compositions. However, calculated crystallization pressure and melt H2O content are untenable estimates that largely reflect compositional variation in the crystallizing magmas and crystallization temperature and not the calculated parameters. Amphibole from Merapi's pyroclasts yields calculated conditions of ~200-800 MPa, ~900-1,050 °C, ~NNO + 0.3-NNO + 1.1, ~3.7-7.2 wt% melt H2O, and ~58-71 wt% melt SiO2. We interpret the variations in calculated temperature, fO2, and melt SiO2 content as reasonable estimates, but conclude that the large calculated pressure variation for amphibole from Merapi and many other arc volcanoes is evidence for thorough mixing of mafic to felsic magmas and not necessarily evidence for crystallization over a large depth range. In contrast, bimodal pressure estimates obtained for other arc magmas

  17. Petrological constraints on the high-Mg basalts from Capo Marargiu (Sardinia, Italy): Evidence of cryptic amphibole fractionation in polybaric environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecchiato, Vanni; Gaeta, Mario; Mollo, Silvio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Bachmann, Olivier; Perinelli, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    This study deals with the textural and compositional characteristics of the calc-alkaline stratigraphic sequence from Capo Marargiu Volcanic District (CMVD; Sardinia island, Italy). The area is dominated by basaltic to intermediate hypabyssal (dikes and sills) and volcanic rocks (lava flows and pyroclastic deposits) emplaced during the Oligo-Miocene orogenic magmatism of Sardinia. Interestingly, a basaltic andesitic dome hosts dark-grey, crystal-rich enclaves containing up 50% of millimetre- to centimetre-sized clinopyroxene and amphibole crystals. This mineral assemblage is in equilibrium with a high-Mg basalt recognised as the parental magma of the entire stratigraphic succession at CMVD. Analogously, centimetre-sized clots of medium- and coarse-grained amphibole + plagioclase crystals are entrapped in andesitic dikes that ultimately intrude the stratigraphic sequence. Amphibole-plagioclase cosaturation occurs at equilibrium with a differentiated basaltic andesite. Major and trace element modelling indicates that the evolutionary path of magma is controlled by a two-step process driven by early olivine + clinopyroxene and late amphibole + plagioclase fractionation. In this context, enclaves represent parts of a cumulate horizon segregated at the early stage of differentiation of the precursory high-Mg basalt. This is denoted by i) resorption effects and sharp transitions between Mg-rich and Mg-poor clinopyroxenes, indicative of pervasive dissolution phenomena followed by crystal re-equilibration and overgrowth, and ii) reaction minerals found in amphibole coronas formed at the interface with more differentiated melts infiltrating within the cumulate horizon, and carrying the crystal-rich material with them upon eruption. Coherently, the mineral chemistry and phase relations of enclaves indicate crystallisation in a high-temperature, high-pressure environment under water-rich conditions. On the other hand, the upward migration and subsequent fractionation of the

  18. Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, James O; Roggli, Victor L; Boelter, Fred W; Rasmuson, Eric J; Redinger, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    A detailed evaluation of the correlation and linearity of industrial hygiene retrospective exposure assessment (REA) for cumulative asbestos exposure with asbestos lung burden analysis (LBA) has not been previously performed, but both methods are utilized for case-control and cohort studies and other applications such as setting occupational exposure limits. (a) To correlate REA with asbestos LBA for a large number of cases from varied industries and exposure scenarios; (b) to evaluate the linearity, precision, and applicability of both industrial hygiene exposure reconstruction and LBA; and (c) to demonstrate validation methods for REA. A panel of four experienced industrial hygiene raters independently estimated the cumulative asbestos exposure for 363 cases with limited exposure details in which asbestos LBA had been independently determined. LBA for asbestos bodies was performed by a pathologist by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and free asbestos fibers by SEM. Precision, reliability, correlation and linearity were evaluated via intraclass correlation, regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Plaintiff's answers to interrogatories, work history sheets, work summaries or plaintiff's discovery depositions that were obtained in court cases involving asbestos were utilized by the pathologist to provide a summarized brief asbestos exposure and work history for each of the 363 cases. Linear relationships between REA and LBA were found when adjustment was made for asbestos fiber-type exposure differences. Significant correlation between REA and LBA was found with amphibole asbestos lung burden and mixed fiber-types, but not with chrysotile. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the precision of the industrial hygiene rater cumulative asbestos exposure estimates and the precision of repeated laboratory analysis were found to be in the excellent range. The ICC estimates were performed independent of specific asbestos

  19. The role of social toxicity in responses to a slowly-evolving environmental disaster: the case of amphibole asbestos exposure in Libby, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Rebecca J W; Orom, Heather; Chung, Jae Eun; Hernandez, Tanis

    2014-09-01

    Experiencing a disaster has significant negative effects on psychological adjustment. Case study accounts point to two consistent trends in slowly-evolving environmental disasters: (a) patterns of negative social dynamics, and (b) relatively worse psychological outcomes than in natural disasters. Researchers have begun to explicitly postulate that the social consequences of slowly-evolving environmental disasters (e.g., community conflict) have their own effects on victims' psychological outcomes. This study tested a model of the relationship between those social consequences and psychological adjustment of victims of a slowly-evolving environmental disaster, specifically those whose health has been compromised by the amphibole asbestos disaster in Libby, MT. Results indicate that experiencing greater community conflict about the disaster was associated with greater family conflict about the disaster which, in turn, was associated with greater social constraints on talking with others about their disease, both directly and indirectly through experiencing stigmatization. Experiencing greater social constraints was associated with worse psychological adjustment, both directly and indirectly through failed social support. Findings have implications for understanding pathways by which social responses create negative effects on mental health in slowly-evolving environmental disasters. These pathways suggest points for prevention and response (e.g., social support, stigmatization of victims) for communities experiencing slowly-evolving environmental disasters.

  20. Experimental and petrological constraints on local-scale interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at middle-crustal conditions: Example from the Limpopo Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaction textures and fluid inclusions in the ∼2.0 Ga pyroxene-bearing dehydration zones within the Sand River biotite-hornblende orthogneisses (Central Zone of the Limpopo Complex suggest that the formation of these zones is a result of close interplay between dehydration process along ductile shear zones triggered by H2O-CO2-salt fluids at 750–800 °C and 5.5–6.2 kbar, partial melting, and later exsolution of residual brine and H2O-CO2 fluids during melt crystallization at 650–700 °C. These processes caused local variations of water and alkali activity in the fluids, resulting in various mineral assemblages within the dehydration zone. The petrological observations are substantiated by experiments on the interaction of the Sand River gneiss with the H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at 750 and 800 °C and 5.5 kbar. It follows that the interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids is accompanied by partial melting at 750–800 °C. Orthopyroxene-bearing assemblages are characteristic for temperature 800 °C and are stable in equilibrium with fluids with low salt concentrations, while salt-rich fluids produce clinopyroxene-bearing assemblages. These observations are in good agreement with the petrological data on the dehydration zones within the Sand River orthogneisses.

  1. Examination of Susceptibility to Libby Amphibole Asbestos-Induced Injury in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a risk factor for the exacerbation of air pollution health effects, no studies have been done assessing the influence of the disease on the development of lung injury induced by asbestos exposure. In this study we examined lung ...

  2. 77 FR 30528 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole Asbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB... information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http://www.epa... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9675-4] Notification of a Public Teleconference of the...

  3. 77 FR 18808 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB... Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab . SUPPLEMENTARY... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9653-1] Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the...

  4. Pulmonary Toxicity and Modifications in Iron Homeostasis Following Libby Amphibole Asbestos Exposure in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Individuals suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) develop iron dysregulation which may influence pulmonary toxicity and injury upon exposure to asbestos. We hypothesized spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats woul...

  5. 76 FR 80368 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Libby Amphibole Asbestos Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9610-8] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) [email protected] . General information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB...

  6. SUBCHRONIC PULMONARY PATHOLOGY, IRON-OVERLOAD AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVITY AFTER LIBBY AMPHIBOLE EXPOSURE IN RAT MODELS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Surface-available iron (Fe) is proposed to contribute to asbestos-induced toxicity through the production of reactive oxygen species.Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that rat models of cardiovascular disease with coexistent Fe overload would be incre...

  7. 76 FR 30939 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for SAB Libby Amphibole...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... all racial and ethnic groups. The EPA SAB Staff Office will acknowledge receipt of nominations. The... financial conflicts of interest; (d) absence of an appearance of a lack of impartiality; and (e) skills... expertise and viewpoints. The SAB Staff Office's evaluation of an absence of financial conflicts of interest...

  8. Determining Satisfaction with Access and Financial Aspects of Care for Persons Exposed to Libby Amphibole Asbestos: Rural and National Environmental Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene A. Winters

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Libby, Montana is a Superfund site and epicenter of one of the worst environmental disasters in the USA history in terms of asbestos-related mortality and morbidity. Perceptions of access and financial aspects of care were explored among a national cohort of persons postasbestos exposure and prior to a 2009 Public Health Emergency Declaration. Our findings indicated the Libby cohort was significantly less satisfied with access and financial aspects of care as measured by two PSQ-III scales when compared to an adult, chronically ill patient sample. Participants with higher levels of respiratory morbidity and depression had significantly lower satisfaction scores.

  9. A cryptic Early Palaeozoic event in the Nacea Antiform? 40Ar/39Ar amphibole data in the Puente de Selce granitoid

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Alonso, Gabriel; Fernández Suárez, Javier; Ortega Rivera, M. A.; Lee, J. k. W.; Murphy, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    Las edades 40Ar/39Ar obtenidas a partir de anfíboles del granitoide Neoproterozoico de Puente de Selce, localizado en el Antiforme del Narcea junto con la existencia de fábricas de deformación relictas generadas en condiciones de media-alta temperatura en las mismas rocas puede ser interpretada como debida a un evento críptico de edad Paleozoico Inferior fuertemente retrabajado durante la deformación varisca. La naturaleza y la cinemática de este posible evento no pueden precisarse pero si se...

  10. A cryptic Early Palaeozoic event in the Narcea Antiform? 40Ar/39Ar amphibole data in the Puente de Selce granitoid

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Alonso, Gabriel; Fernández Suárez, J.; Keppie, J. D.; Ortega Rivera, M. A.; Lee, J. K. W.; Murphy, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    Las edades 40Ar/39Ar obtenidas a partir de anfíboles del granitoide Neoproterozoico de Puente de Selce, localizado en el Antiforme del Narcea junto con la existencia de fábricas de deformación relictas generadas en condiciones de media-alta temperatura en las mismas rocas puede ser interpretada como debida a un evento críptico de edad Paleozoico Inferior fuertemente retrabajado durante la deformación varisca. La naturaleza y la cinemática de este posible evento no pueden precisars...

  11. Influence of exposure assessment and parameterization on exposure response. Aspects of epidemiologic cohort analysis using the Libby Amphibole asbestos worker cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Thomas F; Kopylev, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of occupational epidemiology studies identified two important exposure data quality factors in predicting summary effect measures for asbestos-associated lung cancer mortality risk: sufficiency of job history data and percent coverage of work history by measured exposures. The objective was to evaluate different exposure parameterizations suggested in the asbestos literature using the Libby, MT asbestos worker cohort and to evaluate influences of exposure measurement error caused by historically estimated exposure data on lung cancer risks. Focusing on workers hired after 1959, when job histories were well-known and occupational exposures were predominantly based on measured exposures (85% coverage), we found that cumulative exposure alone, and with allowance of exponential decay, fit lung cancer mortality data similarly. Residence-time-weighted metrics did not fit well. Compared with previous analyses based on the whole cohort of Libby workers hired after 1935, when job histories were less well-known and exposures less frequently measured (47% coverage), our analyses based on higher quality exposure data yielded an effect size as much as 3.6 times higher. Future occupational cohort studies should continue to refine retrospective exposure assessment methods, consider multiple exposure metrics, and explore new methods of maintaining statistical power while minimizing exposure measurement error.

  12. Determining Satisfaction with Access and Financial Aspects of Care for Persons Exposed to Libby Amphibole Asbestos: Rural and National Environmental Policy Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, Ch.A.; Kuntz, S.W.; Hill, W.; Weinert, C.; Rowse, K.

    2011-01-01

    Libby, Montana is a Superfund site and epicenter of one of the worst environmental disasters in the USA history in terms of asbestos-related mortality and morbidity. Perceptions of access and financial aspects of care were explored among a national cohort of persons post asbestos exposure and prior to a 2009 Public Health Emergency Declaration. Our findings indicated the Libby cohort was significantly less satisfied with access and financial aspects of care as measured by two PSQ-III scales when compared to an adult, chronically ill patient sample. Participants with higher levels of respiratory morbidity and depression had significantly lower satisfaction scores

  13. Petrology of an eclogite- and pyrigarnite-bearing polymetamorphic rock complex at Cabo Ortegal, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, D.E.

    1967-01-01

    At Cabo Ortegal, paragneisses are found in association with amphibolites, metagabbros, amphibolized eclogites, amphibolized (plagio) pyrigarnites, and serpentinized ultrabasic rocks. On the basis of petrographical and chemical evidence, their geological history was reconstructed as follows:

  14. Experimental determination of trace-element partitioning between pargasite and a synthetic hydrous andesitic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenan, J. M.; Shaw, H. F.; Ryerson, F. J.; Phinney, D. L.

    1995-10-01

    In order to more fully establish a basis for quantifying the role of amphibole in trace-element fractionation processes, we have measured pargasite/silicate melt partitioning of a variety of trace elements (Rb, Ba, Nb, Ta, Hf, Zr, Ce, Nd, Sm, Yb), including the first published values for U, Th and Pb. Experiments conducted at 1000°C and 1.5 GPa yielded large crystals free of compositional zoning. Partition coefficients were found to be constant at total concentrations ranging from ˜ 1 to > 100 ppm, indicating Henry's Law is oparative over this interval. Comparison of partition coefficients measured in this study with previous determinations yields good agreement for similar compositions at comparable pressure and temperature. The compatibility of U, Th and Pb in amphibole decreases in the order Pb > Th > U. Partial melting or fractional crystallization of amphibole-bearing assemblages will therefore result in the generation of excesses in 238U activity relative to 230Th, similar in magnitude to that produced by clinopyroxene. The compatibility of Pb in amphibole relative to U or Th indicates that melt generation in the presence of residual amphibole will result in the long-term enrichment in Pb relative to U or Th in the residue. This process is therefore incapable of producing the depletion in Pb relative to U or Th inferred from the Pb isotopic composition of MORB and OIB. Comparison of partition coefficients measured in this study with previous values for clinopyroxene allows some distinction to be made between expected trace-element fractionations produced during dry (cpx present) and wet (cpx + amphibole present) melting. Rb, Ba, Nb and Ta are dramatically less compatible in clinopyroxene than in amphibole, whereas Th, U, Hf and Zr have similar compatibilities in both phases. Interelement fractionations, such as DNb/DBa are also different for clinopyroxene and amphibole. Changes in certain ratios, such as Ba/Nb, Ba/Th, and Nb/Th within comagmatic suites may

  15. ALTERATIONS OF FE HOMEOSTASIS IN RAT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MODELS AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO CARDIOPULMONARY TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Fe homeostasis can be disrupted in human cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We addressed how dysregulation of Fe homeostasis affected the pulmonary inflammation/oxidative stress response and disease progression after exposure to Libby amphibole (LA), an asbestifonn mine...

  16. Chemical petrology of polymetamorphic ultramafic rocks from Galicia, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, P.

    1970-01-01

    The investigated polymetamorphic peridotites occur associated with metabasic rocks in several complexes of probably Precambrian age in the northern part of the Hesperian massif (Iberian peninsula). Spinel-clinopyroxene-, spinel-pargasite-, spinel-hornblende- and chlorite-amphibole-peridotites,

  17. crustal shear zone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Textural modeling integrating the textural features and balanced chemical reaction of the calc-silicate ... The style and geometry of the .... analyses return the following amphibole forming reaction: ... based on total Al (AlT) content in hornblende.

  18. Partial melting of metavolcanics in amphibolite facies regional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Department of Geology and Geography, University of Massachusetts,. Amherst), pp 275. Hollocher K 1991 Prograde amphibole dehydration reac- tions during high grade regional metamorphism, Central. Massachusetts, U.S.A.; Am. Mineral.

  19. Blueschist metamorphism and its tectonic implication of Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic metabasites in the mélange zones, central Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Wei, Chunjing; Chu, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Blueschists in central Inner Mongolia are distributed as layers and blocks in mélanges including the southern zone in Ondor Sum area and the northern zone in Manghete and Naomuhunni areas. They have been attributed to the subduction of Early Paleozoic oceanic crust. Blueschists from Ondor Sum and Naomuhunni are characterized by occurrence of sodic amphibole coexisting with epidote, albite, chlorite, calcic amphibole (in Ondor Sum) and muscovite (in Naomuhunni). Blueschists in Manghete contain porphyroblastic albite with inclusions of garnet and epidote in a matrix dominated by calcic-sodic amphibole, epidote, chlorite, albite and muscovite. Phase equilibria modeling for three blueschist samples using pseudosection suggest that the AlM2 contents in sodic amphibole can be used as a good barometer in the limited assemblage involving sodic amphibole + actinolite + epidote + chlorite + albite + quartz under pressures 7-10 kbar. In the sodic amphibole-bearing assemblages, the NaM4 contents in sodic amphibole mainly decrease as temperature rises, being a potential thermometry. The calculated pseudosections constrain the P-T conditions of blueschists to be 3.2-4.2 kbar/355-415 °C in Ondor Sum, 8.2-9.0 kbar/455 °C-495 °C in Manghete and 6.6-8.1 kbar/420-470 °C in Naomuhunni. These P-T estimates indicate a rather high geothermal gradient of 18-25 °C/km for the blueschist metamorphism, being of intermediate P/T facies series. Available zircon U-Pb age data suggests that the protoliths of blueschists were formed later than Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic and metamorphosed soon afterwards. An alternative interpretation for the tectonic implication of blueschists in central Inner Mongolia is that they may be a new type attributed to closure of limited ocean basins and do not represent a tectonic regime occurred in conventional subduction setting.

  20. The differentiation process of the I-type granitoids in southwest Japan and New South Wares in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, K.; Iwamoto, Y.; Ebisu, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Hiraiwa, N.; Kawakatsu, T.; Kitano, A.; Masuta, T.; Ootsubo, H.; Wakazono, R.

    2013-12-01

    Cretaceous-Paleogene Granitoids in the inner zone of southwest Japan have been divided into two series: the magnetite series that is distributed mainly in the San-in belt and the ilmenite series that is distributed mainly in San-yo belt. For 8 years, we have been investigating the two series to clear their processes of magmatic differentiation. Recently, we discovered oscillatory zoned structure, exsolution lamellae of amphibole, and relics of pyroxene left in the core of amphibole from Harima granodiorite, Nunobiki granodiorite (San-yo belt) and Daito-Yokota quartz diorite (San-in belt). The amphibole that has microstructure coexists with magnetite, ilmenite and pyrrhotite. We compared the two series for crystallization and re-equilibrium by ion substitution using the microstructure of the amphibole as 'time measure' during the differentitation process of acidic magma. While magnetites and ilmenites coexist with the core of the amphiboles, the oxygen fugacity of the San-yo belt magma was low until the later stage of magmatic differentiation where H2S from the Earth's crust mixed with it. In the subsolidus process, hydrothermal solutions circulated. On the other hand, the oxygen fugacity of the San-in belt magma began to rise in the early stage of magmatic differentiation. In the later stage, mafic magma was contaminated with SO2. The rims of amphiboles coexist with pyrrhotites in both of belts. Furthermore, the re-equilibrium of minerals underwent progressive oxidation and hydrothermal fluid circulated actively in the subsolidus process. Bingie Bingie Point at New South Wares (Eurobodalla National Park) is a peninsula about a meter around. The plutonic rocks were formed in the Devonian period and belong to the magnetite series. They are classified I-type granitoids such as those found in the inner zone of southwest Japan. They have only trace amounts of oxide minerals and pyrrhotite. The amphiboles of the granitoids have oscillatory zoned structures at pale green

  1. Petrology of blueschist facies metamorphic rocks of the Meliata Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Meliata blueschists originated from basalts, limestones, pelites, psammitic and amphibolite facies basement rocks. Compositionally, the metabasalts have a geochemical signature mostly indicative of a transitional arc-MORB origin, but some mafic rocks having affinity with within plate basalts also present. The mafic blueschists consist of blue amphibole, epidote and albite, rarely also garnet, Na-pyroxene and chloritoid. Apart from phengite and quartz the metapelites and metapsammites contain one or more of the minerals: chloritoid, paragonite, glaucophane, albite, chlorite, occasionally also Na-pyroxene and garnet. Amphibolite facies rocks contain relic garnet, plagioclase and hornblende, the latter two replaced by albite and blue amphibole, respectively. The zoning patterns of blue amphibole, garnet and chloritoid suggest their formation during prograde stage of metamorphism. P-T conditions of meta-morphism are estimated to be about 350-460 oC and 10-12 kbar.

  2. Crystallization conditions and petrogenesis of the lava dome from the ˜900 years BP eruption of Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeger, Kathrin; Halama, Ralf; Hansteen, Thor; Savov, Ivan P.; Murcia, Hugo F.; Cortés, Gloria P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    The last known eruption at Cerro Machín Volcano (CMV) in the Central Cordillera of Colombia occurred ˜900 years BP and ended with the formation of a dacitic lava dome. The dome rocks contain both normally and reversely zoned plagioclase (An24-54), unzoned and reversely zoned amphiboles of dominantly tschermakite and pargasite/magnesio-hastingsite composition and olivine xenocrysts (Fo = 85-88) with amphibole/clinopyroxene overgrowth, all suggesting interaction with mafic magma at depth. Plagioclase additionally exhibits complex oscillatory zoning patterns reflecting repeated replenishment, fractionation and changes in intrinsic conditions in the magma reservoir. Unzoned amphiboles and cores of the reversely zoned amphiboles give identical crystallization conditions of 910 ± 30 °C and 360 ± 70 MPa, corresponding to a depth of about 13 ± 2 km, at moderately oxidized conditions (f = +0.5 ± 0.2 ΔNNO). The water content in the melt, calculated based on amphibole chemistry, is 7.1 ± 0.4 wt.%. Rims of the reversely zoned amphiboles are relatively enriched in MgO and yield higher crystallization temperatures (T = 970 ± 25 °C), slightly lower melt H2O contents (6.1 ± 0.7 wt.%) and overlapping pressures (410 ± 100 MPa). We suggest that these rims crystallized following an influx of mafic melt into a resident magma reservoir at mid-crustal depths, further supported by the occurrence of xenocrystic olivine. Crystallization of biotite, albite-rich plagioclase and quartz occurred at comparatively low temperatures (probably during early stages of ascent or storage at shallower levels. Based on amphibole mineral chemistry, the felsic resident melt had a rhyolitic composition (71 ± 2 wt.% SiO2), whereas the hybrid magma, from which the amphibole rims crystallized, was dacitic (64 ± 3 wt.% SiO2). The bulk rock chemistry of the CMV lava dome dacites is homogenous. They have elevated (La/Nb)N ratios of 3.8-4.5, typical for convergent margin magmas, and display several

  3. Scheelite distribution a long of amphibolitic belt from greenstone belt Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.M.; Alexandre, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the middle southern portion of the Minas Gerais state a 60 Km long and 12 Km wide tungsten belt was discovered, and related to the amphibolitic rocks of the Barbacena Greenstone. Tungsten, present as scheelite, is associated with amphibolites, amphibole schists and amphibole gneisses, with chemical characteristics indicating an igneous origin. Chemical analyses on pan concentrates by I.C.P. showed high values on lead, tin, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium and zirconium, and average values for zinc and copper. The scheelite mineralization is probably strata bound and has a possible submarine exhalative origin. (author)

  4. An Introduction to camptonite lamprophyric dikes at Misho Mountains (Almas area - East Azarbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen moayyed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Almas area in NW of the East Azarbaijan Province, is a part of the Soltaniye-Misho zone. The lamprophyric dikes crosscut the Kahar Formation. The principal minerals of these rocks are amphibole (amphibole phenocrysts are longer than 3 cm, biotite, pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, apatite, calcite and chlorite with porphyritic texture. According to mineralogical and geochemical evidences, the studied lamprophyres are camptonite with alkaline nature. The plotted spider diagrams indicate that the studied lamprophyres are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE and incompatible elements in comparison to heavy rare earth elements (HREE. The parent magma is probably generated from spinel lherzolite mantle with low rate partial melting.

  5. On the application of probability representations for estimation of the argon method resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol'tsova, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    By considering the dating of amphiboles and biotites by the argon method, it is shown that there is a possibility to use the common F and t criteria for revealing any meaning difference in their ages. The dependence of the alternative inference of possible variations of the active parameters is considered, and a graphical procedure for selecting the optimum number of determinations for a given accuracy of analysis is suggested. The meaning difference in the age of amphiboles and biotites from the Northern Ladoga Lake region permits interesting conclusions to be made on the paleothermal history of the investigated rocks

  6. Geodynamic interpretation of the 40Ar/39Ar dating of ophiolitic and arc-related mafics and metamafics of the northern part of the Anadyr-Koryak region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palandzhyan, S.A.; Layer, P.W.; Patton, W.W.; Khanchuk, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Isotope datings of amphibole-bearing mafics and metamafics in the northern part of the Anadyr-Koryak region allow clarification of the time of magmatic and metamorphic processes, which are synchronous with certain stages of the geodynamic development of the northwest segment of the Pacific mobile belt in the Phanerozoic. To define the 40Ar/39Ar age of amphiboles, eight samples of amphibole gabbroids and metamafics were selected during field work from five massifs representing ophiolites and mafic plutons of the island arc. Rocks from terranes of three foldbelts: 1) Pekulnei (Chukotka region), 2) Ust-Belaya (West Koryak region), and 3) the Tamvatnei and El'gevayam subterranes of the Mainits terrane (Koryak-Kamchatka region), were studied. The isotope investigations enabled us to divide the studied amphiboles into two groups varying in rock petrographic features. The first was represented by gabbroids of the Svetlorechensk massif of the Pekulnei Range and by ophiolites of the Tamvatnei Mts.; their magmatic amphiboles show the distribution of argon isotopes in the form of clearly distinguished plateau with an age ranging within 120-129 Ma. The second group includes metamorphic amphiboles of metagabbroids and apogabbro amphibolites of the Ust-Belaya Mts., Pekulnei and Kenkeren ranges (El'gevayam subterranes). Their age spectra show loss of argon and do not provide well defined plateaus the datings obtained for them are interpreted as minimum ages. Dates of amphiboles from the metagabbro of the upper tectonic plate of the Ust-Belaya allochthon points to metamorphism in the suprasubduction environment in the fragment of Late Neoproterozoic oceanic lithosphere in Middle-Late Devonian time, long before the Uda-Murgal island arc system was formed. The amphibolite metamorphism in the dunite-clinopyroxenite-metagabbro Pekulnei sequence was dated to occur at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The age of amphiboles from gabbrodiorites of the Kenkeren Range was dated to be Early

  7. Sedimentary carbonate-hosted giant Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit of Inner Mongolia, China; a cornerstone example for giant polymetallic ore deposits of hydrothermal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Tatsumoto, M.; Junwen, Wang; Conrad, J.E.; McKee, E.H.; Zonglin, Hou; Qingrun, Meng; Shengguang, Huang

    1997-01-01

    Detailed, integrative field and laboratory studies of the textures, structures, chemical characteristics, and isotopically determined ages and signatures of mineralization of the Bayan Obo deposit provided evidence for the origin and characteristics favorable for its formation and parameters necessary for defining giant polymetallic deposits of hydrothermal origin. Bayan Obo is an epigenetic, metasomatic, hydrothermal rare earth element (REE)-Fe-Nb ore deposit that is hosted in the metasedimentary H8 dolostone marble of the Middle Proterozoic Bayan Obo Group. The metasedimentary sequence was deposited on the northern continental slope of the North China craton. The mine area is about 100 km south of the suture marking Caledonian subduction of the Mongolian oceanic plate from the north beneath the North China craton. The mineralogy of the deposit is very complex, consisting of more than 120 different minerals, some of which are epigenetic minerals introduced by hydrothermal solutions, and some of which are primary and secondary metamorphic minerals. The major REE minerals are monazite and bastnaesite, whereas magnetite and hematite are the dominant Fe-ore minerals, and columbite is the most abundant Nb mineral. Dolomite, alkali amphibole, fluorite, barite, aegirine augite, apatite, phlogopite, albite, and microcline are the most widespread gangue minerals. Three general types of ores occur at Bayan Obo: disseminated, banded, and massive ores. Broad zoning of these ore types occurs in the Main and East Orebodies. Disseminated ores are in the outermost zone, banded ores are in the intermediate zone, and massive ores are in the cores of the orebodies. On the basis of field relations, host rocks, textures, structures, and mineral assemblages, many varieties of these three types of ores have been recognized and mapped. Isotopic dating of monazite, bastnaesite, aeschynite, and metamorphic and metasomatic alkali amphiboles associated with the deposit provides constraints

  8. Journal Article: Localized Pleural Thickening: Smoking and Exposure to Libby Vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited research on the combined effects of smoking and asbestos exposure on risk of localized pleural thickening (LPT). This analysis uses data from the Marysville cohort of workers occupationally exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA). Workers were interviewed to ...

  9. Anphibole, an undesirable presence in cosmetic talc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, M.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    A semi-quantitative X-ray diffractometric study, compared to CaO analysis, for the evaluation of the percentage of amphibole present in cosmetic talcs is presented. Scanning electron images show these needle-like minerals togheter with talc; these minerals can cause from simple allergies to serious health problems to the human being. (Author) [pt

  10. Analyse sédimentologique et paléoenvironnements des sédiments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More trendlines particle size parameters are growing straight. Director of straight regression coefficient is close to one (1). Thus there is a good correlation between the characteristic parameters. The mineralogical contains both heavy minerals such as amphibole (actinolite, hornblende), tourmaline, diopside and epidote ...

  11. Mesothelial Cell Autoantibodies Induce Collagen Deposition in vitro & Using a Case Study to Introduce Undergraduates to Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serve, Kinta M.

    2013-01-01

    Part I. Pleural fibrosis, a non-malignant, asbestos-related respiratory disease characterized by excessive collagen deposition, is progressive, debilitating, and potentially fatal. Disease severity may be influenced by the type of asbestos fiber inhaled, with Libby amphibole (LA) a seemingly more potent mediator of pleural fibrosis than chrysotile…

  12. Thermal Properties of Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    plagio - clase feldspar and pyroxene. The tine fraction may Surface area and its effects contain the clay "sheet" minerals (i.e. kaolinite. illite...Pyroxene, Kaoliniwe Unified By By Ortho. Plagio . amphibole, Basic clay min. Hematite Soil Soil soil petrogr. X.ray clase clase and Igneous and clay and no

  13. Hydration of an active shear zone: Interactions between deformation, metasomatism and magmatism - the spinel-lherzolites from the Montferrier (southern France) Oligocene basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanes, N.; Briqueu, L.

    1987-01-01

    Geochemical and textural investigations have been simultaneously performed on spinel-lherzolite xenoliths from the Oligo-Miocene alkali basalts of Montferrier (southern France). All the investigated samples have undergone a deformation very particular by intense shearing under high stresses (up to 1.75 kbar), low temperatures (≤900 0 C) and strain rates of about 10 -18 to 10 -15 s -1 . Mineral chemistry reveals that the Montferrier lherzolites are fragments of an undepleted relatively shallow upper mantle level located at a depth of 50 km (15 kbar). Moreover, Na and Ti enrichment in diopside would reflect a metasomatic event, also emphasized by the common occurrence of pargasite in 50-70% of the investigated samples. Crystallization of this amphibole is attributed to a hydrous infiltration which is related in time and space to the deformation. Indeed, amphibole is preferentially concentrated in strongly deformed zones and in kink-band boundaries of orthopyroxene porphyroclasts. Moreover, the grain boundaries were used by the pervasive agent to percolate into the lherzolite: significant chemical variations (increase in MgO: 15% and decrease in Al 2 O 3 : 55%) are observed within the range of 7-5 μm adjacent to the grain boundary. Finally, Sr isotopic data ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) demonstrate that the amphibole, i.e. the metasomatic agent, is genetically related to the host lava of the xenoliths. Thus, the hydrous silicate liquid from which the amphibole has crystallized may be an early percolation of the ascending alkali magma. (orig.)

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classical field method, conic sections method and Ramsay's fold classification method were applied to (i) have the general orientation of folds, (ii) analyze the fold shapes and (iii) classify the geometry of the folded bands. Fold axes in banded amphibole gneiss plunge moderately (<15◦) towards the NNE or SSW.

  15. Investigation into the metamorphic Nappes of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides on the basis of Rb-Sr and K-Ar age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymer, A.P.S.

    1979-01-01

    This study concerns age determinations on several rock units of metamorphic nappes in the central Scandinavian Caledonides. Rb-Sr analyses on whole-rocks and minerals (biotite, muscovite/phengite, feldspars, garnet) were made as well as K-Ar determinations on biotite, muscovite/phengite, amphibole and feldspar. (Auth.)

  16. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calc-silicate rocks of the Kajalbas area of Delhi Fold Belt, Rajasthan, are characterised by foliation parallel alternate bands of amphibolerich and clinopyroxene–plagioclase feldspar-rich layers of varying thicknesses (mm to decimetre thick). Textural relation suggests that the amphibole grains formed from clinopyroxene ...

  17. Origen de la escapolita en metapelitas y rocas anfibolicas de series del Cambrico Inferior del Occidente de Asturias (NW de España)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, O.; Arias, E.

    1981-01-01

    Levels of layered green rocks, characterized by the presence of a fibrous green tremolitic-actinolitic amphibole and/or scapolite, cropping out in the core of the San Martin anticline in the base of Vegadeo limestone (Lower Cambrian) are studied. The origin of the scapolite, under the point of view

  18. Petrology, isotopic and fluid inclusion studies of eclogites from Sujiahe, NW Dabie Shan (China), July 1 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, B.; Zheng, Y.-F.; Touret, J.L.R.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the Triassic Hong'an low-T-high-P eclogite and the Xinxian coesite-bearing kyanite-glaucophane eclogite, Silurian coesite-free amphibole eclogites occur in the Sujiahe region, NW Dabie Shan of central China. A comprehensive study of petrology, Nd-Sr, O-H isotopes and fluid inclusions

  19. Ductile nappe stacking and refolding in the Cycladic Blueschist Unit: insights from Sifnos Island (south Aegean Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravadinou, E.; Xypolias, P.; Chatzaras, V.; Iliopoulos, I.; Gerogiannis, N.

    2016-01-01

    New geological and structural mapping combined with kinematic and amphibole chemistry analyses is used to investigate the deformation history of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Aegean Sea). We concentrate on north Sifnos, an area characterized by exceptionally

  20. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Interim Method of the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interpretation of point count data 3 is available. This method is applicable to all bulk samples of friable... matrices are not currently available. Data obtained for samples containing a single asbestos type in a... and characterization of fibrous and nonfibrous amphiboles for analytical methods development, pp. 295...

  1. Geochronologic study of polycyclic rocks from Sao Vicente complex in anticlinorium of Caico and Florania - RN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, D.A.R.

    1976-01-01

    The characterization of geochronologic standard in a polycyclic area, verifying the interpretative potentials of Rubidium-Strontium and Potassium-Argon methods is the main objective of this paper. The determinations of K/Ar were made in amphiboles, moscovites and biotites. Petrology studies were also made for verifying the composition of several lithological types. (author)

  2. Crystal reaming during the assembly, maturation, and waning of an eleven-million-year crustal magma cycle: thermobarometry of the Aucanquilcha Volcanic Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Barry A.; Klemetti, Erik W.; Grunder, Anita L.; Dilles, John H.; Tepley, Frank J.; Giles, Denise

    2013-04-01

    Phenocryst assemblages of lavas from the long-lived Aucanquilcha Volcanic Cluster (AVC) have been probed to assess pressure and temperature conditions of pre-eruptive arc magmas. Andesite to dacite lavas of the AVC erupted throughout an 11-million-year, arc magmatic cycle in the central Andes in northern Chile. Phases targeted for thermobarometry include amphibole, plagioclase, pyroxenes, and Fe-Ti oxides. Overall, crystallization is documented over 1-7.5 kbar (~25 km) of pressure and ~680-1,110 °C of temperature. Pressure estimates range from ~1 to 5 kbar for amphiboles and from ~3 to 7.5 kbar for pyroxenes. Pyroxene temperatures are tightly clustered from ~1,000-1,100 °C, Fe-Ti oxide temperatures range from ~750-1,000 °C, and amphibole temperatures range from ~780-1,050 °C. Although slightly higher, these temperatures correspond well with previously published zircon temperatures ranging from ~670-900 °C. Two different Fe-Ti oxide thermometers (Andersen and Lindsley 1985; Ghiorso and Evans 2008) are compared and agree well. We also compare amphibole and amphibole-plagioclase thermobarometers (Ridolfi et al. 2010; Holland and Blundy 1994; Anderson and Smith 1995), the solutions from which do not agree well. In samples where we employ multiple thermometers, pyroxene temperature estimates are always highest, zircon temperature estimates are lowest, and Fe-Ti oxide and amphibole temperature estimates fall in between. Maximum Fe-Ti oxide and zircon temperatures are observed during the middle stage of AVC activity (~5-3 Ma), a time associated with increased eruption rates. Amphibole temperatures during this time are relatively restricted (~850-1,000 °C). The crystal record presented here offers a time-transgressive view of an evolving, multi-tiered subvolcanic reservoir. Some crystals in AVC lavas are likely to be true phenocrysts, but the diversity of crystallization temperatures and pressures recorded by phases in individual AVC lavas suggests erupting magma

  3. A Late Mesozoic short-lived shift from fluid-dominated to sediment-dominated mantle metasomatism in the northeast South China Block and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fa-Bin; Jin, Chong; Jia, Bao-Jian; Liu, Rong; He, Xiaobo; Gao, Zhong; Tao, Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Li-Qi

    2018-06-01

    Early Cretaceous northwest (NW)-trending dolerite and amphibole lamprophyre dykes exposed in NW Zhejiang Province provide a number of new insights into the nature of the subcontinental mantle on the northeast (NE) South China Block (SCB). These dykes have a high Al2O3 (14.04-17.89 wt%) and K2O (0.66-2.69 wt%) contents but relatively low Na2O (2.48-4.61 wt%) and TiO2 (1.33-2.79 wt%) makeup alongside moderate K2O/Na2O ratios between 0.26 and 1.04. These amphibole lamprophyre dykes also have higher MgO, Cr, and Ni contents than those of comparable dolerites that have SiO2 content ranging from 46.32 to 49.87 wt%. The most striking feature of these intrusions is that they contain higher contents of Rb, Th, U, Nb, Ta, and LREE compared to their dolerite counterparts, although both amphibole lamprophyres and dolerites do exhibit similar geochemical patterns that are indicative of subduction-related origins. These features imply that an ambient peridotitic mantle that acted as the source for the amphibole lamprophyre magma source may have reacted with silicate-rich melts leading to olivine consumption while maintaining orthopyroxene. The geochemical composition of these dolerites are likely influenced to a variable extent by the fractionation of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides, and apatite, while their amphibole lamprophyre counterparts have been modified to a minor degree by amphibole fractionation. Measured Sr-Nd isotopic compositions suggest relatively constant Nd isotopic compositions (-0.36 to +1.52) with more variable Sr isotopic compositions (0.7071 to 0.7306). We hence propose that both the dolerite and amphibole lamprophyre dykes in this region are the products of mantle source metasomatism by the subducted Paleo-Pacific slab. The dolerite dykes are mainly associated with slab-derived fluids, while the lamprophyre dykes are related to both slab-derived fluids and sediment melts. Evidence in support of metasomatism comprising distinct two

  4. 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the timing and history of amphibolite facies gold mineralisation in the Southern Cross area, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, R.W.; Guise, P.G.; Rex, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Cross Greenstone Belt in Western Australia contains structurally controlled, hydrothermal gold deposits which are thought to have formed at or near the peak of amphibolite facies regional metamorphism during the Late Archaean. Although the geological features of deposits in the area are well documented. conflicting genetic models and ore-fluid sources have been used to explain the observed geological data. This paper presents new 40 Ar/ 39 Ar data which suggest that the thermal history of the Southern Cross area after the peak of regional metamorphism was more complex than has previously been suggested. After the main gold mineralisation event prior to ca 2620 Ma, the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages from amphiboles and biotites sampled from the alteration selvages of gold-bearing veins indicate that temperatures remained elevated in the region of 500 deg C for between 20 and 70 million years. These amphiboles and biotites from individual deposits yield ages that are in good agreement with one another to a high precision. implying increased cooling rates after the long period of elevated temperatures. Along the Southern Cross Greenstone Belt. however. amphibole-biotite pairs from the alteration selvages of gold-bearing quartz veins. while remaining in good agreement with one another, vary between deposits from ca 2560 Ma to ca 2440 Ma. Amphiboles from metabasalts that are associated with regional metamorphism and not hydrothermal alteration contain numerous exsolution lamellae that reduce the effective closure temperature of the amphiboles and yield geologically meaningless ages. These age relationships show that the thermal history of the area did not follow a simple cooling path and the area may have been tectonically active for a long period after the main gold mineralisation event before ca 2620 Ma. Such data may provide important constraints on subsequent genetic modelling of gold mineralisation and metamorphism. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Asia

  5. Environmental concentrations of fibers with fluoro-edenitic composition and population exposure in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Maria Bruni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The town of Biancavilla (Sicily was included in the National Priorities List of Contaminated Sites due to environmental dispersion of amphibole fibers owing to the extraction of materials from a local quarry. The present report summarizes results from several, hitherto unpublished, environmental surveys carried out in the area, as well as from published analyses of the chemistry and composition of fibers. METHODS. Data included here comprises environmental fiber concentrations by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS analysis in soil, indoor and outdoor air, personal monitoring, as well as a chemical characterization of the fibers. The full chemical structure and spectroscopic characterization of fibers were obtained through a multi-analytical approach: SEM-EDS, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, as well as Mössbauer (MS and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopies. RESULTS. Data analyzed provided a spatial and temporal picture of fiber concentrations in Biancavilla, and a qualitative assessment of population exposure. Results suggest that until 2000, the population had been exposed to high levels of amphibole fibers. Mitigation measures adopted since 2001, gradually reduced exposure levels to about 0.10.4 ff/l. Previous studies on fibrous amphiboles from Biancavilla reported considerable chemical variability. Differences in composition, especially concerning the presence of Si, Ca, Fe, and Na, were found both within and between samples. Compared to the previously investigated prismatic fluoro-edenite, these fibrous fluorine amphiboles consistently showed higher average values of Si and Fe content, whereas Ca was significantly lower, which we consider a distinctive characteristic of the fluorine fibrous variety. CONCLUSIONS. The population of Biancavilla had been highly exposed to a suite of fibrous amphiboles for over 50 years. Dust mitigation measures have gradually reduced exposure, but

  6. Depleted and metasomatized oceanic lithosphere beneath La Palma, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, Astrid; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2017-04-01

    Due to the inaccessibility of Earth's interior, xenoliths became the best possibility to study the chemical composition of the earth mantle as well as its various processes. Three samples out of the sample suite of mantle peridotites from San Antonio Volcano on La Palma, Canary Islands, have been chosen to illustrate three examples of diverse mantle metasomatic events. The first sample, a pyroxene-hornblende-peridotite, was influenced by an alkali-rich, silicic-hydrous undersaturated melt and/or fluid forming a conspicuous cross-cutting amphibole-apatite-dyke with several veins percolating through the rock. Forsterite content in olivine varies between 82.5 - 85.5 and 86.0 - 89.0, suggesting at least two different occurrences of metasomatic overprint. Clinopyroxenes are mostly found in association with amphibole and in textural equilibrium hinting that both minerals may have grown together, while orthopyroxene have only been found as remnant inclusions in olivine. These clinopyroxenes are Cr-Diopsides with En43.40-50.97-Wo43.99-48.64-Fs4.30-8.22 and Mg# between 85.54 and 92.36. Secondary clinopyroxenes are Ti-Augites with En39.86-46.81-Wo46.65-51.98-Fs5.86-8.72 and Mg# of 82.44 - 89.09. The second sample, a sp-dunite, is characterized by haüyne-bearing melt veins which clearly indicate host-basalt infiltration. The haüyne is always in contact with amphibole, spinel and clinopyroxene denoting that they have been formed at the same time because there is no evidence for reaction among these phases. The melt infiltration apparently took place prior to xenolith entrainment in the host basalt. Primary olivine has Fo content of 89.57 - 89.67 with NiO ranging from 0.32 - 0.334, in contrast Fo content in secondary olivine varies from 89.05 - 90.86 and NiO fluctuates between 0.24 - 0.31. Cr-Diopside compositions are in range of En41.63-47.05-Wo47.83-51-90-Fs4.93-6.64 and Mg# between 86.48 - 90.50. The third sample is also a sp-dunite and marked by a network of phlogopite-amphibole

  7. FLUID EVOLUTION AND MINERAL REACTIONS DURING SHEAR ZONE FORMATION AT NUSFJORD, LOFOTEN, NORWAY (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullerud, K.

    2009-12-01

    At Nusfjord in Lofoten, Norway, three 0.3 - 3 m thick shear zones occur in a gabbro-anorthosite. During deformation, the shear zones were infiltrated by a hydrous fluid enriched in Cl. In the central parts of the shear zones, fluid-rock interaction resulted in complete break-down of the primary mafic silicates. Complete hydration of these minerals to Cl-free amphibole and biotite suggests that the hydrous fluid was present in excess during deformation in these parts of the shear zones. Along the margins of the shear zones, however, the igneous mafic silicates (Cpx, Bt, Opx) were only partly overgrown by hydrous minerals. Here, Cl-enriched minerals (Amph, Bt, Scp, Ap) can be observed. Amphibole shows compositions covering the range 0.1 - 4.0 wt % Cl within single thin sections. Mineral textures and extreme compositional variations of the Cl-bearing minerals indicate large chemical gradients of the fluid phase. Relics of primary mafic silicates and compositionally zoned reaction coronas around primary mafic silicates suggest that the free fluid was totally consumed before the alteration of the primary phases were completed. The extreme variations in the Cl-content of amphibole are inferred to monitor a gradual desiccation of the Cl-bearing grain-boundary fluid during fluid-mineral reactions accordingly: 1) The first amphibole that formed during the reactions principally extracted water from the fluid, resulting in a slight increase in the Cl content of the fluid. 2) Continued amphibole-forming reactions resulted in gradual consumption of the free fluid phase, principally by extracting water from the fluid, resulting in an increase in its Cl-content. Higher Cl-content of the fluid resulted in higher Cl-content of the equilibrium amphibole. 3) The most Cl-enriched amphibole (4 wt % Cl) formed in equilibrium with the last volumes of the grain-boundary fluid, which had evolved to a highly saline solution. Mineral reactions within a 1-2 thick zone of the host rock along

  8. Constraints on the Chemistry and Abundance of Hydrous Phases in Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle: Implications for Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Dasgupta, R.; Fischer, K. M.; Mookherjee, M.

    2017-12-01

    The origins of a 2-10% reduction in seismic shear wave velocity (Vs) at depths of 60-160 km in sub continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) regions, identified as the Mid Lithospheric Discontinuity (MLD) [e.g., 1] are highly debated [e.g., 2, 3]. One of the proposed explanations for MLDs is the presence of hydrous minerals such as amphibole and phlogopite at these depths [e.g., 2, 4, 5]. Although the stability and compositions of these phases in peridotite + H2O ± CO2 have been widely explored [e.g., 6], their composition and abundance as a function of permissible SCLM chemistry remain poorly understood. We have compiled phase equilibria experiments conducted over a range of pressure (0.5-8 GPa), temperature (680-1300 °C), major element peridotite compositions, and volatiles (H2O: 0.05-13.79 wt.% and CO2: 0.25-5.3 wt.%). The goal was to constrain how compositional parameters such as CaO and alkali/H2O affect the chemistry and abundance of amphibole and phlogopite. We observe that the abundance of amphibole increases with CaO content and decreasing alkali/H2O. The abundance of phlogopite varies directly with K2O content. Unlike phlogopite compositions that remain consistent, amphibole compositions show variability (pargastitic to K-richterite) depending on bulk CaO and Na2O. Mineral modes, obtained by mass balance on a melt/fluid free basis, were used to calculate aggregate shear wave velocity, Vs for the respective assemblages [e.g., 7] and compared with absolute values observed at MLD depths [e.g., 8]. Vs shows a strong inverse correlation with phlogopite and amphibole modes (particularly where phlogopite is absent). For the Mg# range of cratonic xenoliths, 5-10% phlogopite at MLD depths can match the observed Vs values, while CaO contents in cratonic xenoliths limit the amphibole abundance to 10%, which is lower than previous estimates based on heat flow calculations [e.g., 4]. The modes of hydrous and other phases and corresponding Vs values could be used to

  9. The Finero phlogopite-peridotite massif: an example of subduction-related metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Alberto; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio; Rivalenti, Giorgio; Vannucci, Riccardo

    The Finero peridotite massif is a harzburgite that suffered a dramatic metasomatic enrichment resulting in the pervasive presence of amphibole and phlogopite and in the sporadic occurrence of apatite and carbonate (dolomite)-bearing domains. Pyroxenite (websterite) dykes also contain phlogopite and amphibole, but are rare. Peridotite bulk-rock composition retained highly depleted major element characteristics, but was enriched in K, Rb, Ba, Sr, LREE (light rare earth elements) (LaN/YbN=8-17) and depleted in Nb. It has high radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr(270)=0.7055-0.7093), low radiogenic Nd (ɛNd(270)=-1 to -3) and EMII-like Pb isotopes. Two pyroxenite - peridotite sections examined in detail show the virtual absence of major and trace element gradients in the mineral phases. In both rock types, pyroxenes and olivines have the most unfertile major element composition observed in Ivrea peridotites, spinels are the richest in Cr, and amphibole is pargasite. Clinopyroxenes exhibit LREE-enriched patterns (LaN/YbN 16), negative Ti and Zr and generally positive Sr anomaly. Amphibole has similar characteristics, except a weak negative Sr anomaly, but incompatible element concentration 1.9 (Sr) to 7.9 (Ti) times higher than that of coexisting clinopyroxene. Marked geochemical gradients occur toward apatite and carbonate-bearing domains which are randomly distributed in both the sections examined. In these regions, pyroxenes and amphibole (edenite) arelower in mg## and higher in Na2O, and spinels and phlogopite are richer in Cr2O3. Both the mineral assemblage and the incompatible trace element characteristics of the mineral phases recall the typical signatures of ``carbonatite'' metasomatism (HFSE depletion, Sr, LILE and LREE enrichment). Clinopyroxene has higher REE and Sr concentrations than amphibole (amph/cpxDREE,Sr=0.7-0.9) and lower Ti and Zr concentrations. It is proposed that the petrographic and geochemical features observed at Finero are consistent with a subduction

  10. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kananian, A.; Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H.; Darvishzadeh, A.; Sabzehi, M.; Whitechurch, H.; Ricou, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km 2 ) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ( 40 K- 40 Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  11. Magmatic storage conditions, decompression rate, and incipient caldera collapse of the 1902 eruption of Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Benjamin J.

    2014-08-01

    Phase equilibria experiments and analysis of natural pumice and phenocryst compositions indicate the 1902 Santa Maria dacite was stored at ~ 140-170 MPa and 840-850 °C prior to eruption. H2O-saturated, cold-seal experiments conducted in vessels with an intrinsic log fO2 of NNO + 1 ± 0.5 show that the natural phase assemblage (melt + plagioclase + amphibole + orthopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxides + apatite) is stable from approximately 115-140 MPa at temperatures below ~ 825 °C, to ~ 840-860 °C at 150 MPa, to > 850 and Ridolfi et al., 2010) applied to experimental samples suggest two populations of amphiboles, phenocrysts grown during the experiments and inherited xenocrysts, but the pressure-temperature conditions returned by the geothermobarometer are routinely > 50 MPa and > 50 °C greater than experimental run conditions; precise estimates of magmatic conditions based solely upon amphibole composition are likely inaccurate. The experimental results and analysis of natural crystals suggest that although the natural amphiboles likely record a broad range of magmatic conditions, only the lower bounds of that range reflect pre-eruptive storage conditions. Comparison of Santa Maria microlite abundances with decompression experiments examining other silicic systems from the literature suggests that the 1902 dacite decompressed at the rate of ~ 0.005 to 0.01 MPa/s during the eruption. Applying the decompression rate with the previously described eruption rate of approximately 2-3 × 108 kg/s (Williams and Self, 1983; Carey and Sparks, 1986) to the conduit model CONFLOW reveals that the eruption conduit was dike-like with an along-strike length > 1 km. Despite depositing ~ 20 km3 of dacite tephra (equivalent to ~ 8.5 km3 magma), the 1902 eruption did not form an obvious caldera. This work suggests that collapse of the dike-like conduit terminated the eruption, preventing full caldera collapse.

  12. Origin of peraluminous minerals (corundum, spinel, and sapphirine) in a highly calcic anorthosite from the Sittampundi Layered Complex, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Shreya; Mukherjee, Subham; Sanyal, Sanjoy; Sengupta, Pulak

    2017-08-01

    The highly calcic anorthosite (An>95) from the Sittampundi Layered Complex (SLC) develops corundum, spinel and sapphirine that are hitherto not reported from any anorthositic rocks in the world. Petrological observations indicate the following sequence of mineral growth: plagioclasematrix → corundum; clinopyroxene → amphibole; corundum + amphibole → plagioclasecorona + spinel; and spinel + corundum → coronitic sapphirine. Phase relations in the CaO-Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (CNASH) system suggest that corundum was presumably developed through vapour present incongruent melting of the highly calcic plagioclase during ultra-high temperature (UHT) metamorphism ( T ≥ 1000 °C, P ≥ 9 kbar). Topological constraints in parts of the Na2O-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCMASH) system suggest that subsequent to the UHT metamorphism, aqueous fluid(s) permeated the rock and the assemblage corundum + amphibole + anorthite + clinozoisite was stabilized during high-pressure (HP) metamorphism (11 ± 2 kbar, 750 ± 50 °C). Constraints of the NCMASH topology and thermodynamic and textural modeling study suggest that coronitic plagioclase and spinel formed at the expense of corundum + amphibole during a steeply decompressive retrograde P- T path (7-8 kbar and 700-800 °C) in an open system. Textural modeling studies combined with chemical potential diagrams (μSiO2-μMgO) in the MASH system support the view that sapphirine also formed from due to silica and Mg metasomatism of the precursor spinel ± corundum, on the steeply decompressive retrograde P- T path, prior to onset of significant cooling of the SLC. Extremely channelized fluid flow and large positive solid volume change of the stoichiometrically balanced sapphirine forming reaction explains the localized growth of sapphirine.

  13. The search for asbestos within the Peter Mitchell Taconite iron ore mine, near Babbitt, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Malcolm; Nolan, Robert P; Nord, Gordon L

    2008-10-01

    Asbestos crystallizes within rock formations undergoing intense deformation characterized by folding, faulting, shearing, and dilation. Some of these conditions have prevailed during formation of the taconite iron ore deposits in the eastern Mesabi Iron Range of Minnesota. This range includes the Peter Mitchell Taconite Mine at Babbitt, Minnesota. The mine pit is over 8 miles long, up to 1 mile wide. Fifty three samples were collected from 30 sites within areas of the pit where faulting, shearing and folding occur and where fibrous minerals might occur. Eight samples from seven collecting sites contain significant amounts of ferroactinolite amphibole that is partially to completely altered to fibrous ferroactinolite. Two samples from two other sites contain ferroactinolite degraded to ropy masses of fibers consisting mostly of ferrian sepiolite as defined by X-ray diffraction and TEM and SEM X-ray spectral analysis. Samples from five other sites contain unaltered amphiboles, however some of these samples also contain a very small number of fiber bundles composed of mixtures of grunerite, ferroactinolite, and ferrian sepiolite. It is proposed that the alteration of the amphiboles was caused by reaction with water-rich acidic fluids that moved through the mine faults and shear zones. The fibrous amphiboles and ferrian sepiolite collected at the Peter Mitchell Mine composes a tiny fraction of one percent of the total rock mass of this taconite deposit; an even a smaller amount of these mineral fragments enter the ambient air during mining and milling. These fibrous minerals thus do not present a significant health hazard to the miners nor to those non-occupationally exposed. No asbestos of any type was found in the mine pit.

  14. The role of volatile-saturation and adiabatic ascent of moderately hydrous melts on the formation of orbicules and comb layers in shallow subvolcanic conduits (Fisher Lake, Sierra Nevada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, A. J.; Müntener, O.

    2016-12-01

    Orbicules and comb layers are enigmatic features found sparsely distributed along plutonic contacts in a wide range of igneous environments. We provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the formation of these features by studying the spatial distribution, mineralogy and geochemistry of comb layers and orbicules from the Northern Sierra Nevada, Fisher Lake (USA). Over a range of studied comb textured layering, we show that the large majority of comb layers are cumulates formed by the initiation of plagioclase growth as a comb textured mineral. Plagioclase fractionation is followed by pyroxenes + oxides fractionation. Continuous crystal fractionation and conductive cooling from the host rock leads to amphibole saturation and the formation of late stage comb textured amphibole, leading to the formation of plagioclase- and plagioclase-amphibole comb textures. The lack of amphibole comb textures on orbicule rims as opposed to their widespread occurrence in comb layers, suggests that the presence of a thermal gradient plays an important role in diversifying comb textures. We propose that comb layers and orbicules are unique features which are controlled by the volatile content of ascending melts and ascent mechanisms. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that near-adiabatic decompression of water-undersaturated melts (ca. 4wt% H2O) through the crust will lead to superheating and dissolution of pre-existing minerals. Upon saturation of volatiles at shallow depth, degassing-induced undercooling of the decompressing melt will trigger heterogeneous nucleation of plagioclase on host rocks and remobilized xenoliths. The rarity of orbicules and comb layers in volcanic and plutonic rocks worldwide suggests that adiabatic decompression of moderately hydrous melts leading to superheating is a rare phenomena, with most arc melts ascending and cooling in small reservoirs throughout the crust, prior to emplacement at shallow depth as crystal-bearing magmas.

  15. A petrogenetic model of basalts from the Northern Central Indian Ridge: 3-11°S

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Iyer, S.D.; Banerjee, R.; Misra, S.; Widdowson, M.

    ) to subhedral (rare) equant grains, which are almost colourless and rarely show zoning. In a few cases, olivine shows alteration along the inherent fracture to reddish- brown iddingsite. Amphiboles occur in the VT as well as in VM basalts but only as poorly... (primitive mantle normalized data from Sun and McDonough, 1989) patterns for selected samples are shown. The basalt samples collected from VT 4, VT 5 and VM 9DG locations characteristically exhibit differential variation in their trace element...

  16. Application of the Moessbauer effect in the investigation of mineral raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benada, J.

    1973-01-01

    The application is described of a method for an improved resolution of complex experimental Moessbauer spectra. The method is based on the application of the speedy Fourier transformation. The efficiency is illustrated by the measured spectra and by the improved spectra obtained from them. The application of the Moessbauer effect is discussed in research on minerals of the isomorphous series enstatite-hypersthene and on amphiboles. (author)

  17. Mineralogy of asbestos from the metamorphic complex from north eastern Takab-NW Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajialioghli, R.; Moazzen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ultramafic rocks from the Takht-e-Soleyman metamorphic complex, in Precambrian age, are classified as serpentinized meta peridotites and serpentinites, based on degree of serpentinization. Serpentine forms more than 90 volume% of the serpentinites. On the basis of serpentine polymorphs, textural relations and micro-structure features, variety of serpentinites are determined as massive serpentinites, serpentinite schists and chrysotile-bearing serpentinites. Chrysotile in serpentinites has been formed due to static condition and brittle deformations. During static state chrysotile and lizardite after olivine and pyroxene are formed as pseudomorphic mesh and bastite textures in the massive serpentinites. Then serpentinization processes reactivated by formation and development of joints and fractures related to brittle deformations at the local sheared zones. Chrysotile occur as fine grained crystals in the serpentinite matrix and veinlets with mm thickness filling fractures of the chrysotile-bearing serpentinites. Slight thickness of chrysotile veinlet in the investigated serpentinites can be attributed to the olivine rich composition of protolite. Low amounts of Cr 2 O 3 in composition of the analyzed chrysotile supports low clinopyroxene and high olivine in protolite of serpentinites. Serpentinite schists are formed under ductile deformation condition at the regional sheared zones. Amphibole asbestos occur as veins having meter scale thickness filling of joints and fractures at the regional sheared zone. Length of thin and long asbestos amphibole arrives up to cm. On the basis of petrography, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and microprope analysis, both chrysotile- and amphibole asbestos have been recognized in the Takht-e-Soleyman serpentintes.

  18. High-Pressure Polymorphism in Orthoamphiboles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, G. J.; Zhang, D.; Shelton, H.; Dera, P.

    2017-12-01

    Amphiboles are double-chain silicate minerals that are the structurally hydrated counterpart to single-chain, anhydrous pyroxenes. They may play an important role in the earth as a carrier for volatiles in subduction zones, as well as a generator for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Recent work has described previously unrecognized high-pressure polymorphism at low temperatures in a variety of pyroxene minerals, which may be relevant for the structure and dynamics of thick, cold, subducted slabs. However, high-pressure polymorphism in amphiboles above a few GPa in pressure has not been well explored, and if similar polymorphism to pyroxenes exists in this mineral family, it may affect the extent and depth of volatile transport in amphiboles, as well as their rheological properties. At low temperatures and high pressures, orthopyroxenes undergo crystal structure transitions at lower pressures than clinopyroxenes (10-30 GPa vs. > 50 GPa), so for this study we have investigated polymorphism in the anthophyllite-gedrite (Al-free and Al rich) orthoamphibole solid solution series. Using neon gas-loaded diamond anvil cells, we compressed both phases to a maximum pressure of 31 GPa, and observed transitions to new monoclinic structures in both endmembers. In this presentation, we will discuss the details of these transitions and implications for the earth's interior.

  19. Geochemistry Petrography, thermobarometry and investigation of magmatic series in Mirabad- Chehel Khane granitoid body (east of Bouin– Miandasht, Isfahan province

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    Seyed Mohsen Tabatabaei Manesh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available On the base of petrology, the Mirabad- Chehel Khane granitoid, east of Bouin-Miandasht, dominantly consists of syenogranite, monzogranite, alkali granite and granodiorites. The main minerals of these rocks are quartz, alkali feldspar (Orthoclase, plagioclase (Albite - Oligoclase, biotite, ± amphibole with minor amount of allanite, zircon, titanite, apatite, ± tourmaline.  The biotite from the granites are Fe-rich type (annite and primary magmatic in origin. The composition of the biotites studied principally falls in the calc-alkaline subduction related I-type granite on the tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams, which stand on their major element oxides. Which is consistent with the nature of their host rocks. The studied amphiboles are classified as calcic (ferro-hornblende which points to the I-type nature of the granitoid.  The tourmaline composition plots on the schorl - foitite field. The temperature for the alteration, on the base of chlorite composition from the syenogranite, is estimated around 350°C and from the monzogranite rocks about 341°C.  Based on the application of Al-in amphibole, a 3 Kbar pressure was determined for the syenogranite unit corresponding to the depth of 8-11 Km for the emplacement of the pluton. Hornblende- plagioclase thermometer shows 694 to 700°C for the equilibrium of these two minerals.

  20. Geology, petrography and geochemistry of the A-type granites from the Morro Redondo Complex (PR-SC, southern Brazil, Graciosa Province

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    FREDERICO C.J. VILALVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Morro Redondo Complex is one of the most important occurrences of the Graciosa A-type Province, southern Brazil. It consists of the Papanduva and Quiriri granitic plutons and a contemporaneous bimodal volcanic association. The Papanduva Pluton includes massive and deformed peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites with Na-Ca and Na-amphiboles and clinopyroxenes. The deformed types are the most evolved rocks in the province and carry rare ‘agpaitic’ minerals, some being described for the first time in granites from Brazil. The larger Quiriri Pluton comprises massive, slightly peraluminous, biotite syeno- and monzogranites with rare Ca-amphibole. Biotite compositions are relatively homogeneous, whereas sodic amphiboles and clinopyroxenes show increasing Na and Fe3+ evolving paths. The Morro Redondo granites are ferroan, with high SiO2, alkalis and HFSE contents; the peralkaline types registering the highest fe#. LILE and HFSE abundances increase with the agpaitic index and the most evolved are HHP granites, with radiogenic heat production up to 5.7 µWm–3. Geothermobarometric estimates indicate emplacement under low pressures (∼100 MPa, at temperatures up to 850-800 °C, and relatively reduced (QFM and oxidized (+1 REPLACE_LT ΔQFM REPLACE_LT +3 environments for the Papanduva and Quiriri Plutons, respectively. In both cases, melts evolved to relatively high oxidation states upon crystallization progress.

  1. In vitro acellular dissolution of mineral fibres: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Pollastri, Simone; Bursi Gandolfi, Nicola; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti

    2018-05-04

    The study of the mechanisms by which mineral fibres promote adverse effects in both animals and humans is a hot topic of multidisciplinary research with many aspects that still need to be elucidated. Besides length and diameter, a key parameter that determines the toxicity/pathogenicity of a fibre is biopersistence, one component of which is biodurability. In this paper, biodurability of mineral fibres of social and economic importance (chrysotile, amphibole asbestos and fibrous erionite) has been determined for the first time in a systematic comparative way from in vitro acellular dissolution experiments. Dissolution was possible using the Gamble solution as simulated lung fluid (pH = 4 and at body temperature) so to reproduce the macrophage phagolysosome environment. The investigated mineral fibres display very different dissolution rates. For a 0.25 μm thick fibre, the calculated dissolution time of chrysotile is in the range 94-177 days, very short if compared to that of amphibole fibres (49-245 years), and fibrous erionite (181 years). Diffraction and SEM data on the dissolution products evidence that chrysotile rapidly undergoes amorphization with the formation of a nanophasic silica-rich fibrous metastable pseudomorph as first dissolution step whereas amphibole asbestos and fibrous erionite show minor signs of dissolution even after 9-12 months.

  2. Isochron reassessment of K-Ar dating from the West Carpathian crystalline complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchart, J.; Cambel, B.; Kral, J.

    1987-01-01

    Published K-Ar ages from the West Carpathian crystalline complex show an extreme dispersion of values. Therefore agreement of model data with Harper's (1970) isochron models was confronted and verified. On the basis of this analysis only a few numbers -isochron data which have real importance from the point of view of geological conditions - can be presented: 1. 394±24 m.y. -amphiboles, Male Karpaty Mts.; 2. 265±18 m.y. - amphiboles, gemerides; 3. 302±40 m.y. - biotites, core mountains; 4. 94±18 m.y. - biotites, veporides. Only isochron K-Ar ages of amphiboles approximate the time of their recrystallization. Isochron ages of biotites belong to the category of cooling ages and they represent the period since transition through isotherm of ca. 270 degC. The results of muscovite and feldspar dating cannot be interpreted by Harper's models. A substantial part of analyzed material is represented by analyses of whole rocks which are inapplicable to geochronological purposes. (author). 15 figs., 4 tabs., 53 refs

  3. Evaluation of asbestos exposures during firewood-harvesting simulations in Libby, MT, USA--preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Julie F; Ward, Tony J; Spear, Terry M; Crispen, Kelly; Zolnikov, Tara R

    2007-11-01

    Research was conducted in order to assess potential exposure to asbestos while harvesting firewood from amphibole-contaminated trees near Libby, MT, USA. Three firewood-harvesting simulations took place in the summer and fall of 2006 in the Kootenai Forest inside the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restricted zone surrounding the former W.R. Grace vermiculite mine. Another simulation was conducted near Missoula, MT, USA, which served as the control. The work practices following each simulation were consistent throughout each trial. Personal breathing zone (PBZ) asbestos concentrations were measured by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface wipe samples of personal protective clothing were measured by TEM. The mean (n = 12) PBZ PCM sample time-weighted average (TWA) concentration was 0.29 fibers per milliliter, standard deviation (SD = 0.54). A substantial portion (more than five fibers per sample) of non-asbestos fibers (cellulose) was reported on all PBZ samples (excluding field blanks) when analyzed by TEM. The mean (n = 12) PBZ TEM sample TWA concentration for amphibole fibers 5-microm long was 0.07 fibers per milliliter (SD = 0.08). Substantial amphibole fiber concentrations were revealed on Tyvek clothing wipe samples. The mean concentration (n = 12) was 29 826 fibers per square centimeter (SD = 37 555), with 91% (27 192 fibers per square centimeter) comprised fibers firewood-harvesting activities in asbestos-contaminated areas and that the potential for exposure exists during such activities.

  4. Cl-rich hydrous mafic mineral assemblages in the Highiș massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Bernard; Tatu, Mihai

    2016-08-01

    The Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) Highiș massif (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) displays a bimodal igneous suite of mafic (gabbro, diorite) and A-type felsic (alkali feldspar granite, albite granite, and hybrid granodiorite) rocks. Amphibole is widespread throughout the suite, and yields markedly high chlorine contents. Three groups are identified: Cl-rich potassic hastingsite (2.60-3.40 wt% Cl) within A-type felsic rocks and diorite, mildly Cl-rich pargasite to hornblende (0.80-1.90 wt% Cl) within gabbro, and low F-Cl hornblende within gabbro and hybrid granodiorite. Coexisting biotite is either Cl-rich within diorite, or F-Cl-poor to F-rich within A-type felsic rocks. Chlorine and fluorine are distributed in both mafic phases, according to the F-Fe and Cl-Mg avoidance rules. The low-Ti contents suggest subsolidus compositions. Cl-rich amphibole within diorite and A-type felsic rocks yields a restricted temperature range - from 575 °C down to 400 °C, whereas mildly Cl-rich amphibole within gabbro displays the highest range - from 675 to 360 °C. Temperatures recorded by Cl-rich biotite within diorite range from 590 to 410 °C. Biotite within A-type felsic rocks yields higher temperatures than amphibole: the highest values- from 640 to 540 °C - are recorded in low-F-Cl varieties, whereas the lowest values- from 535 to 500 °C - are displayed by F-rich varieties. All data point to halogen-rich hydrothermal fluids at upper greenschist facies conditions percolating through fractures and shear zones and pervasively permeating the whole Highiș massif, with F precipitating as interstitial fluorite and Cl incorporating into amphibole, during one, or possibly several, hydrothermal episodes that would have occurred during a ~ 150 My-long period of time extending from the Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) to the Albian (Mid-Cretaceous).

  5. Magmatic controls on eruption dynamics of the 1950 yr B.P. eruption of San Antonio Volcano, Tacaná Volcanic Complex, Mexico-Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juan Carlos; Gardner, James Edward; Macías, José Luis; Meriggi, Lorenzo; Santo, Alba Patrizia

    2013-07-01

    San Antonio Volcano, in the Tacaná Volcanic Complex, erupted ~ 1950 yr. B.P., with a Pelean type eruption that produced andesitic pyroclastic surges and block-and-ash flows destroying part of the volcano summit and producing a horse-shoe shaped crater open to the SW. Between 1950 and 800 yr B.P. the eruption continued with effusive andesites followed by a dacite lava flow and a summit dome, all from a single magma batch. All products consist of phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of zoned plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, magnetite ± ilmenite, set in partially crystallized groundmass of glass and microlites of the same mineral phases, except for the lack of amphibole. Included in the andesitic blocks of the block-and-ash flow deposit are basaltic andesite enclaves with elongated and ellipsoidal forms and chilled margins. The enclaves have intersertal textures with brown glass between microphenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, and olivine, and minor proportions of phenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, and pyroxene. A compositional range obtained of blocks and enclaves resulted from mixing between andesite (866 °C ± 22) and basaltic andesite (enclaves, 932 °C ± 22), which may have triggered the explosive Pelean eruption. Vestiges of that mixing are preserved as complex compositional zones in plagioclase and clinopyroxene-rich reaction rims in amphibole in the andesite. Whole-rock chemistry, geothermometry, experimental petrology and modeling results suggest that after the mixing event the eruption tapped hybrid andesitic magma (≤ 900 °C) and ended with effusive dacitic magma (~ 825 °C), all of which were stored at ~ 200 MPa water pressure. A complex open-system evolution that involved crustal end-members best explains the generation of effusive dacite from the hybrid andesite. Amphibole in the dacite is rimmed by reaction products of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides produced by decompression during ascent. Amphibole in the andesite

  6. Erionite induces production of autoantibodies and IL-17 in C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebedeo, Christian Nash; Davis, Chad; Peña, Cecelia; Ng, Kok Wei; Pfau, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Erionite has similar chemical and physical properties to amphibole asbestos, which induces autoantibodies in mice. Current exposures are occurring in North Dakota due to the use of erionite-contaminated gravel. While erionite is known to cause mesothelioma and other diseases associated with asbestos, there is little known about its effects on the immune system. Objectives: We performed this study to determine whether erionite evokes autoimmune reactions in mice. Methods: Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to measure toxicity induced by erionite. Cytokine production by BMDM and splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice was examined by bead arrays and ELISA following exposure to erionite, amphiboles and chrysotile. Wild type C57BL/6 mice were exposed to saline, erionite, amphibole asbestos (Libby 6-Mix) or chrysotile through intratracheal instillations at equal mass (60 μg/mouse). Seven months after exposure, sera were examined for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and IL-17. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect immune complex deposition in the kidneys. Results: Erionite and tremolite caused increased cytokine production belonging to the T H 17 profile including IL-17, IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α. The frequency of ANA was increased in mice treated with erionite or amphibole compared to saline-treated mice. IL-17 and TNF-α were elevated in the sera of mice treated with erionite. The frequency of immune complex deposition in the kidneys increased from 33% in saline-treated mice to 90% with erionite. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that both erionite and amphibole asbestos induce autoimmune responses in mice, suggesting a potential for adverse effects in exposed communities. - Highlights: • Erionite, a fibrous mineral, is a current public health concern in the western USA. • Erionite exposure induces antinuclear autoantibodies in exposed mice. • Erionite induces a clear Th17 cytokine response in vitro and in vivo. • These responses were distinct

  7. Erionite induces production of autoantibodies and IL-17 in C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebedeo, Christian Nash; Davis, Chad [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (United States); Peña, Cecelia [Northwest Nazarene University, Nampa, ID (United States); Ng, Kok Wei [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (United States); Pfau, Jean C., E-mail: pfaujean@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Background: Erionite has similar chemical and physical properties to amphibole asbestos, which induces autoantibodies in mice. Current exposures are occurring in North Dakota due to the use of erionite-contaminated gravel. While erionite is known to cause mesothelioma and other diseases associated with asbestos, there is little known about its effects on the immune system. Objectives: We performed this study to determine whether erionite evokes autoimmune reactions in mice. Methods: Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to measure toxicity induced by erionite. Cytokine production by BMDM and splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice was examined by bead arrays and ELISA following exposure to erionite, amphiboles and chrysotile. Wild type C57BL/6 mice were exposed to saline, erionite, amphibole asbestos (Libby 6-Mix) or chrysotile through intratracheal instillations at equal mass (60 μg/mouse). Seven months after exposure, sera were examined for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and IL-17. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect immune complex deposition in the kidneys. Results: Erionite and tremolite caused increased cytokine production belonging to the T{sub H}17 profile including IL-17, IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α. The frequency of ANA was increased in mice treated with erionite or amphibole compared to saline-treated mice. IL-17 and TNF-α were elevated in the sera of mice treated with erionite. The frequency of immune complex deposition in the kidneys increased from 33% in saline-treated mice to 90% with erionite. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that both erionite and amphibole asbestos induce autoimmune responses in mice, suggesting a potential for adverse effects in exposed communities. - Highlights: • Erionite, a fibrous mineral, is a current public health concern in the western USA. • Erionite exposure induces antinuclear autoantibodies in exposed mice. • Erionite induces a clear Th17 cytokine response in vitro and in vivo. • These responses were

  8. Lithium-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite from Hurricane Mountain, New Hampshire: A crystal-chemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, F.C.; Oberti, R.; Ottolini, L.; Foord, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of two crystals of Li-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite (1) (K0.32Na0.68)Na2(Li0.48Fe 2+2.83Mn2+0.10Zn 0.06Fe3+1.46Ti0.07) (Si7.88Al0.12)O22[Fu1.15(OH) 0.85] and (2) (K0.25Na0.75)Na2(Li0.48Fe 2+2.84Mn2+0.11Zn 0.05Fe3+1.45Ti0.07)(Si 7.89Al0.11)O22[F1.35(OH) 0.65] from a granitic pegmatite, Hurricane Mountain, New Hampshire, have been refined to R indices of 1.5(1.6)% based on 1380(1387) reflections measured with MoK?? X-radiation. The unit cell parameters are (1) a 9.838(4), b 17.991(6), c 5.315(2) A??, 103.78(3)??, V 913.7 A??3 and (2) a 9.832(3), b 17.990(7), c 5.316(3) A??, ?? 103.79(3)??, V 913.2 A??3. Site-scattering refinement shows Li to be completely ordered at the M(3) site in these crystals. The amphibole composition is intermediate between fluor-arfvedsonite and fluor-ferro-leakeite with a small component (???10%) of fluor-ferro-ferri-nybo??ite. These amphibole crystals project into miarolitic cavities in a pegmatitic phase of a riebeckite granite. The early-crystallizing amphibole is close to fluor-ferro-leakeite in composition, but becomes progressively depleted in Li and F as crystals project out into miarolitic cavities; the final amphibole to crystallize is a fibrous Li-poor riebeckite. Li plays a significant role in late-stage fractionation involving the crystallization of alkali amphibole in peralkaline granitic environments.

  9. Znaczenie analizy minerałów ciężkich w badaniach osadów czwartorzędowych Polski

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racinowski, Roman

    2008-01-01

    In most regions of Poland the composition of heavy minerals assemblage permits to distinguish the Quaternary deposits from the older ones. The pre-Quaternary deposits are characterized by high content of glauconite, carbonate-ferruginous-manganese concretions, muscovite and chlorites. In their transparent heavy minerals spectrum the following minerals predominate: zircon, tourmaline, rutile, staurolite, disthene. However, the Tertiary deposits in the Carpathians and their foreland contain a significant amount of garnet, and sometimes also amphiboles, pyroxenes and biotite. Pyroxenes and sillimanite are found in the Sudetes foreland. In many Tertiary deposits of the northwestern and western Poland there are rather high contents of amphiboles, biotite, pyroxenes, garnets, rutile. In all Quaternary deposits in Poland the qualitative composition of heavy minerals assemblage is similar but the contents of particular minerals are different depending on the examined grain fraction. In tills (Table 1) and glaciofluvial deposits (Table 2), with the decreasing grain diameter the contents of zircon, rutile, and partly epidote increase, and those of amphiboles and garnets decrease. In rubble of coastal zone in the Polish Baltic Sea, with the decreasing grain diameter the contents of zircon, rutile and epidote increase, and those of amphibole, biotite and pyroxenes decrease (Tables 3-7). In Poland, glacial, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine deposits are characterized by quantitatively similar composition of heavy minerals assemblage. Amphiboles, biotite, epidotes, garnets and pyroxenes are typical transparent minerals (Tables 8 and 9). Young Pleistocene and Holocene sands of river terraces and dune fields in the upland zone of Poland differ from glacial deposits in low contents of amphiboles, biotite and pyroxenes, and higher contents of garnets and epidotes (Tables 8 and 9). Fossil river and lacustrine deposits of Polish Lowlands have very similar assemblage of heavy minerals

  10. The evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of the Nasrand Plutonic complex by using mineral composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sarjoughian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mineral composition is sensitive to variations in the composition of the magma and can be used to characterize the physical conditions of crystallization such as temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity and water content. The studies have demonstrated that geobarometery by amphibole provides a tool for determining the depth of crystallization and knowledge of the depth of crystallization of hornblende through to solidification of calc-alkaline plutons (Anderson and Smith, 1995. The composition of pyroxene can be used as crystallization pressure and temperature indicators of pyroxene too. Anlytical methods The mineral compositions of the Nasrand intrusion were determined by electron microprobe, with special emphasis on the amphibole, feldspar, and pyroxene at the Naruto University, Japan, the EPMA (Jeol- JXA-8800R was used at operating conditions of 15 kV, 20 nA acceleration voltage and 20s counting time. Results The Nasrand intrusion (33°13'–33°15' N, 52°33'–52°34'E with an outcrop area of about 40 km2 is situated in the Urumieh–Dokhtar magmatic belt, SE of Ardestan. It is composed of granite and granodiorite and various dikes of diorite and gabbro which are intruded in it. It is intruded into Eocene volcanic rocks, including andesite, rhyolite, and dacite. The petrographical studies indicate that the granitic and granodioritic rocks contain major minerals such as quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and amphibole, which are in an approximate equilibrium state. The gabbroic-dioritic dikes usually show microgranular porphyric texture. They mainly consist of plagioclase, amphibole, and pyroxene. The plagioclase shows variable composition from albite to oligoclase in the granitoid rocks and from oligoclase to bytownite in dioritic and gabbroic dikes (Deer et al., 1991. The amphiboles are calcic and their composition varies from hornblende to actinolite, whereas the composition of the basic dikes is inclined to hastingsite (Leake et

  11. The magmatic evolution and genesis of the Quaternary basanite-trachyphonolite suite of Itasy (Madagascar) as inferred by geochemistry, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes and trace element distribution in coexisting phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluso, L.; Tucker, R. D.; Cucciniello, C.; le Roex, A. P.; Morra, V.; Zanetti, A.; Rakotoson, R. L.

    2018-06-01

    The Itasy is a Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic field in central Madagascar, located to the west of the Ankaratra volcanic complex. It comprises scoria cones and lava domes (>120), with associated pyroclastic fall and mafic lava flows, covering an area of ab. 400 km2. The last volcanic episodes probably dated ca. 6000-7100 y BP; warm springs and geysers are active. The juvenile samples comprise a peculiar, almost bimodal, rock suite ranging from potassic leucite-kaersutite-bearing basanites, tephrites and phonotephrites, to benmoreites and titanite-haüyne-bearing trachyphonolites (MgO from 9-10 wt% to 0.1 wt%). These rocks show continuous and overlapping variations in the bulk-rock and phase composition (olivine, clinopyroxene, amphibole, feldspar, leucite, haüyne, nepheline, oxides, apatite, titanite, glass and other accessories). The basanites have homogeneous isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70366-0.70378, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51274-0.51277, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.7-18.9, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.53-15.56; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.89-39.01), and a marked enrichment in the most incompatible elements (LILE and HFSE reach 100-215 times primitive mantle). These features are consistent with low degrees of partial melting of a volatile-, LILE- and HFSE-rich, amphibole-bearing peridotitic mantle induced by uplift during an E-W-directed extensional regime, as is found in central Madagascar. The marked changes in the geochemical composition, and small variations of the Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes in the trachyphonolites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70425-0.70446, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51266-0.51269, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.18-18.39, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.49-15.51; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.38-39.57) with respect to basanites and tephrites point to a limited amount of crustal contamination by the relatively low-206Pb/204Pb, low-143Nd/144Nd, high-87Sr/86Sr Precambrian basement rocks (of Middle Archean to Late Proterozoic age), and highlight the geochemical effects of titanite and anorthoclase removal on the trace element fractionation trends, a

  12. Deformation of the Songshugou ophiolite in the Qinling orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengsi; Dong, Yunpeng

    2017-04-01

    The Qinling orogen, middle part of the China Central Orogenic Belt, is well documented that was constructed by multiple convergences and subsequent collisions between the North China and South China Blocks mainly based on geochemistry and geochronology of ophiolites, magmatic rocks as well as sedimentary reconstruction. However, this model is lack of constraints from deformation of subduction/collision. The Songshugou ophiolite outcropped to the north of the Shangdan suture zone represents fragments of oceanic crust and upper mantle. Previous works have revealed that the ophiolite was formed at an ocean ridge and then emplaced in the northern Qinling belt. Hence, deformation of the ophiolite would provide constraints for the rifting and subduction processes. The ophiolite consists chiefly of metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks. The ultramafic rocks contain coarse dunite, dunitic mylonite and harzburgite, with minor diopsidite veins. The mafic rocks are mainly amphibolite, garnet amphibolite and amphibole schist, which are considered to be eclogite facies and retrograde metamorphosed oceanic crust. Amphibole grains in the mafic rocks exhibit a strong shape-preferred orientation parallel to the foliation, which is also parallel to the lithologic contacts between mafic and ultramafic rocks. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analyses show strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in dunite including A-, B-, and C-types formed by (010)[100], (010)[001] and (100)[001] dislocation slip systems, respectively. A-type CPO suggests high temperature plastic deformation in the upper mantle. In comparison, B-type may be restricted to regions with significantly high water content and high differential stress, and C-type may also be formed in wet condition with lower differential stress. Additionally, the dunite evolved into amphibolite facies metamorphism with mineral assemblages of olivine + talc + anthophyllite. Assuming a pressure of 1.5 GPa

  13. NOA at the Calaveras Dam Replacement Project (CDRP) - Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, B.

    2012-12-01

    The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission is one year into construction of the Calaveras Dam Replacement Project (CDRP), a new earthen dam east of Sunol designed to withstand an M 7.1 earthquake on the nearby active Calaveras fault. The zoned earthen dam will be constructed primarily of on-site materials, many of which contain NOA. The upstream shell will be composed of Franciscan complex blueschist which contains crocidolite. This material will be blasted and processed at an on-site quarry. The impermeable core of the dam will be constructed of clay-rich alluvium that contains asbestos derived from Franciscan rocks. This material will be excavated from the south end of the reservoir and transported several miles to the dam. Currently, approximately 3 million yards of Franciscan complex material is being excavated and disposed of within permitted on-site engineered landfills. NOA-bearing rocks that include serpentinite, greenschist, blueschist, and eclogite contain variable amounts and assemblages of chrysotile, actinolite, crocidolite, tremolite, and winchite-class amphiboles. All of these are detected in air samples collected within a sophisticated air monitoring array and analyzed by TEM. The CDRP represents the largest construction project involving NOA in the country. As such, applying regulations that were designed for building materials and routine construction sites, and controlling airborne emissions on such a massive scale, is a major challenge requiring innovative solutions. Because construction occurs simultaneously at distinct and distant parts of the site, and the rugged topography of the site induces complex meteorological conditions, it is sometimes difficult to ascertain the driving activity and location of a source that caused a trigger level exceedance at a perimeter monitoring station. One helpful tool is forensic correlation of source material and air test data using speciation of amphiboles. At the CDRP, we are developing the ability to

  14. Quartz exsolution topotaxy in clinopyroxene from the UHP eclogite of Weihai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haijun; Zhang, Junfeng; Zong, Keqing; Liu, Liang

    2015-06-01

    Abundant oriented silica precipitates of α-quartz (4.0 ± 1.0 vol.%), in part coexisting with calcic amphiboles (topotactic relationships with their host clinopyroxenes. Three types of crystallographic topotactic relationship have been identified between quartz and host clinopyroxene: (1) 52% quartz precipitates share the same orientation for the c-axes with [0001]qz//[001]cpx; (2) 34% quartz precipitates share the same orientation for the a-axes with [11 2 bar0]qz//[001]cpx; and (3) 11% quartz precipitates share the same orientation for the s-planes with (11 2 bar1)qz//(100)cpx. Other quartz axes and planes disperse in large or small girdles around the shared axes or planes. Many quartz rods/needles are elongated parallel to the [001]cpx with the long axes of quartz being either [0001]qz or [11 2 bar0]qz. Amphibole precipitates have also a strong crystallographic relationship with host clinopyroxene, i.e., (100)amp//(100)cpx, [010]amp//[010]cpx, and [001]amp//[001]cpx. These results provide quantitative microstructural evidence supporting an exsolution origin for oriented quartz needles/rods in clinopyroxene and demonstrate that the exsolution of quartz from clinopyroxene occurred within the stability field of α-quartz rather than coesite. The oriented precipitates of α-quartz, in part coexisting with calcic amphiboles, in host clinopyroxene are probably promoted by supercritical fluid or partial melting during the early exhumation of eclogites. Our results suggest that oriented quartz precipitates in clinopyroxene cannot be used as an indisputable UHP-indicator.

  15. Geochemistry, geochronology and Nd isotopes of the Gogó da Onça Granite: A new Paleoproterozoic A-type granite of Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mayara Fraeda Barbosa; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Santos, João Orestes Schneider; de Sousa, Luan Alexandre Martins; Lafon, Jean-Michel

    2017-12-01

    The Gogó da Onça Granite (GOG) comprise a stock located in the Carajás Province in the southeastern part of Amazonian Craton near its border with the Araguaia Belt. Three facies were identified in the pluton: biotite-amphibole granodiorite, biotite-amphibole monzogranite and amphibole-biotite syenogranite. The GGO crosscut discordantly the Archean country rocks and are not foliated. All Gogó da Onça Granite varieties are metaluminous, ferroan A2-subtype granites with reduced character. The major and trace element behavior suggests that its different facies are related by fractional crystallization. Zircon and titanite U-Pb SHRIMP ages show that the pluton crystallized at ∼1880-1870 Ma and is related to the remarkable Paleoproterozoic magmatic event identified in the Carajás Province. Whole-rock Nd isotope data (TDM ages 2.78 to 2.81, εNd values of -9.07 to -9.48) indicate that the GOG magmas derived from an Archaean source compatible with that of some other Paleoproterozoic suites from Carajás Province. The GOG show significant contrasts with the Jamon and Velho Guilherme Paleoproterozoic suites from Carajás Province and the inclusion of the Gogó da Onça granite in any of these suites is not justified. The GOG is more akin to the Serra dos Carajás Suite and to the Seringa and São João granites of Carajás and to the Mesoproterozoic Sherman granite of USA and the Paleoproterozoic Suomenniemi Batholith of Finland. This study puts in evidence the relevance of precise geochronological data and estimation of magma oxidation state in the characterization and correlation of A-type granites.

  16. Direct evidence of hydration into mantle during shearing below a trasform fault: Prince Edward transform fault, Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michibayashi, K.; Kakihata, Y.; Dick, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is located to the southwest of Rodriguez Triple Junction, where three Indian ocean ridges meet (Zhou & Dick, 2013, Nature). SWIR is one of the slowest spreading ocean ridges in the world. In this study, we studied microstructural development of 21 peridotite samples obtained from Prince Edward transform fault of SWIR by PROTEA5 cruise in 1983. The peridotites consist dominantly of olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with minor amounts of amphibole and plagioclase as well as secondary minerals such as serpentine and magnetite. The peridotites were classified into four groups based on their microstructures: 3 ultramylonites mostly consisting of extremely fine crystals (3-5µm), 13 heterogeneous tectonites consisting of coarse-grained crystals and fine-grained matrix, 1 cataclasite and 4 intensely serpentinized peridotites. Olivine Mg# is 0.90-0.91 and spinel Cr# is 0.1-0.35. Amphibole crystals have chemical compositions of tremolite and magnesio-hornblende and they were intensely deformed within the ultramylonites and the heterogeneous tectonites, indicating that they have occurred before or during intense shearing in mantle. Moreover, extremely fine grain sizes of olivine and microboudin textures in both pyroxene and spinel crystals suggest that these peridotites have been sheared under high stress conditions. Furthermore, olivine crystal-fabrics within the amphibole bearing peridotites have B and E types that could be developed under hydrous conditions, whereas olivine fabrics within the other peridotites have A and D types that could be developed under anhydrous conditions (Karato et al., 2008, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.). Consequently, the petrophysical characteristics of peridotites in this study indicate that the uppermost mantle below the Prince Edward transform fault has been locally but intensely hydrated during shearing due to transform movement.

  17. Pre-eruptive conditions of dacitic magma erupted during the 21.7 ka Plinian event at Nevado de Toluca volcano, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Gardner, J. E.; Macías, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The Nevado de Toluca volcano in Central Mexico has been active over the last ca. 42 ka, during which tens of km3 of pyroclastic material were erupted and two important Plinian-type eruptions occurred at ca. 21.7 ka (Lower Toluca Pumice: LTP) and ca. 10.5 ka (Upper Toluca Pumice: UTP). Samples from both the LTP and UTP contain plagioclase, amphibole, iron-titanium oxides, and minor anhedral biotite, set in a vesicular, rhyolitic, glassy matrix. In addition, UTP dacites contain orthopyroxene. Analysis of melt inclusions in plagioclase phenocrysts yields H2O contents of 2-3.5 wt.% for LTP and 1.3-3.6 wt.% for UTP samples. Ilmenite-ulvospinel geothermometry yields an average temperature of ~ 868 °C for the LTP magma (hotter than the UTP magma, ~ 842 °C; Arce et al., 2006), whereas amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry yields a temperature of 825-859 °C for the LTP magma. Water-saturated experiments using LTP dacite suggest that: (i) amphibole is stable above 100 MPa and below 900 °C; (ii) plagioclase crystallizes below 250-100 MPa at temperatures of 850-900 °C; and (iii) pyroxene is stable only below pressures of 200-100 MPa and temperatures of 825-900 °C. Comparison of natural and experimental data suggests that the LTP dacitic magma was stored at 150-200 MPa (5.8-7.7 km below the volcano summit). No differences in pressure found between 21.7 ka and 10.5 ka suggest that these two magmas were stored at similar depths. Orthopyroxene produced in lower temperature LTP experiments is compositionally different to those found in UTP natural samples, suggesting that they originated in two different magma batches. Whole-rock chemistry, petrographic features, and mineral compositions suggest that magma mixing was responsible for the generation of the dacitic Plinian LTP eruption.

  18. Peridotites and mafic igneous rocks at the foot of the Galicia Margin: an oceanic or continental lithosphere? A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korprobst, J.; Chazot, G.

    2016-10-01

    An ultramafic/mafic complex is exposed on the sea floor at the foot of the Galicia Margin (Spain and Portugal). It comprises various types of peridotites and pyroxenites, as well as amphibole-diorites, gabbros, dolerites and basalts. For chronological and structural reasons (gabbros were emplaced within peridotites before the continental break-up) this unit cannot be assigned to the Atlantic oceanic crust. The compilation of all available petrological and geochemical data suggests that peridotites are derived from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, deeply transformed during Cretaceous rifting. Thus, websterite dykes extracted from the depleted MORB mantle reservoir (DMM), were emplaced early within the lithospheric harzburgites; subsequent boudinage and tectonic dispersion of these dykes in the peridotites, during deformation stages at the beginning of rifting, resulted in the formation of fertile but isotopically depleted lherzolites. Sterile but isotopically enriched websterites, would represent melting residues in the peridotites, after significant partial melting and melt extraction related to the thermal erosion of the lithosphere. The latter melts are probably the source of brown amphibole metasomatic crystallization in some peridotites, as well as of the emplacement of amphibole-diorite dykes. Melts directly extracted from the asthenosphere were emplaced as gabbro within the sub-continental mantle. Mixing these DMM melts together with the enriched melts extracted from the lithosphere, provided the intermediate isotopic melt-compositions - in between the DMM and Oceanic Islands Basalts reservoir - observed for the dolerites and basalts, none of which are characterized by a genuine N-MORB signature. An enriched lithospheric mantle, present prior to rifting of the Galicia margin, is in good agreement with data from the Messejana dyke (Portugal) and more generally, with those of all continental tholeiites of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP

  19. Petrographic and petrogenetic studies of adakitic magmatism of Gavdel (Shivar Dagh in Garehdagh-South Arminian Zone (Northwest of Iran (Irankuh Pb-Zn deposit, Southwest of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jahangiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gavdel intrusive body, situated in NW Iran and NE of Uromieh-Dokhtar zone, is a part of Garehdagh, South-Arminian Zone (Arasbaran. The major outcrops of intrusive include of granodiorite, monzonite accompanied with granodioritic dyke. The studied samples display granular texture with essential minerals of, plagioclase, K-feldspar, amphibole ± quartz ± clinopyroxene. Geochemically, the studied rocks characterized by SiO2 in the range of (59.1-67.8%, Al2O3 (14.09-18.3%, high Sr (507.18-1150 ppm content , high ratios of Sr/Y (32.93-83.54, La/Yb and low Y (12.05-16.13 contents, which can indicate the adakitic characters of studied rocks. These features of Gavdel intrusive display geochemical similarity with high SiO2 adakites (HAS that comprise enriched LREE, LILE and depleted HFS elements such as Ta, Nb, and Ti. The fractionated REE pattern and low HREE and Y amount can be related to the occurrence of garnet or amphibole in residual source of adakitic magmas. High content of Sr and depletion of Ta, Nb and Ti can be ascribed either to the absence of plagioclase and the presence of Fe-Ti oxides in melt residue or fractionation of titanomagnetite and amphibole minerals with respect to petrograhic indications. Subducted slab breaking off followed by its partial melting and the overlying sediments accompanied by crustal assimilation through magma rising generated the magma in the studied area and the NW of Iran.

  20. Cognate xenoliths in Mt. Etna lavas: witnesses of the high-velocity body beneath the volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Rotolo, Silvio Giuseppe; Cocina, Ornella; Tumbarello, Gianvito

    2014-01-01

    Various xenoliths have been found in lavas of the 1763 ("La Montagnola"), 2001, and 2002-03 eruptions at Mt. Etna whose petrographic evidence and mineral chemistry exclude a mantle origin and clearly point to a cognate nature. Consequently, cognate xenoliths might represent a proxy to infer the nature of the high-velocity body (HVB) imaged beneath the volcano by seismic tomography. Petrography allows us to group the cognate xenoliths as follows: i) gabbros with amphibole and amphibole-bearing mela-gabbros, ii) olivine-bearing leuco-gabbros, iii) leuco-gabbros with amphibole, and iv) Plg-rich leuco gabbros. Geobarometry estimates the crystallization pressure of the cognate xenoliths between 1.9 and 4.1 kbar. The bulk density of the cognate xenoliths varies from 2.6 to 3.0 g/cm3. P wave velocities (V P ), calculated in relation to xenolith density, range from 4.9 to 6.1 km/s. The integration of mineralogical, compositional, geobarometric data, and density-dependent V P with recent literature data on 3D V P seismic tomography enabled us to formulate the first hypothesis about the nature of the HVB which, in the depth range of 3-13 km b.s.l., is likely made of intrusive gabbroic rocks. These are believed to have formed at the "solidification front", a marginal zone that encompasses a deep region (>5 km b.s.l.) of Mt. Etna's plumbing system, within which magma crystallization takes place. The intrusive rocks were afterwards fragmented and transported as cognate xenoliths by the volatile-rich and fast-ascending magmas of the 1763 "La Montagnola", 2001 and 2002-03 eruptions.

  1. Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Orocopia Schist and related rocks, southern California: Evidence for late movement on the Orocopia fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Carl E.; Dawson, M. Robert

    1995-08-01

    The Pelona, Orocopia, and Rand Schists (POR schists) of southern California and southwesternmost Arizona are late Mesozoic or early Tertiary subduction complexes that underlie Precambrian to Mesozoic continental basement along the low-angle Vincent-Chocolate Mountains (VCM) fault system. The VCM faults are often considered to be remnants of the original subduction zone, but recent work indicates that many have undergone substantial postsubduction reactivation. In the Orocopia Mountains, for example, the Orocopia Schist exhibits an exceptionally complex structural and metamorphic history due to multiple periods of movement along the Orocopia fault. Structures in the schist include isoclinal folds with axial-planar schistosity, open-to-tight folds that fold schistosity, penetrative stretching lineations, and crenulation lineations, all of which show a nearly 360° range in trend. Folds and lineations that trend approximately NE-SW occur throughout the schist and are thought to be part of an early phase of deformation related to subduction. Folds of this orientation show no consistent vergence. Folds and lineations that trend approximately NW-SE are concentrated near the Orocopia fault and are interpreted to have formed during exhumation of the schist. The NW-SE trending folds, and shear indicators in late-stage mylonite at the top of the schist, consistently verge NE. The exhumation event culminated in emplacement of the schist against brittlely deformed upper plate. Exhumation of the Orocopia Schist was accompanied by retrograde replacement of garnet, biotite, epidote, and calcic amphibole by chlorite, calcite, and sericite. Matrix amphibole has a lower Na/Al ratio than amphibole inclusions in albite, consistent with a late-stage decrease in pressure. As NE vergence in the Orocopia Mountains is associated with exhumation of the schist, the NE movement along other segments of the VCM fault may also be late and therefore have no bearing on the facing direction of the

  2. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Winnik, Witold M.; Andrews, Debora [Proteomics Core, Research Core Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ghio, Andrew J. [Clinical Research Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gavett, Stephen H. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: Kodavanti.Urmila@epa.gov [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  3. Contrasting estimates on the depth of magma storage zones in volcanic systems from mineral barometry and phase equilibrium experiments: a case study from Mount Merapi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Saskia; Martel, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Mount Merapi, located in central Java, erupts on average every 5-10 years by discharging block-and-ash flows that pose local, but spatially restricted hazards. In 2010, however, the volcano erupted with a force that has been unprecedented in over 100 years. Its proximity to the metropolis of Yogyakarta with a population of >4 million makes short- and long-term eruption forecasting a task of vital importance. Critical to the appraisal of the volcano's hazard potential are tight constraints on its upper-crustal magma plumbing system and particularly on the location of its pre-eruptive reservoir. Previous petrological studies have estimated on the basis of amphibole and clinopyroxene barometry that the main magma storage zone below Merapi is located at depths of >10-15 km, while geophysical surveys have inferred significant magma storage zones at depths of ~5.5-9 km. We have carried out phase equilibrium experiments on basaltic andesite erupted in 2010, which indicate that the main pre-eruptive reservoir is located at a depth of ~7-8 km (~200 MPa). Our results thus corroborate the findings of earlier geophysical surveys and highlight the extreme uncertainty of mineral-based pressure estimates for volcanic magma systems. We point out that the commonly employed amphibole barometric calibrations of Ridolfi et al. (2010) and Ridolfi & Renzulli (2012) calculate low crystallization pressure for amphibole crystallized from felsic melt and high crystallization pressure for amphibole crystallized from mafic melt, and that the calculated pressure is thus largely unrelated to true values. Commonly employed clinopyroxene barometers (e.g., those of Nimis 1999; Putirka 2008) are also of limited use for estimating the location of crustal magma reservoirs, because the methods have large standard errors and are extremely temperature-sensitive. As a result, the calculated crystallization pressures inevitably indicate crystallization over a large range of depths, often from deep- to

  4. Geochemistry and metamorphic evolution of a Ti-metagabbro in the Asnawa Group of the Shalair terrain (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone), Kurdistan region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara, Irfan; Schulz, Bernhard; Tichomirowa, Marion; Mohammad, Yousif; Matschullat, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Geochemistry and metamorphic evolution of a Ti-metagabbro in the Asnawa Group of the Shalair terrain (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone), Kurdistan region, Iraq. We present geochemical data, mineral chemistry, petrography, and theP-T conditions of a Ti-metagabbro from the Asnawa Group in the Shalair Terrain (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone).Geochemical data indicate that this Ti-metagabbro has tholeiitic characteristics with low-K contents. Factor analyses of the elements indicate fractionation of common mineral phases such as clinopyroxene, hornblende, plagioclase, Ti-bearing phases (rutile, ilmenite, titanite), and apatite. The normal mid-oceanic ridge basalt (N-MORB)-normalized incompatible trace element diagram shows close similarity with typical N-MORB pattern. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams suggest a dominating MORB environment. The rock/chondrite-normalized REE diagram of the amphibolites also shows their N-MORB-type signature, with relative enrichment in LREE. The rock derived from mixed primitive and depleted mantel. The formation and preservation of the various metamorphic mineral assemblages and their mineral chemical characteristicsare strongly affected by the original magmatic whole-rock composition. This can be demonstrated by different microdomains, which contain different amphiboles and plagioclases. The metamorphic history can be subdivided into the stages M1-M2-M3. The first stage of metamorphism was recorded by crystallisation of actinolite replacing clinopyroxene and igneous amphibole (M1 stage, 410< T < 490°C; 1.8 < P <2.2 kbar). Increase of temperature resulted in the formation of hornblende pseudomorphism and hornblende and sphene coronae growing on previous amphibole or clinopyroxene and ilmenite, respectively (M2 stage, 540 < T <580°C; 4.5 < P < 5.5 kbar). The third stage (M3 stage, 730 < T °C < 780°C; 6.5 < P < 7.5 kbar) led to the formation of a ferro-tschermakite corona, around the M2 amphibole, and rutile that developed on the sphene and ilmenite

  5. Application of X-ray luminescence separation to preliminary enrichment of lean scheelite-containing ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhaboev, M.N.; Semochkin, G.A.; Blinov, Yu.I.; Dzhambaev, F.M.; Novikov, V.V.; Tereshchenko, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations of preliminary enrichment of lean ores of amphibole hornfels by the method of X-ray luminescence separation was conducted. Pile and enriched products with different WO 3 content were obtained from these ores; WO 3 content in pile products was 2-2.5 times lower as compared to factory tailing products. WO 3 content in separator concentrate corresponds in all cases to the requirements for the ore designated for flotation enrichment. Carbonate modulus decreases 2.5-4 times in separation concentrate, simplifying the conditions of flotation

  6. Cooling age of the Birimian juvenile crust in West Africa. U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar data on the 2.1 Ga granite-greenstone terrains from SW-Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lama, C.; Dautel, D.; Zimmermann, J.L.; Cheilletz, A.; Pons, J.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison between zircon U-Pb, whole-rock Rb-Sr and biotite-amphibole K-Ar data on Birimian granite-greenstone terrains from SW-Niger indicates that the youngest granitic plutons were emplaced at 2.115 ± 5 Ma and that both the plutons and the surrounding greenstones yield cooling ages around 2.118 Ma. The age similarity between the end of the plutonism and the cooling of plutons and surrounding greenstone further suggests rapid cooling at the end of the plutonic event and, thus, corroborates a model of greenstone metamorphism linked to the thermal effect of the plutons. (authors)

  7. Formation of A-type granites in the Lower Yangtze River Belt: A perspective from apatite geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Li, He; Ding, Xing; Wu, Kai; Guo, Jia; Liu, Ji-Qiang; Sun, Wei-Dong

    2018-04-01

    Apatite is ubiquitous in A-type granites, and can be used to elucidate the volatile contents of the silicate melt, which reflect its source characteristics. A-type granites have been recognized as a distinct group of granites. A1- and A2-type subgroups are produced under different extensional settings. However, the details of the mechanisms behind the distinctive geochemical characteristics of A1- and A2-type granites remain obscure. Belts of Cretaceous A1- and A2-type granites occur along the Lower Yangtze River Belt in eastern China. Here we investigated the major and trace element compositions of apatites from contemporary A1- and A2-type granites at different localities along the Lower Yangtze River Belt, in order to decipher their discrepant source processes. Apatites from A1- and A2-type granites show similar major and trace elements, but differ in their F and Cl concentrations. Apatites from A1-type granites in the eastern part of the Lower Yangtze River Belt have much lower F and higher Cl concentrations compared to A2-type granites in the western part. Moreover, from the east to the west, the F concentrations of apatites from A1-type granites increase, while the Cl concentrations decline. In a subducted plate, F is retained by amphibole, chlorite, serpentine and mica minerals through the amphibolite stage, and finally by phengite and lawsonite during the eclogite stage, whereas, Cl is controlled by amphibole, chlorite and serpentine. The high and varied Cl concentrations in A1 subgroup apatites, therefore, may be attributed to the breakdown of amphibole, chlorite and/or serpentine decomposition during partial melting of subducted oceanic crust releasing a large amount of Cl at shallower depth. In contrast, F is transported to deeper depths in the subducted oceanic crust, and released through breakdown of phengite and lawsonite, making an important contribution to the formation of A2-type granites. Apatites from A1- and A2-type granite samples show regular

  8. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data; Le massif ophiolitique de Kahnuj (Makran occidental, Iran meridional): nouvelles donnees geologiques et geochronologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kananian, A. [University of Tarbiat Modarress, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, IUEM, 29 - Brest (France); Darvishzadeh, A. [University of Teheran, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzehi, M. [Geological Survey of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Whitechurch, H. [Universite Louis Pasteur, EOST, Institut de Physique du Globe, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Ricou, L.E. [Institut de Physique du Globe, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-05-01

    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km{sup 2}) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ({sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  9. Determination of fluorine by proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) spectrometry in igneous and metamorphic charnockitic rocks from Rogaland (S.W. Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandts, I.; Robaye, G.; Weber, G.; Delbrouck, J.M.; Duchesne, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    More than 200 specimens from different occurrences of the Rogaland igneous complex and surrounding granulite facies metamorphic rocks (S.W. Norway) have been analysed by a direct non-destructive proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) technique. The fluorine contents vary from < 25 ppm to 3500 ppm. There is a good correlation between the concentration of fluorine and that of phosphorus for igneous rocks, suggesting a control of apatite on the F content. In metamorphic rocks, amphibole and biotite besides apatite are the principal concentrations of fluorine indicating that fluorine in the system is controlled by granulite facies metamorphism conditions. (author)

  10. Mineralogy and Petrology of Lava Flows (Tertiary-Quaternary) In Southeastern Idaho and at Black Mountain, Rich County, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Puchy, Barbara J.

    1981-01-01

    Lava flows of Tertiary-Quaternary age occur in Enoch Valley, Upper Valley, and Slug Valley in southeastern Idaho. The basalts in Upper Valley and Enoch Valley contain olivine (Fo69 to Fo37), plagioclase (An62 to An39), augite and Fe-Ti oxides. The lava in Slug Valley lacks plagioclase, but contains sanidine (Or70 to Or56) with a trace of biotite and amphibole, and thus, has been termed alkali trachyte. Black Mountain, on the eastern side of Bear Lake, northeastern Utah, is capped by basalt...

  11. First data on Sm-Nd systematization of Khanka Massif metamorphic rocks, Primor'e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, M.A.; Khanchuk, A.I.; Zhuravlev, D.Z.; Lavrik, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The age of the metamorphic rocks of the Khanka massif, Primor'e, is determined through the method of the Sm-Nd isotopic dating. The results of the isotopic studies on the amphibolites of the Nakhimov suite of the Khanka massif indicated that the rocks of this suite are not older than 1.7 billion years. The obtained age corresponds to the time of the amphibolite protolith formation, the source whereof is the moderately depleted mantle. The isotopic age of the amphibole and plagioclase mineral fractions constitutes 733 ± 25 mln years, which reflects the time of the Nakhimov suite rocks metamorphism [ru

  12. Metamorphism Near the Dike-Gabbro Transition in the Ocean Crust Based on Preliminary Results from Oman Drilling Project Hole GT3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. E.; Nozaka, T.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; de Obeso, J. C.; D'Andres, J.; Lefay, R.; Leong, J. A. M.; Zeko, D.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Hole GT3A intersected 400 m of altered basaltic dikes, gabbros, and diorites. The 100% recovery affords an unprecedented opportunity to study metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration near the dike-gabbro transition in the ocean crust. Hydrothermal alteration is ubiquitous; all rocks are at least moderately altered, and mean alteration intensity is 54%. The earliest alteration in all rock types is background replacement of igneous minerals, some of which occurred at clinopyroxene amphibolite facies, as indicated by brown-green hornblende, calcic plagioclase, and secondary cpx. In addition, background alteration includes greenschist, subgreenschist, and zeolite facies minerals. More extensive alteration is locally observed in halos around veins, patches, and zones related to deformation. Dense networks of hydrothermal veins record a complex history of fluid-rock alteration. During core description, 10,727 individual veins and 371 vein networks were logged in the 400 m of Hole GT3A. The veins displayed a range of textures and connectivities. The total density of veins in Hole GT3A is 26.8 veins m-1. Vein density shows no correlation with depth, but may be higher near dike margins and faults. Vein minerals include amphibole, epidote, quartz, chlorite, prehnite, zeolite (chiefly laumontite) and calcite in a range of combinations. Analysis of crosscutting relations leads to classification of 4 main vein types. In order of generally oldest to youngest these are: amphibole, quartz-epidote-chlorite (QEC), zeolite-prehnite (ZP), and calcite. QEC and ZP vein types may contain any combination of minerals except quartz alone; veins filled only by quartz may occur at any relative time. Macroscopic amphibole veins are rare and show no variation with depth. QEC vein densities appear to be higher (>9.3 veins m-1) in the upper 300 m of GT3A, where dikes predominate. In contrast, there are 5.5 veins m-1 at 300-400 m, where gabbros and diorites are abundant. ZP

  13. Petrological studies of plutonic rocks of Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S.

    1980-01-01

    The feldspars of many tonalitic plutonic rocks in the coastal regions and West Andean regions are zoned. This leads to the conclusion that they are relatively flat intrusions and to some extent transition rocks in the subvulcanite direction. This is in accordance with the genetic and chronological relationship between plutonites and the surrounding vulcanites of the Basic Igreous Complex (BIC). The composition of representative minerals, e.g. alkali feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, biotite, chlorite, and amphibole has been determined as well as the age of plutonite samples by the K/Ar dating method. (DG) [de

  14. Mineral chemical and petrographic occurrences os iron of the south east of Uruguay (Nico Pere z terrane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyhantcabal, P.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Siegesmund, S.; Pineyro, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two iron-formation deposits from S E Uruguay were petrographic ally and mineralogically investigated (including microprobe mineral chemistry). The deposit from Piedra de Gigante (ANCAP) quarry is related to tectonic slivers of a platform succession in ortho gneiss of ca. 1750 Ma. Data of detrital zircon in this platform succession point to Meso- to Neo proterozoic age.The iron deposit of Piedra del Gigante (ANCAP) quarry belongs to a succession of mica schists, quartz-muscovite schists, marbles and basic rocks. Magnetite rich layers alternate with banded rocks rich in hematite, carbonate and amphibole. Carbonate is dolomite (Mg0.7Ca1.08Mn0.05Fe0.11(CO3)2) and the amphibole is a pale green tremolite (Na0,18Ca1,68Mn0,07Mg4,16Fe+++0,2Fe++0,55Al0,03(Si7,86Al0,13)O22(OH)2). This iron deposit shows strong deformation associated with martitization of magnetite and formation of specularite rich layers where relicts of magnetite (partly martitized) are occasionally observed. Available data are not conclusive about the genesis. The low iron-content of the amphibole together with dolomite in the mineral association cast doubts on a BIF-type origin, but low contents of Al2O3, V2O3, MnO and ZnO in magnetite do not indicate an igneous origin. High oxygen fugacity during martitization in medium-T metamorphic conditions could have determined that iron rich amphiboles were not formed as is normally expected in iron-formations. In the outcrop of Cerro la Higuerita (Grupo Arroyo del Soldado; Ediacaran) a succession of metapelites (bottom), iron rich pelites and iron formations (top) is observed. The metapelites contain evidences of volcanic contribution (phenochrysts of quartz and alkali feldspar as well as shards in the matrix) suggesting a volcanic source for the iron. This iron-formation contains magnetite pheno blasts (partly martitized) and fine disseminated laths of hematite in the matrix, together with grunerite (Na0,04Ca0,17 Mn0,02Mg1,36Fe5,35Al0,07(Si7,97Al0,03)O22(OH)2

  15. Petrologic characteristics of the 1982 and pre-1982 eruptive products of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, J.J.; Tilling, R.I.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Studies on a suite of rocks from this volcano indicate that the juvenile materials of the 1982 and pre-1982 eruptions of the volcano have essentially the same mineralogy and chemistry. Data suggest that chemical composition changed little over the 0.3 m.y. sample period. Modally, plagioclase is the dominant phenocryst, followed by amphibole, clinopyroxene and minor phases including anhydrite. Plagioclase phenocrysts show complex zoning: the anorthite-rich zones are probably the result of changing volatile P on the magma and may reflect the changes in the volcano's magma reservoir in response to repetitive, explosive eruptive activity.-R.E.S.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  17. Sulfur isotope composition of orogenic spinel lherzolite massifs from Ariege (north-eastern pyrenees, France): An ion microprobe study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaussidon, M. (Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)); Lorand, J. (Unite associee au CNRS, Paris (France))

    1990-10-01

    The orogenic spinel lherzolite massifs from Ariege, which represent tectonically emplaced fragments of the sub-continental upper mantle, are composed mainly of variously depleted peridotites. These rocks are crosscut by two generations of pyroxenites. The first is made up of layered pyroxenites, which are interpreted either as crystal segregates from Triassic continental tholeiites or as subducted parts of the oceanic crust re-injected within the upper mantle. The second consists of amphibole-rich dikes separated from Cretaceous alkali basalts. Forty sulfide grains, occurring either as inclusions within silicates or as interstitial grains, were investigated by ion microprobe for their sulfur isotopic compositions. Comparison between sulfide inclusions in silicates and interstitial sulfide grains strongly suggests that serpentinization and pyrenean metamorphism had no significant effect don the {delta}{sup 34}S values. Likewise, these values are broadly independent of the degree of partial melting. The negative {delta}{sup 34}S values of the massive peridotites could represent an ancient depletion event in the upper mantle. By contrast, the positive {delta}{sup 34}S values observed in the layered pryoxenites and the amphibole-rich dikes indicate that the two parent magmas had in common a mantle source variously enriched in {sup 34}S. Therefore, the present study reveals two extreme reservoirs characterized by different {delta}{sup 34}S values in the upper mantle. This range of variations can explain most {delta}{sup 34}S values found in MORB, continental tholeiites, and alkali basalts.

  18. Magma storage constrains by compositional zoning of plagioclase from dacites of the caldera forming eruptions of Vetrovoy Isthmus and Lvinaya Past’ Bay (Iturup Island, Kurile Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovich, I. A.; Smirnov, S. Z.; Kotov, A. A.; Timina, T. Yu; Shevko, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The Vetrovoy Isthmus and the Lvinaya Past’ Bay on the Iturup island (Kuril island arc) are the results of large Plinian eruptions of compositionally similar dacitic magmas. This study is devoted to a comparative analysis of the storage and crystallization conditions for magma reservoirs, which were a source of large-scale explosive eruptions. The plagioclase is most informative mineral in studying of the melt evolution. The studied plagioclases possess a complex zoning patterns, which are not typical for silicic rocks in island-arc systems. It was shown that increase of Ca in the plagioclase up to unusually high An95 is related to increase of H2O pressure in both volcanic magma chambers. The study revealed that minerals of the Vetrovoy Isthmus and Lvinaya Past’ crystallized from compositionally similar melts. Despite the compositional similarity of the melts, the phenocryst assemblage of the Lvinaya Past’ differs from the Vetrovoy Isthmus by the presence of the amphibole, which indicates that the pressure in the magmatic chamber exceeded 1-2 kbar at a 4-6 wt. % of H2O in the melt. The rocks of the Vetrovoy Isthmus do not contain amphibole phenocrysts, but melt and fluid inclusions assemblages in plagioclase demonstrate that the magma degassed in the course of evolution. This is an indication that the pressure did not exceed significantly 1-2 kbar.

  19. Spinel and orthopyroxene exsolved from clinopyroxene in the Haladala pluton in the middle Tianshan (Xinjiang, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongfeng; Chen, Jing; Xue, Yunxin; Feng, Wanyi; Jiang, Jiuyang

    2017-12-01

    The Haladala pluton, consisting of troctolite, olivine gabbro and gabbro with zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of 309 ± 2 Ma (MSWD = 0.72), intruded the Devonian-Carboniferous arc segments in the middle Tianshan. Amphibole, coexisting with magnetite, amphibole, and phlogopite, crystallized in a magma chamber at depth of 20 km (6.9-7.4 kbar, 934-943 °C) based on various thermobaramoters. Two kinds of exsolution textures (spinel rods in clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene lamellae in clinopyroxene) occur in troctolite and olivine gabbro. We describe oriented spinel rods and orthopyroxene lamellae exsolved from the host clinopyroxene based on optical and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) observations. The spinel rods (100) are parallel to their host clinopyroxene (010). Orthopyroxene lamellae (010) are coherent and strictly parallel to their host clinopyroxene (010). Exsolution of spinel rods from the host clinopyroxene is controlled by the reaction of (Ca0.5M2+ 0.5)Fe3+[AlSiO6]in clinopyroxene → (Ca0.86-0.17M2+ 0.14-0.17)(M2 + 1.00-0.96Al0-0.04)[Al0.17-0.10Si1.83-1.90O6] + Fe3O4 + O2.

  20. Petrography and Geochemistry (Trace, Ree and Pge of Pedda Cherlo Palle Gabbro-Diorite Pluton, Prakasam Igneous Province, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam K.S.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prakasam Igneous Province (PIP is an important geological domain in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC, found in the junction zone between the EDC and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB. The Pedda Cherlo Palle (PCP gabbros are massive, leucocratic-mesocractic, and show cumulus textures with minerals plagioclase, cpx, and amphiboles. Compositionally, plagioclase is a labradorite-bytownite, cpx is diopside to augite, olivines are hyalosiderites and amphiboles are magnesiohornblendes. PCP gabbros have normal SiO2, high Al2O3, moderate to high TiO2, Na2O and medium Fe2O3, so, classified as subalkaline tholeiitic gabbros. Fractionated rare earth element (REE patterns, high abundance of large ion lithofile elements (LILE and transitional metals coupled with light REE (LREE relative enrichment over heavy REE (HREE and Nb are characteristics of partial melting of depleted mantle and melts that have undergone fractional crystalisation. These partial melts are enriched in LREE and LILE, due to the addition of slab derived sediment and fluids. PCP gabbros contain low abundance (5.1 to 24.6 ng/g of platinum group elements (PGE, and show an increase in the order Ir>Os>Pt>Ru»Pd>Rh. We propose that the subduction related intraoceanic island arc might have accreted to the southeastern margin of India to the east of Cuddapah basin in a collisional regime that took place during Ur to Rodinia amalgamations.

  1. Noble gases recycled into the mantle through cold subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smye, Andrew J.; Jackson, Colin R. M.; Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias; Hesse, Marc A.; Parman, Steve W.; Shuster, David L.; Ballentine, Chris J.

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of hydrous and carbonated oceanic lithosphere replenishes the mantle volatile inventory. Substantial uncertainties exist on the magnitudes of the recycled volatile fluxes and it is unclear whether Earth surface reservoirs are undergoing net-loss or net-gain of H2O and CO2. Here, we use noble gases as tracers for deep volatile cycling. Specifically, we construct and apply a kinetic model to estimate the effect of subduction zone metamorphism on the elemental composition of noble gases in amphibole - a common constituent of altered oceanic crust. We show that progressive dehydration of the slab leads to the extraction of noble gases, linking noble gas recycling to H2O. Noble gases are strongly fractionated within hot subduction zones, whereas minimal fractionation occurs along colder subduction geotherms. In the context of our modelling, this implies that the mantle heavy noble gas inventory is dominated by the injection of noble gases through cold subduction zones. For cold subduction zones, we estimate a present-day bulk recycling efficiency, past the depth of amphibole breakdown, of 5-35% and 60-80% for 36Ar and H2O bound within oceanic crust, respectively. Given that hotter subduction dominates over geologic history, this result highlights the importance of cooler subduction zones in regassing the mantle and in affecting the modern volatile budget of Earth's interior.

  2. The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkina, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG

  3. Geology of the Biwabik Iron Formation and Duluth Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Mark A; Miller, James D; Morey, G B

    2008-10-01

    The Biwabik Iron Formation is a approximately 1.9 billion year-old sequence of iron-rich sedimentary rocks that was metamorphosed at its eastern-most extent by approximately 1.1 billion year-old intrusions of the Duluth Complex. The metamorphic recrystallization of iron-formation locally produced iron-rich amphiboles and other fibrous iron-silicate minerals. The presence of these minerals in iron-formation along the eastern part of what is known as the Mesabi Iron Range, and their potential liberation by iron mining has raised environmental health concerns. We describe here the geologic setting and mineralogic composition of the Biwabik Iron Formation in and adjacent to the contact metamorphic aureole of the Duluth Complex. The effects of metamorphism are most pronounced within a few kilometers of the contact, and decrease progressively away from it. The contact aureole has been divided into four metamorphic zones-each characterized by the composition and crystal structure of the metamorphic minerals it contains. The recrystallization of iron-formation to iron-rich amphibole minerals (grunerite and cummingtonite) and iron-pyroxene minerals (hedenbergite and ferrohypersthene) is best developed in zones that are most proximal to the Duluth Complex contact.

  4. Petrology of metabasites in the south of Arousan, northeastern Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Bayat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Metagabbro, metadiabase and metabasalt of the Chah Palang and Me'raji mountains associated with Lower Paleozoic metamorphites are situated in the south of Arousan. Metabasites of these areas are relatively similar in terms of mineralogy and geochemical characteristics. Rock-forming minerals of the Me'raji metabasites are feldspar, amphibole, biotite, sphene, epidote, chlorite ± calcite. Metagabbro and metadiabase of the Chah Palang area are similar to the Me'raji metabasites in mineralogy and geochemistry. Volcanic rocks are overlain by metagabbros and consist of plagioclase, biotite, sphene, sanidine, chlorite, epidote and iron oxides. The rigid dykes, which are found in the volcanic units are associated with metagabbros and mineralogically are similar to the metavolcanics. Amphibolitic dykes are composed of amphibole, plagioclase and biotite with preferred orientation. Metabasites show limited range of differentiation. Me'raji metabasites are basalt and trachy-basalt in composition, whereas the Chah Palang ones present basalt and trachy-basalt composition. Similar to metabasites of the other parts of Iran, the studied basic rocks demonstrate alkaline to transitional chemical characteristic and are formed in an extensional environment by low-degree partial melting of a garnet-spinel peridotite. Metamorphic episodes have changed the studied rocks to amphibolite and greenschist, but the primitive igneous textures are preserved.

  5. Studies of thermal and radiation effects on water-rock systems related to envisaged isolation of high level radioactive wastes in crystalline formations of the Ukrainian shield (Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litovchenko, A.; Kalinichenko, E.; Ivanitsky, V.; Bagmut, M.; Plastinina, M.; Zlobenko, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this work there are presented the general data on the study of thermal and radiation effects in minerals separated from rocks of the Ukrainian shield. These minerals (quartz, feldspar, amphiboles, apatite, biotite, kaolinite, etc.), exposed by doses 10 4 , 10 6 , 10 8 Gy by Co 60 source, were studied by a complex of physical methods. Special attention was given to the study of radiation defects formation (electron-hole paramagnetic centres, OH- groups destruction, changes in a charge state of ions) in a mineral structure. The mentioned radiation defects were used in the extrapolation method. The connection between structural peculiarities of minerals (containing uranium and thorium) and processes of their metamyctization are considered. It is demonstrated that the minerals, which have large channels or interlayer spaces in their structure, as a rule, are not metamyct. Using the spectroscopic methods of the extrapolation it is shown that the crystalline massifs, which do not have detectable amounts of hydroxyl containing minerals (biotite, amphibole, etc.) and ions Fe 2- , are perspective for long-lived radioactive wastes (RAW) dumping. As it follows from obtained results, the rocks, containing minerals with OH- groups and gas-liquid inclusions, should be considered as the 'mineral-water' system. (author)

  6. Geology of the hills in the region of the City of Santiago de Chile: New isotopic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, M; Lopez-Escobar, I; Palma, J.L; Hickey-Vargas, R

    2001-01-01

    Geological, geochronological and geochemical data demonstrate that the area where the city of Santiago de Chile is established used to be a huge volcanic field. At present, it is possible to distinguish in the area at least three volcanic cycles, which are geographically superimposed and deeply eroded. The first is Oligocene in age, the second Lower to Middle Miocene and the third is Middle to Upper Miocene. The Oligocene cycle is represented by volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks of the Provincia-San Ramon-Abanico and Conchali belts, and welded tuffs of the San Cristobal and Renca hills. The Lower to Middle Miocene cycle consists of subvolcanic rocks, mostly of basaltic to basaltic-andesite composition, characterized by the presence of clino- and orthopyroxene. The Middle to Upper Miocene cycle is composed predominantly of amphibole-bearing subvolcanic rocks of dacitic composition. The latter are found at the Manquehue hill, which limits the northern part of the city, and the hills at the Rinconada de Conchali. In this communication, we present new Sr-, Nd- and Pb- isotope data obtained from two subvolcanic samples of basaltic composition collected from the San Cristobal hill and at the Santa Lucia hill (Lower to Middle Miocene) and one amphibole-bearing subvolcanic sample of dacitic composition from the Manquehue hill (Middle to Upper Miocene) (au)

  7. Evidences of a transamazonic cycle in Cabo Frio region, RJ, Brazil and its correlation with the craton of Angola, Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbres, E.; Kawashita, K.; Van Schmus, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The U-Pb dating in zircon based on air-abrasion method, whole rock Rb-Sr one, and K-Ar ones in biotite and amphibole of the samples collected from the Cabo Frio Region, Ribeira Orogenic Belt, have been carried out. The concordia diagram of the U-Pb dating indicates 2 different ages: 1981 ± 18 Ma for the upper intersect corresponding to the Transamazonic Cycle, and 488 ± 55 Ma for the lower one, Brazilian Cycle. The former is interpreted as age of zircon formation and the latter, as the time elapsed since epsodic lead loss. The whole rock Rb-Sr dating also shows Transamazonic age: 1799 ± 62 Ma, IR=0.706, and MSWD+0.570. The K-Ar age in amphibole is 571 ± 44 Ma and that in biotite is 474 ± 6 Ma. These data lead to the conclusion that the rocks of this region was formed in the Trasamazonic Cycle and remetamorphosed in the Brazilian Cycle. (author)

  8. Impaired mitochondrial metabolism and protein synthesis in streptozotocin diabetic rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, R.A.; Bessman, S.P.; Mohan, C.

    1990-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes prepared from control, streptozotocin diabetic rats were incubated at 30 degrees C in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.5 mM concentration of each of the 20 natural amino acids. Effect of insulin on the oxidation of 2,3- 14 C and 1,4- 14 C succinate (suc) carbons and their incorporation into hepatocyte protein, lipid and various metabolic intermediates was studied. Mitochondrial oxidation of suc carbons and their incorporation into protein and lipid was significantly lower in diabetic and insulin treated diabetic rats. Diabetic rats failed to exhibit any significant insulin effect on the oxidation of either 2,3 or 1,4- 14 C suc carbons. Amphibolic channeling of 2,3- 14 C suc carbons into amino acids was significantly reduced in hepatocytes of diabetic rats, however, more of these carbons were diverted into the gluconeogenesis pathway. Diabetes caused a far greater decrease in the oxidation of 2,3- 14 C suc carbons as compared to 1,4- 14 C suc. Based on an earlier report that insulin stimulates only the intramitochondrial Krebs cycle reactions, the authors conclude that the diminished level of anabolic activities in the diabetic rat hepatocytes is due to the subsequent reduction in amphibolic channeling of metabolic intermediates

  9. Evaluation of exposure to the airborne asbestos in an asbestos cement sheet manufacturing industry in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Davood; Kakooei, Hossein; Marioryad, Hossein; Mehrdad, Ramin; Golhosseini, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    Iran imports nearly 55,000 tons of Chrysotile asbestos per year and asbestos cement (AC) plants contribute nearly 94% of the total national usage. In the present study, airborne asbestos concentrations during AC sheet manufacturing were measured. The fiber type and its chemical composition were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Airborne total fiber concentrations of 45 personal samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy. The results have highlighted that 15.5% of samples exceed the threshold limit value (TLV) established the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, which is 0.1 fiber per milliliter (f/ml). Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.16 ± 0.03 f/ml. The geometrical mean was 0.05 ± 1.36 f/ml, which is considerably lower than the TLV. SEM data demonstrate that the fibrous particles consisted, approximately, of Chrysotile (55.89%) and amphiboles (44.11%). We conclude that the industrial consumption of imported Chrysotile asbestos is responsible for the high airborne amphibole asbestos levels in the AC sheet industry. More research is needed to improve characterization of occupational exposures by fiber size and concentration in a variety of industries.

  10. Mesothelioma and other lung disease in taconite miners; the uncertain role of non-asbestiform EMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jeffrey H; Odo, Nnaemeka U

    2018-04-10

    The purpose of this paper was to assess the role of non-asbestiform amphibole EMPs in the etiology of mesotheliomas and other lung disease in taconite (iron ore) miners. Increased mesothelioma rates have been described in Minnesota taconite workers since the late 1990s. Currently, over 100 cases have been reported by the Minnesota Department of Health within the complete cohort of miners in Minnesota. Geologic sampling has indicated that only the eastern part of the iron range contains non-asbestiform amphibole elongate mineral particles (EMPs), in close proximity to the ore. This type of EMP has been less studied and also exists in talc and gold mining. A series of investigations into the state's taconite industry have been recently completed. Results from a cohort mortality study indicated an SMR of 2.77 (95% CI = 1.87-3.96) for mesothelioma. In a case-control study, the odds ratio for mesothelioma for high vs. low EMP exposure was 2.25 (5% CI = 1.13-4.5) but EMPs in this study were counted by phase contrast microscopy. Odds ratios were not elevated in mines located in the eastern part of the Mesabi iron range. The overall findings suggest that mesothelioma in taconite miners is related to EMP exposure. Because of the way EMPs were counted, results from these studies cannot allow a firm conclusion about the association between EMP exposure and the reported excess mesothelioma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Distribution, Character, and Rhenium Content of Molybdenite in the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag-(Mo Deposit and Its Southern Extension in the Northern Norrbotten Ore District, Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wanhainen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenite in the Aitik deposit and its southern extension was studied through mineralogical/chemical analysis and laboratory flotation tests. It is demonstrated that molybdenite varies considerably in grain size, ranging from coarse (>20 μm to very fine (<2 μm and occurs predominantly as single grains in the groundmass of the rocks, as grain aggregates, and intergrown with chalcopyrite and pyrite. The dominating molybdenite-bearing rocks are the mica schists, the quartz-monzodiorite, and the Salmijärvi biotite-amphibole gneiss, the latter containing mostly medium-coarsegrained molybdenite. Later geological features, such as garnet-magnetite-anhydrite-K feldspar alteration and pegmatite dikes appear to be responsible for a significant part of the distribution pattern of molybdenite. Molybdenite grains contain up to 1587 ppm Re, with an average of 211 ± 10 ppm in Aitik molybdenite and 452 ± 33 ppm in Salmijärvi molybdenite. The higher Re concentrations are found in molybdenite associated with sericite- and quartz-amphibole-magnetite altered rocks, whereas low Re values occur in rocks in which potassic alteration is prominent. Molybdenite recovery is influenced by the mineralogy of the host rock and the alteration grade; hence both of these factors will have an impact on potential recoveries. The recovery of molybdenite was lower from flotation feeds with significant amounts of Mg-bearing clay-micas.

  12. Determining magmatic series and oxygen fugacity of volcanic rocks in the east of Kamu, north of Isfahan, based on biotite chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks of interest are situated in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA. They are parts of a vast magmatic province located in the north of Bitlis-Zagros suture zone. Having a prevailing porphyritic texture, these rocks include phenocrysts of plagioclase, amphibole and biotite in a matrix composed of feldspar, quartz, opaque, glass and microlite and mineralogically show composition of dacite to andesite. Minerals are mostly fresh. Effects of alteration are limited to weak chloritization and saussuritization in some amphiboles and rim of plagioclases, respectively. All of the analyzed biotites in the Miocene-Pliocene volcanic rocks in the east of Kamu are of Mg-biotite. According to a widespread classification of micas to 6 general end-members, biotites of interest are averagely composed of 55.45% phlogopite, 15.90% talc, 12.72% Ti-phlogopite, 11.44% eastonite, 3.71% ferri-eastonite and 0.78% muscovite. Chemical composition of biotites indicates a calk-alkaline magmatic series for the magma from which biotites are crystallized. Estimation of the oxygen fugacity of magma, based on chemical composition and Fe3+ content of biotite, shows that the oxygen fugacity was limited to FMQ buffer in quality and was about 10-15 bar in quantity. This value accords the oxygen fugacity for intermediate-acidic volcanic rocks.

  13. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of basic dykes in the Boroujerd area (Sanandaj- Sirjan Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tahmasbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic dykes, trending NE-SW and cross cutting the middle Jurassic granodioritic rocksexposed in the Boroujerd area. They are dark green and fine to medium–grained rocksand are characterized by ophitic to subophitic texture. These rocks are dominated bymajor minerals including amphibole and plagioclase as well as minor biotite, apatite,sphene and prehnite. Amphibole is calcic, with magnesia-hornblende to actinolitehornblendecomposition. T = 600-700ºC and P = 3.5-5.2 kbar were calculated forcrystallization of these minerals. The composition of plagioclases ranges from albite tooligoclase. The basic dykes studied are undeformed and the youngest magmatic activityin the area.. The collision of Arabian and Central Iranian plates, gave rise to the pressurein the Central Iranian plate, which expanded the extension fractures in the direction ofthe plate movement. As a result, the dykes in discussion formed in direction of platemovement. Thus, development of basic dykes in the Northeast-Southwest direction withrespect to the convergence zone is justified. The basic dykes, on the discriminationtectonic diagrams, are classified as alkaline series and plotted on within plateenvironment field, which originated from partial melting of an enriched mantle source.

  14. Pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to occupational history and asbestos lung burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Clare; Rake, Christine; Burdett, Garry; Nicholson, Andrew G; Davison, Leslie; Franchini, Angelo; Carpenter, James; Hodgson, John; Darnton, Andrew; Peto, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background We have conducted a population-based study of pleural mesothelioma patients with occupational histories and measured asbestos lung burdens in occupationally exposed workers and in the general population. The relationship between lung burden and risk, particularly at environmental exposure levels, will enable future mesothelioma rates in people born after 1965 who never installed asbestos to be predicted from their asbestos lung burdens. Methods Following personal interview asbestos fibres longer than 5 µm were counted by transmission electron microscopy in lung samples obtained from 133 patients with mesothelioma and 262 patients with lung cancer. ORs for mesothelioma were converted to lifetime risks. Results Lifetime mesothelioma risk is approximately 0.02% per 1000 amphibole fibres per gram of dry lung tissue over a more than 100-fold range, from 1 to 4 in the most heavily exposed building workers to less than 1 in 500 in most of the population. The asbestos fibres counted were amosite (75%), crocidolite (18%), other amphiboles (5%) and chrysotile (2%). Conclusions The approximate linearity of the dose–response together with lung burden measurements in younger people will provide reasonably reliable predictions of future mesothelioma rates in those born since 1965 whose risks cannot yet be seen in national rates. Burdens in those born more recently will indicate the continuing occupational and environmental hazards under current asbestos control regulations. Our results confirm the major contribution of amosite to UK mesothelioma incidence and the substantial contribution of non-occupational exposure, particularly in women. PMID:26715106

  15. New insights into the origin of the bimodal volcanism in the middle Okinawa Trough: not a basalt-rhyolite differentiation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Zeng, Zhigang; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Yin, Xuebo

    2018-06-01

    In the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT), rhyolites have been typically considered as products of crystallization differentiation of basaltic magma as a feature of bimodal volcanism. However, the evidence is insufficient. This paper compared chemical trends of volcanic rocks from the MOT with fractional crystallization simulation models and experimental results and utilized trace element modeling combined with Rayleigh fractionation calculations to re-examine fractional crystallization processes in generating rhyolites. Both qualitative and quantitative studies indicate that andesites, rather than rhyolites, originate by fractional crystallization from basalts in the MOT. Furthermore, we established two batch-melting models for the MOT rhyolites and proposed that type 1 rhyolites are produced by remelting of andesites with amphiboles in the residue, while type 2 rhyolites are derived from remelting of andesites without residual amphiboles. It is difficult to produce melts with a SiO2 content ranging from 62% to 68% either by magmatic differentiation from basalts or by remelting of andesites, and this difficulty might help account for the compositional gap (Daly gap) for bimodal volcanism in the Okinawa Trough.

  16. Sources of Fe in eolian and soil detritus at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.; Chipera, S.; Bish, D.

    1997-01-01

    Eolian deposits and adjacent soil horizons at Exile Hill near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, provide a desert environment where the origins of exotic eolian materials can be discerned. Petrographic, chemical, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe data allow an assessment of Fe mineral sources. Fe-rich minerals in local rhyolitic tuff bedrock consist of distinctive biotite and amphibole phenocrysts and groundmass Mn-hematites. Although the local tuffs contain only 1% FeO, detrital components of eolian and soil deposits have ∼3% FeO. Exotic minerals from distant sources provide most of the excess Fe in the surficial deposits. The exotic Fe sources are principally smectite, low-Mn hematite, low-F biotite, and high-Fe amphibole not found in local tuffs. Iron contents and the exotic Fe fraction increase with decreasing grain size, such that the clay fractions have ∼5--6% FeO, almost all of which is in exotic smectites. The distant origin of these smectites is evident in their high Fe content and distinct Sc/FeO enrichment trends, which differ from the strong local Sc/FeO control defined by coarser soil detritus. Approximate crustal average lanthanide composition in soil and eolian smectites rule out any significant contribution of local smectite derived from tuff alteration. The eolian and soil smectites instead inherit their high Fe content from eolian biotite

  17. Water contents of clinopyroxenes from sub-arc mantle peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael; Turner, Simon; Blatter, Dawnika; Maury, Rene; Perfit, Michael; Yogodzinski, Gene

    2017-01-01

    One poorly constrained reservoir of the Earth's water budget is that of clinopyroxene in metasomatised, mantle peridotites. This study presents reconnaissance Sensitive High-Resolution, Ion Microprobe–Stable Isotope (SHRIMP–SI) determinations of the H2O contents of (dominantly) clinopyroxenes in rare mantle xenoliths from four different subduction zones, i.e. Mexico, Kamchatka, Philippines, and New Britain (Tabar-Feni island chain) as well as one intra-plate setting (western Victoria). All of the sub-arc xenoliths have been metasomatised and carry strong arc trace element signatures. Average measured H2O contents of the pyroxenes range from 70 ppm to 510 ppm whereas calculated bulk H2O contents range from 88 ppm to 3 737 ppm if the variable presence of amphibole is taken into account. In contrast, the intra-plate, continental mantle xenolith from western Victoria has higher water contents (3 447 ppm) but was metasomatised by alkali and/or carbonatitic melts and does not carry a subduction-related signature. Material similar to the sub-arc peridotites can either be accreted to the base of the lithosphere or potentially be transported by convection deeper into the mantle where it will lose water due to amphibole breakdown.

  18. Uranium mineralization at Lagoa Real, BA, Brazil: the role of fluids in its genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prates, Sonia Pinto; Neves, Jose Marques Correia; Fuzikawa, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The Lagoa Real uranium province is situated in the central-south of Bahia state . Brazil and it is presently by far the most important and best known uranium occurrence in Brazil. Nowadays 34 anomalies are known in a 30 Km long and 5 km wide area. An open pit mine was open in Cachoeira Mine, in the north portion of the area, and it is the only uranium mine in operation in Brazil and even in South America as well. The uranium mineralization in the Lagoa Real uranium province occurs in metamorphic rocks named albitites, due to their albite content (over 70%). Uraninite is the main uranium mineral, followed by pechblende, uranophane, torbernite and other uranyl minerals. Uraninite occurs as tiny round and irregular crystals (20 a 30 μm) included or associated to mafic minerals, mainly pyroxene and garnet, and also to amphibole and biotite and sometimes to albite. Some secondary minerals such as, for instance, uranophane, torbernite and tyuyamunite are also found. The main albitites minerals from the Cachoeira mine (plagioclase, garnet, biotite, pyroxene, amphibole and titanite) were studied by means of Infrared Spectroscopy Techniques. Good results were obtained from small quantities of material (around 2 mg) and allowed the minerals identification, and also to know their composition (from the peak position) and to detect the presence of water molecules, which indicates an aqueous phase during the uranium formation, probably rich in Fluorine. (author)

  19. Combined Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Mariánské Lázně Complex: New constraints on the timing of eclogite- and granulite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Štípská, Pavla; Schulmann, Karel; Peřestý, Vít; Soldner, Jeremie; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Lexa, Ondrej; Kylander-Clark, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet-whole rock geochronology combined with petrographic observations, minero-chemical variations, thermodynamic modelling and structural data was used to constrain the P-T-t-d evolution of eclogites from the Mariánské Lázně Complex (Bohemian Massif). Boudins of mostly isotropic eclogite with relict steep eclogite-facies fabric are affected by steep migmatitic foliation, which is followed on a regional scale by the development of almost pervasive, predominantly SE-dipping, extensional foliation. The structural succession shows continuous transition from eclogite to garnetiferous migmatitic amphibolite and to amphibolite migmatite. A least retrogressed sample of eclogite shows clusters of fine-grained inclusion-poor garnet, omphacite relicts surrounded by a fine-grained clinopyroxene-plagioclase symplectite with minor amphibole, biotite-plagioclase intergrowths after white mica, kyanite with plagioclase-spinel coronas and accessory rutile. Rare potassic white mica occurs as inclusions in omphacite. A more retrogressed eclogite, with no omphacite or kyanite relicts, contains inclusion-poor garnet surrounded by amphibole-plagioclase corona in a matrix dominated by plagioclase-amphibole symplectite with minor clinopyroxene. In places, the symplectite is overgrown by coarse-grained amphibole. Peak P-T conditions, inferred from combined conventional thermobarometry and phase-equilibria modelling and based on inclusions of white mica (up to 3.33 Si p.f.u.), matrix omphacite (Jd33-36) and garnet core (Alm33-38Prp38-42Grs22-25Sps1) compositions are 25 kbar at 650-750 °C. A HT overprint occurred at 14-18 kbar and >800 °C based on coexisting clinopyroxene (Jd18-24), plagioclase (An18-35), and amphibole (Na(B) modelling of garnet mantle compositions. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology has been applied to both samples, an older age (c. 390 Ma) obtained by the Lu-Hf method is interpreted as the timing of HP metamorphism, while c. 15 Ma younger ages were

  20. Magma storage conditions of historic Plinian eruptions of Volcán de Colima, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, J.; Arce, J.; Sosa, G.; Gardner, J. E.; Saucedo, R.

    2013-12-01

    Volcán de Colima has a historical record with major explosive eruptions occurring every ~100 years (1606, 1690, 1818, and 1913) followed by intra-Plinian effusive activity. The 1818 and 1913 Plinian eruptions erupted andesitic magmas (Pl > Opx > Cpx >> Hbl + Fe-Ti oxides + Ap and rare resorbed Ol) with homogeneous bulk compositions (1913; 58.3 × 0.5 wt.% SiO2, 1818; 58.9 × 0.2 wt.% SiO2; Saucedo et al., 2010). Instead, intra-Plinian magmas are devoid of hornblende and have compositions of 59-61 wt. % in silica (Savov et al., 2008). Pre-eruptive temperatures of oxide Fe-Ti pairs in 1818 and 1913 products yielded temperatures of 830×20°C colder than intra-Plinian magmas usually >970°C (Luhr et al., 2002) depending on the mineral phase analyzed. Amphibole in 1818 and 1913 products consists of two populations: a) large xenocrysts, with plag-px-Fe-Ti oxide rims with equilibrium pressures and temperatures of 380 MPa and 950 °C (Ridolfi et al., 2010), and b) microphenocryst with equilibrium pressures and temperatures of 190-280 MPa and 870-910 °C, respectively. Some phenocrysts in the 1818 magma have a high pressure core overgrowth by a low pressure rim. In order to understand the storage conditions of Colima explosive magmas we carried out a set of hydrothermal experiments with a 1818 pumice sample. Experiments were water oversaturated and close to the oxygen fugacity of the NNO buffer. Experiments show that amphibole is stable at pressures greater than 75 MPa at 850°C, and greater than 100 MPa at 925°C. For the same range of temperature, plagioclase is stable at pressures below ~210 MPa and 100 MPa, respectively. Experimental plagioclase and experimental glass were analyzed and compared to those from the natural sample, yielding an approximate storage pressure of 210 MPa. This pressure is confirmed by the chemical equilibrium of microphenocrystic amphibole of the natural sample. Given the nearly equivalent composition of the most recent Plinain magmas is

  1. Hydration of the Atlantis Massif: Halogen, Noble Gas and In-Situ δ18O Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. J.; Kendrick, M. A.; Rubatto, D.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of halogen (Cl, Br, I), noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) and in situ oxygen isotope analysis have been utilized to investigate the fluid-mobile element record of hydration and alteration processes at the Atlantis Massif (30°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge). The sample suite investigated includes serpentinite, talc-amphibole ± chlorite schist and hydrated gabbro recovered by seafloor drilling undertaken at sites on a transect across the Atlantis Massif during IODP Expedition 357. Serpentine mesh and veins analysed in-situ by SHRIMP SI exhibit δ18O from 6‰ down to ≈0‰, suggesting serpentinization temperatures of 150 to >280°C and water/rock ratios >5. Differences of 1.5-2.5‰ are observed between adjacent generations of serpentine, but the δ18O range is similar at each investigated drilling site. Halogen and noble gas abundances in serpentinites, talc-amphibole schist and hydrated gabbro have been measured by noble gas mass spectrometry of both irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Serpentinites contain low abundances of halogens and noble gases (e.g. 70-430 ppm Cl, 4.7-12.2 x 10-14 mol/g 36Ar) relative to other seafloor serpentinites. The samples have systematically different Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios related to their mineralogy. Serpentinites retain mantle-like Br/Cl with a wide variation in I/Cl that stretches toward seawater values. Talc-amphibole schists exhibit depletion of Br and I relative to Cl with increasing Cl abundances, suggesting tremolite exerts strong control on halogen abundance ratios. Serpentinites show no evidence of interaction with halogen-rich sedimentary pore fluids. Iodine abundances are variable across serpentinites, and are decoupled from Br and Cl; iodine enrichment (up to 530 ppb) is observed within relatively oxidised and clay-bearing samples. Serpentinized harzburgites exhibit distinct depletion of Kr and Xe relative to atmospheric 36Ar in seawater. Oxygen isotope compositions and low abundances of both halogens

  2. The semi-brittle to ductile transition in peridotite on oceanic faults: mechanisms and P-T condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, C.; Warren, J. M.; Kohli, A. H.; Teyssier, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Experimental and geological-petrological studies suggest that the transition from brittle faulting to ductile flow of olivine, i.e. from seismic to aseismic behavior of mantle rocks (peridotites), occurs close to 600°C. However, recent seismological studies on oceanic transform faults (TFs) and ridges have documented earthquakes to temperatures (T) up to 700-800°C. In this study, we carried out a petrological, microstructural and geochemical analysis of natural samples of peridotites dredged at 3 different oceanic TFs of the Southwest Indian Ridge: Shaka, Prince Edward and Atlantis II. We selected samples displaying variable amounts of ductile deformation (from porphyroclastic tectonites to ultramylonites) prior to serpentinization in order to characterize their relatively high-T mechanical behavior. We find that the most deformed samples record cycles of ductile and brittle deformation. Peridotite ductile flow is characterized by drastic grain size reduction and the development of (ultra)mylonitic shear zones. In these zones, a switch in olivine deformation mechanism from dislocation creep to grain-size sensitive creep is associated with dissolution/precipitation processes. Brittle deformation of these samples is evidenced by the presence of (at least centimetric) transgranular and intragranular fractures that fragment coarser grained minerals. Both kinds of fractures are filled with the same phase assemblage as in the ultramylonitic bands: olivine + amphibole ± orthopyroxene ± Al-phase (plagioclase and/or spinel) ± sulfides. The presence of amphibole indicates that this semi-brittle deformation was assisted by hydrous fluids and its composition (e.g. high concentration of chlorine) suggests that the fluids have most likely a hydrothermal origin. We interpret these fractures to have formed under fluid-assisted conditions, recording paleo-seismic activity that alternated with periods of relatively slow interseismic ductile flow. The presence of Mg

  3. Metaultramafic schists and dismembered ophiolites of the Ashe Metamorphic Suite of northwestern North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Loren A.; Merschat, Arthur J.; Vance, R. Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Metaultramafic rocks (MUR) in the Ashe Metamorphic Suite (AMS) of northwestern North Carolina include quartz ± feldspar-bearing QF-amphibolites and quartz-deficient, locally talc-, chlorite-, and/or Mg-amphibole-bearing TC-amphibolites. Some workers divide TC-amphibolites into Todd and Edmonds types, based on mineral and geochemical differences, and we provisionally add a third type – olivine ± pyroxene-rich, Rich Mountain-type rocks. Regionally, MUR bodies range from equant, Rich Mountain- to highly elongate, Todd-TC-amphibolite-type bodies. The MURs exhibit three to five mineral associations containing assemblages with olivine, anthophyllitic amphibole, Mg-hornblende, Mg-actinolite, cummingtonite, and serpentine representing decreasing eclogite to greenschist facies grades of metamorphism over time. MUR protoliths are difficult to determine. Southwestern MUR bodies have remnant olivine ± pyroxene-rich assemblages representing ultrabasic-basic, dunite-peridotite-pyroxenite protoliths. Northeastern TC-amphibolite MURs contain hornblende and actinolitic amphiboles plus chlorites – aluminous and calcic assemblages suggesting to some that metasomatism of basic, QF-amphibolites yields all TC-amphibolites. Yet MgO-CaO-Al2O3 and trace element chemistries of many TC-amphibolites resemble compositions of plagioclase peridotites. We show that a few AMS TC-amphibolites had basaltic/gabbroic protoliths, while presenting arguments opposing application of the metasomatic hypothesis to all TC-amphibolites. We establish that MUR bodies are petrologically heterolithic and that TC-amphibolites are in contact with many rock types; that those with high Cr, Ni, and Mg have olivine- or pyroxene-dominated protoliths; that most exhibit three or more metamorphic mineral associations; and that contacts thought to be metasomatic are structural. Clearly, different MUR bodies have different chemistries representing various protoliths, and have different mineral assemblages, reflecting

  4. Emplacement processes of tuffaceous sandstones at IODP Site C0011B, Nankai Trough, derived from modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Freundt, A.

    2011-12-01

    Tuffaceous sandstones are characterized by their high amount (25 to 75%) of pyroclasts in their modal composition. During IODP Expedition 322 three interbeds of tuffaceous sandstones have been found within a moderately lithified and bioturbated silty claystone sequence in the late Miocene (>7.07 to ~9.0 Ma) upper part of the middle Shikoku Basin facies. Of the three sandstones, units 1 and 2 are single beds whereas unit 3 is composed of three beds. Modal analyses of 29 sandstone thin sections reveal systematic vertical changes within each bed. Generally low-density pyroclasts are enriched at the top (50-60 vol%) of each sandstone bed whereas dense lithic components (25-30 vol%) and minerals (25-30 vol%) are enriched at the bottom. The vertically varying abundance of various types of lithic fragments (sedimentary, volcanoclastic and metamorphic) suggests that these have also been segregated according to their respective densities. The highest amount of fine-grained matrix glass is found in the middle of each bed. Pumice and lithic fragments in the middle and upper parts of the sandstone beds carry ash coatings. For sandstone package 3, in contrast to 1 and 2, core pictures and thin section analyses indicate a subdivision in three units showing the same significant variations in top to bottom enrichment. This suggests three sedimentation events following each other in short time intervals. Glass and mineral chemistry of each sandstone bed show no significant vertical variations. Specifically the matrix glass-shard major element compositions are identical to the pumice clast composition in each tuffaceous sandstone bed. The compositions of amphibole and pyroxene crystals differ only slightly between the sandstone packages. Application of the Ridolfi et al. (2009) thermobarometric calculations to amphiboles of sandstone packages 1 and 2 suggests that each of these was derived from a volcanic system comprising both a deep and a shallow magma reservoir. Thickness and

  5. Metasomatic processes in the orthogneiss-hosted Archaean peridotites of the Fiskefjord region, SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilas, K.; Cruz, M. F.; Grove, M.; Morishita, T.; Pearson, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Field observations and preliminary geochemical data are presented for large (>500x1000m) peridotite enclaves from the Fiskefjord region of SW Greenland. These ultramafic complexes are dominated by dunite, amphibole-harzburgite, lesser amounts of norite and horizons of stratiform chromitite and are therefore interpreted as cumulate rocks[1]. The ultramafic enclaves are hosted by intrusive tonalitic orthogneiss, which provide U-Pb zircon minimum age constraints of ca. 2980 Ma, whereas preliminary Re-Os isotope data on the dunite and chromitite yield TRD ages of ca. 3300 Ma[2]. Dunite has highly forsteritic olivine compositions with Mg# mostly around 92 to 93, which is uncorrelated with the bulk-rock mg# or modal chromite contents. This indicates that the primary olivine records equilibration with a highly magnesian parental magma, which may have been responsible for the strong depletion of the SCLM in this region. Amphibole and phlogopite is mostly associated with granitoid sheets or infiltrating veins in the dunite and appear to replace chromite. Argon dating (40Ar/39Ar) of the phlogopite yields ages ranging from ca. 3400 Ma to ca. 1750 Ma, with most ages clustering around 3000 Ma. This is consistent with formation of the phlogopite and amphibole by metasomatic processes involving reaction between granitoid-derived siliceous fluids and the ultramafic rocks. The older 40Ar/39Ar age plateaus most plausibly represent excess Ar, potentially inherited from the nearby Itsaq Gneiss Complex (3900 to 3600 Ga) based on its proximity. The youngest 40Ar/39Ar age plateaus on the other hand may potentially signify the closure-age for this system, which could have important implications for determining the exhumation history of the North Atlantic craton. References [1] Szilas, K., Kelemen, P. B., & Bernstein, S. (2015). Peridotite enclaves hosted by Mesoarchaean TTG-suite orthogneisses in the Fiskefjord region of southern West Greenland. GeoResJ, 7, 22-34. [2] Szilas, K., van

  6. Insights into the Early to Late Oligocene Izu-Bonin Mariana Arc Magmatic History from Volcanic Minerals and Glass within Volcaniclastic Sediments of IODP Site U1438 and DSDP Site 296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samajpati, E.; Hickey-Vargas, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is a remnant of the early Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) island arc, separated by arc rifting and seafloor spreading. We examine and compare volcanic materials from two sites where the transition from IBM arc building to rifting is well sampled: DSDP Site 296 on the northern KPR crest, and recent IODP Site U1438 in the adjacent Amami-Sankaku basin to the west. The purpose of the study is to understand the origin and depositional regime of volcaniclastic sediments during the arc rifting stage. Site 1438 sedimentary Unit II and the upper part of Unit III (300 and 453 mbsf) correlate in time with sedimentary Units 1G and 2 of DSDP Site 296 (160 and 300 mbsf). The upper part of Site U1438 Unit III and Site 296 Unit 2 consist of early to late Oligocene coarse volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks. These are overlain by late Oligocene nannofossil chalks with volcanic sand and ash-rich layers at Site 296 Unit 1G, and tuffaceous silt, sand, siltstone and sandstone at Site 1438 Unit II. The chemical composition of volcanic glass shards, pyroxenes with melt inclusions and amphiboles separated from volcaniclastic sediments were analyzed by EPMA and LA-ICPMS. Glasses are found at Site 296 only, range from medium-K basalt to rhyolite and have trace element patterns typical of arc volcanics. Clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are found as detrital grains in sediments from both sites. Mg-numbers range from 58 to 94. Interestingly, the alumina content of pyroxene grain populations from both sites increase and then decrease with decreasing Mg-number. This probably reflects control of Al contents in magma and pyroxene by suppressed plagioclase saturation, which apparently was a consistent feature of KPR volcanoes. Melt-inclusions within the pyroxenes are typically small (30-50 microns) and have similar chemical compositions within one grain. The melt inclusions range from basalt to rhyolite with moderate alkali content. Amphibole is more prevalent in late Oligocene

  7. Lifetime of an ocean island volcano feeder zone: constraints from U-Pb dating on coexisting zircon and baddeleyite, and 40/39Ar age determinations, Fuerteventura, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibon, James; Ovtcharova, Maria; Bussy, Francois; Cosca, Michael; Schaltegger, Urs; Bussien, Denise; Lewin, Eric

    2011-01-01

    High-precision isotope dilution - thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite ages from the PX1 vertically layered mafic intrusion Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, indicate initiation of magma crystallization at 22.10 ± 0.07 Ma. The magmatic activity lasted a minimum of 0.52 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar amphibole dating yielded ages from 21.9 ± 0.6 to 21.8 ± 0.3, identical within errors to the U-Pb ages, despite the expected 1% theoretical bias between 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dates. This overlap could result from (i) rapid cooling of the intrusion (i.e., less than the 0.3 to 0.6 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age uncertainties) from closure temperatures (Tc) of zircon (699-988 °C) to amphibole (500-600 °C); (ii) lead loss affecting the youngest zircons; or (iii) excess argon shifting the plateau ages towards older values. The combination of the 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb datasets implies that the maximum amount of time PX1 intrusion took to cool below amphibole Tc is 0.8 Ma, suggesting PX1 lifetime of 520,000 to 800,000 Ma. Age disparities among coexisting baddeleyite and zircon (22.10 ± 0.07/0.08/0.15 Ma and 21.58 ± 0.15/0.16/0.31 Ma) in a gabbro sample from the pluton margin suggest complex genetic relationships between phases. Baddeleyite is found preserved in plagioclase cores and crystallized early from low silica activity magma. Zircon crystallized later in a higher silica activity environment and is found in secondary scapolite and is found close to calcite veins, in secondary scapolite that recrystallised from plagioclase. close to calcite veins. Oxygen isotope δ18O values of altered plagioclase are high (+7.7), indicating interaction with fluids derived from host-rock carbonatites. The coexistence of baddeleyite and zircon is ascribed to interaction of the PX1 gabbro with CO2-rich carbonatite-derived fluids released during contact metamorphism.

  8. Geochronology, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic compositions of the granitoids in the Yemaquan orefield, East Kunlun orogenic belt, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Implications for magmatic fractional crystallization and sub-solidus hydrothermal alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuo; Ma, Changqian; Xu, Jiannan

    2017-12-01

    A general consensus has emerged that high field strength elements (HFSE) can mobile to some extent in a hydrothermal fluid. However, there are hot debates on whether sub-solidus hydrothermal alteration can lower the Nb/Ta ratio in evolved melts. In this study, we present petrography, geochronology and geochemistry of the barren and mineralized rocks in the Yemaquan skarn iron deposit, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to probe magmatic-hydrothermal transition. The barren rocks consist of diorites, granodiorites, granites and syenogranites, whereas the porphyritic granodiorites are associated with mineralization for an excellent consistency between the magmatic zircon U-Pb age (225 ± 2 Ma) and the hydrothermal phlogopite 40Ar-39Ar age (225 ± 1.5 Ma). The Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic data demonstrate that the Yemaquan granitoids are originated from a relatively homogenous enriched mantle with different degrees of crust contamination (assimilation fractional crystallization, AFC). Trace elements signatures indicate that the porphyritic granodiorites related to mineralization display amphibole crystallization for high water contents, whereas the barren granites have gone through biotite crystallization due to potassium enrichment by continuous upper crust contamination, both of which are responsible for their Nb/Ta ratios, respectively. Modeling results suggest that a basaltic melt with Nb/Ta ratio of 15.3 can reach a minimum Nb/Ta ratio of 12 in the producing granodioritic melt by amphibole fractional crystallization based on partition coefficients of Nb and Ta between amphibole and melts from previous experiments. This may explain the average Nb/Ta ratio (13.7) of the barren granodiorites, while it cannot account for the average Nb/Ta ratio (8.4) of the mineralized porphyritic granodiorites, and it is even lower than that of the granites (10.3) with biotite fractional crystallization. Exsolution of a magmatic-hydrothermal fluid is inevitable when a water saturated magma

  9. Garnet - two pyroxene rock from the Gridino complex, Russia: a record of the early metasomatic stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunova, Alena A.; Perchuk, Alexei L.

    2010-05-01

    The Gridino complex is one of the oldest high pressure complexes on the Earth. The most spectacular exposures occur in islands and in a 10-50 m wide belt along the shore of the White Sea in the Gridino area. The exotic blocks show wide range of compositions. In addition to predominating amphibolites and eclogites, there are also peridotites, zoisitites and sapphirine-bearing rocks. The peridotites are represented by garnet - two pyroxene rocks and orthopyroxenites. It this paper we present an intriguing results of the petrological study of the garnet- two pyroxene rock. The garnet- two pyroxene rock considered occurs as elliptical body 4×6 m in size within amphibole-biotite gneiss in the island Visokii. The rock consists of mosaic of coarse-grained primary garnet, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Accessories are represented by magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and zircon. Garnet contains inclusions of clinopyroxene, Mg-calcite and chlorite. The chlorite inclusions always intergrow with dendritic mineral enriched in REE (mainly Ce) situated on the wall of vacuole which shows the tendency of negative crystal shape. Similar chlorite inclusions are hosted by clino- and orthopyroxenes. The chlorite is of diabantite composition. The inclusions are often surrounded by the two systems of cracks - radial and concentric, which is really exotic phenomenon for crystalline rock. The primary minerals experienced different degree of the retrograde alteration expressed as amphibolization and/or growth of the orthopyroxene-amphibole-garnet symplectites. The retrogression is patchy in the central part of garnet- two pyroxene body, but intensifies towards the rims where primary minerals are absent. Mineral thermobarometry reveals HP rock equilibration at 670-750 оС and 14-20 kbar followed by subisothermal decompression down to 640-740 оС and 6-14 kbar. Specific composition of the chlorite and its association with REE phase in all rock-forming minerals suggests that anhydrous HP

  10. Long-term controls on continental-scale bedrock river terrace deposition from integrated clast and heavy mineral assemblage analysis: An example from the lower Orange River, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashole, Albertina N.; Hodgson, David M.; Chapman, Robert J.; Morgan, Dan J.; Jacob, Roger J.

    2018-02-01

    Establishing relationships between the long-term landscape evolution of drainage basins and the fill of sedimentary basins benefits from analysis of bedrock river terrace deposits. These fragmented detrital archives help to constrain changes in river system character and provenance during sediment transfer from continents (source) to oceans (sink). Thick diamondiferous gravel terrace deposits along the lower Orange River, southern Namibia, provide a rare opportunity to investigate controls on the incision history of a continental-scale bedrock river. Clast assemblage and heavy mineral data from seven localities permit detailed characterisation of the lower Orange River gravel terrace deposits. Two distinct fining-upward gravel terrace deposits are recognised, primarily based on mapped stratigraphic relationships (cross-cutting relationships) and strath and terrace top elevations, and secondarily on the proportion of exotic clasts, referred to as Proto Orange River deposits and Meso Orange River deposits. The older early to middle Miocene Proto Orange River gravels are thick (up to 50 m) and characterised by a dominance of Karoo Supergroup shale and sandstone clasts, whereas the younger Plio-Pleistocene Meso Orange River gravels (6-23 m thick) are characterised by more banded iron formation clasts. Mapping of the downstepping terraces indicates that the Proto gravels were deposited by a higher sinuosity river, and are strongly discordant to the modern Orange River course, whereas the Meso deposits were deposited by a lower sinuosity river. The heavy minerals present in both units comprise magnetite, garnet, amphibole, epidote and ilmenite, with rare titanite and zircon grains. The concentration of amphibole-epidote in the heavy minerals fraction increases from the Proto to the Meso deposits. The decrease in incision depths, recorded by deposit thicknesses above strath terraces, and the differences in clast character (size and roundness) and type between the two

  11. Consequences of magma eruption dynamics: Intraflow variations in petrography and mineral chemistry within a single eruptive unit from Whitewater Canyon, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustunisik, G. K.; Nielsen, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Individual lava flows are sometimes characterized by progressive changes in petrography and mineral chemistry which have been attributed to progressive magma chamber evacuation. In the case of Whitewater Canyon flow, a glacially quenched andesite unit on the NW flank of Mt. Jefferson, significant changes have been observed in phenocryst content and mineral chemistry within a transect from the early erupted components (inferred by flow morphology to be quenched against glacial ice ~10000 ybp), to the top of the 30 m thick flow unit. With the increasing distance from the quenched interface, the matrix changes from glassy to microcrystalline. The matrix material is generally similar in composition to the glassy melt inclusions rhyolitic in composition yet relatively degassed (lower Cl, S). Based on their morphology, we have identified at least 4 populations of plagioclase phenocrysts within the single flow: (1) Relatively unzoned high An cores (>An80) with oscillatory overgrowth, (2) Lower An cores (An50-60), associated with dacitic melt inclusions, (3) Cellular low An cores (An50-60) with higher An overgrowths (~An65-75), and (4) Lath shaped, sometimes oscillatory zoned moderately high An phenocrysts (An65-75) -often associated with olivine:cpx:plagioclase glomerocrysts. Melt inclusions are present in orthopyroxene and plagioclase, but only in the earliest erupted samples (within 5-10 meters of the quenched interface). This mafic component, characterized by olivine, intermediate plagioclase (An60-75), clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and oxides, was present at a range of scales from glomerocrysts to 10 cm+ enclaves. Amphibole and quartz are present only in samples from the interior of the flow unit. The width of reaction rims on amphibole increase as one progress upwards towards the flow interior. Our initial conclusions are this eruptive unit represents the progressive evacuation of a shallow magma chamber where the upper parts of the chamber had already been partially

  12. Tectonic origin and deformation process of the Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in Central Qiangtang of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Liang, X.

    2016-12-01

    The metamorphic characteristics, deformation process, geochronology of the medium-high pressure metamorphic rocks in blueschist bearing Central Qiangtang Metamorphic belt (CQMB) of Tibet were less well constrained. It is, however, commonly assumed that these rock slices in the margin also contain important implications on the evolution of the entire metamorphic belt. The well-exposed Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in north flank of the CQMB provides an unique opportunity to investigate the outer part of the CQMB, which could facilitate the study on the subduction-exhumation-post orogenic scenarios of the Triassic accretionary orogeny in Central Qiangtang. Field structural analyses indicate the Mayer Kangri metamorphic dome are bounded by low-angle normal faults (LANF) within the hanging wall of low-green schist facies mélange. It majorly consists of epidote-amphibolites, quartz-phengite schist, epidote-albite schist. The outcrop and micro structural observations of footwall metamorphic rocks show an open anticline with multiple foliation replacement, which largely differentiate themselves from the dextral strike-slip shearing of the hanging wall. Well-zoned amphiboles were found within the epidote-amphibolite after micro-structural observations and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA), which indicate that the amphibole zonation demonstrates a Hastingsite core, a Ferro-actinolite mantle and a Ferro-winchite rim in most cases. The mean temperature and pressure estimates of the zoned amphibolites change from 544 °, 0.98Gpa in the core, to 426°, 0.34Gpa in the mantle, and to ca.364° and 0.70 GPa in the rim. The detailed analyses on the stepwise-heating Ar-Ar results of the zoned amphiboles provide good constrains on the episodic deformation process of the CQMB. For Hast-cores, we obtained near plateau ages of 242.4-241.2 Ma, indicating the onset of the oceanic subduction is earlier than the Anisian stage of Middle Triassic. The subsequent

  13. Magma flow recorded by magmatic and magnetic fabrics in a shallow granitic pluton: La Gloria Pluton, central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payacán, I. J.; Gutiérrez, F. J.; Gelman, S. E.; Bachmann, O.; Parada, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the dynamics of a small, shallow, silicic magma reservoir, magmatic and magnetic (AMS) fabrics are compared in samples obtained from La Gloria Pluton (LGP), a 10 Ma granitic intrusion located in southern Andes. The magnetic fabric of LGP, mainly given by magnetite, is characterized by oblate shapes. Magnetic lineations have a NW trend with subhorizontal dip, following the main pluton elongation, while magnetic foliation planes have dips varying gradually from vertical at the walls to subhorizontal toward the center and the roof of the pluton. On the basis of numerical simulations, magnetic fabric was interpreted to represent the shear record induced by magmatic convection along solidification fronts as the reservoir reached its rheological locking point. Magmatic fabric (mineral orientation) was determined on 12 samples along the pluton. Three mutually orthogonal thin sections were produced for each sample, perpendicular to the AMS tensor axes. Size and orientation of individual crystals were obtained by image analysis. A 2-D tensor for two mineral groups (plagioclase and amphibole+biotitie) was defined in each mineral plane projecting the crystal lengths on the main crystal orientation (given by Bingham statistics). A 3-D magmatic fabric tensor was obtained. In order to compare the magmatic and magnetic fabrics, magmatic anisotropy parameters were defined similar to the AMS tensors. Magmatic fabric and anisotropy parameter values vary depending on the location inside the pluton: (1) Samples located at the borders exhibit vertical foliations and lineations with a NW trend, similar to the magnetic fabric tensors and higher anisotropy values for plagioclase than amphibole+biotite,; (2) samples located at the center of the LGP commonly present subvertical foliations/lineations, which differ from the magnetic fabric, and higher magmatic anisotropy degree values for amphibole+biotite than plagioclase. Based on numerical simulations of the fluid

  14. Geochemical characterization of mid-distal Nisyros tephra on Datça peninsula (southwestern Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençalioğlu-Kuşcu, Gonca; Uslular, Göksu

    2018-04-01

    We present new distal records of tephra deposits that overly the Kos ignimbrite in seven locations of Datça peninsula. Tephra in one of these locations were previously associated with Nisyros Kyra sub-unit based only on the field characteristics. We use different proxies such as field observations, petrography, mineral, glass, and whole-rock chemistry in order to characterize and correlate the previously and recently identified pumice fall deposits on Datça. The total thickness of the fall deposit reaches to 3.5 m. The size of the pumice clasts is generally within the range of lapilli, and they have vitrophyric texture consisting mainly of plagioclase (andesine to labradorite) with scarce clinopyroxene (diopside to augite), olivine (Fo48-50), amphibole (magnesio-hastingsite), and biotite crystals. Amphibole is a ubiquitous phenocryst in all Datça tephra units and used as a criterion for the correlation. Glass major element analyses by EMPA reveal two different groups with andesitic and dacitic compositions. Difference in silica content (up to ca. 4 wt%) detected in the same specimen also designates the heterogeneity in pumice glass. This heterogeneity in glass composition is also supported by the frequent occurrence of banded pumice clasts in Datça tephra. Whole-rock composition of the pumice is mainly andesitic with calc-alkaline affinity. Multi-element patterns on primitive-mantle normalized diagram display typical arc-magmatism signature (i.e. depletion in Nb, Ta, Ti, and P). In order to check and eliminate the potential alternatives, we compared the distal deposits on Datça not only with Kyra, but also with other Nisyros tephra units. Yet, Kyra is the only unit that has comparable depositional characteristics, calcic amphibole crystals, andesitic-dacitic glass and whole-rock chemistry, and distal tephra deposits on neighboring islands (Tilos and Chalki). Therefore, we associate Datça tephra deposits with some proximal Kyra subunits of intermediate

  15. Peculiar Feldspar And Quartz Inclusions Within Zircons From Anorthosites, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliwa, H. A.; Dawoud, M. I.; Khalaf, I. M.; Negendank, J. F.; Itaya, T.

    2004-12-01

    Zircons from three anorthosite outcrops along Wadi Dib area, north Eastern Desert of Egypt contain abundant and conspicuous inclusions of quartz, feldspar, amphibole and apatite. These anorthosites, as (50-100m thick) layers, represent the top of mafic-ultramafic intrusions exhibiting rhythmic layering visible by reputation of melanocratic and leucocratic layers. Field and microscopic studies exhibit that these anorthosites were affected by the action of residual magmatic solutions associated with the late stage crystallization of the younger granites, which modified their mineralogical composition. They are composed totally of plagioclase with subordinate amount of clinoenstatite, augite, amphibole, biotite, K-feldspar, and quartz. Accessories are magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and zircon. The abundance and the mode of occurrence of K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite with apatite and zircon among the megacrysts suggest their formation is ascribed to the interaction with the residual solutions. The microprobe data exhibit difference between feldspar and amphiboles contained herein zircons and those as anorthosite mineral constituents. The genetic relationship between zircons and their inclusions suggests later growth of zircons than inclusions and most probably at the final stage of rock modification. Zircons are magmatic and found in the interstitial feldspar and quartz among plagioclase megacrysts in aggregates or as individual grains. The microscopic and SEM images investigation exhibit that most zircons are subhedral to euhedral equant and prismatic crystals. Most zircons have same range of crystal morphologies and internal growth structures with predominance of prism /{100/} and pyramid /{101/} and occasionally prism /{110/} and pyramid /{111/}. No evidences for poly-faceted grains, inherited cores or later overgrowths were detected. CL images distinguished zircons with visible core-rim structures and others with regular and continuous growth zones contained herein

  16. Hygienic assessment of asbestos containing dust in the air of the working zone at thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkovskiy V.E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos and artificial mineral fibers were used actively at thermal power plants (TPP as heat insulation of pipes, seal plates, electrical insulation, etc. But content of asbestos fibers in the air of working zone at TPP was not registered to date. Therefore, aim of the work was to assess asbestos containing dust in the air of working zone at steam turbine and gas turbine TPP in the east region of the country. It was found that old insulation at TPP is mixture of asbestoses that contains chrysotile asbestos and traces of amphibole asbestoses – crocidolite and anthophyllite. In the majority of investigated workplaces at the steam turbine TPP significant dust generation with exceed of maximum one-time exposure limits (2 mg/m3 was observed. Concentration of respirable fibers in the air of working zone in all workplaces did not exceed actual hygienic standard (1 fiber/cm3.

  17. Are the Vinjamur rocks carbonatites or meta-limestones?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, K V; Bhaskar Rao, B [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Le Bas, M J [Univ. of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology

    1995-08-01

    New whole-rock rare earth element (REE) data for the metacarbonate rocks inter bedded with schists at Vinjamur in the Nellore schist belt of Andhra Pradesh, show low total REE contents ({sigma}9-128 ppm) that are inconsistent with an igneous carbonatitic origin but which correspond more closely with a sedimentary limestone origin. The REE data of these rocks however, do not give absolute discrimination between marbles of meta-limestone and metacarbonatite origin. Micro-probe analytical data give better discrimination, and the chemical compositions of the calcite, micas, amphibole, plagioclase, apatite, monazite and staurolite in the Vinjamur marbles give strong and consistent evidence of a metamorphosed sedimentary rather than an igneous origin. (author). 35 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. The role of metasomatism in the balance of halogens in ore-forming process at porphyry Cu-Mo deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, A. N.

    2009-04-01

    Volatile components play an important role in the evolution of ore-magmatic systems and their ore potential. Of special interest are fluorine and chlorine compounds that principally control the transportation of ore elements by the fluid in a magmatic process and under high-temperature hydrothermal conditions. Study of the evolution of fluorine-chlorine activity in the ore-forming process and their source is usually based on analysis of their magmatic history, whereas the additional source of fluorine and chlorine released during metasomatic alteration of rocks hosting mineralization is poorly discussed in the existing literature. Based on microprobe data on Cl and F abundances in halogen-containing minerals (biotite, amphibole, apatite, titanite) in intrusive rocks and their hydrothermally altered varieties, the role of metasomatic processes in the balance of volatiles in the ore-forming system is discussed by the example of porphyry Cu-Mo deposits of Siberia (Russia) and Mongolia. Two groups of the deposits are considered: copper-molybdenum (Erdenetiin Ovoo, Mongolia and Aksug, Russia) with prevailing propylitic and phyllic alteration and molybdenum-copper (Sora, Russia), with predominant potassic alteration. All types of hydrothermal alterations have led to drastic decrease in Cl contents in metasomatic minerals as compared with halogen-containing magmatic minerals. All studied deposits (particularly those where propylitic and phyllic alteration were developed) show a nearly complete chlorine removal from altered halogen-containing rock-forming minerals (biotite and amphibole). The Cl content in amphibole decreases several times at the stage of replacement with actinolite in the process of propylitization. In the later chlorites (ripidolite and brunsvigite) that replace amphibole, actinolite, and biotite, chlorine is not detected by microprobe (detection limit 0.01-0.02% Cl). Chlorine was also not detected in white micas (muscovite-phengite series) in quartz

  19. Asbestos-related radiographic findings among household contacts of workers exposed to Libby vermiculite: impact of workers' personal hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Timothy J; Franzblau, Alfred; Dunning, Kari K; Borton, Eric K; Rohs, Amy M; Lockey, James E

    2013-11-01

    To explore the potential impact of worker hygiene by determining the prevalence of radiographic changes consistent with asbestos exposure among household contacts of workers exposed to Libby vermiculite that contained amphibole fibers. Workers and household contacts had chest radiographs and completed questionnaires regarding hygiene and potential exposure pathways. Participants included 191 household contacts of 118 workers. One household contact (0.5%) had localized pleural thickening, and three (1.6%) had irregular opacities at profusion category 1/0 or greater. Worker radiographs demonstrated pleural changes in 45% and irregular opacities at profusion category 1/0 or greater in 8%. Libby vermiculite-exposed workers demonstrated an elevated prevalence of pleural and interstitial chest radiographic changes. There was, however, no increased prevalence of similar changes among household contacts, likely because of personal hygiene measures taken by the majority of workers.

  20. Thermal modeling of pluton emplacement and associated contact metamorphism:Parashi stock emplacement in the Serranía de Jarara (Alta Guajira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuluaga C. Carlos A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the northernmost portion of the Serrania de Jarara (Alta Guajira, Colombia, low - medium grade metamorphic rocks from the Etpana Metamorphic Suite were thermally affected by emplacement of a small calc-alkaline intrusion (Parashi Stock. Detailed petrographic analysis in collected rock samples across the NE and NW plutonic contacts show occurrences of textural and mineralogical changes in the country rock fabric that evidence contact metamorphism overprinting regional metamorphism of the Etpana Suite. These changes include growth of andalusite (chiastolite, calcic clinopyroxeneand amphibole porphyroblast crosscutting Sn+1 metamorphicfoliation. Hornblende-plagioclase barometry (ca. 3.1 kbar and cooling models for the stock show maximum time temperature evolution in the country rock at the interpreted depth of intrusion (ca. 11 km and help to evaluate the behavior of the country rock with the changing local geotherm.

  1. Three tier transition of Neoarchean TTG-sanukitoid magmatism in the Beit Bridge Complex, Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Belyanin, G. A.; Van Reenen, D. D.

    2018-01-01

    Neoarchean TTG-sanukitoid associations of contrasting scales occur within the Beit Bridge Complex terrane of the Limpopo Complex in southern Africa. These include the smaller 2.65-2.63 Ga Avoca granitoid and the voluminous 2.73-2.64 Ga Alldays granitoid. This study characterizes the wide compositional spectrum preserved in these two granitoids. The elliptical Avoca pluton consists of a biotite-amphibole-orthopyroxene ± clinopyroxene-bearing core that is dominantly trondhjemite with less dominant tonalite and granodiorite variants, and a thin amphibole-biotite-bearing granite rim, with local occurrence of two-pyroxene-bearing metabasite boudins. While both the core and rim rocks exhibit a linear fabric, the granite in addition preserves a penetrative foliation. Field relations of granite enclaves in the core rocks together with available ages indicate that the core rocks intruded the granite. The foliated biotite ± amphibole-bearing Alldays granitoid contains inclusions of older supracrustals and rocks of the Messina layered intrusion, and is widely distributed. Compositionally, it include tonalites and granodiorites and to a lesser extent trondhjemites. Both the Avoca core and rim rocks are characterized by difference in mineral chemistry, with the mafic minerals Mg-rich in the TTG core, while they are Fe-rich in the granite and metabasite. In comparison, biotite is Mg-rich and amphibole is Fe-rich in the Alldays granitoid. Two groups of Alldays TTG can be delineated in terms of whole-rock geochemical characteristics, and are comparable to the low- to medium-pressure TTG groups delineated by Moyen (2011), while the Avoca TTG is similar to the high-pressure TTG group. The lowest silica samples from each group of granitoid have geochemical characteristics comparable to Archean sanukitoids, with those from the Avoca granitoid similar to low-Ti sanukitoids, and those from the Alldays granitoid similar to low-Ti and high-Ti sanukitoids. Separate petrogenetic models

  2. Les premières phases d'édification du stratovolcan du Cantal (Massif central, France) entre 9,5 et 8,0Ma : géologie et géochimie du secteur de l'ÉlancèzeFirst stage of the Cantal stratovolcano (Massif Central, France) construction between 9.5 and 8.0Ma: geology and geochemistry of the Élancèze area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Christelle; Caroff, Martial; Leyrit, Hervé; Nehlig, Pierre; Thièblemont, Denis

    2001-05-01

    Recent cartography of the Élancèze area resulted in the identification of a residual ancient topographic relief comprised of basaltic and intermediate silica-saturated lavas partly covered by brecciated formations, emplaced during the first stage of edification of the Cantal stratovolcano (9.5-8.0 Ma). The ancient relief has been the subject of a specified petrological study. Although the corresponding mineralogical and geochemical data are rather consistent with the assumption of a differentiation mainly governed by fractional crystallization, the study of some incompatible trace element diagrams suggests that this process cannot have occurred in closed-system. A model of crustal assimilation coupled with fractional crystallization involving an amphibole-bearing cumulate is proposed.

  3. Heterogeneity of exposure and attribution of mesothelioma: Trends and strategies in two American counties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, B W; Abraham, J L

    2009-01-01

    As mesothelioma risk has begun to decline in the United States, two trends are gaining relative importance. 'Legacy' exposures causing this disease are most important in locales having past asbestos industry, shipyards, and/or local distribution of asbestos amphibole-containing material as a result. 'Future' exposures are of particular concern in relation to so-called 'naturally occurring asbestos' (NOA) areas which include unequivocally asbestiform amphibole. In this paper, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana is used as an example of the first trend, and El Dorado County, California as an example of the second. Available tumor registry, epidemiology, historical and mineralogical data, and lung-retained fibre content are used as indicators of disease and exposure. Jefferson Parish, LA was chosen as the prototype of 'legacy' exposures on the basis of historical evidence of asbestos plants with known mesotheliomas in the workforce, known shipyards in the same area, EPA records of distribution of crocidolite-containing scrap to and remediation of over 1400 properties, NIOSH published data on mesothelioma by county, and exposure data including lung-retained fibre analyses in victims, where available. El Dorado, CA was chosen as the prototype of NOA amphibole exposures on the basis of tumor registry data, activity-based EPA sampling data in one area, and lung-retained fibre analyses in area pets, and future risk assessment based on tremolite-specific modelling in Libby, Montana and elsewhere. As expected, the legacy exposure area was high in mesothelioma incidence and mortality. Lung-retained fibre content confirms crocidolite exposures in exposed plant-workers and those exposed to crocidolite-containing scrap, and amosite in shipyard workers. In contrast, to date, cancer registry data in the NOA-amphibole ('future') county does not show a clear increase in incidence or mortality, but grouped county data from the area show a shift in higher incidence rates to the NOA areas and

  4. Shoshonitic intrusion magmatism in Pajeu-Paraiba belt: the Bom Jardim complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, I.P. de; Silva Filho, A.F. da

    1990-01-01

    The Bom Jardim complex is a multi phase intrusion emplaced within the basement of the Pajeu-Paraiba belt, in the Borborema province, N.E., Brazil, during the Pan African (Brasiliano) orogeny, 600 Ma ago. The Bom Jardim complex is primarily composed of monzonites and syenites with subordinated granites. The major and trace elements geochemistry has established a shoshonitic affinity for the monzonite-syenite assemblages, whereas the granites are clearly of a high-K calc-alkaline character. The main geochemical trends determined for the complex are the result of fractionation of mainly amphibole, biotite, alkali feldspar ±clinopyroxene within the developing magmas. The enrichment in transition metal elements, LILE and high LILE/HSFE ratios, coupled with an initial Sr sup(87)/Sr sup(86) ratio of 0.70709 is consistent with a subduction related magma source. (author)

  5. Tracing high-pressure metamorphism in marbles: Phase relations in high-grade aluminous calcite-dolomite marbles from the Greek Rhodope massif in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 and indications of prior aragonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, A.; Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Hoinkes, G.

    2008-08-01

    Four different types of parageneses of the minerals calcite, dolomite, diopside, forsterite, spinel, amphibole (pargasite), (Ti-)clinohumite and phlogopite were observed in calcite-dolomite marbles collected in the Kimi-Complex of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province (RMP). The presence of former aragonite can be inferred from carbonate inclusions, which, in combination with an analysis of phase relations in the simplified system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 (CMAS-CO 2) show that the mineral assemblages preserved in these marbles most likely equilibrated at the aragonite-calcite transition, slightly below the coesite stability field, at ca. 720 °C, 25 kbar and aCO 2 ~ 0.01. The thermodynamic model predicts that no matter what activity of CO 2, garnet has to be present in aluminous calcite-dolomite-marble at UHP conditions.

  6. Utilization of plastic detectors in autoradiographic studies of radioactive minerals from the Lagoa Real uranium Province, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, P.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A short account on an autoradiographic technique using plastic detectors, it's methodology, application and results is presented. With this technique the distribution of radioactive minerals in rocks can be studied in detail. As radioactive source for this study, samples mineralized in uraninite and/or pitchblende were used. The utilized detectors were the CR-39 (a polymer plate) and films of celulose nitrate: CA-80-15 and CN-85. The mineralization is associated to mafics (amphibole, pyroxene, biotite, garnet, etc.) and to plagioclase (albite or albite-oligoclase), occurring as small inclusions and also in microfractures, cleavages and grain boundaries, mainly among plagioclase crystals which occur close to or practically touching mafic minerals. (Author) [pt

  7. Heterogeneity of exposure and attribution of mesothelioma: Trends and strategies in two American counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, B. W.; Abraham, J. L.

    2009-02-01

    As mesothelioma risk has begun to decline in the United States, two trends are gaining relative importance. "Legacy" exposures causing this disease are most important in locales having past asbestos industry, shipyards, and/or local distribution of asbestos amphibole-containing material as a result. "Future" exposures are of particular concern in relation to so-called "naturally occurring asbestos" (NOA) areas which include unequivocally asbestiform amphibole. In this paper, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana is used as an example of the first trend, and El Dorado County, California as an example of the second. Available tumor registry, epidemiology, historical and mineralogical data, and lung-retained fibre content are used as indicators of disease and exposure. Jefferson Parish, LA was chosen as the prototype of "legacy" exposures on the basis of historical evidence of asbestos plants with known mesotheliomas in the workforce, known shipyards in the same area, EPA records of distribution of crocidolite-containing scrap to and remediation of over 1400 properties, NIOSH published data on mesothelioma by county, and exposure data including lung-retained fibre analyses in victims, where available. El Dorado, CA was chosen as the prototype of NOA amphibole exposures on the basis of tumor registry data, activity-based EPA sampling data in one area, and lung-retained fibre analyses in area pets, and future risk assessment based on tremolite-specific modelling in Libby, Montana and elsewhere. As expected, the legacy exposure area was high in mesothelioma incidence and mortality. Lung-retained fibre content confirms crocidolite exposures in exposed plant-workers and those exposed to crocidolite-containing scrap, and amosite in shipyard workers. In contrast, to date, cancer registry data in the NOA-amphibole ("future") county does not show a clear increase in incidence or mortality, but grouped county data from the area show a shift in higher incidence rates to the NOA areas and

  8. Magmatism and Eurekan deformation in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province: 40Ar–39Ar age of Kap Washington Group volcanics, North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegner, Christian; Storey, Michael; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    The High Arctic Large Igneous Province is unusual on two counts: first, magmatism was prolonged and has been suggested to include an initial tholeiitic phase (130–80 Ma) and a second alkaline phase (85–60 Ma); second, it was subsequently deformed during the Eurekan Orogeny. New 40Ar–39Ar dating...... of alkaline volcanics from Kap Kane, part of the Kap Washington Group volcanics at the northern tip of Greenland, provides an emplacement age of 71.2±0.5 Ma obtained from amphibole in lapilli tuffs, and a thermal resetting age of 49–47 Ma obtained in feldspar and whole-rocks from trachyte flows. Patch...... in the Labrador Sea and the Baffin Bay, and to eastwards displacement of Greenland relative to North America. The alkaline suite, therefore, may be unrelated to the main tholeiitic phase of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. The subsequent initiation of continental rifting and ensuing seafloor spreading...

  9. Are the Vinjamur rocks carbonatites or meta-limestones?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, K.V.; Bhaskar Rao, B.; Le Bas, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    New whole-rock rare earth element (REE) data for the metacarbonate rocks inter bedded with schists at Vinjamur in the Nellore schist belt of Andhra Pradesh, show low total REE contents (σ9-128 ppm) that are inconsistent with an igneous carbonatitic origin but which correspond more closely with a sedimentary limestone origin. The REE data of these rocks however, do not give absolute discrimination between marbles of meta-limestone and metacarbonatite origin. Micro-probe analytical data give better discrimination, and the chemical compositions of the calcite, micas, amphibole, plagioclase, apatite, monazite and staurolite in the Vinjamur marbles give strong and consistent evidence of a metamorphosed sedimentary rather than an igneous origin. (author). 35 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  10. U-Pb geochronology by La-CIP-MS and petrography of Sao Carlos massif - stanniferous province of Rondonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debowski, Beatriz P.; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Nogueira, Camila; Almeida, Bruna Saar de

    2015-01-01

    U-Pb dating by ICP-MS-LA were performed in four samples of the Massif Sao Carlos massif, representative of the younger Granites of Rondonia belonging to the stanniferous province of the same State. Dated samples are granites of pink in colour and coarse-grained to porphyry with main mineralogy consisting of feldspar pertitic to mesopertitic, quartz, plagioclase in lower proportion, biotite and amphibole in some cases. Ages obtained were 986 ± 14 Ma, 974 ± 10 Ma, ± 8 Ma 992.7 and 996 ± 8 Ma and represent the age of crystallization of the Massif. Such ages are concordant with others reported on the bibliography ratifying the inclusion of the massif in the younger Granites of Rondonia, which are directly associated with the most significant mineralization of cassiterite in the State

  11. Greated era of volcanic front in Middle Kyushu and Western Chugoku districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Hirotake; Hoshizumi, Hideo; Koyaguchi, Takehiro

    1987-10-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the era when the creation of the volcanos commenced which were extending from north-east to south west, by using the K-Ar age of volcanic rocks which were continuously distributed from middle Kyushu to San-in district and which were mainly composed of amphibole andesite. By comparing with geological map, relation with the stratigraphic order of layers at Yabakei, Himejima and Aono were considered. It was concluded that, in every place, the vocanic activities commenced much later era than creation of basement rock. It was also recognized that, by studying the relation with Phillipine Plate, deep earthquake was related with the volcanic front of south west Japan arc. (8 figs, 2 tabs, 14 refs)

  12. Petrology and chemistry of Jebel Tanumah complex, Khamis Mushayt, Southern Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassief, M. O.; Ali, H. M.; Zakir, F. A.

    The mafic intrusive complex at Jebel Tanumah is located 15 km north-west of Khamis Mushayt in the southern Arabian Shield and includes olivine-bearing gabbro as well as amphibole-diopside-hornblende gabbro cumulates. These rocks have been generally metamorphosed to upper greeenschist-lower amphibolite facies. Fourteen white rock silicate analyses indicate that the majority of the rocks are calc-alkaline to tholeiitic in composition. The two major structural units in the Khamis Mushayt region identified by Coleman consist of the basement complex of Asir Mountains and the younger metamorphic rocks. Syntectonic granitic rocks intruded the antiforms characterizing the younger rocks whereas the lower parts of the synforms are intruded by post-tectonic intrusions of layered gabbros such as the one studied at Jebel Tanumah.

  13. Multiple alteration events in the East Bull Lake anorthosite-gabbro layered complex, NE Ontario, Canada: evidence from fracture mineralogy and 40Ar-39Ar dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamineni, D.C.; McCrank, G.F.; Stone, D.; Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario)

    1987-01-01

    The East Bull Lake anorthosite-gabbro layered complex contains a variety of alteration minerals. Some of the more common ones are calcic amphiboles, biotite, epidote, adularia, quartz, chlorite, calcite, prehnite, pumpellyite, laumontite, gypsum, iron hydroxides and clays. The mode of occurrence and the data related to the stability of the alteration minerals suggest that they were formed under pressure-temperature conditions of: (1) epidote-amphibolite/greenschist facies; (2) prehnite-pumpellyite facies; (3) zeolite facies; and (4) low-temperature mineral facies. 40 Ar- 39 Ar data of hornblende and adularia indicate that the pluton is affected by distinct alteration events. Two mafic dyke intrusions, that overlap the alteration events, are recognised in the pluton. Synthesis of available radiometric ages suggests that the pluton intruded at 2472 +- 70 Ma, and was subjected to alteration as late as the Paleozoic and Cenozoic Eras. (author)

  14. Weathering processes in waste materials from a mining area in a semiarid zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro-Hervás, Cortes; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez-Sánchez, María José; García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz; Molina, José

    2012-01-01

    Chemical and mineralogical characterization of waste materials present in an abandoned Pb, Zn–Ag mining site (SE, Spain) was carried out. In unaltered rocks, the mineralogy is characterized by plagioclase, pyroxene, magnetite, ilmenite, amphibole, biotite and quartz. Trace-element contents of these samples represent unaltered values. In mine-waste materials, pH ranged from acidic to slightly acidic and trace-element content was generally high, especially for Pb and Zn, although there were also substantial As concentrations. X-ray diffraction results suggested that these samples have a complex mineralogy, including alteration products. Surficial materials in the study area were affected by weathering processes, generating supergene assemblages, including Fe and Mn oxides and hydroxides, carbonates, hydrated sulfates and jarosite. Knowledge of the geochemical processes that took place in the past and which are still taking place provide an important tool for assessing associated environmental problems in this area.

  15. Economic potential of the heavy minerals of the beaches between Baruva and Bavanapadu, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekhara Reddy, D.; Prasad, V.S.S.; Malathi, V.; Reddy, K.S.N.; Varma, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The economic potentiality of the heavy minerals in the beaches between Baruva and Bavanapadu extending for about 45 km was examined. In the sub-surface sediments, the heavy minerals were studied at an interval of 1 m up to a maximum depth of 5.8m. In general the concentration of heavy minerals is high in dunes followed by backshore and foreshore regions. Heavy mineral content increases from surface to sub-surface in dunes, decreases in foreshore and does not vary much in backshore. The heavy minerals include mainly ilmenite, garnet, sillimanite and ortho-pyroxenes with minor amounts of amphiboles, zircon, monazite, rutile etc. Majority of the heavies such as ilmenite, monazite, zircon etc. are concentrated in finer fractions while some of the heavies like garnet and sillimanite are concentrated in coarser fractions. The inferred reserves estimated for the area indicate its economical potential. (author)

  16. Heterogeneity of exposure and attribution of mesothelioma: Trends and strategies in two American counties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, B W [Department of Pathology and School of Environment, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Abraham, J L, E-mail: bruce.case@mcgill.c [Department of Pathology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    As mesothelioma risk has begun to decline in the United States, two trends are gaining relative importance. 'Legacy' exposures causing this disease are most important in locales having past asbestos industry, shipyards, and/or local distribution of asbestos amphibole-containing material as a result. 'Future' exposures are of particular concern in relation to so-called 'naturally occurring asbestos' (NOA) areas which include unequivocally asbestiform amphibole. In this paper, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana is used as an example of the first trend, and El Dorado County, California as an example of the second. Available tumor registry, epidemiology, historical and mineralogical data, and lung-retained fibre content are used as indicators of disease and exposure. Jefferson Parish, LA was chosen as the prototype of 'legacy' exposures on the basis of historical evidence of asbestos plants with known mesotheliomas in the workforce, known shipyards in the same area, EPA records of distribution of crocidolite-containing scrap to and remediation of over 1400 properties, NIOSH published data on mesothelioma by county, and exposure data including lung-retained fibre analyses in victims, where available. El Dorado, CA was chosen as the prototype of NOA amphibole exposures on the basis of tumor registry data, activity-based EPA sampling data in one area, and lung-retained fibre analyses in area pets, and future risk assessment based on tremolite-specific modelling in Libby, Montana and elsewhere. As expected, the legacy exposure area was high in mesothelioma incidence and mortality. Lung-retained fibre content confirms crocidolite exposures in exposed plant-workers and those exposed to crocidolite-containing scrap, and amosite in shipyard workers. In contrast, to date, cancer registry data in the NOA-amphibole ('future') county does not show a clear increase in incidence or mortality, but grouped county data from the area show a

  17. The mesothelioma in Europe; Le mesotheliome en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignon, J. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France)

    1999-12-01

    Though the primitive malignant tumors of the pleura have been identified in the years 1890, it is only in 1960 that Wagner and his team have published a study of 33 cases of mesothelioma in South Africa, attributed to crocidolite exposure for mines workers and their family. This publication went five years after the demonstration by Richard Doll in Great Britain of epidemiology relations between lungs cancer and professional exposure to asbestos dusts. Later, the research were on the type of asbestos fibers at the origin of the mesothelioma. The power of the chrysotile to induce this tumor among human beings was the object of controversy. but it is clear that the exposure to three kinds of amphibole asbestos (crocidolite, tremolite and anthophyllite) is responsible of the most important incidence of this cancer, even after low concentrations exposures. (N.C.)

  18. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  19. Deformation associated to exhumation of serpentinized mantle rocks in a fossil Ocean Continent Transition: The Totalp unit in SE Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo, S.; Manatschal, G.; Cannat, M.; Andréani, M.

    2013-08-01

    Although the exhumation of ultramafic rocks in slow and ultraslow spreading Mid-Ocean Ridges and Ocean Continent Transitions (OCTs) has been extensively investigated, the deformation processes related to mantle exhumation are poorly constrained. In this paper we present a new geological map and a section across the exhumed serpentinized peridotites of the Totalp unit near Davos (SE Switzerland), and we propose that the Totalp unit is formed by two Alpine thrust sheets. Geological mapping indicates local exposure of a paleo-seafloor that is formed by an exhumed detachment surface and serpentinized peridotites. The top of the exhumed mantle rocks is made of ophicalcites that resulted from the carbonation of serpentine under static conditions at the seafloor. The ophicalcites preserve depositional contacts with Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic sediments (Bernoulli and Weissert, 1985). These sequences did not exceed prehnite-pumpellyite metamorphic facies conditions, and locally escaped Alpine deformation. Thin mylonitic shear zones as well as foliated amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks have been mapped. The age of these rocks and the link with the final exhumation history are yet unknown but since amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks can be found as clasts in cataclasites related to the detachment fault, they pre-date detachment faulting. Our petrostructural study of the exhumed serpentinized rocks also reveals a deformation gradient from cataclasis to gouge formation within 150 m in the footwall of the proposed paleo-detachment fault. This deformation postdates serpentinization. It involves a component of plastic deformation of serpentine in the most highly strained intervals that has suffered pronounced grain-size reduction and a polyphase cataclastic overprint.

  20. The basal part of the Oman ophiolitic mantle: a fossil Mantle Wedge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Cécile; Guillot, Stéphane; Agard, Philippe; Godard, Marguerite; Chauvet, Alain; Dubacq, Benoit; Monié, Patrick; Yamato, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Although the Oman ophiolite is classically regarded as being the direct analog of oceanic lithosphere created at fast spreading ridges, the geodynamic context of its formation is still highly debated. The other alternative end-member model suggests that this ophiolite entirely formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. Fluids involved in the hydration of the oceanic lithosphere and in the presence of a secondary boninitic and andesitic volcanism may provide a way to discriminate between these two interpretations: are they descending near-axis hydrothermal fluxes (first model) or ascending from a subducting slab (second model)? We herein focus on the base of the ophiolitic mantle in order to characterize the origin of fluids and decipher hydration processes. Samples were taken along hecto- to kilometre-long sections across the basal banded unit directly overlying the amphibolitic/granulitic metamorphic sole. We carried out a petrological, structural and geochemical study on these rocks and their constitutive minerals. Our results show that, unlike the generally refractory character of Oman harzburgites, all the basal mantle rocks display secondary crystallization of clinopyroxene and amphibole through metasomatic processes. The microstructures and the chronology of these secondary mineralizations (clinopyroxene, pargasitic amphibole, antigorite and then lizardite/chrysotile) suggest that these basal rocks have been affected by cooling from mantle temperatures (serpentines (B, Sr, Rb, Ba, As), are consistent with amphibolite-derived fluids (Ishikawa et al., 2005) and cannot be easily explained by other sources. Based on these observations, we propose a geodynamic model in which intense and continuous metasomatism of the cooling base of the ophiolitic mantle is due to the release of fluids coming from the progressive dehydration of underlying amphibolitic rocks. This process is compatible with the progressive subduction of the Arabian margin during the Upper

  1. Deformation associated to exhumation by detachment faulting of upper mantle rocks in a fossil Ocean Continent Transition: The example of the Totalp unit in SE Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo, S.; Manatschal, G.; Cannat, M.

    2013-12-01

    The exhumation of upper mantle rocks along detachment faults is widespread at Mid-Ocean Ridges and at the Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT) of rifted continental margins. Thermo-mechanical models indicate that significant strain softening of the fault rocks in the footwall is required in order to produce such large fault offsets. Our work focuses on deformation textures, and the associated mineralogy in ultramafic rocks sampled in the upper levels of the footwall next to the exhumation fault. We present two OCT examples, the Totalp relict of a paleo-Tethys OCT exposed in SE Switzerland, and the Iberian distal margin (ODP Leg 173 Site 1070). We built a new geological map and a section of the Totalp unit near Davos (SE Switzerland) and interpreted this area as a local exposure of a paleo-seafloor that is formed by an exhumed detachment surface and serpentinized peridotites. The top of the exhumed mantle rocks is made of ophicalcites that resulted from the carbonation of serpentine under static conditions at the seafloor. The ophicalcites preserve depositional contacts with Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic sediments. These sequences did not exceed prehnite-pumpellyite metamorphic facies conditions, and locally escaped Alpine deformation. Thin mylonitic shear zones as well as foliated amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks have been mapped. The age of these rocks and the link with the final exhumation history are yet unknown but since amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks can be found as clasts in cataclasites related to the detachment fault, they pre-date detachment faulting. Our petrostructural study of the exhumed serpentinized rocks also reveals a deformation gradient from cataclasis to gouge formation within 150m in the footwall of the proposed paleo-detachment fault. This deformation postdates serpentinization. It involves a component of plastic deformation of serpentine in the most highly strained intervals that has suffered pronounced grain-size reduction and

  2. Geochemical Relationships between Volcanic and Plutonic Upper to Mid Crustal Exposures of the Rosario Segment, Alisitos Arc (Baja California, Mexico): An Outstanding Field Analog to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R.; DeBari, S. M.; Busby, C. J.; Medynski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Exposed paleo-arcs, such as the Rosario segment of the Cretaceous Alisitos Arc in Baja California, Mexico, provide an opportunity to explore the evolution of arc crust through time. Remarkable 3-D exposures of the Rosario segment record crustal generation processes in the volcanic rocks and underlying plutonic rocks. In this study, we explore the physical and geochemical connection between the plutonic and volcanic sections of the extensional Alisitos Arc, and elucidate differentiation processes responsible for generating them. These results provide an outstanding analog for extensional active arc systems, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc. Upper crustal volcanic rocks have a coherent stratigraphy that is 3-5 km thick and ranges in composition from basalt to dacite. The most felsic compositions (70.9% SiO2) are from a welded ignimbrite unit. The most mafic compositions (51.5% SiO2, 3.2% MgO) are found in basaltic sill-like units. Phenocrysts in the volcanic units include plagioclase +/- amphibole and clinopyroxene. The transition to deeper plutonic rocks is clearly an intrusive boundary, where plutonic units intrude the volcanic units. Plutonic rocks are dominantly a quartz diorite main phase with a more mafic, gabbroic margin. A transitional zone is observed along the contact between the plutonic and volcanic rocks, where volcanics have coarsely recrystallized textures. Mineral assemblages in the plutonic units include plagioclase +/- quartz, biotite, amphibole, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Most, but not all, samples are low K. REE patterns are relatively flat with limited enrichment. Normalization diagrams show LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, where trends are similar to average IBM values. We interpret plutonic and volcanic units to have similar geochemical relationships, where liquid lines of descent show the evolution of least to most evolved magma types. We provide a model for the formation and magmatic evolution of the Alisitos Arc.

  3. Multiple enrichment of the Carpathian-Pannonian mantle: Pb-Sr-Nd isotope and trace element constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Jeffrey M.; Wilson, Marjorie; Downes, Hilary

    1997-07-01

    Pb isotope compositions of acid-leached clinopyroxene and amphibole mineral separates from spinel peridotite mantle xenoliths entrained in Tertiary-Quaternary alkali basalts from the Carpathian-Pannonian Region of eastern Europe provide important constraints on the processes of metasomatic enrichment of the mantle lithosphere in an extensional tectonic setting associated with recent subduction. Principal component analysis of Pb-Sr-Nd isotope and rare earth element compositions of the pyroxenes is used to identify the geochemical characteristics of the original lithospheric mantle protolith and a spectrum of infiltrating metasomatic agents including subduction-related aqueous fluids and silicate melts derived from a subduction-modified mantle wedge which contains a St. Helena-type (HIMU) plume component. The mantle protolith is highly depleted relative to mid-ocean ridge basalt-source mantle with Pb-Nd-Sr isotope compositions consistent with an ancient depletion event. Silicate melt infiltration into the protolith accounts for the primary variance in the Pb-Sr-Nd isotope compositions of the xenoliths and has locally generated metasomatic amphibole. Infiltration of aqueous fluids has introduced radiogenic Pb and Sr without significantly perturbing the rare earth element signature of the protolith. The Pb isotope compositions of the fluid-modified xenoliths suggest that they reacted with aqueous fluids released from a subduction zone which had equilibrated with sediment derived from an ancient basement terrain. We propose a model for mantle lithosphere evolution consistent with available textural and geochemical data for the xenolith population. The Pb-Sr-Nd isotope compositions of both alkaline mafic magmas and rare, subduction-related, calc-alkaline basaltic andesites from the region provide important constraints for the nature of the asthenospheric mantle wedge and confirm the presence of a HIMU plume component. These silicate melts contribute to the metasomatism

  4. Host-rock controlled epigenetic, hydrothermal metasomatic origin of the Bayan Obo REEFe-Nb ore deposit, Inner Mongolia, P.R.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Yinchen, R.

    1992-01-01

    Bayan Obo, a complex rare earth element (REE)FeNb ore deposit, located in Inner Mongolia, P.R.C. is the world's largest known REE deposit. The deposit is chiefly in a marble unit (H8), but extends into an overlying unit of black shale, slate and schist unit (H9), both of which are in the upper part of the Middle Proterozoic Bayan Obo Group. Based on sedimentary structures, the presence of detrital quartz and algal fossil remains, and the 16-km long geographic extent, the H8 marble is a sedimentary deposit, and not a carbonatite of magmatic origin, as proposed by some previous investigators. The unit was weakly regionally metamorphosed (most probably the lower part of the green schist facies) into marble and quartzite prior to mineralization. Tectonically, the deposit is located on the northern flank of the Sino-Korean craton. Many hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the Bayan Obo deposit; the studies reported here support an epigenetic, hydrothermal, metasomatic origin. Such an origin is supported by field and laboratory textural evidence; 232Th/208Pb internal isochron mineral ages of selected monazite and bastnaesite samples; 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating minimum mineral ages of selected alkali amphiboles; chemical compositions of different generations of both REE ore minerals and alkali amphiboles; and evidence of host-rock influence on the various types of Bayan Obo ores. The internal isochron ages of the REE minerals indicate Caledonian ages for various episodes of REE and Fe mineralization. No evidence was found to indicate a genetic relation between the extensive biotite granitic rocks of Hercynian age in the mine region and the Bayan Obo are deposit, as suggested by previous workers. ?? 1992.

  5. Formation of atoll garnets in the UHP eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, Ladakh, Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Mallika K.; Karmalkar, Nitin R.; Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Harshe, Shivani; Gain, Sarah; Griffin, William L.

    2017-12-01

    The eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, Ladakh, NW Himalayas preserve both garnets with spectacular atoll textures, as well as whole porphyroblastic garnets. Whole garnets are euhedral, idiomorphic and enclose inclusions of amphibole, phengite and zoisite within the cores, and omphacite and quartz/coesite towards the rims. Detailed electron microprobe analyses and back-scattered electron images show well-preserved prograde zoning in the whole garnets with an increase in Mg and decrease in Ca and Mn contents from the core to the rim. The atoll garnets commonly consist of euhedral ring over island/peninsular core containing inclusions of phengite, omphacite and rarely amphibole between the core and ring. Compositional profiles across the studied atoll grains show elemental variations with higher concentrations of Ca and Mn with low Mg at the peninsula/island cores; contrary to this low Ca, Mn and high Mg is observed at the outer rings. Temperature estimates yield higher values at the Mg-rich atoll garnet outer rings compared to the atoll cores. Atoll garnet formation was favoured by infiltration of fluid formed due to breakdown of hydrous phases, and/or the release of structurally bounded OH from nominally anhydrous minerals at the onset of exhumation. Infiltration of fluids along pre-existing fracture pathways and along mineral inclusion boundaries triggered breakdown of the original garnet cores and released elements which were subsequently incorporated into the newly-grown garnet rings. This breakdown of garnet cores and inward re-growth at the outer ring produced the atoll structure. Calibrated geo-thermobarometers and mineral equilibria reflect that the Tso Morari eclogites attain peak pressures prior to peak temperatures representing a clockwise path of evolution.

  6. Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group is represented by a single asbestiform variety-chrysotile. There also are five commercial asbestiform varieties of amphiboles-anthophyllite asbestos, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. Nearly all of the asbestos mined after the mid-1990s was chrysotile. Only very small amounts of actinolite, anthophyllite, and tremolite asbestos may be mined in a few countries. Asbestos was mined in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Kazakhstan, and Russia in 2010; world production was estimated to be 1.97 × 106 tons. Properties that made asbestos valuable for industrial applications were their thermal, electrical, and sound insulation properties; inflammability; matrix reinforcement (cement, plastic, and resins); adsorption capacity (filtration, liquid sterilization); wear and friction properties (friction materials such as brakes and clutches); and chemical inertia (except in acids). These properties led to the use of asbestos in about 3,000 products by the 1960s. Since about 1995, asbestos-cement products, including pipe and sheets, accounted for more than 95% of global asbestos consumption as other uses of asbestos have declined. Global consumption of asbestos was estimated to have been about 1.98 × 106 tons in 2009. The leading consuming countries in 2009 were Brazil, China, India, Russia, and Thailand, each with more than 100,000 tons of consumption.

  7. K-Ar geochronology of mafic dyke swarms from the meridional part of Sao Francisco craton and implications on tectonic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.; Kawashita, K.; Pecchio, M.; Tame, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    The southern region of the Sao Francisco Craton is made up of gneissic-granitoid terranes (mainly of amphibolite facies) associated with supracrustals, which can be separed into two crustal provinces, the oldest formed during the Archean (3-2-2.6 Ga.), and the youngest in the Early Proterozoic (2.4-2.0 Ga.). Mafic dyke swarms inject the basement complexes in the area west of Belo Horizonte city, but not the Late proterozoic Bambui sedimentary cover. These dykes show NNW, NW, WNW, NNE and ENE trends and are of anorogenic character. Most dykes are tholeiitic in composition. Metamorphic recrystallization at greenschist to amphibolite facies as well as minor hidrothermal and/or deuteric transformations are characteristics in the majority of the these dykes. About sixty K/Ar determinations have been performed on plagioclases, amphiboles and whole rocks. They are interpretated combining the use of K/Ar diagrams and histogram, and according to the crustal evolution proposed for the craton. The available radiometric data suggest that the main period of mafic intrusions took place in the Early proterozoic as supported by the apparent ages on amphiboles. However, the beginning of the Middle Proterozoic (1.7-1.5 Ga.) probably corresponds to a period of tensional tectonics as well. On the other hand, most ages obtained on plagioclases and whole rocks, can be associated with Late Proterozoic processes of argon gain or loss. The results are tectonicaly associated with crustal rifting of the continental mass. This two radiometric groupings are characteristic for the evolution of the Early proterozoic crustal provine and of the Mid-Proterozoic intracratonic Espinhaco System respectively. The youngest Late Proterozoic apparent ages associated with the reflections of the contemporaneous evolution of the Braziliano marginal mobile belt which is also suggested by the partial resetting of the K/Ar ages of basement rocks within the eastern part of the Sao Francisco Craton. (author) [pt

  8. The Lagoa Real subalkaline granitic complex (south Bahia, Brazil): a source for uranium mineralizations associated with Na-Ca metasomatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruejol, P.; Cuney, M.; Poty, B.; Neto, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the central zone of the Sao Francisco Craton (South Bahia), the lower Proterozoic Lagoa Real granites and orthogneisses overthrust to the West the younger Urandi and Espinhaco metamorphic series, probably a late Brazilian event. This thrust is related to the regional metamorphism (amphibolite facies) of the Lagoa Real granites and induces a reverse HP metamorphism in the over thrusted series. Undeformed granites (sao Timoeto type) present two feldspars, perthitic orthoclase largely predominant over plagioclase (oligoclase ≥ albite), blue quartz, Fe-rich amphibole and biotite ± clinopyroxene assemblages, ilmenite ≥ magnetite, zircon, apatite, allanite and Nb ± Ti-REE oxides and silicates. The crystallization of the granites begins at high temperature and under low fO 2 and P H2O conditions. Fractional crystallization of pyroxene and plagioclase leads to silica enrichment during magmatic differentiation. Increasing fO 2 and P H2O are observed during this evolution. Orthogneisses show strongly recrystallized paragenesis: equal abundance of non-perthitic microcline and plagioclase (oligoclase ≤ albite), quartz, more Al-rich amphibole and biotite, magnetite, sphene, zircon, allanite, Nb ± Ti-REE oxides and silicates, and ± apatite. HT Na and Ca metasomatism occurs 330 Ma later than granite emplacement and is synchronous with important uranium mineralizations. Major elements and trace-elements geochemistry of the granites and orthogneisses indicate subalkaline to alkaline typology. Incompatible behaviour of Th, REE, Y, Zr, Nb, and F points out a convergence with alkaline magmatism. CI, F, Th, Y, REE, NB enrichments and Ba, Sr depletions are also related to a late magmatic stage. U-Th-rich and metamict accessory minerals of the granites represent a favorabl source for the Lagoa Real uranium ore-deposits [pt

  9. Mayer Kangri metamorphic complexes in Central Qiangtang (Tibet, western China): implications for the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics associated with the Paleo-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Genhou; Yuan, Guoli; Bons, Paul D.

    2018-03-01

    The Mesozoic orogeny in Central Qiangtang Metamorphic Belt, northern Tibet, provides important insights into the geological evolution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. However, the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics, particularly those associated with the continental collisionstage, remains poorly constrained. Here we present results from geological mapping, structural analysis, P-T data, and Ar-Ar geochronology of the Mayer Kangri metamorphic complex. Our data reveal an E-W-trending, 2 km wide dome-like structure associated with four successive tectonic events during the Middle Triassic and Early Jurassic. Field observations indicate that amphibolite and phengite schist complexes in this complex are separated from the overlying lower greenschist mélange by normal faulting with an evident dextral shearing component. Open antiform-like S2 foliation of the footwall phengite schist truncates the approximately north-dipping structures of the overlying mélange. Microtextures and mineral chemistry of amphibole reveal three stages of growth: Geothermobarometric estimates yield temperatures and pressures of 524 °C and 0.88 GPa for pargasite cores, 386 °C and 0.34 GPa for actinolite mantles, and 404 °C and 0.76 GPa for winchite rims. Peak blueschist metamorphism in the phengite schist occurred at 0.7-1.1 GPa and 400 °C. Our Ar-Ar dating of amphibole reveals rim-ward decreasing in age bands, including 242.4-241.2 Ma, ≥202.6-196.8, and 192.9-189.8 Ma. The results provide evidence for four distinct phases of Mesozoic tectonic evolution in Central Qiangtang: (1) northward oceanic subduction beneath North Qiangtang ( 244-220 Ma); (2) syn-collisional slab-break off (223-202 Ma); (3) early collisional extension driven by buoyant extrusion flow from depth ( 202.6-197 Ma); and (4) post-collision contraction and reburial (195.6-188.7 Ma).

  10. Mineral fibres and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l -1 , which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

  11. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb apatite dating of Lower Cretaceous rocks from teschenite-picrite association in the Silesian Unit (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopa Krzysztof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main products of volcanic activity in the teschenite-picrite association (TPA are shallow, sub-volcanic intrusions, which predominate over extrusive volcanic rocks. They comprise a wide range of intrusive rocks which fall into two main groups: alkaline (teschenite, picrite, syenite, lamprophyre and subalkaline (dolerite. Previous 40Ar/39Ar and 40K/40Ar dating of these rocks in the Polish Outer Western Carpathians, performed on kaersutite, sub-silicic diopside, phlogopite/biotite as well as on whole rock samples has yielded Early Cretaceous ages. Fluorapatite crystals were dated by the U-Pb LA-ICP-MS method to obtain the age of selected magmatic rocks (teschenite, lamprophyre from the Cieszyn igneous province. Apatite-bearing samples from Boguszowice, Puńców and Lipowa yield U-Pb ages of 103± 20 Ma, 119.6 ± 3.2 Ma and 126.5 ± 8.8 Ma, respectively. The weighted average age for all three samples is 117.8 ± 7.3 Ma (MSWD = 2.7. The considerably smaller dispersion in the apatite ages compared to the published amphibole and biotite ages is probably caused by the U-Pb system in apatite being less susceptible to the effects of hydrothermal alternation than the 40Ar/39Ar or 40K/40Ar system in amphibole and/or biotite. Available data suggest that volcanic activity in the Silesian Basin took place from 128 to 103 Ma with the the main magmatic phase constrained to 128-120 Ma.

  12. Residual fibre lung burden among patients with pleural mesothelioma who have been occupationally exposed to asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merler, Enzo; Somigliana, Anna; Girardi, Paolo; Barbieri, Pietro Gino

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the lungs asbestos fibres concentration in participants with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) who have been occupationally exposed. The lung samples were obtained from pleuropneumonectomies or autopsies of 271 male MPMs. The lung samples were examined through scanning electron microscopy. Retrospective assessment was used to assess for asbestos exposure. This study includes 248 MPMs with an occupational exposure defined as either 'definite' or 'probable' or 'possible'. The participants had finished working in asbestos exposure conditions more than 20 years ago (on average 26.1±11.0 years). The fibre burden resulted with a geometric mean equal to 2.0 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.4) million fibres per gram of dry lung tissue. The burden was higher among participants employed in asbestos textiles industry and in shipyards with insulation material, if compared with construction workers or non-asbestos textile workers or participants working in chemicals or as auto mechanics. 91.3% of MPMs had a detectable amount of amphibole fibres. A strong lung clearance capability was evident among workers exposed to chrysotile fibres. Owing to that, the 1997 Helsinki Criteria for occupational exposure were reached in industry, in chemical or textile industry and among those performing brake repair activities. The MPM cases are now occurring in Italy in participants who ceased occupational asbestos exposure decades before the analysis. A large majority still shows a residual content of amphibole fibres, but given the lung clearance capability, attribution to occupational exposure cannot rely only on fibres detection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Uwagi o badaniu minerałów ciężkich w lessach Polski

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racinowski, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Research on loess' heavy minerals had been carried out in Poland since the 30's of the 20th century. The research was intensified in the 2nd half of the 20th century as helpful in answer to the problem relating to loess' genesis and age. Since the size of heavy minerals in loess is grouped in the range of 20-100 μm, therefore their determination was proceeded on grains fraction 0.25-0.01 mm or 0.06-0.01 mm. These days determination is carried out on the material with diameter 0.10-0.06 mm. Heavy minerals dominating in the Polish loess are: garnets, zircon, rutile, the supporting ones are: amphiboles, biotite, epidotes, and tourmalines. Qualitatively similar heavy minerals appear in each loess fraction. However, their percentage fractions are variable in neighbouring profiles and cross-sections. Mineral content allows to draw preliminary conclusions on the source material of loess silts and on transport characteristics, as well as on the course of deposition process. In the case of the Polish loess stored material originates from blown away pre-Quaternary rock-mantle (rich in zircon, rutile, and partly in garnets), Pleistocene lacustrine-flooding muds and glacial tills (rich in amphibole, biotite, epidotes, and garnets). Comparing the spectrum of heavy minerals in the Polish loess one can state that in particular regions neighbouring profiles do not show significant similarity with regard to quantitative content of heavy minerals. Therefore, it is not possible in a universal manner to apply those results to unique lithostratigraphic inference. On the basis of research made on contemporarily developed loess soil levels, as well as appearing there levels of fossil soils, it is not possible to differentiate without any doubt the content of minerals with various resistance to destruction as a result of pedological processes.

  14. Aleutian tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magma series I: The mafic phenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, S. Mahlburg; Kay, Robert W.

    1985-07-01

    Diagnostic mafic silicate assemblages in a continuous spectrum of Aleutian volcanic rocks provide evidence for contrasts in magmatic processes in the Aleutian arc crust. Tectonic segmentation of the arc exerts a primary control on the variable mixing, fractional crystallization and possible assimilation undergone by the magmas. End members of the continuum are termed calc-alkaline (CA) and tholeiitic (TH). CA volcanic rocks (e.g., Buldir and Moffett volcanoes) have low FeO/MgO ratios and contain compositionally diverse phenocryst populations, indicating magma mixing. Their Ni and Cr-rich magnesian olivine and clinopyroxene come from mantle-derived mafic olivine basalts that have mixed with more fractionated magmas at mid-to lower-crustal levels immediately preceding eruption. High-Al amphibole is associated with the mafic end member. In contrast, TH lavas (e.g., Okmok and Westdahl volcanoes) have high FeO/MgO ratios and contain little evidence for mixing. Evolved lavas represent advanced stages of low pressure crystallization from a basaltic magma. These lavas contain groundmass olivine (FO 40 50) and lack Ca-poor pyroxene. Aleutian volcanic rocks with intermediate FeO/MgO ratios are termed transitional tholeiitic (TTH) and calc-alkaline (TCA). TCA magmas are common (e.g., Moffett, Adagdak, Great Sitkin, and Kasatochi volcanoes) and have resulted from mixing of high-Al basalt with more evolved magmas. They contain amphibole (high and low-Al) or orthopyroxene or both and are similar to the Japanese hypersthene-series. TTH magmas (e.g., Okmok and Westdahl) contain orthopyroxene or pigeonite or both, and show some indication of upper crustal mixing. They are mineralogically similar to the Japanese pigeonite-series. High-Al basalt lacks Mg-rich mafic phases and is a derivative magma produced by high pressure fractionation of an olivine tholeiite. The low pressure mineral assemblage of high-Al basalt results from crystallization at higher crustal levels.

  15. Deformation and hydration state of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Styrian Basin (Pannonian Basin, Eastern Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradi, L. E.; Hidas, K.; Kovács, I. J.; Klébesz, R.; Szabo, C.

    2016-12-01

    In the Carpathian-Pannonian Region, Neogene alkali basaltic volcanism occurred in six volcanic fields, from which the Styrian Basin Volcanic Field (SBVF) is the westernmost one. In this study, we present new petrographic and crystal preferred orientation (CPO) data, and structural hydroxyl ("water") contents of upper mantle xenoliths from 12 volcanic outcrops across the SBVF. The studied xenoliths are mostly coarse granular lherzolites, amphiboles are present in almost every sample and often replace pyroxenes and spinels. The peridotites are highly annealed, olivines and pyroxenes do not show significant amount of intragranular deformation. Despite the annealed texture of the peridotites, olivine CPO is unambiguous, and varies between [010]-fiber, orthogonal and [100]-fiber symmetry. The CPO of pyroxenes is coherent with coeval deformation with olivine, showing [100]OL distributed subparallel to [001]OPX. The CPO of amphiboles suggest postkinematic epitaxial overgrowth on the precursor pyroxenes. The "water" content of the studied xenoliths exhibit rather high values, up to 10, 290 and 675 ppm in olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, respectively. Ortho- and clinopyroxene pairs show equilibrium in all samples, however "water" loss in olivines is observed in several xenoliths. The xenoliths show equilibrium temperatures from 850 to 1100 °C, which corresponds to lithospheric mantle depths between 30 and 60 km. Equilibrium temperatures show correlation with the varying CPO symmetries and grain size: coarser grained xenoliths with [100]-fiber and orthorhombic symmetry appear in the high temperature (>1000 °C) xenoliths, which is characteristic for asthenospheric origin. Most of the samples display transitional CPO symmetry between [010]-fiber and orthogonal, which indicate extensive lithospheric deformation under varying stress field from transtensional to transpressional settings. Based on the estimated seismic properties of the studied samples, a significant part of

  16. Cataclastic rocks of the San Gabriel fault—an expression of deformation at deeper crustal levels in the San Andreas fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. Lawford; Osborne, Robert H.; Palmer, Donald F.

    1983-10-01

    The San Gabriel fault, a deeply eroded late Oligocene to middle Pliocene precursor to the San Andreas, was chosen for petrologic study to provide information regarding intrafault material representative of deeper crustal levels. Cataclastic rocks exposed along the present trace of the San Andreas in this area are exclusively a variety of fault gouge that is essentially a rock flour with a quartz, feldspar, biotite, chlorite, amphibole, epidote, and Fe-Ti oxide mineralogy representing the milled-down equivalent of the original rock (Anderson and Osborne, 1979; Anderson et al., 1980). Likewise, fault gouge and associated breccia are common along the San Gabriel fault, but only where the zone of cataclasis is several tens of meters wide. At several localities, the zone is extremely narrow (several centimeters), and the cataclastic rock type is cataclasite, a dark, aphanitic, and highly comminuted and indurated rock. The cataclastic rocks along the San Gabriel fault exhibit more comminution than that observed for gouge along the San Andreas. The average grain diameter for the San Andreas gouge ranges from 0.01 to 0.06 mm. For the San Gabriel cataclastic rocks, it ranges from 0.0001 to 0.007 mm. Whereas the San Andreas gouge remains particulate to the smallest grain-size, the ultra-fine grain matrix of the San Gabriel cataclasite is composed of a mosaic of equidimensional, interlocking grains. The cataclastic rocks along the San Gabriel fault also show more mineralogiec changes compared to gouge from the San Andreas fault. At the expense of biotite, amphibole, and feldspar, there is some growth of new albite, chlorite, sericite, laumontite, analcime, mordenite (?), and calcite. The highest grade of metamorphism is laumontite-chlorite zone (zeolite facies). Mineral assemblages and constrained uplift rates allow temperature and depth estimates of 200 ± 30° C and 2-5 km, thus suggesting an approximate geothermal gradient of ~50°C/km. Such elevated temperatures imply a

  17. Fluid flow pathways through the oceanic crust: reaction permeability and isotopic tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaig, Andrew; Castelain, Teddy; Klein, Frieder

    2013-04-01

    It is generally assumed that the dominant means of creating permeability in ocean floor hydrothermal systems is fracturing, induced either by cooling or by tectonic stress. Here we show textural evidence that metamorphic reactions can create a hierarchy of permeable pathways through gabbroic rocks similar to a fracture hierarchy. Isotopic microsampling shows that just as with fractures, most flow occurs through the larger channelways, and that even at the microscale, flow can be extremely heterogeneous with alteration affecting only certain minerals in the framework, leaving others untouched. Reaction permeability is created in three ways; dissolution creating open porosity, microcracking due to volume increase reactions involving olivine, and expansion of water due to rapid heating in dyke margins, particularly when intruded into brecciated rocks. Our data comes from IODP Hole U1309D, which was drilled to 1400 mbsf in the footwall of the Atlantis Massif detachment fault at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N. The core is composed of gabbroic rocks interlayered with olivine rich troctolites, with several basalt/diabase sills in the top 130 m. The dominant alteration occurred in the greenschist facies, at depths at least 1 km below seafloor, and decreases in intensity downhole. Whole rock oxygen isotope values range from +5.5 permil to +1.5 permil, indicating variable degrees of interaction with seawater at temperatures generally > 250 °C. Gabbroic rocks and diabases exhibit a range of Sr isotope ratios from MORB values (0.70261) to intermediate ratios (0.70429). Microsampling shows that amphiboles are often more radiogenic than coexisting plagioclase and can sometimes be isotopically altered in the same rock as completely unaltered primary minerals. Large (10 cm) amphibole-filled vugs show values ranging up to 0.708, close to seawater. In some cases however the secondary minerals are virtually unaltered indicating low fluid fluxes in pervasive alteration. SEM textures in

  18. The high-K calc-alkalic Serra da Lagoinha batholith, States of Ceara and Paraiba (Northeastern region, Brazil): coexistence and mixing of dioritic and quartz monzonitic to granitic magmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Gorki; Sobreira, Mauricio de Nassau de Mattos

    1999-01-01

    The Serra da Lagoinha batholith (SLB) has an outcrop area of 200 km 2 is located in the Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, and intrudes schists and phylites at the border of the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro fold belt. Its southern border is defined by a major curved NE-SW sinistral transcurrent shear zone (Boqueirao dos Cochos) connecting the E-W dextral shear zones of Patos to the north and Pernambuco to the south. The SLB has three lithologic domains: the felsic porphyritic domain composed of K-feldspar megacrystic monzonitic, quartz monzonitic, quartz monzodioritic, granitic to granodioritic rocks; the k-dioritic domain composed of biotite (quartz) dioritic to tonalitic rocks and the hybrid domain composed of monzonitic and biotite (quartz) dioritic rocks. Field evidences show that these lithologic domains were produced by the coexistence and mixing of K-diorites with potassic monzonitic to granodioritic magmas. The mafic rocks are enriched in Nb, ba, and Zr and LREE in relation to the felsic porphyritic rocks. The REE patterns for mafic and felsic rocks are similar and enriched in the LREE in relation to the HREE, with (La/Yb) N varying from 22.43 to 36.10 for the felsic and from 27.21 to 58.87 for the mafic rocks. Al Τ in amphibole geobarometer (Hollister 1987) shows that amphibole crystallization in the SLB occurred at approximately 4.5 kbar. Geothermometry based on the coexistence of amphibole and plagioclase, (Blundy and Holland 1990) gives a temperature of 742 deg C. Whole rock Oxygen isotope data showed average values for mafic of δ 18 O = + 7.9 permil SMOW and for the felsic rocks of δ 18 O + 9.1 permil SMOW , suggesting either isotopic equilibrium of coexistent magmas of distinct sources or crystal fractionation process controlling the evolution from mafic to felsic rocks. Quartz corrected values for the felsic porphyritic rocks averaged δ 18 O = + 9.2 permil, suggesting that the whole rock data represent magmatic values. Sm-Nd systematics show T

  19. Contrasting fluids and reservoirs in the contiguous Marcona and Mina Justa iron oxide-Cu (-Ag-Au) deposits, south-central Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huayong; Kyser, T. Kurtis; Clark, Alan H.

    2011-10-01

    The Marcona-Mina Justa deposit cluster, hosted by Lower Paleozoic metaclastic rocks and Middle Jurassic shallow marine andesites, incorporates the most important known magnetite mineralization in the Andes at Marcona (1.9 Gt at 55.4% Fe and 0.12% Cu) and one of the few major iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits with economic Cu grades (346.6 Mt at 0.71% Cu, 3.8 g/t Ag and 0.03 g/t Au) at Mina Justa. The Middle Jurassic Marcona deposit is centred in Ica Department, Perú, and the Lower Cretaceous Mina Justa Cu (Ag, Au) prospect is located 3-4 km to the northeast. New fluid inclusion studies, including laser ablation time-of-flight inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-TOF-ICPMS) analysis, integrated with sulphur, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon isotope analyses of minerals with well-defined paragenetic relationships, clarify the nature and origin of the hydrothermal fluid responsible for these contiguous but genetically contrasted deposits. At Marcona, early, sulphide-free stage M-III magnetite-biotite-calcic amphibole assemblages are inferred to have crystallized from a 700-800°C Fe oxide melt with a δ18O value from +5.2‰ to +7.7‰. Stage M-IV magnetite-phlogopite-calcic amphibole-sulphide assemblages were subsequently precipitated from 430-600°C aqueous fluids with dominantly magmatic isotopic compositions (δ34S = +0.8‰ to +5.9‰; δ18O = +9.6‰ to +12.2‰; δD = -73‰ to -43‰; and δ13C = -3.3‰). Stages M-III and M-IV account for over 95% of the magnetite mineralization at Marcona. Subsequent non-economic, lower temperature sulphide-calcite-amphibole assemblages (stage M-V) were deposited from fluids with similar δ34S (+1.8‰ to +5.0‰), δ18O (+10.1‰ to +12.5‰) and δ13C (-3.4‰), but higher δD values (average -8‰). Several groups of lower (200°C) fluids can be recognized in the main polymetallic (Cu, Zn, Pb) sulphide stage M-V and may record the involvement of modified seawater. At Mina Justa, early magnetite

  20. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and volatile metals in the Spirit Lake pluton and Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry system, SW Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, Alexander A.; Webster, James D.; Rowe, Michael C.; Neill, Owen K.

    2016-03-01

    The halogen-bearing minerals tourmaline, amphibole, and biotite formed during magmatic-hydrothermal processes associated with the late-stage cooling of the Spirit Lake granitoid pluton (Mt. St. Helens, WA) and with the younger sulphide-mineralised rocks of the Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry deposit located entirely within the pluton. Major- and trace-element discrimination suggests that one tourmaline population crystallised from fractionated late-stage melt pockets in granodiorite-monzogranitic dykes of the pluton. These coarse, euhedral, oscillatory, and complexly sector-zoned uvite tourmalines span a limited range in Mg/(Mg + Fe) [Mg#] space (0.4-0.7 apfu) and show the highest Ti, Ca, F, Nb, and Ta contents, and low X-site vacancies (X-site vacancies (>0.6 apfu), lower Ca and F contents, and the highest Li, As, and HREE contents (>80 ppm Li, >1200 ppm As). This population appears to record direct, rapid crystallisation from magmatic ± meteoric fluid(s) bearing the signature of the breakdown of primary feldspars and pyroxenes, with fluid exsolution from fractionated melt patches likely triggered by the formation of the previous generation of tourmaline. Mineralised porphyry deposit tourmaline compositions from the stockwork span a much larger range in Mg# space (0.05-0.9 apfu) and are almost entirely Ca-free. X-sites of these schorl tourmalines are dominated by Na or vacancies, and the Y-sites are strongly Fe enriched. The highest Mn and Zn concentrations (>4000 and >1000 ppm, respectively) potentially reflect the composition of mineralising fluids during ore deposition. A number of boron isotopic analyses yield predominantly heavy boron, but δ11B values range from -5.2 to 6.2 ‰ and average 1.4 ‰. Whilst most plutonic tourmalines conform to reported a- and c-sector element partitioning models, those from the mineralised porphyry show large and variable sector fractionation differences, suggesting that external controls may also be important. Wider evidence for

  1. Petrogenesis of basaltic volcanic rocks from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, by melting of metasomatically enriched depleted lithosphere, crystallization differentiation, and magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.M.; Feeley, T.C.; Deraps, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands, Alaska, are located in the Bering Sea in a continental intraplate setting. In this study we examine the petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from St. Paul (0??54-0??003 Ma) and St. George (2??8-1??4 Ma) Islands, the two largest Pribilof Islands. Rocks from St. George can be divided into three groups: group 1 is a high-MgO, low-SiO. 2 suite composed primarily of basanites; group 2 is a high-MgO, high-SiO 2 suite consisting predominantly of alkali basalts; group 3 is an intermediate- to low-MgO suite that includes plagioclase-phyric subalkali basalts and hawaiites. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that groups 1 and 2 formed by small-degree partial melting of amphibole-bearing to amphibole-free garnet peridotite. Group 1 rocks were the earliest melts produced from the most hydrous parts of the mantle, as they show the strongest geochemical signature of amphibole in their source. The suite of rocks from St. Paul ranges from 14??4 to 4??2 wt % MgO at relatively constant SiO 2 contents (43??1-47??3 wt %). The most primitive St. Paul rocks are modeled as mixtures between magmas with compositions similar to groups 1 and 2 from St. George Island, which subsequently fractionated olivine, clinopyroxene, and spinel to form more evolved rocks. Plagioclase-phyric group 3 rocks from St. George are modeled as mixtures between an evolved melt similar to the evolved magmas on St. Paul and a fractionated group 2 end-member from St. George. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for primitive basanites and alkali basalts are ???1400??C and are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Similarly, 87Sr/. 86Sr and 143Nd/. 144Nd values for all rocks are MORB-like, in the range of 0??702704-0??703035 and 0??513026-0??513109, respectively. 208Pb/. 204Pb vs 206Pb/. 204Pb values lie near the MORB end-member but show a linear trend towards HIMU (high time-integrated 238U/. 204Pb). Despite isotopic similarities to MORB, many of the major and

  2. New constraints on the textural and geochemical evolution of the upper mantle beneath the Styrian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradi, Laszlo; Hidas, Károly; Zanetti, Alberto; János Kovács, István; Patkó, Levente; Szabó, Csaba

    2016-04-01

    Plio-Pleistocene alkali basaltic volcanism sampled sporadically the upper mantle beneath the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (CPR, e.g. [1]). Lavas and pyroclasts often contain mantle derived xenoliths, and the majority of them have been extensively studied [1], except the westernmost Styrian Basin Volcanic Field (SBVF, Eastern Austria and Slovenia). In the SBVF only a few volcanic centers have been studied in details (e.g. Kapfenstein & Tobaj). Based on these studies, the upper mantle beneath the SBVF is consists of dominantly high temperature, texturally and geochemically homogeneous protogranular spinel lherzolite. New major and trace element data from rock-forming minerals of ultramafic xenoliths, coupled with texture and deformation analysis from 12 volcanic outcrops across the SBVF, suggest that the lithospheric roots of the region are more heterogeneous than described previously. The studied xenoliths are predominantly lherzolite, amphibole is a common phase that replaces pyroxenes and spinels and proves modal metasomatism. Phlogopite coupled with apatite is also present in amphibole-rich samples. The texture of the xenoliths is usually coarse-grained and annealed with low abundance of subgrain boundaries in both olivine and pyroxenes. Olivine crystal preferred orientation (CPO) varies between the three most abundant one: [010]-fiber, orthogonal and [100]-fiber symmetry [2]. The CPO of pyroxenes is usually coherent with coeval deformation with olivine, however the CPO of amphibole is suggesting postkinematic epitaxial overgrowth on the precursor pyroxenes. According to equilibrium temperatures, the studied xenolith suite samples a broader temperature range (850-1100 °C) than the literature data, corresponding to mantle depths between 30 and 60 km, which indicates that the xenolith suite only represents the shallower part of the recent 100 km thick lithospheric mantle beneath the SBVF. The equilibrium temperatures show correlation with the varying CPO symmetries

  3. Mafic enclaves in dacitic domes and their relation with La Poruña scoria cone, Central Andes, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maurel, O. P.; Gallmeyer, G.; Godoy, B.; Menzies, A.; le Roux, P. J.; Harris, C.

    2017-12-01

    Chao Dacite, Chillahuita, Cerro Pabellón, Chanka, Chac-Inca, and Cerro La Torta (or Tocorpuri) are dacitic domes of late Pleistocene age (30 to 140 ka; Renzulli et al., 2006; Tierney et al., 2016) located in Northern Chilean Central Andean province (NCCA; 17°20'S - 27°40'S). While, La Poruña is a 180 m high basaltic-andesite scoria cone erupted ca. 100 ka (Wörner et al., 2000). This scoria cone is also located at the NCCA, 26 km to the SW of Chanka and 45 km to the NW of Chao Dacite. The dacitic domes are generally porphyritic and highly crystalline lavas (30 - 50 vol % phenocrysts, plagioclase > biotite > amphibole > quartz ≥ accessory), with hyalopilitic or intersertal groundmass. These domes contain mafic enclaves, mostly andesite in composition, with plagioclase > amphibole > biotite ≥ clinopyroxene ≥ olivine ≥ accessory phenocryst (10 - 20 vol %) in a lightly oxidized groundmass with intersertal or intergranular textures. In contrast, La Poruña rocks are mostly aphanitic (75 - 85 vol % groundmass) and highly vesicular, with plagioclase > olivine ≥ clinopyroxene ≥ orthopyroxene phenocrysts in an intersertal or hyalopilitic groundmass. Although petrographically different, the composition (57 wt % SiO2; 580 ppm Sr, 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7066) of mafic enclaves from Cerro Pabellón dome are similar to the lava flows and pyroclastic blocks of La Poruña scoria cone (55 - 59 wt % SiO2; 560 - 610 ppm Sr; 0.7062 - 0.7066 87Sr/86Sr). Based on this data and the eruption ages of these volcanic structures, we suggest that the mafic enclaves and La Poruña magmas are co-genetic. Thus, we propose that the genesis of these mafic enclaves is associated with the origin of less evolved parental magmas erupted in the NCCA, such as those from La Poruña. In this case, the mafic enclaves would represent batches of less evolved magmas that ascended from deeper sources and probably contributed in the eruption of the dacitic domes. Renzulli et al., 2006. In XI Congreso Geol

  4. Platinum-Group Minerals and Other Accessory Phases in Chromite Deposits of the Alapaevsk Ophiolite, Central Urals, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Zaccarini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An electron microprobe study has been carried out on platinum-group minerals, accessory phases, and chromite in several chromite deposits of the Alapaevsk ophiolite (Central Urals, Russia namely the Bakanov Kluch, Kurmanovskoe, Lesnoe, 3-d Podyony Rudnik, Bol’shaya Kruglyshka, and Krest deposits. These deposits occur in partially to totally serpentinized peridotites. The microprobe data shows that the chromite composition varies from Cr-rich to Al-rich. Tiny platinum-group minerals (PGM, 1–10 µm in size, have been found in the chromitites. The most abundant PGM is laurite, accompanied by minor cuproiridsite and alloys in the system Os–Ir–Ru. A small grain (about 20 μm was found in the interstitial serpentine of the Bakanov Kluch chromitite, and its calculated stoichiometry corresponds to (Ni,Fe5P. Olivine, occurring in the silicate matrix or included in fresh chromite, has a mantle-compatible composition in terms of major and minor elements. Several inclusions of amphibole, Na-rich phlogopite, and clinopyroxene have been identified. The bimodal Cr–Al composition of chromite probably corresponds to a vertical distribution in the ophiolite sequence, implying formation of Cr-rich chromitites in the deep mantle, and Al-rich chromitites close to the Moho-transition zone, in a supra-subduction setting. The presence of abundant hydrous silicate inclusions, such as amphibole and phlogopite, suggests that the Alapaevsk chromitites crystallized as a result of the interaction between a melt enriched in fluids and peridotites. Laurite and cuproiridsite are considered to be magmatic in origin, i.e., entrapped as solid phases during the crystallization of chromite at high temperatures. The sulfur fugacity was relatively high to allow the precipitation of Ir-bearing sulfides, but below the Os–OsS2 buffer. The alloys in the system Os–Ir–Ru are classified as secondary PGM, i.e., formed at low temperature during the serpentinization process. The

  5. Early Cretaceous Na-rich granitoids and their enclaves in the Tengchong Block, SW China: Magmatism in relation to subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethys ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Santosh, M.; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei

    2017-08-01

    The Na-rich intermediate-to-felsic granitic rocks provide insights into the generation of magmas in subduction zones. This paper presents zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages as well as whole-rock geochemical, mineral chemical, and in situ zircon Hf isotopic data on Na-rich granitic rocks from the Tengchong Block, SW China. The granodiorites and associated mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) from the Menglian batholith yield zircon U-Pb ages of 116.1 ± 0.8 to 117.8 ± 0.6 Ma and 117.7 ± 0.7 Ma, respectively. Both host granodiorites and enclaves show calc-alkaline and sodium-rich nature, enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), and variable depletion in zircon Hf isotopic compositions. Euhedral amphiboles in both granodiorites and associated enclaves are magnesian-hornblende with high Mg and Ca and contain euhedral plagioclase inclusions of labradorite to andesine (An36-57) composition. The granodiorite was most likely derived through the mixing of partial melts derived from juvenile basaltic lower crust and a minor evolved component of ancient crustal sources. The quartz monzodiorite-granodiorites and associated MMEs from the Xiaotang-Mangdong batholith yield zircon U-Pb ages of 120.3 ± 1.3 to 122.6 ± 0.8 Ma and 120.7 ± 1.5 Ma. These rocks are also sodium-rich and show calc-alkaline trend with negative zircon Hf isotopic compositions (- 5.55 to + 0.58). The MMEs in the host intrusions are monzogabbro with variable and depleted zircon Hf isotopic compositions. The amphiboles in the both host intrusions and the enclaves show Al-rich ferro-tschermakite composition. We infer that the quartz monzodiorite-granodiorites were derived from magmas generated by the melting of ancient basaltic rocks in the lower arc crust induced by the underplating of mantle-derived mafic magmas. The formation of the different types of Na-rich granitic rocks is correlated to the subduction of Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan ocean. A comparison with magmatism in the northern magmatic belt suggests

  6. Dynamics of mineral crystallization at inclusion-garnet interface from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in-situ synchrotron x-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. These inclusions are frequently hosted by minerals stable at mantle depths, such as garnet, and show the same textural features as fluid inclusions. The mineral infillings of the solid multiphase inclusions are generally assumed to have crystallized by precipitation from the solute load of dense supercritical fluids equilibrating with the host rock. Notwithstanding the validity of this assumption, the mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatised at ~ 4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometers and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol.%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80- 90 vol.%) occur with constant volume ratios and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by means of Synchrotron Radiation at DLS-Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and their reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Epitaxy drives a first-stage nucleation of spinel under near-to-equilibrium conditions

  7. Early Depositional History of the Eocene Izu-Bonin Mariana Arc, Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, R.; Marsaglia, K. M.; Tepley, F. J., III

    2015-12-01

    Expedition 351 of the International Ocean Discovery Program cored an Eocene section at Site U1438 in the Philippine Sea that provides insight into the early history of the Izu-Bonin arc. Subduction here is hypothesized to have initiated spontaneously, leaving a characteristic depositional sequence of post-subduction-initiation localized extension and volcanism. We conducted detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of the cores of the lowermost 100m of volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks (Unit IV) directly overlying subduction initiation igneous basement, to identify depositional facies and trends. We subdivided Unit IV into three subunits based on lithologic characteristics. Transitions between the subunits are relatively abrupt, occurring within the length of a single core. The lowermost subunit (IVA) consists of 4 meters of laminated pelagic claystone with thin beds of graded volcaniclastic siltstone, and fine-grained tuff laminae composed of plagioclase feldspar and green-brown amphibole. The middle subunit (IVB) comprises 51 meters of texturally variable, thick-bedded, coarse-grained gravity flow deposits. These are composed of volcaniclastic sandstone and conglomerate containing glassy and tachylitic volcanic grains as well as sedimentary lithic fragments, along with traces of shallow-water carbonate bioclasts. Subunit IVB sediments are poorer in feldspar than IVA and contain only trace amphibole. They show variable grain rounding and an upsection increase in vitric components. Tachylite grains range from sub-angular to well rounded throughout, and other volcanic grain types show upward increases in angularity and vesicularity. The abrupt transition from pelagic sediments in subunit IVA to shallow-water-sourced gravity flows in subunit IVB suggests a rapid emergence of shallow-water to subaerial volcanic center early in the arc's development. The upper part of subunit IVB also contains igneous intrusions, providing possible evidence for more proximal

  8. Lamprophyres from the Harohalli dyke swarm in the Halaguru and Mysore areas, Southern India: Implications for backarc basin magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, Shubhangi; Randive, Kirtikumar

    2018-05-01

    The Bangalore and Harohalli dyke swarms occur in the eastern part of the Dharwar craton. The older Bangalore dyke swarm is made up of dolerites, trending east-west, and the younger contains alkaline dykes that trend approximately north-south. The lamprophyres of the Harohalli dyke swarm occur in the Halaguru and Mysore industrial areas where they are exposed as fresh porphyritic - panidiomorphic dykes, containing crustal xenoliths, and showing chilled contacts with the country rock charnokites. They are chiefly composed of amphiboles which form well-developed phenocrysts. Clinopyroxenes are present in some of the dykes. Compositional zoning is observed in clinopyroxenes and amphiboles; their zoning patterns indicate that the magma experienced cryptic variations and that fractional crystallization was a dominant process in the evolution of the Harohalli Lamprophyres (HRL). The HRL are calc-alkaline with shoshonitic affinity and exhibit a K2O/Na2O ratio of ∼1. They show primitive (MORB-like) trace-element characters. LILE and LREE both show marginally enriched patterns; whereas HFSE and HREE show strongly depleted patterns. In the regional geologic sense, HRL dykes are characterised by two major influences; namely, (i) primary source region characteristics, which are geochemically more primitive, roughly falling within fields of primitive - MORB and enriched- MORB and (ii) the continental lithosphere. The data points for the HRL distinctly show their proximity to N-MORB and scatter towards the continental crust. Moreover, features like xenolith assimilation might influence the trace-element characteristics of the HRL dykes. Such magmas with mixed characters can be formed in a backarc basin environment. Geochemical proxies such as Ba/Nb vs Nb/Yb, Ba/Th vs Th/Nb, and the water content of magmas; which have been effectively used for discriminating backarc basin magmas worldwide, also indicate that the HRL magmas were generated in a backarc environment with inputs from

  9. Mid Carboniferous lamprophyres, Cobequid Fault Zone, eastern Canada, linked to sodic granites, voluminous gabbro, and albitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.; Papoutsa, Angeliki

    2018-01-01

    Major intra-continental shear zones developed during the later stages of continental collision in a back-arc setting are sites of prolonged magmatism. Mantle metasomatism results from both melting of subducted sediments and oceanic crust. In the Cobequid Fault Zone of the northern Appalachians, back-arc A-type granites and gabbros dated ca. 360 Ma are locally intruded by lamprophyric dykes dated ca. 335 Ma. All the lamprophyres are kersantites with biotite and albite, lesser ilmenite, titanite and fluorapatite, and minor magmatic calcite, allanite, pyrite, magnetite, quartz and K-feldspar in some samples. The lamprophyres show enrichment in Rb, Ba, K, Th and REE and classify as calc-alkaline lamprophyre on the basis of biotite and whole rock chemistry. Pb isotopes lie on a mixing line between normal mantle-derived gabbro and OIB magma. Nd isotopes range from 1.3-3.5 εNdt, a little lower than in local gabbro. Most lamprophyres have δ18O = 3.8-4.4‰. Country rock is cut by pyrite-(Mg)-chlorite veins with euhedral allanite crystals that resemble the lamprophyres mineralogically, with the Mg-chlorite representing chloritized glass. Early Carboniferous unenriched mafic dykes and minor volcanic rocks are widespread along the major active strike-slip fault zones. The lamprophyres are geographically restricted to within 10 km of a small granitoid pluton with some sodic amphibole and widespread albitization. This was displaced by early Carboniferous strike-slip faulting from its original position close to the large Wentworth Pluton, the site of mantle-derived sodic amphibole granite, a major late gabbro pluton, and a volcanic carapace several kilometres thick, previously demonstrated to be the site of mantle upwelling and metasomatism. The age of the lamprophyres implies that enriched source material in upper lithospheric mantle or lower crust was displaced 50 km by crustal scale strike-slip faulting after enrichment by the mantle upwelling before lamprophyre emplacement

  10. Geochemistry of the Shuksan greenschists and blueschists, North Cascades, Washington: Variably fractionated and altered metabasalts of oceanic affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, M. A.; Vance, J. A.; Blanchard, D. P.

    1983-06-01

    The Shuksan schist comprises a structurally coherent, metabasaltic member of the Easton Formation, the uppermost allochthon (Shuksan thrust plate) in the thrust system of the western North Cascades of Washington State. Late Jurassic metamorphism at moderately high P/T produced interlayering of actinolite-bearing greenschist assemblages with blue amphibole-bearing rocks. Major and trace element analyses of twelve greenschist and blueschist samples have been used to establish similarities between the basaltic protolith and moderately to strongly fractionated Type I MORB, to distinguish the effects of seafloor alteration superimposed on the primary igneous chemistry, and to evaluate the origin and nature of the chemical controls which produced the two mineral assemblages. The twelve analyzed samples exhibit moderate to strong LREE depletion, and characteristically low concentrations of other non-labile trace elements such as Nb, Th and Hf. The highly to moderately incompatible elements Ti, P, Nb, Zr, Hf, Y, Sc, and the REE vary by factors of 1.5 to 3.5 within the suite in a systematic pattern, increasing smoothly with increasing total iron. The relative enrichments of these elements are inversely proportional to bulk partition coefficients estimated for fractionation of basaltic magmas. The magnitude of the negative europium anomaly increases with overall incompatible element enrichment. These variations are consistent with the production of a wide spectrum of compositions by different degrees of low pressure fractionation of similar Type I MORB parent magmas. The concentrations of Sr, Rb, Na, and K vary irregularly and do not correlate with the non-labile trace elements. K and Rb are substantially elevated over typical MORB values in most samples and exhibit a consistently lower ratio (K/Rb=400 vs 1000) than fresh MORB. Concentrations of these four elements are believed to have been modified by low temperature seafloor alteration (pre-metamorphic) characterized by

  11. Petrogenesis of cataclastic rocks within the San Andreas fault zone of Southern California U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford Anderson, J.; Osborne, Robert H.; Palmer, Donald F.

    1980-08-01

    This paper petrologically characterizes cataclastic rocks derived from four sites within the San Andreas fault zone of southern California. In this area, the fault traverses an extensive plutonic and metamorphic terrane and the principal cataclastic rock formed at these upper crustal levels is unindurated gouge derived from a range of crystalline rocks including diorite, tonalite, granite, aplite, and pegmatite. The mineralogical nature of this gouge is decidedly different from the "clay gouge" reported by Wu (1975) for central California and is essentially a rock flour with a quartz, feldspar, biotite, chlorite, amphibole, epidote and oxide mineralogy representing the milled-down equivalent of the original rock. Clay development is minor (less than 4 wt. %) to nonexistent and is exclusively kaolinite. Alterations involve hematitic oxidation, chlorite alteration on biotite and amphibole, and local introduction of calcite. Electron microprobe analysis showed that in general the major minerals were not reequilibrated with the pressure—temperature regime imposed during cataclasis. Petrochemically, the form of cataclasis that we have investigated is largely an isochemical process. Some hydration occurs but the maximum amount is less than 2.2% added H 2O. Study of a 375 m deep core from a tonalite pluton adjacent to the fault showed that for Si, Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, Mn, K, Na, Li, Rb, and Ba, no leaching and/or enrichment occurred. Several samples experienced a depletion in Sr during cataclasis while lesser number had an enrichment of Ca (result of calcite veining). Texturally, the fault gouge is not dominated by clay-size material but consists largely of silt and fine sand-sized particles. An intriguing aspect of our work on the drill core is a general decrease in particulate size with depth (and confining pressure) with the predominate shifting sequentially from fine sand to silt-size material. The original fabric of these rocks is commonly not disrupted during the

  12. Characterization of jade and silicates of the jade family for application in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Adeilson Pessoa de

    2007-01-01

    The main dosimetric properties of jade and of Brazilian silicates of the jade family were studied for application in radiation dosimetry of high doses. Jade is a common denomination of two different silicates: jadeite, Na Al(Si 2 O 6 ), and nephrite, Ca 2 (Mg, Fe) 5 (Si 4 O 11 ) 2 (OH) 2 , that belong to the subclasses of the pyroxenes and amphiboles respectively. The jade samples studied in this work were from: Austria, New Zealand, United States and Brazil. The Brazilian silicates of the jade family studied in this work were the amphiboles: tremolite,Ca 2 Mg 5 (Si 4 O 11 ) 2 (OH) 2 e actinolite, Ca 2 Fe 5 (Si 4 O 11 ) 2 (OH) 2 ; and the pyroxenes: rhodonite, MnSiO 3 and diopside, Ca Mg(Si 2 O 6 ). The mineralogical and chemical composition of these materials were obtained using the neutron activation analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. The main dosimetric properties (emission curves, calibration curves, reproducibility, lower detection limits, angular and energy dependence, etc) were studied using the thermoluminescent (T L), thermally stimulated exo-emission (TSEE) and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. The jade-Teflon and the silicate-Teflon samples present two T L peaks around 115 deg C (peak 1) and 210 deg C (peak 2). The calibration curves of the studied materials present a linear behaviour between 0.5 Gy and 1 kGy. The TSEE emission peak occurs at 240 deg C for all samples, and the calibration curves present a sub linear behaviour between 100 Gy and 20 kGy. In the case of the EPR technique, only jade USA has a potential application for radiation dosimetry. A static computational simulation of the most probable intrinsic and extrinsic defects in rhodonite was also realized. Among the basic defects, the Schottky defects of rhodonite are the most probable to occur and, among the extrinsic defects, the divalent and trivalent dopants present the best possibility of inclusion in rhodonite. (author)

  13. Lesser Antillean Arc Initiation and Migration as a Proxy of Slab Dynamics: Geothermochronology, Thermobarometry and Structure of Saint Martin Granodiorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noury, M.; Münch, P.; Philippon, M. M.; Bernet, M.; Bruguier, O.; Balvay, M.

    2017-12-01

    In subduction zones, volcanic arc initiation, cessation, migration and associated upper plate deformation -i.e faulting and vertical motions- reflect large-scale slab dynamics. At the northeastern edge of the Caribbean plate, the Greater Caribbean subduction zone waned out during the Mid Eocene, following the subduction of the Bahamas bank. This arc cessation was contemporaneous with (i) a plate boundary re-organization (evolving from subduction to transform), (ii) upper plate deformation and (iii) arc initiation in the Lesser Antilles. As part of the GAARANTI project that aims at unraveling the relationships between the evolution of terrestrial Caribbean biodiversity and vertical motions resulting from the Lesser Antilles subduction zone dynamic, we study the Saint Martin granodiorites, one of the two Oligocene plutons outcropping in the Lesser Antillean forearc. We investigate the birth and evolution of the Lesser Antillean arc and its thermo-mechanical impact on the Caribbean upper plate. In order to characterize the P,T,t path of the pluton we performed several thermochronological analyses covering a wide range of temperature (U-Pb on zircon -Tc 850°C, Ar/Ar on amphibole -Tc 550°C- and biotite -Tc 325°C-, zircon and apatite fission-tracks -Tc 250 and 110°C, respectively as well as U-Th/He on apatite -Tc 60°C) coupled with in-situ thermobarometry analyses (Al in hornblendes) and structural data. Geochronology and thermobarometry reveal that the granodiorites emplaced at ca. 28 Ma, at a depth of 5 km. Based on the age difference between amphibole and biotite Ar/Ar ages, we show that the northern pluton cooled faster than the southern one. Preliminary thermochronological results show a fast cooling between 29 and 25 Ma and then a continuous and slow cooling since 25 Ma and inverse modeling points to a 10 Ma cooling event. Our investigations give insights on the thermo-mechanical evolution of the arc-forearc region of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone

  14. Violent Explosive Eruptions in the Ararat Valley, Armenia and Associated Volcanic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Charles; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Connor, Laura; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Manucharyan, Davit; Jrbashyan, Ruben; Ghukasyan, Yura

    2016-04-01

    The Anatolian-Armenian-Iranian volcanically active orogenic plateau is located in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The majority of regional geodynamic and petrologic models of collision-related magmatism use the model proposed by Keskin (2003), where volcanism is driven by Neo-Tethyan slab break-off, however an updated model by Neill et al. (2015) and Skolbeltsyn et al.(2014) comprise break-off of two slabs. One of the significant (and understudied) features of the regionally extensive collision zone volcanism is the diversity of eruption styles and also the presence of large number of highly explosive (Plinian) eruptions with VEI≥5 during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene. Geological records of the Ararat depression include several generations of thick low aspect ratio Quaternary ignimbrites erupted from Aragats volcano, as well as up to 3 m thick ash and pumice fall deposit from the Holocene-historically active Ararat volcano. The Ararat tephra fall deposit is studied at 12 newly discovered outcrops covering an area ˜1000 km2. It is noteworthy, that the Ararat tephra deposits are loose and unwelded and observed only in cross-sections in small depressions or in areas where they were rapidly covered by younger, colluvium deposits, presumably of Holocene age. Therefore, the spatial extent of the explosive deposits of Ararat is much bigger but not well preserved due to rapid erosion. Whole rock elemental, isotope (Sr, Nd) and mineral chemistry data demonstrate significant difference in the magma sources of the large Aragats and Ararat stratovolcanoes. Lavas and pyroclastic products of Aragats are high K calc-alkaline, and nearly always deprived from H2O rich phases such as amphibole. In contrasts lavas and pyroclastic products from Ararat are medium K calc-alkaline and volatile-rich (>4.6 wt% H2O and amphibole bearing) magmas. Here we shall attempt to reveal possible geochemical triggers of explosive eruptions in these volcanoes and assess

  15. Chemical Analysis of Reaction Rims on Olivine Crystals in Natural Samples of Black Dacite Using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Lassen Peak, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Lassen Volcanic Center is the southernmost volcanic region in the Cascade volcanic arc formed by the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Lassen Peak last erupted in 1915 in an arc related event producing a black dacite material containing xenocrystic olivine grains with apparent orthopyroxene reaction rims. The reaction rims on these olivine grains are believed to have formed by reactions that ensued from a mixing/mingling event that occurred prior to eruption between the admixed mafic andesitic magma and a silicic dacite host material. Natural samples of the 1915 black dacite from Lassen Peak, CA were prepared into 15 polished thin sections and carbon coated for analysis using a FEI Quanta 250 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to identify and measure mineral textures and disequilibrium reaction rims. Observed mineralogical textures related to magma mixing include biotite and amphibole grains with apparent dehydration/breakdown rims, pyroxene-rimmed quartz grains, high concentration of microlites in glass matrix, and pyroxene/amphibole reaction rims on olivine grains. Olivine dissolution is evidenced as increased iron concentration toward convolute edges of olivine grains as observed by Backscatter Electron (BSE) imagery and elemental mapping using NSS spectral imaging software. In an attempt to quantify the area of reaction rim growth on olivine grains within these samples, high-resolution BSE images of 30 different olivine grains were collected along with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) of different phases. Olivine cores and rims were extracted from BSE images using Photoshop and saved as separate image files. ImageJ software was used to calculate the area (μm2) of the core and rim of these grains. Average pyroxene reaction rim width for 30 grains was determined to be 11.68+/-1.65 μm. Rim widths of all 30 grains were averaged together to produce an overall average rim width for the Lassen Peak black dacite. By quantifying the reaction rims on olivine grains

  16. The eruptive chronology of the Ampato-Sabancaya volcanic complex (Southern Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, Pablo; Rivera, Marco; Mariño, Jersy; Guillou, Hervé; Liorzou, Céline; Zerathe, Swann; Delgado, Rosmery; Valderrama, Patricio; Scao, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    We have reconstructed the eruptive chronology of the Ampato-Sabancaya volcanic complex (Southern Peru) on the basis of extensive fieldwork, and a large dataset of geochronological (40K-40Ar, 14C and 3He) and geochemical (major and trace element) data. This volcanic complex is composed of two successive edifices that have experienced discontinuous volcanic activity from Middle Pleistocene to Holocene times. The Ampato compound volcano consists of a basal edifice constructed over at least two cone-building stages dated at 450-400 ka and 230-200 ka. After a period of quiescence, the Ampato Upper edifice was constructed firstly during an effusive stage (80-70 ka), and then by the formation of three successive peaks: the Northern, Southern (40-20 ka) and Central cones (20-10 ka). The Southern peak, which is the biggest, experienced large explosive phases, resulting in deposits such as the Corinta plinian fallout. During the Holocene, eruptive activity migrated to the NE and constructed the mostly effusive Sabancaya edifice. This cone comprised many andesitic and dacitic blocky lava flows and a young terminal cone, mostly composed of pyroclastic material. Most samples from the Ampato-Sabancaya define a broad high-K magmatic trend composed of andesites and dacites with a mineral assemblage of plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, ortho- and clino-pyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides. A secondary trend also exists, corresponding to rare dacitic explosive eruptions (i.e. Corinta fallout and flow deposits). Both magmatic trends are derived by fractional crystallisation involving an amphibole-rich cumulate with variable amounts of upper crustal assimilation. A marked change in the overall eruptive rate has been identified between Ampato ( 0.1 km3/ka) and Sabancaya (0.6-1.7 km3/ka). This abrupt change demonstrates that eruptive rates have not been homogeneous throughout the volcano's history. Based on tephrochronologic studies, the Late Holocene Sabancaya activity is characterised by strong

  17. The 2006-2009 activity of the Ubinas volcano (Peru): Petrology of the 2006 eruptive products and insights into genesis of andesite magmas, magma recharge and plumbing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Marco; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Samaniego, Pablo; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Following a fumarolic episode that started six months earlier, the most recent eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano (south Peru) began on 27 March 2006, intensified between April and October 2006 and slowly declined until December 2009. The chronology of the explosive episode and the extent and composition of the erupted material are documented with an emphasis on ballistic ejecta. A petrological study of the juvenile products allows us to infer the magmatic processes related to the 2006-2009 eruptions of the andesitic Ubinas volcano. The juvenile magma erupted during the 2006 activity shows a homogeneous bulk-rock andesitic composition (56.7-57.6 wt.% SiO2), which belongs to a medium- to high-K calc-alkaline series. The mineral assemblage of the ballistic blocks and tephra consists of plagioclase > two-pyroxenes > Fe-Ti oxide and rare olivine and amphibole set in a groundmass of the same minerals with a dacitic composition (66-67 wt.% SiO2). Thermo-barometric data, based on two-pyroxene and amphibole stability, records a magma temperature of 998 ± 14 °C and a pressure of 476 ± 36 MPa. Widespread mineralogical and textural features point to a disequilibrium process in the erupted andesite magma. These features include inversely zoned "sieve textures" in plagioclase, inversely zoned clinopyroxene, and olivine crystals with reaction and thin overgrowth rims. They indicate that the pre-eruptive magmatic processes were dominated by recharge of a hotter mafic magma into a shallow reservoir, where magma mingling occurred and triggered the eruption. Prior to 2006, a probable recharge of a mafic magma produced strong convection and partial homogenization in the reservoir, as well as a pressure increase and higher magma ascent rate after four years of fumarolic activity. Mafic magmas do not prevail in the Ubinas pre-historical lavas and tephras. However, mafic andesites have been erupted during historical times (e.g. AD 1667 and 2006-2009 vulcanian eruptions). Hence

  18. Long term storage of explosively erupted magma at Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Gardner, J.; Macias, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Dacitic magmas production is common in subduction-related volcanoes, occurring in those with a long period of activity as a result of the magmatic evolution. However, in this evolution many factors (i.e. crystal fractionation, assimilation, magma mixing) can interact to produce dacites. Nevado de Toluca volcano (4,680 masl; 19°09'N; 99°45'W) Central Mexico has recorded a long period of time producing dacites explosively, at least during 42 ka of activity, involving several km3 of magma, with two important Plinian-type eruptions occurred at ~21.7 ka (Lower Toluca Pumice) and ~10.5 ka (Upper Toluca Pumice). Questions like, what was the mechanism responsible to produce voluminous dacitic magma and how the volatiles and pressure changed in the Nevado de Toluca system, remain without answers. Dacites from the Lower Toluca Pumice (LTP) contain plagioclase, amphibole, iron-titanium oxides, and minor resorbed biotite, set in a glassy-vesicular matrix and the Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP) dacites contain the same mineral phases plus orthopyroxene. Ilmenite- ulvospinel geothermometry yielded a temperature of ~860°C for the LTP dacite, a little hotter than the UTP (~ 840°C). Based on hydrothermal experiments data, amphibole is stable above 100 MPa under 900°C, while plagioclase crystallizes up to 250-100 MPa at temperatures of 850-900°C. Pyroxene occurs only at pressures of 200-100 MPa with its respective temperatures of 825-900°C. Water contents in the LTP magma (2-3.5 wt %) are similar to that calculated for the UTP magma (1.3-3.6 wt %). So, there are only small changes in temperature and pressure from ~21.7 ka to 10.5 ka. It is noteworthy that orthopyroxene is absent in the LTP, however reaction-rimmed biotite (probably xenocrystic) is commonly observed in all dacites. Hence, almost all dacitic magmas seem to be stored at relatively similar pressures, water contents, and temperatures. All of these data could suggest repetitive basic magma injections producing the

  19. Lithospheric origin for Neogene-Quaternary Middle Atlas lavas (Morocco): Clues from trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Delphine; Maury, René C.; El Azzouzi, M'hammed; Bollinger, Claire; Bellon, Hervé; Verdoux, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    This study presents new geochemical data on 26 mafic lavas from the Middle Atlas and Central Morocco volcanic provinces, including Miocene nephelinites and Pliocene-Quaternary (3.9-0.6 Ma) nephelinites, basanites, alkali and subalkaline basalts. Most of them represent near-primary magmas, although some alkali basalts were derived from the minor fractionation of olivine and diopside phenocrysts. These evolved samples and the subalkaline basalt display higher 207Pb/204Pb and Zr/Nb ratios and lower εNd consistent with their contamination by lower crustal granulites during an open fractionation process. The progressive enrichment in incompatible elements observed from alkali basalts to nephelinites suggests their derivation from decreasing partial melting degrees of an enriched mantle source located at the garnet-spinel transition zone. The strong negative spikes observed for K in multielement patterns indicate that this source contained a residual pargasitic amphibole. We propose that partial melting occurred at around 2 GPa, i.e. near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the Middle Atlas (60-80 km). The trace element and isotopic Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf signature of the uncontaminated lavas displays a geochemical flavour intermediate between those of high μ (HIMU), “C”, and enriched mantle components. It is very similar to that of abundant metasomatic amphibole- and clinopyroxene-rich lithospheric peridotites and pyroxenites carried by Middle Atlas lavas, which likely represent an analog of the source of these lavas. It is therefore not necessary to postulate the contribution of a “fresh” asthenospheric mantle to their genesis. We propose that they resulted from the partial melting of the base of a veined lithospheric mantle metasomatised during the late Cretaceous by alkaline melts from the Central Atlantic plume, the ancestor of the Canary plume. Melting was probably triggered by the flux of a hot mantle within a regional SW-NE sub-lithospheric channel, in

  20. Structural Characterization of the Foliated-Layered Gabbro Transition in Wadi Tayin of the Samail Ophiolite, Oman; Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, J. R.; Crispini, L.; Cheadle, M. J.; Harris, M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Matter, J. M.; Takazawa, E.; Coggon, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A were drilled into the Wadi Tayin massif, Samail ophiolite and both recovered ca. 400 m of continuous core through a section of the layered gabbros and the foliated-layered gabbro transition. Hole GT1A is cut by a discrete fault system including localized thin ultracataclastic fault zones. Hole GT2A is cut by a wider zone of brittle deformation and incipient brecciation. Here we report the structural history of the gabbros reflecting formation at the ridge to later obduction. Magmatic and high temperature history- 1) Both cores exhibit a pervasive, commonly well-defined magmatic foliation delineated by plagioclase, olivine and in places clinopyroxene. Minor magmatic deformation is present. 2) The dip of the magmatic foliation varies cyclically, gradually changing dip by 30o from gentle to moderate over a 50 m wavelength. 3) Layering is present throughout both cores, is defined by changes in mode and grain size ranging in thickness from 2 cm to 3 m and is commonly sub-parallel to the foliation. 4) There are no high temperature crystal-plastic shear zones in the core. Key observations include: no simple, systematic shallowing of dip with depth across the foliated-layered gabbro transition and layering is continuous across this transition. Cyclic variation of magmatic foliation dip most likely reflects the process of plate separation at the ridge axis. Near-axis faulting- i) On or near-axis structures consist of epidote-amphibole bearing hydraulic breccias and some zones of intense cataclasis with intensely deformed epidote and seams of clay and chlorite accompanied by syntectonic alteration of the wall rock. Early veins are filled with amphibole, chlorite, epidote, and anhydrite. ii) The deformation ranges from brittle-ductile, causing local deflection of the magmatic foliation, to brittle offset of the foliation and core and mantle structures in anhydrite veins. iii) The prevalent sense of shear is normal and slickenfibers

  1. Mineralogía y condiciones de cristalización en el complejo subvolcánico de Barcarrota (Badajoz, España

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    Casquet, C.

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available A description of mineral chemistry from rocks of the subvolcanic Barcarrota Complex is made. This igneous massif consists of several sub-alkaline lithologies, namely olivine gabbros, diorites, quartz-monzonites and amphibole granites, as well as minor peralkaline granites. Physico-chemical conditions during magma crystallization are obtained on the basis of mineral data. Thus different geothermometers lead to the following crystallization temperatures: olivine gabbros (972-1.008° C, diorites (953-995° C, quartz-monzonites (801-833° C and amphibole granites 750° C. The presence of illmenite as the sole Fe-Ti mineral in these rocks (except in the peralkaline types where it is magnetite, sugests that the fO2 was never higher than the MW buffer, decreasing continuously with the differentiation degree fram fO2= 1O-13.2 atm. for the olivine gabbros to 10-18.87 atm. in the granites Furthemore water played an important role during crystallization of the different magmas.Se estudian las características químicas de los minerales más significativos del Complejo subvolcánico de Barcarrota, formado por litologías subalcalinas consistentes en: gabros olivínicos, dioritas, cuarzo-monzonitas y granitos anfibólicos, así como por pequeños afloramientos de granitos peralcalinos. Estos datos se emplean para definir las condiciones físico-químicas de cristalización magmática. Mediante distintos geotermómetros se obtienen las siguientes temperaturas de cristalización: Gabras olivínicos (972-1008º C, Dioritas (953-995º C, Cuarzo-monzonitas (801-833º C y los Granitos anfibólicos 750º C. La presencia como único óxido de FeTi, de ilmenita en todas las rocas excepto en los tipos peralcalinos, que es magnetita, indica que la fO2 no superó las condiciones del tampón MW, decreciendo con el grado de diferenciación (fO2= 10-132 en los gabros olivínicos hasta 10-18,87 en los granitos. La presencia de agua debió jugar un notable

  2. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at contamination are most evident in pre-ore magmas, whereas ore-forming intrusions at low temperatures are dominated by crystal

  3. Native gold from the Inagli Pt-Au placer deposit (the Aldan Shield, Russia): geochemical characteristics and implications for possible bedrock sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlitskaya, Tatyana V.; Nevolko, Peter A.; Kolpakov, Vladislav V.; Tolstykh, Nadezhda D.

    2018-03-01

    The Inagli alluvial Pt-Au placer deposit in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia, is linked to the Inagli massif, one of the several Uralian-Alaskan-type alkaline-ultrabasic complexes in the Aldan Shield. Gold from the placer is heterogeneous in composition and is represented by three types. Type 1 gold is the most abundant and is characterized by simple Au-Ag alloys with 4-34 wt% Ag, low Cu (up to 0.08 wt%) and negligible Hg, Pt, and Pd contents, and silver-tellurium sulfosalts (Ag-Cu-Te-S-As compounds) in the inclusion suite. Silicate inclusions are biotite, K-feldspar, Fe-Mg amphibole, chlorite, plagioclase, Fe-Mg pyroxene, zircon, and titanite. Distinctive features of this gold type are most similar to those derived from low-sulfidation systems linked to iron oxide copper-gold or iron skarn types of mineralization. The bedrock source of type 1 gold could be related with monzonite to syenite intrusions surrounding the Inagli massif. Distinctive features of type 2 gold include a wide discontinuous range of Ag content (1-18 wt%), elevated Cu (up to 0.5 wt%), and occasional Pd (up to 0.3 wt%) levels, non-detectable Pt and Hg contents, and rare inclusions of simple sulfides (digenite, pyrrhotite) and Na amphibole. Type 3 gold is distinguished by a narrow range in Ag content (5-8 wt%), elevated Hg (0.5-1 wt%) contents, negligible Cu, Pt and Pd levels, and Au-Pb compounds + K-feldspar inclusions. Microchemical characteristics of type 2 and type 3 gold are interpreted as suggestive of an alkaline-magmatic-related fluid. Based on the grain morphology and microchemical signatures, potential bedrock sources for both gold types could be related to the numerous alkaline veins and potassic alteration zones within the dunite core. A comparison of the Inagli and the Kondyor placer gold allows to generate distinctive generic signatures for gold from Uralian-Alaskan-type alkaline-ultrabasic complexes in the Aldan Shield.

  4. La Escalerilla pluton, San Luis Argentina: The orogenic and post-orogenic magmatic evolution of the famatinian cycle at Sierras de San Luis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosini, Augusto Francisco; Ortiz Suárez, Ariel Emilio; Otamendi, Juan Enrique; Pagano, Diego Sebastián; Ramos, Gabriel Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Field relationships, geochemical analysis and two new absolute ages (LA-MC-ICP-MS U/Pb-zircon) allow the division of the La Escalerilla pluton (previously considered to be a single granitic body) into two different plutons: a new La Escalerilla pluton (s.s.), dated at 476.7 ± 9.6 Ma, that represents the northern portion, and the El Volcán pluton, dated at 404.5 ± 8.5 Ma, located in the southern sector. The La Escalerilla pluton is composed of three facies: (1) biotite-bearing granodiorite, (2) porphyritic biotite-bearing granite, and (3) porphyritic two micas-bearing leucogranite, being the presence of late-magmatic dykes in these facies common. The El Volcán pluton is composed of two main facies: 1) porphyritic biotite-bearing granite, and 2) two micas-bearing leucogranite, but amphibole-bearing monzodioritic and tonalititic mega-enclaves are also common, as well as some dykes of amphibole and clinopyroxene-bearing syenites. A peculiarity between the two plutons is that their most representative facies (porphyritic biotite-bearing granites) have, apart from different absolute ages, distinctive geochemical characteristics in their concentrations of trace elements; the La Escalerilla granite is comparatively poorer in Ba, Sr, Nb, La, Ce, P, and richer in Rb, Tb, Y, Tm and Yb. The El Volcán granite is notably enriched in Sr and depleted in Y, resulting in high Sr/Y ratios (12.67-39.08) compared to the La Escalerilla granite (1.11-2.41). These contrasts indicate that the separation from their sources occurred at different depths: below 25 km for the La Escalerilla, and above 30 km for the El Volcán. Moreover, the contrasts allow us to interpret a thin crust linked to an environment of pre-collisional subduction for the first case, and a thickened crust of post-collisional environment for the second, respectively.

  5. Zircon U-Pb age, Lu-Hf isotope, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of Sundamalai peralkaline pluton from the Salem Block, southern India: Implications for Cryogenian adakite-like magmatism in an aborted-rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renjith, M. L.; Santosh, M.; Li, Tang; Satyanarayanan, M.; Korakoppa, M. M.; Tsunogae, T.; Subba Rao, D. V.; Kesav Krishna, A.; Nirmal Charan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Sundamalai peralkaline pluton is one among the Cryogenian alkaline plutons occurring in the Dharmapuri Rift Zone (DRZ) of the Salem Block in the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) of India. Here we present zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotopic composition, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the pluton to explore the petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Systematic modal variation of orthoclase, Na-plagioclase, Ca-amphibole (ferro-edenite and hastingsite) and quartz developed quartz-monzonite and granite litho units in the Sundamalai pluton. Thermometry based on amphibole-plagioclase pair suggests that the pluton was emplaced and solidified at around 4.6 kbar pressure with crystallization of the major phases between 748 and 661 °C. Estimated saturation temperature of zircon (712-698 °C) is also well within this range. However, apatite saturation occurred at higher temperatures between 835 and 870 °C, in contrast with monazite saturation (718-613 °C) that continued up to the late stage of crystallization. Estimated oxygen fugacity values (log fO2: -14 to -17) indicate high oxidation state for the magma that stabilized titanite and magnetite. The magmatic zircons from Sundamalai pluton yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 832.6 ± 3.2 Ma. Geochemically, the Sundamalai rocks are high-K to shoshonitic, persodic (Na2O/K2O ratio > 1), silica-saturated (SiO2:65-72 wt.%), and peralkaline in composition (aluminum saturation index, ASI Sc(2-3 ppm), positive Sr anomaly and predominantly negative zircon εHf(t) values (-10.8 to -9.3 with an average of -10.2) and initial 176Hf/177Hf ratios (0.281947-0.282022) confirm a Paleoproterozoic crustal source. Based on the field and geochemical evidences, we propose that a previously metasomatized mafic lower-crustal source enriched in alkalis has undergone CO2-present partial melting as a result of asthenospheric upwelling beneath an aborted rifting along the DRZ generating the magma that crystallized the Sundamalai rocks

  6. The Origin of Tholeiitic and Calc-Alkaline Trends in Arc Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luffi, P. I.; Lee, C.

    2012-12-01

    It has long been recognized that tholeiitic (TH, high-Fe/Mg) and calc-alkaline (CA, low-Fe/Mg) magmatic series define the two most important igneous differentiation trends shaping Earth's crust. While oceanic crust formation at mid-ocean ridges is typically confined to a TH trend, arc magmatism at convergent margins, considered to significantly contribute to continent formation, generates both TH and CA trends. Thus, the origin of these trends - a key issue to understanding how continental crust forms - is matter of ongoing debate. Prevalent factors thought to contribute to the TH-CA duality are: 1) redox conditions (oxygen fugacity, fO2) and H2O contents in magmas, which control the onset and abundance of high-Fe/Mg oxide mineral fractionation; 2) crystallization depths that regulate the fractionating solid assemblage and thereby the solid/liquid Kd(Fe-Mg). Relying on an extensive geochemical dataset of modern arc volcanics and thermodynamic phase equilibria modeling, here we examine the validity and relative importance of these factors in arc petrogenesis. First, to discriminate igneous rocks more efficiently, we formulate an improved CA/TH index solely based on FeO-MgO systematics. We then confirm on a quantitative basis that, on regional scales, arcs formed on thick crust tend to be more calk-alkaline than those emplaced on thinner crust are, and show that the effect of fO2 on the CA/TH index in arc magmas is more significant than that of H2O. Importantly, we demonstrate that CA trends typical for continental arcs only form when crystal fractionation is accompanied by the assimilation of oxidized crustal components; in the absence of buffering oxidized assimilants fractionating magmas follow a TH trend more common in island arcs, irrespective of their H2O content and initial fO2 level. We find that high-pressure fractionation of amphibole and garnet in arc magmas occurs too late to have a significant influence on the CA/TH index; in addition, garnet-melt and

  7. Explosive to Effusive Transition in Intermediate Volcanism: An Analysis of Changing Magma System Conditions in Dominica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersson, J.; Waters, L. E.; Frey, H. M.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; Manon, M. R. F.

    2017-12-01

    The oscillation between explosive and effusive intermediate (59-62 wt% SiO2) volcanism in the Roseau Valley on Dominica, an island in the Lesser Antilles Arc, provides an opportunity to investigate temporal changes in the magmatic system. Here, we test the relationship between the Roseau ignimbrites (1-65 ka) and the Micotrin dome ( 1.1 ka) which are proposed to originate from the same magmatic system, with a detailed petrologic analysis of phenocrysts to determine commonalities or changes in pre-eruptive conditions (i.e., intensive variables). The ignimbrites are saturated in five phenocrysts (plagioclase + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + ilmenite + magnetite ± amphibole ± quartz), and the lava dome contains the same assemblage, but with notable differences: amphiboles are entirely reacted, and quartz occurs in greater abundance. Plagioclase in the ignimbrites ranges in composition from An46-93, and those in the dome range from An46-85. Two Fe-Ti oxide geo-thermometry reveal pre-eruptive temperatures from 730-820°C for three different ignimbrite units, whereas the pre-eruptive temperature for the dome is slightly hotter (850±23°C). Values of fO2 (relative to NNO) derived from Fe-Ti oxide oxygen-barometry range from +0.3 to +1.32 ΔNNO for the ignimbrites, which overlap with those from the dome (+0.5 to +0.9 ΔNNO). Pre-eruptive temperatures, plagioclase compositions, whole rock and glass compositions are incorporated into a plagioclase-liquid hygrometer to determine pre-eruptive melt H2O contents for each sample. H2O contents for ignimbrites range from 7.1-9.3 wt%, and those from the lava dome range from 6.7-7.1 wt%. Application of a H2O solubility model shows that water contents for the Roseau magmas correspond to pressures of 3-5 kbar. The most notable difference between the explosive and effusive magmas is that the lava dome has a higher pre-eruptive temperature than the ignimbrites. However, the results collectively suggest that more recent volcanism in

  8. Diffusion in coronas around clinopyroxene: modelling with local equilibrium and steady state, and a non-steady-state modification to account for zoned actinolite-hornblende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, J. R.; Birdi, J. J.; Emmett, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    Retrograde coronas of Caledonian age, between clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the Jotun Nappe Complex, Norway, illustrate the effects of diffusion kinetics on mineral distributions among layers and on the compositions of hornblende-actinolite. One corona type comprises a symplectite of epidote + quartz adjacent to plagioclase, and a less well-organized intergrowth of amphibole + quartz replacing clinopyroxene. The observed mineral proportions imply an open-system reaction, but the similarity of Al/Si ratios in reactant plagioclase and product symplectite indicates approximate conservation of Al2O3 and SiO2. The largest inferred open-system flux is a loss of CaO, mostly derived from consumption of clinopyroxene. The approximate layer structure, Pl|Ep + Qtz|Hbl + Qtz|Act±Hbl + Qtz|Cpx, is modelled using the theory of steady-state diffusion-controlled growth with local equilibrium. To obtain a solution, it is necessary to use a reactant plagioclase composition which takes into account aluminous (epidote) inclusions. The results indicate that, in terms of Onsager diffusion coefficients L ii , Ca is more mobile than AL ( L CaCa/ L AlAl≳3.) (where ≳ means greater than or approximately equal to). This behaviour of Ca is comparable with that of Mg in previously studied coronas around olivine. Si is non-diffusing in the present modelling, because of silica saturation. Oxidation of some Fe2+ to Fe3+ occurs within the corona. Mg diffuses towards its source (clinopyroxene) to maintain local equilibrium. Other coronas consist of two layers, hornblende adjacent to plagioclase and zoned amphibole + quartz adjacent to clinopyroxene. In the zoned layer, actinolitic hornblende forms relict patches, separated from quartz blebs by more aluminous hornblende. A preliminary steady-state, local-equilibrium model of grain-boundary diffusion explains the formation of low-Al and high-Al layers as due to Al immobility. Zoning and replacement are qualitatively explained in terms of

  9. Deformation and fluid-enhanced annealing in subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the Pannonian Basin (Styrian Basin, Eastern Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradi, Laszlo; Hidas, Károly; János Kovács, István; Tommasi, Andrea; Garrido, Carlos; Szabó, Csaba

    2017-04-01

    In the Carpathian-Pannonian region, xenolith-bearing Neogene alkali basaltic volcanism occurred in five volcanic fields [1], from which the Styrian Basin Volcanic Field (SBVF) is the westernmost one. In this study, we present new petrographic and crystal preferred orientation (CPO) data, and structural hydroxyl ("water") contents of upper mantle xenoliths from 12 volcanic outcrops across the SBVF. The studied xenoliths are mostly coarse granular hydrous spinel lherzolites. Amphiboles, replacing pyroxenes and spinels, are present in almost every sample. The peridotites are highly annealed, olivines and pyroxenes show no significant amount of intragranular deformation. Despite the annealed texture of the peridotites, olivine CPO is unambiguous and varies between [010]-fiber, orthogonal and [100]-fiber symmetry. The CPO of pyroxenes is coherent with coeval deformation with olivine. The fabric and CPO of amphiboles suggest postkinematic epitaxial overgrowth on the precursor pyroxenes. The structural hydroxyl content of the studied xenoliths exhibits rather high, equilibrium values, up to 10, 290 and 675 ppm in olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, respectively. The olivines contain more structural hydroxyl in the annealed xenoliths than in the more deformed ones. The xenoliths show equilibrium temperatures from 850 to 1100 °C, which corresponds to lithospheric mantle depths between 30 and 60 km. Equilibrium temperatures show correlation with the varying CPO symmetries and grain size: coarser grained xenoliths with [100]-fiber and orthorhombic symmetry appear in the high temperature (>1000 °C) xenoliths, which is characteristic for asthenospheric environments [2]. Most of the samples display transitional CPO symmetry between [010]-fiber and orthogonal, which indicate lithospheric deformation under varying stress field from transtensional to transpressional settings [3], probably related to the Miocene evolution of the Pannonian Basin, during which varying compressive and

  10. Ultramafites in the Gogolow-Jordanow massif and their predicted raw material evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciemniewska, M.; Czemier-Kowalska, M.; Lindner, M.; Salacinski, R.

    1981-01-01

    Based on mineralogical-petrographic analysis, it was established that the primary rocks of ultramafites were dunites and verlites which were exposed to intensive serpentinization, talcing, amphibolization, chloritization and carbonization. The constant components of rocks are ore minerals of paragenesis: chromite-ferrospinel-magnetite. Geochemical studies indicated the content (g/T): Cr 100-4800, Ni 100-3500, Co 30-160, Cu 1-100, while the computed values of the correlation coefficient revealed the existence of a link between Cr Ni, Co and Cr, Co and Ni. The mineralogical-petrographic composition, as well as the geological position of the studied massif indicate its affiliation to the ultramafites of the Alpine type and formation at the early stage of development of the geosyncline in the boundary zone between the consolidated gneiss block of the Archean and the mobile zone in relation to the deep faults. Although industrial concentrations of the expected were not found, the conducted observations make it possible to approach development of new prospecting concepts. Manifestation of the chromite mineralization and the ore accumulation in the region should be considered hydrothermal-metasomatic.

  11. Contrasting serpentinization processes in the eastern Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, D.J.M.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope compositions have been determined for serpentinites from between Davos (Arosa-Platta nappe, Switzerland) and the Valmalenco (Italy). ??D and ??18O values (-120 to -60 and 6-10???, respectively) in the Arosa-Platta nappe indicate that serpentinization took place on the continent at relatively low temperatures in the presence of limited amounts of metamorphic fluids that contained a component of meteoric water. One sample of chrysotile has a ??18O value of 13??? providing evidence of high W/R ratios and low formation temperature of lizardite-chrysotile in this area. In contrast, relatively high ??D values (-42 to -34???) and low ??18O values (4.4-7.4???) for serpentine in the eastern part of the Valmalenco suggest a serpentinization process that took place at moderate temperatures in fluids that were dominated by ocean water. The antigorite in the Valmalenco is the first reported example of continental antigorite with an ocean water signature. An amphibole sample from a metasomatically overprinted contact zone to metasediments (??D=-36???) indicates that the metasomatic event also took place in the presence of ocean water. Lower ??D values (-93 to -60???) of serpentines in the western part of the Valmalenco suggest a different alteration history possibly influenced by fluids associated with contact metamorphism. Low water/rock ratios during regional metamorphism (and metasomatism) have to be assumed for both regions. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Coexistence and mixing of magmas in the late precambrian Itaporanga batholith, State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, G.; Sial, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    The Precambrian Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro Fold Belt (CSF) located in the western portion of the states of Pernambuco and Paraiba is intruded, in its northern portion, by several coarsely porphyritic potassic calc-alkalic batholiths. These batholiths were syntectonically emplaced in relation to the Brasiliano cycle (=Pan-African) and are commonly associated with potassium diorites suggesting coexistence and mixing between felsic and mafic magmas. In the Itaporanga batholith three petrographic domains were mapped. A hybrid zone characterized by intense mechanical mixing of granite to granodiorite and potassium diorite magmas is located towards the border of the batholith. A commingling zone where felsic porphyritic granite to granodiorite and potassium diorite rocks are individualized at outcrop scale is located towards the center of the batholith. Finally a felsic porphyritic facies occur in the hybrid zone. Similarity among chemical analyses of amphiboles from potassium dioritic enclaves of the Itaporanga batholith and from the potassium diorite stock east of it suggest a common source for both magmas. This hypothesis is corroborated by similar REE patterns for potassium dioritic enclaves of the Itaporanga batholith and for the potassium diorite stock. The batholith shows a well developed foliation which dips towards its core suggesting that the present level of exposure represents the root zone of a diapir, where intense interaction between felsic and mafic magmas took place. (author)

  13. Morb - n. petrology and geochemistry of the metagabbro of Rio Olivares NNW Sector of Manizales (Caldas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro Toro, Luz Mary; Hincapie Jaramillo, Gustavo; Ossa Meza, Cesar Augusto

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Olivares metagabbro is a body of igneous intrusive rocks that outcrops along the Rio Olivares at NNW of the Manizales city (Department of Caldas, Colombia). This igneous body is defined by series of centimetro metric-sized faulted slivers within the western sector of Quebradagrande complex. Petrographic analyses show rocks with cumulus and isotropic gabbroic textures. The primary minerals are: calcium plagioclase and clinopyroxene, secondary minerals are: Amphibole, chlorite, epidote, plagioclase and less quartz, carbonate and occasionally opaque minerals. According to geochemical distribution of major elements, those rocks were generated from fractional crystallization of unique magma showing a typical tendency of tholeiitic series. Taking into account the behavior of trace elements in geotectonic discrimination diagrams; they were generated in an ocean floor setting and their sources coming from an n-morb segment in the upper mantle. REE patterns normalized with respect to chondrite, show relatively homogeneous patterns, flats and enriched up to 10 times compared to the typical n-morb. These rocks are part of the oceanic basement of the early cretaceous Quebradagrande complex, and they are affected by my ionitization and ocean floor metamorphism.

  14. Mantle wedge infiltrated with saline fluids from dehydration and decarbonation of subducting slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Yoshikawa, Masako; Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Mirabueno, Ma Hannah T; Okuno, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2013-06-11

    Slab-derived fluids play an important role in heat and material transfer in subduction zones. Dehydration and decarbonation reactions of minerals in the subducting slab have been investigated using phase equilibria and modeling of fluid flow. Nevertheless, direct observations of the fluid chemistry and pressure-temperature conditions of fluids are few. This report describes CO2-bearing saline fluid inclusions in spinel-harzburgite xenoliths collected from the 1991 Pinatubo pumice deposits. The fluid inclusions are filled with saline solutions with 5.1 ± 1.0% (wt) NaCl-equivalent magnesite crystals, CO2-bearing vapor bubbles, and a talc and/or chrysotile layer on the walls. The xenoliths contain tremolite amphibole, which is stable in temperatures lower than 830 °C at the uppermost mantle. The Pinatubo volcano is located at the volcanic front of the Luzon arc associated with subduction of warm oceanic plate. The present observation suggests hydration of forearc mantle and the uppermost mantle by slab-derived CO2-bearing saline fluids. Dehydration and decarbonation take place, and seawater-like saline fluids migrate from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge. The presence of saline fluids is important because they can dissolve more metals than pure H2O and affect the chemical evolution of the mantle wedge.

  15. New and non-traditional mineral raw materials deposits, perspectives of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyseev, O.; Beyseev, A.; Baichigasov, I.; Sergev, E.; Shakirova, G.

    1996-01-01

    Deposits of new and non-traditional kinds of mineral raw material are revealed, explored and prepared to industrial recovery in Kazakstan, that can be used in frames of conversion process to create new materials with unique properties, to prepare base for new technologies elaboration, and to achieve appreciable economic benefit. These deposits are located mostly in geographic and economic conditions of advanced infrastructure and mining works network, favorable for recovery.On the tests results the following is of heaviest interest: RHODUCITE, NEMALITE-CONTAINING CHRYSOTILE-ASBESTOS, NICKEL-CONTAINING SILICATE-ASBOLAN ORES, MEDICINAL MINERALS, SHUNGITES, FULLERENES, RAW QUARTZ MINERALS - the group of deposits containing 5 min tons of high quality quartz good for manufacture of cut-glass and fibre-optical articles, is explored in details. There are also deposits of other kinds of non-traditional strategic mineral raw material in the Republic of Kazakstan - natural fillers, that can be used in the national economy of the country and bring considerable economic benefit: chrysotile-asbestos, amphibole-asbestos, talk, vollastonite, tremolite, actinolite, vermiculite, zeolite, etc

  16. Evaluation of public and worker exposure due to naturally occurring asbestos in gravel discovered during a road construction project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Robert A; Hargesheimer, John; Vaara, Leah

    2008-09-01

    During a repair and reconstruction project of an unpaved highway in a remote region of Alaska, workers discovered, after construction had commenced, that the materials used from a local material site contained asbestos (variously described as tremolite or actinolite). The regional geology indicated the presence of ultramafic rock, which often contains asbestos. Evaluation of asbestos exposure to workers, their equipment, and living quarters was required, as was the possible future exposure of workers and the general public to asbestos already used in the roadway construction. In addition, a decision was needed on whether to use materials from the contaminated site in the future. Of the almost 700 breathing zone air monitoring samples taken of the workers, 3% of the samples indicated exposures at or near 0.1 f/cc by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400 phase contrast microscopy (PCM) procedure. Thirty-six of the PCM samples underwent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis by the NIOSH 7402 procedure, which indicated that about 40% of the fibers were asbestos. After classifying samples by tasks performed by workers, analysis indicated that workers, such as road grader operators who ground or spread materials, had the highest exposures. Also, monitoring results indicated motorist exposure to be much less than 0.1 f/cc. The design phase of any proposed construction project in regions that contain ultramafic rock must consider the possibility of amphibole contamination of roadway materials, and budget for exploration and asbestos analysis of likely materials sites.

  17. Dynamics of mineral crystallization from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Wilhelm, Heribert; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-03-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. The mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet-orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatized at ~4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometres and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80-90 vol%) occur with constant volume proportions and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by synchrotron radiation at Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Such information is discussed in relation to the physico-chemical aspects of nucleation and growth, shedding light on the mode of mineral crystallization from a fluid phase trapped at supercritical conditions.

  18. The Sao Jose do Rio Pardo mangeritic-granitic suite, south eastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Neto, M.C.; Figueiredo, M.C.H.; Janasi, V.A.; Basei, M.A.S.; Fryer, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the Sao Jose do Rio Pardo region, Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais States, occur some intrusive, folded tabular bodies of mangerites associated with hornblende granitoids. The country rocks correspond to a complex association of gneisses and migmatites, locally with granulite facies assemblages. Both the magnerites and hornblende granitoids present a tectonic foliation with mineral flattening and stretching. Petrographically the mangeritic rocks are mainly dark green quartz mangerites with mesoperthite, plagioclase, quartz, hypersthene, clinopyroxene and variable amounts of hornblende, with zircon as conspicuous acessory. The pink hornblende granitoids are mainly granite s.s. exhibiting higher quartz and amphibole contents and lacking pyroxenes. Hololeucocratic alkali feldspar granites are locally associated to the hornblende granites. The textures of the mangerites and granites almost always show an important metamorphic overprinting, with relictic mesoperthite and pyroxene crystal into a granoblastic matrix. The magneritic-granitic suite is characterized by relatively high Fe/(Fe + Mg), K and HFS elements and low Ca contents, being comparable to typical anorogenic magneritic-granitic suites from Svcandinavia and North America. The Rb/Sr data indicate a Late Proterozoic metamorphic isotopic rehomogenization (930 Ma, Ro = 0.706). Geological evidence suggest that the intrusive age could be Middle Proterozoic, wich is reinforced by another Rb-Sr value of about 1300 Ma. (author) [pt

  19. Chemistry and mineralogy of some Plio-Pleistocene tuffs from the Shungura Formation, southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, A. M.; Brown, F. H.

    1981-09-01

    The Shungura Formation of southwestern Ethiopia has yielded many tens of thousands of vertebrate fossils including hominids and microvertebrates, and in addition has also yielded fossil wood, pollen, and invertebrates. Widespread tuffs have made subdivision and detailed mapping of the formation possible, have provided material for potassium-argon dating, and have allowed direct lithostratigraphic correlation with the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya. The basis for correlation between the two formations is the distinctive chemistry of the tuffs, but systematic chemical variation within some tuffs invalidates some statistical correlation techniques. Here chemical analysis of glass separates and minerals from tuffs of the Shungura and Usno Formations are presented which may allow further ties to be established when data become available on other tuffs of the Koobi Fora Formation. The tuffs consist primarily of glass, but also contain phenocrysts of anorthoclase, hedenbergitic pyroxene, sodic amphibole, ilmenite, titanomagnetite, chevkinite, quartz, zircon, and rarely orthopyroxene and plagioclase. The glasses show evidence of alkali loss during hydration, and are not now peralkaline, although it is likely that they were initially. The source volcanoes were most likely situated within the Ethiopian rift valley, or on its margins.

  20. Two types of gabbroic xenoliths from rhyolite dominated Niijima volcano, northern part of Izu-Bonin arc: petrological and geochemical constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yoji; Endo, Daisuke; Ikehata, Kei; Oshika, Junya; Shinmura, Taro; Mori, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    We examined the petrography, petrology, and geochemistry of two types of gabbroic xenoliths (A- and B-type xenoliths) in olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units among the dominantly rhyolitic rocks in Niijima volcano, northern Izu-Bonin volcanic arc, central Japan. A-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene with an adcumulate texture were found in both olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units, and B-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase and amphibole with an orthocumulate texture were found only in biotite rhyolite units. Geothermal- and barometricmodelling based on mineral chemistry indicated that the A-type gabbro formed at higher temperatures (899-955°C) and pressures (3.6-5.9 kbar) than the B-type gabbro (687-824°C and 0.8-3.6 kbar). These findings and whole-rock chemistry suggest different parental magmas for the two types of gabbro. The A-type gabbro was likely formed from basaltic magma, whereas the B-type gabbro was likely formed from an intermediate (andesitic) magma. The gabbroic xenoliths in erupted products at Niijima volcano indicate the presence of mafic to intermediate cumulate bodies of different origins at relatively shallower levels beneath the dominantly rhyolitic volcano.

  1. Two types of gabbroic xenoliths from rhyolite dominated Niijima volcano, northern part of Izu-Bonin arc: petrological and geochemical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakawa Yoji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the petrography, petrology, and geochemistry of two types of gabbroic xenoliths (A- and B-type xenoliths in olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units among the dominantly rhyolitic rocks in Niijima volcano, northern Izu-Bonin volcanic arc, central Japan. A-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene with an adcumulate texture were found in both olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units, and B-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase and amphibole with an orthocumulate texture were found only in biotite rhyolite units. Geothermal- and barometricmodelling based on mineral chemistry indicated that the A-type gabbro formed at higher temperatures (899–955°C and pressures (3.6–5.9 kbar than the B-type gabbro (687–824°C and 0.8–3.6 kbar. These findings and whole-rock chemistry suggest different parental magmas for the two types of gabbro. The A-type gabbro was likely formed from basaltic magma, whereas the B-type gabbro was likely formed from an intermediate (andesitic magma. The gabbroic xenoliths in erupted products at Niijima volcano indicate the presence of mafic to intermediate cumulate bodies of different origins at relatively shallower levels beneath the dominantly rhyolitic volcano.

  2. Preliminary study of geotectonic evolution of the southern region of Sao Francisco (MG, Brazil) craton: an interpretation based on Rb-Sr, K-Ar, Pb-Pb and fission track data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.; Fonseca, A.C.; Poupeau, G.; Padilha, A.V.; Zapparolli, L.H.; Kawashita, K.; Khoury, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The results obtained from isotopic dating techniques (Rb-Sr, K-Ar, Pb-Pb and fission tracks) applied to samples from the southern region of Sao Francisco craton (Mg, Brazil) are discussed. Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb ages, in total rock, allowed the determination of crust enlargement, with eventual modifications of the pre-existing crust, during the Late Archean period (3000 to 2600 million years) and the Inferior Proterozoic period (2400 to 2100 m.y.). Three main cooling periods of time were determined by K-Ar dating of mica, amphiboles and total rock at the craton border: 2200 to 1700 m.y., 1300 to 1100 m.y. and 900 to 400 m.y. related, respectively, to superposition of three cycles: Transamazonico, Uruacuano and Brasiliano. Cooling below 110 0 C, detected by the fission track method applied to apatites, pointed out an age of 850 m.y. at the internal parts and 550 m.y. at the craton periphery, thus showing a progressive action of Brazilian marginal movable zones in the studied region. The application of these two techniques together enabled the evaluation of the rocks cooling shape. Cooling of these samples was complex between 2700 and 2200 m.y. and slow from 2000 m.y. onwards. The integrated treatment of data from the various dating techniques is of great importance to know the geotectonic evolution of ancient polycyclic sites. (C.L.B.) [pt

  3. Rare-earth element geochemistry in the Luanga Mafic-Ultramafic Complex, Para

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, M.T.F.; Nilson, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Six whole-rock samples (harzburgite, orthopyroxenic and norite) of the Luanga Mafic-Ultramafic Complex (Para) were analysed for rare-earth elements (REE) through plasma spectrometry. The Luanga Complex is a deformed and metamorphosed layered mafic-ultramafic body of Archaean age. The Complex underwent medium-grade metamorphism in three stages. The first stage (medium grade) involved local formation of tremolite and reduction of Ca content in plagioclase. The second stage (low grade) consisted of serpentinization of amphibole or ortopyroxene forming bastile and generation of albite + epidote + white mica + actinolite from plagioclase. The third stage involved renewed serpentinization and/or talcification of pre-existing minerals (including serpentine) along fracture and fault surfaces. The analysed rocks display light rare-earth element (LREE) enrichment up to sixty times the composition of the Leedly chondrite and La/Yb ratios from 6.2 to 20.0 they are low in medium rare-earth elements (MREE), displaying discrete to strong negative Eu anomaly even in plagioclase cumulates and are slightly enriched in heavy rare-earth elements (HREE), usually higher than chondrite values. The low MREE area related to the occurrence of orthopyroxene (bronzite) in a way similar to the pattern of alpine periodotites, while HREE enrichment is compatible with the presence of bronzite and Mg-olivine, probably an inherited igneous feature. (author) [pt

  4. Flowage differentiation in an andesitic dyke of the Motru Dyke Swarm (Southern Carpathians, Romania) inferred from AMS, CSD and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkono, Collin; Féménias, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Berza, Tudor; Demaiffe, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Two dykes of different thickness (5.5 m for TJ31 and 23 m for TJ34) from the late Pan-African calc-alkaline Motru Dyke Swarm (S. Carpathians, Romania) have been studied by electron microprobe (mineral chemistry), crystal size distribution (CSD), anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and whole-rock geochemistry. All the physical and chemical variations observed across the dyke's width point to concordant results and show that the variations of both modal abundance and size of the amphibole and biotite microphenocrysts inside the dykes (deduced from the classical CSD measurements) are the result of a mechanical segregation of suspended crystals during magmatic transport. Despite a pene-contemporaneous regional tectonic, the flow-induced differentiation in the thicker dyke is characterized by the concentration of pre-existing Ti-rich pargasite-tschermakite, clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystals in the core of the dyke and of the extracted differentiated liquid near the walls. This mechanical differentiation induces a chemical differentiation with a basaltic andesite composition for the core of the dyke whereas the margins are andesitic. Thus the chilled margins appear as a slightly more evolved liquid with a Newtonian behaviour when compared to the average composition of the dyke. The localization of the liquid on both sides of the dyke has certainly facilitated the ascent of the central part of the dyke that behaved as a Binghamian mush.

  5. Unusual Rb-Sr data on the age of two typical peralkaline granitoid plutons in West Transbeikalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinovskij, B.A.; Posokhov, V.F.; Zanvilevich, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotope study of two typical plutons in West Transbaikalia (Bryansk and Kharitonov) has been carried out. For alkaline and peralkaline suits of the Bryansk pluton the obtained data are 287 ± m.y., I Sx =0.7054 ± 3 and 285 ± 1 m.y., I Sr =0.7037 ± 3 respectively. Rb-Sr age of peralkaline syenites and granites from the Kharitonov pluton are in more or less consistency with those on the Malokunal pluton (233 ± 5 m.y.) and much less than the age of the Khorinsk pluton (253 ± 3 m.y.). Taking into account the K-Ar data on amphibole from the peralkaline granitoids it is concluded that probable age of these rocks span the interval 250-220 m.y. However results obtained from the Bryansk pluton suggest that within the Mongolia-Transbaikalia belt one more stage of peralkaline granitoid generation i.e. the Early Permian stage could be manifested as well. 20 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Multiple sources of magmatism: granitoids from southeast kohistan, nw himalayas Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayab, M.; Qazi, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Kohistan island arc terrane in the northwestern Himalayas of N. Pakistan is sandwiched between the Indian and Karakoram plates. The base of the arc is occupied by a major stratiform ultramafic-gabbroic complex (the Sapat-Babusar complex). which overrides the crust of the Indian plate along the Indus suture (i. e., the Main Mantle Thrust; MMT). It was intruded into the base of a thick pile of metavolcanics (the Kamila belt), which comprise a tectonic collage of MORB-type tholeiitic basalts, island-arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline andesites. The Chilas complex, comprising ultramafic and gabbronorite rocks, is also intrusive into the Kamila belt. It is emplaced onto the top rather than the base of the Kamila belt. A sizeable proportion of granitoid rocks are present in the south-eastern part of Kohistan. Which intruded the Kamila amphibolites. These are predominantly dioritic in composition but include gabbros, granodiorites, granites and trondhjemites. The granitoids occur in two types: (I) large sheet-like lenticular masses, and (2) minor intrusives in the form of veins sills or dykes. Three large sheets like bodies are mapped. All these bodies are composite, comprising gabbros, diorite/tonalite. granodiorite and granite. The minor intrusions of granitic and trondhjemitic composition are abundantly present in the form of veins, sills and dykes and are characterized by variation in distribution. Strong shearing transformed the rocks into blastomylonite gneisses. The mineral assemblage consists of quartz, plagioclase, Amphibole, epidote, chlorite, biotite, muscovite, sphene, magnetite and apatite. (author)

  7. Thermochemistry of minerals stable near the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The present proposal continues the evolution, of changing emphasis from silicate melts to glass and toward crystalline minerals stable in the shallow crustal environment, particularly amphiholes, micas, and related hydrous phases adding zeolites and carbonates to our areas of interest. This is made possible both by recent advances in our high-temperature calorimetric techniques and by an interest in extending our ideas about the systematics of ionic substitutions to more complex structures. The proposal presents the following: (a) a listing of papers, theses, and abstracts in the past 3 years supported by the present grant, (b) a summary of work on glasses containing highly charged cations and on some related crystalline phases, with proposed new directions, (c) a discussion of advances in calorimetric methods and what new possibilities they open, (d) completed and planned work on amphiboles, micas, and clays, (e) completed and proposed work on amorpous low temperature materials, (f) proposed work on zeolites, and (g) proposed work on carbonates and (h) a discussion of the energy relevance of the above projects. This is followed by the required forms, budget pages, and CV. 34 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Araxa Group in the type-area: A fragment of Neoproterozoic oceanic crust in the Brasilia Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seer, Hildor Jose; Brod, Jose Affonso; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende; Dardenne, Marcel Auguste

    2001-01-01

    This study reviews the geological characteristics and puts forward a new evolution model for the Araxa Group in its type-area, the southern segment of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Araxa Group is confined within a thrust sheet belonging to a syn formal regional fold, the Araxa Syn form, overlying two other thrust sheets made of the Ibia and Canastra Groups. The Araxa Group is described as a tectono stratigraphic terrane in the sense of Howell (1993). It comprises an igneous mafic sequence, with fine and coarse grained amphibolites, associated with pelitic meta sedimentary rocks, and subordinate psanmites. All rocks were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies at ca. 630 Ma ago and were intruded by collisional granites. The amphibolites represent original basaltic and gabbroic rocks, with minor ultramafic (serpentinite/ amphibole-talc schist). The basalts are similar to high Fe O tholeiites, with REE signatures that resemble E-MORB and ε Nd(T) =+ 1.1. The meta sedimentary rocks are interpreted as the result of a marine deep-water sedimentation. They have Sm-Nd model ages of 1,9 Ga, and ε Nd(T) = -10.21. The amphibolites and metasediments could represent a fragment of back-arc oceanic crust. The data presented here differ significantly from the original definition of Barbosa et al. (1970) who describe the Araxa Group as a pelitic/psanmitic sequence and the collisional granites as a basement complex. (author)

  9. Environmental cancer risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In a long-awaited report (‘Assessment of Technologies for Determining Cancer Risks From the Environment’), the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has evaluated the role of environmental factors in cancer diseases. Environment is interpreted broadly as encompassing anything that interacts with humans, including the natural environment, food, radiation, the workplace, etc. Geologic factors range from geographic location to radiation and specific minerals. The report, however, is based on an inadequate data base in most instances, and its major recommendations are related to the establishment of a national cancer registry to record cancer statistics, as is done for many other diseases. Presently, hard statistics are lacking in the establishment of some association between the cause-effect relationship of most environmental factors and most carcinogens. Of particular interest, but unfortunately based on unreliable data, are the effects of mineral substances such as ‘asbestos.’ USGS mineralogist Malcolm Ross will review asbestos and its effects on human health in the forthcoming Mineralogical Society of America's Short Course on the Amphiboles (Reviews in Mineralogy, 9, in press, 1981).

  10. Petrology and geochemistry of REE-rich Mafé banded iron formations (Bafia group, Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkoumbou, Charles; Gentry, Fuh Calistus; Tchakounte Numbem, Jacqueline; Belle Ekwe Lobé, Yolande Vanessa; Nwagoum Keyamfé, Christin Steve

    2017-07-01

    Archaean-Paleoproterozoic foliated amphibole-gneisses and migmatites interstratified with amphibolites, pyroxeno-amphibolites and REE-rich banded-iron formations outcrop at Mafé, Ndikinimeki area. The foliation is nearly vertical due to tight folds. Flat-lying quartz-rich mica schists and quartzites, likely of Pan-African age, partly cover the formations. Among the Mafé BIFs, the oxide BIF facies shows white layers of quartz and black layers of magnetite and accessory hematite, whereas the silicate BIF facies is made up of thin discontinuous quartz layers alternating with larger garnet (almandine-spessartine) + chamosite + ilmenite ± Fe-talc layers. REE-rich oxide BIFs compositions are close to the East Pacific Rise (EPR) hydrothermal deposit; silicate BIFs plot midway between EPR and the associated amphibolite, accounting for a contamination by volcanic materials, in addition to the hydrothermal influence during their oceanic deposition. The association of an oceanic setting with alkaline and tholeiitic magmatism is typical of the Algoma-type BIF deposit. The REE-rich BIFs indices recorded at Mafé are interpreted as resulting from an Archaean-Paleoproterozoic mineralization.

  11. Geochemical and petrological study of the anphibolites from Cassia Region, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, C.T.; Girardi, V.A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The orthoamphibolites of the Cassia Region, Minas Gerais State, belong to two different groups distinguished by their TiO 2 contents (average contents 2.67% respectively). (La, Nb, V, Zr, Ce, and Zn). The titanium-poor group is slightly enriched in SiO 2 . The remarkable differences in incompatible element ratios between ATi and BTi(e.g., 4-,5 and 11-fold for Ce/Y, Zr/Nb and Y/La, respectively) indicate that the parent basaltic rocks of both groups were not derived either by fractional crystallizatin or by partial melting from a homogeneous source. It is suggested that the parent basilitic rocks of ATi and BTi were related to chemically hetrogeneous mantles materials. The clear discrimination of both groups in the Ti-Zr-Y diagram is attributed to geochemical characteristics of their genesis and does not necessarily indicate different environments. Metamorphic grade in the Cassia region increases from SSW to NNE. In the amphibolites, progresssive metamorphism is indicated by increase in the anorthite content of plagioclase; by changes of colour and composition of the amphiboles, which vary from tschermakitic hornblendes (green) to edenitic hornblendes (brownish-green to brown); and by increase in the pyrope content of garnet. The temperatures obtained through geothermometry of the amplhibolities vary from 650 0 C to slightly greater than 725 0 C. Minimum pressures are estimated around 6.5Kb [pt

  12. Alteration history studies in the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.S.; Chipera, S.J.; Norman, D.I.

    1996-01-01

    By mid-1995, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) extended about 1. 1 km from Exile Hill westward toward Yucca Mountain, mostly within densely welded, devitrfied Tiva Canyon Tuff. Secondary mineral occurrences in this unit include breccia cements of mordenite, a fibrous zeolite, and vapor-phase deposits of silica, alkali feldspar, apatite, hollandite, amphibole, and zircon. Calcite is also a common secondary mineral in faults and fractures. Studies of water and gas contents in fluid inclusions in calcites from a fault in nonwelded tuff and a fracture in densely welded tuff suggest mineral deposition under transient locally saturated conditions. Calcite in the nonwelded tuff incorporated air from the unsaturated tuff adjacent to the fault. A highly altered interval within pre-Pah Canyon tuffs just above the top of the Topopah Spring Tuff may be a fossil fumarole or other hydrothermal feature associated with cooling pyroclastic deposits, overprinted by later zeolitic alteration. The observed quartz, cristobalite, opal-CT, and fluorite have been widely identified as products of syngenetic devitrification and vapor-phase alteration in and above the Topopah Spring Tuff. Smectite, also an abundant secondary mineral at the ESF site, has been observed elsewhere at this stratigraphic level. Zeolitic alteration of nonwelded tuffs above the Topopah Spring Tuff, as seen in the ESF, has also been noted in drill core and outcrop at northeastern Yucca Mountain. The hydrologic and geochemical conditions that favored zeolitization only in certain areas of this stratigraphic interval have yet to be determined

  13. Excess Ar in biotites from the Broderick Falls (Webuye) area, western Kenya: implications for the tectonothermal history of the Mozambique Belt and its Archaean foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, K.; Suwa, K.; Uchiumi, S.; Agata, T.

    1996-10-01

    RbSr whole rock and KAr mineral age determinations were made on rocks from the Broderick Falls (Webuye) area, western Kenya. Granitic rocks yielded a RbSr whole rock isochron age of 2555 ± 101 Ma with an initial {87Sr}/{86Sr} ratio of 0.70121 ± 0.00038. This age represents the time of granitoid emplacement. KAr mineral ages range from 574 to 3420 Ma, which is very variable with respect to mineral type and locality. Mylonitic granodiorite very close to the Nandi Escarpment gave a KAr age of 916 Ma from biotite, suggesting the time of the activity of the Nandi Fault, which may be an earlier phase of the Pan-African Orogeny. Ages of biotites in a zone between 4 and 6 km northeast of the Nandi Fault are anomalously high compared to those of coexisting hornblende and the RbSr isochron age, confirming the existence of excess 40Ar in biotite. Excess 40Ar was probably introduced into biotite under the appropriate temperature conditions prevailing near the Nandi Fault. Taramite, a rare sodic-calcic amphibole, was found in a cordierite-biotite gneiss of the Kavirondian Supergroup and gave a typical Pan-African KAr age of 574 Ma. The last Pan-African metamorphism occurred in the terrane east of the Surongai Thrust.

  14. Estimating NOA Health Risks from Selected Construction Activities at the Calaveras Dam Replacement Project (CDRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    The CDRP is a major construction project involving up to 400 workers using heavy earth moving equipment, blasting, drilling, rock crushing, and other techniques designed to move 7 million yards of earth. Much of this material is composed of serpentinite, blueschist, and other rocks that contain chrysotile, crocidolite, actinolite, tremolite, and Libby-class amphiboles. To date, over 1,000 personal, work area, and emission inventory related samples have been collected and analyzed by NIOSH 7400, NIOSH 7402, and CARB-AHERA methodology. Data indicate that various CDRP construction activities have the potential to generate significant mineral fibers and structures that could represent elevated on site and off site health risks. This presentation will review the Contractors air monitoring program for this major project, followed by a discussion of predictive methods to evaluate potential onsite and offsite risks. Ultimately, the data are used for planning control strategies designed to achieve a Project Action Level of 0.01 f/cc (one tenth the Cal/OSHA PEL) and risk-based offsite target levels.

  15. A Typology of Communication Dynamics in Families Living a Slow-Motion Technological Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Heather; Cline, Rebecca J W; Hernandez, Tanis; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Schwartz, Ann G; Ruckdeschel, John C

    2012-10-01

    With increasing numbers of communities harmed by exposures to toxic substances, greater understanding of the psychosocial consequences of these technological disasters is needed. One community living the consequences of a slow-motion technological disaster is Libby, Montana, where, for nearly 70 years, amphibole asbestos-contaminated vermiculite was mined and processed. Former mine employees and Libby area residents continue to cope with the health consequences of occupational and environmental asbestos exposure and with the psychosocial challenges accompanying chronic and often fatal asbestos-related diseases (ARD). Nine focus groups were conducted with Libby area residents. Transcripts were analyzed to explore patterns of family communication about ARD. The following five patterns emerged: Open/Supportive, Silent/Supportive, Open/Conflictual, Silent/Conflictual, and Silent/Denial. Open/Supportive communication included encouragement to be screened for ARD, information about ARD and related disaster topics, and emotional support for people with ARD. In contrast, communication patterns characterized by silence or conflict have the potential to hinder health-promoting communication and increase psychological distress.

  16. The Tale of Asbestos in Sweden 1972–1986—The Pathway to a Near-Total Ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Westerholm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a narrative of the national intervention strategy in Sweden aimed to restrict the industrial use of asbestos. For many years, asbestos was imported for widespread industrial use, resulting in large amounts throughout Swedish society. In 1972, the whistle was blown in a Communist Party parliamentary motion describing asbestos as a health hazard and requesting action to prohibit its use. Although the motion was rejected, it initiated the extensive charting of asbestos sources on a tripartite basis, involving government agencies, and employer and trade-union organizations. Restrictive asbestos management practices were enforced from July 1982. The year 1985 saw the Government Asbestos Commission review, covering use-determining factors, international regulations, and assessments of cancer risks. The relative risks of chrysotile and amphibole were considered internationally (by the IARC, since chrysotile (a Canadian export was regarded as unharmful in Canada at that time. Prohibiting asbestos use resulted in its virtual disappearance as an import to Sweden from the early 1980s. However, asbestos has undergone a transition from an occupational to a public-health hazard (although some work-related hazards, such as handling and disposal, remain. The transition reflects the public’s exposure to existing stocks, in homes, workplaces, etc. Mesothelioma incidence has come to be regarded as an indicator of prevention effectiveness.

  17. The Tale of Asbestos in Sweden 1972-1986-The Pathway to a Near-Total Ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerholm, Peter; Remaéus, Bertil; Svartengren, Magnus

    2017-11-22

    This paper provides a narrative of the national intervention strategy in Sweden aimed to restrict the industrial use of asbestos. For many years, asbestos was imported for widespread industrial use, resulting in large amounts throughout Swedish society. In 1972, the whistle was blown in a Communist Party parliamentary motion describing asbestos as a health hazard and requesting action to prohibit its use. Although the motion was rejected, it initiated the extensive charting of asbestos sources on a tripartite basis, involving government agencies, and employer and trade-union organizations. Restrictive asbestos management practices were enforced from July 1982. The year 1985 saw the Government Asbestos Commission review, covering use-determining factors, international regulations, and assessments of cancer risks. The relative risks of chrysotile and amphibole were considered internationally (by the IARC), since chrysotile (a Canadian export) was regarded as unharmful in Canada at that time. Prohibiting asbestos use resulted in its virtual disappearance as an import to Sweden from the early 1980s. However, asbestos has undergone a transition from an occupational to a public-health hazard (although some work-related hazards, such as handling and disposal, remain). The transition reflects the public's exposure to existing stocks, in homes, workplaces, etc. Mesothelioma incidence has come to be regarded as an indicator of prevention effectiveness.

  18. 14C age of the ash found in the peat bed of upland dog, Nakagawa-Gun, Hokkaido

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yaeko; Kondo, Tsutomu; Fujiwara, Koichiro.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the 14 C age of volcanic ash forming thin layer, which was found in a peat bed, was carried out. The samples were collected from the peat bed which distributes on the flat top of upland about 450m above sea level. The moor spread in the experimental plantation of the agricultural department of Hokkaido University. The thin layer of volcanic ash was found 20 cm deep in the peat bed and with about 1-3 cm thickness. The determination of 14 C age was made on the peat directly beneath the volcanic ash layer, along with the mineralogical studies. The obtained 14 C age was 480 480 +- 100 Y.B.P. (A.D. 1470), and this is presumed to be the age of eruption of the volcanic ash. The color of the ash was greenish yellow or orange in wet state, and grayish white in dry state. The volcanic ash was fine grained pumiceous, and round or nearly round grains predominate. By macroscopic observation, the grains were found to be composed of fibrous volcanic glass. The volcanic ash was well sorted, and the central grain size was 0.11 mm. Heavy liquid method was applied for the determination of heavy minerals. The weight percentage of heavy minerals was 1.59, and the characteristic of this ash was the entire absence of amphibole. Further investigation is necessary for clarifying the distribution of volcanic ash and the source of eruption. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  19. Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mónica; Altenberger, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2009-07-01

    The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing to a subduction-related magmatic event. K/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we assume the intrusions to be part of the Andean magmatism of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The age of the intrusions has significant tectonic and economic implications because it coincides with two regional events: (1) the late Miocene/Pliocene Andean orogenic uplift of most of the sub-Andean regions in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia and (2) a pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion that has reached the gas window. High La/Yb, K/Nb and La/Nb ratios, and the obtained Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of subducted sediments and/or the assimilation of oceanic crust of the subducting slab. We discuss the possibility that magma chamber(s) west of the basin, below the Cordillera, did increase the heat flow in the basin causing generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and CO2.

  20. Characterization of bentonite, fibrous and kaolinite clays with regard to their use in pelotherapy; Caracterizacion de bentonitas, arcillas fibrosas y arcillas caoliniferas para su empleo en peloterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo Martin, E.; Martin Rubi, J. A.; Pozo Rodriguez, M.

    2011-07-01

    We have characterized the mineralogical and chemical contents of several Spanish special clays (bentonite, fibrous clays and kaolin). Mineralogical analyses revealed that the samples were composed mainly of phyllosilicates (78 %-99 %) with a notable presence of dioctahedral and trioctahedral smectites in the bentonite, kaolinite in the kaolin and sepiolite or palygorskite in the fibrous clays. Illite was the common subordinate mineral in the bentonite, kaolin and palygorskite. Quartz, calcite, dolomite and feldspars were found as associate minerals with the occasional presence of zeolites and amphiboles. The chemical analysis was consistent with the mineralogy. With regard to trace elements (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ba, Sb, Pb, U), the whole samples of the magnesium bentonite and sepiolite were found to have the lowest trace-element contents (<257,28 ppm ), whilst the aluminium bentonite, kaolin and particularly the palygorskite had higher contents than the other clays, with some elements occasionally exceeding the contents of previously studied common clays. Nevertheless, all the trace elements were found in lower quantities than the recommended toxicity levels and those quantities currently used in pelotherapy in Spanish spas. (Author)

  1. Placer mineral resources of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Kumar, V.

    2016-01-01

    Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state with second longest coast line in India has many placer heavy mineral deposits. These deposits contain economically important light heavy minerals like ilmenite, rutile, leucoxene, monazite, zircon, garnet, sillimanite, kyanite and non-economic minerals like pyroxenes, amphiboles and magnetite along with associated accessory minerals like staurolite, epidote, spinel, biotite and tourmaline. Geologically, granulitic rocks, principally Khondalites (garnet-sillimanite-graphite gneisses), charnockites and granitic gneisses bordered by sedimentary rocks are exposed along the eastern coastal plains of the Tamil Nadu. The principal highland areas, as for example, Shavaroys, Nilgiris, Palni-Kodaikanal Hills and Cardomom hills consists primarily of Charnockites. The margins of highland show a gradation into less metamorphosed rocks generally of amphibolite facies. The khondalites are found south of Kodaikanal massif. Anorthosites and layered mafic complexes occur at Sittampundi, Kadavur areas. Alkaline rocks and carbonatites are prominent at Simalpatti, Sevattur and Sivamalai. Coastal sedimentaries include, Gondwanas, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary rocks along with lateritic soils and beach sands

  2. Petrology of Ortsog-Uul peridotite-gabbro massif in Western Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalova, M.; Tolstykh, N.; Shelepaev, R.; Cherdantseva, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Ortsog-Uul mafic-ultramafic massif of Western Mongolia is located in a tectonic block with overturned bedding. The massif hosts two intrusions: a rhythmically-layered peridotite-gabbro association (Intrusion 1) and massive Bt-bearing amphibole-olivine gabbro (Intrusion 2). Intrusions 1 and 2 have different petrology features. Early Intrusion 1 (278±2.5Ma) is characterized by lower concentrations of alkalis, titanium and phosphorus than late Intrusion 2 (272±2Ma). The chondrite-normalized REE and primitive mantle-normalized rare elements patterns of Ortsog-Uul intrusions have similar curves of elements distribution. However, Intrusion 2 is characterized higher contents of REE and rare elements. High concentrations of incompatible elements are indicative of strong fractionation process. It has been suggested that Intrusions 1 and 2 derived from compositionally different parental melts. Model calculations (COMAGMAT-3.57) show that parental melts of two intrusions were close to high-Mg picrobasaltic magmas. The concentration of MgO in melt is 16.21 (Intrusion 1) and 16.17 (Intrusion 2). Isotopic data of Ortsog-Uul magmatic rocks exhibit different values of εNd (positive and negative) for Intrusion 1 and 2, respectively.

  3. Pyrite-pyrrhotite intergrowths in calcite marble from Bistriški Vintgar, Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavašnik, J

    2016-01-01

    Roman marble quarry in Bistrica gorge in southern Pohorje Mt. (north-eastern Slovenia) is situated in a 20 m thick lens of layered marble, at the contact zone between granodiorite and metamorphites. Grey and yellowish non-homogenous calcite marble is heavily included by mica, quartz, feldspars, zoisite, pyrite and amphiboles. In the present research, we have studied numerous pyrite (FeS 2 ) crystals associated with yellowish-bronze non-stoichiometric pyrrhotite (Fe 1−x S), not previously reported from this locality. SEM investigation revealed unusual sequence of crystallisation: primary skeletal pyrrhotite matrix is sparsely overgrown by well-crystalline pyrite, both being overgrown by smaller, well-developed hexagonal pyrrhotite crystals of the second generation. With TEM we identify the pyrrhotite as 5T-Fe 1-x S phase, where x is about 0.1 and is equivalent to Fe 9 S 10 . The pyrite-pyrrhotite coexistence allows us a construction of fO 2 -pH diagram of stability fields, which reflects geochemical conditions at the time of marble re-crystallisation. (paper)

  4. Calymmian magmatism in the basement of the Jauru Terrain (Rondonian - San Ignacio Province), Amazon Craton: U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochemistry and geochronology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachetti, Frankie James Serrano; Costa, Ana Claudia Dantas da; Silva, Carlos Humberto da, E-mail: frankiefachetti@hotmail.com, E-mail: acdcosta@ufmt.br, E-mail: chsilva@ufmt.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra

    2016-11-01

    The Taquarussu Orthogneiss and the Guadalupe Granodiorite, part of the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province basement, southwest of the Amazonian Craton, correspond to oriented bodies with a NW trend. The rocks show granodiorite composition with minor occurrences of coarse grained monzogranites consisting essentially of plagioclase, quartz, microcline, orthoclase and biotite. The accessory minerals are amphibole, titanite, garnet, apatite, epidote, zircon and opaque. The geochemical data indicate that the rocks are classified as granodiorites and monzogranites, with an intermediate to acid magmatism, sub-alkaline character, from the calc-alkaline to the high-K calc-alkaline series, with alumina ratios ranging from metaluminous to lightly peraluminous. The rocks were classified as generated in volcanic islands arc environment and the U-Pb data (SHRIMP zircon) show a concord age 1575 ± 6 Ma. The Sm-Nd model age (T{sub DM}) is 1.63 Ga with εNd (t = 1.57 Ga) ranging from -1.52 to +0.78. These data indicate that these rocks are probably a juvenile crust with a possible contamination of crustal rocks. (author)

  5. Mineralogical Study of a Biologically-Based Treatment System That Removes Arsenic, Zinc and Copper from Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoshnoodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD and a high throughput automated quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN was conducted on samples from a sulphate-reducing biochemical reactor (BCR treating high concentrations of metals (As, Zn, Cu in smelter waste landfill seepage. The samples were also subjected to energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis of specific particles. The bulk analysis results revealed that the samples consisted mainly of silicate and carbonate minerals. More detailed phase analysis indicated four different classes: zinc-arsenic sulphosalts/sulphates, zinc-arsenic oxides, zinc phosphates and zinc-lead sulphosalts/sulphates. This suggests that sulphates and sulphides are the predominant types of Zn and As minerals formed in the BCR. Sphalerite (ZnS was a common mineral observed in many of the samples. In addition, X-ray point analysis showed evidence of As and Zn coating around feldspar and amphibole particles. The presence of arsenic-zinc-iron, with or without cadmium particles, indicated arsenopyrite minerals. Copper-iron-sulphide particles suggested chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 and tennantite (Cu,Fe12As4S13. Microbial communities found in each sample were correlated with metal content to describe taxonomic groups associated with high-metal samples. The research results highlight mineral grains that were present or formed at the site that might be the predominant forms of immobilized arsenic, zinc and copper.

  6. Mineralogical textural and compositional data on the alteration of basaltic glass from Kilauea, Hawaii to 300 degrees C: Insights to the corrosion of a borosilicate glass waste-form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Mineralogical, textural and compositional data accompanying greenschist facies metamorphism (to 300 degrees C) of basalts of the East Rift Zone (ERZ), Kilauea, Hawaii may be evaluated relative to published and experimental results for the surface corrosion of borosilicate glass. The ERZ alteration sequence is dominated by intermittent palagonite, interlayered smectite-chlorite, chlorite, and actinolite-epidote-anhydrite. Alteration is best developed in fractures and vesicles where surface reaction layers root on the glass matrix forming rinds in excess of 100 microns thick. Fractures control fluid circulation and the alteration sequence. Proximal to the glass surface, palagonite, Fe-Ti oxides and clays replace fresh glass as the surface reaction layer migrates inwards; away from the surface, amphibole, anhydrite, quartz and calcite crystallize from hydrothermal fluids in contact with the glass. The texture and composition of basaltic glass surfaces are similar to those of a SRL-165 glass leached statically for sixty days at 150 degrees C. While the ERZ reservoir is a complex open system, conservative comparisons between the alteration of ERZ and synthetic borosilicate glass are warranted. 31 refs., 2 figs

  7. 40Ar/39Ar dating and geochemistry of tholeiitic magmatism related to the early opening of the Central Atlantic rift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebai, A.; Feraud, G.; Bertrand, H.; Hanes, J.

    1991-01-01

    Tholeiitic effusive and intrusive magnetism from Iberia, Morocco, Algeria and Mali, realted to the early opening of the Central Atlantic rift, was dated by the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar step-heating method. Four plateau ags, rangin from 203.7±2.7 to 197.1±1.8 Ma, were obtained on plagioclase from dykes from theTaoudenni area (Mali) and two lava flows from Morocco. The Messejana dyke (Iberia), which previously yielded discrepant conventional K-Ar dates, did not furnish any 40 Ar/ 39 Ar plateau dates. However, there is a clear inverse relationship between apparent age and K/Ca atio for gas fractions from a plagioclase separate (proportional to the alteration degree) which, combined with dates obtained on amphibole, biotite and pyroxene, allows us to determine an age of around 200 Ma for this body. These data, and those obtained on the Foum Zguid (Morocco) and the Ksi Ksou (Algeria) dykes, give evidence of a brief magmatic event (between 206 and 195 Ma ago) which affected a large area ca. 2500 km long. Trace-element modelling shows that most of these formations originated from a homogeneous, enriched, source material. Such a brief magmatic episode related to the opening of a continental rift is in agreement with findings in other magmatic provinces (e.g. the Deccan traps and the Red Sea rift, precisely dated by the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar method as well). (orig.)

  8. Preliminary isotopic data from some amphibolites of the metamorphic basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa M, Ana Maria; Martens K, Uwe; Ordonez C, Oswaldo; Pimentel, Marcio M; Restrepo A, Jorge Julian

    2001-01-01

    Various amphibolite bodies are exposed in the Antioquia Department, Colombia, mainly around the cities of Medellin and El Retiro. Two types of amphibolites occur in the study area; the first one is considered as part of an ophiolite complex and the second one correspond to amphibolites associated to metasediments from the basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera. The present work refers to these last ones. The relationships between amphibolite bodies and other lythological units are the following ones: Intercalation of amphibolites layers with metasediments in the unit migmatites and granulites of El Retiro. The Medellin amphibolites are conformably overlaid by the paragneisses of Las Penas. The granodiorite body represented by the Antioquian Batolith is intrusive in the metamorphic rocks and the Medellin Dunites unit is in thrust fault contact with Medellin amphibolites. These amphibolites have been studied by Botero (1963), Gonzalez (1976 and 1980), Restrepo and Toussaint (1984), Ardila (1986), Restrepo (1986), Rendon (1999) and, Correa and Martens (2000). Available radiometric ages on the amphibolites come from former works by Restrepo y Toussaint (1978), Restrepo et al. (1991) that presented K-Ar ages in amphiboles and a Rb-Sr isochron which yielded a Cretaceous age that they interpreted as a metamorphic age. This work presents new evidences, obtained from field work, petrography, rock geochemistry and specially the first isotopic data on these amphibolites from the Central Cordillera Metamorphic Basement (au)

  9. Petrogenetic evolution of the felsic and mafic volcanic suite in the Siang window of Eastern Himalaya, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnakanta Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Abor volcanics outcroping in the core of the Siang window in the Eastern Himalaya comprise voluminous mafic volcanics (47%–56% w(SiO2, with subordinate felsic volcanics (67%–75% w(SiO2. The felsic volcanics are dacitic to rhyolitic in composition and are typically enriched in LREE (La/SmN = 3.09–3.90 with high REE contents (256–588 ppm, moderately fractionated REE patterns (CeN/YbN = 6.54–9.52 and pronounced negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.55–0.72. Wide variations in Rb/Zr, K/Rb and La/Sm ratios suggest that they were derived from magmas which were randomly contaminated with crustal material. Chemical characteristics and petrogenetic modelling indicate that the dacites were generated by ∼15% partial melting of a mafic source leaving a residue with 55% plagioclase, 14% orthoclase, 18% clinopyroxene, 5% orthopyroxene, 8% hornblende. The silica-rich rhyodacites and rhyolites were derived from a dacite magma source by a higher degree (>45% fractional crystallization of an assemblage consisting of 70% plagioclase, 12% clinopyroxene, 7% amphibole and 11% magnetite. The associated LREE-LILE enrichment and pronounced negative anomalies for HFSE (Nb, P, and Ti exhibited by these felsic volcanics are characteristic of continental rift volcanism, implying that they were emplaced during lithospheric extension.

  10. Mafic and ultramafic rocks, and platinum mineralisation potential, in the Longwood Range, Southland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, P.; Craw, D.; Mackenzie, D.; Rombouts, M.; Reay, A.

    2012-01-01

    Intrusive rocks in the Longwood Range represent a component of the Permian Brook Street Terrane. They include diffusely layered, cumulate-textured olivine gabbro, troctolite, and gabbro, and gradations into non-cumulate gabbro and gabbronorite. Volumetrically small ultramafic layers occur (plagioclase wehrlite), and thin veins of felsic rocks ranging from quartz diorite to trondhjemite. Primary olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and subordinate orthopyroxene and hornblende are commonly altered or metamorphosed to amphiboles, minor spinel, magnetite, chlorite, biotite and clinozoisite, and serpentine in olivine-rich rocks. Accessory primary Ti-bearing magnetite and ilmenite occur, and trace Cr-magnetite is characteristic of olivine-rich rocks. Trace pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and pyrite could reflect equilibrated late magmatic, and alteration-derived phases. Key petrochemical characteristics of the rock suite are high Mg, Al, Ca, and Sr contents, and low alkali, LILE, and sulfur contents. Platinum and Pd are locally enriched in drill-hole intercepts, but zones appear unrelated to rock type, magnetic properties, or to S, Cu, Ni, Cr, or Au values. Local platinum group element (PGE) enrichment in altered rocks implies metamorphic and/or hydrothermal redistribution. Pervasive PGE enrichment in Longwood rocks is an indicator of potential 'fertility', but evidence is currently lacking for the precipitation of primary stratiform PGE accumulations from a sulfide liquid saturated magma. (author). 41 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Petrogenesis and geochemical characterisation of ultramafic cumulate rocks from Hawes Head, Fiordland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daczko, N.R.; Emami, S.; Allibone, A.H.; Turnbull, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Early Cretaceous parts of the western Median Batholith (Western Fiordland Orthogneiss) represent the exposed root of a magmatic arc of dioritic to monzodioritic composition (SiO 2 = 51-55 wt%; Na 2 O/K 2 O = 3.7-8.8 in this study). We characterise for the first time the field relationships, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of ultramafic and mafic cumulates at Hawes Head, the largest exposure of ultramafic rocks in western Fiordland. We distinguish three related rock types at Hawes Head: hornblende peridotite (MgO = 21-35 wt%); hornblendite (MgO = 15-16 wt%); and pyroxenite (MgO = 21 wt%). Petrogenetic relationships between the ultramafic rocks and the surrounding Misty Pluton of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss are demonstrated by: (i) mutually cross-cutting relationships; (ii) similar mafic phases (e.g. pyroxene and amphibole) with elevated Mg-numbers (e.g. olivine Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.77-0.82); (iii) fractionation trends in mineral geochemistry; and (iv) shared depleted heavy rare earth element patterns. In addition, the application of solid/liquid partition coefficients indicates that olivine in the ultramafic rocks at Hawes Head crystallised from a magma with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.54-0.57. The olivine grains therefore represent a plausible early crystallising phase of the adjacent Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.51-0.55). (author). 42 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Melting of hydrous upper mantle and possible generation of andesitic magma: an approach from synthetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushiro, I

    1974-07-01

    Phase equilibria in a portion of the system forsterite--plagioclase (An/sub 50/Ab/sub 50/ by weight)--silica--H/sub 2/O have been determined at 15 kbar pressure under H/sub 2/O-saturated conditions. The composition of the liquid pertinent to the piercing point forsterite + enstatite solid solution + amphibole + liquid + vapor is similar to that of calc-alkaline andesite. The electron microprobe analysis of the glass coexisting with the above three crystalline phases is very close to that of the piercing point determined by phase assemblage observations; however, the glass near (less than 8 ..mu..m) forsterite crystals is significantly depleted in the normative forsterite component. With the addition of 10 wt. percent KAlSi/sub 3/O/sub 8/, the composition of this piercing point becomes even closer to the compositions of calc-alkaline andesites. It is also shown that the liquid coexisting with forsterite and enstatite solid solution remains silica-rich (60 to 62 wt. percent) over a wide (approximately 100/sup 0/C) temperature range. The present experimental studies support the view that liquids similar in composition to calc-alkaline andesites can be generated by direct partial melting of hydrous upper mantle at least at or near 15 kbar.

  13. Composition And Characteristic Of The Surficial Sediments In The Southern Corniche Of Jeddah, Red Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha A Al-Dubai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the composition and characteristic of the surficial sediments in the southern corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Red Sea coast, in an attempt to infer the surficial distribution pattern of minerals and provenance of sediments. Twenty-six superficial sediments samples were collected from backreef and forereef areas and were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3 content, and mineralogy. The textural of grain size range from gravel to mud fraction. The mud-dominated substrates (<63 µm occur generally in the back-reef area near the shoreline (sheltered area and in the lagoon. Gravel rich-sediments are mostly found in forereef regions. The highest content of aragonite and Mg-calcite occur in the forereef area, probably because to suitability the forereef region for chemical and biochemical precipitation of these minerals. High Mg-calcite and Dolomite are low in both the regions. The pyrite occurs in lagoon; this indicates the reductive conditions in this part. However, on the contrary the percentage of carbonate minerals were low in the backreef-flat area, which could be attributed to the supply of non-carbonate terrigenous materials. The terrigenous material contains quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase and amphibole minerals and are dominant in backreef-flat area with averages of 12.7%, 7.13%, 2.93% and 0.65%, respectively. Their abundance could be attributed to the supply of terrigenous materials by Aeolian deposits and intermittent Wadis.

  14. Textural and mineral chemistry constraints on evolution of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Sabrina; del Marmol, Mary-Ann; Voight, Barry; Andreastuti, Supriyati; Furman, Tanya

    2013-07-01

    We analyze and compare the textures of Merapi lavas (basalts and basaltic andesites) ranging in age from Proto-Merapi through modern activity, with the goal of gaining insights on the temporal evolution of Merapi's magmatic system. Analysis of textural parameters, such as phenocryst and microphenocryst crystallinity, coupled with crystal size distribution theory, provides information about the storage and transport of magmas. We combine textural analyses with geochemical investigations for a comprehensive comparison of erupted lavas over time. The chemical analyses identify crystal growth processes in magma chambers and underline differences between sample groups. Our work suggests the occurrence of two distinct histories, presumably associated with (at least) two generally distinct types of rheological behaviors and storage/transport systems. These behaviors are associated with different plagioclase growth patterns, with both groups influenced by late-stage shallow decompression degassing-induced microlite crystallization. Both groups contain amphibole crystals that indicate an early period of mid-crustal to deep-crustal storage of water-rich magmas. Dome lavas from the 20th century eruptive activity indicate quasi-steady-state nucleation-and-growth evolution interspersed with episodes of reheating and textural coarsening, suggesting residence in magma storage at multiple depths, both > 10 km, and conditions. These observations, coupled with our companion study of Merapi tephra samples, suggest that the relatively benign type of activity observed in the 20th century will be interrupted from time to time in the future by more explosive eruptions, such as that of 2010.

  15. Petrogenesis, detrital zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology, and tectonic implications of the Upper Paleoproterozoic Seosan iron formation, western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Seong; Jang, Yirang; Samuel, Vinod O.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Park, Jung-Woo; Yi, Keewook; Choi, Seon-Gyu

    2018-05-01

    This study involves investigations on the Upper Paleoproterozoic iron formation (viz., Seosan iron formation) from the Seosan Group, Gyeonggi Massif of the southwestern Korean Peninsula. It occurs as thin banded layers within meta-arkosic sandstone, formed by alternating processes of chemical (hydrothermal) and detrital depositions under a shallow marine environment. It mainly consists of alternating layers of iron oxides, mostly hematite, and quartz. Minor amounts of magnetite surrounded by muscovite, clinopyroxene and amphibole indicate hydrothermal alteration since its formation. Meta-arkosic sandstone is composed of recrystallized or porphyroclastic quartz and microcline, with small amounts of hematite and pyrite clusters. The Seosan iron formation has high contents of total Fe2O3 and SiO2 with positive Eu anomalies similar to those of other Precambrian banded iron formations, and its formation is clearly related to hydrothermal alteration since its deposition. Detrital zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology data from a meta-arkosic sandstone (SN-1) and an iron formation (SN-2) show mainly two age groups of ca. 2.5 Ga and ca. 1.9-1.75 Ga. This together with intrusion age of the granite gneiss (ca. 1.70-1.65 Ga) clearly indicate that the iron formations were deposited during the Upper Paleoproterozoic. The dominant Paleoproterozoic detrital zircon bimodal age peaks preserved in the Seosan iron formation compare well with those from the South China Craton sedimentary basins, reflecting global tectonic events related to the Columbia supercontinent in East Asia.

  16. Sr, Nd and Pb isotope and geochemical data from the Quaternary Nevado de Toluca volcano, a source of recent adakitic magmatism, and the Tenango Volcanic Field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Serrano, Raymundo G.; Schaaf, Peter; Solís-Pichardo, Gabriela; Hernández-Bernal, Ma. del Sol; Hernández-Treviño, Teodoro; Julio Morales-Contreras, Juan; Macías, José Luis

    2004-11-01

    Volcanic activity at Nevado de Toluca (NT) volcano began 2.6 Ma ago with the emission of andesitic lavas, but over the past 40 ka, eruptions have produced mainly lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of predominantly orthopyroxene-hornblende dacitic composition. In the nearby Tenango Volcanic Field (TVF) pyroclastic products and lava flows ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to andesite were erupted at most of 40 monogenetic volcanic centers and were coeval with the last stages of NT. All volcanic rocks in the study area are characterized by a calc-alkaline affinity that is consistent with a subduction setting. Relatively high concentrations of Sr (>460 ppm) coupled with low Y (45 km) that underlies the volcanoes of the study area, the geochemical and isotopic patterns of these rocks indicate low interaction with this crust. NT volcano was constructed at the intersection of three fault systems, and it seems that the Plio-Quaternary E-W system played an important role in the ascent and storage of magmas during the recent volcanic activity in the two regions. Chemical and textural features of orthopyroxene, amphibole and Fe-Ti oxides from NT suggest that crystallization of magmas occurred at polybaric conditions, confirming the rapid upwelling of magmas.

  17. Advanced mineral and lithological mapping using high spectral resolution TIR data from the active CO2 remote sensing system; CO2 laser wo mochiita kosupekutoru bunkaino netsusekigai remote sensing data no ganseki kobutsu shikibetsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hato, M [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); Cudahy, T; Tapley, I

    1997-05-27

    A study was conducted on rock/mineral mapping technology for the metal ore deposit survey using MIRACO2LAS, an active type thermal infrared ray remote sensing system which was developed by CSIRO of Australia and is now the highest in spectral resolution in the world, and TIMS of NASA which is a passive type system. The area for the survey is the area of Olary/Broken Hill and Mt. Fitton of Australia. A good correlation is seen between the ground reflectance measured by MIRACO2LAS and the value measured by the chamber CO2 laser of rocks sampled at the above-mentioned area. In case that the width of spectral characteristics is below 300nm, the inspection ability by MIRACO2LAS`s high spectral resolution is more determined in mineral mapping as compared with TIMS which is large in band width. Minerals mapped using MIRACO2LAS are quartz, talc, amphibole, hornblende, garnet, supessartine, dolomite, magnesite, etc. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  18. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  19. Evaluation of the odd-even effect in limits of detection for electron microprobe analysis of natural minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Surendra P., E-mail: spv@cie.unam.mx [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/no., Col Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Pandarinath, Kailasa [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/no., Col Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Velasco-Tapia, Fernando [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Carretera Linares-Cerro Prieto km. 8, Linares, N.L. 67700 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Rios, Rodolfo [Facultad de Ingenieria e Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Dr. Manuel Nava No. 8, Zona Universitaria, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78240 (Mexico)

    2009-04-13

    Limit of detection (LOD), being a fundamental quality parameter for analytical techniques, has been recently investigated and a systematic behavior has been observed for most odd-even element pairs for many techniques. However, to the best of our knowledge very few LOD data are available in published literature for electron microprobe analysis; these consist of three papers, two being on rare-earth elements and the third covering a large number of elements of atomic number between 21 and 92. These data confirm the systematic behavior of LODs for many odd-even pairs. To initiate to full this gap, we determined LODs for several major rock-forming chemical elements from Na to Fe with atomic numbers between 11 and 26, during the microprobe analysis of common minerals (olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, quartz, and opaques) in volcanic rocks. The odd-even effect of nuclear stability seems to be present in LOD data for most odd-even pairs investigated. Nevertheless, the experimental strategy concerning the reference materials, calibration procedure, and blank measurements, should be substantially modified to better evaluate the systematic behavior of LOD values in microprobe analysis.

  20. Patherns in the rare earth elements of the Serra do Carambei granite (Parana) and the others associated ignous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto-Coelho, C.V.; Marini, O.J.

    1986-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) distribution patters in igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area (Parana) were a very important tool to elucidate the genetic processes and the cogenetic relationships between these rocks. The porphyroid facies of the Cunhaporanga Granitoid Complex has a REE distribution pattern characterized by decreasing concentrations in direction to the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and the smooth Eu negative anomalie, compatible with amphibole fractionation during the magma ascent and the incipient plagioclase fractionation. The REE pattern of the Serra do Carambei Granite is characterized by the strong Eu negative anomalie, by the light rare earth element (LREE) depletion and by the HREE increase. This shape of the REE patterns is frequently observed in Sn-W granites, according to French authors. However in the igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area this is not true. ''Rhyolite'' dytes intrusives in the Serra do Carambei Granite exhibit REE pattern similar to the wall rock, indicating then the same genetic processes. The Castro Group rhyolites have REE patterns with decreasing concentrations in direction to the HREE and smooth Eu negative anomalie. The REE distribution patterns is against the consanguinity between the ''rhyolites'' intruded in the Serra do Carambei Granite and the rhyolites of the Castro Group and also between these rhyolites and the above mentioned Granite. (author) [pt

  1. Evolution of the East Philippine Arc: experimental constraints on magmatic phase relations and adakitic melt formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, B.; Adam, J.; Rushmer, T.; MacPherson, C. G.

    2011-10-01

    Piston-cylinder experiments on a Pleistocene adakite from Mindanao in the Philippines have been used to establish near-liquidus and sub-liquidus phase relationships relevant to conditions in the East Philippines subduction zone. The experimental starting material belongs to a consanguineous suite of adakitic andesites. Experiments were conducted at pressures from 0.5 to 2 GPa and temperatures from 950 to 1,150°C. With 5 wt. % of dissolved H2O in the starting mix, garnet, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are liquidus phases at pressures above 1.5 GPa, whereas clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are liquidus (or near-liquidus) phases at pressures 1.5 GPa) and subsequently involved the lower pressure fractionation of amphibole, plagioclase and subordinate clinopyroxene. Thus, the distinctive Y and HREE depletions of the andesitic adakites (which distinguish them from associated non-adakitic andesites) must be established relatively early in the fractionation process. Our experiments show that this early fractionation must have occurred at pressures >1.5 GPa and, thus, deeper than the Mindanao Moho. Published thermal models of the Philippine Sea Plate preclude a direct origin by melting of the subducting ocean crust. Thus, our results favour a model whereby basaltic arc melt underwent high-pressure crystal fractionation while stalled beneath immature arc lithosphere. This produced residual magma of adakitic character which underwent further fractionation at relatively low (i.e. crustal) pressures before being erupted.

  2. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D M; Rogers, R A; Sepulveda, R; Kunzendorf, P; Bellmann, B; Ernst, H; Creutzenberg, O; Phillips, J I

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: interim results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David M; Rogers, Rick; Sepulveda, Rosalina; Kunzendorf, Peter; Bellmann, Bernd; Ernst, Heinrich; Phillips, James I

    2014-04-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (>20 μm) cleared quickly with T(½) estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T(½)>1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the odd-even effect in limits of detection for electron microprobe analysis of natural minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Pandarinath, Kailasa; Velasco-Tapia, Fernando; Rodriguez-Rios, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Limit of detection (LOD), being a fundamental quality parameter for analytical techniques, has been recently investigated and a systematic behavior has been observed for most odd-even element pairs for many techniques. However, to the best of our knowledge very few LOD data are available in published literature for electron microprobe analysis; these consist of three papers, two being on rare-earth elements and the third covering a large number of elements of atomic number between 21 and 92. These data confirm the systematic behavior of LODs for many odd-even pairs. To initiate to full this gap, we determined LODs for several major rock-forming chemical elements from Na to Fe with atomic numbers between 11 and 26, during the microprobe analysis of common minerals (olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, quartz, and opaques) in volcanic rocks. The odd-even effect of nuclear stability seems to be present in LOD data for most odd-even pairs investigated. Nevertheless, the experimental strategy concerning the reference materials, calibration procedure, and blank measurements, should be substantially modified to better evaluate the systematic behavior of LOD values in microprobe analysis.

  5. Floatability of Fe-bearing silicates in the presence of starch: Adsorption and spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severov, V V; Filippova, I V; Filippov, L O

    2013-01-01

    Natural polysaccharides such as starch, dextrin, cellulose and their derivatives are promising non-toxic and biodegradable organic flocculants and flotation depressants. This paper presents the investigation of mechanism of adsorption of corn starch on quartz and Fe-bearing amphibole, i.e. pargasite. The direct measurement of starch adsorption on the mineral surfaces shows no difference between quartz and pargasite. However, the starch adsorption on the magnetite is more important. FT-IR spectroscopy studies reports different adsorption mechanism of starch on quartz and pargasite surface. The key changes observed in starch absorption on quartz are the major shifts in C-0 stretching frequencies presumed existence of a hydrogen bond between starch and quartz surface. The similar changes were observed in this region of IR-band for pargasite. The appearance and disappearance of the bands in the region 960-920 cm −1 corresponds probably to formation of a new chemical bond between starch O-H groups and metal atoms on pargasite surface with formation of a surface complex. This result confirms that adsorption of the starch on the pargasite surface is droved by two mechanism. Hence, existence of strong chemical bond between starch and pargasite surface explains decrease of its floatability compared to quartz in process of iron ore flotation and forces to search new conditioning reagent modes.

  6. Floatability of Fe-bearing silicates in the presence of starch: Adsorption and spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severov, V. V.; Filippova, I. V.; Filippov, L. O.

    2013-03-01

    Natural polysaccharides such as starch, dextrin, cellulose and their derivatives are promising non-toxic and biodegradable organic flocculants and flotation depressants. This paper presents the investigation of mechanism of adsorption of corn starch on quartz and Fe-bearing amphibole, i.e. pargasite. The direct measurement of starch adsorption on the mineral surfaces shows no difference between quartz and pargasite. However, the starch adsorption on the magnetite is more important. FT-IR spectroscopy studies reports different adsorption mechanism of starch on quartz and pargasite surface. The key changes observed in starch absorption on quartz are the major shifts in C-0 stretching frequencies presumed existence of a hydrogen bond between starch and quartz surface. The similar changes were observed in this region of IR-band for pargasite. The appearance and disappearance of the bands in the region 960-920 cm-1 corresponds probably to formation of a new chemical bond between starch O-H groups and metal atoms on pargasite surface with formation of a surface complex. This result confirms that adsorption of the starch on the pargasite surface is droved by two mechanism. Hence, existence of strong chemical bond between starch and pargasite surface explains decrease of its floatability compared to quartz in process of iron ore flotation and forces to search new conditioning reagent modes.

  7. Study on the uranium mineralization genesis of the Cachoeira, Lagoa Real, Bahia, mine, as auxiliary in the discovery and comprehension of mineral beds; Estudo da genese da mineralizacao uranifica da mina da Cachoeira, Lagoa Real, BA, como auxilio na descoberta e compreensao de jazidas minerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucilia Aparecida Ramos de; Rios, Francisco Javier; Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira; Pereira, Ana Rosa Passos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: laro@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    The acknowledgement of the geological history of a ore reserve allows to infer relative to a large area with possibility to contain the large mineral content or even give the localization of new anomalies or mineral reserve. The study of ore reserve genesis is of great importance for the stages to obtain the mineral, from the prospection until the mineral mining. Fluid inclusions (FI) are fluid quantities which are imprison in the minerals during the formation process or some process where deformation occurs. The study of fluid inclusions, together with the petrographic mapping of the blades associated to the uranium para genesis of Lagoa Real, Brazil, are been used for a better comprehension of the uranium orogenesis. The main analysis techniques used in this context were the petrography and microthermometry. With the petrographic analysis fluid inclusions were observed and mapped in various minerals present in rocks associated to uranium mineralization, such as amphiboles, pyroxenes and grenades. The micro thermometric studies were only performed in the pyroxenes and the grenades due to the fluid inclusions types found in these minerals, and also the supposed relationships that those minerals have with uranium mineralization at that region. (author)

  8. Mineral Chemistry and Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks in The North of Pasinler (Erzurum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay KILIÇ

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the north of Pasinler (Erzurum, Upper Miocene-Pliocene volcanic rocks crop out. These volcanites are composed of basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, rhyolite lavas and rhyolitic pyroclastics. The rocks show porphyritic, microlitic porphyritic, hyalo-microlitic porphyritic, vitrophyric, glomeroporphyritic, pilotaxitic and hyalopilitic textures. The investigated volcanites contain plagioclase (An29-80, olivine (Fo65-82, clinopyroxene (augite, orthopyroxene (enstatite, amphibole (Mg#: 0.57-0.71, biotite (phlogopite: 0.44-0.47, annite: 0.33-0.37, sanidine, quartz and opaque mineral (titano-magnetite and ilmenite. The volcanic rocks are calc-alkaline in character and have medium to high-K contents. Major oxide and trace element variations point out open-system magmatic differentiation in the evolution of rocks. Geochemical data indicate an important role of fractionation of phenocryst phases in the rocks during differentiation process. However, it is considered that assimilation±magma mixing might have accompanied to the process. High LILE (K, Rb, Ba, Th and relatively low HFSE (Nb, Ta, Hf, Zr contents of the rocks indicate that these rocks derived from parental magmas carrying subduction signature.

  9. Reply to `Comment on "The beginnings of hydrous mantle wedge melting" by Till et al.' by Green, Rosenthal and Kovacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Christy B.; Grove, Timothy L.; Withers, Anthony C.

    2012-12-01

    The comment of Green et al. debates the interpretation of the temperature of the H2O-saturated peridotite solidus and presence of silicate melt in the experiments of Till et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 163:669-688, 2012) at <1,000 °C. The criticisms presented in their comment do not invalidate any of the most compelling observations of Till et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 163:669-688, 2012) as discussed in the following response, including the changing minor element and Mg# composition of the solid phases with increasing temperature in our experiments with 14.5 wt% H2O at 3.2 GPa, as well as the results of our chlorite peridotite melting experiments with 0.7 wt% H2O. The point remains that Till et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 163:669-688, 2012) present data that call into question the H2O-saturated peridotite solidus temperature preferred by Green (Tectonophysics 13(1-4):47-71, 1972; Earth Planet Sci Lett 19(1):37-53, 1973; Can Miner 14:255-268, 1976); Millhollen et al. (J Geol 82(5):575-587, 1974); Mengel and Green (Stability of amphibole and phlogopite in metasomatized peridotite under water-saturated and water-undersaturated conditions, Geological Society of Australia Special Publication, Blackwell, pp 571-581, 1989); Wallace and Green (Mineral Petrol 44:1-19, 1991) and Green et al. (Nature 467(7314):448-451, 2010).

  10. X-ray findings, lung function, and respiratory symptoms in black South African vermiculite workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, P.A.; Sluis-Cremer, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Health effects have been documented among American vermiculite workers who mined and processed vermiculite contaminated with amphibole asbestos, viz., tremolite-actinolite. Workers mining and processing South Africa vermiculite (N = 172), which contains very little asbestos, underwent x-ray examination and lung function testing and completed a respiratory symptom questionnaire. The vermiculite workers were compared with other workers involved in the mining or refining of copper. Only two of the vermiculite workers showed evidence of small opacities of 1/0 or more (according to the ILO 1980 classification); lung function was comparable with the other groups of workers, and there was no excess of respiratory symptoms among the vermiculite workers. It is concluded that workers exposed to vermiculite that is minimally contaminated with asbestos are probably not at risk for pneumoconiosis, lung function impairment, or respiratory symptoms. It is likely that the health effects observed in other studies of vermiculite workers are the result of concomitant asbestos exposure. A risk of mesothelioma caused by the fiber content of the vermiculite cannot be excluded by this study

  11. Petrogenetic processes, crystallization conditions and nature of the Lower-Oligocene calc-alkaline spessartitic lamprophyres from Kal-e-kafi area (East of Anarak, Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossain Nazari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lamprophyres are mesocratic to melanocratic igneous rocks, usually hypabyssal, with a panidiomorphic texture and abundant mafic phenocrysts of dark mica or amphibole (or both with or without pyroxene, with or without olivine, set in a matrix of the same minerals, and with alkali-feldspar restricted to the groundmass (Woolley et al., 1996. Lamprophyres are frequently associated with orogenic settings and a mantle modified by dehydration of subducted slab (Gibson et al., 1995. Small outcrops of lamprophyres with Paleozoic to Oligocene age are reported from the central parts of Iran (Torabi 2009 and 2010. The primary magmas of these lamprophyres were derived from decompression melting of the mantle induced by a tensional regime of continental crust (Torabi, 2010. Bayat and Torabi (2011 called the western part of the CEIM (Central-East Iranian Microcontinent (Anarak to Bayazeh a “Paleozoic lamprophyric province” and suggested that the lamprophyre magmas were formed by subduction of Paleo-Tethys oceanic crust from the Early to late Paleozoic which resulted in the mantle metasomatism and enrichment. Lamprophyric dykes and stocks of the Kal-e-kafi area (Central Iran, Northern part of Yazd Block cross-cut the Eocene volcanic rocks and other older rock units such as Cretaceous limestone. These lamprophyres are mainly composed of hornblende (magnesio-hastingsite, clinopyroxene (diopside and plagioclase (labradorite to bytownite as phenocryst, in a matrix of fine to medium grained of the same minerals and orthoclase, apatite, magnetite, chlorite and epidote. In this paper that is a report on the first study on the calc-alkaline lamprophyres of Central Iran, the petrography and mineral chemistry of calc-alkaline lamprophyric dykes of the Kal-e-kafi area are discussed. Materials and methods Chemical composition of minerals were conducted at Kanazawa University (Kanazawa, Japan using the wavelength-dispersive electron probe microanalyzer

  12. NATURE AND DYNAMIC OF SEDIMENTS AT THE MOUTH OF KOMOÉ RIVER (IVORY COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent K. ADOPO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Komoé River represents the most important freshwater resource of Ivory Coast. This study aims at identifying the alluvia material and its dynamic at the mouth. The agricultural activity within the upper basin has determined a decrease in liquid discharge and an increase in alluvia transport. Most of the water is used in agriculture. The alluvia material comprises mainly sands and it is included in the middle-coarse category. Mixed sediments are composed of muddy sands and sandy muds. Most quartz grains transported by the river are flattened and glassy (91.66%, while the rest are round and opaque (8.34%. Minerals are angular, subangular, rounded and subrounded. Among heavy minerals, it is worth mentioning as follows: quartz, mica, feldspar, pyroxene, tourmaline, amphibole, gamet, epidote etc. The high degree of alluvia deposit has reduced the depth of the lower river course and it has closed the estuary completely. In this case, the wetland was extended and the vegetation tends to cover the entire surface. Navigation has been made difficult by the alluvial and organic clogging processes.

  13. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of minerals: Carbonates and silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, Nancy J.; Harmon, Russell S.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Miziolek, Andrzej M.

    2007-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides an alternative chemical analytical technique that obviates the issues of sample preparation and sample destruction common to most laboratory-based analytical methods. This contribution explores the capability of LIBS analysis to identify carbonate and silicate minerals rapidly and accurately. Fifty-two mineral samples (18 carbonates, 9 pyroxenes and pyroxenoids, 6 amphiboles, 8 phyllosilicates, and 11 feldspars) were analyzed by LIBS. Two composite broadband spectra (averages of 10 shots each) were calculated for each sample to produce two databases each containing the composite LIBS spectra for the same 52 mineral samples. By using correlation coefficients resulting from the regression of the intensities of pairs of LIBS spectra, all 52 minerals were correctly identified in the database. If the LIBS spectra of each sample were compared to a database containing the other 51 minerals, 65% were identified as a mineral of similar composition from the same mineral family. The remaining minerals were misidentified for two reasons: 1) the mineral had high concentrations of an element not present in the database; and 2) the mineral was identified as a mineral with similar elemental composition from a different family. For instance, the Ca-Mg carbonate dolomite was misidentified as the Ca-Mg silicate diopside. This pilot study suggests that LIBS has promise in mineral identification and in situ analysis of minerals that record geological processes

  14. Geochronologic synthesis of the Piedra Alta Terrane, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Peel, E.

    2006-01-01

    In the Pre cordillera of Córdoba there are sixteen bands of ductile deformation, which allows tectonic significance assign them to four groups. One of them, which belongs to Deformation Gaza Tunnels, consists of post metamorphic strips uprooting of Orogen Pampeano Cambrian reverse nature, produced by convergent general shear (transpressional), related to collisional stages terrain Posthumous Pampa against Gondwana margin, and famatinian subduction. New radiometric data obtained by the K / Ar method amphiboles and micas allow better narrow activity tectonics of the strip, which would have nucleated after the M2 metamorphic peak (ca. 534 Ma), uprooted the Orogen Cambrian and Ordovician exhumándolo up early (onset of subduction Famatinian), when located the Charquina (474 ​​Ma) granodiorite. The period of tectonic activity FDLT (ca. 64 Ma), coincide with the approach of land Cuyania the Gondwana margin, prior to placement and final collision in the Middle to Late Ordovician. At the same time, in the field Pampeano they would be producing con tractional stages end collision with terrain Pampa the western margin of Gondwana. Subsequently, the FDLT would have cooled to the middle Silurian, when the Sierras de Cordoba and San Luis They continued their exhumation through isotherm muscovite. After cooling this generalized, deformation occurs and Devonian magmatism that penetrativamente affected the Pre cordillera eastern

  15. Investigation of Chinese archaic jade by PIXE and μRaman spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.H.; Calligaro, T.; Pages-Camagna, S.; Menu, M.

    2004-01-01

    External-beam particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and μRaman spectrometry were used for elemental and structural studies of Chinese archaic nephrite jades of the Guimet Asian Museum in Paris in a non-destructive way. Nephrite is a variety of tremolite-actinolite of the amphibole group, with variable iron and magnesium contents. In the present work, in addition to identification of materials, the cation distribution in nephrite was investigated. Cation order-disorder is related to thermodynamic properties of minerals, and hence associated with geological conditions of the mineral formation. Besides, it plays an important role in the mechanism of coloration. So far, little work has been done on the cation distribution in nephrite. We thus initiated this research expecting to answer open questions concerning art and archaeological issues such as jade provenance and colour. The OH stretching vibration band of nephrite, depending on the electronegativity of the bonded cations, presents a fine structure. The study of this fine structure, together with the total cation content obtained by PIXE, allows estimation of the cation distribution in nephrite. In this study, six jade artefacts, dated from the Neolithic period to the Han dynasty (about 3000 BC to 220 AD), with diverse colours including white, yellow-green, green, dark green and black, were analysed. The data obtained permits establishing a geological database for determination of nephrite provenance and explaining the correlation between colour and cation distribution. (orig.)

  16. Araxa Group in the type-area: A fragment of Neoproterozoic oceanic crust in the Brasilia Fold Belt; Grupo Araxa em sua area tipo: um fragmento de crosta oceanica Neoproterozoica na faixa de dobramentos Brasilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seer, Hildor Jose [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Araxa, (CEFET), MG (Brazil); Brod, Jose Affonso; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende; Dardenne, Marcel Auguste [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2001-09-01

    This study reviews the geological characteristics and puts forward a new evolution model for the Araxa Group in its type-area, the southern segment of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Araxa Group is confined within a thrust sheet belonging to a syn formal regional fold, the Araxa Syn form, overlying two other thrust sheets made of the Ibia and Canastra Groups. The Araxa Group is described as a tectono stratigraphic terrane in the sense of Howell (1993). It comprises an igneous mafic sequence, with fine and coarse grained amphibolites, associated with pelitic meta sedimentary rocks, and subordinate psanmites. All rocks were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies at ca. 630 Ma ago and were intruded by collisional granites. The amphibolites represent original basaltic and gabbroic rocks, with minor ultramafic (serpentinite/ amphibole-talc schist). The basalts are similar to high Fe O tholeiites, with REE signatures that resemble E-MORB and {epsilon}{sub Nd(T)} =+ 1.1. The meta sedimentary rocks are interpreted as the result of a marine deep-water sedimentation. They have Sm-Nd model ages of 1,9 Ga, and {epsilon}{sub Nd(T)} = -10.21. The amphibolites and metasediments could represent a fragment of back-arc oceanic crust. The data presented here differ significantly from the original definition of Barbosa et al. (1970) who describe the Araxa Group as a pelitic/psanmitic sequence and the collisional granites as a basement complex. (author)

  17. Gemstones and geosciences in space and time. Digital maps to the "Chessboard classification scheme of mineral deposits"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Harald G.; Weber, Berthold

    2013-12-01

    The gemstones, covering the spectrum from jeweler's to showcase quality, have been presented in a tripartite subdivision, by country, geology and geomorphology realized in 99 digital maps with more than 2600 mineralized sites. The various maps were designed based on the "Chessboard classification scheme of mineral deposits" proposed by Dill (2010a, 2010b) to reveal the interrelations between gemstone deposits and mineral deposits of other commodities and direct our thoughts to potential new target areas for exploration. A number of 33 categories were used for these digital maps: chromium, nickel, titanium, iron, manganese, copper, tin-tungsten, beryllium, lithium, zinc, calcium, boron, fluorine, strontium, phosphorus, zirconium, silica, feldspar, feldspathoids, zeolite, amphibole (tiger's eye), olivine, pyroxenoid, garnet, epidote, sillimanite-andalusite, corundum-spinel - diaspore, diamond, vermiculite-pagodite, prehnite, sepiolite, jet, and amber. Besides the political base map (gems by country) the mineral deposit is drawn on a geological map, illustrating the main lithologies, stratigraphic units and tectonic structure to unravel the evolution of primary gemstone deposits in time and space. The geomorphological map is to show the control of climate and subaerial and submarine hydrography on the deposition of secondary gemstone deposits. The digital maps are designed so as to be plotted as a paper version of different scale and to upgrade them for an interactive use and link them to gemological databases.

  18. Preparation of radiolabeled bioactive asbestos fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewson, T J; Francsechini, M P; Scheule, R K; Holian, A [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Health Science Center

    1991-01-01

    We have developed an efficient procedure to radiolabel asbestos fibers while retaining the bioactivity of the fibers. The fibers are labeled with {sup 68}Ge. The {sup 68}Ge decays into {sup 68}Ga, which then can be detected by its characteristic positron emission. Both chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos, a serpentine and an amphibole, respectively, were radiolabeled successfully. Mild reaction conditions and short reaction times were found under which {similar to}90% of the added {sup 68}Ge and {sup 68}Ga bound to the fibers. The radiolabel was retained even after washing the fibers extensively with physiologic buffers. The effects of the labeling on the bioactivity of the fibers were evaluated in an in vitro assay using guinea pig alveolar macrophages as a target cell. Labeled chrysotile fibers were found to retain >95% of their ability to stimulate these cells. The labeling procedure described in this study should be useful in preparing labeled fibers to investigate both in vitro and in vivo phenomena. (author).

  19. Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey M.; Médard, Etienne; Righter, Kevin; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The upper subcontinental lithospheric mantle below the French Massif Central is more oxidized than the average continental lithosphere, although the origin of this anomaly remains unknown. Using iron oxidation analysis in clinopyroxene, oxybarometry, and melt inclusions in mantle xenoliths, we show that widespread infiltration of volatile (HCSO)-rich silicic melts played a major role in this oxidation. We propose the first comprehensive model of magmatism and mantle oxidation at an intraplate setting. Two oxidizing events occurred: (1) a 365–286 Ma old magmatic episode that produced alkaline vaugnerites, potassic lamprophyres, and K-rich calc-alkaline granitoids, related to the N–S Rhenohercynian subduction, and (2) < 30 Ma old magmatism related to W–E extension, producing carbonatites and hydrous potassic trachytes. These melts were capable of locally increasing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle fO2 to FMQ + 2.4. Both events originate from the melting of a metasomatized lithosphere containing carbonate + phlogopite ± amphibole. The persistence of this volatile-rich lithospheric source implies the potential for new episodes of volatile-rich magmatism. Similarities with worldwide magmatism also show that the importance of volatiles and the oxidation of the mantle in intraplate regions is underestimated.

  20. Syn-collisional felsic magmatism and continental crust growth: A case study from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Niu, Yaoling; Xue, Qiqi

    2018-05-01

    The abundant syn-collisional granitoids produced and preserved at the northern Tibetan Plateau margin provide a prime case for studying the felsic magmatism as well as continental crust growth in response to continental collision. Here we present the results from a systematic study of the syn-collisional granitoids and their mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) in the Laohushan (LHS) and Machangshan (MCS) plutons from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt (NQOB). Two types of MMEs from the LHS pluton exhibit identical crystallization age ( 430 Ma) and bulk-rock isotopic compositions to their host granitoids, indicating their genetic link. The phase equilibrium constraints and pressure estimates for amphiboles from the LHS pluton together with the whole rock data suggest that the two types of MMEs represent two evolution products of the same hydrous andesitic magmas. In combination with the data on NQOB syn-collisional granitoids elsewhere, we suggest that the syn-collisional granitoids in the NQOB are material evidence of melting of ocean crust and sediment. The remarkable compositional similarity between the LHS granitoids and the model bulk continental crust in terms of major elements, trace elements, and some key element ratios indicates that the syn-collisional magmatism in the NQOB contributes to net continental crust growth, and that the way of continental crust growth in the Phanerozoic through syn-collisional felsic magmatism (production and preservation) is a straightforward process without the need of petrologically and physically complex processes.

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fabbri, F.; Fantoni, R.; Spizzichino, V.; Striber, J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied to test the possibility of detecting and identifying asbestos in different samples in view of the perspective at field operation without sample preparation which is peculiar to this technique. Several like-resin materials were first investigated by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, in order to find an asbestos container assuring safe laboratory operation during the material characterization aimed to identify indicators suitable for a quick identification on field. Successively, spectra of asbestos samples of both in serpentine and amphibole forms were measured and the variability in elemental composition was calculated from the emission spectra. Ratios of intensities of characteristic elements were tested as indicators for asbestos recognition. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy results were compared with those obtained by analyzing the same asbestos samples with a scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, a good correlation was found for Mg/Si and Fe/Si, thus showing the capability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for this category of materials. In particular, it was demonstrated that the method based on two indicators derived from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy intensity ratios allows to discriminate between asbestos and cements in single shot measurements suitable to field operation

  2. Precursory activity of the 161 ka Kos Plateau Tuff eruption, Aegean Sea (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David J. W.; Pe-Piper, Georgia; Lefort, Darren

    2010-08-01

    The Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT) eruption of 161 ka was the largest explosive Quaternary eruption in the eastern Mediterranean. We have discovered an uplifted beach deposit of abraded pumice cobbles, directly overlain by the KPT. The pumice cobbles resemble pumice from the KPT in petrography and composition and differ from Plio-Pleistocene rhyolites on the nearby Kefalos Peninsula. The pumice contains enclaves of basaltic andesite showing chilled lobate margins, suggesting co-existence of two magmas. The deposit provides evidence that the precursory phase of the KPT eruption produced pumice rafts, and defines the paleoshoreline for the KPT, which elsewhere was deposited on land. The beach deposit has been uplifted about 120 m since the KPT eruption, whereas the present marine area south of Kos has subsided several hundred metres, as a result of regional neotectonics. The basaltic andesite is more primitive than other mafic rocks known from the Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre and contains phenocrysts of Fo89 olivine, bytownite, enstatite and diopside. Groundmass amphibole suggests availability of water in the final stages of magma evolution. Geochemical and mineralogical variation in the mafic products of the KPT eruption indicate that fractionation of basaltic magma in a base-of-crust magma chamber was followed by mixing with rhyolitic magma during eruption. Low eruption rates during the precursory activity may have minimised the extent of mixing and preserved the end-member magma types.

  3. Petrology and geochemistry of dolerite dykes of Dharmapuri and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, M.; Umamaheswaran, O.; Suresh, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dolerite dyke sets occur distributed in the Dharmapuri and Salem districts of northern Tamil nadu. These dykes have been emplaced in the older basement composed of granulite and gneissic rocks and cut across the later formed lineament controlled alkaline complexes. They are composed of medium to coarse calcic plagioclase and clinopyroxene with biotite, amphibole, uralite, olivine, orthopyroxene, and anhedral quartz as accessories. Based on geochemical characters, the olivine bearing dykes are classed as Type I and the quartz bearing dykes as Type II. The Type I dykes resemble basalt and the Type II dykes, basaltic andesite. They display LILE> HFSE in terms of abundance. The REE values indicate enrichment of LREE relative to MREE and HREE and an E-MORB or Plume MORB signature. The geochemistry of the sampled dykes suggests derivation from a mantle plume. This plume was emplaced into the garnet lherzolite layer and subsequently into the shallower spinel lherzolite layer in the mantle. Polybaric melting of lherzolite protoliths with varying proportions of garnet and spinel occurred with subsequent fractionation to produce a source melts with E-MORB characteristics. Emplacement of these dykes was aided by crustal extension and associated fracturing to develop a dyke swarm. (author)

  4. Some antarctic lacustrine sediments from northern Victoria Land investigation by Moessbauer spectroscopy, INNA and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievano, L.; Bertelle, M.; Leotta, G.; Calogero, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Oddone, M.

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen lacustrine sediments, sampled during the 1994-1995 Austral summer in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica), were characterised by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray diffraction. These sediments are related to the intrusive rocks from Granite Harbour, to the metamorphic rocks of the Complex of Wilson Terrane and the volcanic rocks from Mc Murdo. The samples contain quartz, alkaline feldspars, plagioclases, amphiboles, biotite, chlorite and muscovite except for the sediments of volcanic origin that contain alkaline feldspars, plagioclases and pyroxenes. The paramagnetic components of the Moessbauer spectra were assigned mainly to the iron sides in biotites except for those displayed from the sediments of volcanic origin assigned mainly to pyroxenes. Moessbauer spectra at room temperature do not display magnetic ordering except for those of the sediments of volcanic origin containing bulk magnetite, hematite and goethite. Moessbauer spectra collected at the liquid helium temperature always exhibit magnetic ordering. This spectral difference has been attributed to the different dimensions of the iron oxide particles in the sediments. The scarce weathering involves a partial transformation of magnetite in hematite and goethite in the sediment of volcanic origin. In the remaining sediments a partial hydrolysis of biotite together with a partial oxidation of iron (II) retained in silicates is present. (authors)

  5. Water in Pyroxene and Olivine from Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the interior of terrestrial planets can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) like olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Although these minerals contain only tens to hundreds of ppm H2O, this water can amount to at least one ocean in mass when added at planetary scales because of the modal dominance of NAM in the mantle and crust [4]. Moreover these trace amounts of water can have drastic effects on melting temperature, rheology, electrical and heat conductivity, and seismic wave attenuation [5]. There is presently a debate on how much water is present in the martian mantle. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of NAM [6], amphiboles and glass in melt inclusions [7-10], and apatites [11, 12] from Martian meteorites report finding as much water as in the same phases from Earth's igneous rocks. Most martian hydrous minerals, however, generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [13, 14], and experiments using Cl [15] in parent melts can reproduce Martian basalt compositions as well as those with water [16]. We are in the process of analyzing Martian meteorite minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) in order to constrain the role of water in this planet s formation and magmatic evolution

  6. Geochemistry and paleotectonomagmatic setting of metabasites protolith from Asalem metamorphic complex (northwest Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nasrabady

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asalem metamorphic complex consists mostly of metabasite, metapelite and serpentinite. Metabasites display metamorphic features of greenschist and blueschist facies. Greenschist facies rocks that found as both foliated and massive types contain mineralogical assemblage of actinolite, chlorite, albite and epidote. Blueschists contain mineralogical assemblage of sodic amphibole, epidote and phengite. Whole rock analyses of the metabasites indicate basaltic to andesitic composition with mainly calcalkaline nature of their protolith. According to the discrimination diagrams of tectonomagmatic setting, the protolith of investigated metabasites has been islands arc and somewhat mid ocean ridge. The patterns of rare earth elements and spider diagrams of the Asalem metabasites resemble to the basic and intermediate magmatism of islands arc or suprasubduction setting as well. Greenschists and blueschists facies rocks of the Asalem metamorphic complex have been probably equivalent to islands arc or young and hot oceanic crust of suprasubduction zone setting. This portion of oceanic basin unlike the subducted even and thick oceanic lithosphere of Paleotethys during accretion in the shallower levels of accretionary prisms, have underwent metamorphic conditions of blueschist and greenschist facies and finally gave rise to the formation of the metabasites of the Asalem metamorphic complex.

  7. Petrogenesis of Mount Rainier andesite: magma flux and geologic controls on the contrasting differentiation styles at stratovolcanoes of the southern Washington Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Thomas W.; Salters, V.J.M.; Larson, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) of the Cascades magmatic arc consists of porphyritic calc-alkaline andesites and subordinate dacites, with common evidence for mingling and mixing with less evolved magmas encompassing andesites, basaltic andesites, and rarely, basalts. Basaltic andesites and amphibole andesites (spessartites) that erupted from vents at the north foot of the volcano represent some of Mount Rainier's immediate parents and overlap in composition with regional basalts and basaltic andesites. Geochemical (major and trace elements) and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb, O) compositions of Mount Rainier andesites and dacites are consistent with modest assimilation (typically ≤20 wt%) of evolved sediment or sediment partial melt. Sandstones and shales of the Eocene Puget Group, derived from the continental interior, are exposed in regional anticlines flanking the volcano, and probably underlie it in the middle to lower crust, accounting for their assimilation. Mesozoic and Cenozoic igneous basement rocks are unsuitable as assimilants due to their high 143Nd/144Nd, diverse206Pb/204Pb, and generally high δ18O.

  8. Uraniferous albitites from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, W. de; Raposo, C.; Matos, E.C. de

    1984-01-01

    The Uranium Province of Lagoa Real is located in the region of Caetite, throughout the south-central portion of the state of Bahia. The basic chronostratigraphic units are the metamorphic rocks - granitic rocks and gneisses of the Archean basement - and cataclastic metasomatic rocks - albitites and quartzo-feldspathic lithologies of the lower Proterozoic. The albitites, host rocks for the uranium mineralization, occur regionally as numerous lenticular and discontinuos bodies arranged submeridionally according to two main alignments forming an arc, and are therefore called linear albities in allusion to similar features in Kasachstan, Russia, where they were first given this designation. The name albitite was employed to designate the metasomatites in which albitite dominates over the other minerals. The uranium mineralization consists of uraninite and pitchblende and is confined to the ore zones of those albitites containing aegirine, alkali-amphiboles, andradite, biotite and carbonates Furthermore, it displays lithologic-structural control, the morphology being controlled by the location of shear zones. This mineralization usually takes the shape of ore shoots which pitch in the direction and dip of the lineation. The authors describe the various types of albitites (mineralized or unmineralized) and their structural and petrographic characteristics, mode of occurence, geometry, metasomatic alterations, chemistry, uranium mineralization, as well as their genetic aspects. (Author) [pt

  9. Pulmonary asbestos body counts and electron probe analysis of asbestos body cores in patients with mesothelioma: a study of 25 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggli, V.L.; McGavran, M.H.; Subach, J.; Sybers, H.D.; Greenberg, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas of the pleura and peritoneum are well-recognized risks of asbestos exposure. We determined the asbestos body content of the lungs from 24 cases of malignant mesothelioma (19 pleural, five peritoneal) and compared such to the content of lungs from 50 consecutive adult autopsies and four cases of overt asbestosis using a Clorox-digestion concentration technique. The cores of 90 asbestos bodies were examined by energy dispersive x-ray analysis and compared with similar data from 120 standard asbestos fibers and 20 fiberglass fibers. The malignant mesothelioma patients had asbestos body counts intermediate between those of the general population and those of patients with asbestosis, although some of the mesothelioma cases overlapped with the general population. These latter cases often lacked an identifiable occupational exposure to asbestos. EDXA studies demonstrated an amphibole core in 88 of the 90 asbestos bodies (amosite or crocidolite in 80 of 88, anthophyllite or tremolite in eight of 88), and chrysotile in two instances

  10. Incidence of pleural mesothelioma in a community exposed to fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Amphibolic fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition characterize Biancavilla soil, including the major quarry from which building materials have been extensively extracted. These fibres induce mesothelioma in experimental animals and their in vitro biological action is similar to that of crocidolite. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Malignant mesothelioma case series and incidence were examined to evaluate the disease burden on Biancavilla inhabitants. RESULTS. The incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla is steadily higher than in the Sicilian Region, risk estimates are more elevated in women than in men, the most affected age class is constituted by subjects aged less than 50. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS. Environmental exposure to fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition appears to be causally related to the elevated mesothelioma occurrence in Biancavilla. In this frame, environmental clean-up is the main goal to be pursued in public health terms. A contribution of scientific research to public health decision making with respect to priority setting for environmental clean-up can derive from some further selected epidemiological investigations.

  11. Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from the Mariinsky emerald deposit, Central Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksheev, Ivan A.; Trumbull, Robert B.; Popov, Mikhail P.; Erokhin, Yuri V.; Kudryavtseva, Olesya E.; Yapaskurt, Vasily O.; Khiller, Vera V.; Vovna, Galina M.; Kiselev, Vladimir I.

    2018-04-01

    Tourmaline is abundant at the Mariinsky schist-hosted emerald deposit in the Central Urals, Russia, both in emerald-bearing phlogopite veins (type 1) and later, emerald-free pockets, lenses, and veinlets cutting the phlogopite veins (type 2). The Ca content in tourmaline is influenced by the host rocks (ultramafic and mafic rocks), associated minerals, and minerals crystallized before tourmaline (amphibole, fluorite, margarite). The Na concentration in tourmaline depends on the presence or absence of paragonite, and the association with micas also strongly influences the contents of Li, Zn, Ni, and Co in tourmaline. Type 1 tourmalines associated with phlogopite are relatively depleted in these elements, whereas type 2 tourmalines associated with margarite or paragonite are enriched. Some differences in isomorphic substitutions along with the trace element composition (Zn, V, Sr, Co, REE) may have value in exploration of emerald-bearing and emerald-free veins in schist-hosted emerald deposits. The δ11B values in tourmaline of all types fall in a narrow total range from -11.3 to -8.4‰. These values, combined with a mineralization temperature of 420-360 °C, yield an estimated δ11B fluid composition of -7.4 to -6.8‰ suggesting a mixed source of boron, likely dominated from the granitic rocks surrounding the emerald belt. The narrow range of B-isotope compositions in tourmaline from throughout the Mariinsky deposit suggests a well-mixed hydrothermal system.

  12. The Fontaine Pluton : an early Ross Orogeny calc-alkaline gabbro from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottle, J.M.; Cooper, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    The Fontaine Pluton is a previously undescribed mafic intrusion outcropping at Fontaine Bluff on the south side of the Carlyon Glacier in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. It is the southern-most member of a laterally extensive mafic suite emplaced at mid-crustal depths during the initial stages of the Ross Orogeny. The pluton comprises recrystallised hornblende-biotite gabbro, which in places shows well-defined centimetre to metre scale primary igneous layering. Recrystallised ultramafic enclaves composed of amphibole-chlorite-talc are inferred to be remnants of a chemically and mineralogically distinct cumulate fraction. The intrusion has a 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (i) ratio of 0.70679 and a 143 Nd/ 144 Nd (i) ratio of 0.51187 (εNd (i) = -1.2). This, coupled with other geochemical data, implies that the Fontaine Pluton was formed by c. 15% partial melting of a depleted mantle source that was subsequently contaminated by continental crust. Preliminary U-Pb geochronology on zircon suggests an emplacement age for the pluton of 546 ± 10 Ma. These new data indicate that Ross Orogeny magmatism in this area of southern Victoria Land was initiated in the late Neoproterozoic along a subducting plate margin. (author). 55 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  13. The occurrence of ferropyrosmalite in the mineralized breccias from Igarape Bahia (North region, Brazil) Au-Cu (± ETR-U) deposit, Carajas mineral Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazava, Edison; Gomes, Newton Souza; Oliveira, Claudinei Gouveia de

    1999-01-01

    In the last years, several works report the presence of pyrosmalite mineral series [(Fe, Mn) 8 Si 6 O 15 (OH, Cl) 10 ] commonly associated with volcanic exhalative massive sulphide or Fe-Mn metamorphosed deposits. In this paper, we present the inedit occurrence of ferropyrosmalite in the Au-Cu (± REE-U) of Igarape Bahia deposit, located in the Au-Cu district of the Carajas Mineral Province. We consider the Igarape Bahia mineralization as being related to the genesis of iron-oxide class deposit, like the Olympic Dam type. Ferropyrosmalite occurs in two different contexts: associated with carbonate veins; associated with heterolithic breccias, composed by BIF and mafic metavolcanic fragments immersed in a magnetic, chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, carbonates (calcite to siderite), uranium and REE minerals, and gold, - rich matrix. The growth of ferropyrosmalite is probably due to the substitution of iron rich minerals (chloride, magnetite and siderite), controlled by magmatic fluid influx rich in chlorine. The permeability of breccias and the discontinuity of veins favour fluid percolation. The mode of occurrence of ferropyrosmalite and its relation with amphibole (ferro-hornblende-actinolite) indicate metasomatic growth of the former under temperatures in the transition of greenschist/amphibolite facies. The ferropyrosmalite of the Igarape Bahia deposit represents an uncommon type of occurrence linked to hydrothermal/magmatic conditions. (author)

  14. Do the eclogites of the Variscan Malpica-Tuy shear zone in NW Spain point to continental subduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Botao; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    High-pressure (HP: P > 10 kbar) rocks such as eclogite typically occur in suture zones of collided continental plates in Phanerozoic times. In case of an extended area at the surface of a denuded orogen with HP and even ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks, they are often interpreted as the result of continental subduction. We have tested this idea for the HP-UHP area of the Malpica-Tuy zone of the Variscan orogen, which was formed by the collision of Gondwana and Laurussia. For the test, we have initially studied an eclogite and its surrounding gneiss of this zone in detail. The eclogite contains the assemblage garnet, omphacite, amphibole, rutile, ilmenite, clinozoisite/epidote, quartz, and phengite with Si-contents as high as 3.45 per formula unit (pfu) in inner portions and 3.27-3.35 pfu in rims. Garnet exhibits chemical zonation with Gro25Alm55Pyr15Spe5, Gro29Alm57Pyr13Spe1, and Gro23Alm56Pyr20Spe1 as inner core, mantle, and outermost rim compositions, respectively. The gneiss is a former medium-grained granite now composed of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, phengite, garnet, clinozoisite/epidote, titanite, apatite and ilmenite. Phengite shows Si contents between 3.40 (core) and 3.00 (rim) pfu. Garnet is chemically zoned with Gro69.6Alm27Pyr0.4Spe3, Gro65.5Alm32.5Pyr0.5Spe1.5, Gro65.7Alm31.7Pyr0.6Spe2, and Gro56.6Alm41.6Pyr1.2Spe0.6 as core, mantle, rim and outermost rim compositions, respectively. P-T pseudosections were calculated with the PERPLEX computer program in the system Na2O-K2O-CaO-FeO-O2-MnO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2-H2O for the bulk-rock compositions of the studied eclogite and gneiss. These pseudosections were contoured by isopleths of various parameters such as molar fractions of garnet components. Based on this contouring a P-T path was derived that starts at HP conditions for both lithologies. Garnet began to form at 22 kbar and 565°C in the eclogite. Subsequently, the temperatures increased to 585°C and the pressure decreased to

  15. MARID-type Glimmerites from Kimberley, South Africa: Metasomes or high-pressure cumulates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael W.; Prelevic, Dejan; Buhre, Stephan; Jacob, Dorrit E.

    2015-04-01

    Mica- amphibole- rutile- ilmenite- diopside (MARID) xenoliths are alkali-rich, coarse-grained ultramafic rocks, typical for heavily metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle (Dawson & Smith, 1977). They are produced either by interaction of mantle wall rock with lamproitic melts that percolate through the mantle (Dawson and Smith 1977; Sweeney 1993), or as direct crystallization products of those melts (Waters 1987). Two rock samples of mica-rich (>90% phlogopite) xenoliths from the Boshof Road Dump of the Bultfontein kimberlite diamond mine in Kimberley, South Africa were analyzed for major and trace elements of minerals. Millimeter sized phlogopite is the dominant mineral, making up more than 90% of the rock. Other phases are in descending order: diopside, K-richterite, rutile and ilmenite. Phlogopite is homogenous in composition and appears without zonation. They are perpotassic with K/Al between 1.1 and 1.2 at an Mg#-value of 84.5-86.5. Clinopyroxene is low in Al2O3 with values 90% phlogopite. Perpotassic phlogopites with K/Al >1 values are typical for MARID-type xenoliths by comprising low Mg# of 82-88 (Dawson 1987). We performed thermobarometric calculations on the clinopyroxenes, by using the equations of Putirka (2008). With a proposed lamproitic melt, like Waters (1987) suggested for a MARID parental magma, a pressure of 13 kbar (39 km) and a temperature of 1300 C was calculated. This depth coincides with the crustal thickness of the Kaapvaal craton (Nguuri et al. 2001). However, the pressure calculations depend on the fractionation of Al between melt and mineral and are not realistic for low-Al diopsides. Calculations by Konzett et al. (2014) yielded 4.2 GPa (155 km) by using a Ca-in-opx thermometer and a cratonic geotherm of 40 mW/m² and seem to be more realistic. By applying a sandwich experimental approach, mixing glimmerite samples with harzburgitic peridotites, we hope to achieve deeper insights into the origin of MARID-type glimmerites

  16. Gneisses of Brazil's cultural heritage buildings and its most frequent degradations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Costa, Antônio

    2017-04-01

    Macroscopic descriptions of cultural heritage buildings constructed using gneisses in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Ouro Preto, Brazil, allowed to identify alterations and degradations, in part conditioned by the mineralogical composition and the structures present in these stone materials. It is important to emphasize that: - some changes still begin in the environments where these materials were formed, experiencing an intensification from the processes of extraction, processing and application; - modifications occurring after the applications are understood herein as degradations. The studied gneisses present banding consisting of parts with different thicknesses and mineralogical contents. Due to these differentiated contents, clear bands were identified and constituted essentially by felsic minerals, such as feldspars and quartz, as well as dark bands formed by mafic minerals represented by: biotite, garnets, amphiboles, such as hornblende or pyroxene (hyperstene). In addition to these minerals, low contents of oxides and sulphides were found. Also under the influence of this distribution of minerals, planar structures or foliations, more or less developed, that can be very penetrative have been identified, mainly when these rocks were submitted to the performance of milonitization processes. From the set of changes and degradations observed stand out those related to the decomposition of minerals that make up these materials. In these cases, feldspars and other silicates, such as micas, amphiboles and pyroxenes, were decomposed due to the hydrolysis and products were generated which compromised the resistance of these stone materials, leading to their consequent disintegration. On the other hand, the presence of expansive clays in these products, caused volume increases which also contributed to the expansion of the weathered surface layer (blistering). This process may result detachments in the form of scales to cavities in cases of

  17. Petrography and Geochemistry of the Zamora Batholith in the south of the sub-Andean zone (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, F. M.

    2013-05-01

    The Zamora Batholith is an intrusive complex that is located in the extreme south-east of Ecuador. It has dimensions of 200 x 50 km approximately. It is mainly located in the Zamora Chinchipe province from which it takes its name. This study consisted in the petrographic and geochemical characterization of the Zamora Batholith in the area covered by 1: 50,000 geological maps of Centro Shaime, Guayzimi, Paquisha, Los Encuentros and El Pangui. Fieldwork was done by the "Proyecto Mapeo Geológico escala 1:50.000 (zonas prospectivas mineras)" of the Instituto Nacional de Investigación Geológico, Minero, Metalúrgico of Ecuador. This research was performed with 59 thin sections and 10 whole - rock chemical analysis done in the C.I.C of the Granada University. The Zamora Batholith intrudes Triassic to Jurassic volcanic rocks. It is overlaid by sandstones of the Hollin Formation of the Upper Aptian age and shale and limestone from the Napo Formation. Post-cretaceous deposits of ash and lava flows of andesitic to rhyolitic compositions cover the batholith. The petrography of the Zamora Batholith ranges from tonalite to monzogranite with the same qualitative mineralogy. The rocks are composed by different proportions of plagioclase, amphibole, feldspar K, quartz, biotite, opaque, pyroxene and epidote, as accessory minerals has zircon, sphene and apatite. To the south of the Conguime and Guayzimi towns, the dominant petrography is medium to coarse grained amphibole granodiorite with tonalitic and monzogranitic subordinates. To the north monzogranites are dominant rocks and subordinate granodiorites. To the East of Santa Elena the sienogranites are associated with El Hito porphyritic granite that intrudes to Zamora Batholith. Frequently the batholith has propylitic alteration; which produces a primary association of chlorite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. The granitoids have dioritic to granitic compositions (60.09 to 73.6 wt.% SiO2) and are I - type, medium to high-K calc

  18. Mineralogy of metasomatic rocks and geochronology of the Olhovka porphyry-copper deposit, Chukotka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogacheva, Lyuba; Baksheev, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    The Olkhovka porphyry-copper deposit located on the border of foreland of the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt (OCVB) and a ledge composed of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Uda-Murgal arc (J3-K1) rocks is hosted by monzonite stock attributed to the Upper Cretaceous Kavralyan complex - K2) We estimated age of the Olkhovka monzonite by Rb-Sr and U-Pb methods. Rb-Sr age was determine om the basis of isotopic analysis of 8 monomineralic samples (potassium feldspar, plagioclase, amphibole, and dark mica). Isochron constructed on the basis of Rb-Sr data corresponds to the age of 78 + 2.6 Ma (MSWD=0.23). The Rb-Sr age is supported by U-Pb data derived from zircon of the same rock. One hundred and three single crystals of zircon were analyzed. Uranium content ranges from 52.66 ppm to 579.64 ppm; U/Th isotopic ratio varies from 0.567 to 1.746; age is 78.02+0.65 Ma (MSWD = 2.8). Monzonite is propylitized in variable degree. Propylite is composed of actinolite, chlorite, albite, quartz, and calcite. Propylite are cut by quartz-tourmaline veins. In addition, quartz-tourmaline metasomatic rock was identified in rhyolite ignimbrite out of the stock. Microscopically, tourmaline crystals of both types are oscilatory zoned that is caused by variable Fe content. Tourmalines of both assemblages can be classified as intermediate member of the schorl ("oxy-schorl")-dravite ("oxy-dravite") series. The Fetot/ (Fetot+Mg) varies from 0.31 to 0.95 in propylitic tourmaline and from 0.11 to 0.49, in quartz-tourmaline altered rocks from ignimbrite. Despite similar composition of both tourmalines, the major isomorphic substitutions in them are different. In propylite tourmaline, it is Fe → Al, whereas in the second case, it is Fe → Mg with certain effect of the Fe → Al type. Fe → Al isomorphic substitution is typical of porphyry style deposits (Baksheev et al., 2009 [1]). Therefore, we can conclude that quartz-tourmaline alteration in ignimbrite does not related to the formation of

  19. From Mush to Eruption in 1000 Years: Rapid Assembly of the Super-Sized Oruanui Magma Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, A. S.; Morgan, D. J.; Wilson, C. J.; Millet, M.

    2012-12-01

    The mush model is useful in explaining how large volumes of evolved silicic melt can be generated in and extracted from a crystal-rich source to form crystal-poor rhyolite magma bodies at shallow crustal levels. It is unclear, however, how processes of melt extraction and/or formation of the melt-dominant magma body might be reflected in the crystal record, and what physical and temporal constraints can be applied. Textural observations and in situ geochemical fingerprints in crystals from pumices of the ~25.4 ka Oruanui eruption (Taupo, New Zealand), offer new perspectives on the processes, physical conditions and timing of the melt extraction and accumulation. Almost all orthopyroxene (opx) and plagioclase (plag) cores have textures showing a period of disequilibrium (partial dissolution and/or resorption) followed by stable conditions (infilling of raddled cores; euhedral rim overgrowths). Trace element contents in amphibole (amph), which was stable and actively crystallizing in all but the most evolved parcels of Oruanui magma, complement textural evidence showing that Mn and Zn liberated by opx dissolution were preferentially sequestered in amph. Concentrations of these opx-loving elements show a prominent inflection when plotted against indices of melt evolution (e.g. Eu/Eu* in amph) marking a return to opx stability and subsequent crystallization. Plagioclase, the most abundant crystal phase, records a more complex history with significant inheritance, but textural and chemical evidence suggests that at least some of Oruanui plag crystals experienced the same departure from and return to stability as the opx. Amphibole trace element data are linked to in situ estimates of P-T-fO2 and melt H2O determined via the Ridolfi et al. (2010: Contrib Mineral Petrol 160, 45) thermobarometer. Textural and geochemical evidence combined with P-T-H2O model values indicate that three major Oruanui crystal phases (opx, amph, plag) record a significant decompression event

  20. Geochemistry of tephra from Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: Stratigraphic correlations and implications for magmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, L.

    2003-04-01

    At least 10 predominantly trachytic and rhyolitic tuffs are preserved interbedded in volcaniclastic sediments of Plio-Pleistocene Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Physical correlation of the tuffs is complicated by faulting and variation in preservation and lithofacies. Differences in the degree and type of tephra alteration (clay, zeolitic, none) and preservation of glass shards within the various depositional environments (saline-alkaline lake, lake margin, wetlands, alluvial fan) make correlation by conventional glass chemistry methods impossible. However, variations in overall mineralogy and chemical compositions of co-magmatic phenocrysts (feldspar, augite, titanomagnetite, amphibole) have proven useful to uniquely characterize the tuffs for correlation purposes. Samples of 10 major tuffs in the Olduvai Bed I sequence were collected from various depostional and preservational environments situated up to 15 km apart. Thin sections and mineral separates (10-60 grains of each type of phenocryst/ sample, 2-3 samples/ tuff) were analyzed by electron microprobe for major and minor elements. The lower Bed I tuffs are rhyolitic and easily distinguished from the upper tuffs by the presence of quartz and high-Fe augite. Feldspar composition has been previously found to separate all of the upper tuffs (1B-1F) except the two trachyandesitic tuffs (1D and the "unnamed" tuff between 1E and 1F). Mn and Ti concentrations in the titanomagnetites separate the upper tuffs (MnO%: 1B=1.5-2, 1C=1.3-1.6, 1D=1.1-1.4, 1E=1.5-1.7, unnamed= 0.9-1.2, 1F=1.6-2; TiO2%: 1B, 1E=23-26, 1C=18-22, 1D=25-27, unnamed=20-21, 1F= 12-20). Tuffs 1B, unnamed, and 1F contain abundant amphibole, 1D contains none. Mn and Fe concentrations in the augites also separate the tuffs (MnO%: 1B=1.2-1.5, 1C=0.9-1.2, 1D=0.6-0.9, 1E=0.9-1.1, unnamed=0.5-0.7, 1F=variable; FeO%: 1B=19-21, 1C=15-19, 1D=12-16, 1E=13-16, unnamed=11-14, 1F=variable). Results of these findings provide new widespread markers in the Olduvai

  1. The crustal magma storage system of Volcán Quizapu, Chile, and the effects of magma mixing on magma diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergantz, George W.; Cooper, Kari M.; Hildreth, Edward; Ruprecht, Phillipp

    2012-01-01

    Crystal zoning as well as temperature and pressure estimates from phenocryst phase equilibria are used to constrain the architecture of the intermediate-sized magmatic system (some tens of km3) of Volcán Quizapu, Chile, and to document the textural and compositional effects of magma mixing. In contrast to most arc magma systems, where multiple episodes of open-system behavior obscure the evidence of major magma chamber events (e.g. melt extraction, magma mixing), the Quizapu magma system shows limited petrographic complexity in two large historical eruptions (1846–1847 and 1932) that have contrasting eruptive styles. Quizapu magmas and peripheral mafic magmas exhibit a simple binary mixing relationship. At the mafic end, basaltic andesite to andesite recharge magmas complement the record from peripheral cones and show the same limited range of compositions. The silicic end-member composition is almost identical in both eruptions of Quizapu. The effusive 1846–1847 eruption records significant mixing between the mafic and silicic end-members, resulting in hybridized andesites and mingled dacites. These two compositionally simple eruptions at Volcán Quizapu present a rare opportunity to isolate particular aspects of magma evolution—formation of homogeneous dacite magma and late-stage magma mixing—from other magma chamber processes. Crystal zoning, trace element compositions, and crystal-size distributions provide evidence for spatial separation of the mafic and silicic magmas. Dacite-derived plagioclase phenocrysts (i.e. An25–40) show a narrow range in composition and limited zonation, suggesting growth from a compositionally restricted melt. Dacite-derived amphibole phenocrysts show similar restricted compositions and furthermore constrain, together with more mafic amphibole phenocrysts, the architecture of the magmatic system at Volcán Quizapu to be compositionally and thermally zoned, in which an andesitic mush is overlain by a homogeneous dacitic

  2. A cascade of magmatic events during the assembly and eruption of a super-sized magma body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Aidan. S. R.; Barker, Simon J.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Morgan, Daniel J.; Rooyakkers, Shane M.; Schipper, C. Ian; Wilson, Colin J. N.

    2017-07-01

    We use comprehensive geochemical and petrological records from whole-rock samples, crystals, matrix glasses and melt inclusions to derive an integrated picture of the generation, accumulation and evacuation of 530 km3 of crystal-poor rhyolite in the 25.4 ka Oruanui supereruption (New Zealand). New data from plagioclase, orthopyroxene, amphibole, quartz, Fe-Ti oxides, matrix glasses, and plagioclase- and quartz-hosted melt inclusions, in samples spanning different phases of the eruption, are integrated with existing data to build a history of the magma system prior to and during eruption. A thermally and compositionally zoned, parental crystal-rich (mush) body was developed during two periods of intensive crystallisation, 70 and 10-15 kyr before the eruption. The mush top was quartz-bearing and as shallow as 3.5 km deep, and the roots quartz-free and extending to >10 km depth. Less than 600 year prior to the eruption, extraction of large volumes of 840 °C low-silica rhyolite melt with some crystal cargo (between 1 and 10%), began from this mush to form a melt-dominant (eruptible) body that eventually extended from 3.5 to 6 km depth. Crystals from all levels of the mush were entrained into the eruptible magma, as seen in mineral zonation and amphibole model pressures. Rapid translation of crystals from the mush to the eruptible magma is reflected in textural and compositional diversity in crystal cores and melt inclusion compositions, versus uniformity in the outermost rims. Prior to eruption the assembled eruptible magma body was not thermally or compositionally zoned and at temperatures of 790 °C, reflecting rapid cooling from the 840 °C low-silica rhyolite feedstock magma. A subordinate but significant volume (3-5 km3) of contrasting tholeiitic and calc-alkaline mafic material was co-erupted with the dominant rhyolite. These mafic clasts host crystals with compositions which demonstrate that there was some limited pre-eruptive physical interaction of mafic

  3. Hydrothermal Alteration in Submarine Basaltic Rocks from the Reykjanes Geothermal Field, Iceland. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Fowler, A. P.; Marks, N.; Fridleifsson, G.; Elders, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is preparing to drill to 4-5 km in the Reykjanes Geothermal Field to sample geothermal fluids at supercritical temperature and pressure for power generation. The Reykjanes geothermal field is the on-land extension of the Reykjanes Ridge spreading center. The upper 1-2 kilometers drilled at Reykjanes are submarine basalts and basaltic sediments, hyalloclastites, and breccias, with an increasing proportion of basaltic intrusive rocks below 2 km depth. Geothermal fluids are evolved seawater with a composition similar to mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Zn- and Cu-rich sulfide scale, locally enriched in Au and Ag, are deposited in production pipes. The sulfide deposits are compositionally and isotopically similar to seafloor massive sulfides. In anticipation of deeper drilling, we have investigated the mineralogy and geochemistry of drill cuttings from a 3 km deep well (RN-17). The depth zoning of alteration minerals is similar to that described from other Icelandic geothermal fields, and is comparable to observed seafloor metamorphic gradients in ODP drill holes and ophiolites. Chlorite-epidote alteration occurs at depths >400 m and passes downhole through epidote-actinolite alteration and into amphibole facies (hornblende-calcic plagioclase) alteration below 2.5 km. Local zones of high temperature (>800°C), granoblastic-textured, pyroxene hornfels, are interpreted to form by contact metamorphism during dike/sill emplacement. Similar granoblasically altered basalts were recovered from the base of the sheeted dikes in IODP Hole 1256D. Downhole compositional variations of drill cuttings, collected every 50 m, suggest that rocks below ~ 2 km are little altered. Whole-rock oxygen isotope profiles are consistent with low water/rock ratios, but suggest that early stages of hydrothermal alteration included meteoric water-derived fluids. Strontium isotope profiles indicate more extensive exchange with seawater-derived fluids

  4. Computation of thermodynamic equilibrium in systems under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

    2016-04-01

    Metamorphic reactions may be partly controlled by the local stress distribution as suggested by observations of phase assemblages around garnet inclusions related to an amphibolite shear zone in granulite of the Bergen Arcs in Norway. A particular example presented in fig. 14 of Mukai et al. [1] is discussed here. A garnet crystal embedded in a plagioclase matrix is replaced on the left side by a high pressure intergrowth of kyanite and quartz and on the right side by chlorite-amphibole. This texture apparently represents disequilibrium. In this case, the minerals adapt to the low pressure ambient conditions only where fluids were present. Alternatively, here we compute that this particular low pressure and high pressure assemblage around a stressed rigid inclusion such as garnet can coexist in equilibrium. To do the computations we developed the Thermolab software package. The core of the software package consists of Matlab functions that generate Gibbs energy of minerals and melts from the Holland and Powell database [2] and aqueous species from the SUPCRT92 database [3]. Most up to date solid solutions are included in a general formulation. The user provides a Matlab script to do the desired calculations using the core functions. Gibbs energy of all minerals, solutions and species are benchmarked versus THERMOCALC, PerpleX [4] and SUPCRT92 and are reproduced within round off computer error. Multi-component phase diagrams have been calculated using Gibbs minimization to benchmark with THERMOCALC and Perple_X. The Matlab script to compute equilibrium in a stressed system needs only two modifications of the standard phase diagram script. Firstly, Gibbs energy of phases considered in the calculation is generated for multiple values of thermodynamic pressure. Secondly, for the Gibbs minimization the proportion of the system at each particular thermodynamic pressure needs to be constrained. The user decides which part of the stress tensor is input as thermodynamic

  5. Condiciones de cristalización y diferenciación de las lavas del volcán El Metate (Campo Volcánico de Michoacán-Guanajuato, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losantos, E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El Metate is a shield volcano located in the southern sector of the Michoacan-Guanajuato Volcanic Field, one of two largest monogenetic volcanic fields of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. It was active c. 4.700 ± 200 years B.P and emitted about fifteen calcalkaline lava flows showing variable differentiation degrees. Temperatures calculated from mineral-liquid geothermobarometers for olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene, suggest that olivine was the earliest fractionating phase (1232–1198 °C, followed by plagioclase (1162–1126 °C, orthopyroxene (1147–1027 °C and clinopyroxene (1147–1018 °C. Pressure estimations indicate that crystallization started at ~7 kbar and progressed up to surface levels. Water contents in the melts during crystalliztion of plagioclase is estimated at ~1.6%. Temperatures calculated on the basis of Al content in amphibole, provide a crystallization range between 995 and 922 °C, at an average pressure of 3.5 kbar and water contents between 5.2% and 6.9%. Although these values could agree with a scenario where amphibole represents a late crystallization phase along the previous fractionating sequence, the systematic presence of disequilibrium textures, which are also observed occasionally in other phases, suggest that other possibilities such as open-system crystallization cannot be discarded.El Metate es un volcán en escudo situado en el sector sur del Campo Volcánico de Michoacán-Guanajuato, uno de los dos campos volcánicos más grandes del Cinturón Volcánico Transmexicano. Su actividad tuvo lugar aproximadamente 4.700 ± 200 a B.P y produjo más de quince coladas de afinidad calcoalcalina que muestran diferente grado de diferenciación. Las temperaturas calculadas mediante geotermómetros mineral-líquido para olivino, plagioclasa, y piroxenos muestran que la fase más temprana en cristalizar fue el olivino (1232–1198 °C, seguido de plagioclasa (1162–1126 °C, ortopiroxeno (1147–1027 °C y

  6. Petrological and geochemical studies of mantle xenoliths from La Palma, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, Astrid; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-04-01

    La Palma is the second youngest island, after El Hierro, of the Canary archipelago. The archipelago consists of seven large islands, forming an east-west-trending island chain, and several seamounts. All together they form a volcanic belt of around 800 km length and 450 km width, which presumably comprises roughly the Canary hotspot. The islands are located off the western coast of Morocco, Africa. The distance ranges from 100 km to 500 km. Concurrently with the distance, subaerial volcanism age progresses from the oldest lava in the east to the youngest in the west of the archipelago. Presently, La Palma is in the shield building stage of growth (alongside with El Hierro and Tenerife) and is furthermore the fastest growing island of the Canary archipelago. Historical volcanic eruptions are restricted on the younger islands, La Palma and El Hierro, with the last eruption at the south end of La Palma in 1971. Mantle xenoliths described in this work were collected at the slopes of San Antonio Volcano, Fuencaliente, brought to the surface during the 1677/1678 eruption. The mantle xenolith collection comprises sp-lherzolites, sp-harzburgites and pyroxenites. The texture can be distinguished between coarse-grained matrix and fine-grained veins in various thicknesses, mostly with olivine and pyroxene but also with amphibole, phlogopite as well as apatite. Mineral analyses reveal the existence of primary and secondary ol, cpx and opx. Primary ol has Fo contents of 89.2 to 91.7 and NiO ranging from 0.3 to 0.45 wt.%, whereas secondary ol show Fo values of 78.4 to 91.9 but with NiO below 0.3 wt.%. Primary cpx are predominantly Cr-Diopsides with En48.7-51.9-Wo43.5-44.3-Fs4.1-4.9 and Mg# of 91.5 to 92.4. Secondary cpx, primarily Ti-Augit, display En36.7-44.4-Wo47.7-49.6-Fs6.7-13.0 and Mg# of 75.3 to 90.8. Primary opx compositions are in range of En89.3-90.6-Wo1.3-1.5-Fs8.1-9.3 with Mg# between 90.7 and 92.0. Secondary opx exhibit En88.7-89.2-Wo1.7-1.9-Fs9.1-9.5 and Mg# of 90

  7. Nature of the magma storage system beneath the Damavand volcano (N. Iran): An integrated study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Amir; Amini, Sadraddin; De Rosa, Rosanna; Donato, Paola

    2018-02-01

    Damavand intraplate stratovolcano constructed upon a moderately thick crust (58-67 km) over the last 2 Ma. The erupted products are dominantly trachyandesite-trachyte (TT) lavas and pyroclasts, with minor mafic magmas including tephrite-basanite-trachybasalt and alkali olivine basalts emplaced as cinder cones at the base of the stratovolcano. The TT products are characterized by a mineral assemblage of clinopyroxene (diopside-augite), orthopyroxene (clinoenstatite), feldspar (An2-58, Ab6-69, Or2-56), high Ti phlogopite, F-apatite, Fesbnd Ti oxides, and minor amounts of olivine (Fo73-80), amphibole and zircon, whereas olivine (Fo78-88), high Mg# (80-89) diopside, feldspar, apatite and Fesbnd Ti oxide occur in the mafic magmas. The presence of hydrous and anhydrous minerals, normal zonings, mafic cumulates, and the composition of magmatic inclusions in the TT products suggest evolutionary processes in polybaric conditions. In the same way, disequilibrium textures - including orthopyroxene mantled with clinopyroxene, reaction rim of phlogopite and amphibole, the coexistence of olivine and orthopyroxene, reverse, oscillatory and complex zonings of pyroxene and feldspar crystals - suggest magmatic evolutions in open systems with a varying temperature, oxygen fugacity, water as well as pressure and, to a lesser extent, melt chemistry. Mineral assemblages are used to model the physicochemical conditions and assess default parameters for the thermodynamic simulation of crystallization using MELTS software to track the P-T-H2O-ƒO2 evolution of the magma plumbing system. Thermobarometry and MELTS models estimated the initial nucleation depth at 16-17 kb (56-60 km) for olivine (Fo89) and high Al diopside crystals occurring in the mafic primary magma; it then stopped and underwent fractionation between 8 and 10 kb (28-35 km), corresponding with Moho depth, and continued to differentiate in the lower crust, in agreement with the geophysical models. The mafic rocks were formed

  8. The region of the Piedra Berroqueña: A potencial Global Heritage Stone Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The Piedra Berroqueña region occupies an area of approximately 4000 km2 in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System, the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This region has provided most of the building granites used in Madrid and surrounding provinces. Traditional methods of cutting and carving stone have been preserved and it is easy to locate historic quarries in its landscape in addition to mechanized quarries with large reserves of this dimension stone that is exported worldwide in the form of blocks or slabs with different finishes. The Piedra Berroqueña has been used as a building stone since before the Romans. Petrophysical and durability characteristics have allowed to endure monuments as representative as The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial (1563-1584), del Sol Gate (1857-1862), Royal Palace (1738-1764), Alcalá Gate (1770-1778) or Prado Museum (1785-1808) in Madrid, Spain. Also the Piedra Berroqueña is part of most residential buildings and streets of this city, as well as modern buildings around the world, such as airport terminals in Athens, Cork, the British consulate in Hong Kong and headquarters of banks in Jakarta, among others. Piedra Berroqueña province is presented in this abstract, which has many granite quarries with common characteristics such as their grey tones and the presence of darker enclaves "Gabarros or negrones". In the Piedra Berroqueña province four main types of granite can be distinguish: Peraluminous granites; with biotite and occasional cordierite, whose most representative historic quarries are in Alpedrete, Colmenar Viejo, El Boalo, El Berrocal and Collado Mediano. Biotite granites with occasional amphibole are present in historic quarries in El Berrueco, Lozoyuela-Navas-Sieteiglesias and Pelayo de la Presa, among others. Currently exploited in Valdemanco and La Cabrera and marketed under the commercial names of Aurora Blanco, Blanco Berrocal, Crema Champagne, Blanco Castilla, Crema Cabrera, Blanco Perla

  9. A Dynamic study of Mantle processes applying In-situ Methods to Compound Xenoliths: implications for small to intermediate scale heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Asimow, Paul; Koroneos, Antonios; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Poli, Giampero

    2013-04-01

    spinel lherzolite (Irving 1980). The Dish Hill volcanic field contains lherzolite xenoliths with amphibole-rich veins previously interpreted by Wilshire et al. (1980) in terms of reaction of a H2O- and Fe-rich fluid with the lherzolite host producing notable losses of Mg and Al. The Cima volcanic field, located in the southern Basin and Range province, provides samples with contacts among such diverse lithologies as Cr-diopside spinel peridotite, websterite, gabbro, clinopyroxenite and wehrlite (Wilshire et al. 1991). The San Quintin example contains large websterite veins crosscutting lherzolite matrix. Chino Valley xenoliths show cumulate textures with alternating orthopyroxene- and clinopyroxene-rich layers. We discuss and assign the observed reaction textures and mechanisms between the different minerals (e.g. olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene), layers (e.g. clinopyroxenite and lherzolite) and the consequent compositional changes across/among the minerals and the lithologic contacts. Thus, we characterize the possible genetic origin scenarios for the observed contacts between adjacent lithologies of the composite xenoliths. Those examples, most likely to represent original subsolidus contacts that underwent partial melting together, will have the most direct relevance as benchmarks for application of future kinetic models of melt extraction from heterogeneous mantle lithologies. References Irving, A.J. (1980). Petrology and Geochemistry of Composite Ultramafic Xenoliths in Alkalic Basalts and Implications for Magmatic Processes within the Mantle. American Journal of Science, 280, 389-426. Wilshire, H.G., et al. (1980). Amphibole-Rich Veins in Lherzolite Xenoliths, Dish Hill and Deadman Lake, California. American Journal of Science, 280, 576-593. Wilshire, H.G., et al. (1991). Petrology of Lower Crustal and Upper Mantle Xenoliths from the Cima Volcanic Field, California. Journal of Petrology, 32(1), 169-200.

  10. Geochemical radioactive investigation of beach sands and stream sediments, using heavy minerals, trace elements and radon measurements, (Qerdaha sheet of the Syrian coast)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.; Kattaa, B.; Al-Hilal, M.

    2000-05-01

    Reconnaissance geochemical radiometric survey of stream sediments resulting from the weathering of outcropped rocks in and around the study area was performed. This survey included heavy mineral sampling, trace and radioelements and radon measurements to evaluate the radioactivity of the source rocks and to understand the nature and distribution of the heavy minerals and trace elements in the study area. Several techniques were used to achieve these objectives. The results of heavy mineral geochemical survey show that the abundant minerals are iron oxides (magnetite, hematite, goehtite and limonite) pyroxene and olivine; less abundant minerals are apatite, ilmenite, garnet, barite, siderite and gloconite, while rare minerals are zircon and rutile. Amphibole is reported as an abundant mineral in sand dunes and is less abundant in samples located in the northern part of the study area. The amphibole seems to be derived from the ophiolitic complex north of the study area. Grain size analysis of heavy minerals revealed that the concentration of economic minerals such as zircon rutile and ilmenite increases with the decrease of the grain size. The microscopic study showed fragments and fossils of foraminifere mostly impregnated with heavy metals such as iron and manganese resulting from diagenetic metasomatism and replacement processes of. Fish teeth (< 2 mm) and oolite of iron were also noticed in most of the samples. The morphology of heavy mineral grains shows that most of the grains are angular to subangular suggesting that they were transported for short distance from their source rocks. Normally, phosphate pellets, gloconite and iron ooids are not considered since their original morphological features show clear roundness that attributed to their sedimentological origin, not to transportation factor. The source rock of most of the heavy mineral assemblage is the basalt. Apatite and gloconite are derived from the phosphorite and phosphatized limestone encountered

  11. An example of post-collisional mafic magmatism: the gabbro-anorthosite layered complex from the Tin Zebane area (western Hoggar, Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aı̈t-Djafer, Saı̈da; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Paul-Liégeois, Jean; Kienast, Jean Robert

    2003-10-01

    The Tin Zebane gabbro-anorthosite layered mafic intrusion represented by plagioclase-rich cumulates forms a set of small lenticular to round-shaped mainly undeformed bodies intruding the Pan-African high-pressure metamorphic rocks from western Hoggar (Tuareg shield, southwest Algeria). The coarse-grained anorthosites are mainly made of slightly zoned bytownite (An 86-74) with the higher anorthite content at the cores. Anorthosites are interlayered with leucogabbros and gabbros that show preserved magmatic structures and with olivine gabbros characterised by coronitic textures. The primary assemblage in gabbros includes plagioclase (An 93-70), olivine (Fo 77-70), zoned clinopyroxene (En 43-48Fs 05-13Wo 41-49 with Al 2O 3 up to 4.3 wt.%) and rare orthopyroxene (En 73-78). Pyroxenes and olivine are commonly surrounded by Ca-amphibole. The olivine-plagioclase contact is usually marked by a fine orthopyroxene-Cr-spinel-amphibole symplectite. A magnesian pigeonite (En 70-75Fs 19-20Wo 6-10) is also involved in corona. The coronitic minerals have equilibrated with the primary mineral rims at P- T- aH2O conditions of 797 ± 42 °C for aH2O=0.5 and 808 ± 44 °C for aH2O=0.6 at 6.2 ± 1.4 kbar. The Tin Zebane gabbroic rocks are depleted in REE with a positive Eu anomaly, high Sr (>10 ∗ chondrite) and Al 2O 3 concentrations (17-33%) that support plagioclase accumulation with the extreme case represented by the anorthosites. The REE patterns can be modelised using plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene REE signature, without any role played by accessory minerals. High MgO content points to olivine as a major cumulate phase. Anorthositic gabbros Sr and Nd isotopic initial ratios are typical of a depleted mantle source (Sr i=0.70257-0.70278; ɛNd=+5.9 to +7.8). This isotopic signature is identical to that of the 10-km wide 592 Ma old dyke complex composed of alkaline to peralkaline granites and tholeiitic gabbros and one single bimodal complex can be inferred. The source

  12. Deformation associated with the denudation of mantle-derived rocks at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 13°-15°N: The role of magmatic injections and hydrothermal alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo, Suzanne; Cannat, Mathilde; Delacour, AdéLie; EscartíN, Javier; RouméJon, StéPhane; Silantyev, Sergei

    2012-09-01

    Outcrops of deeply derived ultramafic rocks and gabbros are widespread along slow spreading ridges where they are exposed in the footwall of detachment faults. We report on the microstructural and petrological characteristics of a large number of samples from ultramafic exposures in the walls of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) axial valley at three distinct locations at lat. 13°N and 14°45'N. One of these locations corresponds to the footwall beneath a corrugated paleo-fault surface. Bearing in mind that dredging and ROV sampling may not preserve the most fragile lithologies (fault gouges), this study allows us to document a sequence of deformation, and the magmatic and hydrothermal history recorded in the footwall within a few hundred meters of the axial detachment fault. At the three sampled locations, we find that tremolitic amphiboles have localized deformation in the ultramafic rocks prior to the onset of serpentinization. We interpret these tremolites as hydrothermal alteration products after evolved gabbroic rocks intruded into the peridotites. We also document two types of brittle deformation in the ultramafic rocks, which we infer could produce the sustained low magnitude seismicity recorded at ridge axis detachment faults. The first type of brittle deformation affects fresh peridotite and is associated with the injection of the evolved gabbroic melts, and the second type affects serpentinized peridotites and is associated with the injection of Si-rich hydrothermal fluids that promote talc crystallization, leading to strain localization in thin talc shear zones. We also observed chlorite + serpentine shear zones but did not identify samples with serpentine-only shear zones. Although the proportion of magmatic injections in the ultramafic rocks is variable, these characteristics are found at each investigated location and are therefore proposed as fundamental components of the deformation in the footwall of the detachment faults associated with denudation of

  13. Magnetic fabric and flow direction in the Ediacaran Imider dyke swarms (Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco), inferred from the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otmane, Khadija; Errami, Ezzoura; Olivier, Philippe; Berger, Julien; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Ennih, Nasser

    2018-03-01

    Located in the Imiter Inlier (Eastern Saghro, Anti-Atlas, Morocco), Ediacaran volcanic dykes have been studied for their petrofabric using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique. Four dykes, namely TF, TD, FF and FE show andesitic compositions and are considered to belong to the same dyke swarm. They are oriented respectively N25E, N40E, N50E, and N10E and have been emplaced during a first tectonic event. The dyke FW, oriented N90E displays a composition of alkali basalt and its emplacement is attributed to a subsequent tectonic event. These rocks are propylitized under greenschist facies conditions forming a secondary paragenesis constituted by calcite, chlorite, epidote and sericite. The dykes TF, TD, FF and FE are sub-volcanic calc-alkaline, typical of post-collisional basalts/andesites, belonging to plate margin andesites. The FW dyke shows a within-plate basalt signature; alkaline affinity reflecting a different petrogenetic process. The thermomagnetic analyses show a dominantly ferromagnetic behaviour in the TF dyke core carried by single domain Ti-poor magnetite, maghemite and pyrrhotite. The dominantly paramagnetic susceptibilities in TF dyke rims and TD, FE, FF and FW dykes are controlled by ilmenite, amphibole, pyroxene and chlorite. The magnetic fabrics of the Imider dykes, determined by our AMS study, allows us to reconstitute the tectonic conditions which prevailed during the emplacement of these two generations of volcanic dykes. The first tectonic event was characterized by a roughly NE-SW compression and the second tectonic event is characterized by an E-W shortening followed by a relaxation recording the end of the Pan-African orogeny in the eastern Anti-Atlas.

  14. Formation of phreatomagmatic pipes in the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia) during the end-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2010-05-01

    We recently proposed that numerous pipes piercing sedimentary rocks of Tunguska Basin triggered the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Svensen et al., 2009). Large amounts of greenhouse and poisonous gases were released through the pipes and into P-Tr atmosphere, partly formed by heating of petroleum-bearing evaporites. The sub-volcanic part of the Siberian Traps was emplaced in the Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequences, which includes Pre-Cambrian source rocks, Early Cambrian evaporites, and Paleozoic terrigenous and coal-bearing rocks. Spectacular breccia pipes are numerous in the evaporate-parts of the basin, and are filled with volcaniclastic rocks and commercial magnetite mineralization. Although these pipes have been intensively studied in order to understand the iron ore formation, the origin and formation of the pipes is poorly understood. Many researchers emphasize that magma-sediments interaction as a key reason of pipe formation, whereas phreatomagmatic hypothesis are also proposed. In order to improve the understanding of pipe formation and ore-deposition, we have studied a basalt-rich breccia pipe piercing Cambrian evaporates at the Nepa locality in East Siberia. Textural features of the volcanic fragments in the breccias include lapilli, Pele's hear, glassy basalt and dolerite clasts, blocks of tuffs in addition to sedimentary rocks. Calcite and halite are the most common types of cement. We have studied minerals from the breccia cement and from reaction rims around clasts in order to understand the hydrothermal system that developed after the pipe formed. Calcite and dolomite are the dominating carbonates, and two types of anhydrite is present. Biotite, Cl-Fe-bearing amphibole (hastingsite), and Cl-F-apatite are amongst early hydrothermal minerals covering magmatic clast and lapillies. Our new data confirm (i) the phreatomagmatic nature of breccia filling in the Tunguska Basin pipes and (ii) the key role of sedimentary brine and petroleum involved in

  15. Magma shearing and friction in the volcanic conduit: A crystal constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P. A.; Kendrick, J. E.; Henton De Angelis, S.; Ashworth, J. D.; Coats, R.; Miwa, T.; Mariani, E.; Lavallée, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Magma shearing and friction processes in the shallow volcanic conduit are typical manifestations of strain localisation, which in turn can have an influential role on magma ascent dynamics. The thermal consequences of such events could drive the destabilisation of magma and thus dictate the style of activity at the surface. Shear heating and fault friction are prime candidates for the generation of significant quantities of heat. Here we use a combination of field and experimental evidence to investigate how crystals can act as sensitive recorders of both physical and chemical processes occurring in the shallow volcanic conduit. Spine extrusion during the closing of the 1991-95 eruption at Unzen volcano, Japan, provided the unique opportunity to investigate marginal shear zone formation, which preserves a relic of the deformation during magma ascent. Our results show that crystals can effectively act as a deformation marker during magma ascent through the viscous-brittle transition by accommodating strain in the form of crystal plasticity before fracturing (comminution). Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) reveals up to 40° lattice distortion of biotite phenocrysts in zones of high shear, with negligible plasticity further away. Plagioclase microlites display a systematic plastic response to an increase in shear intensity, as recorded by an increase in lattice distortion towards the spine margin of up to 9°. This localisation of strain within the shear zone is also accompanied by the destabilisation of hydrous mineral phases (i.e. amphibole), compaction of pores (23-13% Φ), glass devitrification and magnetic anomalies. The narrow zone of disequilibrium textures suggests the likely effect of a thermal input due to strain localisation being the contributing factor. These observations are complimented by high-temperature high-velocity rotary shear experiments which simulate the deformation evolution during shear. Hence, understanding these shallow volcanic

  16. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jish Prakash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, ion chromatography (IC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and laser particle size analysis (LPSA. We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models

  17. Chromite Composition and Accessory Minerals in Chromitites from Sulawesi, Indonesia: Their Genetic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Zaccarini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several chromite deposits located in the in the South and Southeast Arms of Sulawesi, Indonesia, have been investigated by electron microprobe. According to the variation of the Cr# = Cr/(Cr + Fe3+, the chromite composition varies from Cr-rich to Al-rich. Small platinum-group minerals (PGM, 1–10 μm in size, occur in the chromitites. The most abundant PGM is laurite, which has been found included in fresh chromite or in contact with chlorite along cracks in the chromite. Laurite forms polygonal crystals, and it occurs as a single phase or in association with amphibole, chlorite, Co-pentlandite and apatite. Small blebs of irarsite (less than 2 μm across have been found associated with grains of awaruite and Co-pentlandite in the chlorite gangue of the chromitites. Grains of olivine, occurring in the silicate matrix or included in fresh chromite, have been analyzed. They show a composition typical of mantle-hosted olivine. The bimodal composition and the slight enrichment in TiO2 observed in some chromitites suggest a vertical zonation due to the fractionation of a single batch magma with an initial boninitic composition during its ascent, in a supra-subduction zone. This observation implies the accumulation of Cr-rich chromitites at deep mantle levels and the formation of the Al-rich chromitites close or above the Moho-transition zone. All of the laurites are considered to be magmatic in origin, i.e., entrapped as solid phases during the crystallization of chromite at temperature of around 1200 °C and a sulfur fugacity below the sulfur saturation. Irarsite possibly represents a low temperature, less than 400 °C, exsolution product.

  18. Defining asbestos: differences between the built and natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Mickey E

    2010-01-01

    Asbestos - while most think they know what this material is, few understand the current issues surrounding it. Few would also realize that asbestos is the form of a mineral, and even fewer would know that there are different types of asbestos, that not only had different industrial applications, but pose differing health risks when inhaled. Asbestos was in wide-spread use mid-last century in many consumer products, and no doubt saved thousands of lives, but by the latter part of last century concerns over its health risk caused its use to wane, to the point it was removed from many buildings. So in many ways the asbestos story was coming to an end in the 1990s, but two events in the USA - the vermiculite ore produced from Libby, Montana which contained amphibole asbestos and was used in a million homes in the USA as attic insulation and the concern for exposure to asbestos occurring in its natural setting in El Dorado Hills, California led to an increased concern of the potential for low-level environmental exposure to asbestos to the general public. The current dilemma we find ourselves in, especially in the USA, deals with the relationships between our knowledge of handling asbestos and an understanding of its risk potential in the built environment versus the natural environment. And one perfect metaphor for this is the term used by many non-geologists to differentiate asbestos in the built vs natural environment - 'naturally occurring asbestos'. Clearly a misstatement, but only one of many we must deal with as we struggle to understand the risk to humans of natural occurrences of asbestos. This paper will try and address some of these issues centering around those occurring in the USA.

  19. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, David M.; Rogers, Rick; Sepulveda, Rosalina; Kunzendorf, Peter; Bellmann, Bernd; Ernst, Heinrich; Phillips, James I.

    2014-01-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T 1/2 estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T 1/2 > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d

  20. Experimental constraints on metasomatism of mantle wedge peridotites by hybridized adakitic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corgne, Alexandre; Schilling, Manuel E.; Grégoire, Michel; Langlade, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a series of high-pressure (1.5 GPa) and high-temperature (1000-1300 °C) experiments were performed to investigate the petrological imprints of adakitic metasomatism on mantle wedge peridotites. Reaction couples were prepared using a powdered adakite from Cerro Pampa, Argentina (Mg# 0.7) placed in contact with a cored sample of medium-grained protogranular depleted spinel lherzolite from Pali Aike (Chile). Textural and chemical analyses of the run products allow us to identify key features of modal metasomatism by hybridized adakitic melts. The main changes in phase relations are associated with the following metasomatic reactions: incongruent dissolution of olivine and associated precipitation of secondary orthopyroxene, dissolution of primary spinel and subsequent replacement by secondary high-Cr spinel. In experiments with high water contents (9-12 wt%), precipitation of pargasitic amphibole also occurred, possibly at the expense of primary clinopyroxene. Neither phlogopite nor Ti-oxides were precipitated in any of these experiments. As expected, primary pyroxenes do not show evidence of being significantly altered following the interaction with the produced siliceous melts. Within the adakitic portion of the experimental charge, it was also observed the crystallization of secondary Ti-rich, Cr- and Na-poor diopsidic clinopyroxene, andesine plagioclase and, at low temperature, Fe-enriched secondary orthopyroxene. Considering textural criteria, we interpreted the formation of these minerals as crystallization products of the adakite component and not as true products of metasomatic reactions. The experimental results are used to discuss some of the petrological evidences presented to support modal metasomatism by slab-derived melts of mantle xenoliths extracted from several suprasubduction settings located around the Pacific Ring of Fire.

  1. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Imam Setiawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.139-156This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The primary stage of this rock might be represented by the assemblage of glaucophane + epidote + titanite ± paragonite. The assemblage yields 1.7 - 1.0 GPa in assumed temperature of 300 - 550 °C, which is interpreted as maximum pressure limit of prograde stage. The peak P-T condition estimated on the basis of the equilibrium of garnet rim, barroisite, phengite, epidote, and quartz, yields 547 - 690 °C and 1.1 - 1.5 GPa on the albite epidote amphibolite-facies that correspond to the depth of 38 - 50 km. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.5 GPa at 350 °C. It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions (blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition.

  2. Timing and duration of Variscan high-pressure metamorphism in the French Massif Central: A multimethod geochronological study from the Najac Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotout, Caroline; Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Van Den Driessche, Jean

    2018-05-01

    Accurate dating of eclogite-facies metamorphism is of paramount importance in order to understand the tectonic evolution of an orogen. An eclogite sample from the Najac Massif (French Massif Central, Variscan belt) displays a zircon-bearing garnet-omphacite-amphibole-rutile-quartz peak assemblage. Pseudosection modeling suggests peak pressure conditions of 15-20 kbar, 560-630 °C. Eclogite-facies garnet displays Lu-enriched cores and Sm-rich rims and yields a Lu-Hf age of 382.8 ± 1.0 Ma and a Sm-Nd age of 376.7 ± 3.3 Ma. The ages are interpreted as marking the beginning of the prograde garnet growth during the initial stages of the eclogite-facies metamorphism, and the high-pressure (and temperature) peak reached by the rock, respectively. Zircon grains display chondrite-normalized REE spectra with variably negative, positive or no Eu anomalies and are characterized by either enriched or flat HREE patterns. However, they yield a well constrained in situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 385.5 ± 2.3 Ma, despite this REE pattern variability. Zr zonation in garnet, Y content in zircon and the diversity of zircon HREE spectra may suggest that zircon crystallized prior to and during incipient garnet growth on the prograde P-T path, recording the initial stages of the eclogite-facies conditions. Consequently, the zircon age of 385.5 ± 2.3 Ma, comparable within error with the Lu-Hf age obtained on garnet, is interpreted as dating the beginning of the eclogite-facies metamorphism. Accordingly, the duration of the prograde part of the eclogite-facies event is estimated at 6.1 ± 4.3 Myr. Subsequent exhumation is constrained by an apatite U-Pb age at 369 ± 13 Ma.

  3. Using apatite to discriminate synchronous ore-associated and barren granitoid rocks: A case study from the Edong metallogenic district, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Deng-Fei; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2018-06-01

    In order to find criteria to discriminate the synchronous ore-associated and barren granitoid rocks, we have determined apatite chemistry associated with ore-associated (Cu-Au) and barren granitoid rocks in the Edong district of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt, South China. Both rock types give zircon U-Pb ages between 135.0 and 138.7 Ma. Apatite has a higher volatile and Li content (Cl: 0.19-0.57 wt%, average 0.35 wt%, SO3: 0.08-0.71 wt%, average 0.32 wt%, Li: 0.49-7.99 ppm, average 3.23 ppm) in ore-associated rocks than those in barren rocks (Cl: 0.09-0.31 wt%, average 0.16 wt%, SO3: 0.06-0.28 wt%, average 0.16 wt%, Li: 0.15-0.89 ppm, average 0.36 ppm). Apatite (La/Yb)N ratios and Eu/Eu* values are relatively high and show wider variation in ore-associated rocks than those in barren rocks. Apatite (La/Sm)N and (Yb/Sm)N show positive correlation in ore-associated rocks but negative in barren rocks. The higher volatile content occurs in ore-associated magma, favoring Cu-Au transportation and deposition. Furthermore, amphibole fractional crystallization in ore-associated magma further enriched the ore elements in the residual melt. Barren rocks may have undergone fluid exsolution before emplacement, which makes it barren in Cl, S and ore elements (Cu, S). These signatures emphases the significance of volatile and magma evolution in mineralization and indicate that analyses of magmatic apatite can serve to distinguish ore-associated from barren intrusions.

  4. Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals from Nakhlites and Shergottites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the amount of water in the interior of terrestrial planets has tremendous implications on our understanding of solar nebula evolution, planet formation and geological history, and extraterrestrial volcanism. Mars has been a recent focus of such enquiry with complementary datasets from spacecrafts, rovers and martian meteorite studies. In planetary interiors, water can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Measuring water in Martian meteorite NAM is challenging because the minerals are fragile and riddled with fractures from impact processes that makes them break apart during sample processing. Moreover, curing the sample in epoxy causes problems for the two main water analysis techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements to date have resulted in a heated debate on how much water the mantle of Mars contains. SIMS studies of NAM [4], amphiboles [5], and apatites [6-8] from Martian meteorites report finding enough water in these phases to infer that the martian mantle is as hydrous as that of the Earth. On the other hand, a SIMS study of glass in olivine melt inclusions from shergottites concludes that the Martian mantle is much drier [9]. The latter interpretation is also supported by the fact that most martian hydrous minerals generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [10,11]. As for experimental results, martian basalt compositions can be reproduced using water as well as Cl in the parent melts [12,13]. Here FTIR is used to measure water in martian meteorite minerals in order to constrain the origin of the distribution of water in martian meteorite phases.

  5. Charnockites and granites of the western Adirondacks, New York, USA: a differentiated A-type suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    Granitic rocks in the west-central Adirondack Highlands of New York State include both relatively homogeneous charnockitic and hornblende granitic gneisses (CG), that occur in thick stratiform bodies and elliptical domes, and heterogeneous leucogneisses (LG), that commonly are interlayered with metasedimentary rocks. Major- and trace-element geochemical analyses were obtained for 115 samples, including both types of granitoids. Data for CG fail to show the presence of more than one distinct group based on composition. Most of the variance within the CG sample population is consistent with magmatic differentiation combined with incomplete separation of early crystals of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and pyroxenes or amphibole from the residual liquid. Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca, P, Sr, Ba, and Zr decrease with increasing silica, while Rb and K increase. Within CG, the distinction between charnockitic (orthopyroxene-bearing) and granitic gneisses is correlated with bulk chemistry. The charnockites are consistently more mafic than the hornblende granitic gneisses, although forming a continuum with them. The leucogneisses, while generally more felsic than the charnockites and granitic gneisses, are otherwise geochemically similar to them. The data are consistent with the LG suite being an evolved extrusive equivalent of the intrusive CG suite. Both CG and LG suites are metaluminous to mildly peraluminous and display an A-type geochemical signature, enriched in Fe, K, Ce, Y, Nb, Zr, and Ga and depleted in Ca, Mg, and Sr relative to I- and S-type granites. Rare earth element patterns show moderate LREE enrichment and a negative Eu anomaly throughout the suite. The geochemical data suggest an origin by partial melting of biotite- and plagioclase-rich crustal rocks. Emplacement occurred in an anorogenic or post-collisional tectonic setting, probably at relatively shallow depths. Deformation and granulite-facies metamorphism with some partial melting followed during the Ottawan phase

  6. Petrological and geochemical studies of alkaline rocks from continental Brazil. The tunas massif, state of Parana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, C.B.; Barbieri, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Tunas massif, outcropping 80 km from the city of Curitiba, Parana State, southern Brazil, covers about 22 km 2 . It intruded into Precambrian metaigneous and metasedimentary units about 80 Ma ago (K/Ar and Rb/Sr data); five subcircular volcanic structures are recognized. Syenites and alkali syenites (plus some pulaskites) are the main rock-types, with subordinate alkali gabbros, syenogabbros, essexites and syenodiorites; small late syenitic dikes are also found. Magmatic breccias containing clasts of all rock-types are widespread. Main minerals are feldspars (both alkali feldspars and plagioclases, varying from bytownite to more sodic members), Ca-pyroxenes (Ti-salites grading towards ferrosalites and aegirine-augites), amphiboles (mainly pargasites, although kaersutites and katophorites are also present), Fe-biotites (sometimes enriched in Ti), olivines (hortonolites to ferrohortonolites), quartz and feldspathoids (both fresh and altered nephelines and sodalites); main accessories are Ti-magnetites (with exsolved ilmenite) and apatite. In the AFM diagram, whole rock chemistry depicts a typical alkaline trend. Binary variation diagrams (D.I. vs. several elements) show positive correlation for Si, Na and K, and negative slopes for Mg and Ca. The variation in the amounts of Ni, Cr and V with differentiation can be explained by withdrawal of olivine, Ca-pyroxenes and magnetite, and that of Sr and Ba by the fractionation of feldspars. The rocks are also relatively enriched in REE, a trend which is more pronounced for the light REE. Mass balance calculations show that the overall differentiation trend of the Tunas rocks can be explained by crystal fractionation, although several complexities arise and point to more complex genetic patterns. Isotopic Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with a mantle origin for the parental magma; dike rocks, however, with 87 Sr 86 Sr i = 0.70777 - 0.70806, were probably contaminated by crustal material. (author) [pt

  7. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State; Geologia e geocronologia da Ilha de Cardoso, sudeste do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-07-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km{sup 2} is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T{sub DM} ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  8. Chemical variation in hydrothermal minerals of the Los Humeros geothermal system, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Serrano, R.G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Insituto de Geofisica

    2002-10-01

    The Los Humeros geothermal system is composed of more than 2200 m of Quaternary altered volcanic rocks and an underlying Cretaceous sedimentary sequence. The low salinity of the fluids discharged at present (Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations <500 ppm), and the excess steam, indicate that the reservoir contains a mixture of steam and dilute groundwater. Water-rock equilibrium is not attained. Hydrothermal minerals are present in veinlets, vugs, and replacing primary minerals. Three mineral zones are recognized: 1) a shallow argillic zone (<400 m depth), 2) a propylitic zone (ranging between 500 and 1800 m) and 3) a skarn zone (>1800 m). Petrographic examination of cuttings from five wells and temperature data indicate at least two stages of hydrothermal activity. Temperature is the main factor that affects the chemical composition of chlorite, epidote and biotite. Fe{sup 2+} and Al{sup IV} increase in chlorite with temperature [from 1.4 formula position unit (fpu) to 2.8, and from 0.7 to 2.4 fpu, respectively]. The pistacite content of epidote varies from 18 to 33 mol% in high-temperature regions (>270 {sup o}C) and from 13 to 26 mol% in low-temperature regions (<250 {sup 0}C). Biotite displays a slight increase in Al{sup IV} contents (1.55-2.8) and octahedral occupancy (5.93-6.0 fpu) with temperature. Whole rock composition and variations in oxygen fugacity condition are factors that also affect the concentrations of Fe, Al and Mg in the octahedral sites of chlorite, epidote, biotite and amphiboles. Chemical variations observed in alteration minerals at different depths in the Colapso Central-Xalapazco region could be used as indicator of relict physico-chemical conditions in the reservoir, before the present economic exploitation. (author)

  9. Neoproterozoic alkaline magmatism in Ilha do Cardoso, southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Werner; Basei, Miguel A.S.; Siga Junior, Oswaldo; Sato, Kei

    2001-01-01

    This work focuses on the geology and geochronology of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, close to the boundary with Parana State. The island, with an area of about 151 km 2 is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of the Secretariat for the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountainous, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Atlantic Forest vegetation. The island is made up mainly of an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium to coarse-grained syenites. The Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, predominates has magmatic flow structures, and it cut by the pinkish grey, leucocratic medium-grained Cambriu alkali-feldspar granites (GC). Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their metaluminous alkaline nature and late orogenic to anorogenic character. The bodies formed between 620 and 570 Ma according to U-Pb dating of zircons and cooled between 597 and 531 Ma (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analyses yield Meso- and Paleoproterozoic TDM ages (1,500 - 2,200 Ma). A belt of low-grade metasedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often-containing andalusite and cordierite, predominate. Geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were continental arc andesites of whose protoliths separated from the mantle between 1,800 and 2,200 Ma during the Paleoproterozoic. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. (author)

  10. Petrology, geochemistry and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology of Paleoproterozoic basement rocks in Bangladesh: An evaluation of calc-alkaline magmatism and implication for Columbia supercontinent amalgamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ismail; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Takahashi, Kazuki

    2018-05-01

    The Paleoproterozoic (1.7 Ga) basement rocks from Maddhapara, Bangladesh show a large range of chemical variations (e.g. SiO2 = 50.7-74.7%) and include diorite, quartz diorite, monzodiorite, quartz monzonite and granite. The pluton overall displays metaluminous, calc-alkaline orogenic suite; mostly I-type suites formed within subduction-related magmatism. The observed major elements show general trends for fractional crystallization. Trace element contents also indicate the possibility of a fractionation or assimilation; explain the entire variation from diorite to monzonite, even granite. The pluton may have evolved the unique chemical features by a process that included partial melting of calc-alkaline lithologies and mixing of mantle-derived magmas, followed by fractional crystallization, and by assimilation of country rocks. The pluton shows evidence of crystal fractionation involving largely plagioclase, amphibole and possibly biotite. Some of the fractionated magmas may have mixed with more potassic melts from distinct parts of the continental lithosphere to produce granites and/or pegmatites. New geochronological results of granitic pegmatite (1722 ± 10 Ma) are indisputably consistent with diorite and tonalite and those data showing credible geochronological sequence (i.e., diorite - tonalite - granitic pegmatite). Identical Paleoproterozoic age (1.7 Ga) with distinctive magmatism of the Maddhapara basement rocks have agreeable relationship with the CITZ, India. The consistent magmatism is also common in the Transamazonian of South America, Trans-Hudson orogeny in North America, Bohemian Massif and the Svecofennian, Poland, have identified the sequential growth of the continent through the amalgamation of juvenile terrains, succeeded by a major collisional orogeny. Such Paleoproterozoic subduction-related orogens in Australia have similar counterparts in Antarctica and other part of the world. These types of Paleoproterozoic magmatism dominantly contributed

  11. Ion-adsorption REEs in regolith of the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina, USA: An effect of hydrothermal alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Yesavage, Tiffany; Foley, Nora K.

    2017-01-01

    Ion-adsorbed rare earth element (REE) deposits supply the majority of world heavy REE production and substantial light REE production, but relatively little is known of their occurrence outside Southeast Asia. We examined the distribution and forms of REEs on a North American pluton located in the highly weathered and slowly eroding South Carolina Piedmont. The Hercynian Liberty Hill pluton experiences a modern climate that includes ~ 1500 mm annual rainfall and a mean annual temperature of 17 °C. The pluton is medium- to coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite with minor biotite granite facies. REE-bearing phases are diverse and include monazite, zircon, titanite, allanite, apatite and bastnäsite. Weathered profiles were sampled up to 7 m-deep across the ~ 400 km2 pluton. In one profile, ion-adsorbed REEs plus yttrium (REE + Y) ranged up to 581 mg/kg and accounted for up to 77% of total REE + Y in saprolite. In other profiles, ion-adsorbed REE + Y ranged 12–194 mg/kg and only accounted for 3–37% of totals. The profile most enriched in ion-adsorbed REEs was located along the mapped boundary of two granite facies and contained trioctahedral smectite in the saprolite, evidence suggestive of hydrothermal alteration of biotite at that location. Post-emplacement deuteric alteration can generate easily weathered REE phases, particularly fluorocarbonates. In the case of Liberty Hill, hydrothermal alteration may have converted less soluble to more soluble REE minerals. Additionally, regolith P content was inversely correlated with the fraction ion-adsorbed REEs, and weathering related secondary REE-phosphates were found in some regolith profiles. Both patterns illustrate how low P content aids in the accumulation of ion-adsorbed REEs. The localized occurrence at Liberty Hill sheds light on conditions and processes that generate ion-adsorbed REEs.

  12. Geology and U-Pb geochronology of the Kipawa Syenite Complex - a thrust related alkaline pluton - and adjacent rocks in the Grenville Province of western Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Breemen, O.; Currie, K.L. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: ovanbree@nrcan.gc.ca

    2004-07-01

    The Kipawa Syenite Complex, a thin, folded sheet of amphibole syenite, quartz syenite and minor nepheline syenite, lies along a west-vergent thrust separating a lower slice comprising the Kikwissi granodiorite and biotite tonalite dated at 2717 {sub -11}{sup +15} Ma, and unconformably overlying metasedimentary rocks from an overlying slice containing the Red Pine Chute orthogneiss, an alkali granite gneiss, and the Mattawa Quartzite. The syenite complex, dated at 1033 {+-} 3 Ma, lies within the lower slice but has metasomatically altered the overlying slice. Texturally guided U-Pb spot analyses on partially metasomatised zircons from the alkali granite gneiss yield a cluster of {sup 207}G'Pb/{sup 206}Pb ages at 1389 {+-} 8 Ma, interpreted as the time of igneous crystallization and four ages overlapping the time of syenite emplacement, interpreted as in situ, metasomatic growth. The highest structural slice comprises garnet amphibolite separated from lower slices by the Allochthon Boundary Thrust. Metamorphic grade increases upward from greenschist grade in the biotite tonalite to amphibolite grade (690 {sup o}C, 9 kbar (1 kbar = 100 MPa)) at the lower boundary of the alkali granite. Emplacement of the Kipawa Syenite Complex took place after assembly of the thrust stack had begun and after emplacement of the allochthon or hot slab responsible for the inverted metamorphic gradient. Origin of the syenite is tentatively ascribed to anatexis of material metasomatized by flow of alkaline solutions along a major shear surface. Crystallization of new zircon in the margins of the syenite shows that metasomatism continued from ca. 1035 to 990 Ma, redistributing alkalies, fluorine, rare-earth elements and zirconium. (author)

  13. Crystal Cargo Characterization: Unravelling Granite Petrogenesis through Combined MicroXRF Imaging and In-situ Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, C. L.; Brown, K.; Brydon, R.; Haley, M.; Hill, T.; Shaulis, B.; Tronnes, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in the capabilities of microanalysis over the past several decades have promoted a redefinition of traditional petrological terminology. This has allowed a more accurate evaluation of a samples petrogenetic history. For example, the term "phenocryst", specifically describes crystals that grew from the liquid that solidified into the groundmass. Evolving from this idea is the term xenocryst, referring to crystals that did not originate in the magma but were gathered by it, and antecrysts, which crystallized from a progenitor of the magma that solidified into the groundmass. Through identification of a magmas different, and distinct, crystal populations, the petrogenetic history of a magmatic rock can therefore be unraveled. This approach has been widely applied to terrestrial volcanic systems throughout the past several decades. This study presents results from a combined microimaging and in-situ microanalytical investigation of granitic magmas crystal cargoes in order to unravel how granitic batholiths are constructed. 27 lithological units from two granite batholiths in the Oslo Rift, Norway form the basis of this investigation. Micro X-Ray Fluorescence (µXRF) mapping of major elements and selected trace elements is used in order to chemically map each granitic unit, identify any characteristic growth zoning, and compare the crystal cargoes of the different units. Major and trace elemental abundances of the major phases (feldspars, biotite, amphibole) and minor phases (apatite and titanite) are to be quantified through electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) respectively. Through chemically fingerprinting the crystal cargoes of these Oslo Rift granitic magmas, the open vs. closed nature of granitic, intrusive, magmatic systems will be investigated. Within the context of the Oslo Rift, this study also offers an opportunity to evaluate the processes inherent to granitoid magmatism

  14. Mechanical Mixing and Metamorphism of Mafic and Ultramafic Lithologies during Mylonisis at the ST. Paul Transform System, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrião, Á.; Maia, M.; Hemond, C.; Kaczmarek, M. A.; Briais, A.; Vincent, C.; Brunelli, D.

    2017-12-01

    The St. Paul Transform System offsets by 630 km the Equatorial Mid Atlantic Ridge at 1° N. It consists of four major faults separating three intra transform ridge axes. This region shows a transition from a transpressive, hot spot affected, regional-scale shear zone to the North to a region dominated by a particular oceanic core complex spreading to the South (Vincent et al., this congress). Samples collected in the region during the COLMEIA cruise (Maia et al., 2016) were studied for textures and whole-rock major and trace element contents. All samples experienced pervasive deformation at ductile to brittle conditions overprinted by late low-T alteration. Mylonitic and ultramylonitic rocks can be grouped in three main types: peridotitic, gabbroic and talc-chlorite schist. Peridotitic ultramylonites preserve few opx, cpx and sp porphyroclasts; they have homogeneous nano-micro grain size groundmass, banded foliation and late amphibole and sulfide crystallization. Locally S-C fabric overprints the mylonitic texture. Micro cracks, filled with serpentine, chlorite and oxides are common, as well fluid inclusions trails in olivine and plagioclase crystals of peridotite and gabbros respectively. Major and trace element content of the peridotitic mylonites plot in the depleted field of the abyssal peridotites; however, they present marked LREE enrichment and Eu positive anomaly. Gabbroic and talc-chlorite mylonites display REE-enriched patterns (up to 100x CI) and variable Eu anomalies. Major elements show a remarkable linear trend in the talc-chlorite group suggesting mixing of pure talc and chlorite end-members. These compositional characteristics suggest variable assimilation of MORB and E-MORB during mylonisis or early melt-rock interaction and hydrothermal evolution at variable metamorphic conditions. Vincent et al., 2017. Particular Oceanic Core Complex evolution …; this congress Maia et al., 2016. Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation ... Nat. Geo. doi:10

  15. Petrographic analysis of prehistoric ceramics from the Huagangshan site of Hualien City, eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. S.; Yi-Chang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous stone artifacts, ceramics, bone tools, metal objects, and etc., had been unearthed from the Huagangshan site of Hualien City, eastern Taiwan, during the excavations of 2008-2010 and 2012. Of particular importance is more than ten thousands of potsherds were discovered. A stratigraphic sequence spanning the late Early Neolithic (ca. 5000 BP) through to the prehistoric of Taiwan (300 BP) was excavated. This study focuses on potteries from the Late Neolithic (ca. 3500-2800 BP), owing to some ceramics exhibiting distinct stylistic motifs and morphological attributes were recognized to be not produced locally. Have these wares been brought to the area by exchange trade and/or by immigrants? Or had they been made by local potters through the imitation of exotic styles? It is still unclear and is one of the most important archaeological issues in eastern Taiwan. To clarify this subject, understanding the raw material compositions and sources, manufacturing techniques, and etc. are considered to be the best ways. Thus, 21 potsherds from excavations and 6 river sand samples near the site were studied by petrographic analysis. The results of petrographic study show that temper components in the potsherds are quartz, pyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, sedimentary rock fragments (sandstone), igneous rock fragments (andesite), and metamorphic rock fragments (metasandstone, slate, schist), and the contents and proportions are different in these samples. Petrography shows that the ceramic have multiple origins. A ternary plot of rock fragments shows three compositional groups. This result discriminates two types of ceramics from the others and confirms those ceramics producing non-locally. However, one type of potsherds have local origins through they were recognized to be exotic ones.

  16. Alkali control of high-grade metamorphism and granitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We review petrologic observations of reaction textures from high-grade rocks that suggest the passage of fluids with variable alkali activities. Development of these reaction textures is accompanied by regular compositional variations in plagioclase, pyroxenes, biotite, amphibole and garnet. The textures are interpreted in terms of exchange and net-transfer reactions controlled by the K and Na activities in the fluids. On the regional scale, these reactions operate in granitized, charnockitized, syenitized etc. shear zones within high-grade complexes. Thermodynamic calculations in simple chemical systems show that changes in mineral assemblages, including the transition from the hydrous to the anhydrous ones, may occur at constant pressure and temperature due only to variations in the H2O and the alkali activities. A simple procedure for estimating the activity of the two major alkali oxides, K2O and Na2O, is implemented in the TWQ software. Examples of calculations are presented for well-documented dehydration zones from South Africa, southern India, and Sri Lanka. The calculations have revealed two end-member regimes of alkalis during specific metamorphic processes: rock buffered, which is characteristic for the precursor rocks containing two feldspars, and fluid-buffered for the precursor rocks without K-feldspar. The observed reaction textures and the results of thermodynamic modeling are compared with the results of available experimental studies on the interaction of the alkali chloride and carbonate-bearing fluids with metamorphic rocks at mid-crustal conditions. The experiments show the complex effect of alkali activities in the fluid phase on the mineral assemblages. Both thermodynamic calculations and experiments closely reproduce paragenetic relations theoretically predicted by D.S. Korzhinskii in the 1940s.

  17. Evolution of the Archean continental crust in the nucleus of the Yangtze block: Evidence from geochemistry of 3.0 Ga TTG gneisses in the Kongling high-grade metamorphic terrane, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-Fei; Ling, Wen-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Shan-Song; Jiang, Tuo; Wei, Yun-Xu; Peng, Lian-Hong; Tan, Juan-Juan

    2018-04-01

    Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks are scattered within the Kongling high-grade metamorphic terrane (KHMT) in the northern South China block. A comprehensive geochronological and geochemical study is carried out on the Taoyuan granitic gneisses, a newly recognized TTG suite in the northwestern KHMT. This suite has long been regarded as a Mesoproterozoic magmatic pluton, but U-Pb zircon ages of 2994 ± 22 Ma and 2970 ± 15 Ma are obtained by LA-ICP-MS method in this study. The Taoyuan gneiss suite is trondhjemitic in composition, and has high SiO2 (67.80-74.93 wt.%), Na2O (5.11-5.81 wt.%) contents with Na2O/K2O ratios greater than unity, and low Ni (2.56-7.61 ppm), Cr (1.26-7.67 ppm), Yb (0.32-0.82 ppm) and Y (4.48-11.5 ppm) contents. Plots show large variation in La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios and pronounced depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti in the primitive mantle-normalized spiderdiagram. The gneiss suite also displays two-stage Nd model ages close to its crystallization age with corresponding εNd(t) values of -2.5 to +3.5. It is thus suggested that the Taoyuan gneisses, in fact, is part of the Archean Kongling basement complex. Geochemical evidence implies that the TTG rocks may be derived from partial melting of subducted oceanic crust from a garnetiferous amphibolite source with residual assemblage of garnet + amphibole + plagioclase. Our study further indicates that the nucleus of the Yangtze block might experience a juvenile continental crustal growth during Mesoarchean. We also suggest that the Yangtze block may have its own crustal evolutionary history independent from the North China craton and the Tarim block before Paleoproterozoic.

  18. Tectonic-and petrological interpretation of geochronological data on the basement at the Southeast border of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.; Mueller, G.; Quade, H.; Reimer, V.; Roeser, H.

    1980-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the regional geological evolution of the Ouro Preto and Mariana Districts, SE Quadrilatero Ferrifero, Minas Gerais, the available petrographical and structural data were interpreted together with 5 Rb/Sr and 7 K/Ar age determinations. Various types of metamorphic rocks were identified, and four phases of regional petrographic evolution could be distinguished: a) pre-metamorphic phase indicated by relict sedimentary and other textures; b) pre-deformation metamorphic phase, manifested by several minerals, such as microcline; c) major syntectonic crystallization phase associated with the main regional diastrophism, presumaby the Minas orogeny; d) post-deformation phase, with retrograde metamorphic minerals. With one exception, the apparent K/Ar ages obtained on biotites and amphiboles were concordant, ranging between 480 and 540 m.y., and can be referred to the terminal episodes of cooling in the Brazilian cycle. The Rb/Sr data obtained from 3 whole-rock analyses, when plotted on a Sr 87 /Sr 86 - Rb 87 /Sr 86 diagram, indicated an age of approximately 2.000m.y., with an initial Sr 87 /Sr 86 ratio of 0.711. In this diagram, 2 other speciments from a single outerop plotted significantly above of the reference isochron of 2.000m.y. The apparent ages of about 2.700 m.y. are concordant with those for the Barbacena Group which occurs more toward the eastern side of the study area. From interpretation of petrographical and structural data, the following regional geological evolution can be inferred; a)2.700m.y. - Formation of rocks during the pre-Minas episode (diastrophism in Barbacena Series, or in the Bacao Complex; b) 2.000m.y. - Trans-Amazonian cycle - Main phase of syntectonic crystallization - Minas Series diastrophism; c) 500-600m.y. - Brazilian cycle - retrograde metamorphism, thrust tectonics and regional fracturing. (Author) [pt

  19. Oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate concretions from the lower Cretaceous of Victoria, Australia: Implications for the evolution of meteoric waters on the Australian continent in a paleopolar environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic data from carbonate cements in concretions have been used to infer the isotopic composition of meteoric fluids present at the time of concretion growth in terrestrial sediments that were deposited within the early Cretaceous South Polar Circle at 75-80 0 S. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions have been determined on over 135 samples of carbonate from 45 concretions taken from 24 localities (Aptian-Albian in age) in the terrestrial sedimentary basins associated with the Otway and Strzelecki groups, southeastern Australia. The carbonate cements include calcite having -26.4≤δ 13 C≤19.6 and 3.6≤δ 18 O≤29.6 or siderite having 17.6≤δ 18 O≤30.8. Calcite-cemented concretions are more abundant and are interpreted to represent early near-surface cementation events on the basis of textural evidence such as high (>30%) porosities at the time of cementation and mineralogical evidence such as the preferential preservation within concretions of labile detrital grains including plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole. The oxygen isotopic data indicate that meteoric fluids with very low δ 18 O, certainly less than -15per mille and probably on the order of -20per mille, were involved in the precipitation of the early calcites. The extremely low δ 18 O values of the fluids involved in the early diagenesis of both the Otway and Strzelecki groups suggest that the catchment area of the river system that carried sediments to these basins had a cold high-latitude climate (with mean annual temperatures less than 5 0 C and quite possibly below freezing). By analogy with the relationship between modern 18 O distribution of meteoric fluids and climate, these new data suggest that the early Cretaceous polar regions may not have been ice-free. (orig.)

  20. Isotope geochemistry of xenoliths from East Africa. Implications for development of mantle reservoirs and their interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R S; O' Nions, R K [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Dawson, J B [Sheffield Univ. (UK). Dept. of Geology

    1984-05-01

    Pd, Nd and Sr isotope analyses together with U, Pb, Sm, Nd, Rb and Sr concentrations have been obtained for separated phases of lherzolite and bulk rock mafic granulite xenoliths in Recent volcanics from Tanzania. A garnet lherzolite from the Lashaine vent has yielded the least radiogenic Pb (/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/PB=15.55) and Nd (/sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd=0.51127; epsilon/sup 0/sub(Nd)=-26.7) isotope compositions recorded so far for an ultramafic xenolith, and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr=0.83604. The Pb isotope compositions of the mafic granulites are variable 15.77amphibole vein from the Pello Hill sample has Sr, Nd and Pb isotope compositions similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts, indicating both a young emplacement age for the vein material and a source which had an isotopic signature characteristic of depleted mantle. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotope systematics of ultramafic xenoliths do not conform with those of MORB, particularly in terms of their Pb-Sr, and Nd-Pb relationship. In this regard they are similar to some ocean islands and could be a viable source material for some ocean island basalts at least. The mantle part of the continental lithosphere is as likely to contain recycled components derived from the continental crust as are other regions of mantle. If the mantle part of continental lithosphere is invoked as a source for ocean islands, it does not negate the possibility that substantial recycled components are involved.

  1. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-01-01

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3 km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8–41 µm in length and 0.4–1.39 µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance. - Highlights: • Lymph-nodes draining sheep lung were used to assess environmental fluoro-edenite exposure. • Monitoring fluoro-edenite fibres in sheep lung nodes can provide pollution surveillance. • Our findings document a risk of fluoro-edenite fibre inhalation a few kilometres from the source. • Sheep appear to be a valuable bioindicator species.

  2. Geology and petrology of the basalts of Crater Flat: applications to volcanic risk assessment for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.; Crowe, B.

    1981-06-01

    Volcanic hazard studies of the south-central Great Basin, Nevada, are being conducted for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This report presents the results of field and petrologic studies of the basalts of Crater Flat, a sequence of Pliocene to Quaternary-age volcanic centers located near the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site. Crater Flat is one of several basaltic fields constituting a north-northeast-trending volcanic belt of Late Cenozoic age extending from southern Death Valley, California, through the Nevada Test Site region to central Nevada. The basalts of Crater Flat are divided into three distinct volcanic cycles. The cycles are characterized by eruption of basalt magma of hawaiite composition that formed cinder cone clusters and associated lava flows. Total volume of erupted magma for respective cycles is given. The basalts of Crater Flat are sparsely to moderately porphyritic; the major phenocryst phase is olivine, with lesser amounts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and rare amphibole. The consistent recurrence of evolved hawaiite magmas in all three cycles points to crystal fractionation from more primitive magmas at depth. A possible major transition in mantle source regions through time may be indicated by a transition from normal to Rb-depleted, Sr-enriched hawaiites in the younger basaltic cycles. The recurrence of small volumes of hawaiite magma at Crater Flat supports assumptions required for probability modeling of future volcanic activity and provides a basis for estimating the effects of volcanic disruption of a repository site in the southwestern Nevada Test Site region. Preliminary data suggest that successive basalt cycles at Crater Flat may be of decreasing volume but recurring more frequently

  3. Structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the lithotypes from the Pien region (Parana State, Brazil) and adjacences; Analise estrutural, petrologica e geocronologica dos litotipos da Regiao de Pien (PR) e adjacencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harara, Ossama Mohamed

    1996-12-31

    The Pien area presents the major geotectonic domains separated by the Pien Shear Zone (PSZ). The northern one is the Rio Pien Granite-Mylonitic Suite composed by calc-alkaline granitoids of Neoproterozoic age. The southern domain is represented by the Amphibolite-Granulite where high grade metamorphism took place at the end of paleoproterozoic time. Considering the identified lithotypes, their geochemical affinity (particularly the Ti, Cr, Ni and REE content) and the geological context observed in the area, a geotectonical model of active continental margin related to subduction SSZ (Supra-Subduction Zone) is proposed. K-Ar on plagioclase from gabbronorites gave Neoproterozoic ages although Sm-Nd whole rock isochron yielded Paleoproterozoic ages. Based in geochemical data, it is proposed that the biotite gneiss and biotite-amphibole-gneiss which occur near the PSZ have a shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline features which are characteristic of active continental margins. K-Ar on biotite extracted from these rocks, gave Neoproterozoic ages. The available radiometric data for the Rio Pien mylonitic granitoids show that between 650-595 Ma the generation, deformation and cooling below the isotherm of 250 deg C occurred. On the other hand, the geochronological data for the Agudos do Sul Massif are in the 590-570 Ma interval showing its younger generation. The Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios for both granitoids suggest more involvement of the continental crust in the origins of Agudos do Sul granitic Massif. The analyses of the entire set of the available data for the Pien area allows the suggestion of a geotectonic scenery related to the evolution of an active continental margin during the collages associated to the Brasiliano Cycle 201 refs., 130 figs., 6 tabs., 2 maps

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals in sediments of marine environments along the southwest coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, B.R.; Yeats, P.A.; Smith, J.N.; Shankar, R.; Narayana, A.C.; Prakash, T.N.

    1999-01-01

    In order to estimate the rate of excessive sediment accumulation that causes navigational problems and the impacts of urban and industrial development on sediment quality, concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ca, and radioactivity levels of 210 Pb and 137 Cs have been measured in nineteen sediment cores from estuarine, lagoonal, marsh, backwater and inner shelf areas along the southwest coast of India. Sediment accumulation rates in estuarine, lagoonal, marshy areas of the Karnataka coast (ELMKC) and Cochin Backwaters (CBw) are three to six times higher than those in the adjacent inner shelf areas, consistent with the deposition of terrigenous sediments in the river-sea interaction zones. Hydrogen sulphide was detected in most of the samples; sediment colour varied from shades of gray to dark green. Sediments have lower elemental concentrations and element enrichment factors (EFs) particularly for redox sensitive elements such as Mn due to prevalence of reducing conditions in the sedimentary column. Sediments of ELMKC and CBw have a predominantly terrigenous source. They contain low Ca contents, characteristic of tropical river sediments. In contrast, a higher Ca content of inner shelf sediments off both Karnataka State (ISKS-1) and Kerala State (ISKS-2) implies the importance of additional sediment (CaCO 3 ) flux from the marine biota. Measured Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations are generally low, perhaps reflecting the pristine nature of sediments. However, higher concentrations of Cr at all stations and of Zn at CBw indicate the input of Cr enriched minerals like amphibole and pyroxene from the catchment as well as Zn from anthropogenic sources. Heavy metal accumulation rates are high in estuarine, lagoonal, marsh and backwater areas along the southwest coast of India. This is not only due to the proximity of sources, but also due to high sediment accumulation rates because of the reduction of river flow in river-sea interaction zones owing to particle

  5. Silicate Veining Above an Ascending Mantle Plume - Evidence from New Ethiopian Xenolith Localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, T. O.; Furman, T.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.

    2004-12-01

    Quaternary basaltic eruptions in the Debre Zeyit (Bishoftu) and Butajira regions of the Main Ethiopian Rift host Al-augite, norite and rare lherzolite xenoliths, xenocrysts and megacrysts. These explosive basaltic eruptions are located 20 km to the west of the main rift axis and are characterized by cinder cones and maars. The host basalt was generated as a small degree partial melt of fertile peridotite between 15 and 25 kb and host abundant Al-augite (Type II) xenoliths derived from pressures up to 10 kb. The central Main Ethiopian Rift lies in a transitional zone between the continental rifting of East Africa and the sea floor spreading associated with the Red Sea. Lithospheric and sub-lithospheric processes that occur during the transition from continental to oceanic magmatism may be investigated using these xenolith-bearing basalts. Neither carbonatitic nor hydrous (amphibole + phlogopite) metasomatism is evident in either the xenoliths or host basalts, suggesting that infiltration of silicate melts that produced Al-augite veining dominates the regional lower crust and lithospheric mantle. These veins are significantly hotter (200 - 300 ° C) than the lherzolite wall rock they intrude suggesting the thermal influence of the Afar plume. Recent geophysical tomography indicates that this veining is pervasive and segmented, supporting the association of these Al-augite veins with the formation of a proto-ridge axis. Al-augite xenoliths and megacrysts have been observed in other continental rift settings such as Durango (Luhr, 2001) and Lake Baikal (Litasov, 2000), indicating Al-augite silicate melt metasomatism is a fundamental process associated with continental rift development.

  6. Study of Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Tao, Weichun; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir H.; Engelbrecht, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content, and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Red Sea Arabian coastal plane, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effect on the Red Sea and land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of wind-blown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays, and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The wide range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used

  7. Chemistry of solutions from the 13°N East Pacific Rise hydrothermal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, G.; Albarède, F.; Michard, A.; Minster, J.-F.; Charlou, J.-L.; Tan, N.

    1984-03-01

    Ten samples were recovered by the submersible "Cyana" submersible from two groups of hydrothermal vents located 2600 m deep along the East Pacific Rise at 13°N. The maximum measured temperature was 317°C and minimum pH 3.8. A systematic determination of major and trace elements has been carried out and mixing lines between a high-temperature component (HTC) and seawater are observed. The water chemistry of the HTC slightly differs for several elements at the two sites. This HTC is deprived of SO 4 and Mg and is greatly enriched in most other species. Maximum concentrations are (in units per kg): Cl = 0.72mol; Br = 1.1mmol; Na = 0.55mol; K = 29mmol; Rb = 14 μmol; Ca = 52mmol; Sr = 170 μmol; Mn = 750 μmol; Fe = 1mmol; Al = 15 μmol; Si = 21mmol. For many elements, the magnitude of the anomaly relative to seawater does not compare with the results obtained from the Galapagos or East Pacific Rise 21°N. The enrichment of cations relative to seawater is likely related to the huge Cl excess through charge balance. The Br/Cl ratio is close to that for seawater. However, it is not clear whether the Cl excess is due to gas release or basalt hydration (formation of amphibole chlorite or epidote). P-T dependence of SiO 2 solubility suggests that water-rock interaction last occurred at a depth in excess of 1 km below the sea floor. A mixing line of 87Sr/ 86Sr vs. Mg/Sr demonstrates that the HTCs have a nearly identical 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of 0.7041 for both sites. A water/rock ratio of about 5 is inferred, which differs from the 1.5 value obtained at 21°N.

  8. Dehydration and melting experiments constrain the fate of subducted sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marie C.; Plank, Terry

    2000-12-01

    Geochemical tracers demonstrate that elements are cycled from subducted sediments into the arc melting regime at subduction zones, although the transfer mechanism is poorly understood. Are key elements (Th, Be, Rb) lost during sediment dehydration or is sediment melting required? To investigate this question, we conducted phase equilibria and trace element partitioning experiments on a pelagic red clay for conditions appropriate to the slab beneath arc volcanoes (2-4 GPa, 600°-1000°C). Using both piston cylinders and multianvils, we determined the solidus, phase stabilities, and major element compositions of coexisting phases. The solidus (H2O + Cl fluid-saturated) was located at 775 ± 25°C at 2 GPa, 810 ± 15°C at 3 GPa, and 1025 ± 25°C at 4 GPa with noevidence for complete miscibility between melt and fluid. This sediment composition produces a profusion of phases both above and below the solidus: garnet, jadeitic pyroxene, alkali-rich amphibole, phengite, biotite, magnetite, coesite, kyanite, apatite, zircon, Cl-rich fluids, and peraluminous to peralkaline granitic melts. At 2 GPa the phengite dehydration solidus is at 800°-825°C, while biotite breaks down between 850° and 900°C. To explore trace element partitioning across the solidus at 2 GPa, we used diamonds to trap fluids and melts. Both the bulk sediment residues and diamond traps were analyzed postexperiment by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for 40 elements for which we calculated bulk partition coefficients (D = Csolid/Cfluid). Below the solidus, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb showed the greatest mobility (D ˜ 0.5-1.0), while at the solidus, Th and Be became notably partitioned into the melt (D values changing from >2.0 to oceanic crust dehydration) may provide new constraints on the next generation of thermal/geodynamical models of subduction zones.

  9. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil; Analise estrutural e caracterizacao do magmatismo da zona de cisalhamento Major Gercino, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina

    1996-12-31

    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 {+-} 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 {+-} 15 Ma.) 220 refs., 107 figs., 18 tabs., 4 maps

  10. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina

    1996-01-01

    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr 87 / Sr 86 initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 ± 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 ± 15 Ma.)

  11. Polymetamorphic evolution of the granulite-facies Paleoproterozoic basement of the Kabul Block, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali; Mosazai, Amir Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The Kabul Block is an elongate crustal fragment which cuts across the Afghan Central Blocks, adjoining the Indian and Eurasian continents. Bounded by major strike slip faults and ophiolitic material thrust onto either side, the block contains a strongly metamorphosed basement consisting of some of the only quantifiably Proterozoic rocks south of the Herat-Panjshir Suture Zone. The basement rocks crop-out extensively in the vicinity of Kabul City and consist predominantly of migmatites, gneisses, schists and small amounts of higher-grade granulite-facies rocks. Granulite-facies assemblages were identified in felsic and mafic siliceous rocks as well as impure carbonates. Granulite-facies conditions are recorded by the presence of orthopyroxene overgrowing biotite in felsic rocks; by orthopyroxene overgrowing amphibole in mafic rocks and by the presence of olivine and clinohumite in the marbles. The granulite-facies assemblages are overprinted by a younger amphibolite-facies event that is characterized by the growth of garnet at the expense of the granulite-facies phases. Pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for the granulite-facies event of around 850 °C and up to 7 kbar were calculated through conventional thermobarometry and phase equilibria modeling. The younger, amphibolite-facies event shows moderately higher pressures of up to 8.5 kbar at around 600 °C. This metamorphism likely corresponds to the dominant metamorphic event within the basement of the Kabul Block. The results of this work are combined with the litho-stratigraphic relations and recent geochronological dating to analyze envisaged Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic metamorphic events in the Kabul Block.

  12. Petrographic and geochemical comparisons between the lower crystalline basement-derived section and the granite megablock and amphibolite megablock of the Eyreville B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, G.N.; Gibson, R.L.; Horton, J. Wright; Reimold, W.U.; Schmitt, R.T.; Bartosova, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Eyreville B core from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA, contains a lower basement-derived section (1551.19 m to 1766.32 m deep) and two megablocks of dominantly (1) amphibolite (1376.38 m to 1389.35 m deep) and (2) granite (1095.74 m to 1371.11 m deep), which are separated by an impactite succession. Metasedimentary rocks (muscovite-quartz-plagioclase-biotite-graphite ?? fibrolite ?? garnet ?? tourmaline ?? pyrite ?? rutile ?? pyrrhotite mica schist, hornblende-plagioclase-epidote-biotite- K-feldspar-quartz-titanite-calcite amphibolite, and vesuvianite-plagioclase- quartz-epidote calc-silicate rock) are dominant in the upper part of the lower basement-derived section, and they are intruded by pegmatitic to coarse-grained granite (K-feldspar-plagioclase-quartz-muscovite ?? biotite ?? garnet) that increases in volume proportion downward. The granite megablock contains both gneissic and weakly or nonfoliated biotite granite varieties (K-feldspar-quartz-plagioclase-biotite ?? muscovite ?? pyrite), with small schist xenoliths consisting of biotite-plagioclase-quartz ?? epidote ?? amphibole. The lower basement-derived section and both megablocks exhibit similar middleto upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic grades that suggest they might represent parts of a single terrane. However, the mica schists in the lower basement-derived sequence and in the megablock xenoliths show differences in both mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry that suggest a more mafi c source for the xenoliths. Similarly, the mineralogy of the amphibolite in the lower basement-derived section and its association with calc-silicate rock suggest a sedimentary protolith, whereas the bulk-rock and mineral chemistry of the megablock amphibolite indicate an igneous protolith. The lower basement-derived granite also shows bulk chemical and mineralogical differences from the megablock gneissic and biotite granites. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  13. Petrographic and geochemical comparisons between the lower crystalline basement-derived section and the granite megablock and amphibolite megablock of the Eyreville-B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Gabrielle N.; Gibson, Roger L.; Horton, J. Wright; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Schmitt, Ralf T.; Bartosova, Katerina

    2009-01-01

    The Eyreville B core from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA, contains a lower basement-derived section (1551.19 m to 1766.32 m deep) and two megablocks of dominantly (1) amphibolite (1376.38 m to 1389.35 m deep) and (2) granite (1095.74 m to 1371.11 m deep), which are separated by an impactite succession. Metasedimentary rocks (muscovite-quartz-plagioclase-biotite-graphite ± fibrolite ± garnet ± tourmaline ± pyrite ± rutile ± pyrrhotite mica schist, hornblende-plagioclase-epidote-biotite-K-feldspar-quartz-titanite-calcite amphibolite, and vesuvianite-plagioclase-quartz-epidote calc-silicate rock) are dominant in the upper part of the lower basement-derived section, and they are intruded by pegmatitic to coarse-grained granite (K-feldspar-plagioclase-quartz-muscovite ± biotite ± garnet) that increases in volume proportion downward. The granite megablock contains both gneissic and weakly or nonfoliated biotite granite varieties (K-feldspar-quartz-plagioclase-biotite ± muscovite ± pyrite), with small schist xenoliths consisting of biotite-plagioclase-quartz ± epidote ± amphibole. The lower basement-derived section and both megablocks exhibit similar middle- to upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic grades that suggest they might represent parts of a single terrane. However, the mica schists in the lower basement-derived sequence and in the megablock xenoliths show differences in both mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry that suggest a more mafic source for the xenoliths. Similarly, the mineralogy of the amphibolite in the lower basement-derived section and its association with calc-silicate rock suggest a sedimentary protolith, whereas the bulk-rock and mineral chemistry of the megablock amphibolite indicate an igneous protolith. The lower basement-derived granite also shows bulk chemical and mineralogical differences from the megablock gneissic and biotite granites.

  14. Juvenile helium in ancient rocks: II. U-He,K-Ar, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr systematics in the Monche Pluton. 3He/4He ratios frozen in uranium-free ultramafic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstikhin, I.N.; Dokuchaeva, V.S.; Kamensky, I.L.; Amelin, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The important geodynamic parameter, the 3 He/ 4 He ratio in rocks and fluids of the continental crust, is generally decreasing from the mantle values (≅ 10 -5 ) to the radiogenic ratio (≅ 10 -8 ) on the time scale of about 1 Ga or less. However, the ratios, observed in some ancient rocks and minerals, are much higher than the radiogenic value due to a preferential retention of trapped He, when compared with radiogenic helium and/or a low U/ 3 He ratio in a sample. The distribution of He, Ar, Nd, and Sr isotopes, K, Rb, Sm, and U in ultrabasic rocks, in rock-forming minerals, in ores from the 2.49 Ga Monche Pluton, and in basic rocks of the Main Range (the Kola Peninsula) enables one to distinguish sources of the rocks and trapped fluids and outline some peculiarities of petrogenetic and fluid processes. The initial values of var-epsilon Nd (T) = -0.9 ± 0.5 , 87 Sr/ 86 Sr(T) = 0.7021 ± 0.0002, for the 2.49 Ga Monche Pluton are rather similar to these for other layered intrusions of the Baltic Shield. They differ considerably from the model values for the depleted 2.5 Ga old mantle. The observed and rather different sources of 3 He and 4 He as well as the considerable constancy of their ratio in different minerals, separated from both the ultramafic rocks and gabbros, implies: (1) an intensive process of mixing between mantle and crustal components: a melt convection in the chamber may have occurred; (2) the two types of rocks could originate by crystallization differentiation of one and the same melt. Practically all 3 He and 4 He are concentrated in secondary amphiboles; hence the fluid which stimulated the metamorphic process was probably released from the ultramafite-bearing melt

  15. Lacustrine sedimentation and facies model for the last 45,000 yr in Chalco basin. Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, B.; Lozano, S.; Caballero, M.; Herrera, D.

    2013-05-01

    Chalco basin in central Mexico (19° 15' N, 98° 58' W, 2200 m asl) is one of the most detailed lake sediment sequence analyzed in Mexico for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies. In this former lake, five drill cores up to 27 m depth were recovered in 1987-1989 by the UNAM team, and three cores covering most of the former sequence were obtained in 2008 and 2011. The upper 27 m of the Chalco lacustrine sequence contains the record of the last 45 kyr climate history in the northern American tropics. The active tectonic and volcanic setting of Chalco Lake in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, provides an opportunity to evaluate environmental (volcanic + tectonic vs. climatic) controls on lacustrine sedimentation. The establishment of a detailed time scale by 14C in pollen extracts provides an accurate chronological control. The stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses presented here provided the recognition of depositional environments and the architecture of the upper lacustrine succession. Sedimentary facies were defined on the basis of sedimentological descriptions, microscopic observation and compositional analyses. According to compositional criteria, facies were identified and groped into two main categories according to compositional criteria: 1) detrital and volcaniclastic, and 2) biogenic facies. The clastic facies includes massive to laminated, silty and clayey sediments composed of clay minerals, feldspars, amphiboles with minor amounts of quartz, opaque minerals and calcite. Diatoms are the most common biological remains in all the clastic facies. Most of the volcaniclastic deposits correspond to fall-out deposits, some of them of well documented eruptions of the nearby large stratovolcanoes Popocatepetl and Nevado de Toluca, which in turn serve as stratigraphical markers. The biogenic facies are massive to finely laminated diatom ooze and ostracod ooze layers. The sedimentary architecture of the lacustrine succession has been controlled by

  16. OIB signatures in basin-related lithosphere-derived alkaline basalts from the Batain basin (Oman) - Constraints from 40Ar/39Ar ages and Nd-Sr-Pb-Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, M.; Jung, S.; Pfänder, J. A.; Romer, R. L.; Mayer, B.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.

    2017-08-01

    Tertiary rift-related intraplate basanites from the Batain basin of northeastern Oman have low SiO2 ( 9.73 wt.%) and moderate to high Cr and Ni contents (Cr > 261 ppm, Ni > 181 ppm), representing near primary magmas that have undergone fractionation of mainly olivine and magnetite. Rare earth element systematics and p-T estimates suggest that the alkaline rocks are generated by different degrees of partial melting (4-13%) of a spinel-peridotite lithospheric mantle containing residual amphibole. The alkaline rocks show restricted variations of 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ranging from 0.70340 to 0.70405 and 0.51275 to 0.51284, respectively. Variations in Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb: 18.59-18.82, 207Pb/204Pb: 15.54-15.56, 208Pb/204Pb: 38.65-38.98) of the alkaline rocks fall in the range of most OIB. Trace element constraints together with Sr-Nd-Pb isotope composition indicate that assimilation through crustal material did not affect the lavas. Instead, trace element variations can be explained by melting of a lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by an OIB-type magma that was accumulated at the base of the lithosphere sometimes in the past. Although only an area of less than 1000 km2 was sampled, magmatic activity lasted for about 5.5 Ma with a virtually continuous activity from 40.7 ± 0.7 to 35.3 ± 0.6 Ma. During this period magma composition was nearly constant, i.e. the degree of melting and the nature of the tapped source did not change significantly over time.

  17. Transfer of subduction fluids into the deforming mantle wedge during nascent subduction: Evidence from trace elements and boron isotopes (Semail ophiolite, Oman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, C.; Guillot, S.; Agard, P.; Lemarchand, D.; Soret, M.; Ulrich, M.

    2018-02-01

    The basal part of the Semail ophiolitic mantle was (de)formed at relatively low temperature (LT) directly above the plate interface during "nascent subduction" (the prelude to ophiolite obduction). This subduction-related LT deformation was associated with progressive strain localization and cooling, resulting in the formation of porphyroclastic to ultramylonitic shear zones prior to serpentinization. Using petrological and geochemical analyses (trace elements and B isotopes), we show that these basal peridotites interacted with hydrous fluids percolating by porous flow during mylonitic deformation (from ∼850 down to 650 °C). This process resulted in 1) high-T amphibole crystallization, 2) striking enrichments of minerals in fluid mobile elements (FME; particularly B, Li and Cs with concentrations up to 400 times those of the depleted mantle) and 3) peridotites with an elevated δ11B of up to +25‰. These features indicate that the metasomatic hydrous fluids are most likely derived from the dehydration of subducting crustal amphibolitic materials (i.e., the present-day high-T sole). The rapid decrease in metasomatized peridotite δ11B with increasing distance to the contact with the HT sole (to depleted mantle isotopic values in <1 km) suggests an intense interaction between peridotites and rapid migrating fluids (∼1-25 m.y-1), erasing the initial high-δ11B subduction fluid signature within a short distance. The increase of peridotite δ11B with increasing deformation furthermore indicates that the flow of subduction fluids was progressively channelized in actively deforming shear zones parallel to the contact. Taken together, these results also suggest that the migration of subduction fluids/melts by porous flow through the subsolidus mantle wedge (i.e., above the plate interface at sub-arc depths) is unlikely to be an effective mechanism to transport slab-derived elements to the locus of partial melting in subduction zones.

  18. Characterization of wet precipitation by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari Migliavacca, Daniela [Instituto de Biociencias, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, RS. Rua Carlos Chagas 55/802, 90030-020 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Calesso Teixeira, Elba, E-mail: gerpro.pesquisa@fepam.rs.gov.br [Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, RS. Rua Carlos Chagas 55/802, 90030-020 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gervasoni, Fernanda; Vieira Conceicao, Rommulo [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Raya Rodriguez, Maria Teresa [Instituto de Biociencias, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the composition of wet precipitation in three sites of the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. Besides the variables usually considered, such as pH, conductivity, major ions (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) and metallic elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni), the suspended matter was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy dispersive system (EDS), for better identification of possible anthropogenic material in this wet precipitation. Results showed an alkaline pH in the samples analyzed and higher concentrations for Na{sup +}, Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The acidification and neutralization potential between anions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} + NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and cations (Ca{sup 2+} + Mg{sup 2+} + K{sup +} + NH{sub 4}{sup +}) showed a good correlation (0.922). The metallic elements with highest values were Zn, Fe and Mn. Results of XRD identified the presence of some minerals such as quartz, feldspar, mica, clay, carbonates and sulfates. In samples analyzed with SEM, we detected pyroxene, biotite, amphibole and oxides. Cluster analysis (CA) was applied to the data matrix to identify potential pollution sources of metals (natural or anthropogenic) and the association with minerals found in the analysis of SEM.

  19. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Early Jurassic Yeba Formation volcanic rocks in southern Tibet: Initiation of back-arc rifting and crustal accretion in the southern Lhasa Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Youqing; Zhao, Zhidan; Niu, Yaoling; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Liu, Dong; Wang, Qing; Hou, Zengqian; Mo, Xuanxue; Wei, Jiuchuan

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the geological history of the Lhasa Terrane prior to the India-Asia collision ( 55 ± 10 Ma) is essential for improved models of syn-collisional and post-collisional processes in the southern Lhasa Terrane. The Miocene ( 18-10 Ma) adakitic magmatism with economically significant porphyry-type mineralization has been interpreted as resulting from partial melting of the Jurassic juvenile crust, but how this juvenile crust was accreted remains poorly known. For this reason, we carried out a detailed study on the volcanic rocks of the Yeba Formation (YF) with the results offering insights into the ways in which the juvenile crust may be accreted in the southern Lhasa Terrane in the Jurassic. The YF volcanic rocks are compositionally bimodal, comprising basalt/basaltic andesite and dacite/rhyolite dated at 183-174 Ma. All these rocks have an arc-like signature with enriched large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Ba and U) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti). They also have depleted whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions, pointing to significant mantle isotopic contributions. Modeling results of trace elements and isotopes are most consistent with the basalts being derived from a mantle source metasomatized by varying enrichment of subduction components. The silicic volcanic rocks show the characteristics of transitional I-S type granites, and are best interpreted as resulting from re-melting of a mixed source of juvenile amphibole-rich lower crust with reworked crustal materials resembling metagraywackes. Importantly, our results indicate northward Neo-Tethyan seafloor subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane with the YF volcanism being caused by the initiation of back-arc rifting. The back-arc setting is a likely site for juvenile crustal accretion in the southern Lhasa Terrane.

  20. Metasomatized granulites of the Mozambique belt: consequences for lithospheric U, Th, REE fertilisation and metallogenesis in the ancient Gondwanaland supercontinent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Hart, R.J.

    1988-02-01

    The 1,0 Ga old Lurio belt extends for ca. 1 000 km from Nsanje (S Malawi) through NE Mozambique to the Indian ocean. Lower crustal levels are locally exposed along its southern tectonic front. In this article mineralogical and geochemical data for an andesinite-mafic-ultramafic suite from Nsanje were reported.The results indicate that this complex terrane equilibrated first at P ∼ 13 kbr and T ∼ 900 0 C and subsequently cooled under an eclogite-garnet granulite georem. During a later event (P ∼ 7-10 kbar, T ∼ 650 - 800 0 C) distinctive metasomatic mica, amphibole, scapolite, apatite, diopsidic pyroxene (MASAD)-bearing assemblages and pegmatoids were formed by CO 2 , Cl, H 2 O, S and F rich fluids with higher REE, U, Th and Zr concentrations than the high-grade precursors. MASAD and older high-pressure granulite parageneses underwent subsequent dehydratation and reequilibration under medium-pressure granulite facies conditions perhaps during the Lurio orogenic event. MASAD-like assemblages are relatively common within the late Proterozoic medium- and high-pressure granulite terranes of Central Gondwana, especially in the newly defined Lurio-Zambezi Eclogite Province. The data provide indicate that the metasomatizing, MASAD-forming fluids had crypto-carbonatitic affinities and were introduced into the crust from the upper mantle during protorifting episodes between ca. 1,1 and 0,5 Ga ago. The MASAD assemblages may therefore represent the crustal equivalent of the metasomatic and MARID suites discovered in mantle xenoliths

  1. Spinels of Variscan olivine hornblendites related to the Montnegre granitoids revisited (NE Spain): petrogenetic evidence of mafic magma mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galán, G.; Enrique, P.; Butjosa, L.; Fernández-Roig, L.

    2017-07-01

    Olivine hornblendites (cortlandtites) form part of the Montnegre mafic complex related to late-Variscan I-type granitoids in the Catalan Coastal Ranges. Two generations of spinel are present in these hornblendites: Spl1 forms euhedral crystals included in both olivine and Spl2. Spl2 forms euhedral to anhedral crystals associated with phlogopite and fibrous colourless amphibole forming pseudomorphs after olivine. Compositions of Spl1 are picotite-Al chromite (Fe#: 77.78-66.60; Cr#: 30.12-52.22; Fe3+/R3+: 6.99-21.89; 0.10< TiO2%< 0.62). Compositions of Spl2 are pleonaste (Fe#: 37.86-52.12; Cr#: 1.00-15.45; Fe3+/R3+: 0.31-5.21; TiO2% <0.10%). The two types of spinel follow a CrAl trend, mainly due to the substitution (Fe2+)-1Cr-1= MgAl, which is interpreted as the result of mixing between two different mantle-derived melts. The compositions of early Spl1 crystals included in olivine are characteristic of Al-rich basalts. More aluminous Spl2 would result from reaction of olivine with a less evolved, Al and K-rich mantle-derived melt after new refilling of the magma chamber or channel. As a whole, spinels from similar examples of Variscan olivine hronblendites also follow a CrAl trend with high Fe# and starting at higher Cr# than other trends of this type. Cr# heterogeneity in the early spinels from these Variscan hornblendites would be inherited from the variable Al content of the mafic melts involved in their genesis.

  2. Origin, Petrogenesis and radiometric age dating of Pichagchi Batholith (North West Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholghi, M.H.; Vossoughi Abedini, A.

    2004-01-01

    Pichagchi batholith, located in 35 Km southeast of Shahin Dez, northwest of Iran, is situated in Central Iran, cutting Paleozoic rocks. Absolute age determination for this batholith by K-Ar radiometric method gives 74.20 Ma. indicating Late Cretaceous-Paleocene time corresponding to lauramide orogeny. This batholith consists of quartz diorite, tonalite, granodiorite and quartz monzodiorite in which main mafic minerals are biotite and amphibole. Enclaves are mica schist and fine graind quartz diorite in various sizes. Sieve texture and zonation observed in plagioclase minerals indicate that the original magma has been produced by magma mixing of lower crust and upper mantle. Geochemistry study of the main elements shows that the batholith is calc-alkaline and meta luminous and A12O3, Na2O, K2O, FeO values are high where as MgO, CaO, MnO, P2O5, TiO2 are low. In addition, genetic parameters for this batholith is compatible with I-Type granites (Caledonian). Rare earth elements plotted in spider diagrams show that the average slope the curves is from K towards Cr (left to right), indicating partial melting. Depletion of compatible elements such as Ni, Cu, V and enrichment of incompatible elements imply that magma was not original and not initiated from mantle. Further mores trough of Nb could be interpreted by magma mixing with crustal materials or by subduction. Also trough of Ti and crest of Y elements show that the origin of the magma is I-type. Finally, Pichagchi batholith is orogenic and its tectonic setting is compatible with continental arc granitoids

  3. Volcanic geology and geochemistry of Motuhora (Whale Island), Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, R.M.; Cole, J.W.; Vroon, P.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Motuhora (Whale Island) lies c. 11 km offshore from Whakatane in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, and comprises tuffaceous marine sediments of the Camp Bay and Motuhora Formations separated by lavas, volcanic breccias, and slope-wash deposits of the Whale Volcanics. Whale Volcanics can be divided into East Dome, Central Dome Complex, and Pa Hill Dome. East Dome is a flow banded, chaotically jointed dacite that is probably extrusive. Central Dome comprises lava flows, and extensive volcanic breccias and tuffs which thicken into a local depression to the north of the central high, suggesting rapid growth and erosion of the dome. Pa Hill Dome is largely intrusive into Camp Bay Formation, although blocks of Pa Hill dacite in an upper slope-wash cobble bed suggest it was partially extrusive. The lavas are porphyritic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and titanomagnetite with subordinate clinopyroxene and amphibole (particularly in Pa Hill Dome), and rare biotite. Rounded or broken and embayed quartz crystals are found in the Central Dome Complex and Pa Hill domes. Magmatic xenoliths are common in all lavas. Chemically the lavas are medium-K, calc-alkaline andesites and dacites, and show relative LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion typical of arc volcanics. Isotopically, samples tend to have more radiogenic Sr and less radiogenic Nd than volcanics from neighbouring White Island. It is likely that Motuhora lavas were formed by a multi-stage process involving partial melting of N-MORB-type mantle that had been fluxed by fluids rich in incompatible elements derived from the dehydrating downgoing slab and followed by crystal fractionation of the magma. As the magma rose through the lower continental crust it was contaminated, probably by Torlesse metasediment. Petrographic textures and mineral chemistry indicate that magma mixing, while in an upper crustal magma chamber, is the norm for Motuhora lavas. (author). 69 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  4. "Gris Quintana": a Spanish granite from the Past into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    "Gris Quintana" is a medium-grained, biotite and amphibole granodiorite extracted in the Pluton of Quintana de la Serena (Extremadura, Spain). It is a constant light grey granite from the Hercynian geologic with excellent physicomechanical and physicochemical properties. The granodiorite is composed of plagioclase, biotite, quartz and alkali feldspar, with accessory allanite, titanite, apatite, zircon and ilmenite, mostly as inclusions within the biotite crystals. This commercial variety is extracted from many quarries in the late Hercynian plutons located in the Iberian Massif in Spain period (transition between Central Iberian and Ossa-Moren Zones), having large reserves of granite. Many of the quarries have their own transformation factory (high production zone), with which the sector is offered an endless variety of finishes and constructive rock typologies. A wide range of solutions to architects and designers are offered. Gris Quintana granite is one of the materials with highest technological benefits that are used in arquitecture. "Gris Quintana" granite has been used since ancient times, not only at a regional, but also at national and international level: paving, building (structural, exterior façadas, interior uses), urban decoration and funeral art. It can be found in monuments and more recently, in buildings of different styles and uses, that stand out in beauty and splendor, lasting in time. Some singular works in "Gris Quintana" granite all over the world: extension to the "Congreso de Diputados" (Parliament) in Madrid, "Puerta de San Vicente" in Madrid, Andalucia Parliament columns in Sevilla, New Senate Buiding in Madird, "Gran Vía" pavement in Madrid, "Teatro Real façade" in Madrid… "Gris Quintana" granite accomplishes all the requirements for its nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource, for both its use in construction and for artistic purposes.

  5. Study of Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-03-23

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content, and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Red Sea Arabian coastal plane, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effect on the Red Sea and land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of wind-blown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays, and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The wide range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used

  6. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-09-26

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  7. Petrochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology of granitic rocks in the Wang Nam Khiao area, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand: Implications for petrogenesis and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanka, Alongkot; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Daorerk, Veerote; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Takamura, Yusuke; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan

    2018-05-01

    Carboniferous biotite granite, Late Permian hornblende granite, and Triassic biotite-hornblende granite, all of which belong to the Eastern Granite Belt, expose in the Wang Nam Khiao area, Nakhon Ratchasima, northeastern Thailand. The Carboniferous biotite granite is dominated by quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and biotite. The Late Permian hornblende granite contains dominant assemblages of plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar, hornblende, and minor amount of biotite, while the Triassic biotite-hornblende granite consists of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar with small amounts of biotite, and hornblende. The REE patterns with steep decrease from light to heavy REE together with the LILE (e.g. K, Sr) enrichment and depletion of some particular HFSE (e.g. Nb, Ti) indicate low degree of partial melting. Mineral chemistry of biotite and hornblende in the granites reflects crystallization from hydrous calc-alkaline arc-derived magmas possibly formed by subduction. Amphibole-plagioclase thermometry and Al-in-hornblende barometry indicate that the Late Permian hornblende granite and the Triassic biotite-hornblende granite may have equilibrated at 3.0-5.8 kbar/700-820 °C and 2.0-3.2 kbar/600-750 °C, respectively, in the middle-upper crust (about 10-15 km depth). Zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Carboniferous biotite granite, Late Permian hornblende granite and Triassic biotite-hornblende granite yielded intrusion ages of 314.6-284.9 Ma, 253.4 Ma, and 237.8 Ma, respectively, which implies multiple episodes of arc-magmatism formed by Palaeo-Tethys subduction beneath Indochina Terrane during Late Carboniferous/Early Permian, Late Permian and Middle Triassic.

  8. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledda, Caterina, E-mail: cledda@unict.it [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Loreto, Carla [Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Pomara, Cristoforo [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Rapisarda, Giuseppe [Department of Veterinary Medicine, ASP Catania, Catania (Italy); Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita [Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Fenga, Concettina [Occupational Medicine, Department of the Environment, Safety, Territory, Food and Health Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Rapisarda, Venerando [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3 km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8–41 µm in length and 0.4–1.39 µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance. - Highlights: • Lymph-nodes draining sheep lung were used to assess environmental fluoro-edenite exposure. • Monitoring fluoro-edenite fibres in sheep lung nodes can provide pollution surveillance. • Our findings document a risk of fluoro-edenite fibre inhalation a few kilometres from the source. • Sheep appear to be a valuable bioindicator species.

  9. Termobarometría Opx-Cpx aplicada al conocimiento de las condiciones de formación de las roca s ultramálicas de Vivero (Lugo, noroeste de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán, G.

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Several two-pyroxene thermometers and barometers have been used to determine the genetic conditions of ultramafic rocks associated to calc-alkalic granites that outcrop in the Vivero Massif (Lugo, NW of Spain. These ultramafic rocks, some of which are similar to cortlandtites, have an amphibole being the most abundant phase, together with olivino, pyroxenes and phlogopite. They have been differentiated in peridotites, pyroxenites and hornblendites. Some dioritic mafic rocks are also present. Their emplacement, simultaneous with that of the granites, was made following a shear zone related to the Mondoñedo nappe and resulted in Penetrative deformationof the whole complex Temperatures obtained with different methods are quite uniform with an average value of 938º C, and a pressure of about 3 Kbars. The results of the different thermometers are compared, as well as their petrological and regional significance.

    Diversos métodos termométricos y barométricos, basados en el equilibrio ortopiroxenoclinopiroxeno, se utilizan en la determinación de la temperatura y presión de formación de rocas ultramáficas ricas en anfíbol, asociadas a granitos calcoalcalinos del macizo de Vivero (Lugo, noroeste de España. Se trata de rocas ultramáficas, algunas de ellas de tipo cortlandtítico, con una proporción variable de olivinos, piroxenos, anfíboles y flogopita como fases principales, que se emplazan simultáneamente con los granitos asociados, aprovechando una zona de cizalla en relación con el manto de Mondoñedo. Se comparan los resultados obtenidos y la validez de los diversos métodos empleados, a la vez que se discute su significado petrológico y regional.

  10. Uruguay geology contributions no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.

    1989-01-01

    Sedimentary facies: the metasiltites and mela sandstones develop granoblastic textures. The present lepidoblastic textures in flexured bands of seri cite and/or chlorite, a fine qranoblastic matrix made by quartz-feldespaths. The carbonates develop mosaic textures with big crystals of calcites and dolomite, generally elongated following metamorphic foliation (seri cite/chlorite). The quartzites develop qranoblastic textures, with few minerals. Volcanics facies: the basic volcanics presents doleritic intersect al textural, that exist saussuritized plagioclase and albitic diabasa with diopside-augite beaches. Usually the pyroxenes develop poiquilitic textural. Present amphiboles of the acti note series and frequently sphene. Others basic rocks are microlitio porfiric, in intersect al or fluidal matrix, with albite microliters in epi dote-chlorite-acti note criploerislalline ground.The stability relationships of the diferents types of basic metavulcanites show low metamorphic facies, with temperatures under 530-550 grades C, being the most Irequenl association: albite+actinote+chlorite+epidote+opaques- opaques.The clastic faciest are integrated by monogenic breccia with elements of varied vulcanites and porfiric rnicrolitic texture. The matrix is made of line quartz and epidote aggregate. The basic volcanism present hyalo-porfiric textures with saussuritized plagiodase pheno crystals, and quartz in a micro lo criptocrystalline ground. Were also defined rocks with porfiric texture in a piromeritic ground as well as rocks with vacuolar microlitic texture.The clastic facies are made by breccias with sharp elements, with rare cement, integrated by pyroclastic products, The volcanics rocks present retrometamorphism of the phenocrystals and devitrification. The plagioclase are traslormated in fine aggregates of albite epidote. The regional metamorphism minerals are represented by the para genesis: quartz+albite+chlorite+epidote+(seri cite-actinole), subfacies quartz albite

  11. The Lost City Hydrothermal Field: A Spectroscopic and Astrobiological Analogue for Nili Fossae, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Elena S; Bandfield, Joshua L; Brazelton, William J; Kelley, Deborah

    2017-11-01

    Low-temperature serpentinization is a critical process with respect to Earth's habitability and the Solar System. Exothermic serpentinization reactions commonly produce hydrogen as a direct by-product and typically produce short-chained organic compounds indirectly. Here, we present the spectral and mineralogical variability in rocks from the serpentine-driven Lost City Hydrothermal Field on Earth and the olivine-rich region of Nili Fossae on Mars. Near- and thermal-infrared spectral measurements were made from a suite of Lost City rocks at wavelengths similar to those for instruments collecting measurements of the martian surface. Results from Lost City show a spectrally distinguishable suite of Mg-rich serpentine, Ca carbonates, talc, and amphibole minerals. Aggregated detections of low-grade metamorphic minerals in rocks from Nili Fossae were mapped and yielded a previously undetected serpentine exposure in the region. Direct comparison of the two spectral suites indicates similar mineralogy at both Lost City and in the Noachian (4-3.7 Ga) bedrock of Nili Fossae, Mars. Based on mapping of these spectral phases, the implied mineralogical suite appears to be extensive across the region. These results suggest that serpentinization was once an active process, indicating that water and energy sources were available, as well as a means for prebiotic chemistry during a time period when life was first emerging on Earth. Although the mineralogical assemblages identified on Mars are unlikely to be directly analogous to rocks that underlie the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, related geochemical processes (and associated sources of biologically accessible energy) were once present in the subsurface, making Nili Fossae a compelling candidate for a once-habitable environment on Mars. Key Words: Mars-Habitability-Serpentinization-Analogue. Astrobiology 17, 1138-1160.

  12. Petrography and trace element signatures in silicates and Fe-Ti-oxides from the Lanjiahuoshan deposit, Panzhihua layered intrusion, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenyuan; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Huang, Fei; Meng, Lin; Gao, Shang

    2017-12-01

    Permian mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions in the central part of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP), Southwestern China, host Fe-Ti-V-oxide ores that have features which distinguish them from other large layered intrusion-hosted deposits. The origin of these ores is highly debated. Careful petrographic examination, whole rock analysis, electron probe microanalysis, and measurement and mapping of trace element concentrations by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in all major and minor minerals (clinopyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, amphibole, titanomagnetite, ilmenite, pleonaste and pyrrhotite) has been undertaken on samples from the Lanjiahuoshan deposit, representing the Middle, Lower and Marginal Zone of the Panzhihua intrusion. Features are documented that impact on interpretation of intrusion petrology and with implications for genesis of the Fe-Ti-V-oxide ores. Firstly, there is evidence, as symplectites between clinopyroxene and plagioclase, for introduction of complex secondary melts. Secondly, reaction between a late hydrothermal fluid and clinopyroxene is recognized, which has led to formation of hydrated minerals (pargasite, phlogopite), as well as a potassium metasomatic event, postdating intrusion solidification, which led to formation of K-feldspar. Lastly, partitioning of trace elements between titanomagnetite and silicates needs to consider scavenging of metals by ilmenite (Mn, Sc, Zr, Nb, Sn, Hf and Ta) and sulfides, as well as the marked partitioning of Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, As and Sb into spinels exsolved from titanomagnetite. The role of these less abundant phases may have been understated in previous studies, highlighting the importance of petrographic examination of complex silicate-oxide-sulfide assemblages, as well as the need for a holistic approach to trace element analysis, acknowledging all minerals within the assemblage.

  13. Petrology of the Porriño late-Variscan pluton from NW Iberia. A model for post-tectonic plutons in collisional settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Menéndez, L.; Gallastegui, G.; Cuesta, A.; Montero, P.; Rubio-Ordoñez, A.; Molina, J.F.; Bea, F.

    2017-07-01

    The Variscan orogen of NW Iberia contains abundant syn- and post-tectonic granitoids. The post-tectonic granitoids are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, I-type granites, monzogranites ± granodiorites ± tonalites. The Porriño pluton studied here is a representative example. It consists of two units: i) a pink-red, peraluminous, biotite granite and ii) a gray, metaluminous to peraluminous, biotite (± amphibole ± titanite) monzogranite, including maficintermediate enclaves. SHRIMP U-Pb dating yielded 290-295Ma ages for all the units. The mineralogy and geochemistry show that the pink-red granite has features of I- and A-type granites, whereas the gray monzogranite and enclaves are I-types. Sr isotopes show scattered values for the pink-red granite (87Sr/86Sr295Ma ≈ 0.702-0.710) and uniform values for the gray monzogranite and enclaves (87Sr/86Sr295Ma≈ 0.705-0.706). Geochemical results indicate a peritectic entrainment of clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene ± Ca-plagioclase ± ilmenite ± garnet, and minor accessory phases (± zircon ± titanite ± apatite) into a melt similar to the leucocratic gray monzogranite. A mafic-intermediate source is proposed for the gray monzogranite and its enclaves. Restitic protoliths generated granitic melts with A-type features such as the pink-red granite. The I-type nature of many post-tectonic granitoids could be explained by the previous extraction of S-type syn-tectonic granites that left restites and less fertile rocks. Late orogenic new melting affected the previously unmelted and more mafic lithologies of the lower-middle crust, and gave rise to I-type granitoids. Repeated melting events affecting such lithologies and previous restites could have generated granitic melts with A-type features.

  14. Exhumation And Evolution Of Al-Taif Metamorphic Core Complex (Western Arabian Shield) During Dextral Transpressional Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Hamimi, Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Al-Taif metamorphic belt is a NE-trending belt decorating steeply dipping major transpressional shear zone in western central Arabian Shield. It comprises gneisses and migmatites that were syn-kinematically invaded under relatively high-grade metamorphic conditions by voluminous granitic bodies and a confluence of pegmatitic veins. Field mapping and outcrop investigation reveal that the belt was evolved during at least three Neoproterozoic deformations (D1-D3). D1 and D2 were progressive deformations, took place during a contractional regime, and resulted in SW-mildly plunging isoclinal folds, superimposed by NE- gently to moderately plunging folds. The prevailed tectonic regime during D3was primordially plastic, accompanied with a NE-oriented oblique shearing that was subsequently evolved as semi ductile-semi brittle shearing during an episode of exhumation. Mesoscopic kinematic indicators, as well as microstructural analysis of the collected rock samples, reflect dextral sense of shearing. Such style of shearing is most probably the conjugate trend of the NNW- to NW- oriented sinistral Najd Fault System. Various cross cutting structures and overprinting relations were detected at both the outcrop- and microscopic scales, including; ductile S2folia with ESE-plunging amphibole mineral lineations; narrow, steeply dipping ductile D2 shear zones; and semi brittle to brittle fault zones. S-C' fabrics, asymmetric strain shadows around porphyroclasts and drag fault indicate a top-to-the-NE sense of shear for most structures. The geometry and style of deformation, together with map pattern highlighted in this study attest a simple shear rotational strain origin for the domed mylonitic foliation (S1) and mineral elongation lineation (L1). This result is in congruent with the landform pattern recorded in the inner parts of the metamorphic core complexes.

  15. Magma evolution in the Pliocene Pleistocene succession of Kos, South Aegean arc (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Moulton, Ben

    2008-11-01

    This study investigates the petrogenesis of Pliocene-Quaternary andesites, dacites and rhyolites of the island of Kos. These volcanic rocks differ from other volcanic centres in the South Aegean arc in the narrow range of Pliocene volcanic products, the abundance of high-silica rhyolite, the lower ɛNd for a given Sr isotope composition, and greater depth to the subducting slab. Pliocene and early Pleistocene dacite stocks and rhyolite domes are succeeded by younger tuffs, notably the 0.16 Ma Kos Plateau Tuff derived from a super-eruption of an andesite stratocone now subsided beneath the sea south of Kos. Volcanic products in tuffs have been sampled from lithic clasts. Andesite, dacite and rhyolite all have ɛNd ˜+ 1.5 to -1.5 and 86Sr/ 87Sr ˜ 0.7042; this unusual composition is argued to be the result of subduction of sediments derived from the River Nile. All rock types show structures indicative of widespread magma mixing, including complexly zoned plagioclase, clinopyroxene and amphibole containing glass inclusions of trachyte and rhyolite compositions. The observed rocks result from fractionation and mixing of three principal magma types: (a) calc-alkaline high-Al basalt that fractionated to andesite at the base of crust; (b) partially melted metabasaltic amphibolite underplated at the base of crust, that fractionated to produce high-SiO 2 rhyolite; and (c) a minor component of trachytic magma from partial melting of enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The complexly zoned phenocrysts with glass inclusions provide specific evidence for mixing of these three components. Specifically, it was the emplacement of the andesite into a voluminous rhyolite magma in a mid-crustal magma chamber that led to the explosive Kos Plateau Tuff super-eruption.

  16. Uruguay geology contributions no. 4; Contribuciones a la geologia del Uruguay no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciozzi, F [Ministerio de Industria Energia y Mineria, Direccion Nacional de Mineria y Geologia, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1989-07-01

    Sedimentary facies: the metasiltites and mela sandstones develop granoblastic textures. The present lepidoblastic textures in flexured bands of seri cite and/or chlorite, a fine qranoblastic matrix made by quartz-feldespaths. The carbonates develop mosaic textures with big crystals of calcites and dolomite, generally elongated following metamorphic foliation (seri cite/chlorite). The quartzites develop qranoblastic textures, with few minerals. Volcanics facies: the basic volcanics presents doleritic intersect al textural, that exist saussuritized plagioclase and albitic diabasa with diopside-augite beaches. Usually the pyroxenes develop poiquilitic textural. Present amphiboles of the acti note series and frequently sphene. Others basic rocks are microlitio porfiric, in intersect al or fluidal matrix, with albite microliters in epi dote-chlorite-acti note criploerislalline ground.The stability relationships of the diferents types of basic metavulcanites show low metamorphic facies, with temperatures under 530-550 grades C, being the most Irequenl association: albite+actinote+chlorite+epidote+opaques- opaques.The clastic faciest are integrated by monogenic breccia with elements of varied vulcanites and porfiric rnicrolitic texture. The matrix is made of line quartz and epidote aggregate. The basic volcanism present hyalo-porfiric textures with saussuritized plagiodase pheno crystals, and quartz in a micro lo criptocrystalline ground. Were also defined rocks with porfiric texture in a piromeritic ground as well as rocks with vacuolar microlitic texture.The clastic facies are made by breccias with sharp elements, with rare cement, integrated by pyroclastic products, The volcanics rocks present retrometamorphism of the phenocrystals and devitrification. The plagioclase are traslormated in fine aggregates of albite epidote. The regional metamorphism minerals are represented by the para genesis: quartz+albite+chlorite+epidote+(seri cite-actinole), subfacies quartz albite

  17. In situ quantification of Br and Cl in minerals and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: a powerful tool to identify fluid sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Rusk, Brian; Spandler, Carl; Emsbo, Poul; Oliver, Nicholas H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bromine and chlorine are important halogens for fluid source identification in the Earth's crust, but until recently we lacked routine analytical techniques to determine the concentration of these elements in situ on a micrometer scale in minerals and fluid inclusions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of in situ Cl and Br measurements by LA-ICP-MS through analysis of a range of scapolite grains with known Cl and Br concentrations. We assess the effects of varying spot sizes, variable plasma energy and resolve the contribution of polyatomic interferences on Br measurements. Using well-characterised natural scapolite standards, we show that LA-ICP-MS analysis allows measurement of Br and Cl concentrations in scapolite, and fluid inclusions as small as 16 μm in diameter and potentially in sodalite and a variety of other minerals, such as apatite, biotite, and amphibole. As a demonstration of the accuracy and potential of Cl and Br analyses by LA-ICP-MS, we analysed natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite and compared them to crush and leach ion chromatography Cl/Br analyses. Limit of detection for Br is ~8 μg g−1, whereas relatively high Cl concentrations (> 500 μg g−1) are required for quantification by LA-ICP-MS. In general, our LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion results agree well with ion chromatography (IC) data. Additionally, combined cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS analyses on natural scapolites within a well-studied regional metamorphic suite in South Australia demonstrate that Cl and Br can be quantified with a ~25 μm resolution in natural minerals. This technique can be applied to resolve a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  18. Characterization of Lone Pine, California, tremolite asbestos and preparation of research material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Crankshaw, Owen S; Doorn, Stacy S; Ennis, J. Todd; Harrison, Sara E

    2014-01-01

    Well-characterized amphibole asbestos mineral samples are required for use as analytical standards and in future research projects. Currently, the National Institute for Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material samples of asbestos are listed as ‘Discontinued’. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has a goal under the Asbestos Roadmap of locating and characterizing research materials for future use. Where an initial characterization analysis determines that a collected material is appropriate for use as a research material in terms of composition and asbestiform habit, sufficient amounts of the material will be collected to make it publicly available. An abandoned mine near Lone Pine, California, contains a vein of tremolite asbestos, which was the probable source of a reference material that has been available for the past 17 years from the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) in the UK. Newly collected fibrous vein material from this mine was analyzed at Research Triangle Institute (RTI International) with some additional analysis by the US Geological Survey’s Denver Microbeam Laboratory. The analysis at RTI International included: (i) polarized light microscopy (PLM) with a determination of principal optical properties; (ii) X-ray diffraction; (iii) transmission electron microscopy, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected-area electron diffraction; and (iv) spindle stage analysis using PLM to determine whether individual fibers and bundles of the samples were polycrystalline or single-crystal cleavage fragments. The overall findings of the study indicated that the material is tremolite asbestos with characteristics substantially similar to the earlier distributed HSL reference material. A larger quantity of material was prepared by sorting, acid-washing and mixing for sub-division into vials of ~10g each. These vials have been transferred from NIOSH to RTI International, from where they can be

  19. Bulk rock composition and geochemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Grey Porri Tuff and selected lavas of the Monte dei Porri volcano, Salina, Aeolian Islands, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Angela L.; Bodnar, Robert J.; De Vivo, Benedetto; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Messina, Antonia; Tracy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aeolian Islands are an arcuate chain of submarine seamounts and volcanic islands, lying just north of Sicily in southern Italy. The second largest of the islands, Salina, exhibits a wide range of compositional variation in its erupted products, from basaltic lavas to rhyolitic pumice. The Monte dei Porri eruptions occurred between 60 ka and 30 ka, following a period of approximately 60,000 years of repose. The bulk rock composition of the Monte dei Porri products range from basaltic-andesite scoria to andesitic pumice in the Grey Porri Tuff (GPT), with the Monte dei Porri lavas having basaltic-andesite compositions. The typical mineral assemblage of the GPT is calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene (augite), olivine (Fo72−84) and orthopyroxene (enstatite) ± amphibole and Ti-Fe oxides. The lava units show a similar mineral assemblage, but contain lower Fo olivines (Fo57−78). The lava units also contain numerous glomerocrysts, including an unusual variety that contains quartz, K-feldspar and mica. Melt inclusions (MI) are ubiquitous in all mineral phases from all units of the Monte dei Porri eruptions; however, only data from olivine-hosted MI in the GPT are reported here. Compositions of MI in the GPT are typically basaltic (average SiO2 of 49.8 wt %) in the pumices and basaltic-andesite (average SiO2 of 55.6 wt %) in the scoriae and show a bimodal distribution in most compositional discrimination plots. The compositions of most of the MI in the scoriae overlap with bulk rock compositions of the lavas. Petrological and geochemical evidence suggest that mixing of one or more magmas and/or crustal assimilation played a role in the evolution of the Monte dei Porri magmatic system, especially the GPT. Analyses of the more evolved mineral phases are required to better constrain the evolution of the magma.

  20. Radioactivity of heavy minerals and geochemistry of trace elements and radon, resulting from the weathering of the ophiolitic complex, Northwest of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattaa, B.; Al-Hilal, M.; Jubeli, Y.

    1999-06-01

    Geochemical and radiometric survey of stream sediments resulting from the weathering of ophiolitic complex at Al-Basit area were carried out. Several exploration techniques have been used to evaluate the radioactive elements and minerals in the area, and to estimate the significance of the radioactivity of the source rocks of these elements and minerals. determination of radioelements and some trace elements in stream sediments, in addition to gamma-ray spectrometry and radon gas measurement in water of springs and wells were carried out in the study area. The results show that the high values of radioactive elements and radon concentration are related to the occurrence of syenite nepheline and plageogranite, characterized by higher content of these elements compared to mafic and ultramafic rocks. Mineralogical study of the heavy minerals shows that the abundant minerals are pyroxene and amphibole, while less abundant minerals are iron oxides (limonite and hematite), chromite, ilmenite, olivine and magnetite. Rare minerals are zircon, apatite, barite, tourmaline and sphen. The absence of monazite, xenotime and thorite in the collected samples is mainly attributed to the very limited occurrence of their source rocks. However, this results is rather restricted to the collected samples. High concentration of magnetite and ilmenite in some samples was noted, in addition to the presence of mineral called galaxite which was not reported previously. Gold flake was also found in one of the samples. The study of grain morphology suggests that the heavy minerals were transported for short distance from their source rocks. Grain size analyse of heavy minerals reveals that the concentration of economic minerals such as chromite and ilmenite increases with the decrease of the grain size. (author)

  1. Structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the lithotypes from the Pien region (Parana State, Brazil) and adjacences; Analise estrutural, petrologica e geocronologica dos litotipos da Regiao de Pien (PR) e adjacencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harara, Ossama Mohamed

    1997-12-31

    The Pien area presents the major geotectonic domains separated by the Pien Shear Zone (PSZ). The northern one is the Rio Pien Granite-Mylonitic Suite composed by calc-alkaline granitoids of Neoproterozoic age. The southern domain is represented by the Amphibolite-Granulite where high grade metamorphism took place at the end of paleoproterozoic time. Considering the identified lithotypes, their geochemical affinity (particularly the Ti, Cr, Ni and REE content) and the geological context observed in the area, a geotectonical model of active continental margin related to subduction SSZ (Supra-Subduction Zone) is proposed. K-Ar on plagioclase from gabbronorites gave Neoproterozoic ages although Sm-Nd whole rock isochron yielded Paleoproterozoic ages. Based in geochemical data, it is proposed that the biotite gneiss and biotite-amphibole-gneiss which occur near the PSZ have a shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline features which are characteristic of active continental margins. K-Ar on biotite extracted from these rocks, gave Neoproterozoic ages. The available radiometric data for the Rio Pien mylonitic granitoids show that between 650-595 Ma the generation, deformation and cooling below the isotherm of 250 deg C occurred. On the other hand, the geochronological data for the Agudos do Sul Massif are in the 590-570 Ma interval showing its younger generation. The Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios for both granitoids suggest more involvement of the continental crust in the origins of Agudos do Sul granitic Massif. The analyses of the entire set of the available data for the Pien area allows the suggestion of a geotectonic scenery related to the evolution of an active continental margin during the collages associated to the Brasiliano Cycle 201 refs., 130 figs., 6 tabs., 2 maps

  2. Structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the lithotypes from the Pien region (Parana State, Brazil) and adjacences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harara, Ossama Mohamed

    1996-01-01

    The Pien area presents the major geotectonic domains separated by the Pien Shear Zone (PSZ). The northern one is the Rio Pien Granite-Mylonitic Suite composed by calc-alkaline granitoids of Neoproterozoic age. The southern domain is represented by the Amphibolite-Granulite where high grade metamorphism took place at the end of paleoproterozoic time. Considering the identified lithotypes, their geochemical affinity (particularly the Ti, Cr, Ni and REE content) and the geological context observed in the area, a geotectonical model of active continental margin related to subduction SSZ (Supra-Subduction Zone) is proposed. K-Ar on plagioclase from gabbronorites gave Neoproterozoic ages although Sm-Nd whole rock isochron yielded Paleoproterozoic ages. Based in geochemical data, it is proposed that the biotite gneiss and biotite-amphibole-gneiss which occur near the PSZ have a shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline features which are characteristic of active continental margins. K-Ar on biotite extracted from these rocks, gave Neoproterozoic ages. The available radiometric data for the Rio Pien mylonitic granitoids show that between 650-595 Ma the generation, deformation and cooling below the isotherm of 250 deg C occurred. On the other hand, the geochronological data for the Agudos do Sul Massif are in the 590-570 Ma interval showing its younger generation. The Sr 87 / Sr 86 initial ratios for both granitoids suggest more involvement of the continental crust in the origins of Agudos do Sul granitic Massif. The analyses of the entire set of the available data for the Pien area allows the suggestion of a geotectonic scenery related to the evolution of an active continental margin during the collages associated to the Brasiliano Cycle

  3. Origin and evolution of primitive melts from the Debunscha Maar, Cameroon: Consequences for mantle source heterogeneity within the Cameroon Volcanic Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Caroline N.; Hansteen, Thor H.; Devey, Colin W.; van der Zwan, Froukje M.; Suh, Cheo E.

    2017-09-01

    Debunscha Maar is a monogenetic volcano forming part of the Mt. Cameroon volcanic field, located within the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). Partly glassy cauliflower bombs have primitive basanite-picrobasalt compositions and contain abundant normally and reversely zoned olivine (Fo 77-87) and clinopyroxene phenocrysts. Naturally quenched melt inclusions in the most primitive olivine phenocrysts show compositions which, when corrected for post-entrapment modification, cover a wide range from basanite to alkali basalt (MgO 6.9-11.7 wt%), and are generally more primitive than the matrix glasses (MgO 5.0-5.5 wt%) and only partly fall on a common liquid line of descent with the bulk rock samples and matrix glasses. Melt inclusion trace element compositions lie on two distinct geochemical trends: one (towards high Ba/Nb) is thought to represent the effect of various proportions of anhydrous lherzolite and amphibole-bearing peridotite in the source, while the other (for example, high La/Y) reflects variable degrees of partial melting. Comparatively low fractionation-corrected CaO in the melt inclusions with the highest La/Y suggests minor involvement of a pyroxenite source component that is only visible at low degrees of melting. Most of the samples show elevated Gd/Yb, indicating up to 8% garnet in the source. The range of major and trace elements represented by the melt inclusions covers the complete geochemical range given by basalts from different volcanoes of the Cameroon volcanic line, indicating that geochemical signatures that were previously thought to be volcano-specific in fact are probably present under all volcanoes. Clinopyroxene-melt barometry strongly indicates repeated mixing of compositionally diverse melts within the upper mantle at 830 ± 170 MPa prior to eruption. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for the primitive melt inclusions suggest that the thermal influence of a mantle plume is not required to explain the magma petrogenesis.

  4. La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'adrar des Iforas, Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, H.; Black, R.; Benziane, B.; Diombana, D.; Hascoet-Fender, J.; Bonin, B.; Fabre, J.; Liégeois, J. P.

    The Cambrian silica-saturated alkaline province of the Iforas is composed of about 15 massifs including typical large size ring complexes (20-30 km in diameter). Its originality is that it follows closely a regime of subduction blocked by the Pan-African collision (600 Ma) and that each stage of the transition from calcalkaline to alkaline can be related to structural elements in a geodynamic setting. Several complexes are described in some detail. The Kidal-Tibeljeljeline complex starts with the intrusion of syenite porphyries forming external ring dykes, often polygonal in outline, which are truncated by a central massif 30 km in diameter which is composed of a dozen major phases. It complexity is due to the individualization of several intrusive centres and to the fact that the erosional level coincides with that of the flat roof structures. Djounhane, Takellout and Timedjelalen (20-30 km in diameter) are simpler and composed of concentric intrusions youing inwards. Other occurrences are described briefly. The emplacement of all these intrusions at shallow depth in a rigid environment under a thick rhyolitic cover of fissural origin is contemporary to movement along a tear fault system with intermittent periods of distension as shown by spectacular associated dyke swarms. The study shows the presence of both peralkaline and aluminous trends, an evolution of the minerals (pyroxenes, amphiboles and micas), and geochemical characteristics that are quite comparable to those of anorogenic provinces such as Niger and Nigeria. It is important to note, however, the absence of cassiterite and the predominance of subsovus granites in the aluminous trend of the Iforas. The striking similarity between the provinces leads the authors to envisage a common mantle origin, the difference being due rather to the influence of the country rock.

  5. Nd-isotopes in selected mantle-derived rocks and minerals and their implications for mantle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1980-01-01

    The Sm-Nd systematics in a variety of mantle-derived samples including kimberlites, alnoite, carbonatite, pyroxene and amphibole inclusions in alkali basalts and xenolithic eclogites, granulites and a pyroxene megacryst in kimberlites are reported. The additional data on kimberlites strengthen our earlier conclusion that kimberlites are derived from a relatively undifferentiated chondritic mantle source. This conclusion is based on the observation that the e{open}Nd values of most of the kimberlites are near zero. In contrast with the kimberlites, their garnet lherzolite inclusions show both time-averaged Nd enrichment and depletion with respect to Sm. Separated clinopyroxenes in eclogite xenoliths from the Roberts Victor kimberlite pipe show both positive and negative e{open}Nd values suggesting different genetic history. A whole rock lower crustal scapolite granulite xenolith from the Matsoku kimberlite pipe shows a negative e{open}Nd value of -4.2, possibly representative of the base of the crust in Lesotho. It appears that all inclusions, mafic and ultramafic, in kimberlites are unrelated to their kimberlite host. The above data and additional Sm-Nd data on xenoliths in alkali basalts, alpine peridotite and alnoite-carbonatites are used to construct a model for the upper 200 km of the earth's mantle - both oceanic and continental. The essential feature of this model is the increasing degree of fertility of the mantle with depth. The kimberlite's source at depths below 200 km in the subcontinental mantle is the most primitive in this model, and this primitive layer is also extended to the suboceanic mantle. However, it is clear from the Nd-isotopic data in the xenoliths of the continental kimberlites that above 200 km the continental mantle is distinctly different from their suboceanic counterpart. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-01-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km 2 is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T DM ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  7. [Mesothelioma in construction workers: risk estimate, lung content of asbestos fibres, claims for compensation for occupational disease in the Veneto Region mesothelioma register].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merler, E; Bressan, Vittoria; Somigliana, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Work in the construction industry is causing the highest number of mesotheliomas among the residents of the Veneto Region (north-east Italy, 4,5 million inhabitants). To sum up the results on occurrence, asbestos exposure, lung fibre content analyses, and compensation for occupational disease. Case identification and asbestos exposure classification: active search of mesotheliomas that were diagnosed via histological or cytological examinations occurring between 1987 and 2006; a probability of asbestos exposure was attributed to each case, following interviews with the subjects or their relatives and collection of data on the jobs held over their lifetime. Risk estimate among construction workers: the ratio between cases and person-years, the latter derived from the number of construction workers reported by censuses. Lung content of asbestos fibres: examination of lung specimens by Scanning Electron Microscope to determine number and type of fibres. Claims for compensation and compensation awarded: data obtained from the National Institute for Insurance against Occupational Diseases available for the period 1999-2006. of 952 mesothelioma cases classified as due to asbestos exposure, 251 were assigned to work in the construction industry (21 of which due to domestic of environmental exposures), which gives a rate of 4.1 (95% CI 3.6-4.8) x 10(5) x year among construction workers. The asbestos fibre content detected in the lungs of 11 construction workers showed a mean of 1.7 x 10(6) fibres/g dry tissue (range 350,000-3 million) for fibres > 1 micro, almost exclusively due to amphibole fibres. 62% of the claims for compensation were granted but the percentage fell to less than 40% when claims were submitted by a relative, after the death of the subject. The prevalence of mesothelioma occurring among construction workers is high and is associated with asbestos exposure; the risk is underestimated by the subjects and their relatives. All mesotheliomas occurring among

  8. Fatigue properties for the fracture strength of columnar accessory minerals embedded within metamorphic tectonites: implications for stress magnitude in continental crust at the depth of the brittle-plastic transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, N.; Iwashita, N.; Masuda, T.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction Previous studies have compiled yield-strength profiles of continental lithosphere based on the results of laboratory measurements and numerical calculations; however, yield-strength values remain poorly constrained, especially at depths below the brittle-plastic transition zone. Recent studies by the authors have refined the microboudin technique for estimating palaeostress magnitude in the deep crust (> 10 km depth). This technique has the potential to provide important information on stress levels in the deep continental crust, an environment to which available in situ stress measurements and palaeopiezometric methods cannot be applied. In applying the microboudinage technique, obtaining an estimate of the palaeostress magnitude requires knowledge of the fracture strength of columnar accessory minerals (e.g., tourmaline, amphibole, and epidote) that are subjected to brittle fracturing during plastic deformation of the surrounding matrix minerals. The absolute magnitude of fracture strength is known to show a marked reduction in the case of fatigue fracture. Fatigue fracture falls into two categories: static fatigue and cyclic fatigue. In the field of experimental rock deformation, stress corrosion by water molecules (static fatigue) is commonly invoked as the mechanism of fatigue fracture; however, evidence of both static and cyclic fatigue has been reported from studies of natural geological samples. The present study focused on the fatigue properties of columnar accessory minerals at high temperatures, with the aim of improving the accuracy of estimates of natural palaeostress magnitude at depth in the crust. 2. Constant stress-rate test A constant stress-rate test was performed to determine the influence of static fatigue on the strength of columnar accessory minerals. The test was conducted under three-point bending with a span distance of 10 mm. Temperature conditions and the crosshead speed were set in the ranges of ambient to 600°C, and 0

  9. Petrology, mineral chemistry and tectono-magmatic setting of volcanic rocks from northeast Farmahin, north of Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zarei Sahamieh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is a small part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar structural zone in the Markazi province, located in the northeastern part of the Farmahin, north of Arak (Hajian, 1970. The volcanic rocks studied from the area include andesite, dacite, rhyodacite, ignimbrite and tuff of Middle to Late Eocene age (middle Lutetian to upper Lutetian (Ameri et al., 2009. It seems that folding and faulting is caused in sedimentary basin and volcanic activities. On the other hand, except of orogeny maybe rifting had rule in eruption so that this case has seen in the other area such as Taft and Khezrabad in central Iran (Zarei Sahamieh et al., 2008. The oldest formation in the studied area is Triassic limestones. The dominant textures of these rocks are porphyritic, microlite porphyritic, microlitic and rarely sieve-texture. Sieve texture and dusty texture (dusty plagioclases indicates magma mixing. Mineralogically, they contain plagioclases, clinopyroxenes, amphiboles, quartz and biotite as the main constituents and zircon, apatite, and opaque minerals as accessories. Plagioclases in the andesitic and basaltic- andesite rocks are labradorite, bytownite and anorthite (based on electron microprobe .Moreover, plagioclases in andesitic rocks show that H2O is lesser than 2.5 precent. Amphibole is found in both plagioclases and groundmass. Materials and methods In this article are used different analyses methods such as XRF, ICP-MS and EPMA. Whole-rock major and trace element analyses were determined with ICP-MS method. The major and trace element composition of some rock was determined by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA using a Cameca SX100 instrument in Iran Mineral Processing Research Center (IMPRC. Moreover, whole-rock major and some trace element analyses for some samples were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF, using an ARL Advant-XP automated X-ray spectrometer. Results Chemical data based on electron micro probe studies of minerals indicate

  10. Sediment composition of big Chinese and Indochinese rivers reflects geology of their source, not tectonic setting of their sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Limonta, Mara; Nie, Junsheng; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Wang, Jiangang; Yang, Shouye

    2016-04-01

    There are several reasons why the tectonic setting of a sedimentary basin cannot be inferred from the composition of its sedimentary fill. One is that sediments can, and quite often are transported for thousands of kilometers from sources uplifted by certain tectonic processes to subsident basins created by totally different tectonic processes. A classical case is the Amazon River, carrying detritus from the Andean Cordillera to the Atlantic passive margin on the opposite side of South America (Franzinelli and Potter, 1983; Dickinson, 1988). Similar is the case of major rivers in China and Indochina, sourced in Tibetan orogenic highlands and reaching the Chinese passive margin or the back-arc/pull-apart Andaman Sea. The Huang He (Yellow River), the most sediment-laden river in the world, delivers annually to the Bohai Sea 1 billion tons of litho-feldspatho-quartzose sedimentaclastic/metamorphiclastic sediments with moderately rich, amphibole-epidote-garnet suites including apatite and zircon (Nie et al., 2015). The Changjiang (Yangtze) River, the fourth longest on Earth and the largest in Eurasia, carries to the East China Sea litho-feldspatho-quartzose sedimentaclastic/metamorphiclastic sand with moderately poor, amphibole-epidote suites including clinopyroxene and garnet (Vezzoli et al., 2016). The Ayeyarwadi (Irrawaddy) River, ranking among the five major rivers in the world for its annual load of 0.4 billion tons, carries to the Andaman Sea litho-feldspatho-quartzose metamorphiclastic/sedimentaclastic sand with moderately rich, amphibole-epidote suites including garnet and clinopyroxene (Garzanti et al., 2013). Detrital modes in these three very big river basins are thus similar, and would plot in the "Recycled Orogen" field of Dickinson (1985) rather than in the "Continental Block" or "Magmatic Arc" fields. The orogenic signature acquired in mountainous headwaters is carried all the way to the mouth, and even after long-distance transport across wide

  11. Chromite and other mineral deposits in serpentine rocks of the Piedmont Upland, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearre, Nancy C.; Heyl, Allen V.

    1960-01-01

    The Piedmont Upland in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware is about 160 miles long and at the most 50 miles wide. Rocks that underlie the province are the Baltimore gneiss of Precambrian age and quartzite, gneiss, schist, marble, phyllite, and greenstone, which make up the Glenarm series of early Paleozoic (?) age. These are intruded by granitic, gabbroic, and ultramaflc igneous rocks. Most of the ultramaflc rocks, originally peridotite, pyroxenite, and dunite, have been partly or completely altered to serpentine and talc; they are all designated by the general term serpentine. The bodies of serpentine are commonly elongate and conformable with the enclosing rocks. Many have been extensively quarried for building, decorative, and crushed stone. In addition, chromite, titaniferous magnetite, rutile, talc and soapstone, amphibole asbestos, magnesite, sodium- rich feldspar (commercially known as soda spar), and corundum have been mined or prospected for in the serpentine. Both high-grade massive chromite and lower grade disseminated chromite occur in very irregular and unpredictable form in the serpentine, and placer deposits of chromite are in and near streams that drain areas underlain by serpentine. A group of unusual minerals, among them kammererite, are typical associates of high-grade massive chromite but are rare in lower grade deposits. Chromite was first discovered in the United States at Bare Hills, Md., around 1810. Between 1820 and 1850, additional deposits were discovered and mined in Maryland and Pennsylvania, including the largest deposit of massive chromite ever found in the United States the Wood deposit, in the State Line district. A second period of extensive chromite mining came during the late 1860's and early 1870's. Production figures are incomplete and conflicting. Estimates from the available data indicate that the aggregate production from 27 of 40 known mines before 1900 totaled between 250,000 and 280,000 tons of lode-chromite ore

  12. Petrology of Oligocene Ghaleh Yaghmesh granitoids in the west of Yazd province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Fazeli

    2017-02-01

    calculation of amphibole minerals by Cameca SX50 microprobe device at the Oklahomacity University (Norman - USA. Results The studied plutonic rocks are dominated by plagioclase, orthoclase, quartz, amphibole (magnesio hornblende and actinolite hornblende, biotite, and pyroxene. Zircon, apatite, sphene, tourmaline and opaque minerals as the common accessory and chlorite, epidote and calcite are the secondary minerals. On the base of petrographic observation as well as mineral-chemistry and geochemical data, the granitoid massif is classified as I-type (magnetite series, calc – alkaline and metaluminous composition. The rocks under discussion are characterized by the high level of LILE (Ba, Sr, K and Cs and the negative anomaly of HFS elements (Ti, Nb, Zr and Y indicating the subduction related magmatism. The Ghaleh Yaghmesh granitoids are cogenetic and possibly developed in subduction zone related to active continental margin calc – alkaline volcanic arcs. Mixing process of acidic and basic magmas is likely involved in generation of the rocks being studied. Discussion The parent magma probably formed by partial melting of amphibolites with some sedimentary materials. Fractional crystallization of melt in the higher levels of crust gave rise to various rock types. Mantle – derived basaltic magmas emplaced into the lower crust most likely provide heat for partial melting Clemens et al., 2011(. Field evidences such as the presence of mafic microgranular enclaves having sharp boundaries with the host rocks (Zorpi et al., 1989; Didier, 1991, petrographic observations (similar mineralogy of MME and the host rock (Didier, 1991; Didier and Barbarin, 1991, the occurrence of accicular apatite (Zorpi et al., 1989; Didier, 1991, the corroded margin of amphibole and plagioclase (Zorpi et al., 1989; Shelley, 1993 and the abundance of biotite and hornblende in MME compared to the host rock (Ellis and Thompson, 1986 and geochemical criteria (range of silica from 51.35 to 70.78 indicate

  13. Metamorphic reprocessing of a serpentinized carbonate-bearing peridotite after detachment from the mantle wedge: A P-T path constrained from textures and phase diagrams in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Proyer, A.

    2010-08-01

    In the central Rhodope mountains of Greece a carbonate-bearing metaperidotite lens ˜ 200 × 500 m in size crops out as part of the high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic Upper Sidironero Complex ˜ 500 m SE of the Gorgona Village, north of Xanthi town. It is composed primarily of coarse grained (3-20 mm in size) olivine and orthopyroxene, medium grained clinohumite and medium to fine grained tremolite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite, talc, antigorite and various spinel phases. Whole-rock chemistry, mineral textures and compositions, and phase diagram calculations show that the metaperidotite was subjected to a prograde HP metamorphism, isofacial with the surrounding migmatitic gneisses, metapelites and amphibolites. The prograde character of metamorphism is demonstrated by inclusions of talc, antigorite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite and Ti-clinohumite in ferrit-chromite, olivine, and orthopyroxene, as well as of olivine in orthopyroxene, and by the typical change in composition of zoned spinel minerals from ferrit-chromite in the core to chromian spinel at the rim. The prograde path is characterized by successive growth of amphibole, Ti-clinohumite, olivine and orthopyroxene, followed by the breakdown of Ti-clinohumite to olivine + Mg-ilmenite and of chlorite to olivine + spinel, probably during exhumation. The construction of a partial petrogenetic P- T grid in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O (CMASCH) for Ca-poor ultramafic bulk compositions has proven highly useful for the reconstruction of the metamorphic evolution and a P- T path, indicating that the use of univariant reactions in mixed volatile systems is highly warranted. The P- T path is clearly constrained to pressures below 1.5-1.7 GPa by the absence of clinopyroxene. These pressures are slightly lower than those recorded in the closely associated Jurassic eclogites and much lower than those recorded in the diamond-bearing gneisses 5 km to the south in the same tectonic unit. The carbonate

  14. Metamorphic P-T path and zircon U-Pb dating of HP mafic granulites in the Yushugou granulite-peridotite complex, Chinese South Tianshan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lifei; Xia, Bin; Lü, Zeng

    2018-03-01

    Co-existing granulite and peridotite may represent relics of the paleo-suture zone and provides an optimal opportunity for better understanding of orogeny between two blocks. In this study, we carried out petrological and U-Pb zircon dating investigation on the HP mafic granulites associated with peridotite complex at Yushugou in Chinese South Tianshan. The studied samples include garnet-bearing high-pressure mafic granulites which can be subdivided into two types: Type I orthopyroxene-free and Type II orthopyroxene-bearing granulites and amphibolite. Type I granulite (Y21-2) has a mineral assemblage of garnet (33 vol.%), clinopyroxene (32 vol.%) and plagioclase (30 vol.%); and Type II granulite (Y18-8) has a mineral assemblage of garnet (22 vol.%), clinopyroxene (10 vol.%), orthopyroxene (14 vol.%), plagioclase (45 vol.%) and quartz. Garnet in both granulites exhibits core-rim structure characterized by increasing grossular and decreasing pyrope from core to rim. Petrographic observations and phase equilibrium modeling using THERMOCALC in the NCFMASHTO system for the mafic granulites (Y21-2 and Y18-8) show three stages of metamorphism: Stage I (granulite facies) was recognized by the large porphyroblastic garnet core, with P-T conditions of 9.8-10.4 Kbar and 860-900 °C (Y21-2) and 9.9-10.6 Kbar and 875-890 °C (Y18-8), respectively; Stage II (HP granulite facies) has peak P-T conditions of 12.1 Kbar at 755 °C (Y21-2) and 13.8 Kbar at 815 °C (Y18-8) using mineral assemblages combining with garnet rim compositions with maximum grossular and minimum pyrope contents; Stage III (amphibolite facies) was characterized by the development of calcic amphibole in granulites with temperature of 446-563 °C. Therefore, an anticlockwise P-T path characterized by simultaneous temperature-decreasing and pressure-increasing was inferred for the Yushugou HP mafic granulite. Studies of zircon morphology and inclusions, combined with zircon U-Pb dating and REE geochemistry

  15. Partitioning of Cu between mafic minerals, Fe-Ti oxides and intermediate to felsic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingcheng; Xiong, Xiaolin; Audétat, Andreas; Li, Yuan

    2015-02-01

    This study used improved capsule technique i.e., Pt95Cu05 or Au95Cu05 alloy capsules as Cu sources to determine Cu partitioning between mafic minerals, Fe-Ti oxides and intermediate to felsic melts at 0.5-2.5 GPa, 950-1100 °C and various oxygen fugacities (fO2). In combination with the data from the mafic composition systems, the results demonstrate that Cu is generally highly incompatible in mafic minerals and moderately incompatible to compatible in Fe-Ti oxides. The general order of mineral/melt Cu partition coefficients (DCu) is garnet (0.01-0.06) ⩽ olivine (0.04-0.20) ≈ opx (0.04-0.24) ≈ amphibole (0.04-0.20) ⩽ cpx (0.04-0.45) ⩽ magnetite, titanomagnetite and Cr-spinel (0.18-1.83). The variations in DCu depend mainly on temperature, fO2 or mineral composition. In general, DCu for olivine (and perhaps opx) increases with decreasing temperature and increasing fO2. DCu increases for cpx with Na+ (pfu) in cpx, for magnetite and Cr-spinel with Fe3+ (pfu) in these phases and for titanomagnetite with Ti4+ (pfu) in this phase. The large number of DCu data (99 pairs) serves as a foundation for quantitatively understanding the behavior of Cu during magmatic processes. The generation of intermediate to felsic magmas via fractional crystallization or partial melting of mafic rocks (magmas) at deep levels of crust involves removal of or leaving assemblages of mafic minerals + Fe-Ti oxides ± sulfides. With our DCu data on mafic minerals and Fe-Ti oxides, DCubulk values around 0.2 were obtained for the sulfide-free assemblages. Cu will thus be concentrated efficiently in the derived melts during these two processes if sulfides are absent or negligible, explaining that high fO2 and sulfide-destabilization are favorable to formation of the porphyry Cu system.

  16. Modes and implications of mantle and lower-crust denudation at slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Timothy John

    Slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges (Cann, 1993, Cannat, 1993). Extension at mid-ocean ridges is most commonly manifested by slip on high angle (˜60°) normal faults that dip into, and define the rift valley walls (Smith and Cann, 1993). Less commonly, extension occurs by long periods of slip along low-angle normal faults that penetrate to structurally deep levels of oceanic lithosphere and denude gabbro and/or pendotite to the seafloor in domal massifs termed "oceanic core complexes" (Dick et al., 1981; Dick et al., 1991; Tucholke et al., 1998; Mutter and Karson, 1992; Cann et al., 1997; MacLeod et al., 2002). This dissertation addresses processes and implications of tectonic extension at two oceanic core complexes. Atlantis Massif (30°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) is formed dominantly of serpentinized peridotite with lesser gabbro, and Atlantis Bank (57°E, Southwest Indian Ridge) is dominated by gabbro. Localization of brittle strain at Atlantis Massif occurred by reaction-softening processes associated with metasomatic alteration of peridotite and serpentmite to amphibole-, chlorite- and talc-bearing assemblages. Ductile strain at Atlantis Massif and Atlantis Bank is localized into intervals of highly-fractionated, oxide-rich gabbro. Two-oxide geothermometry of gabbro indicates that it was not penetratively deformed below ˜500°C. Denuded peridotite at Atlantis Massif is host to hydrothermal circulation driven in part by exothermic serpentinization reactions. Serpentinization decreases the seismic velocity of peridotite and leads to acquisition of a magnetic signature. Venting of highly-alkaline, methane- and hydrogen-rich serpentinization-derived fluids leads to lithification of seafloor carbonate ooze by precipitation of carbonate cement in a zone of mixing with "normal" seawater. This process may be the primary depositional mechanism of ophicalcite deposits and likely occurs wherever peridotite is exposed near the Earth's surface and is fractured to permit water

  17. Serpentinization and carbonation of pristine continental ultramafic rocks and applications to the oceanic crust; H2O-CO2 alteration of dunites and re-distribution of Ni-Cu-PGE in sulphide deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Thomas; McEnroe, Suzanne; Eske Sørensen, Bjørn; Larsen, Rune; Pastore, Zeudia; Rune Grannes, Kim; Nikolaisen, Even

    2017-04-01

    Here, we document carbonation and serpentinization within a suite of ultramafic rocks from a continental setting. These ultramafic rocks vary from pristine dunites to varying degrees of serpentinization which locally penetrates the ultramafic complex. Hence, it allows us to observe a number of delicate serpentinization and carbonation reactions, otherwise lost during more extensive alteration or tectonic events. We use a multi-disciplinary approach using petrographic, EPMA, thermodynamic modelling and geophysical data to reveal how the initial stages of serpentization and carbonation in dunites affects the distribution of economic to sub-economic deposits of Ni-Cu and PGE. The data can then be applied to oceanic crust. The samples are dunites and poikilitic wehrlites from the Reinfjord Ultramafic complex, Seiland Igneous Province Northern Norway. The complex formed through crystallization of picritic melts in the lower continental crust. The dunites contain small amounts of interstitial clinopyroxene, sulphides and spinel, with local enrichments in Ni, Cu and PGE. Late magmatic CO2-H2O-S fluids reacted with the dunite forming clots of amphibole + dolomite + sulphides + enstatite, reaction rims of enstatite + dolomite, and inclusions trails of dolomite + enstatite + magnetite + CO2 fluid. Thermodynamic modelling reveals that these textures formed at pressures of >12 kbar and temperatures 850-950 °C, which would be consistent with the late magmatic history of the Reinfjord complex. The clots and reactions have local association with enrichments in gold-rich PGMs. A second stage of alteration involved H2O-dominated fluids. These formed predominantly lizardite serpentinization, as is often concentrated within highly localized fracture zones. Thermodynamic modelling shows that these formed serpentinization interacted with the earlier formed carbonate bearing assemblages