WorldWideScience

Sample records for amphibious vehicles

  1. Hydrodynamics Research on Amphibious Vehicle Systems: Engineering Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Nai-jun

    2006-01-01

    Based on the modeling theoretical research of the amphibious vehicle systems, a simulation computed architecture on the state space expressions of hydrodynamics for amphibious vehicle systems are educed, and simulation computed results of navigation characteristics, vibration-impact characteristics, firing-hitting characteristics for amphibious vehicle on water are given. It is shown that the hydrodynamic research on amphibious vehicle systems is necessary and feasible.

  2. Hydrodynamics Research on Amphibious Vehicle Systems:Modeling Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Nai-jun

    2006-01-01

    For completing the hydrodynamics software development and the engineering application research on the amphibious vehicle systems, hydrodynamic modeling theory of the amphibious vehicle systems is elaborated, which includes to build up the dynamic system model of amphibious vehicle motion on water, gun tracking-aiming-firing, bullet hit and armored check-target, gunner operating control, and the simulation computed model of time domain for random sea wave.

  3. Numerical simulation of an amphibious vehicle sailing resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangxia Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the waterborne performance of amphibious vehicle, based on Fluid Dynamics and principle of marine mechanics related knowledge, the resistances and viscous flow field of amphibious vehicle in different headway were numericaly simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equatlons with the turbulence model. we obtained the result of frictiona resistance coefficientresidual resistance coefficient and running resistance coefficient,thus we can calculate its total resistances. the reliability of computing methed was validated by comparing the calculation results with the test data.

  4. Guidance of Autonomous Amphibious Vehicles for Flood Rescue Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankarachary Ragi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a path-planning algorithm to guide autonomous amphibious vehicles (AAVs for flood rescue support missions. Specifically, we develop an algorithm to control multiple AAVs to reach/rescue multiple victims (also called targets in a flood scenario in 2D, where the flood water flows across the scene and the targets move (drifted by the flood water along the flood stream. A target is said to be rescued if an AAV lies within a circular region of a certain radius around the target. The goal is to control the AAVs such that each target gets rescued while optimizing a certain performance objective. The algorithm design is based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP. In practice, POMDP problems are hard to solve exactly, so we use an approximation method called nominal belief-state optimization (NBO. We compare the performance of the NBO approach with a greedy approach.

  5. An Analysis of Skill Requirements for Operators of Amphibious Air Cushion Vehicles (ACVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report describes the skills required in the operation of an amphibious air cushion vehicle (ACV) in Army tactical and logistic missions. The research involved analyzing ACV characteristics, operating requirements, environmental effects, and results of a simulation experiment. The analysis indicates that ACV operation is complicated by an…

  6. Unmanned Surface Vehicle Human-Computer Interface for Amphibious Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. MOCU Baseline HCI using Both Aerial Photo and Digital Nautical Chart ( DNC ) Maps to Control and Monitor Land, Sea, and Air...Action DNC Digital Nautical Chart FNC Future Naval Capability HCI Human-Computer Interface HRI Human-Robot Interface HSI Human-Systems Integration...Digital Nautical Chart ( DNC ) Maps to Control and Monitor Land, Sea, and Air Vehicles. 3.2 BASELINE MOCU HCI The Baseline MOCU interface is a tiled

  7. Use of modular amphibious vehicles for conducting research in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyaev, Alexander; Beresnev, Pavel; Kurkin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to create workable running systems of research complexes, moving along the bottom of coastal areas (in shallow waters) for investigation of waves, currents, sediment transport; investigation of ecosystems and biodiversity assessment of organisms; inspection and monitoring environmental conditions and anthropogenic load on nature; bathymetric studies. With all the variety of functional capabilities of modern robotic systems, possibilities of their application in the context of the study of coastal zones are extremely limited. Conducting research using aerial vehicles is limited to safety conditions of flight. Use of floating robotic systems in environmental monitoring and ecosystem research is only possible in conditions of relatively «soft» wave climate of the coastal zone. For these purposes, there are special amphibians such as remote-controlled vehicle Surf Rover [Daily, William R., Mark A. Johnson, and Daniel A. Oslecki. «Initial Development of an Amphibious ROV for Use in Big Surf.» Marine Technology Society 28.1 (1994): 3-10. Print.], mobile system MARC-1 [«The SPROV'er.» Florida Institute of Technology: Department of Marine and. Environmental Systems. Web. 05 May 2010.]. The paper describes methodological approaches to the selection of the design parameters of a new system.

  8. Researchon Numerical Simulation of Acceleration Performance of Amphibious Vehicle on Water%两栖车辆水上加速性能数值仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑翔玉; 余旭华; 张帆; 吴斌

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory of computational fluid dynamics and rigid body dynamics, numerical simulation on acceleration performance of amphibious vehicle on waler was presented, which can predict the acceleration performance of amphibious vehicle. The thrust characteristics of navigation for amphibious vehicle were obtained by the calculation of vehicle structural parameters. Moreover, the movement state of vehicle was calculated by coupling the six -degree-of-freedom movement and free water surface. Meanwhile, the problem of moving boundaries was solved by means of dynamic meshes. The calculation result shows that the numerical simulation is an effective way to research the acceleration performance of amphibious vehicle on water.%在两柄车辆的设计阶段,数值仿真是预测车辆水上航行性能的有效方法.基于计算流体动力学理论和刚体动力学理论,对两栖车辆的水上加速运动进行数值仿真,并对两栖车辆的加速性能进行了预测.通过对车辆结构参数的计算,得到了两柄车辆的航行推力特性.利用刚体六自由度运动和自由水面耦合的方法,计算了车辆的航行姿态,采用动网格技术实现运动边界.计算结果表明,两栖车辆的水上加速性能基本上达到了设计要求,同时也说明数值仿真方法可以有效地预测两栖车辆的水上加速性能.

  9. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  10. Amphibious UAV

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Amphibious UAV, less than 10 meters in length is a perfect scout for Naval Reconnaissance. It can be greatly effective for detecting incoming enemy subs or...

  11. Development and evaluation of the Stingray, an amphibious maritime interdiction operations unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Castelli, Robin

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps conduct thousands of Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIOs) every year around the globe. Navy Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure (VBSS) teams regularly board suspect ships and perform search operations, often in hostile environments. There is a need for a small tactical robot that can be deployed ahead of the team to provide enhanced situational awareness in these boarding, breaching, and clearing operations. In 2011, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific conducted user evaluations on a number of small throwable robots and sensors, verified the requirements, and developed the key performance parameters (KPPs) for an MIO robot. Macro USA Corporation was then tasked to design and develop two prototype systems, each consisting of one control/display unit and two small amphibious Stingray robots. Technical challenges included the combination paddle wheel/shock-absorbing wheel, the tradeoff between impact resistance, size, and buoyancy, and achieving adequate traction on wet surfaces. This paper describes the technical design of these robots and the results of subsequent user evaluations by VBSS teams.

  12. Parametric Cost Estimation Utilizing Development-to-Production Relationship Applied to the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    cime span between development and production to predict TFUs. The inclusion of a variable that explains time spent in development is compatible with...1971. "Cost Performance Reports", Bradley Fighting Vehicle, FMC Corp., 1980-1989. Fisher, Gene H., Cost Considerations in Systems Analysis, RAND Corp

  13. Real-time Simulation Method for Movements of Amphibious Armored Vehicles on the Ocean%两栖装甲车辆海上运动实时仿真方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈革; 贾永前; 周子锐; 乔小蒙; 张聪

    2016-01-01

    为了在两栖装甲车辆驾驶训练模拟器中复现车辆在海浪中的运动,提出了一种海浪及车体运动实时协同仿真方法。首先,根据海浪浪高和风速设定的参数构造海浪时域波面方程;其次,按照车辆结构外型参数将车体表面分割为尺寸相同的网格,并通过当前时刻车辆的运动参数和海浪状态,在虚拟场景中利用碰撞检测算法获得车辆表面网格处海浪波面的位置,这一相对位置将用于计算此处海浪对车体的作用力;最后,解算车辆动力学方程,获得下一时刻车辆的运动参数。通过仿真结果与试验结果的对比验证了该方法的有效性,为实现模拟器对车辆海上运动的实时仿真提供了一种途径。%A new method for real-time coordination simulation of vehicle movements and ocean wave is put forward for recurrence of vehicle movement in driver training simulator of amphibious armored vehicle on the ocean wave.Firstly, the ocean wave time domain equation is set up according to wave height and wind velocity .Secondly , the body of the simulated vehicle is divided to meshes with same size according to the structure parameters of the vehicle , and according to the current movement parameters of the vehi-cle and wave state , the relative position between water and tiny meshes of the vehicle changes can be a-chieved by collision detection algorithms in virtual scene .The relative positions are used to compute ap-plied force of waves to the vehicle .Finally, the movement parameters of the vehicle at next step can be worked out by solving dynamic equations .The effectiveness of the method is validated by comparing sim-ulation results with experiment data , which provides a mean for real-time simulation of amphibious ar-mored vehicle dynamic movements on the ocean wave with training simulator .

  14. Development of Amphibious Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    flown in from Gibraltar . These airplanes provided support for the remainder of the attack. The coastal batteries offered the most significant...constant drain of resources necessary to continue fighting the Soviet Union ultimately proved too much for the Germans. Consequently, Hitler not only...momentum allowed the Allies to slowly constrict German expansion and, through continued amphibious operations, force the eventual demise of Hitler and the

  15. Amphibious NDT Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar, Tariq P.; Leon-Rodriguez, Hernando E.; Shang, Jianzhong

    2007-01-01

    Three prototype robots have been developed to gain entry into a large range of oil, petrochemical and process storage tanks. The robots are lightweight and compact so that they can be transported by one or two operators and easily inserted through the smallest manholes. The robots are amphibious, being able to operate in air and while submerged in liquids. They have been tested in water but the design incorporates the features to enable rapid progression to operation in oil and other flammabl...

  16. Introduction – an amphibious anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagné, Karine; Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    between land and water. This constitutive relationality is the basis of what we call an amphibious anthropology. By foregrounding temporality, movement, and ways of knowing, we aim to grasp the experience of places at the confluence of land and water and to probe into the specificities of life...... in such landscapes or into various amphibious anthropologies....

  17. Joint Doctrine for Amphibious Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    airspace surrounding the AOA called the amphibious III-7 Air Command and Control defense zone ( ADZ ). An ADZ is the area encompassing the AOA and the...adjoining airspace required by accompanying naval forces for the purpose of air defense (Figure III-4 depicts a conceptual ADZ ). The actual size and...shape of an ADZ is dependent upon the capabilities of air defense platforms assigned to the CATF; the size of the AOA; and agreement between the

  18. The Future of USMC Amphibious Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    land army, creating an amphibious mental and intellectual absence and taking the Corps far away from its amphibious roots. This, and macroeconomic ...fact_display.asp?cid=4200&tid=1500&ct=4. 17 Colonel Morrison. CSC Lecture . October 2012. 18 Headquarters, United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps

  19. An Innovative Approach for the Development of Future Marine Corps Amphibious Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    dashboard, design of experiment, amphibious combat vehicle, MANA , robust solution, simulation, amphibious assault, data farming , ship-to-shore...icon used for the LCAC is “+,” during a wave ashore, this icon will be overlayed by numerous icons of ACVs, M1A1 tanks, and equipment . Wave one is...assault.  The ACV swim and on-land speed do not need to be as fast as current top capabilities.  An ACV with an autonomous ship-to-shore

  20. Research and Design on Amphibious Limousine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design an amphibious limousine, of which the shape is beautiful, the structure is simple and reasonable and the safety performance is good and which is in line with the ergonomics and achieves the double function of traveling in water and on ground, in order to achieve people's long-cherished wish. This study specifically researches its shape design, color design and the design of retractable wheel, overwater power and overwater steering device, including the technical parameters of amphibious limousine. And then its feasibility is analyzed. On this basis, the corresponding conclusions are reached.

  1. Thriving with water: Developments in amphibious architecture in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing awareness worldwide that traditional flood-mitigation strategies that attempt to control the flow of water only increase the likelihood of catastrophic consequences in the long run, when failure inevitably occurs after years of complacency and development behind flood barriers. Amphibious architecture is a non-defensive flood mitigation and climate change adaptation strategy that works in synchrony with a floodprone region’s natural cycles of flooding, allowing water to flow rather than creating an obstruction. Since the height to which an amphibious building rises is not necessarily fixed but adapts to the variable depth of flood water, amphibiation can accommodate rising sea levels and land subsidence as well. Amphibious retrofitting can provide measurable cost savings compared to other flood mitigation strategies, performing well in loss avoidance studies for both flood and wind damage. An amphibious approach to planning and construction recognizes the beneficial aspects of seasonal and occasional flooding, allowing us not merely to live with water, but to thrive with it. This paper reviews case studies of both existing and proposed amphibious buildings, with discussion of their systems and components. It also discusses the limitations of amphibious construction, some of the regulatory obstacles that have discouraged its development, and possible paths forward. The first International Conference on Amphibious Architecture, Design and Engineering, ICAADE 2015, was held in Bangkok, Thailand, in August 2015. The second, ICAADE 2017, will convene at the University of Waterloo in Canada in June 2017.

  2. Preventive measures for safety and helth at work with the amphibious transporter PTS-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Kovačević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the knowledge of using the amphibious transporter STM-M ( STM-M is very limited. A small number of professional soldiers in the Serbian Armed Forces know how to use thisvery useful and high-quality military vehicle in a regular way. From the day onethis vehicle has remained in its basic shape without any modifications since it was made in the former Soviet Union. Today, the Serbian Armed Forces have only 12 of these vehicles in the operational use. The Serbian Armed Forces have two amphibious platoons in two pontoon batalions in the River Flotilla. As the author of this article was an officer in charge of maintaining this complex and “unusual” vehicle, the article deals with the provisions from the Regulations on preventive measures for safety and health while using work equipment (Ministry of Labour, 2012, applied to work with STM-Ms, The article makes a parallel between the provisions of the Regulations and the actual situation and specific conditions of using and maintaining STM-Ms . Introduction Some basic information about the STM-M is given here, twith Figure 1 of this vehicle and its tactical and technicalspecifications.The dangerous places onthe vehicle are presented as well. Mesuares and rules for safe work This part ofthe article presents all speciall tools on the STM-M that are used for safe work. Each piece of tool is described in detail -itslocationon the STM-M, its physical characteristics,  and most common mistakes during its use. Some measures for better maintenance and improved safety at work are also proposed. Conclusion The conclusion deals with the misuse and wrong maintenance of STM-Ms and gives some proposals for their better use. A critical commentary about the conditions of safety engineering in the Serbian Armed Forces can be found here as well.  

  3. Amphibious Combat Vehicle: Some Acquisition Activities Demonstrate Best Practices; Attainment of Amphibious Capability to be Determined

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    alternative’s full life-cycle, if possible. Just as costs cover the entire life-cycle for each alternative, the benefits and effectiveness measures cover...benefits minus the discounted value of expected costs . In cases where the means to monetize a benefit are too vague (for example, intangibles like...military assets from ship to shore. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy officials regularly coordinate ACV 1.1 plans to operate with the surface connector fleet

  4. Species specificity of resistance to oxygen diffusion in thin cuticular membranes from amphibious plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost-Christensen, Henning; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Floto, Franz

    2003-01-01

    oxygen, diffusion, cuticula, amphibious plants, Hygrophila, Berula, Lobelia, Mentha, Potamogeton, Veronica, aquatic plants, submerged plants......oxygen, diffusion, cuticula, amphibious plants, Hygrophila, Berula, Lobelia, Mentha, Potamogeton, Veronica, aquatic plants, submerged plants...

  5. Amphibious Combat Vehicle Acquisition: Marine Corps Adopts an Incremental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    program progress towards achieving the balance—that is sought in accordance with best practices—between customer needs and resources (e.g., technologies...adoption of an incremental approach has helped the program progress towards achieving the balance between customer needs and resources (e.g., technologies...USMC plans to acquire 204 ACV 1.1s and anticipates achieving initial operational capability in fiscal year 2020 . According to program officials

  6. Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K L

    2014-03-01

    Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies.

  7. Amphibious Study on a Basilisk Lizard Inspired Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Rao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the amphibious study of a novel robot, which attempts to emulate the basilisk lizard’s ability to run on the surface of water and walk on land. Functionally, the robot uses four bar mechanism as its driving leg with a self-adaptive foot added to its end. Through some hydromechanics calculations and analyses, its water running ability is theoretically verified. And via terrestrial gait planning, the feasibility of land walking is also realized and the performance has been tested by both simulation and experiment. This study opens the door for legged robots to become ambulatory over both land and water in China and its research method has given a good reference for further study of the amphibious robot.

  8. Overarching Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    trailer. The PM, Transportation, provided existing LCCEs for the various systems in the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tool ( ACEIT ) format. The...Advanced Assault Amphibious Vehicle AAO Approved Acquisition Objective ACE Aviation Combat Element ACEIT Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tool ALMC... ACEIT , SVLCCM, and CASA) using two different CESs, and estimated in three different constant budget dollar years (i.e., FY95, FY96, and FY01). A

  9. Amphibious Study on a Basilisk Lizard Inspired Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Jinjun Rao; Shuwen Cai; Fulong Xiao; Junxing Feng

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the amphibious study of a novel robot, which attempts to emulate the basilisk lizard’s ability to run on the surface of water and walk on land. Functionally, the robot uses four bar mechanism as its driving leg with a self-adaptive foot added to its end. Through some hydromechanics calculations and analyses, its water running ability is theoretically verified. And via terrestrial gait planning, the feasibility of land walking is also realized and the performance has been ...

  10. The Effects of Sea Mining Upon Amphibious Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    larger warships and 291 merchants. 140 ships of various types had been damaged.66 To compensate. the minecraft fleet had risen from 76 on 1 Sept 1939 to...outlined above, in the now familiar patterns. Three minecraft were lost in lifting 34 mines.77 Having participated in three large amphibious assaults and...Given the above answer, and the assets available in 1991. what would be the duration of such a sweep effort. A. There were 28 minecraft in

  11. Study and Design on Amphibious Ship for Sightseeing Amusement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study purposes is to design a new tourism appliance that is beautifully shaped, easy to operate, in line with the ergonomics and could happily combine fitness and entertainment. It is an amphibious ship applicable to park or amusement park, which not only travels in water, but also on ground. This article specifically researches its working principle, internal structure and appearance shape, including the design of aquatic motion mechanism and ground motion mechanism. And then its market prospect is analyzed. On this basis, the corresponding conclusions are reached.

  12. Overland and Amphibious ACV Design Data Relating to Performance (Donnees Techniques Relatives au Rendement de VCA Terrestres et Amphibies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    PERFORMANCE D NNEES TECHNIQUES RELATIVES AU RENDEMENT DE / VCA TERRESTRES ET AMPHIBIES) ] , , A,..o? by/par ~ ~ ~ V H.S Fowler 14’ lee I II I E.H...Dudgeon, Head/Chef Engine Laboratory/ D.C. MacPhail Laboratoire des moteurs Director/Directeur I( I SUMMARY This handbook of data endeavours to collect...Ce manuel de donn~es tente de faire la compilation et de presenter sous une forme pratique des donn~es techniques relatives au rendement de vihicules i

  13. Mudskipper genomes provide insights into the terrestrial adaptation of amphibious fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Xinxin; Bian, Chao; Zan, Qijie

    2014-01-01

    Mudskippers are amphibious fishes that have developed morphological and physiological adaptations to match their unique lifestyles. Here we perform whole-genome sequencing of four representative mudskippers to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations. We discover an expansion...

  14. An amphibious vibration-driven microrobot with a piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Felix; Zimmermann, Klaus; Volkova, Tatiana; Minchenya, Vladimir T.

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns microrobots for solid and liquid environments. A short overview of microrobotics, suitable actuators and energy systems is given. The principles of terrestrial and aquatic locomotion are discussed and illustrated with examples from the literature on robotics. The state of the art with a focus on piezo microrobots for solid and liquid environments is presented. Furthermore, we report an amphibious prototype, which can move on flat solid ground and on the free surface of water. The design, characteristic parameters and experiments on locomotion are described. The robot is characterized by a light and simple design and can perform twodimensional locomotion in different environments with a speed up to 30 mm/s. An analytical model to predict the maximum carrying capacity of the robot on water is solved numerically.

  15. Evolution of a heave control system for an amphibious hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, P. A. T.; Man, K. F.; Cheng, Y. N.; Osbourn, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A heave control system for amphibious hovercraft was designed and tested. The central element in the system being an axial flow, lift fan whose blade angles are continuously varied by means of feedback signals from a pressure transducer located in the front end of the hovercraft cushion and from an accelerometer measuring the heave acceleration are discussed. Results from experiments, conducted on the Cranfield Whirling-Arm facility, have shown that the system provides a rapid and effective means of controlling the heave acceleration, and, in addition, produces a valuable reduction in craft drag whilst traversing waves. An extensive parameter identification program, using a nonlinear optimization algorithm, was constructed and applied to the control subsystem, such that a full mathematical model of the controlled craft was obtained. This was then used to design an optimum control with particular reference to passenger ride comfort.

  16. 33 CFR 334.370 - Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base. 334.370 Section 334.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.370 Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base....

  17. Locomotion, respiratory physiology, and energetics of amphibious and terrestrial crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczewska, A M; Morris, S

    2000-01-01

    The transition from breathing air to breathing water requires physiological and morphological adaptations. The study of crustaceans in transitional habitats provides important information as to the nature of these adaptations. This article addresses the physiology of air breathing in amphibious and terrestrial crabs and their relative locomotor abilities. Potamonautes warreni is an apparently amphibious freshwater crab from southern Africa, Cardisoma hirtipes is an air-breathing gecarcinid crab with some dependency on freshwater, and Gecarcoidea natalis is an obligate air-breathing gecarcinid endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean. All three species have well-developed lungs but retain gills and show seasonally different activity patterns that, in the gercarcinids, especially G. natalis, include long-distance breeding migrations. The three species were better at breathing air than water, but P. warreni was the best at breathing water. Cardisoma hirtipes is essentially an obligate air breather and appears to experience facultative hypometabolism during immersion. Cardisoma hirtipes has a haemocyanin with a high affinity for O(2) that facilitates loading from air but makes 30% of the Hc bound O(2) inaccessible. The gecarcinids but not P. warreni show increased diffusion limitation for O(2) over the lung during exercise. Gecarcoidea natalis outperforms C. hirtipes by virtue of a unique haemolymph shunt from the lung into the gills. Paradoxically, it is modifications of the gills for aerial O(2) uptake in G. natalis that allow for relatively greater haemolymph oxygenation. Despite showing decreased arterial-venous DeltaPo(2), P. warreni increased the arterial-venous Delta[O(2)] with no recourse to anaerobiosis during 5 min exercise. In the short term, P. warreni is more adept at walking than C. hirtipes. The breeding migrations of C. hirtipes and G. natalis were completely aerobic, but G. natalis walk farther and probably faster. Seasonal changes in underlying

  18. Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Diying; Nel, André; Cai, Chenyang; Lin, Qibin; Engel, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The species of the Strashilidae (strashilids) have been the most perplexing of fossil insects from the Jurassic period of Russia and China. They have been widely considered to be ectoparasites of pterosaurs or feathered dinosaurs, based on the putative presence of piercing and sucking mouthparts and hind tibio-basitarsal pincers purportedly used to fix onto the host's hairs or feathers. Both the supposed host and parasite occur in the Daohugou beds from the Middle Jurassic epoch of China (approximately 165 million years ago). Here we analyse the morphology of strashilids from the Daohugou beds, and reach markedly different conclusions; namely that strashilids are highly specialized flies (Diptera) bearing large membranous wings, with substantial sexual dimorphism of the hind legs and abdominal extensions. The idea that they belong to an extinct order is unsupported, and the lineage can be placed within the true flies. In terms of major morphological and inferred behavioural features, strashilids resemble the recent (extant) and relict members of the aquatic fly family Nymphomyiidae. Their ontogeny are distinguished by the persistence in adult males of larval abdominal respiratory gills, representing a unique case of paedomorphism among endopterygote insects. Adult strashilids were probably aquatic or amphibious, shedding their wings after emergence and mating in the water.

  19. The effect of waist twisting on walking speed of an amphibious salamander like robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin-Yan; Jia, Li-Chao; Wang, Chen; Xie, Guang-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Amphibious salamanders often swing their waist to coordinate quadruped walking in order to improve their crawling speed. A robot with a swing waist joint, like an amphibious salamander, is used to mimic this locomotion. A control method is designed to allow the robot to maintain the rotational speed of its legs continuous and avoid impact between its legs and the ground. An analytical expression is established between the amplitude of the waist joint and the step length. Further, an optimization amplitude is obtained corresponding to the maximum stride. The simulation results based on automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS) and physical experiments verify the rationality and validity of this expression.

  20. The effect of waist twisting on walking speed of an amphibious salamander like robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Yan Yin; Li-Chao Jia; Chen Wang; Guang-Ming Xie

    2016-01-01

    Amphibious salamanders often swing their waist to coordinate quadruped walking in order to improve their crawling speed. A robot with a swing waist joint, like an amphibious salamander, is used to mimic this locomotion. A control method is designed to allow the robot to maintain the rotational speed of its legs continuous and avoid impact between its legs and the ground. An analytical expression is established between the amplitude of the waist joint and the step length. Further, an optimization amplitude is obtained corresponding to the maximum stride. The simulation results based on automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS) and physical experiments verify the rationality and validity of this expression.

  1. Uncovering deep mysteries: the underwater life of an amphibious louse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Aznar, F Javier; Crespo, Enrique A; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment--the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups--i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs--were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology.

  2. Lousy mums: patterns of vertical transmission of an amphibious louse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, M S; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we document patterns of vertical transmission of the amphibious louse Antarctophthirus microchir (Echinophthiriidae) in pups of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, from Patagonia. Vertical transmission is fundamental for the long-term stability of A. microchir populations because only pups stay long enough (1 month) on land for the louse to reproduce. A total of 72 pups ≤7 days old from a single rookery were captured and examined for lice. Infection parameters and population structure of A. microchir did not differ among pups collected at the beginning, middle, and end of the reproductive season, suggesting that patterns of early vertical transmission are not affected by the increase of rookery size during this period. Over 60% of 1-day-old pups were infected with A. microchir, and recruitment increased in pups up to 3 days old and then leveled off. In 1-day-old pups, significantly more adults than nymphs were found, but the pattern was reversed in older pups. The number of first-stage nymphs was significantly smaller than that of second- and third-stage nymphs, as it was the number of males vs. females, particularly in 1-day-old pups. Three non-exclusive hypotheses could account for these patterns, i.e., recruitment merely reflects the population structure of A. microchir is cows; the relative ability of lice to pass from cows onto pups increases in advanced instars; and/or natural selection favors transmission of adults, especially females, because they accrue greater fitness. The importance of latter hypothesis should not be underestimated in a species with a tight reproductive schedule.

  3. 一种水陆两栖救灾车的方案设计%Design Schame of an Amphibious Rescuing Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦艳涛; 袁亚雷; 蔡晓君; 李圣昭; 陈思源

    2012-01-01

    基于慧鱼技术构思设计了一种水陆两用多功能救灾车.该设计的主要内容包括水路两栖救灾车的总体方案设计,完成了机械系统方案设计及物理模型的制作,对救灾车的运动功能及动作指标进行了规划,最后编制完成了整体控制程序并进行了调试.该两栖救灾车结合了常见轮式车辆和气垫船的特点,又兼具了避障、防撞、原地掉头等各项特色功能,再加上多样化搭载平台的理念,具备了适应各种不同地形、不同灾害的能力%In recent years, natural disasters happened frequently, and the disaster-happening environments became complex and various, so rescue work cannot be performed quickly and efficiently, which increases the casualties and property losses. Aiming at this situation, a multi-functional amphibious rescuing car based on fischer technology was designed, including the general project design of the amphibious rescuing car, the design and achievement of mechanical system,the plan of the movement function and the action indexes, and the complement of the controlling program compiling. The car not only combines the characteristics of wheeled vehicle and hovercraft, but also has other functions such as avoiding obstacle, defending collision, turning around in situ and so on. With the help of the diversification carrying-platform,the car can adapt to all-terrain and can be used for the rescue work of a variety of disasters.

  4. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  5. Herbivory and growth in terrestrial and aquatic populations of amphibious stream plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Jacobsen, Dean

    2002-01-01

    1. Many amphibious plant species grow in the transition between terrestrial and submerged vegetation in small lowland streams. We determined biomass development, leaf turnover rate and invertebrate herbivory during summer in terrestrial and aquatic populations of three amphibious species...... production (average 1.2-5.1%) than aquatic populations (2.9-17.3%), while the same plant dry mass was consumed per unit ground area. 3. Grazing loss increased linearly with leaf age apart from the youngest leaf stages. Grazing loss during the lifetime of leaves was therefore 2.4-3.1 times higher than mean...... apparent loss to standing leaves of all ages. The results imply that variation in density of grazers relative to plant production can account for differences in grazing impact between terrestrial and aquatic populations, and that fast leaf turnover keeps apparent grazing damage down. 4. We conclude...

  6. ARKTOS amphibious oil spill response craft for mixed ice/water conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, Bruce H.J.W. [ARKTOS International S.A., Tavannes (Switzerland)], email: bruce.seligman@arktoscraft.com; Hall, T.A. [Hall Marine Design Ltd., Vancouver B.C. (Canada)], email: thallhmd@telus.net

    2010-07-01

    The oil spill which occurred recently in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted the lack of efficient oil spill clean-up equipment for an offshore environment. With the increase in industrial operations in the Arctic Seas it is of high importance to develop an efficient oil spill response as the absence of reliable oil spill contingency plans will not be tolerated in such environmentally sensitive areas. The aim of this paper is to present the use of the ARKTOS amphibious craft for cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic. This craft is usually used for logistical services and evacuation purposes; its use for clean-up purposes has been under study since 2000. This study showed that the ARKTOS craft could be an efficient means for oil spill clean-up in the Arctic because of its proven ice capable amphibious platforms and its hydraulic power; however oil collection trials should be performed to validate it.

  7. Amphibious Assault in the 21st Century: Are the Costs and Risks Too High?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    made Silkworm , and American made Harpoon are just several examples of combat proven anti-ship missiles that have become prevalent in the arms...Desert Shield/Desert Storm, batteries of Silkworm missiles located along the Kuwaiti coast appear to have created similar consternation over a...failure to destroy Iraq’s Silkworm missiles, an amphibious landing was out of the question.” 15 In response to the Taiwan Strait crisis of 1996 in which

  8. Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    Service Summary The LX(R) program is a program to build a new class of 11 amphibious ships for the Navy. The Navy wants to procure the first LX(R) in...accelerate the procurement of the first LX(R) from FY2020 to an earlier year, so as to reduce the gap in time between the end of LPD-17 production and the

  9. Two-Speed Epicyclic Final Drives for 14-Ton Amphibious Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-18

    inside F’.D.(oF) 17:45:01 13:50:01 13:55:01 14:00:00 14z05z00 FD Output Fowe- (hp) 32 31 31 32 31 Output T orque (lb-ft) 1674 1663 1645 1475 1448 FD Output...Output T orque (lb-f!) -47) -486 -430 -387 -509 FD Output Saeed(rp) 367 36. 367 Z66 367 FD Input Speed (rpm) 1642 1642 1642 1645 1644 Pump Spend (rpm...08s24,12 08&25CO0 08:30:01 08:37g17 0840,01 FD Output Power (hp) 42 62 30 71 63 OutFut ’ orque (lb-fL) 471 706 i01e 1607 1407 FD Out.ut Soeed ipm) 465

  10. Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    operations. On June 14, 2013, Marine leadership put the MPC program “on ice” due to budgetary pressures but suggested the program might be resurrected...protest put the ACV 1.1 program about 45 days behind schedule but anticipated that the ACV 1.1 would still be fielded on time. The Administration’s...questioned the need for both the ACV and MPC. In June 2013, citing budgetary pressures, the Marines reportedly put the MPC program “on ice” and

  11. Design and Integration of an Electric Transmission in a 300-hp Marine Corps Amphibious Vehicle,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    min. Sin«-«’ maximum sprocket sp«’«*<| for this in vest i «ration is 700 r/min. (lie h«» rse |;«»wer r«’«piirement will he 112 hp per side. However...2154QE+02 •37341E+02 RSH-.4360E+00 RSE «.0O00E+OO RSHD=.QOOOE+00 R3 =.O0O0E+00 SEV=."dO0E+Q2 RD =.000ÜE+öö SHUNT TURNS = 65.00 SERIES...RSH«.4360E+00 RSE *.OOOOE>00 RSHD=.O0OOE+OO SEV=.3600E+02 SHUNT TURNS » 65.00 RS =.0000E+00 RD «.OOOOE+OO SERIES TURNS= .00 FOR IA

  12. Dynamic Modelling of a CPG-Controlled Amphibious Biomimetic Swimming Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the modelling and control problems of a self‐propelled, multimodal amphibious robot. Inspired by the undulatory body motions of fish and dolphins, the amphibious robot propels itself underwater by oscillations of several modular fish‐like propelling units coupled with a pair of pectoral fins capable of non‐continuous 360 degree rotation. In order to mimic fish‐like undulating propulsion, a control architecture based on Central Pattern Generator (CPG is applied to the amphibious robot for robust swimming gaits, including forward and backward swimming and turning, etc. With the simplification of the robot as a multi‐link serial mechanism, a Lagrangian function is employed to establish the hydrodynamic model for steady swimming. The CPG motion control law is then imported into the Lagrangian‐based dynamic model, where an associated system of kinematics and dynamics is formed to solve real‐time movements and, further, to guide the exploration of the CPG parameters and steady locomotion gaits. Finally, comparative results between the simulations and experiments are provided to show the effectiveness of the built control models.

  13. The Effect of Shipboard Design Decisions in Amphibious Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    stowage area is 10,328 square feet; the cargo stowage area is 160,000 cubic 38 feet; number of helicopter spots expressed as CH-46 equivalents is...these categories: troop berthing, vehicle square footage, and LCAC spots. Troop berthing is the amount of racks , or beds, on board the ship which...corresponds to the number of Marines that can be embarked on board at a given time. The Tarawa class has roughly a 130 to 150 rack advantage over that of

  14. An Amphibious Being: How Maritime Surveying Reshaped Darwin's Approach to Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsel, Alistair

    2016-06-01

    This essay argues that Charles Darwin's distinctive approach to studying distribution and diversity was shaped by his face-to-face interactions with maritime surveyors during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836). Introducing their hydrographic surveying methods into natural history enabled him to compare fossil and living marine organisms, to compare sedimentary rocks to present-day marine sediments, and to compare landscapes to submarine topology, thereby realizing Charles Lyell's fanciful ambition for a superior form of geology that might be practiced by an "amphibious being." Darwin's theories of continental uplift, coral reef formation, and the origin of species all depended on his amphibious natural history. This essay contributes to our understanding of theorizing in nineteenth-century natural history by illustrating that specific techniques of observing and collecting could themselves help to generate a particular theoretical orientation and, indeed, that such practical experiences were a more proximate source of Darwin's "Humboldtian" interest in distribution and diversity than Alexander von Humboldt's writings themselves. Darwin's debt to the hydrographers became obscured in two ways: through the "funneling" of credit produced by single-authorship publication in natural history and the "telescoping" of memory by which Darwin's new theories made him recall his former researches as though he had originally undertaken them for the very purpose of producing the later theory.

  15. An Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Cascadian Seismogenic and ETS zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, B. A.; Livelybrooks, D.; Bedrosian, P.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Schultz, A.; Cook, A.; Kant, M.; Wogan, N.; Zeryck, A.

    2015-12-01

    The amphibious Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment seeks to address unresolved questions about the seismogenic locked zone and down-dip transition zone where episodic tremor and slip (ETS) originates. The presence of free fluids is thought to be one of the primary controls on ETS behavior within the Cascadia margin. Since the bulk electrical conductivity in the crust and mantle can be greatly increased by fluids, magnetotelluric(MT) observations can offer unique insights on the fluid distribution and its relation to observed ETS behavior. Here we present preliminary results from the 146 MT stations collected for the MOCHA project. MOCHA is unique in that it is the first amphibious array of MT stations occupied to provide for 3-D interpretation of conductivity structure of a subduction zone. The MOCHA data set comprises 75 onshore stations and 71 offshore stations, accumulated over a two-year period, and located on an approximate 25km grid, spanning from the trench to the Eastern Willamette Valley, and from central Oregon into middle Washington. We present the results of a series of east-west (cross-strike) oriented, two-dimensional inversions created using the MARE2DEM software that provide an initial picture of the conductivity structure of the locked and ETS zones and its along strike variations. Our models can be used to identify correlations between ETS occurrence rates and inferred fluid concentrations. Our modeling explores the impact of various parameterizations on 2-D inversion results, including inclusion of a smoothness penalty reduction along the inferred slab interface. This series of 2-D inversions can then be used collectively to help make and guide an a priori 3-D inversion. In addition we will present a preliminary 3-D inversion of the onshore stations created using the ModEM software. We are currently working on modifying ModEM to support inversion of offshore data. The more computationally intensive 3-D

  16. Research and Design on Amphibious Sightseeing Ship for Fitness and Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to design a small mechanical amphibious sightseeing ship, of which the shape is beautiful, the structure is simple and reasonable, the technical content is high, manufacturability is good, the cost is low, the operation is convenient and the safety performance is good and which is in line with the ergonomics, meets the sightseeing, fitness and entertainment demand and achieves the double function of traveling in water and on ground. This study specifically researches its appearance shape, internal structure, working principle and other design, including the design of the pedal device, the handle of manipulating direction and the seat. And then its market prospect is analyzed. On this basis, the corresponding conclusions are reached.

  17. Heave control of amphibious hovercraft by means of an active-fan system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, P. A. T.; Man, K. F.; Osbourn, E. W.; Cheng, Y. N.

    This paper describes the development of a heave control system for amphibious hovercraft, the central element in the system being an axial flow, lift-fan whose blade angles are continuously varied by means of feedback signals from a pressure transducer located in the front end of the hovercraft cushion and from an accelerometer measuring the heave acceleration. Transfer functions associated with the cushion dynamics were obtained by means of parameter identification using coefficient-plane models in which the coefficients were estimated by means of a nonlinear optimization algorithm. Results from experiments, conducted on the Cranfield, Whirling-Arm facility, have shown that the system provides a rapid and effective means of controlling the heave acceleration and, in addition, produces a valuable reduction in craft drag whilst traversing waves.

  18. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) Polymer as Amphibious Buffer Layer for Graphene Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Jianjun; Huo, Shuai; Lu, Haiyan; Kong, Yuecan; Chen, Tangshen; Wu, Wei; Xu, Jingxia

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the scattering and trapping effects, the interfaces of dielectric/graphene or substrate/graphene can tailor the performance of field-effect transistor (FET). In this letter, the polymer of benzocyclobutene (BCB) was used as an amphibious buffer layer and located at between the layers of substrate and graphene and between the layers of dielectric and graphene. Interestingly, with the help of nonpolar and hydrophobic BCB buffer layer, the large-scale top-gated, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene transistors was prepared on Si/SiO2 substrate, its cutoff frequency (fT) and the maximum cutoff frequency (fmax) of the graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) can be reached at 12 GHz and 11 GHz, respectively.

  19. Building an Amphibious Capability for New Zealand in the 21st Century: Essential in an Uncertain Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    assets limit opportunities for joint training. In November 2012, the NZDF conducted Exercise Pae Tata. This exercise provided an opportunity for...date of access 2 Jan 2012. 34 The Army News, “Exercise Pae Tata Tests New Zealand Defence Force Developing Amphibious Capability” The New Zealand...Plan, 2008 – 2025. Wellington, New Zealand: Royal New Zealand Navy, 2008. The Army News, “Exercise Pae Tata Tests New Zealand Defence Force

  20. Evaluation of the vehicle state with vibration-based diagnostics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, V. E.; Polyakov, I. V.; Krasheninnikov, M. S.; Koshurina, A. A.; Dorofeev, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    Timely detection of a trouble in the mechanisms work is a guarantee of the stable operation of the entire machine complex. It allows minimizing unexpected losses, and avoiding any injuries inflicted on working people. The solution of the problem is the most important for vehicles and machines, working in remote areas of the infrastructure. All-terrain vehicles can be referred to such type of transport. The potential object of application of the described methodology is the multipurpose rotary-screw amphibious vehicle for rescue; reconnaissance; transport and technological operations. At the present time, there is no information on the use of these kinds of systems in ground-based vehicles. The present paper is devoted to the state estimation of a mechanism based on the analysis of vibration signals produced by the mechanism, in particular, the vibration signals of rolling bearings. The theory of active perception was used for the solution of the problem of the state estimation.

  1. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensitivity of ventilation in amphibious crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, breathing air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Andrew T; Henry, Raymond P

    2004-05-01

    Amphibious crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, were acclimated to breathing either air or water and exposed to altered levels of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide in the medium. Hypercapnia (22, 36 and 73 torr CO(2)) stimulated a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) in both groups of crabs, with a much greater effect on scaphognathite frequency (Deltaf(SC)=+700%) in air-breathing crabs than water-breathing crabs (Deltaf(SC)=+100%). In contrast, hyperoxia induced significant hypoventilation in both sets of crabs. However, simultaneous hyperoxia and hypercapnia triggered a greater than 10-fold increase in f(SC) in air-breathing crabs but no change in water-breathing crabs. For water-breathing crabs hypoxia simultaneous with hypercapnia triggered the same response as hypoxia alone-bradycardia (-50%), and a significant increase in f(SC) at moderate exposures but not at the more extreme levels. The response of air-breathing crabs to hypoxia concurrent with hypercapnia was proportionally closer to the response to hypercapnia alone than to hypoxia. Thus, C. guanhumi were more sensitive to ambient CO(2) than O(2) when breathing air, characteristic of fully terrestrial species, and more sensitive to ambient O(2) when breathing water, characteristic of fully aquatic species. C. guanhumi possesses both an O(2)- and a CO(2)-based ventilatory drive whether breathing air or water, but the relative importance switches when the respiratory medium is altered.

  2. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    , mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology applications......As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...

  3. Comparison of the Visual Capabilities of an Amphibious and an Aquatic Goby That Inhabit Tidal Mudflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Tomo; Hamasaki, Sawako; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The mudskipper Periophthalmus modestus and the yellowfin goby Acanthogobius flavimanus are gobiid teleosts that both inhabit the intertidal mudflats in estuaries. While P. modestus has an amphibious lifestyle and forages on the exposed mudflat during low tide, the aquatic A. flavimanus can be found at the same mudflat at high tide. This study primarily aimed to elucidate the differential adaptations of these organisms to their respective habitats by comparing visual capacities and motor control in orienting behavior during prey capture. Analyses of retinal ganglion cell topography demonstrated that both species possess an area in the dorsotemporal region of the retina, indicating high acuity in the lower frontal visual field. Additionally, P. modestus has a minor area in the nasal portion of the retina near the optic disc. The horizontally extended specialized area in P. modestus possibly reflects the need for optimized horizontal sight on the exposed mudflat. Behavioral experiments to determine postural and eye direction control when orienting toward the object of interest revealed that these species direct their visual axes to the target situated below eye level just before a rapid approach toward it. A characteristic feature of the orienting behavior of P. modestus was that they aimed at the target by using the specialized retinal area by rotating the eye and lifting the head before jumping to attack the target located above eye level. This behavior could be an adaptation to a terrestrial feeding habitat in which buoyancy is irrelevant. This study provides insights into the adaptive mechanisms of gobiid species and the evolutionary changes enabling them to forage on land.

  4. Preparation and Conducting Behavior of Amphibious Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Proton Exchange Membranes Based on Benzyltetrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Li-gen; SHI Wen-fang

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel amphibious organic/inorganic hybrid proton exchange membranes with H3PO4 doped which could be used under both wet and dry conditions was prepared through a sol-gel process based on acrylated triethoxysilane(A-TES)and benzyltetrazole-modified triethoxysilane(BT-TES).The dual-curing approach including UV-curing and thermal curing was used to obtain the crosslinked membranes.Polyethylene glycol(400)diacrylate(PEGDA)was used as an oligomer to form the polymeric matrix.The molecular structures of precursors were characterized by 1H,13C and 29Si NMR spectra.The thermogravimetric analysis(TGA)results show that the membranes exhibit acceptable thermal stability for their application at above 200 ℃.The differential scanning calorimeter(DSC)determination indicates that the crosslinked membranes with the mass ratios of below 1.6 of BT-TES to A-TES and the same mass of H3PO4 doped as that of A-TES possess the-Tgs,and the lowest Tg(-28.9 ℃)exists for the membrane with double mass of H3PO4 doped as well.The high proton conductivity in a range of 9.4-17.3 mS/cm with the corresponding water uptake of 19.1%-32.8% of the membranes was detected at 90 ℃ under wet conditions.Meanwhile,the proton conductivity in a dry environment for the membrane with a mass ratio of 2.4 of BT-TES to A-TES and double H3PO4 loading increases from 4.89× 10-2 mS/cm at 30 ℃ to 25.7 mS/cm at 140 ℃.The excellent proton transport ability under both hydrous and anhydrous conditions demonstrates a potential application in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  5. Out of the frying pan into the air—emersion behaviour and evaporative heat loss in an amphibious mangrove fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel J.; Sylvester, Emma V. A.; Turko, Andy J.; Tattersall, Glenn J.; Wright, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Amphibious fishes often emerse (leave water) when faced with unfavourable water conditions. How amphibious fishes cope with the risks of rising water temperatures may depend, in part, on the plasticity of behavioural mechanisms such as emersion thresholds. We hypothesized that the emersion threshold is reversibly plastic and thus dependent on recent acclimation history rather than on conditions during early development. Kryptolebias marmoratus were reared for 1 year at 25 or 30°C and acclimated as adults (one week) to either 25 or 30°C before exposure to an acute increase in water temperature. The emersion threshold temperature and acute thermal tolerance were significantly increased in adult fish acclimated to 30°C, but rearing temperature had no significant effect. Using a thermal imaging camera, we also showed that emersed fish in a low humidity aerial environment (30°C) lost significantly more heat (3.3°C min−1) than those in a high humidity environment (1.6°C min−1). In the field, mean relative humidity was 84%. These results provide evidence of behavioural avoidance of high temperatures and the first quantification of evaporative cooling in an amphibious fish. Furthermore, the avoidance response was reversibly plastic, flexibility that may be important for tropical amphibious fishes under increasing pressures from climatic change. PMID:26490418

  6. Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Zhen-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the extension of amphibious clonal plants in the heterogeneous aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, especially when the water environments are polluted by heavy metals. Ramets of the amphibious clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were rooted in unpolluted soil and polluted water at three concentrations of Cu. The extension of populations from unpolluted terrestrial to polluted aqueous environments mainly relied on stem elongation rather than production of new ramets. The absorbed Cu in the ramets growing in polluted water could be spread horizontally to other ramets in unpolluted soil via physiological integration and redistributed in different organs. The performances of ramets in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats were negatively correlated with Cu intensities in different organs of plants. It is concluded that physiological integration might lessen the fitness of connected ramets in heterogeneously polluted environments. The mechanical strength of the stems decreased with increasing Cu levels, especially in polluted water. We suggest that, except for direct toxicity to growth and expansion, heavy metal pollution might also increase the mechanical risk in breaking failure of plants. PMID:28272515

  7. Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Zhen-Feng

    2017-03-01

    The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the extension of amphibious clonal plants in the heterogeneous aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, especially when the water environments are polluted by heavy metals. Ramets of the amphibious clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were rooted in unpolluted soil and polluted water at three concentrations of Cu. The extension of populations from unpolluted terrestrial to polluted aqueous environments mainly relied on stem elongation rather than production of new ramets. The absorbed Cu in the ramets growing in polluted water could be spread horizontally to other ramets in unpolluted soil via physiological integration and redistributed in different organs. The performances of ramets in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats were negatively correlated with Cu intensities in different organs of plants. It is concluded that physiological integration might lessen the fitness of connected ramets in heterogeneously polluted environments. The mechanical strength of the stems decreased with increasing Cu levels, especially in polluted water. We suggest that, except for direct toxicity to growth and expansion, heavy metal pollution might also increase the mechanical risk in breaking failure of plants.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIOUS ROBOT FOR VISUAL INSPECTION OF APR1400 NPP IRWST STRAINER ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU HYUN JANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An amphibious inspection robot system (hereafter AIROS is being developed to visually inspect the in-containment refueling storage water tank (hereafter IRWST strainer in APR1400 instead of a human diver. Four IRWST strainers are located in the IRWST, which is filled with boric acid water. Each strainer has 108 sub-assembly strainer fin modules that should be inspected with the VT-3 method according to Reg. guide 1.82 and the operation manual. AIROS has 6 thrusters for submarine voyage and 4 legs for walking on the top of the strainer. An inverse kinematic algorithm was implemented in the robot controller for exact walking on the top of the IRWST strainer. The IRWST strainer has several top cross braces that are extruded on the top of the strainer, which can be obstacles of walking on the strainer, to maintain the frame of the strainer. Therefore, a robot leg should arrive at the position beside the top cross brace. For this reason, we used an image processing technique to find the top cross brace in the sole camera image. The sole camera image is processed to find the existence of the top cross brace using the cross edge detection algorithm in real time. A 5-DOF robot arm that has multiple camera modules for simultaneous inspection of both sides can penetrate narrow gaps. For intuitive presentation of inspection results and for management of inspection data, inspection images are stored in the control PC with camera angles and positions to synthesize and merge the images. The synthesized images are then mapped in a 3D CAD model of the IRWST strainer with the location information. An IRWST strainer mock-up was fabricated to teach the robot arm scanning and gaiting. It is important to arrive at the designated position for inserting the robot arm into all of the gaps. Exact position control without anchor under the water is not easy. Therefore, we designed the multi leg robot for the role of anchoring and positioning. Quadruped robot design of

  9. Development of an amphibious robot for visual inspection of APR1400 Npp IRWST strainer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, You Hyun; Kim, Jong Seog [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    An amphibious inspection robot system (hereafter AIROS) is being developed to visually inspect the in-containment refueling storage water tank (hereafter IRWST) strainer in APR1400 instead of a human diver. Four IRWST strainers are located in the IRWST, which is filled with boric acid water. Each strainer has 108 sub-assembly strainer fin modules that should be inspected with the VT-3 method according to Reg. guide 1.82 and the operation manual. AIROS has 6 thrusters for submarine voyage and 4 legs for walking on the top of the strainer. An inverse kinematic algorithm was implemented in the robot controller for exact walking on the top of the IRWST strainer. The IRWST strainer has several top cross braces that are extruded on the top of the strainer, which can be obstacles of walking on the strainer, to maintain the frame of the strainer. Therefore, a robot leg should arrive at the position beside the top cross brace. For this reason, we used an image processing technique to find the top cross brace in the sole camera image. The sole camera image is processed to find the existence of the top cross brace using the cross edge detection algorithm in real time. A 5-DOF robot arm that has multiple camera modules for simultaneous inspection of both sides can penetrate narrow gaps. For intuitive presentation of inspection results and for management of inspection data, inspection images are stored in the control PC with camera angles and positions to synthesize and merge the images. The synthesized images are then mapped in a 3D CAD model of the IRWST strainer with the location information. An IRWST strainer mock-up was fabricated to teach the robot arm scanning and gaiting. It is important to arrive at the designated position for inserting the robot arm into all of the gaps. Exact position control without anchor under the water is not easy. Therefore, we designed the multi leg robot for the role of anchoring and positioning. Quadruped robot design of installing sole

  10. The Armored Vehicle Fire Control System Reliability Modeling%装甲火控可靠性建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玉生; 梁宝生; 武云鹏; 张永昌

    2016-01-01

    装甲武器是陆军及其两栖机械化部队实施地面突击的主要兵器,也是海军陆战部队实施抢滩登陆、岛屿攻防的主要兵器。装甲火控是装甲武器的重要组成部分,其可靠性直接影响装甲武器的打击效能。两栖装甲武器肩负海上、陆上的作战使命,使用环境更加恶劣,可靠性问题更加突出。描述了装甲火控的一般组成、功能及工作方式,基于两栖装甲武器的使用特点,分析了装甲火控基本任务、工作方式和作战环境的关系,建立了不同任务剖面的可靠性模型,为装甲火控可靠性设计、分析提供了一种参考。%Mechannized armored vehicles army weapon system and its amphibious force key groud assault weapons,and Marine forces key onboard,islands of offensive and defensive weapon.Fire control system is an important part of armored vehicle weapons system,its reliabilitiy directly affect armored vehicle combat efficiency of weapon system.Amphibious armored vehicle combat mission of weapon system on sea and land,using the environment worse,reliability problems become more prominent. Describes the armored vehicle fire control system,the general composition,function and working mode, based on the operating characteristics of amphibious armored vehicles,the basic task of the armored vehicle fire control system are analyzed,the relationship between work and operational environment,set up different task profile,the reliability of the model for the reliabilitiy design of the armored vehicle fire control system,analysis provides a reference.

  11. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  12. An Intelligent Planning Tool for Evaluation of Amphibious River Crossing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-09

    mass center and the angular position of the vehicle about the mass center ( Meriam , 1978). Three independent scalar equations are required to describe...equation. 74 Translation is defined as any motion in which every line in the body remains parallel to its original position at all times ( Meriam , 1978...Figure 4.6a Figure 4.6 Rectilinear motion (Adapted from: Meriam , 1978, Dynamics, p. 264) 75 Translational motion is defined by Newton’s second law of

  13. Development of a 1 D hydrodynamic habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibious as basis for sustainable exploitation of hydroelectric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, D. Y.; Kaule, G.; Wieprecht, S.; Rees, J.; Hu, W.

    2009-12-01

    Hydroelectric Power (HEP) is proving to be a good alternative to carbon based energy. In the past hydropower especially large scale hydro attracted significant criticism as a result of its impact on the environment. A new breed of hydroelectric dam is in the offing. The aim is to have as little a footprint as possible on the environment in both pre and post construction phases and thus minimize impact on biodiversity whilst producing clean renewable energy. The Bui dam is 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the”hippo friendliness” of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the

  14. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  15. 陆空两栖侦查机器人结构设计%An air-ground amphibious reconnaissance robot structuraI design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞在祥; 田洪源; 董新; 孔清屿; 高梓峰; 邵煜博

    2015-01-01

    To meet the needs of air‐ground amphibious reconnaissance robot such as material , structure ,stiffness ,obstacle navigation ,flight ,flexibility ,stability and security ,we design some key sections including the transmission model and walking mechanism for the robot .%充分考虑侦查机器人材料、结构和刚度,以及侦查机器人越障、飞行、灵活性、稳定性、安全性等要求,设计了陆空两栖侦查机器人传动方式、行走机构等关键环节。

  16. Simulation and analysis of slide jump dynamic characteristic of the amphibious UAV%两栖UAV滑跳动力学特性仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴譞; 张宇文; 王银涛; 王志强

    2011-01-01

    Based on the aerodynamic, the potential flow theory and the planning theory, a dynamic model of the slide jump ballistics of the amphibious UAV was developed.The slide jump dynamics characteristic of amphibious UAV had been analyzed in details, and the slide jump state had been researched on the impact of the several jumping condition.Results show that: (1)At the moment of touching water, posture of amphibious UAV changes violently and shows a intense rising trend instantaneously; (2)The angle of attack increasing will make the bedew depth increase and the slide time decrease; (3)The pitch angle increase will make the bedew depth decrease and the slide time increase.The work can give the theoretical foundation and study tools for the conceptual design, flight control systems design and flight stability assessment of the amphibious UAV.%基于空气动力学、势流理论和二元平面滑行理论,建立了两栖UAV入水滑跳动力学模型,重点对两栖UAV入水滑跳动力学特性进行了分析,并研究了多种入水条件对滑跳状态的影响.结果显示:(1)两栖UAV触水瞬间,姿态出现明显变化,UAV出现瞬时剧烈抬头趋势;(2)两栖UAV入水攻角增大,会造成UAV较大的沾湿深度和较短的滑水时间;(3)入水俯仰角增大,会减小两栖UAV的沾湿深度和增大UAV的划水时间.研究结果可以为两栖UAV总体设计、飞行控制系统设计及飞行稳定性评估等方面提供理论依据和研究手段.

  17. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  18. Design and implementation of air-ground amphibious robot%空地一体化两栖机器人的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钦彦; 程磊; 吴怀宇; 陈洋

    2015-01-01

    The function and significance of air-ground amphibious robots were described.The advan-tages and disadvantages among some air-ground robots which existing at home and abroad were ana-lyzed.The detailed design scheme of the rotary wing type air-ground amphibious robot which utilizes ARM (advanced RISC (reduced instruction set computer)machines)STM32 as the host controller was presented.In the specific design scheme,the structure of the robot was presented firstly.And then,the control principle of its flight and ground movement was discussed.According to the princi-ples mentioned,the hardware and software designs of robot system were provided.Finally,on the ba-sis of the planned experimental scene,the searching task of remote target for air-ground amphibious robot was completed based on visual aids.The feasibility and value of the robot were verified via the experiment.%叙述了空地一体化两栖机器人的作用和意义,列举了目前国内外已有空地一体化机器人,并分析了其优缺点。给出了以 ARM STM32为主控器的旋翼式空地一体化两栖机器人的详细设计方案。首先给出了机器人的设计结构。然后根据空中飞行和地面移动的控制原理给出了机器人软硬件系统设计。最后通过所规划的实验场景,完成了基于视觉辅助的空地一体化两栖机器人对远程目标点的寻找任务。通过该实验验证了所设计机器人的可行性。

  19. 大型水陆两栖飞机翼型优化设计%Optimum airfoil design on an heavy amphibious aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦何军; 曾友兵

    2012-01-01

    对大型水陆两栖飞机翼型进行了数值优化设计研究,通过以翼型设计升力系数下的阻力系数最小化为设计目标和以翼型低头力矩、最大升力系数、失速后升力系数下降率作为约束条件的大型水陆两栖飞机翼型优化设计,在满足翼型相对厚度、最大厚度位置、最大弯度、最大弯度位置符合相应设计范围的情况下,得到了综合性能较基本翼型提高的新翼型.该设计方法适用于大型水陆两栖飞机的翼型设计,是一种符合工程应用实际的数值优化设计方法.%The research discussed focused upon the optimal airfoil shape design of a heavy amphibious aircraft. A new airfoil with better general performance was attained through the optimal airfoil design, of which the objective was to reduce the drag coefficient on a given airfoil with constant lift coefficient. Restricted the pitch moment, the maximum lift, and the lift drop rate of stalling angle. Made the relative thick, the maximum camber, and the relative position of the maximum thick according with the design request. This design method is fit for the airfoil design on a heavy amphibious aircraft, and is a better optimal airfoil shape design which is suit for the engineering application.

  20. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  1. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  2. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  3. Design of Hydraulic System for Embedded Double Pipes Amphibious Crane%内嵌双输油管两用起重机液压系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志珍; 倪学虎; 舒希勇; 王成龙

    2012-01-01

    Based on analyzing requirements of embedded double pipes amphibious crane to hydraulic system, the hydraulic system design thinking was put forward according to crane technical parameters and customers requirements. Calculations and type selections of the key hydraulic components; hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor, hydraulic cylinder, were completed. The hydraulic principle diagram was designed and the work principle of the hydraulic loop was expounded.%在分析内嵌双输油管两用起重机对液压系统要求的基础上,针对起重机技术参数及客户要求提出了液压系统设计的思路,对关键液压元件——液压泵、液压马达、液压缸进行了计算选型,给出了液压原理图,并阐述了起重机液压回路的工作原理.

  4. Road-rail vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A transport vehicle equipped with a number of first wheel sets, having wheels provided with tires, to which steering means and driving means, if any, are coupled to enable the transport vehicle to be moved over a road surface. The transport vehicle further comprises at least one second wheel set, ha

  5. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  6. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Yingqi, Liu; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...... government`s leading role, improving low-awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles and focusing on user requirements....

  7. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  8. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  9. Evaluation of Operational Effectiveness of Amphibious Armored Equipment Based on Simulation Technology%基于仿真技术的两栖装甲装备作战效能评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 王宁; 朱江

    2013-01-01

    Amphibious operation is a system to system confrontation based on information system. Amphibious operation confrontation system is a typical complex adaptive system. The evaluation method of operational effectiveness based on complex adaptive system theory and multi-agent modeling approach are used to simulale combat based on the equipment performance parameters and the background of specific operational environment and troops code. The simulation can reflect weapon systems performance in the whole process of combat and the difference of operational effectiveness under different external conditions. It can provide reference to amphibious armored equipment for development, operational use, tactical training and tactical research.%两栖作战是基于信息系统的体系与体系的对抗.两栖作战对抗系统是典型的复杂适应系统.基于复杂适应系统理论和多Agent建模方法的作战效能评估方法,在掌握装备性能参数基础上,以具体作战环境和一定兵力编成为背景进行作战模拟,能够反映武器系统的诸属性在作战全过程的体现和在不同外界条件下作战效能的差别,可为两栖装甲装备研制、作战使用及战术训练、战法研究提供参考.

  10. Maritime Fire Striking Effectiveness of Amphibious Tank Based on Formula Method%基于公式法的某型水陆坦克海上火力打击效能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海春; 刘学银; 赵健康

    2012-01-01

    The paper, which is used by a combination method of qualitive and quantitative analysis, research of fire striking effectiveness of amphibious tank according to the traits of fire power and fire control system. From the firing error of amphibious tank on maritime, the thesis which is analyzed the hit probability and damage probability based on fight condition, and researches its firing counterpower on M60A3 tank and concrete target with famula mothed, and then gets the fire distence, counter scale, shell choice and so on. The conclusion provides the method about how to analyse fire striking effectiveness, and guides firing exercise of amphibious tank on maritime.%针对某型水陆坦克火力威力和火控系统特点,运用定性与定量分析相结合的方法,研究水陆坦克的火力打击效能.运用公式法,从分析某型水陆坦克海上射击误差入手,结合海上作战环境,研究其命中概率,并结合环境特点,分析条件毁伤概率,确定其对M60A3坦克和工事目标的火力打击能力,得出了水陆坦克的开火距离、弹种选择等相关结果.研究结论为分析火力打击效能提供了较为合理的方法,对于指导某型水陆坦克海上火力运用提供了借鉴作用.

  11. Amphibious Shelter-Builder Oniscidea Species from the New World with Description of a New Subfamily, a New Genus and a New Species from Brazilian Cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed. PMID:25992909

  12. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  13. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics Mr. Jim Parker, Associate Director Dr. Greg Hudas, Chief Engineer UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A (OPSEC...TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim Parker; Greg Hudas 5d. PROJECT...Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned Ground Vehicles

  14. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  15. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  16. Study on Amphibious Reptiles in Taiyang Mountain of Congjiang County in Guizhou Province%贵州省从江县太阳山两栖爬行动物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永宏; 龚大洁; 闫礼; 田果

    2012-01-01

    2010、2011年对从江县太阳山两栖爬行动物进行了野外考察,据野外实地调查所得的标本,记录到该地区有两栖动物20种,分隶2目8科14属;爬行动物9种,分隶2目4科7属.对该地区两栖爬行动物区系、生态类型、保护等级及物种多样性所受威胁因素进行了分析,并对该地区动物保护提出相应的建议.%Amphibious reptiles in Taiyang Mountain of Congjiang County was field investigated from 2010 to 2011, according to the field investigations of the specimen, 20 species of amphibians were recorded, belonging to two orders, eight families and fourteen genus; nine species were recorded to be reptiles, belonging to two orders, four families and seven genus. The fauna, ecological types, protection level and threats to species diversity of amphibious reptiles were analyzed, and relevant suggestions were put forward for local animal protection.

  17. Whither electric vehicles?

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1890s, at the dawn of the automobile era, steam, gasoline and electric vehicles all competed to become the dominant automobile technology. By the early 1900s, the battle was over and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) were poised to become the prime movers of the twentieth century.

  18. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, William G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can determi

  19. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  20. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to be safer on the road: Make sure your vehicle is safe and in working order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don' ...

  1. Vehicle Routing Problem Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonči Carić

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vehicle Routing Problem cannot always be solved exactly,so that in actual application this problem is solved heuristically.The work describes the concept of several concrete VRPmodels with simplified initial conditions (all vehicles are ofequal capacity and start from a single warehouse, suitable tosolve problems in cases with up to 50 users.

  2. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  3. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  4. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  5. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  6. 两栖生活下的农民工养老保险制度探讨%Migrant Workers' Pension Insurance System in Their Amphibious Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷玉安

    2012-01-01

    As one of the important forces to promote the urbanization process in China, migrant workers play an ir replaceable role in the construction and development of the city. They live an amphibious life in the urban and rural areas, but their legitimate rights for pension insurance are not adequately protected. Tile current "New Type Rural Pension Scheme" and "Basic Social Pension Insurance for Urban Workers" are inadequate to meet their needs,and neither are they capable of offering effective pension protection for migrant workers. In view of this, the government should learn from the successful experiences of Hong Kong Mandatory Provident Fund and other countries to estab lish a social pension model based on accumulated personal accounts and purchased commercial insurance services and cover nationwide migrant workers,so that their pension concerned can be thoroughly addressed.%农民工作为推进我国城市化进程的重要力量之一,对城市的建设和发展起着难以替代的作用。他们游走于城市和农村,过着“两栖生活”,合法养老权益不能得到充分的保障。现行的“新农保”和“城镇职工养老保险制度”难以满足农民工的需要,无法为农民工 养老提供有力保障。有鉴于此,国家应借鉴香港强积金等国际成熟管理经验,采取购买商业服务模式建立基于个人账户积累且覆盖全国的农民工养老保险制度,籍以真正解决他们的养老问题。

  7. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  8. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  9. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  10. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  11. Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas J.

    In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

  12. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  13. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  14. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  15. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  16. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  17. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  18. Electric vehicles in action

    OpenAIRE

    Wikström, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses the political and practical conditions for introducing electric vehicles in Swedish public authorites and discusses the potential for using electric vehicles in public transport and public fleets. The work has been carried out using an interdisciplinary research approach. Such an approach brings new insights to energy studies; the combination of technical methods and methods from social science allows the technology to be studied in its societal context. Local self-govern...

  19. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  20. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  1. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  2. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation Analysis of Fire Support Combat Capability for Amphibious Assault Ship Formation%两栖攻击舰编队火力支援作战能力综合评估分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向阳; 潘长鹏; 王磊

    2014-01-01

    在建立两栖攻击舰编队火力作战能力评估指标体系的基础上,构建了以战场感知能力、指挥系统控制能力、对岸火力打击能力和火力支援综合保障能力为二级指标的多层次评估指标体系,并将二级指标细化为51个具体指标,运用AHP和熵权法得到评价指标的综合权重,通过模糊综合评判得出综合评判总分。所得结果对两栖攻击舰编队火力支援作战能力的评估具有实际应用价值。%Based on introducing designed course of the evaluation index system of combat capabilityo f amphibious assault ship formation, by taking the apperceive capability of battlefield, the ability of command and control, firing againse shore targets ability and fire supporting integrated logistics support ability on such four aspects as secondary indexes, the multi-layer evaluation index system was constructed. Then, the secondary indexes were further divided into 51 specific indexes. The synthetic priority weights of evaluation indexes was also obtained with AHP and entropy weight method, and the com-posite evaluation score was obtained through fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The results obtained in this paper had the actual application value for the evaluation of combat capability of amphibious assault ship formation.

  4. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  5. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Richard S.; Allen, Larry N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

  6. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  7. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    With the continued advances in wireless communications, geo-location technologies, and consumer electronics, it is becoming possible to accurately track the time-varying location of each vehicle in a population of vehicles. This paper reports on ongoing research that has as it objective to develop...... efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...... and server-side updates. This is achieved by designing, prototyping, and testing novel tracking techniques that exploit knowledge of the road network and past movement. These resulting tracking techniques are to support mobile services that rely on the existence of a central server that continuously tracks...

  8. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  9. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  10. Algorithms for vehicle navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Storandt, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, navigation systems are integral parts of most cars. They allow the user to drive to a preselected destination on the shortest or quickest path by giving turn-by-turn directions. To fulfil this task the navigation system must be aware of the current position of the vehicle at any time, and has to compute the optimal route to the destination on that basis. Both of these subproblems have to be solved frequently, because the navigation system must react immediately if the vehicle leaves...

  11. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  12. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  13. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...

  14. Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-31

    obtain the new estimate of vehicle position and position uncertainty. 13. Matti Pietikainen and David Harwood, "Edge Information in Color Images Based on...of correspondence. 10. Matti Pietik:inen and David Harwood, "Multiple-Camera Contour Stereo." CAR-TR-151. CS-TR-1559. September 1985. ABSTRACT: A

  15. Implementing Vehicle Routing Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    Multiple Depot Vehicle Dispatch Problem," presented at the URSA/TIMS meeting San Juan, Puerto Rico, Oct. 1974. 28. Gillett, B., and Miller, L., " A Heuristic Algorithm for...45. Lam, T., "Comments on a Heuristic Algorithm for the Multiple Terminal Delivery Problem," Transportation Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, Nov. 1970, p. 403

  16. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  17. Multiple environment unmanned vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, Clinton G.; Morse, William D.; Bickerstaff, Robert James

    2017-02-28

    A MEUV that is able to navigate aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial environments through the use of different mission mobility attachments is disclosed. The attachments allow the MEUV to be deployed from the air or through the water prior to any terrestrial navigation. The mobility attachments can be removed or detached by and from the vehicle during a mission.

  18. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  19. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  20. The Vehicle Rescheduling Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spliet (Remy); A.F. Gabor (Adriana); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe capacitated vehicle routing problem is to find a routing schedule describing the order in which geographically dispersed customers are visited to satisfy demand by supplying goods stored at the depot, such that the traveling costs are minimized. In many practical applications, a long

  1. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions...

  2. Amphibious environments in Science Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelfranchi Yurij

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The historian Marshall Berman wrote that living in modern times means "to find ourselves in an environment that promises us adventure, power, joy, growth, transformation [...] and, at the same time, that threatens to destroy everything we have, everything we know". Today - at a time when modernity has become a "reflexive modernity" for some, whilst for others it is already over (and for others still "we have never been modern" - it seems that Berman has grasped an important concept: a part of media narration is characterised by a fluctuation between euphoria and fear, triumphalism and rejection, as regards science and technology as well as other areas (the ambivalence of the "Frankenstein effect" discussed by Jon Turney.

  3. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  4. Green Vehicle Guide Data Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. The downloadable data are available in...

  5. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  6. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  7. Method of steering a vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Penna, M.; Van Passen, M.M.; Abbink, D.A.; Mulder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle and method of steering such a vehicle, wherein the vehicle has a steering wheel and steerable driving wheels and a transfer system for converting steering wheel actions to a steering angle of the steerable driving wheels, and wherein the transfer system is provided with a predefined stiffnes

  8. Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

  9. Appendix J - GPRA06 vehicle technologies program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The target market for the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program include light vehicles (cars and light trucks) and heavy vehicles (trucks more than 10,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight).

  10. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  11. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  12. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  13. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  14. Steering Performance, Tactical Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    installation introduces minimum friction to the steering system. 2.4.2 Auto -Pilot Device. A steering robot is used to analyze vehicle stability and...system. **The use of brand names does not constitute endorsement by the Army or any other agency of the Federal Government, nor does it imply that it...Size. (3) Construction (radial, bias ply, number of plies). (4) Brand and model. (5) Load range, maximum load carrying capacity. (6

  15. Vehicle Tracking and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorer, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  16. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  17. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  18. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  19. Development of an Amphibious Snake-like Robot and Its Gaits on Ground and in Water%水陆两栖蛇形机器人的研制及其陆地和水下步态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁树梅; 王明辉; 马书根; 李斌; 王越超

    2012-01-01

    Tough environments such as swamps and shoals deserve a snake-like robot to have better adaptability to the environments. After deep investigation of the latest researches on amphibious snake-like robot, a new amphibious snake-like robot is developed. The robot is composed of 9 waterproofed modular universal units and has smooth motion ability on ground and in water. A simplified Serpenoid curve is used to generate the serpentine gait, which is the basic two-dimensional gait of snake-like robots. Combining the basic motions on two perpendicular planes, the horizontal plane and the vertical plane, diverse gaits can be got through a heuristic three-dimensional gait generation method, including the lateral serpentine gait, the S-shape rolling gait, and the helical rolling gait, among which the S-shape rolling gait on the ground and helical rolling gait in the water are newly found The robot's motion ability on the ground and in the water is also validated by experiments. The results of the gait performance analysis obtained must be useful for the position and posture control of the robot in amphibious environments.%针对沼泽、浅滩等复杂环境对蛇形机器人的环境适应需求,在广泛分析国内外水陆两栖蛇形机器人研究最新进展的基础上,研发一种新型水陆两栖蛇形机器人.该机器人由9个具有密封设计的万向运动单元组成,保证了样机在陆地和水中均能灵活运动.基于简化的蛇形曲线得到水陆两栖蛇形机器人的基本二维运动步态即蜿蜒运动.对两个垂直平面上,即水平面和竖直面上基本步态进行复合,由基于启发式思想的三维步态生成方法,得到包括侧向蜿蜒等运动的水陆两栖蛇形机器人的多种陆地步态和水下步态,其中S形翻滚运动和螺旋翻滚运动为蛇形机器人的两种新型步态.通过步态试验验证了水陆两栖蛇形机器人的陆地和水下运动能力.在试验过程中,对陆地和水下步态的

  20. Underwater Propulsion Principle for a Non-superposition Amphibious Transformable Robot%非叠加型可变形两栖机器人水下推进方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明辉; 马书根; 李斌; 李楠; 李立

    2015-01-01

    受自然界中变形虫和生物蛇启发,将可变形和链式构型特性引入两栖机器人。通过运动特性、水环境适应性和可变形能力扩展等综合分析,设计了没有添加额外水下推进机构的非叠加型两栖机器人链式可变形构型。该机器人在陆地环境具有较高机动性外,还具有履带划水和仿生划水组合的复合推进方式。提出基于理想推进器的履带划水推进模型;针对仿生划水时运动学与流体力的耦合关系,提出基于拉格朗日方程的运动学-动力学联合运动模型,并建立了转向模型,完成仿生推进方式的水中机动性能分析。通过仿真分析了履刺高度和分布等机构参数以及幅值、频率等运动参数对水下推进性能的影响。利用基于链式可变形构型研制的机器人样机Amoeba-II进行了水环境试验,验证该构型在水下推进中的有效性,并对履带划水和仿生划水的推进效率、稳定性进行对比。%Inspired by amoebae and snake in the nature, the transformable capability and link-type structure is brought in an amphibious robot. The link-type transformable configuration without adding extra underwater propulsion mechanism is designed for an amphibious robot through analysis on the movement characteristics, extending on the water environment adaptability and transformable ability, which has crawler-swimming propulsion mode and the bionic propulsion mode. The model of the crawler-swimming propulsion mode is established based on the ideal propeller. Aiming at the coupling relationship between the kinematics and fluid force in the fish-like propulsion mode, the associated model on the kinematics and dynamics is put forward based on the Lagrange equation. Together with the steering model, the motion performance of the bionic propulsion is analyzed. The simulation demonstrates the influence of the mechanism parameters such as height and distribution of the track

  1. Launch vehicle selection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  2. MULTI-AXLE VEHICLE STABILITY BASED ON WHOLE VEHICLE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; GAO Feng

    2007-01-01

    From the analysis of experiment data of the multi-axle vehicle chassis searching process, it is less accurate to predict multi-axle vehicle dynamic characteristic with simplified two-axle vehicle model. So it is important to find out a more effective modeling method in the study of multi-vehicle stability. In the development of heat transfer fluid(HTF) six-axle vehicle, a whole vehicle multi-body dynamic model is built through collaborate flowchart using Teamcenter Engineering, UG NX3 and MSC. Adams. The modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension is validated by running test results. Based on this whole vehicle model, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, different handling simulations are carried out with regard to various tire characteristics, driving configurations, and equipments. According to the evaluation of whole vehicle handling characteristic, some design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  3. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  4. Energy management and vehicle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1995-01-01

    The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

  5. Sensors in Unmanned Robotic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rohini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned tracked vehicles are developed for deployment in dangerous zones that are notsafe for human existence. These vehicles are to be fitted with various sensors for safe manoeuvre.Wide range of sensors for vehicle control, vision, and navigation are employed. The main purposeof the sensors is to infer the intended parameter precisely for further utilisation. Software isinseparable part of the sensors and plays major role in scaling, noise reduction, and fusion.Sensor fusion is normally adapted to enhance the decision-making. Vehicle location  andorientation can be sensed through global positioning system, accelerometer, gyroscope, andcompass. The unmanned vehicle can be navigated with the help of CCD camera, radar, lidar,ultrasonic sensor, piezoelectric sensor, microphone, etc.  Proximity sensors like capacitive andRF proximity detectors can detect obstacles in close vicinity.  This paper presents an overviewof sensors normally deployed in unmanned tracked vehicles.

  6. Tropic Testing of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    kilometer track running through tropical forest . The track is a combination of a bauxite/dirt base with grades on the road up to 20 percent and log...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-817A Tropic Testing of Vehicles 5a...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground Tropic Regions Test Center (TEDT-YPT) 301 C. Street Yuma, AZ

  7. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and  uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to...

  8. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  9. Pneumatic vehicle. Research and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokodi Zsolt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experimental vehicle was designed for an international competition organized by Bosch Rexroth yearly in Hungary. The purpose of this competition is to design, build and race vehicles with a fuel source of compressed gas. The race consists of multiple events: longest run distance, the smartness track and the best acceleration event. These events test to the limit the capabilities of the designed vehicles.

  10. LM-3B Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2005-01-01

    LM-3B launch vehicle is a heavy three-stage liquid propellant strap-on launch vehicle, which was developed based on the mature technologies of the LM-3A and LM-2E. It not only has the highest payload capacity to send China's satellites to GTO, but is also one of the most advanced launch vehicles in the world with high reliability, reasonable price and perfect technological design.

  11. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  12. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.

  13. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  14. 生产观光两用日光温室结构及建造的研究%Study on the Structure and Construction of Amphibious Sunlight Greenhouse for Production and Leisure Sightseeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈来生; 段有贵

    2013-01-01

    In order to design and construct amphibious sunlight greenhouse ,the structure and characteristics of energy-saving solar greenhouse were introduced used for vegetable production and leisure .According to the cli-matic features of Qinghai province ,in accordance with the needs of Nectarine production ,the structure of greenhouse wall thickness ,roofing and leisure area and other design parameters were put forward ,the construc-tion technology and effect of greenhouse were expounded ,so as to provide reference for the development and u-tilization of sunlight greenhouse .%为设计及建造生产与观光两用的日光温室,介绍了生产观光两用日光节能温室的结构和特点。根据青海省气候特点,按照油桃生产需要,提出了温室墙体厚度、后屋面和观光区等结构设计参数,对温室建造施工技术及效果进行了阐述,以期为两用日光温室的开发与利用提供参考。

  15. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  16. Superpressure stratospheric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chocol, C.; Robinson, W.; Epley, L.

    1990-09-15

    Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging and sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is extensive, but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about vulnerability. Military commanders require space assets that are more accessible and under local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Free floating buoyant vehicles in the middle stratosphere can provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a variety of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible, and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric modeling, and materials combined with improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The important milestone accomplished by this project was the planned test flight over the continental United States. This document is specifically intended to review the technology development and preparations leading up to the test flight. Although the test flight experienced a payload failure just before entering its assent altitude, significant data were gathered. The results of the test flight are presented here. Important factors included in this report include quality assurance testing of the balloon, payload definition and characteristics, systems integration, preflight testing procedures, range operations, data collection, and post-flight analysis. 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  18. Disruption management of the vehicle routing problem with vehicle breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Q; Fu, Z; Lysgaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of problem, the disrupted vehicle routing problem (VRP), which deals with the disruptions that occur at the execution stage of a VRP plan. The paper then focuses on one type of such problem, in which a vehicle breaks down during the delivery and a new routing sol...

  19. The Vehicle Routing Problem with Limited Vehicle Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Taracena Sanz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem (VRP has been an important research topic during the last decades because of his vital role in the productive systems efficiency. Most of the work done in this area has been directed to solve large scale problems which may not apply for small companies which are a very important engine of the world economy. This paper approaches the problem when limited vehicle resources are present and road transportation is used. This study assumes variable customer orders. Variable volume and weight vehicle capacities are considered and the proposed algorithm develops the vehicle delivery routes and the set of customer orders to deliver per vehicle minimizing a cost objective function. In sampling small company’s logistics costs, big cost savings are found when using the proposed method.

  20. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  1. Vehicle Dynamic Prediction Systems with On-Line Identification of Vehicle Parameters and Road Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-Yuan Hsu; Tsung-Lin Chen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a vehicle dynamics prediction system, which consists of a sensor fusion system and a vehicle parameter identification system. This sensor fusion system can obtain the six degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamics and two road angles without using a vehicle model. The vehicle parameter identification system uses the vehicle dynamics from the sensor fusion system to identify ten vehicle parameters in real time, including vehicle mass, moment of inertial, and road friction coefficie...

  2. String stability of vehicle platoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, highway capacity has become a limiting factor, regularly causing traffic jams. Obviously, the road capacity can be increased by decreasing the inter-vehicle following distance di . As a consequence, however, vehicle automation in longitudinal direction is required in order to still

  3. Electric Vehicles and the Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour.......This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour....

  4. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  5. Vehicle rollover sensor test modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van

    2007-01-01

    A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension ki

  6. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  7. LM-3A Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    The LM-3A launch vehicle is a large three-stage liquidpropellant launch vehicle developed on the basis ot LM-3 ana LM-2C. By incorporating the mature technologies of LM-3 and adding a more powerful improved LOX/LH cryogenic third stage and more capable control system, LM-3A has a

  8. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  9. 基于多目标遗传算法的水陆两栖可变形机器人结构参数设计方法%Mechanism-parameters Design Method of an Amphibious Transformable Robot Based on Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 王明辉; 马书根; 李斌; 王越超

    2012-01-01

    As a new style of the mobile robot, the amphibious transformable robot can not only perform reconfiguration but also implement tasks in amphibious environment. For the mechanism design of the robot, the parameter of the mechanism takes influence on the robot's performance in the task environment. To implement the performance optimization in the complex environment and task, a mechanism-parameters design method of an amphibious transformable robot based on multi-objective genetic algorithm is proposed. Based on the kinematics and dynamic analysis of the robot, the multi-objective optimization problem of the mechanism parameters design is established on the mapping relationships between the performance indexes and the mechanism parameters. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is adopted to solve this optimization problem and get the Pareto optimization. A solution of optimization problem of the mechanism parameters is extracted through the Pareto optimization based on the optimizing method of combination weighting of multi-attribute decision-making, and then the result is used to direct the mechanism design of the amphibious transformable robot, Amoeba-II. The experiment for the maneuverability of Amoeba-II in the amphibious environment is performed to certify the validity and applicability of the mechanism-parameters design method of amphibious transformable robot based on multi-objective genetic algorithm.%水陆两栖可变形机器人是一种兼具变形能力与两栖环境适应能力的新型移动机器人.在其机构设计中,结构参数直接影响该机器人在任务环境中的各项机动性能.针对水陆两栖可变形机器人工作环境复杂性和任务多变性,提出一种基于多目标遗传算法的机器人结构参数设计方法,以得到该型机器人在两栖环境中的最优的综合性能.在水陆两栖可变形机器人陆地环境和水环境中运动学和动力学模型基础上,建立两栖环境中机

  10. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2014-01-01

    and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric......A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...

  11. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  12. 2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

  13. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  14. 77 FR 40921 - Communication With Transport Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... COMMISSION Communication With Transport Vehicles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory... withdrawing Regulatory Guide 5.32, Revision 1, ``Communication with Transport Vehicles,'' published in May..., ``Communication with Transport Vehicles,'' published in May 1975. This RG describes radiotelephone...

  15. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  16. 2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This is the seventh edition of the Vehicle Technologies Market Report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 22 and 23 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 63 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 70 through 81 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 90 through 94) and fuel use (Figures 97 through 100). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 105 through 118), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 130 through 137). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  17. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  18. The Falcon I Launch Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Koenigsmann, Hans; Musk, Elon; Shotwell, Gwynne; Chinnery, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Falcon I is the first in a family of launch vehicles designed by Space Exploration Technologies to facilitate low cost access to space. Falcon I is a mostly reusable, two stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle. The vehicle is designed above all for high reliability, followed by low cost and a benign flight environment. Launched from Vandenberg, a standard Falcon I can carry over 1000 lbs to sun-synchronous orbit and 1500 lbs due east to 100 NM. To minimize failure modes, the...

  19. Vehicle Coordinated Strategy for Vehicle Routing Problem with Fuzzy Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-shi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem with fuzzy demands (VRPFD is considered. A fuzzy reasoning constrained program model is formulated for VRPFD, and a hybrid ant colony algorithm is proposed to minimize total travel distance. Specifically, the two-vehicle-paired loop coordinated strategy is presented to reduce the additional distance, unloading times, and waste capacity caused by the service failure due to the uncertain demands. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  20. Space Shuttle Vehicle Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  1. Robotic Vehicle Proxy Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes the development of a digital simulation that can replace robotic vehicles in field studies. This proxy simulation will model the...

  2. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  3. EADS Roadmap for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  4. Robotic Vehicle Proxy Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes the development of a digital simulation to replace robotic vehicles in field studies. It will model the dynamics, terrain interaction,...

  5. A new vehicle detection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbara Khalid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vehicle detection method from images acquired by cameras embedded in a moving vehicle. Given the sequence of images, the proposed algorithms should detect out all cars in realtime. Related to the driving direction, the cars can be classified into two types. Cars drive in the same direction as the intelligent vehicle (IV and cars drive in the opposite direction. Due to the distinct features of these two types, we suggest to achieve this method in two main steps. The first one detects all obstacles from images using the so-called association combined with corner detector. The second step is applied to validate each vehicle using AdaBoost classifier. The new method has been applied to different images data and the experimental results validate the efficacy of our method.

  6. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  7. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  8. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid....... This paper investigates the impact on a Danish distribution system when the EV charging aims to reduce the charging cost by charging at the cheapest hours. Results show that the charging based on the price signal only will have adverse effect on the grid. The paper also proposes an alternate EV charging...

  9. Light and ultralight electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bossche, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Today electrical vehicles are again considered seriously. However, one is not yet used to their performance. An overview is given in what one can expect from electric vehicles, ranging from electric bicycles to the electrical SUV. Special attention is given to the possibility of ultralight electric cars and the elbev concept, “Ecologic Low Budget Electric Vehicle”. Together with high efficiency power plants, a CO2 emissions of about 10gr/km could be obtained.

  10. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    activities. Previous launch services were provided by Titan II, Delta II, Atlas II, and Titan IV launch vehicle systems. Additionally the program is...program, and combustion stability tool modeling with Georgia Tech Research Institute. SMC/LE is also working with SMC/Advanced Systems and Development...covered EELV’s combined launch capabilities. Previous launch services were provided by Titan II, Delta II, Atlas II, and Titan IV launch vehicle systems

  11. Lane marking aided vehicle localization

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A localization system that exploits L1-GPS estimates, vehicle data, and features from a video camera as well as lane markings embedded in digital navigation maps is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the detected lane markings is proposed in order to quantify both the lateral and longitudinal errors caused by 2D-world hypothesis violation. From this, a camera observation model for vehicle localization is proposed. The paper presents also a method to build a map of th...

  12. 2013 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Williams, Susan E [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    This is the fifth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 24 through 51 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 56 through 64 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 73 through 75) and fuel use (Figures 78 through 81). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 84 through 95), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 106 through 110). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets.

  13. 2014 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This is the sixth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales and technologies specific to heavy trucks. The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards. In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible tables and figures.

  14. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  15. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6202 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 57.6202 Section 57.6202 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6202 Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1... operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1) No sparking material exposed in the...

  17. 36 CFR 331.12 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 331.12 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.12 Vehicles. (a) The use of a vehicle off roadways is prohibited except as may be authorized by the District Engineer. (b) Vehicles shall not be parked in violation of any...

  18. 43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... addition to the regulations in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicles. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Vehicles. (a) When operating a vehicle on Reclamation lands and Reclamation projects, you must comply...

  19. 49 CFR 176.134 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicles. 176.134 Section 176.134 Transportation... Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.134 Vehicles. Closed vehicles may be used to transport Class... requirements relating to the transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicles....

  20. 15 CFR 265.19 - Unattended vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unattended vehicles. 265.19 Section... Unattended vehicles. No person shall leave a motor vehicle unattended on the site with the engine running or a key in the ignition switch or the vehicle not effectively braked....

  1. 36 CFR 327.2 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 327.2 Section 327.2... Vehicles. (a) This section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, mini-bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all-terrain vehicles, and trailers, campers, bicycles,...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6202 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 56.6202 Section 56.6202 Mineral... Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained in good condition and shall... device being used in the loading operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1)...

  3. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  4. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT... Excluded vehicles. When counting light duty motor vehicles to determine under this part whether a person has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  5. 32 CFR 263.7 - Emergency vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency vehicles. 263.7 Section 263.7 National... TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.7 Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle when operating with siren...

  6. 49 CFR 575.7 - Special vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special vehicles. 575.7 Section 575.7... 112(d) of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act; General § 575.7 Special vehicles. A manufacturer who produces vehicles having a configuration not available for purchase by the general public...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 1926.601 Section 1926.601 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.601 Motor vehicles. (a) Coverage. Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those...

  8. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-31

    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  9. Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, William T [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Bauer, Scott G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-02-28

    An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.

  10. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebuda, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity.

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  12. U32: Vehicle Stability and Dynamics: Longer Combination Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrolino, Joseph [National Transportation Research Center (NTRC); Spezia, Tony [National Transportation Research Center (NTRC); Arant, Michael [Clemson University; Broshears, Eric [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Chitwood, Caleb [Battelle; Colbert, Jameson [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Hathaway, Richard [Western Michigan University; Keil, Mitch [Western Michigan University; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Pape, Doug [Battelle; Patterson, Jim [Hendrickson; Pittro, Collin [Battelle

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the safety and stability of longer combination vehicles (LCVs), in particular a triple trailer combination behind a commercial tractor, which has more complicated dynamics than the more common tractor in combination with a single semitrailer. The goal was to measure and model the behavior of LCVs in simple maneuvers. Example maneuvers tested and modeled were single and double lane changes, a gradual lane change, and a constant radius curve. In addition to test track data collection and a brief highway test, two computer models of LCVs were developed. One model is based on TruckSim , a lumped parameter model widely used for single semitrailer combinations. The other model was built in Adams software, which more explicitly models the geometry of the components of the vehicle, in terms of compliant structural members. Among other results, the models were able to duplicate the experimentally measured rearward amplification behavior that is characteristic of multi-unit combination vehicles.

  13. 2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    This report details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This third edition since this report was started in 2008 offers several marked improvements relative to its predecessors. Most significantly, where earlier editions of this report focused on supplying information through an examination of market drivers, new vehicle trends, and supplier data, this edition uses a different structure. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. In addition to making this sectional re-alignment, this year s edition of the report also takes a different approach to communicating information. While previous editions relied heavily on text accompanied by auxiliary figures, this third edition relies primarily on charts and graphs to communicate trends. Any accompanying text serves to introduce the trends communication by the graphic and highlight any particularly salient observations. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 11 through 13 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 20 and 21 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 26 through 33 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 38 through 43 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and

  14. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  15. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  16. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  17. Conversion of Gasoline Vehicles to CNG Hybrid Vehicles (CNG-Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Halvaei Niasar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigation of the feasibility and advantages of using the natural gas as an alternative to gasoline as a fuel for hybrid electric vehicles. Operating CNG vehicles are really beneficial in the Middle East region considering the fact that gasoline is offered at a heavily subsidized price and therefore, by converting a significant portion of the automobiles to run on CNG, the gasoline internal consumption could be reduced. This in turn will result in more oil being available for export which will be beneficial to the economy of country. Hybrid Vehicles mainly have a CNG engine along with an electric drive. The batteries of Hybrid Vehicles are charged by a CNG engine. The engine size is smaller and emissions may be considerably less in hybrid vehicles relative to typical vehicles since the CNG engine is employed only to recharge the electric batteries. Although CNG-Electric hybrid vehicles are less common than Diesel-Electric hybrids, but they have been tested in several U.S. cities such as Denver and Seattle. CNG-electric hybrids hold huge potential for the future in the fact that they are significantly cleaner sources of energy and are conveniently suited to serve the needs of the current economy and modes of transportation. The use of these alternative sources of fuels requires investment and significant studies need to be made to evaluate their efficiencies and reliability. This study would cover most of these aspects and also explores the use of these technologies with particular reference to Qatar and the Middle East.

  18. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  19. 2008 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.; Davis, S.

    2009-07-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop 'leap frog' technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  20. 2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop "leap frog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  1. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

    2010-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  2. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  3. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  4. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  5. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  6. Approximation algorithms for some vehicle routing problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bazgan, Cristina; Hassin, Refael; Monnot, Jérôme

    2005-01-01

    We study vehicle routing problems with constraints on the distance traveled by each vehicle or on the number of vehicles. The objective is either to minimize the total distance traveled by vehicles or to minimize the number of vehicles used. We design constant differential approximation algorithms for kVRP. Note that, using the differential bound for METRIC 3VRP, we obtain the randomized standard ratio . This is an improvement of the best-known bound of 2 given by Haimovich et al. (Vehicle Ro...

  7. Launch Vehicle Debris Models and Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott

    2013-01-01

    For manned space launch systems, a reliable abort system is required to reduce the risks associated with a launch vehicle failure during ascent. Understanding the risks associated with failure environments can be achieved through the use of physics-based models of these environments. Debris fields due to destruction of the launch vehicle is one such environment. To better analyze the risk posed by debris, a physics-based model for generating launch vehicle debris catalogs has been developed. The model predicts the mass distribution of the debris field based on formulae developed from analysis of explosions. Imparted velocity distributions are computed using a shock-physics code to model the explosions within the launch vehicle. A comparison of the debris catalog with an existing catalog for the Shuttle external tank show good comparison in the debris characteristics and the predicted debris strike probability. The model is used to analyze the effects of number of debris pieces and velocity distributions on the strike probability and risk.

  8. Software architecture of biomimetic underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praczyk, Tomasz; Szymak, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles are vehicles that are entirely or partly independent of human decisions. In order to obtain operational independence, the vehicles have to be equipped with a specialized software. The main task of the software is to move the vehicle along a trajectory with collision avoidance. Moreover, the software has also to manage different devices installed on the vehicle board, e.g. to start and stop cameras, sonars etc. In addition to the software embedded on the vehicle board, the software responsible for managing the vehicle by the operator is also necessary. Its task is to define mission of the vehicle, to start, to stop the mission, to send emergency commands, to monitor vehicle parameters, and to control the vehicle in remotely operated mode. An important objective of the software is also to support development and tests of other software components. To this end, a simulation environment is necessary, i.e. simulation model of the vehicle and all its key devices, the model of the sea environment, and the software to visualize behavior of the vehicle. The paper presents architecture of the software designed for biomimetic autonomous underwater vehicle (BAUV) that is being constructed within the framework of the scientific project financed by Polish National Center of Research and Development.

  9. 77 FR 12355 - Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Transactions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... crash avoidance and other applications. Currently a public key infrastructure approach to security... Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle- to-Infrastructure Transactions Workshop; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department...

  10. More Than Just Selling Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    FAW Toyota Motor Sales Co. Ltd. (FTMS), a joint vehicle sales venture owned by auto giants China FAW Group Corp. and Toyota Motor Corp., was inaugurated in 2003 in an effort to strengthen the two firms’ operations in the world’s fastest-growing auto mark

  11. Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    demilitarization / demilitarization second destination tranportation repairable and consumerable parts associated with government furnished equipment / end...Details Date of Estimate: December 31, 2015 Source of Estimate: POE Disposal/ Demilitarization Total Cost (BY 2012 $M): Total costs for disposal...of all Vehicle are 191.5 Total Demilitarization Cost includes costs for disposal and transportation associated with disposal of JLTVs. The costs

  12. Vehicle Routing with Uncertain Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spliet (Remy)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn distribution networks a supplier transports goods from a distribution center to customers by means of vehicles with limited capacity. Drivers will drive routes on which they visit multiple customers to make deliveries. Typically, deliveries are made regularly and a fixed schedule is m

  13. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in 2010

  14. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  15. User choices regarding vehicle-driving automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Molin, E.J.E.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in motor vehicles is expected to improve traffic efficiency and safety significantly. These systems support the driver in controlling his vehicle applying advanced sensing, computing and controlling devices. Successful implementation of t

  16. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  17. Controlling Unmanned Vehicles : the Human Factors Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments and experiences have proven the usefulness and potential of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs). Emerging technologies enable new missions, broadening the applicability of UVs from simple remote spies towards unmanned combat vehicles carrying lethal weapons. However, despite the emerging tec

  18. Autonomous intelligent vehicles theory, algorithms, and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Here is the latest on intelligent vehicles, covering object and obstacle detection and recognition and vehicle motion control. Includes a navigation approach using global views; introduces algorithms for lateral and longitudinal motion control and more.

  19. Green Vehicle Guide Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. This data extraction tool allows...

  20. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  1. Navigation and Control of an Autonomous Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Schworer, Ian Josef

    2005-01-01

    The navigation and control of an autonomous vehicle is a highly complex task. Making a vehicle intelligent and able to operate â unmannedâ requires extensive theoretical as well as practical knowledge. An autonomous vehicle must be able to make decisions and respond to situations completely on its own. Navigation and control serves as the major limitation of the overall performance, accuracy and robustness of an autonomous vehicle. This thesis will address this problem and propose a uni...

  2. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  3. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  4. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY: National.... SUMMARY: This document adopts amendments to the Federal motor vehicle safety standards on platform...

  5. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety..., incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early...

  6. 75 FR 76185 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 571 and 585 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Low-Speed Vehicles Phase-In... Parts 571 and 585 RIN 2127-AK43 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal...

  7. World modeling for cooperative intelligent vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Brown, C.; Bartels, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative intelligent vehicle systems constitute a promising way to improving traffic throughput, safety and comfort. The state-of-the-art intelligent-vehicle applications usually can be described as a collection of interacting, highly autonomous, complex dynamical systems (the individual vehicles

  8. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...

  9. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  10. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  11. Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    contained magnetometer-based navigation system. Indoor, urban, and canyon environments present challenges for GNSS in terms of limited or poor signal...Aztek sports utility vehicle (SUV), and a 2005 Nissan Altima car were chosen as typical vehicles. Each platform represented a different vehicle type in

  12. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a repair garage or shop....

  15. 49 CFR 387.305 - Combination vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combination vehicles. 387.305 Section 387.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... § 387.305 Combination vehicles. The following combinations will be regarded as one motor vehicle...

  16. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  17. 15 CFR 265.13 - Emergency vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency vehicles. 265.13 Section 265.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle...

  18. Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.

  19. Multisensor simultaneous vehicle tracking and shape estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfring, J.; Appeldoorn, R.; Kwakkernaat, M.

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on vehicle automation applications that require both the estimation of kinematic and geometric information of surrounding vehicles, e.g., automated overtaking or merging. Rather then using one sensor that is able to estimate a vehicle's geometry from each sensor frame, e.g., a lida

  20. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  1. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  2. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  3. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability con

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Overweight Mainline Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requested information regarding overweight and oversized vehicle traffic entering inspection stations (ISs) in order to develop strategies for future research efforts and possibly help guide regulatory issues involving overweight commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). For a period of one month, inspection stations in Knox County and Greene County, Tennessee, recorded overweight and oversized vehicles that entered these ISs. During this period, 435 CMVs were recorded using an electronic form filled out by enforcement personnel at the IS. Of the 435 CMVs recorded, 381 had weight information documented with them. The majority (52.2%) of the vehicles recorded were five-axle combination vehicles, and 50.6% of all the vehicles were permitted to operate above the legal weight limit in Tennessee, which is 80,000 lb for vehicles with five or more axles. Only 16.8% of the CMVs recorded were overweight gross (11.5% of permitted vehicles) and 54.1% were overweight on an axle group. The low percentage of overweight gross CMVs was because only 45 of the vehicles over 80,000 lb. were not permitted. On average, axles that were overweight were 2,000 lb. over the legal limit for an axle or group of axles. Of the vehicles recorded, 172 vehicles were given a North American Standard (NAS) inspection during the assessment. Of those, 69% of the inspections were driver-only inspections (Level III) and only 25% of the inspections had a vehicle component (such as a Level I or Level II). The remaining 6% of inspections did not have valid Aspen numbers; the type of was inspection unknown. Data collected on the types of trailers of each vehicle showed that about half of the recorded CMVs could realistically be given a Level I (full vehicle and driver) inspection; this estimate was solely based on trailer type. Enforcement personnel at ISs without an inspection pit have difficulty fully inspecting certain vehicles due to low clearance below the trailer

  5. GPS based Advanced Vehicle Tracking and Vehicle Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashood Mukhtar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Security systems and navigators have always been a necessity of human‟s life. The developments of advanced electronics have brought revolutionary changes in these fields. In this paper, we will present a vehicle tracking system that employs a GPS module and a GSM modem to find the location of a vehicle and offers a range of control features. To complete the design successfully, a GPS unit, two relays, a GSM Modem and two MCU units are used. There are five features introduced in the project. The aim of this project is to remotely track a vehicle‟s location, remotely switch ON and OFF the vehicle‟s ignition system and remotely lock and unlock the doors of the vehicle. An SMS message is sent to the tracking system and the system responds to the users request by performing appropriate actions. Short text messages are assigned to each of these features. A webpage is specifically designed to view the vehicle‟s location on Google maps. By using relay based control concept introduced in this paper, number of control features such as turning heater on/off, radio on/off etc. can be implemented in the same fashion.

  6. Real Time Conflict Resolution in Automated Guided Vehicle Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    use an optimal n-I vehicle routing as the basis for obtaining an optimal n vehicle routing. When only one vehicle is present, the one vehicle routing problem is...scheduling algorithms in general, pointing out that most fall in the class of NP- Hard problems. Lenstra and Rinnoy Kan [581 showed the vehicle routing problem is...Dial-a-ride problems. Vehicle Routing Problems The vehicle routing problem is a very important problem in distribution management. Vehicles are routed

  7. Control of Multiple Robotic Sentry Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.; Lewis, C.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and testing the feasibility of using of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform surround and diversion tasks. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight ''Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover'' (RATLER{trademark}) vehicles, a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. We have also demonstrated the ability to drive multiple vehicles in formation via tele-operation or by waypoint GPS navigation. This is currently being extended to include mission planning capabilities. At the base-station, the operator can draw on an aerial map the goal regions to be surrounded and the repulsive regions to be avoided. A potential field path planner automatically generates a path from the vehicles' current position to the goal regions while avoiding the repulsive regions and the other vehicles. This path is previewed to the operator before the regions are downloaded to the vehicles. The same potential field path planner resides on the vehicle, except additional repulsive forces from on-board proximity sensors guide the vehicle away from unplanned obstacles.

  8. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  9. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule...

  10. Prospects For China's Expendable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Lehao; Wang Xiaojun; Rong Yi

    2009-01-01

    @@ The expendable launch vehicle ( ELV) is the major means for human beings to enter space. Up until April 2009, China's Long March (LM) series launch vehicle has conducted 117 launches, and realized 75 consecutive successful launches since October 1996, which marks China's ELV development has entered a new historical era. Based on the analysis of China's LM series launch vehicle development status, combining with the new generation launch vehicle development, this raises a development prospect for China's ELV to meet the demands for future launch vehicle technology development.

  11. Adaptive Fuzzy Control for CVT Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On the simple continuously variable transmission (CVT) driveline model, the design of adaptive fuzzy control system for CVT vehicle is presented. The adaptive fuzzy control system consists of a scaling factor self-tuning fuzzy-PI throttle controller, and a hybrid fuzzy-PID CVT ratio and brake controller. The presented adaptive fuzzy control strategy is vehicle model independent, which depends only on the instantaneous vehicle states, but does not depend on vehicle parameters. So it has good robustness against uncertain vehicle parameters and exogenous load disturbance. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive fuzzy strategy has good adaptability and practicality value.

  12. Aerodynamic data of space vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Weiland, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The capacity and quality of the atmospheric flight performance of space flight vehicles is characterized by their aerodynamic data bases. A complete aerodynamic data base would encompass the coefficients of the static longitudinal and lateral motions and the related dynamic coefficients. In this book the aerodynamics of 27 vehicles are considered. Only a few of them did really fly. Therefore the aerodynamic data bases are often not complete, in particular when the projects or programs were more or less abruptly stopped, often due to political decisions. Configurational design studies or the development of demonstrators usually happen with reduced or incomplete aerodynamic data sets. Therefore some data sets base just on the application of one of the following tools: semi-empirical design methods, wind tunnel tests, numerical simulations. In so far a high percentage of the data presented is incomplete and would have to be verified. Flight mechanics needs the aerodynamic coefficients as function of a lot of var...

  13. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle R...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown.......This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...

  14. Vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králíček J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle and is the extension of the previously presented work “Modelování podvozku kolejového vozidla s poddajným rámem”. The vibroacoustical analysis uses the outcomes of the dynamical analysis of rail vehicle bogie i.e. surface velocities of the bogie frame to compute the acoustic power radiated by the bogie frame and forces acting in the bogie-body interface. The radiated power and the force spectra are then used as the excitation to the rail body model in the environment Auto-SEA to compute the interior acoustic quantities.

  15. Surface properties-vehicle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huft, D. L.; Her, I.; Agrawal, S. K.; Zimmer, R. A.; Bester, C. J.

    Several topics related to the surface properties of aircraft runways are discussed. The South Dakota profilometer; development of a data acquisition method for noncontact pavement macrotexture measurement; the traction of an aircraft tire on grooved and porous asphaltic concrete; holes in the pavements; the effect of pavement type and condition on the fuel consumption of vehicles; the traction loss of a suspended tire on a sinusoidal road; the effect of vehicle and driver characteristics on the psychological evaluation of road roughness; the correlation of subjective panel ratings of pavement ride quality with profilometer-derived measures of pavement roughness; a microprocessor-based noncontact distance measuring control system, and, the representation of pavement surface topography in predicting runoff depths and hydroplaning potential are discussed.

  16. Surface properties-vehicle interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huft, D.L.; Her, I.; Agrawal, S.K.; Zimmer, R.A.; Bester, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: South Dakota profilometer; development of a data-acquisition method for noncontact pavement macrotexture measurement; traction of an aircraft tire on grooved and porous asphaltic concrete; holes in the pavement-an assessment of their influence on safety; effect of pavement type and condition on the fuel consumption of vehicles; traction loss of a suspended tire on a sinusoidal road; effect of vehicle and driver characteristics on the psychological evaluation of road roughness; correlation of subjective panel ratings of pavement ride quality with profilometer-derived measures of pavement roughness; microprocessor-based noncontact distance measuring control system; and, representation of pavement-surface topography in predicting runoff depths and hydroplaning potential.

  17. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  18. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  19. Electric vehicle energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  20. Land Robotic Vehicles for Demining

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Considering large polluted areas and drawbacks of actual demining technologies main contributions of using robotic vehicles are expected in following topics: - Searching large areas and localization of mines and any explosives (UXO) by fast and reliable way. - Fast and reliable neutralization/destruction of mines without the need of personal assistance to be inside, or close to dangerous places. Demining process remains and will be still one of the most dangerous operations. For this reason n...

  1. Vehicle path tracking by integrated chassis control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saman Salehpour; Yaghoub Pourasad; Seyyed Hadi Taheri

    2015-01-01

    The control problem of trajectory based path following for passenger vehicles is studied. Comprehensive nonlinear vehicle model is utilized for simulation vehicle response during various maneuvers in MATLAB/Simulink. In order to follow desired path, a driver model is developed to enhance closed loop driver/vehicle model. Then, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is developed which regulates direct yaw moment and corrective steering angle on wheels. Particle swam optimization (PSO) method is utilized to optimize the LQR controller for various dynamic conditions. Simulation results indicate that, over various maneuvers, side slip angle and lateral acceleration can be reduced by 10%and 15%, respectively, which sustain the vehicle stable. Also, anti-lock brake system is designed for longitudinal dynamics of vehicle to achieve desired slip during braking and accelerating. Proposed comprehensive controller demonstrates that vehicle steerability can increase by about 15% during severe braking by preventing wheel from locking and reducing stopping distance.

  2. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  3. Vehicle dynamic prediction systems with on-line identification of vehicle parameters and road conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling-Yuan; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a vehicle dynamics prediction system, which consists of a sensor fusion system and a vehicle parameter identification system. This sensor fusion system can obtain the six degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamics and two road angles without using a vehicle model. The vehicle parameter identification system uses the vehicle dynamics from the sensor fusion system to identify ten vehicle parameters in real time, including vehicle mass, moment of inertial, and road friction coefficients. With above two systems, the future vehicle dynamics is predicted by using a vehicle dynamics model, obtained from the parameter identification system, to propagate with time the current vehicle state values, obtained from the sensor fusion system. Comparing with most existing literatures in this field, the proposed approach improves the prediction accuracy both by incorporating more vehicle dynamics to the prediction system and by on-line identification to minimize the vehicle modeling errors. Simulation results show that the proposed method successfully predicts the vehicle dynamics in a left-hand turn event and a rollover event. The prediction inaccuracy is 0.51% in a left-hand turn event and 27.3% in a rollover event.

  4. Revolutionizing Technology Prioritizing Emergency Vehicles in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramya Sundaram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The following study brings to the fore a technology exclusively engineered to eradicate the snags and inadequacies persisting in the existing system of traffic control and thus aims to provide a sophisticated operation and uninterrupted course for the emergency vehicles. The traffic in Indian roads has shown a tremendous rise over the years and the conventional pre-timed traffic signals and frequent traffic congestions, delaying the road commuters, have led to outrage and chaos on several occasions. This traffic management system has proved a nuisance for the effective operation of emergency vehicles, with the public adding to the woes, as each driver races along with the signal, unmindful of the emergency vehicles. A life threatening scenario ensues when emergency vehicles get blocked by the traffic, due to inefficient traffic management system and subsequently these emergency vehicles get delayed. The existing system requires manual interruption to guide other vehicles when an emergency vehicle passes through traffic junctions. It is therefore essential to implement a self-regulating and automated system in the traffic signals to facilitate smooth movement of emergency vehicles without posing a danger to other vehicles. The innovative traffic control system devised by us provides a truly dependable alternative to monitoring traffic flow when emergency vehicles pass by.

  5. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  6. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  7. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  8. The vehicle routing problem with two classes of vehicles and a limit on the number of vehicles in each class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, P.; Gouveia, L.

    1994-12-31

    In this talk we discuss several linear integer programming formulations for a particular case of the Vehicle Routing Problem, where several classes of vehicles are considered and a fixed number of vehicles is imposed in each class. We also present a set of valid inequalities which lead to significant improvements on the lower bounds. Some heuristics are also discussed. We present computational results taken from a set of tests with the number of clients ranging from 13 to 75.

  9. Vehicle type choice and differentiated registration taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    Differentiated vehicle taxes are considered as a useful tool for promoting environmental friendly vehicles. Such a tax was introduced in Denmark in 2007. During 2007, the pattern in new vehicle purchases in Denmark changed toward more diesel vehicles and more fuel-efficient vehicles. We analyse...... to what extent the 2007 vehicle tax reform may explain these changes in purchasing behaviour using a discrete choice model. The model allows us to simulate the effect of price changes that resemble those induced by the tax reform. The analysis shows that the reform only changes purchase patterns slightly....... The changes in fuel prices during the year induce a similar minor effect in our simulation. We conclude that while the tax reform appeared in the same year as a large increase in fuel efficiency, it only explains a small part of the shift in fuel efficiency that happened....

  10. Vision-based Vehicle Detection Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex David S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays thousands of drivers and passengers were losing their lives every year on road accident, due to deadly crashes between more than one vehicle. There are number of many research focuses were dedicated to the development of intellectual driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicles over the past decade, which reduces the danger by monitoring the on-road environment. In particular, researchers attracted towards the on-road detection of vehicles in recent years. Different parameters have been analyzed in this paper which includes camera placement and the various applications of monocular vehicle detection, common features and common classification methods, motion- based approaches and nighttime vehicle detection and monocular pose estimation. Previous works on the vehicle detection listed based on camera poisons, feature based detection and motion based detection works and night time detection.

  11. A comparison of electric vehicle integration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Kempton, Willett

    2012-01-01

    .g. utilization of electric vehicles for ancillary services. To arrive at standardized solutions, it is helpful to analyze the market integration and utilization concepts, architectures and technologies used in a set of state-of-the art electric vehicle demonstration projects. The goal of this paper......It is widely agreed that an intelligent integration of electric vehicles can yield benefits for electric vehicle owner, power grid, and the society as a whole. Numerous electric vehicle utilization concepts have been investigated ranging from the simple e.g. delayed charging to the more advanced e...... is to highlight different approaches to electric vehicle integration in three such projects and describe the underlying technical components which should be harmonized to support interoperability and a broad set of utilization concepts. The projects investigated are the American University of Delaware's V2G...

  12. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  13. Vehicle Monitoring And Diagnostic Using IMS Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Sayyad,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Convergence of technologies is important in this era to make progress in any field. The need to converge technologies arises from the concept of improvisation. This paper proposes a system architecture which is used to diagnose vehicle parameters and then relay the data via a feasible next generation network based on IMS architecture to a central server. Vehicles are to be equipped with a simple portable scan tool (PST device which will interface with the OBD-II port of the vehicle and record the diagnostic data and relay them to the server. Further if the vehicle owner wants real time remote updates of the vehicle then it can be done by using his/her cellular device. IMS architecture simplifies the process of user registration and help in achieving faster transmission speed. Lastly various secondary applications can be generated by this system as by using thissystem the vehicles are getting connected on a grid.

  14. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  15. Launch vehicle systems design analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  16. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand...... instantiations, a recourse route is computed - but costs here become more expensive by a factor λ. We present an O(log2n ·log(nλ))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular...

  17. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The work considers different information systems, includingthe infonnation ~ystems with autonomous units, whichcany all their intelligence around with them, and those withcommunicating units, which infonn the motorist about the currentsituation of the road system by radio or other means. Thesymbols of various messages have three main objectives: to provideinstruction, to warn of oncoming dange1~ or to give adviceregarding parking or looking for altemative routes. When notused for these pwposes, they are used to provide general informationabout the weathe1~ temperature or possible attractions.The in-vehicle information systems fly to assist the motorist indriving, and they are promoted as part of the comprehensive intelligenttransport system.

  18. LM-4B Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    The history of LM-4B traces back to the end of the 1970s. The feasibility study of LM-4 began in 1982 and the engineering development was initiated in the following year.Initially, the LM-4 served as a back-up launch vehicle for LM-3 to launch China's communications satellites. After the successful launch of China's first communications satellites by LM-3 in 1984, the main mission of the LM-4 was shifted to launch sun-synchronous orbit meteorological satellites.

  19. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  20. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  1. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different systems, including thesystems with autonomous units, which cany all their knowledgewith them, and those with communication units, which informthe driver about the current situation of the road system byradio or other means. The symbols of various messageshave three main goals: to provide instruction, to warn ofoncoming danger, or to give advice regarding parking or lookingfor alternative routes. When not used for these purposes,they are used to provide general information about/he weathe1;temperature or possible attractions. The in-vehicle informationsystems try to assist the motorist in driving, and they arepromoted as part of the comprehensive intelligent transport system.

  2. Vehicles Vehículos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández Christlieb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present text attempts to do a description as well as a reflection of the cities from the point of departure of its means of transport and the urban being who uses them. In other words, it tries to show the city as a tissue made of vehicles.El presente texto pretende hacer una descripción y una reflexión de la ciudad a partir de sus medios de transporte y del ser urbano que los utiliza. Intenta mostrar a la ciudad como un tejido o un entramado de vehículos en movimiento.

  3. Wireless, amphibious theory for reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinci

    2013-10-01

    Cryptographers agree that heterogeneous information are an interesting new topic in the field of cryptography, and biologists concur. Given the current status of stochastic epistemologies, security experts clearly desire the construction of flip-flop gates [1, 2, 3]. Mungo, our new system for authenticated algorithms, is the solution to all of these challenges. Though such a hypothesis at first glance seems perverse, it has ample historical precedence.

  4. Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Unit Cost BA - Budget Authority/Budget Activity BY - Base Year DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development...2013 SAR April 16, 2014 17:40:03 UNCLASSIFIED 7 Schedule Milestones SAR Baseline Dev Est Current APB Development Objective...2017 AUG 2017 FEB 2017 Craft 101 Delivery AUG 2017 AUG 2017 FEB 2018 AUG 2017 OPEVAL/ IOT &E APR 2018 APR 2018 OCT 2018 APR 2018 FRP Decision SEP 2018

  5. Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    hull is initially constructed upside down for ease of welding and construction, and then ’flipped’ to complete its assembly. The turnover is a...major transition point as the first craft entered the above deck module integration phase of production. LCAC 101 began fabrication in January and has...OA Mar 2014 Mar 2014 Sep 2014 Jul 2014 Craft 101 Production Readiness Review May 2014 May 2014 Nov 2014 Sep 2014 Craft 101 Start Fabrication Dec 2014

  6. Recapitalization of Amphibious Operation and Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    on independent operations to conduct presence, irregular warfare, maritime security, humanitarian assistance, and partnership building missions. 5...irregular warfare, maritime security, humanitarian assistance, disaster relief, and partnership building missions. 19 3. USMC Organization The...a design flaw impacting multiple ships. ( P3 ) Risk of Failing to Conduct a Diverse Mission Set – This factor focused on the ability of the

  7. Liability Issues Concerning Self-Driving Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmann, Melinda Florina

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the civil liability issues that arise when self-driving vehicles are admitted to our streets. Firstly, it is explained why strict liability regimes for the vehicle holder, which are in place in several jurisdictions across Europe, are a workable foundation for ensuring compensation of the victim. However, accidents caused by highly automated vehicles will raise the question of the manufacturer’s liability for a defective product. Accordingly, this article examines the ...

  8. A Generalized Assignment Heuristic for Vehicle Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    problem by ( VRP ). L. . . . .. i -3- Formulation of the Vehicle Routing Problem ( VRP ) min Z c X. (1)ijk 1) i jk S.t. Z aiYik < bk , k ,...,K (2) 1...Fisher and Ramchandran Jaikumar University of Pennsylvania August, 1979 ABSTR_2T We consider a common variant of the vehicle routing problem in which a...minimum size fleet that can feasibly service the specified demand. 1. Intrcduction Vehicle routing is a challenging logistics management

  9. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  10. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  11. Virtual power plants with electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Iñaki; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Skarvelis-Kazakos, Spyros; Cipcigan, Liana M.; Jenkins, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of integrating aggregated Electric Vehicles (EV) within the Virtual Power Plant (VPP) concept, are addressed. Two types of EV aggregators are identified: i) Electric Vehicle Residential Aggregator (EVRA), which is responsible for the management of dispersed and clustered EVs in a residential area and ii) Electric Vehicle Commercial Aggregator (EVCA), which is responsible for the management of EVs clustered in a single car park. A case study of a workplace EVCA is presented, provi...

  12. Navigation System for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Schlotterer, Markus

    2008-01-01

    PHOENIX is a downscaled experimental vehicle to demonstrate automatic landing capabilities of future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). PHOENIX has flown in May 2004 at NEAT (North European Aerospace Test range) in Vidsel, Sweden. As the shape of the vehicle has been designed for re-entry, the dynamics are very high and almost unstable. This requires a fast and precise GNC system. This paper describes the navigation system and the navigation filter of PHOENIX. The system is introduced and the h...

  13. Reliable dynamic in-vehicle navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaparias, I.

    2008-01-01

    Having started off from luxury makes and models, in-vehicle navigation systems are now gradually spreading through the entire vehicle fleet, as drivers appreciate their usefulness. Increasingly sophisticated systems are being developed, having much more advanced functions than simple driving directions. This thesis presents a new approach for in-vehicle navigation, in which travel time reliability is incorporated in the route finding component of the navigation system. Based on historical tra...

  14. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  15. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  16. Lightning Protection for the Orion Space Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Orion space vehicle is designed to requirements for both direct attachment and indirect effects of lightning. Both sets of requirements are based on a full threat 200kA strike, in accordance with constraints and guidelines contained in SAE ARP documents applicable to both commercial and military aircraft and space vehicles. This paper describes the requirements as levied against the vehicle, as well as the means whereby the design shows full compliance.

  17. Space Vehicle Reliability Modeling in DIORAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornga, Shawn Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-12

    When modeling system performance of space based detection systems it is important to consider spacecraft reliability. As space vehicles age the components become prone to failure for a variety of reasons such as radiation damage. Additionally, some vehicles may lose the ability to maneuver once they exhaust fuel supplies. Typically failure is divided into two categories: engineering mistakes and technology surprise. This document will report on a method of simulating space vehicle reliability in the DIORAMA framework.

  18. Defense Acquisitions. Rapid Acquisition of MRAP Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-08

    safety, which required some modifying of designs and postproduction fixes, and adapting how vehicles were used. Also, long term sustainment costs...the form of reliability, mobility, and safety, which have required some modifying of the designs, postproduction fixes, and adapting how vehicles...issues required some modifying of the designs, postproduction fixes, or adapting how vehicles were to be used. Testing of proposed Page 8 GAO-10-155T

  19. Carlsbad Area Office vehicle safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Vehicle Safety Program (VSP) establishes the minimum requirements for CAO personnel to safely operate government vehicles and provides direction to effectively reduce the number of vehicle accidents, reduce the severity of vehicle accidents, and minimize vehicular property damage. This Program covers the operations of Government Services Administration (GSA) vehicles, rental or leased vehicles, and special purpose vehicles used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the performance of work. Additionally, this Program encourages CAO employees to use safe driving habits while operating their privately owned vehicles, motorcycles, or bicycles, or, as pedestrians, to be aware of the hazards associated with traffic in and around CAO facilities. Vehicle safety is a shared responsibility in this organization. At anytime a CAO employee witnesses an unsafe act relating to the operation of a motor vehicle, it is their responsibility to notify their Team Leader (TL) or Assistant Manager (AM), or contact the CAO Safety and Occupational Health Manager (SOHM). Employees are encouraged to participate in the Carlsbad Area Office Federal Employees Safety Committee (FESC) activities and goals in order to address vehicle safety concerns. The FESC is designed to be a forum for all federal employees to improve the health and safety of the organization. The VSP is an effective method of ensuring the health and safety of CAO employees during the operation of government vehicles. The human resources of the CAO are the most valuable assets of this organization and any lost manhours are difficult to replace. Safe driving habits and defensive driving methods should always be practiced to preserve the health and safety of all employees.

  20. Technical Benefits of Tram Vehicle Energy Accumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Drazek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving effects connected with use of energy accumulator on board of tram vehicle instead of substation are presented. Differences in results regarding weak and strong power supply system when taking into account energy losses and energy recuperation are pointed out. Running mode and energy changed from substation by a tram vehicle with accumulator is compared to a tram vehicle without on-board accumulator but supplied from substation equipped with energy accumulator.

  1. PROBLEMS OF SAFETY OF MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the up-to-date problem of motor vehicles safety. The author concludes that traffic safety in the transport system depends on the type and, accordingly, the measures taken in vehicles to protect objects from unauthorized access and, as a consequence, from the possibility of accident or disaster occurrence, while the safety of vehicles on a traffic route is determined by external natural impacts.

  2. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  3. Unmanned vehicle mobility: Limits of autonomous navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormac, A. W.; Hanna, D. M.; McFee, J.

    Considerable research is being conducted on the development of unmanned vehicles for military and civilian applications, particularly for hostile environments. It is desirable to produce a vehicle which can select its own route, not requiring remote navigation, but then it would be required to sense its surroundings. Although imaging systems and modern computers make this possible, the extreme data processing demands usually make it impractical. It is suggested that an inverse relationship exists between vehicle mobility and the complexity of the autonomous navigation system required for an unmanned vehicle. An overview of vehicle navigation is presented which shows the degree to which navigation is affected by increasing inherent mobility. If the inherent mobility of a vehicle is greatly enhanced, the scene image processing requirements and navigational computations are greatly simplified. This means the vehicle path selection and speed and steering adjustments may be made more quickly, resulting in higher vehicle speeds whenever possible. Combined with reduced deviation from the intended path, this would greatly increase the speed of the vehicle from one given point to another, suggesting that high speed autonomous navigation may be feasible.

  4. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a control module for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a priority-code (i.e. Code-3) situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a control module which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection. Real-time communications and operations software allow central and remote monitoring, logging, and command of intersections and vehicles.

  5. Remotely piloted LTA vehicle for surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, G. R.; Harris, G. L.; Brown, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of a remotely piloted mini-LTA vehicle for surveillance, monitoring and measurement for civilian and military applications are considered. Applications, operations and economics are discussed.

  6. Design of Scale Intelligent Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junliang; Zhang, Zufeng; Jia, Peng; Luo, Shaohua; Zhang, Zufeng

    Nowadays, intelligent vehicle is widely studied all over the world. On considering cost and safety of test on real vehicle, it takes scale intelligent vehicle as a carrier platform, which uses visual sensors to capture the environmental information in a Wi-Fi wireless communication network environment, and creates a system including video surveillance system, monitoring command terminal, data server and three-dimensional simulating test traffic environment. The core algorithms, such as road recognition perception, image data processing, path planning and the implementation of motion control, have been completely designed and applying on the vehicle platform. The experimental results verified its good effects and the robustness and stability of the algorithm.

  7. Environmental assessment of lightweight electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Egede, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This monograph adresses the challenge of the environmental assessment of leightweight electric vehicles. It poses the question whether the use of lightweight materials in electric vehicles can reduce the vehicles’ environmental impact and compares the environmental performance of a lightweight electric vehicle (LEV) to other types of vehicles. The topical approach focuses on methods from life cycle assessment (LCA), and the book concludes with a comprehensive concept on the environmental assessment of LEVs. The target audience primarily comprises LCA practitioners from research institutes and industry, but it may also be beneficial for graduate students specializing in the field of environmental assessment.

  8. Distributed Control in Multi-Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Avery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI Mobile Autonomous Robotics Technology Initiative (MARTI program has enabled the development of fully-autonomous passenger-sized commercial vehicles and military tactical vehicles, as well as the development of cooperative vehicle behaviors, such as cooperative sensor sharing and cooperative convoy operations. The program has also developed behaviors to interface intelligent vehicles with intelligent road-side devices. The development of intelligent vehicle behaviors cannot be approached as stand-alone phenomena; rather, they must be understood within a context of the broader traffic system dynamics. The study of other complex systems has shown that system-level behaviors emerge as a result of the spatio-temporal dynamics within a system's constituent parts. The design of such systems must therefore account for both the system-level emergent behavior, as well as behaviors of individuals within the system. It has also become clear over the past several years, for both of these domains, that human trust in the behavior of individual vehicles is paramount to broader technology adoption. This paper examines the interplay between individual vehicle capabilities, vehicle connectivity, and emergent system behaviors, and presents some considerations for a distributed control paradigm in a multi-vehicle system.

  9. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are assuming more numerous and increasingly important roles in global environmental and atmospheric research. There is a...

  10. Navigation and control of an autonomous vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A.; Soehnitz, I.; Becker, J.C.; Schumacher, W. [Technical Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Control Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the fusion of sensor data for the navigation of an autonomous vehicle as well as two lateral control concepts to track the vehicle along a desired path. The fusion of navigation data is based on information provided by multiple object-detecting sensors. The object data is fused to increase the accuracy and to obtain the vehicle's state from the relative movement w.r.t. the objects. The presented lateral control methods are an LQG/H{sub 2}-design and an input-output linearizing algorithm. These control schemes were both implemented on a test vehicle. (orig.)

  11. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  12. Systems and methods for vehicle speed management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujan, Vivek Anand; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Forst, Howard Robert

    2016-03-01

    Controlling a speed of a vehicle based on at least a portion of a route grade and a route distance divided into a plurality of route sections, each including at least one of a section grade and section length. Controlling the speed of the vehicle is further based on determining a cruise control speed mode for the vehicle for each of the plurality of route sections and determining a speed reference command of the vehicle based on at least one of the cruise control speed mode, the section length, the section grade, and a current speed.

  13. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The...

  14. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  15. Electromechanical Energy Transduction for Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Vanja, Sridhar; Kelly, Michael W.; Caruso, A. N.

    2010-03-01

    Hybrid vehicle technology seeks to reduce the total energy consumption used for vehicle locomotion by recovering and reutilizing kinetic energy that is otherwise unrecovered or dissipated in conventional vehicle deceleration. The goal of the work is to determine the transduction mechanisms that work towards a Carnot efficiency without considering constraints or limitations placed by cost or materials. Specifically, this talk will present ideal thermodynamic models of energy exchange between mechanical, electrostatic, electromechanical and electrochemical devices with a goal of projecting an ideal hybrid vehicle.

  16. Integrated reliability program for Scout research vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, B. V.; Welch, R. C.

    1967-01-01

    Integrated reliability program for Scout launch vehicle in terms of design specification, review functions, malfunction reporting, failed parts analysis, quality control, standardization and certification

  17. Control of Energy Regeneration for Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; MAO Xiao-jian; LI Li-ming; ZHUO Bn

    2008-01-01

    To extend electric vehicle (EV) running distance, the vehicle energy regeneration (ER) method and vehicle control strategy were designed based on the original vehicle braking system. The ER principle of direct current (DC) brushless motor was studied, the motor mathematical model and PI control method with torque close-loop were built. This control method was applied to pure EV and the real road tests were evaluated.The ER control does not make any significant uncomfortable influence brake feeling and can save about 10% battery energy based on 3 times economic commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycles.

  18. Dynamic Analysis of a Military- Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balamurugan

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available 'The ride dynamic characteristics of a typical medium weight, high speed military-tracked vehicle for negotiating rough cross-counlry terrain have been studied. The vehicle is modelled using finiteelement simulation method with beam and shell elements. An eigenvalue analysis has been done to estimate natural modes ofNibration of the vehicle. The dynamic response of certain salient locations is obtained by carrying out a transient dynamic analysis using implicit Newmark beta method. A constant forwar vehicle speed and non-deformable sinusoidal terrain profile are assumed.

  19. Electric vehicle integration into modern power networks

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources.New business mo

  20. Delay of Vehicle Motion in Traffic Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bando, M; Nakanishi, K; Nakayama, A; Bando, Masako; Hasebe, Katsuya; Nakanishi, Ken; Nakayama, Akihiro

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that in Optimal Velocity Model (OVM) delay times of vehicles coming from the dynamical equation of motion of OVM almost explain the order of delay times observed in actual traffic flows without introducing explicit delay times. Delay times in various cases are estimated: the case of a leader vehicle and its follower, a queue of vehicles controlled by traffic lights and many-vehicle case of highway traffic flow. The remarkable result is that in most of the situation for which we can make a reasonable definition of a delay time, the obtained delay time is of order 1 second.

  1. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  2. Ride Dynamics of a Tracked Vehicle with a Finite Element Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jothi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on tracked vehicle dynamics is by and large limited to multi-rigid body simulation. For realistic prediction of vehicle dynamics, it is better to model the vehicle as multi-flexible body. In this paper, tracked vehicle is modelled as a mass-spring system with sprung and unsprung masses of the physical tracked vehicle by Finite element method. Using the equivalent vehicle model, dynamic studies are carried out by imparting vertical displacement inputs to the road wheels. Ride characteristics of the vehicle are captured by modelling the road wheel arms as flexible elements using Finite element method. In this work, a typical tracked vehicle test terrain viz., Trapezoidal blocks terrain (APG terrain is considered. Through the simulations, the effect of the road wheel arm flexibility is monitored. Result of the analysis of equivalent vehicle model with flexible road wheel arms, is compared with the equivalent vehicle model with rigid road wheel arms and also with the experimental results of physical tracked vehicle. Though there is no major difference in the vertical bounce response between the flexible model and the rigid model, but there is a visible difference in the roll condition. Result of the flexible vehicle model is also reasonably matches with the experimental result.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 1, January 2016, pp. 19-25, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9201

  3. Vehicle routing with multiple use of vehicles. Publication No. 95-19, and Publication No. 964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillard, E.D.; Gendreau, M.; Laporte, G.

    1995-10-01

    The vehicle routing problem is a central problem in distribution management. A variant of the standard problem with multiple use of vehicles involves the same vehicle being assigned to several routes during a given planning period. This paper develops a tabu search heuristic for this variant problem. The algorithm and computational results on a series of test problems are presented.

  4. 77 FR 30765 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy... 571 RIN 2127-AK97 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for... a new Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 136 to require electronic stability control...

  5. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration..., and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early enough to ensure that...

  6. 75 FR 5553 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... NPRM proposes to amend FMVSS No. 116, Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids, so that brake fluids would be tested... Date VII. Rulemaking Analyses and Notices VIII. Public Participation I. Background Federal...

  7. Emissions from light and medium goods vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The article analyses atmospheric pollution of light goods vehicles (i.e. freight vehicles lighter than 6 tonnes) and medium goods vehicles (i.e. 6-24 t delivery trucks) in Denmark, and evaluated the scope for emission reductions. Light goods vehicles are very inefficient vehicles, and moreover ha...

  8. 32 CFR 935.140 - Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. 935.140... AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.140 Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. (a) Each person who has custody of a motor vehicle on Wake Island shall present that vehicle...

  9. 49 CFR 574.9 - Requirements for motor vehicle dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for motor vehicle dealers. 574.9... RECORDKEEPING § 574.9 Requirements for motor vehicle dealers. (a) Each motor vehicle dealer who sells a used motor vehicle for purposes other than resale, who leases a motor vehicle for more than 60 days, that...

  10. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

  11. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with... (NPRM) proposing to upgrade FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119), which applies to new pneumatic tires...

  12. 78 FR 29815 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental... approach to addressing the impacts of motor vehicles and fuels on air quality and public health....

  13. Modeling Post-Accident Vehicle Egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    functionality, only basic clearance issues could be investigated; improvements to the Humosim Framework and Jack software are needed to enable rapid...unique requirements of military applications have challenged the capability of current software . Soldiers are often wearing and carrying a...for military vehicles, ingress and egress are evaluated by acquiring vehicles (when available) or by building expensive mockups and running timed

  14. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To suppor

  15. Maneuvering Performance of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-28

    tuning of PID controllers for Bluefin’s streamlined vehicles was tested on four 21" vehicles, generally achieving heading performance of 0.5 degrees and...and M. Nagurka 2004. Design of PID controllers satisfying gain margin and sensitivity constraints on a set of plants. Automatica, 40, 111-116

  16. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly en

  17. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  18. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses important characteristics seen within dynamic vehicle routing problems. We discuss the differences between the traditional static vehicle routing problems and its dynamic counterparts. We give an in-depth introduction to the degree of dynamism measure which can be used...

  19. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  20. Acoustic Signal Feature Extraction of Vehicle Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝金辉; 马宝华; 李科杰

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic signal feature extraction is an important part of target recognition. The mechanisms for producing acoustic signals and their propagation are analyzed to extract the features of the radiated noise from different targets. Analysis of the acoustic spectra of typical vehicle targets acquired outdoors shows that the vehicles can be classified based on the acoustic spectra and amplitudes.

  1. 48 CFR 908.7101 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 908.7101 Section 908.7101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7101 Motor vehicles....

  2. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  3. 45 CFR 3.21 - Emergency vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency vehicles. 3.21 Section 3.21 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.21 Emergency vehicles....

  4. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include,...

  5. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6 Section 5.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used...

  6. International Conference on Vehicle and Automotive Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bolló, Betti

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the first vehicle engineering and vehicle industry conference. It captures the outcome of theoretical and practical studies as well as the future development trends in a wide field of automotive research. The themes of the conference include design, manufacturing, economic and educational topics.

  7. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2014-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for senior undergraduate and first year graduate students in mechanical and automotive engineering. The contents in this book are presented at a theoretical-practical level. It explains vehicle dynamics concepts in detail, concentrating on their practical use. Related theorems and formal proofs are provided, as are real-life applications. Students, researchers and practicing engineers alike will appreciate the user-friendly presentation of a wealth of topics, most notably steering, handling, ride, and related components. This book also: Illustrates all key concepts with examples Includes exercises for each chapter Covers front, rear, and four wheel steering systems, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different steering schemes Includes an emphasis on design throughout the text, which provides a practical, hands-on approach

  8. Bespilotne letjelice : Unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Jurić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bespilotne letjelice imaju širok spektar uporabe, i svrha im svakim danom sve više dobiva na značaju. Konstrukcija im se poboljšava, pronalaze se materijali koji su optimalniji za obavljanje funkcija s kojima se trebaju suočiti. Pravna regulativa za bespilotne letjelice do 150 kg težine na polijetanju (MTOW se razlikuje od države do države. : Unmanned aerial vehicles have a wide range of applications, and their purpose is every day more important. Construction has been improving, finding the materials that are optimal for carrying out the functions which need to be cope with. Legal regulations for unmanned aircrafts up to 150 kg take-off weight (MTOW varies from country to country.

  9. Stochastic Vehicle Routing with Recourse

    CERN Document Server

    Goertz, Inge Li; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage optimization problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand instantiations, a recourse route is computed -- but costs here become more expensive by a factor lambda. We present an O(log^2 n log(n lambda))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular orienteering, called knapsack rank-function orienteering. We also give a better approximation ratio for knapsack rank-function orienteering than what follows from prior work. Finally, we provide a Unique Games Conjecture based omega(1) hardness of approximation for StochVRP, even on star-like metrics on which our algorithm achieves a logarithmic approximation.

  10. Handbook of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Vachtsevanos, George

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a reference text for the academic and research communities, industry, manufacturers, users, practitioners, Federal Government, Federal and State Agencies, the private sector, as well as all organizations that are and will be using unmanned aircraft in a wide spectrum of applications. The Handbook covers all aspects of UAVs, from design to logistics and ethical issues. It is also targeting the young investigator, the future inventor and entrepreneur by providing an overview and detailed information of the state-of-the-art as well as useful new concepts that may lead to innovative research. The contents of the Handbook include material that addresses the needs and ‘know how’ of all of the above sectors targeting a very diverse audience. The Handbook offers a unique and comprehensive treatise of everything one needs to know about unmanned aircrafts, from conception to operation, from technologies to business activities, users, OEMs, reference sources, conferences, ...

  11. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  12. Vehicle environment interactions - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitt, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    The advent of Space Shuttle Orbital operations utilizing science and technology payloads has led to a renewal of interest of vehicle-environmental interactions in low earth orbit. The first science payload on STS-3 showed an interaction on the surface of the Orbiter which, although it had been detected earlier on unmanned spacecraft, quickened interest in the possible impact of this phenomena on future missions. Subsequent flights have yielded data on a wide variety of interaction phenomena resulting from the large size of the Orbiter and its outgassing characteristics. These drivers have given rise to modifications in the neutral gas and plasma environments of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The physics of the interactions result in the generation of disturbed wave fields, optical emissions and particle distributions in the vicinity of the Orbiter. In this overview, the present observations, suggested interpretations and open questions will be addressed.

  13. Railway vehicle performance optimisation using virtual homologation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, H.; Madeira, J. F. A.; Ambrósio, J.; Pombo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Unlike regular automotive vehicles, which are designed to travel in different types of roads, railway vehicles travel mostly in the same route during their life cycle. To accept the operation of a railway vehicle in a particular network, a homologation process is required according to local standard regulations. In Europe, the standards EN 14363 and UIC 518, which are used for railway vehicle acceptance, require on-track tests and/or numerical simulations. An important advantage of using virtual homologation is the reduction of the high costs associated with on-track tests by studying the railway vehicle performance in different operation conditions. This work proposes a methodology for the improvement of railway vehicle design with the objective of its operation in selected railway tracks by using optimisation. The analyses required for the vehicle improvement are performed under control of the optimisation method global and local optimisation using direct search. To quantify the performance of the vehicle, a new objective function is proposed, which includes: a Dynamic Performance Index, defined as a weighted sum of the indices obtained from the virtual homologation process; the non-compensated acceleration, which is related to the operational velocity; and a penalty associated with cases where the vehicle presents an unacceptable dynamic behaviour according to the standards. Thus, the optimisation process intends not only to improve the quality of the vehicle in terms of running safety and ride quality, but also to increase the vehicle availability via the reduction of the time for a journey while ensuring its operational acceptance under the standards. The design variables include the suspension characteristics and the operational velocity of the vehicle, which are allowed to vary in an acceptable range of variation. The results of the optimisation lead to a global minimum of the objective function in which the suspensions characteristics of the vehicle are

  14. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T’ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam; Rouvreau, Sebastian; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grande

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity combustion phenomena have been an active area of research for the past 3 decades however, there have been very few experiments directly studying spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample and environment sizes typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. All previous experiments have been limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. Terrestrial fire safety standards for all other habitable volumes on earth, e.g. mines, buildings, airplanes, ships, etc., are based upon testing conducted with full-scale fires. Given the large differences between fire behavior in normal and reduced gravity, this lack of an experimental data base at relevant length scales forces spacecraft designers to base their designs using 1-g understanding. To address this question a large scale spacecraft fire experiment has been proposed by an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status and concept of this collaborative international project to examine spacecraft material flammability at realistic scales. The concept behind this project is to utilize an unmanned spacecraft such as Orbital Cygnus vehicle after it has completed its delivery of cargo to the ISS and it has begun its return journey to earth. This experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the examination of fire behavior on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This will be

  15. Vehicle Tracking Using Kalman Filter and Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Salarpour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle tracking has a wide variety of applications. The image resolution of the video available from most traffic camera system is low. In many cases for tracking multi object, distinguishing them from another isn’t easy because of their similarity. In this paper we describe a method, for tracking multiple objects, where the objects are vehicles. The number of vehicles is unknown and varies. We detect all moving objects, and for tracking of vehicle we use the kalman filter and color feature and distance of it from one frame to the next. So the method can distinguish and tracking all vehicles individually. The proposed algorithm can be applied to multiple moving objects.

  16. Development of a lightweight fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. J.; Wang, D. Y.; Shih, N. C.

    This paper described the development of a fuel cell system and its integration into the lightweight vehicle known as the Mingdao hydrogen vehicle (MHV). The fuel cell system consists of a 5-kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a microcontroller and other supported components like a compressed hydrogen cylinder, blower, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, water pump, heat exchanger and sensors. The fuel cell not only propels the vehicle but also powers the supporting components. The MHV performs satisfactorily over a hundred-kilometer drive thus validating the concept of a fuel cell powered zero-emission vehicle. Measurements further show that the fuel cell system has an efficiency of over 30% at the power consumption for vehicle cruise, which is higher than that of a typical internal combustion engine. Tests to improve performance such as speed enhancement, acceleration and fuel efficiency will be conducted in the future work. Such tests will consist of hybridizing with a battery pack.

  17. Practicality study on air-powered vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LIU; Xiaoli YU

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and outlook of air-powered vehicles including compressed air-powered vehicle and liquid nitrogen-powered vehicle, thermodyn-amic analysis and experiment data were used to analyze the energy density, performance, safety, running effi-ciency, fuel circulation economy and consumer accep-tance, etc. The results show that compressed air and liquid nitrogen have similar energy density as Ni-H battery; the characteristics of an air-powered engine is suitable for driving a vehicle; the circulation efficiency of liquid nitrogen is 3.6%-14% and that of compressed air is 25%-32.3% in practice, and existing technology can assure its safety. It is concluded that though the performance of an air-powered engine is inferior to that of the traditional inert combustion engine, an air-powered vehicle is fit for future green cars to realize the sustainable development of society and environment.

  18. Canadair CL-227 Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew S.

    1983-08-01

    The Canadair CL-227 is a rotary winged Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) intended initially as the air-vehicle for a medium range battlefield surveillance and target acquisition system. The concept on which this vehicle is based brings together in-house expertise as a designer and manufacturer of surveillance drones (AN-USD-50l -MIDGE-) with experience in rigid rotor technology from the CL-84 tilt wing VTOL program. The vehicle is essentially modular in design with a power module containing the engine, fuel and related systems, a rotor module containing the two counter-rotating rotors and control actuators, and a control module containing the autopilot, data link and sensor system. The vehicle is a true RPV (as opposed to a drone) as it is flown in real time by an operator on the ground and requires relatively little skill to pilot.

  19. OPTIMAL CONTROL FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE STABILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN GAICEANU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This main objective of the paper is to stabilize an electric vehicle in optimal manner to a step lane change maneuver. To define the mathematical model of the vehicle, the rigid body moving on a plane is taken into account. An optimal lane keeping controller delivers the adequate angles in order to stabilize the vehicle’s trajectory in an optimal way. Two degree of freedom linear bicycle model is adopted as vehicle model, consisting of lateral and yaw motion equations. The proposed control maintains the lateral stability by taking the feedback information from the vehicle transducers. In this way only the lateral vehicle’s dynamics are enough to considerate. Based on the obtained linear mathematical model the quadratic optimal control is designed in order to maintain the lateral stability of the electric vehicle. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  20. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity

  1. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  2. Objectives and Progress on Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing for the Ares Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Asloms. Brice R.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA begins design and development of the Ares launch vehicles to replace the Space Shuttle and explore beyond low Earth orbit, Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component of ensuring that those vehicles can perform the missions assigned to them. A ground vibration test (GVT) is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. This data is then used to calibrate loads and control systems analysis models for verifying analyses of the launch vehicle. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be conducting IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2011 to 2012 using the venerable Test Stand (TS) 4550, which supported similar tests for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicle stacks.

  3. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based Relay Vehicle Selection for Electric Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale electric vehicle integration into power grid and charging randomly will cause serious impacts on the normal operation of power grid. Therefore, it is necessary to control the charging behavior of electric vehicle, while information transmission for electric vehicle is significant. Due to the highly mobile characteristics of vehicle, transferring information to power grid directly might be inaccessible. Relay vehicle (RV can be used for supporting multi-hop connection between SV and power grid. This paper proposes a multiple attribute decision making (MADM-based RV selection algorithm, which considers multiple attribute, including data transfer rate, delay, route duration. It takes the characteristics of electric vehicle communication into account, which can provide protection for the communication services of electric vehicle charging and discharging. Numerical results demonstrate that compared to previous algorithm, the proposed algorithm offer better performance in terms of throughput, transmission delay.

  4. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012......In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...

  5. "Bait vehicle" technologies and motor vehicle theft along the southwest border.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, over 33% of all the vehicles reported stolen in the United States occurred in the four southwestern border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, which all have very high vehicle theft rates in comparison to the national average. This report describes the utilization of 'bait vehicles' and associated technologies in the context of motor vehicle theft along the southwest border of the U.S. More than 100 bait vehicles are estimated to be in use by individual agencies and auto theft task forces in the southwestern border states. The communications, tracking, mapping, and remote control technologies associated with bait vehicles provide law enforcement with an effective tool to obtain arrests in vehicle theft 'hot spots'. Recorded audio and video from inside the vehicle expedite judicial proceedings as offenders rarely contest the evidence presented. At the same time, law enforcement is very interested in upgrading bait vehicle technology through the use of live streaming video for enhanced officer safety and improved situational awareness. Bait vehicle effectiveness could be enhanced by dynamic analysis of motor theft trends through exploitation of geospatial, timeline, and other analytical tools to better inform very near-term operational decisions, including the selection of particular vehicle types. This 'information-led' capability would especially benefit from more precise and timely information on the location of vehicles stolen in the United States and found in Mexico. Introducing Automated License Plate Reading (ALPR) technology to collect information associated with stolen motor vehicles driven into Mexico could enhance bait vehicle effectiveness.

  6. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features

  7. Status and trends for electrified transport logistic vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Enver Doruk; Kleiner, Florian; Beermann, Martin; Catay, Bülent; Beers, Eric; Moran, Bob; Lim, O.T.; Schmid, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the current dominance of conventional transport logistic vehicles, recent efforts primarily focus on technologies reducing fuel consumption of these vehicles. Another way to reduce the GHG emissions of road vehicles is the electrification of the vehicle. The electrification of road vehicles has accelerated in the recent years. However, the electrification of passenger cars seems to be prioritized over transport logistic vehicles as the first step, mainly due to the current limitation o...

  8. 基于 CEL 算法的水陆两栖飞机水上降落动力特性分析%CEL Alog rithm-Based Anal sy is of Dynamic Charatc erits ics of Amphibious Aircratf Landing on Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the water landing of amphibious aircrafts , this paper presents a fluid-structure interaction ( FSI) model of a certain amphibious aircraft head and analyzes the transient structural dynamic response of the head ditching by using the coupled Eulerian-Lagrange (CEL) method.Moreover, the stress, impact force and mass center velocity of the head at different ditching angles and vertical speeds are discussed .The results show that ( 1 ) the bottom pressure peak appears in the initial ditching stage and appears again with the heading up of the air -craft head; ( 2 ) during the ditching , the pressure of the head skeleton changes significantly; ( 3 ) with the de-crease of the hitting angle , the stress of the head reduces; and ( 4 ) both the head stress and the bottom impact force reduce with the decrease of ditching speed .%水陆两栖飞机水上降落属于复杂的流固耦合问题,文中建立了某水陆两栖飞机机头的入水流固耦合模型,采用耦合的欧拉-拉格朗日( CEL )算法分析了机头入水瞬时的结构动力响应,对比了不同入水角度和不同垂直速度下机头的应力、冲击力及质心速度变化。结果表明:机头入水初期船底冲击力即出现峰值,之后随着机头抬高,船底冲击力将再次出现峰值;入水过程中机头骨架受力变化明显;随着入水角度的减小,机头应力也减小;入水速度减小,机头应力和船底冲击力都随之减小。

  9. Identification of potential locations of electric vehicle supply equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, R. Paul; Qin, Nan

    2015-12-01

    Proper placement of electric vehicle supply equipment (charging stations) requires an understanding of vehicle usage patterns. Using data from the National Household Travel Survey on vehicle mileage and destination patterns, analyses were performed to determine electric vehicles' charging needs, as a function of battery size and state of charge. This paper compares electric vehicle charging needs with Department of Energy electric vehicle charging data from real-world charging infrastructure. By combining the electric vehicles charging needs with charging data from real-world applications, locations with high electric vehicle charging likelihood are identified.

  10. Vehicle Modifications for Persons with Disabilities - Modifier List

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contain information that identifies, and provides contact information for, businesses modifying vehicles to enable persons with disabilities to operate the vehicle,...

  11. Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Williams [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.

  12. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  13. A cycle timer for testing electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    A cycle timer was developed to assist the driver of an electric vehicle in more accurately following and repeating SAE driving schedules. These schedules require operating an electric vehicle in a selected stop-and-go driving cycle and repeating this cycle pattern until the vehicle ceases to meet the requirements of the cycle. The heart of the system is a programmable read-only memory (PROM) that has the required test profiles permanently recorded on plug-in cards, one card for each different driving schedule. The PROM generates a direct current analog signal that drives a speedometer displayed on one scale of a dual movement meter. The second scale of the dual movement meter displays the actual speed of the vehicle as recorded by the fifth wheel. The vehicle operator controls vehicle speed to match the desired profile speed. The PROM controls the recycle start time as well as the buzzer activation. The cycle programmer is powered by the test vehicle's 12-volt accessory battery, through a 5-volt regulator and a 12-volt dc-to-dc converter.

  14. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  15. Autonomous Vehicle Transportation Using Wireless Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ragul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the use of a vehicle in several industries and is capable of reducing extra strenuous and/or time consuming activities of humans. The main concentration of this work was onvehicle navigation, tracking, obstacle detection, weight overload, battery power measuring and also be able to locate the respective service station goods. Vehicle navigation employs RFID technology. TheRFID reader is installed in the vehicle and reads the tags which are placed along its route. Whenever a vehicle reaches a service station it sends a message to the workers. Upon receiving a message, the workers can collect the respective service station goods using RFID. If the wrong goods are taken out of the vehicle, the buzzer gets activated. The obstacle detection can be done by ultrasonic sensors. If any obstacle in the route is detected, the message is sent to the control station of the industry using the GSM module. The load cell is used to indicate the weight overload to the workers. Two batteries have been together utilized to measure the required power by this developed vehicle. As soon as Battery1 becomes dry, the battery2 is made the main source of power and a message is sent to the control station through GSM. The control station having a GSM module receives the message and the result will be displayed in hyper terminal window on the PC (personal computer. The vehicle transportation uses PICmicrocontroller, sensors and wireless technology.

  16. Topological characterization of safe coordinated vehicle motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILGRAM.R. JAMES; KAUFMAN,STEPHEN G.

    2000-04-03

    This paper characterizes the homotopy properties and the global topology of the space of positions of vehicles which are constrained to travel without intersecting on a network of paths. The space is determined by the number of vehicles and the network. Paths in the space correspond to simultaneous non-intersecting motions of all vehicles. The authors therefore focus on computing the homotopy type of the space, and show how to do so in the general case. Understanding the homotopy type of the space is the central issue in controlling the vehicles, as it gives a complete description of the distinct ways that vehicles may move safely on the network. The authors exhibit graphs, products of graphs, and amalgamations of products of graphs that are homotopy equivalent to the full configuration space, and are far simpler than might be expected. The results indicate how a control system for such a network of vehicles (such as a fleet of automatically guided vehicles guided by wires buried in a factory floor) may be implemented.

  17. Image-based Vehicle Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Jun Yee

    2012-01-01

    Electronic toll collection (ETC) system has been a common trend used for toll collection on toll road nowadays. The implementation of electronic toll collection allows vehicles to travel at low or full speed during the toll payment, which help to avoid the traffic delay at toll road. One of the major components of an electronic toll collection is the automatic vehicle detection and classification (AVDC) system which is important to classify the vehicle so that the toll is charged according to the vehicle classes. Vision-based vehicle classification system is one type of vehicle classification system which adopt camera as the input sensing device for the system. This type of system has advantage over the rest for it is cost efficient as low cost camera is used. The implementation of vision-based vehicle classification system requires lower initial investment cost and very suitable for the toll collection trend migration in Malaysia from single ETC system to full-scale multi-lane free flow (MLFF). This project ...

  18. Vehicle/guideway interaction in maglev systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Rote, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    Dynamic interactions between the vehicle and guideway in a high-speed ground transportation system based on magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles were studied, with an emphasis on the effects of vehicle and guideway parameters. Two dynamic models for the vehicle are presented. In one model, the vehicle is considered to be a moving force traveling at various speeds on a simply supported single- or two-span beam. In the second model, the vehicle is considered to be one-dimensional and has two degrees of freedom; this model consists of the primary and secondary suspensions of the vehicle, with lumped masses, linear springs, and dampings. The Bernoulli-Euler beam equation is used to model the characteristics of a flexible guideway, and the guideway synthesis is based on modal analysis. Analyses were performed to gain an understanding of response characteristics under various loading conditions and to provide benchmark data for verification of existing comprehensive computer programs and some basic design guidelines for maglev systems. Finally, the German Transrapid maglev system was evaluated. 19 ref.

  19. Video surveillance of pedestrians and vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Daniel; Ablavsky, Vitaly; Thangali, Ashwin; Sclaroff, Stan; Snorrason, Magnús

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of automated surveillance in a parking lot scenario. We call our research system VANESSA, for Video Analysis for Nighttime Surveillance and Situational Awareness. VANESSA is capable of: 1) detecting moving objects via background modeling and false motion suppression, 2) tracking and classifying pedestrians and vehicles, and 3) detecting events such as person entering or exiting a vehicle. Moving object detection utilizes a multi-stage cascading approach to identify pixels that belong to the true objects and reject any spurious motion, (e.g., due to vehicle headlights or moving foliage). Pedestrians and vehicles are tracked using a multiple hypothesis tracker coupled with a particle filter for state estimation and prediction. The space-time trajectory of each tracked object is stored in an SQL database along with sample imagery to support video forensics applications. The detection of pedestrians entering/exiting vehicles is accomplished by first estimating the three-dimensional pose and the corresponding entry and exit points of each tracked vehicle in the scene. A pedestrian activity model is then used to probabilistically assign pedestrian tracks that appear or disappear in the vicinity of these entry/exit points. We evaluate the performance of tracking and pedestrian-vehicle association on an extensive data set collected in a challenging real-world scenario.

  20. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  1. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  2. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  3. Analysis of Vehicle-Based Security Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jason M [ORNL; Paul, Nate R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications promises to increase roadway safety by providing each vehicle with 360 degree situational awareness of other vehicles in proximity, and by complementing onboard sensors such as radar or camera in detecting imminent crash scenarios. In the United States, approximately three hundred million automobiles could participate in a fully deployed V2V system if Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) device use becomes mandatory. The system s reliance on continuous communication, however, provides a potential means for unscrupulous persons to transmit false data in an attempt to cause crashes, create traffic congestion, or simply render the system useless. V2V communications must be highly scalable while retaining robust security and privacy preserving features to meet the intra-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication requirements for a growing vehicle population. Oakridge National Research Laboratory is investigating a Vehicle-Based Security System (VBSS) to provide security and privacy for a fully deployed V2V and V2I system. In the VBSS an On-board Unit (OBU) generates short-term certificates and signs Basic Safety Messages (BSM) to preserve privacy and enhance security. This work outlines a potential VBSS structure and its operational concepts; it examines how a vehicle-based system might feasibly provide security and privacy, highlights remaining challenges, and explores potential mitigations to address those challenges. Certificate management alternatives that attempt to meet V2V security and privacy requirements have been examined previously by the research community including privacy-preserving group certificates, shared certificates, and functional encryption. Due to real-world operational constraints, adopting one of these approaches for VBSS V2V communication is difficult. Timely misbehavior detection and revocation are still open problems for any V2V system. We explore the alternative approaches that may be

  4. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS and types of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet composition problem - FC. The essence of both problems lies in balancing transportation supply and demand taking into account different demand types to be fulfilled and different vehicle types that can be put into a fleet. Vehicles, which can substitute each other while fulfilling different demand types. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FS/FC analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist some best fitted (optimal fleet size / composition matching company's transportation requirements. An optimal fleet size / composition allows for a significantly higher fleet utilization (10-15% higher than any other, including random fleet structure. Moreover, any changes in the optimal fleet size / composition, even small ones, result in a lower utilization of vehicles (lower by a few percent. Conclusions: The presented in this paper analysis, on the one hand, is consistent with a widespread opinion that the number of vehicle types in a fleet should be limited. In the other words it means that the versatility / interchangeability of vehicles is very important. On the other hand, the analysis proves that even small changes in a fleet size / fleet composition can result in an important changes of the fleet

  5. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  6. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  7. Using the lead vehicle as preview sensor in convoy vehicle active suspension control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Rideout, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    Both ride quality and roadholding of actively suspended vehicles can be improved by sensing the road ahead of the vehicle and using this information in a preview controller. Previous applications have used look-ahead sensors mounted on the front bumper to measure terrain beneath. Such sensors are vulnerable, potentially confused by water, snow, or other soft obstacles and offer a fixed preview time. For convoy vehicle applications, this paper proposes using the overall response of the preceding vehicle(s) to generate preview controller information for follower vehicles. A robust observer is used to estimate the states of a quarter-car vehicle model, from which road profile is estimated and passed on to the follower vehicle(s) to generate a preview function. The preview-active suspension, implemented in discrete time using a shift register approach to improve simulation time, reduces sprung mass acceleration and dynamic tyre deflection peaks by more than 50% and 40%, respectively. Terrain can change from one vehicle to the next if a loose obstacle is dislodged, or if the vehicle paths are sufficiently different so that one vehicle misses a discrete road event. The resulting spurious preview information can give suspension performance worse than that of a passive or conventional active system. In this paper, each vehicle can effectively estimate the road profile based on its own state trajectory. By comparing its own road estimate with the preview information, preview errors can be detected and suspension control quickly switched from preview to conventional active control to preserve performance improvements compared to passive suspensions.

  8. Vision-Based Leader Vehicle Trajectory Tracking for Multiple Agricultural Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linhuan; Ahamed, Tofael; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Pengbo; Takigawa, Tomohiro

    2016-04-22

    The aim of this study was to design a navigation system composed of a human-controlled leader vehicle and a follower vehicle. The follower vehicle automatically tracks the leader vehicle. With such a system, a human driver can control two vehicles efficiently in agricultural operations. The tracking system was developed for the leader and the follower vehicle, and control of the follower was performed using a camera vision system. A stable and accurate monocular vision-based sensing system was designed, consisting of a camera and rectangular markers. Noise in the data acquisition was reduced by using the least-squares method. A feedback control algorithm was used to allow the follower vehicle to track the trajectory of the leader vehicle. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was introduced to maintain the required distance between the leader and the follower vehicle. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensing and tracking performances of the leader-follower system while the leader vehicle was driven at an average speed of 0.3 m/s. In the case of linear trajectory tracking, the RMS errors were 6.5 cm, 8.9 cm and 16.4 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. Again, for parallel trajectory tracking, the root mean square (RMS) errors were found to be 7.1 cm, 14.6 cm and 14.0 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. The navigation performances indicated that the autonomous follower vehicle was able to follow the leader vehicle, and the tracking accuracy was found to be satisfactory. Therefore, the developed leader-follower system can be implemented for the harvesting of grains, using a combine as the leader and an unloader as the autonomous follower vehicle.

  9. Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; Ghys, J. P.; Gransart, Ch; Ambellouis, S.

    2005-06-01

    For several years road vehicle autonomous cruise control (ACC) systems as well as anti-collision radar have been developed. Several manufacturers currently sell this equipment. The current generation of ACC sensors only track the first preceding vehicle to deduce its speed and position. These data are then used to compute, manage and optimize a safety distance between vehicles, thus providing some assistance to car drivers. However, in real conditions, to elaborate and update a real time driving solution, car drivers use information about speed and position of preceding and following vehicles. This information is essentially perceived using the driver's eyes, binocular stereoscopic vision performed through the windscreens and rear-view mirrors. Furthermore, within a line of vehicles, the frontal road perception of the first vehicle is very particular and highly significant. Currently, all these available data remain strictly on-board the vehicle that has captured the perception information and performed these measurements. To get the maximum effectiveness of all these approaches, we propose that this information be shared in real time with the following vehicles, within the convoy. On the basis of these considerations, this paper technically explores a cost-effective solution to extend the basic ACC sensor function in order to simultaneously provide a vehicle-to-vehicle radio link. This millimetre wave radio link transmits relevant broadband perception data (video, localization...) to following vehicles, along the line of vehicles. The propagation path between the vehicles uses essentially grazing angles of incidence of signals over the road surface including millimetre wave paths beneath the cars.

  10. Wireless Instrumentation Use on Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the results of a study on the use of wireless instrumentation and sensors on future launch vehicles. The use of wireless technologies would if feasible would allow for fewer wires, and allow for more flexibility. However, it was generally concluded that wireless solutions are not currently ready to replace wired technologies for launch vehicles. The recommendations of the study were to continue to use wired sensors as the primary choice for vehicle instrumentation, and to continue to assess needs and use wireless instrumentation where appropriate. The future work includes support efforts for wireless technologies, and continue to monitor the development of wireless solutions.

  11. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  12. Management, Acquisition, and Use of Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    issuing authority. e. Report suspension or revocation of their State motor vehicle operator license as required by the vehicle issuing authority. f...40,000 and Up All 25,000 Motorcycle 4/A All 3,000 Scooter , 3- or 4-Wheel N/A Gasoline 2,400 2-10 Figure 2-1. DD Form 1970, "Motor Equipment Utilization...adequately supported through the use of alternative transportation resources (such as scooters , bicycles, mopeds)? (4) Will the vehicle meet utilization

  13. Cooperative sentry vehicles and differential GPS leapfrog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDDEMA,JOHN T.; LEWIS,CHRISTOPHER L.; LAFARGE,ROBERT A.

    2000-06-07

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of using a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter, perform a surround task, and travel extended distances. This paper describes the authors most recent activities. In particular, this paper highlights the development of a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) leapfrog capability that allows two or more vehicles to alternate sending DGPS corrections. Using this leapfrog technique, this paper shows that a group of autonomous vehicles can travel 22.68 kilometers with a root mean square positioning error of only 5 meters.

  14. Development history of the Hybrid Test Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummel, M. C.; Burke, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Phase I of a joint Department of Energy/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Program undertook the development of the Hybrid Test Vehicle (HTV), which has subsequently progressed through design, fabrication, and testing and evaluation phases. Attention is presently given to the design and test experience gained during the HTV development program, and a discussion is presented of the design features and performance capabilities of the various 'mule' vehicles, devoted to the separate development of engine microprocessor control, vehicle structure, and mechanical components, whose elements were incorporated into the final HTV design. Computer projections of the HTV's performance are given.

  15. ROLLING NOISE SIMULATION OF A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MAZILU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rolling noise of the railway vehicles is occurred by the wheel/rail vibration excited bythe rolling surfaces roughness. This paper presents an acoustic model able to predict the rollingnoise level of a railway vehicle. The acoustic model is based on a wheel/rail vibration modelwhich takes into account the structural wheel vibration (Remington model and the bendingvertical waves of the rail. To this, the track model with an infinite Euler Bernoulli beam elasticallysupported on two layers is applied to simulate the effect of the ballasted track. The influence of therolling surfaces roughness and vehicle velocity on the rolling noise is investigated.

  16. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  17. Traffic modelling framework for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlote, Arieh; Crisostomi, Emanuele; Kirkland, Stephen; Shorten, Robert

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews and improves a recently proposed model of road network dynamics. The model is also adapted and generalised to represent the patterns of battery consumption of electric vehicles travelling in the road network. Simulations from the mobility simulator SUMO are given to support and to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. Applications relevant in the field of electric vehicles, such as optimal routing and traffic load control, are provided to illustrate how the proposed model can be used to address typical problems arising in contemporary road network planning and electric vehicle mobility.

  18. Stabilization of coordinated motion for underwater vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Wu; Zhi-Yong Geng

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a coordinating and stabilizing control law for a group of underwater vehicles with unstable dynamics. The coordinating law is derived from a potential that only depends on the relative configuration of the underwater vehicles. Being coordinated, the group behaves like one mechanical system with symmetry, and we focus on stabilizing a family of coordinated motions, called relative equilibria. The stabilizing law is derived using energy shaping to stabilize the relative equilibria which involve each vehicle translating along its longest (unstable) axis without spinning,while maintaining a relative configuration within the group.The proposed control law is physically motivated and avoids the linearization or cancellation of nonlinearities.

  19. Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

    2009-12-01

    The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

  20. Longitudinal oscillation of launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    During powered flight a vehicle may develop longitudinal self-excited oscillations, so-called oscillations, of its structure. The energy supplying the vibration is tapped from the thrust by the activity of the system itself; that is, oscillation of the structure causes oscillation of the propellant system, especially of the pumps. In this way an oscillating thrust can be created that, by a feedback loop, may sustain the structural oscillation under certain circumstances. Two special features of the system proved to be essential for creation of instability. One is the effect of the inherent time interval that the thrust oscillation is lagging behind the structural oscillation. The other is the decreased of system mass caused by the exhausting of gas. The latter feature may cause an initially stable system to become unstable. To examine the stability of the system, a single mass-spring model, which is the result of a one-term Galerkin approach to the equation of motion, has been considered. The Nyquist stability criterion leads to a stability graph that shows the stability conditions in terms of the system parameter and also demonstrates the significance of time lag, feedback magnitude, and loss of mass. An important conclusion can be drawn from the analysis: large relative displacements of the pump-engine masses favor instability. This is also confirmed by flight measurements.

  1. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  2. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  3. Usability Analysis of Collision Avoidance System in Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional intelligent vehicles have performance limitations owing to the short road and obstacle detection range of the installed sensors. In this study, to overcome this limitation, we tested the usability of a new conceptual autonomous emergency braking (AEB system that employs vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication technology in the existing AEB system. To this end, a radar sensor and a driving and communication environment constituting the AEB system were simulated; the simulation was then linked by applying vehicle dynamics and control logic. The simulation results show that the collision avoidance relaxation rate of V2V communication-based AEB system was reduced compared with that of existing vehicle-mounted-sensor-based system. Thus, a method that can lower the collision risk of the existing AEB system, which uses only a sensor cluster installed on the vehicle, is realized.

  4. Study on Reverse Reconstruction Method of Vehicle Group Situation in Urban Road Network Based on Driver-Vehicle Feature Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle group situation is the status and situation of dynamic permutation which is composed of target vehicle and neighboring traffic entities. It is a concept which is frequently involved in the research of traffic flow theory, especially the active vehicle security. Studying vehicle group situation in depth is of great significance for traffic safety. Three-lane condition was taken as an example; the characteristics of target vehicle and its neighboring vehicles were synthetically considered to restructure the vehicle group situation in this paper. The Gamma distribution theory was used to identify the vehicle group situation when target vehicle arrived at the end of the study area. From the perspective of driver-vehicle feature evolution, the reverse reconstruction method of vehicle group situation in the urban road network was proposed. Results of actual driving, virtual driving, and simulation experiments showed that the model established in this paper was reasonable and feasible.

  5. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. Concepts are presented for morphing aircraft, to enable the aircraft to...

  6. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  7. Metric Tracking of Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs reliable, accurate navigation for launch vehicles and other missions. GPS is the best world-wide navigation system, but operates at low power making it...

  8. GPS Attitude Determination for Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a family of compact, low-cost GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensors for launch vehicles. In order to obtain 3-D attitude...

  9. Thermal Soak Analysis of Earth Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Sepka, Steven A.; Aliaga, Jose F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle project is developing an integrated tool called Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing that will provide key technology solutions including mass sizing, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal and structural analysis for any given sample return mission. Thermal soak analysis and temperature predictions of various components including the payload container of the entry vehicle are part of the solution that this tool will offer to mission designers. The present paper focuses on the thermal soak analysis of an entry vehicle design based on the Mars Sample Return entry vehicle geometry and discusses a technical approach to develop parametric models for thermal soak analysis that will be integrated into the tool.

  10. Energy shaping for coordinating internally actuated vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the stable coordination problem of two vehicles equipping with internal moving mass actuators.The coordinating and stabilizing control are derived by energy shaping. The proposed method is physically motivated and avoids cancelation or domination of nonlinearities.

  11. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  12. Automation for Vehicle and Crew Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern space systems such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the proposed Constellation vehicles and habitats are complex entities with hundreds of...

  13. Fourth-generation Mars vehicle concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1994-09-01

    Conceptual designs for fourth-generation crew-carrying Mars transfer and excursion vehicles, fully integrated to state-of-the-art standards, are presented. The resulting vehicle concepts are sized for six crew members, and can support all opposition and conjunction opportunities in or after 2014. The modular, reusable transfer ship is launched to Earth orbit on six 185-ton-class boosters and assembled there robotically. Its dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines use liquid hydrogen propollant. The payload consists of a microgravity habitation system and an expendable lift-to-drag = 1.6 lander capable of aeromaneuvering to sites within +/- 20 deg of the equator. This lander can deliver either an expendable, storable-bipropellant crew-carrying ascent vehicle, or 40 tons of cargo, and it is capable of limited surface mobility to support base buildup. Multiple cargo landers sent ahead on robotic transfer vehicles deliver the supplies and equipment required for long-duration surface missions.

  14. HUMAN-SIMULATING VEHICLE STEERING CONTROL ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Youchun; LI Keqiang; CHANG Ming; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    A new vehicle steering control algorithm is presented. Unlike the traditional methods do,the algorithm uses a sigmoid function to describe the principle of the human driver's steering strategy.Based on this function, a human simulating vehicle steering model, human-simulating steering control(HS) algorithm is designed. In order to improve the adaptability to different environments, a parameter adaptive adjustment algorithm is presented. This algorithm can online modify the value of the key parameters of the HS real time. HS controller is used on a vehicle equipped with computer vision system and computer controlled steering actuator system, the result from the automatic vehicle steering experiment shows that the HS algorithm gives good performance at different speed, even at the maximum speed of 172 km/h.

  15. Moving mass trim control for aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, R. D.; Rainwater, B. A.; Kerr, S. A.

    A moving mass trim controller increases the accuracy of axisymmetric, ballistic vehicles. The MMTC is different than other moving mass schemes because it generates an angle-of-attack (AOA) directly from the mass motion. The nonlinear equations of motion for a ballistic vehicle with one moving point mass are derived and provide the basis for a detailed simulation model. The full nonlinear equations are linearized to produce a set of linear, time-varying autopilot equations. These autopilot equations are analyzed and used to develop theoretical design tools for the creation of MMTC's for both fast and slow spinning vehicles. A fast spinning MMTC is designed for a generic artillery rocket that uses principal axis misalignment to generate trim AOA. A slow spinning is designed for a generic reentry vehicle that generates a trim AOA with a center of mass offset and aerodynamic drag. The performance of both MMTC's are evaluated with the detailed simulation.

  16. Navigation System Fault Diagnosis for Underwater Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thomas; Gregersen, Rene Tavs; Blanke, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates fault diagnosis on unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) based on analysis of structure of the nonlinear dynamics. Residuals are generated using dierent approaches in structural analysis followed by statistical change detection. Hypothesis testing thresholds are made signal b...

  17. Remotely piloted vehicles; A selective bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, R. [comp.

    1975-12-01

    This report is a bibliography from the International Aerospace Abstracts and the Scientific and Technical Aerospace Abstracts on remotely piloted vehicles. Most of the applications of these RPV`s are military in nature.

  18. Power for Vehicle Embedded MEMS Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Embedded wireless sensors of the future will enable flight vehicle systems to be "highly aware" of onboard health and performance parameters, as well as the...

  19. Public and vehicle lighting in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Requirements for the lighting of various types of roads and streets in residential areas are discussed. Emphasis in placed on the "woonerf" concept. The lighting of motor vehicles is discussed. The interaction between the two lighting modes is briefly indicated.

  20. VT Vehicle-Animal Collisions - 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data (ROADKILL06) describes the locations of vehicle-animal collisions. This shapefile is a collection of collsion information collected by...

  1. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, Robin J. D. [Smith Electric Vehicles Corporation, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  2. Fusion Enhanced Vehicle Level Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Technology Connection, Inc. in conjunction with its partner, Vanderbilt University, is proposing to build a Fusion-enhanced Vehicle Diagnostics System (FVDS)...

  3. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A small, modular dropsonde launcher is being developed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Some critical measurement needs can only be satisfied by in-situ...

  4. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  5. Innovative control systems for tracked vehicle platforms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

     This book has been motivated by an urgent need for designing and implementation of innovative control algorithms and systems for tracked vehicles. Nowadays the unmanned vehicles are becoming more and more common. Therefore there is a need for innovative mechanical constructions capable of adapting to various applications regardless the ground, air or water/underwater environment. There are multiple various activities connected with tracked vehicles. They can be distributed among three main groups: design and control algorithms, sensoric and vision based in-formation, construction and testing mechanical parts of unmanned vehicles. Scientists and researchers involved in mechanics, control algorithms, image processing, computer vision, data fusion, or IC will find this book useful.

  6. Electric Vehicles--A Historical Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Most people don't realize that the history of electric vehicles (EVs) predates the Civil War. This article provides a historical snapshot of EVs to spark the interest of both teachers and students in this important transportation technology.

  7. Electronic Prognostics for Vehicle Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All electronic systems are prone to wear-out and eventual failure and this has direct implications for Vehicle Health Management for NASA with its long space...

  8. Rich Vehicle Routing Problems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min

    the company’s solution in terms of all the objectives, including the travel time, customer waiting and daily workload balances, under the given constraints considered in the work. Finally, we address an integrated vehicle routing and driver scheduling problem, in which a large number of practical constraints......The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most important and challenging optimization problems in the field of Operations Research. It was introduced by Dantzig and Ramser (1959) and defined as the problem of designing the optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles in order to serve...... given to various extensions of the VRP that arise in real life. These extensions are often called Rich Vehicle Routing Problems (RVRPs). In contrast to the research of classical VRP that focuses on the idealized models with unrealistic assumptions, the research of RVRPs considers those complicated...

  9. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft are...

  10. Robotic technologies for outdoor industrial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentz, Anthony

    2001-09-01

    The commercial industries of agriculture, mining, construction, and material handling employ a wide variety of mobile machines, including tractors, combines, Load-Haul-Dump vehicles, trucks, paving machines, fork trucks, and many more. Automation of these vehicles promises to improve productivity, reduce operational costs, and increase safety. Since the vehicles typically operate in difficult environments, under all weather conditions, and in the presence of people and other obstacles, reliable automation faces severe technical challenges. Furthermore, the viable technology solutions are constrained by cost considerations. Fortunately, due to the limited application domain, repetitive nature, and the utility of partial automation for most tasks, robotics technologies can have a profound impact on industrial vehicles. In this paper, we describe a technical approach developed at Carnegie Mellon University for automating mobile machines in several applications, including mass excavation, mining, and agriculture. The approach is introduced via case studies, and the results are presented.

  11. Power for Vehicle Embedded MEMS Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Embedded wireless sensors of the future will enable flight vehicle systems to be "highly aware" of onboard health and performance parameters, as well as the external...

  12. Quantifying electric vehicle battery degradation from driving vs. vehicle-to-grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai; Coignard, Jonathan; Zeng, Teng; Zhang, Cong; Saxena, Samveg

    2016-11-01

    The risk of accelerated electric vehicle battery degradation is commonly cited as a concern inhibiting the implementation of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. However, little quantitative evidence exists in prior literature to refute or substantiate these concerns for different grid services that vehicles may offer. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to quantify electric vehicle (EV) battery degradation from driving only vs. driving and several vehicle-grid services, based on a semi-empirical lithium-ion battery capacity fade model. A detailed EV battery pack thermal model and EV powertrain model are utilized to capture the time-varying battery temperature and working parameters including current, internal resistance and state-of-charge (SOC), while an EV is driving and offering various grid services. We use the proposed method to simulate the battery degradation impacts from multiple vehicle-grid services including peak load shaving, frequency regulation and net load shaping. The degradation impact of these grid services is compared against baseline cases for driving and uncontrolled charging only, for several different cases of vehicle itineraries, driving distances, and climate conditions. Over the lifetime of a vehicle, our results show that battery wear is indeed increased when vehicles offer V2G grid services. However, the increased wear from V2G is inconsequential compared with naturally occurring battery wear (i.e. from driving and calendar ageing) when V2G services are offered only on days of the greatest grid need (20 days/year in our study). In the case of frequency regulation and peak load shaving V2G grid services offered 2 hours each day, battery wear remains minimal even if this grid service is offered every day over the vehicle lifetime. Our results suggest that an attractive tradeoff exists where vehicles can offer grid services on the highest value days for the grid with minimal impact on vehicle battery life.

  13. Optimum Design of 1st Gear Ratio for 4WD Vehicles Based on Vehicle Dynamic Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Shojaeefard; Talebitooti,R.; Sadegh Yarmohammadi Satri

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach that allows optimizing gear ratio and vehicle dimension to achieve optimum gear transmission. Therefore, augmented Lagrangian multiplier method, defined as classical method, is utilized to find the optimum gear ratios and the corresponding number of gear teeth applied to all epicyclical gears. The new method is able to calculate and also to optimize the gear ratio based on dynamics of 4WD vehicles. Therefore, 4WD vehicles dynamic equations are employed assuming...

  14. Alleviating a form of electric vehicle range anxiety through on-demand vehicle access

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher; Griggs, Wynita; Wirth, Fabian; Quinn, Karl; Shorten, Robert

    2015-04-01

    On-demand vehicle access is a method that can be used to reduce types of range anxiety problems related to planned travel for electric vehicle owners. Using ideas from elementary queueing theory, basic quality of service (QoS) metrics are defined to dimension a shared fleet to ensure high levels of vehicle access. Using mobility data from Ireland, it is argued that the potential cost of such a system is very low.

  15. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...... vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport...

  16. Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc

    2008-03-01

    Motor vehicles contribute to climate change and petroleum dependence. Improving their fuel economy by making them lighter need not compromise safety. The cars and trucks plying America's roads and highways generate roughly 20 percent of the nation's total emissions of carbon dioxide, a pollutant that is, of course, of increasing concern because of its influence on climate. Motor vehicles also account for most of our country's dependence on imported petroleum, the price of which has recently skyrocketed to near-record levels. So policymakers would welcome the many benefits that would accrue from lessening the amount of fuel consumed in this way. Yet lawmakers have not significantly tightened new vehicle fuel-economy standards since they were first enacted three decades ago. Since then, manufacturers have, for the most part, used advances in automotive technology, ones that could have diminished fuel consumption, to boost performance and increase vehicle weight. In addition, the growth in popularity of pickups, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and minivans--and the large amounts of gas they typically guzzle--has resulted in the average vehicle using the same amount of fuel per mile as it did 20 years ago. One of the historical impediments to imposing tougher fuel-economy standards has been the long-standing worry that reducing the mass of a car or truck to help meet these requirements would make it more dangerous to its occupants in a crash. People often justify this concern in terms of 'simple physics', noting, for example, that, all else being equal, in a head-on collision, the lighter vehicle is the more strongly decelerated, an argument that continues to sway regulators, legislators and many in the general public. We have spent the past several years examining the research underlying this position--and some recent work challenging it. We have also conducted our own analyses and come to the conclusion that the claim that lighter vehicles are

  17. Energy Star Concepts for Highway Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-06-24

    The authors of this report, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program, have investigated the possible application of Energy Star ratings to passenger cars and light trucks. This study establishes a framework for formulating and evaluating Energy Star rating methods that is comprised of energy- and environmental-based metrics, potential vehicle classification systems, vehicle technology factors, and vehicle selection criteria. The study tests several concepts and Energy Star rating methods using model-year 2000 vehicle data--a spreadsheet model has been developed to facilitate these analyses. This study tests two primary types of rating systems: (1) an outcome-based system that rates vehicles based on fuel economy, GHG emissions, and oil use and (2) a technology-based system that rates vehicles based on the energy-saving technologies they use. Rating methods were evaluated based on their ability to select vehicles with high fuel economy, low GHG emissions, and low oil use while preserving a full range of service (size and acceleration) and body style choice. This study concludes that an Energy Star rating for passenger cars and light trucks is feasible and that several methods could be used to achieve reasonable tradeoffs between low energy use and emissions and diversity in size, performance, and body type. It also shows that methods that consider only fuel economy, GHG emissions, or oil use will not select a diverse mix of vehicles. Finally, analyses suggest that methods that encourage the use of technology only, may result in increases in acceleration power and weight rather than reductions in oil use and GHG emissions and improvements in fuel economy.

  18. Holographic Analysis of Large Vehicle Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    47 5.35 Driver’s Door, Engine Speed 3000 RPM, t=14ms 48 v Figure No. Figure Title Page No. 6.1 Graphic Illustration of the Relative Phase Shift Between...global dynamic information over large sections of the vibrating vehicle surface. This information provides a means for improving vehicle desing and...sensitivity which is important for large amplitude measurements. The resulting CW fringe pattern for the beam displacement is graphically illustrated in Figure

  19. Trajectory generation for a remotely operated vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of trajectory generation for a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The ROV is a nonholonomic vehicle and has limited actuator capabilities. This means that the task of trajectory generation for the inspection of underwater structures is not a trivial one, and that it cannot be done without computer aided design tools. The approach is based on techniques developed for differential flat systems. The ROV model is presented and it is shown that it satisfies the diffe...

  20. Analysis of Natural Gas Vehicle Industry : none

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    A vehicle powered by natural gas is becoming a prevalent trend and direction in automobile manufacturing. The thesis is aiming at analyzing the natural gas vehicle industry from its environmental effectiveness, economic effectiveness, recent status and its development in the near future with statistical data. And also it will find out the potential problems and relevant technologies. Investigation and literature research method are mainly used to fully collect the correct information and d...

  1. Automatic Control of Personal Rapid Transit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for automatic longitudinal control of a string of closely packed personal vehicles are outlined. Optimal control theory is used to design feedback controllers for strings of vehicles. An important modification of the usual optimal control scheme is the inclusion of jerk in the cost functional. While the inclusion of the jerk term was considered, the effect of its inclusion was not sufficiently studied. Adding the jerk term will increase passenger comfort.

  2. Vehicle Traffic Congestion Estimation Based on RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Naima, Fawzi M.; Hamd, Hassan A.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the proliferation in the number of vehicles on the road, traffic problems are bound to exist. Therefore, the use of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has become mandatory for obtaining traffic information from roads. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been used to obtain vehicles’ IDs (tag ID) from RFID readers and to collect traffic information in real‐time. This paper proposes a simulation system for the Vehicle Traffic Congestion Estimation (VTCE) based on R...

  3. Australia and the new reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, R. J.

    The new generation of reusable launch vehicles represented by ESA's Hermes and HOTOL, NASA's National Aerospace Plane, and the DFVLR's Saenger, promises to radically alter the economic basis of space flight by allowing such operations as the on-orbit servicing of satellites. Attention is presently drawn to the opportunities that arise for Australia's aerospace industry from the availability in Australia of two wind tunnel facilities capable of furnishing the requisite hypersonic aerothermodynamics testing capabilities for these vehicles' development.

  4. Alcohol Advertising and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect of alcohol advertising on motor vehicle fatalities. The concept of an industry level advertising response function is developed and other empirical issues in estimating the effects of advertising are reviewed. The data set consists of quarterly observations, from 1986 to 1989, for 75 advertising markets in the United States and includes 1200 observations. Since motor vehicle fatalities and alcohol advertising are jointly determin...

  5. 431K/CD vehicle number plates

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Green Plates Service, which is responsible for issuing the 431K/CD vehicle number plates , wishes to apologise for the delay in processing applications over the past weeks. The delay is outside the Service’s control, as it is due to the recent introduction of new rules governing the vehicle registration process in France. Normal service will be resumed as soon as possible. Thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM-LS – Green Plates Service

  6. Analysis of Unmmanned Air Vehicles Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Rudinskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The analyzed questions of information security transferable by the radio connection link are presented in this article. This safety it is especially important for design of unmanned air vehicles (UAV and for other remote control vehicles. Also questions about UAV communication systems structure, security treats of radio connection system, possible menaces for secure information transferring, security and integrity are discussed in our presentation. Article in Lithuanian

  7. Vector database for vehicle road navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenda, Lian

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle navigation devices use vector cartographic view, which is designed as a vector database. Database creation begins by setting up a landscape model which includes all the graphical and descriptive data required for accurate vehicle navigation. This paper presents the creation of a database part called StreetConnect, which is used for road navigation. Data obtained using distinct specifications have been transformed into the format compatible with Garmin GPS devices. Data have been obtai...

  8. Visual navigation for an autonomous mobile vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Kevin Robert

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Image understanding for a mobile robotic vehicle is an important and complex task for ensuring safe navigation and extended autonomous operations. The goal of this work is to implement a working vision-based navigation control mechanism within a known environment onboard the autonomous mobile vehicle Yamabico-II. Although installing a working hardware system was not accomplished, the image processing, model description, pattern match...

  9. Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle: Dynamics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A. Y.; Le, N. T.; Marriott, A. T.

    1997-01-01

    The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) concept has been proposed as a tool to evaluate collision avoidance systems and to perform driving-related human factors research. The goal of this study is to analytically investigate to what extent a VDTV with adjustable front and rear anti-roll bar stiffnesses, programmable damping rates, and four-wheel-steering can emulate the lateral dynamics of a broad range of passenger vehicles.

  10. Energy recovery for a road vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulescu, R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the author analyse the possibility of fluid energy recovery, generated from a road vehicle through the aerodynamic impact. The suggested dynamic recovery system use an axial wind turbine, bended with the vehicle. Also, are presented the benefits (economic and energetic) and the disadvantages (constructive and functional) in the base of a calculus statement, with original parts. The results of some numeric calculus for a concrete opportunity are hopeful, the degree of recovery (in fluid - mechanic - electric conversion) tending to 40%.

  11. VEHICLE THEFT ALERT SYSTEM USING GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAXMI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this technical world where technology is growing up day by day and scientific researches are presenting a new era of discoveries, we need security in all the areas. As theft activities are increasing around, we have need of more security in Automobiles/Vehicles. Today automobile industry is a major industry of the world and the vehicles need to be secured otherwise they will be packed gifts for the criminals given by our own hands. The main aim of this paper is to use wireless technology to intimate the owner of the vehicle about each and every unauthorized attempt of entry to his/her vehicle. The auto-generated Short Message Service by system is used to give information to the owner’s cell phone. And one more advantage of this project is that a back Short Message Service can be send by vehicle’s owner which will disable the ignition of the vehicle system and vehicle will be stopped. If system is active and if any unauthorized person tries to start the vehicle, the microcontroller used insystem gets an interrupt through a switch which is connected to the security system. Instantly microcontroller commands the Global System for Mobile modem to send an auto-generated message. The owner receives the Short Message Service alert in the form of some written text which is predefined in the system. If he is not sure about the jumper, owner can send a back message to the Global System for Mobile modem to ‘stop’. The Global System for Mobile modem which is interfaced to the microcontroller receives the message, according to the output of Global System for Mobile modem, micro controller disables the ignition, and it will result in stopping of the vehicle. Advancement to this system is that we can transmit auto-generated Multimedia Message Service instead of Short Message Service by using smart phone.

  12. Scheduling and routing Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. In this thesis we study the Marine Corps Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance Vehicle routing and scheduling problem. the present method of routing and scheduling is presented, along with possible implications for routing and scheduling when future expansion of vehicle assets becomes available. A review of current literature is given and comparisons are drawn between our problem and recent work. A model for the problem, which we call the Multi...

  13. Development Process of Chinese New Energy Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    "Major Sci-Tech Special Project of New Energy Vehicles in Project 863",with industrialization as the goal.actively carried out three main strategies of talents.patents and standards.Through resource integration.management optimization.technical and mechanism innovation.the Project has made prominent progress in the R&D of new energy vehicles.building of industrialization environment and organizing and management of large sci-tech projects.

  14. Military Hybrid Vehicle Optimization and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    and energy security, as well as reduce overall energy u ’C the concept of a microgrid has been introduced [7 ]. A microgricl is defined as an...vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has been show to have the ability to upport the microgrid ru a source, but also a storage device for excess energy [9...understood. The scope of this proposal includes introducing the concept of regarding a military hybrid vehicle as a microgrid and utilizing battery state

  15. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Planning for Information Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV’s) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are being used extensively in fields of underwater cartography , exploration...controls required to follow each candidate trajectory. What we are essentially doing is computing the time- histories of the states and controls along...numerically differentiate (3.24) in order to check a given constraint on Ψ such as |Ψ̇(t)| ≤ Ψ̇max. The net result is a time- history of the states and

  16. Modern Electric Traction of Skoda Plzen Vehicles Modern Electric Traction of Skoda Plzen Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Drabek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric traction vehicle producting plant SKODA Plzen - Transportations develops and produces electric traction drives with the top technological niveau. Electric vehicles are delivered to transport institutions in Czech Republic as well as abroad. Many Ma, and PhD. graduates of the University of Zilina take part in this successful activity.The electric traction vehicle producting plant SKODA Plzen - Transportations develops and produces electric traction drives with the top technological niveau. Electric vehicles are delivered to transport institutions in Czech Republic as well as abroad. Many Ma, and PhD. graduates of the University of Zilina take part in this successful activity.

  17. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  18. Electric vehicle batteries reports of the PPP European green vehicles initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Briec, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume presents research results of the PPP European Green Vehicle Initiative (EGVI), focusing on electric vehicle batteries. Electrification is one road towards sustainable road transportation, and battery technology is one of the key enabling technologies. However, at the same time, battery technology is one of the main obstacles for a broad commercial launch of electric vehicles. This book includes research contributions which try to bridge the gap between research and innovation in the field of battery technology for electric vehicles. The target audience primarily comprises r

  19. Magnetic Launch Assist Vehicle-Artist's Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts a Magnetic Launch Assist vehicle clearing the track and shifting to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The system, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) system, is a launch system developed and tested by Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using an off-board electric energy source and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. The system is similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long, capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds, and the vehicle would then shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  20. Characterizing Epistemic Uncertainty for Launch Vehicle Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Rogers, Jim; Al Hassan, Mohammad; Hark, Frank

    2016-01-01

    NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has the task of estimating the aleatory (randomness) and epistemic (lack of knowledge) uncertainty of launch vehicle loss of mission and crew risk, and communicating the results. Launch vehicles are complex engineered systems designed with sophisticated subsystems that are built to work together to accomplish mission success. Some of these systems or subsystems are in the form of heritage equipment, while some have never been previously launched. For these cases, characterizing the epistemic uncertainty is of foremost importance, and it is anticipated that the epistemic uncertainty of a modified launch vehicle design versus a design of well understood heritage equipment would be greater. For reasons that will be discussed, standard uncertainty propagation methods using Monte Carlo simulation produce counter intuitive results, and significantly underestimate epistemic uncertainty for launch vehicle models. Furthermore, standard PRA methods, such as Uncertainty-Importance analyses used to identify components that are significant contributors to uncertainty, are rendered obsolete, since sensitivity to uncertainty changes are not reflected in propagation of uncertainty using Monte Carlo methods. This paper provides a basis of the uncertainty underestimation for complex systems and especially, due to nuances of launch vehicle logic, for launch vehicles. It then suggests several alternative methods for estimating uncertainty and provides examples of estimation results. Lastly, the paper describes how to implement an Uncertainty-Importance analysis using one alternative approach, describes the results, and suggests ways to reduce epistemic uncertainty by focusing on additional data or testing of selected components.