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Sample records for amphi-beringian area closes

  1. The evolutionary history of the Arabidopsis lyrata complex: a hybrid in the amphi-Beringian area closes a large distribution gap and builds up a genetic barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Marcus A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of higher plants are, on the majority, polyploid, and hybridisation is more frequent in plants than in animals. Both polyploidisation and hybridisation contribute to increased variability within species, and may transfer adaptations between species in a changing environment. Studying these aspects of evolution within a diversified species complex could help to clarify overall spatial and temporal patterns of plant speciation. The Arabidopsis lyrata complex, which is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, is a perennial, outcrossing, herbaceous species complex with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere as well as a disjunct Central European distribution in relictual habitats. This species complex comprises three species and four subspecies, mainly diploids but also several tetraploids, including one natural hybrid. The complex is ecologically, but not fully geographically, separated from members of the closely related species complex of Arabidopsis halleri, and the evolutionary histories of both species compexes have largely been influenced by Pleistocene climate oscillations. Results Using DNA sequence data from the nuclear encoded cytosolic phosphoglucoisomerase and Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 of the ribosomal DNA, as well as the trnL/F region from the chloroplast genome, we unravelled the phylogeography of the various taxonomic units of the A. lyrata complex. We demonstrate the existence of two major gene pools in Central Europe and Northern America. These two major gene pools are constructed from different taxonomic units. We also confirmed that A. kamchatica is the allotetraploid hybrid between A. lyrata and A. halleri, occupying the amphi-Beringian area in Eastern Asia and Northern America. This species closes the large distribution gap of the various other A. lyrata segregates. Furthermore, we revealed a threefold independent allopolyploid origin of this hybrid

  2. Temporal, spatial and ecological dynamics of speciation among amphi-Beringian small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Takebayashi, Naoki; Galbreath, Kurt E.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in promoting diversification across the Northern Hemisphere, although details of the mechanisms driving evolutionary change are still poorly resolved. In a comparative phylogeographical framework, we investigate temporal, spatial and ecological components of evolution within a suite of Holarctic small mammals. We test a hypothesis of simultaneous divergence among multiple taxon pairs, investigating time to coalescence and demographic change for each taxon in response to a combination of climate and geography.

  3. 50 CFR 648.73 - Closed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.73 Section 648.73 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION.... latitude. (b) Areas closed because of small surf clams. Areas may be closed because they contain small...

  4. E-cigarettes forbidden in offices and closed areas

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Be reminded that all people on the CERN site must comply with the following notice from the Medical Service: “In the same manner as for ordinary cigarettes, the use of e-cigarettes is forbidden in all offices and closed areas.” If you have any question, please write to medical.service@cern.ch HSE Unit/ GS-ME Department

  5. Closed but provocative questions: curves enclosing unit area

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Colin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a task leading to work on curve sketching, simultaneous equations and integration to find the area enclosed between two curves. An initial closed question is used to confront students with a provocative answer, which they then explore in a much more open-ended way.

  6. Fisheries Closed Areas Strengthen Scallop Larval Settlement and Connectivity Among Closed Areas and Across International Open Fishing Grounds: A Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kimberley T. A.; Gentleman, W. C.; DiBacco, C.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether a measured increase in average body size of adult sea scallops inside three fishery closed areas on Georges Bank (GB), United States (US), was sufficient to increase larval supply to closed areas and open fishing areas in both US and Canadian areas of the Bank. The effects of adult scallop density-at-size and fecundity-at-size on egg production were compared among open and closed fishery areas, countries, and time periods before and after the closed areas were established. Estimated egg production was then used to define spawning conditions in a coupled biological-physical larval tracking model that simulated larval development, mortality, and dispersal. Results showed that order of magnitude increases in larval settlement after closure were facilitated by increases in size-dependant egg production inside and dispersal from Closed Areas I and II, but not Nantucket Lightship Closed Area. The distributions of both egg production and larval settlement became more uniform across the Bank, causing the relative contribution of Canadian larvae to US scallop aggregations to decrease after establishment of Closed Areas I and II. Decreases in small and medium-sized scallop density in Canada and decreases in large scallops over the US-Southern Flank after closure caused local declines in egg production but were not sufficient to negatively affect larval settlement at the regional scale. Our model suggests that the establishment of fishery closed areas on GB considerably strengthened larval supply and settlement within and among several adult scallop aggregations.

  7. Analysis and Definition of the close-to-crop Area in Relation to Robotic Weeding

    OpenAIRE

    Nørremark, Michael; Griepentrog, Hans W

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse and define the field conditions close to the crop plants of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The aim is to use this study for the choice and development of new physical weeding methods to target weeds at individual plant scale level. It was found that the close to crop area is like a ring structure, comprising an area between an inner- and outer-circle around the sugar beet seedling. Physical weeding should not be applied to the area within the inner ci...

  8. Development of Closed-Loop Simulation Methods for a Next-Generation Terminal Area Automation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John E., III; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2002-01-01

    A next-generation air traffic decision support tool, known as the Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (aFAST), will generate heading, speed and altitude commands to achieve more precise separation of aircraft in the terminal area. The techniques used to analyze the performance of earlier generation decision support tools are not adequate to analyze the performance of aFAST. This paper summarizes the development of a new and innovative fully closed-loop testing method for aFAST. This method, called trajectory feedback testing, closes each aircraft's control loop inside of the aFAST scheduling algorithm. Validation of trajectory feedback testing by examination of the variation of aircraft time-of-arrival predictions between schedule updates and the variation of aircraft excess separation distances between simulation runs is presented.

  9. Effects of upper inflow area on pool boiling in vertical annulus with closed bottoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upper inflow area was changed to identify its effects on the pool boiling heat transfer of saturated water at atmospheric pressure in a vertical annulus with closed bottoms. The inside surface of a 25.4 mm diameter tube was heated. The ratio between the gaps measured at the upper and lower regions of the annulus ranged from 0.18 to 1. Two different lengths of modified gap were investigated. The effects of the inflow area on heat transfer became evident as the heat flux increased and the gap ratio decreased. If the gap ratio was smaller than 0.51 and the height of the interrupter was 10 mm, a significant change in heat transfer was observed. This was attributed primarily to the formation of a lumped bubble around the upper regions of the annulus and the generation of active liquid agitation in the annular gap space

  10. Detection of Emerging and Re-Emerging Pathogens in Surface Waters Close to an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Marcheggiani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge about the spread of pathogens in aquatic environments is scarce probably because bacteria, viruses, algae and their toxins tend to occur at low concentrations in water, making them very difficult to measure directly. The purpose of this study was the development and validation of tools to detect pathogens in freshwater systems close to an urban area. In order to evaluate anthropogenic impacts on water microbiological quality, a phylogenetic microarray was developed in the context of the EU project µAQUA to detect simultaneously numerous pathogens and applied to samples from two different locations close to an urban area located upstream and downstream of Rome in the Tiber River. Furthermore, human enteric viruses were also detected. Fifty liters of water were collected and concentrated using a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration approach. The resultant concentrate was further size-fractionated through a series of decreasing pore size filters. RNA was extracted from pooled filters and hybridized to the newly designed microarray to detect pathogenic bacteria, protozoa and toxic cyanobacteria. Diatoms as indicators of the water quality status, were also included in the microarray to evaluate water quality. The microarray results gave positive signals for bacteria, diatoms, cyanobacteria and protozoa. Cross validation of the microarray was performed using standard microbiological methods for the bacteria. The presence of oral-fecal transmitted human enteric-viruses were detected using q-PCR. Significant concentrations of Salmonella, Clostridium, Campylobacter and Staphylococcus as well as Hepatitis E Virus (HEV, noroviruses GI (NoGGI and GII (NoGII and human adenovirus 41 (ADV 41 were found in the Mezzocammino site, whereas lower concentrations of other bacteria and only the ADV41 virus was recovered at the Castel Giubileo site. This study revealed that the pollution level in the Tiber River was considerably higher downstream rather than

  11. Radioactivity in Virgin Soils and Soils from Some Areas with Closed Uranium Mining Facilities in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, I.; Staneva, D.; Misheva, L.; Bineva, Ts.; Banov, M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil radioecology is an important part of the environmental research in the country. Since the beginning of the 1970's regular monitoring of the content of different radionuclides in Bulgarian soils has been done. Objective of the studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hills and plains (the region of Kozloduy NPP and the Danube river valley). Natural and men-made radionuclides were observed. In the 25-year period after the the contamination with radionuclides due to the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident a rich data base has been collected, recording the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Special attention has been paid to the contamination with the long-lived technogenic radionuclides caesium-137 and strontium-90. This paper presents a summary of the obtained results. Caesium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils few years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Their content in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains) is several times higher than that in the soils from North Bulgaria and Sofia fields. High non-homogenity in the pollution within small areas (even as small as several square meters) has been observed. Natural radioactivity was also studied. Averaged values for natural radionuclides like uranium-238, thorium-232, and radium-226 in virgin soils from different areas in the country are presented. A comparison of the dynamics of their behavior throughout the years is done. Bulgaria is a country with intensive uranium mining activities in the past years. That is why radiological monitoring of closed uranium mining facilities in different regions of the country are obligatory and of great interest. This work presents results from such investigations made in regions where remediation has been done. The results have been evaluated according to the Bulgarian radionuclide environment contamination legislation. The necessity of permanent environmental monitoring is

  12. What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest area to the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae assemblage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio C. Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest to the dung beetle assemblage? The Atlantic Forest in Brazil is one of the most highly disturbed ecosystems and is mainly represented by fragmented areas. However, in places where human disturbances have ceased, certain areas are showing a natural regeneration pattern. The aim of the present study was to determine how the dung beetle assemblage responds to distinct habitat structures in a fragment of Atlantic Forest. For such, open and closed forest areas were sampled in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in the northeastern region of Brazil. Pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion were used to collect the beetles. A total of 7,267 individuals belonging to 35 species were captured. Canthon chalybaeus and C. mutabilis were restricted to open areas. Nearly 90% of the individuals of C. aff. simulans and Deltochilum aff. irroratum were identified in these areas. A higher percentage (> 50% of Canthon staigi, Dichotomius aff. depressicolis and D. aff. sericeus occurred in closed areas. Abundance differed between areas, with higher values in closed areas. Richness was not influenced by the habitat structure. NMDS ordination exhibited the segregation of areas and ANOSIM confirmed that this variable explained the assemblage of dung beetle species. The findings of the present study validate that open areas are associated to more restrictive conditions, limiting a higher abundance of dung beetle. Although situated near preserved fragments, the studied open areas increase the heterogeneity of the general landscape.

  13. Removal of cesium ions from contaminated seawater in closed area using adsorptive fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insoluble cobalt ferrocyanide (Co-FC) microparticles were impregnated onto a polymer chain grafted onto the surface of a 6-nylon fiber by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization and subsequent precipitation. The resultant Co-FC-impregnated fiber was immersed in either nonradioactive or radioactive cesium (Cs) solution in seawater in an initial Cs concentration range from 60 to 5.0 x 10-4 g-Cs/m3. The adsorption isotherm correlated well with a langmuir-type equation. In addition, the mass-transfer capacity coefficient was determined by fitting the experimental data of the rate of Cs adsorption onto the Co-FC-impregnated fiber to theoretical adsorption curves based on the Cs concentration difference between the bulk and the interface in seawater as a driving force of the overall adsorption rate. Decontamination factors (DFs) as functions of fiber weight and the contact time required for the removal of cesium ions from the contaminated seawater in a closed area were estimated using the above-mentioned values. (author)

  14. Effects of outflow area on saturated pool boiling in vertical annulus with closed bottoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied extensively to design efficient heat transfer devices or to assure the integrity of safety related systems. However, knowledge on pool boiling heat transfer in a confined space is still quite limited. The confined nucleate boiling is an effective technique to enhance heat transfer. Improved heat transfer might be attributed to an increase in the heat transfer coefficient due to vaporization from the thin liquid film on the heating surface or increased bubble activity. According to Corn well and Houston, the bubbles sliding on the heated surface agitate environmental liquid. In a confined space a kind of pulsating flow due to the bubbles is created and, as a result very active liquid agitation is generated. The increase in the intensity of liquid agitation results in heat transfer enhancement. Sometimes a deterioration of heat transfer appears at high heat fluxes for confined boiling. The cause of the deterioration is suggested as active bubble coalescence. Recently, Kang published inflow effects on pool boiling heat transfer in a vertical annulus with closed bottoms. Kang regulated the gap size at the upper regions of the annulus and identified that effects of the reduced gaps on heat transfer become evident as the heat flux increases. This kind of geometry is found in an in pile test section. Since more detailed analysis is necessary, effects of the outflow area on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer are investigated in this study. Up to the author's knowledge, no previous results concerning to this effect have been published yet

  15. DEM ASSESSMENT DERIVED FROM CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY: A CASE STUDY FROM KADAVUR AREA, KARUR DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Anbarasan, S.; R. Sakthivel

    2012-01-01

    Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accur...

  16. Optimum currency area indices - How close is the Czech republic to the Eurozone?

    OpenAIRE

    Komárek, Luboš; Čech, Zdeněk; Horváth, Roman

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of the optimum currency area theory, estimates the degree of the explanatory power of the optimum currency area criteria, and also calculates the optimum currency area index in the case of the Czech Republic. The results indicate that the traditional optimum currency area criteria to certain extent explain exchange rate variability.

  17. Summertime evolution of snow specific surface area close to the surface on the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libois, Q.; Picard, G.; Arnaud, L.; Dumont, M.; Lafaysse, M.; Morin, S.; Lefebvre, E.

    2015-12-01

    On the Antarctic Plateau, snow specific surface area (SSA) close to the surface shows complex variations at daily to seasonal scales which affect the surface albedo and in turn the surface energy budget of the ice sheet. While snow metamorphism, precipitation and strong wind events are known to drive SSA variations, usually in opposite ways, their relative contributions remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive set of SSA observations at Dome C is analysed with respect to meteorological conditions to assess the respective roles of these factors. The results show an average 2-to-3-fold SSA decrease from October to February in the topmost 10 cm in response to the increase of air temperature and absorption of solar radiation in the snowpack during spring and summer. Surface SSA is also characterized by significant daily to weekly variations due to the deposition of small crystals with SSA up to 100 m2 kg-1 onto the surface during snowfall and blowing snow events. To complement these field observations, the detailed snowpack model Crocus is used to simulate SSA, with the intent to further investigate the previously found correlation between interannual variability of summer SSA decrease and summer precipitation amount. To this end, some Crocus parameterizations have been adapted to Dome C conditions, and the model was forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis. It successfully matches the observations at daily to seasonal timescales, except for the few cases when snowfalls are not captured by the reanalysis. On the contrary, the interannual variability of summer SSA decrease is poorly simulated when compared to 14 years of microwave satellite data sensitive to the near-surface SSA. A simulation with disabled summer precipitation confirms the weak influence in the model of the precipitation on metamorphism, with only 6 % enhancement. However, we found that disabling strong wind events in the model is sufficient to reconciliate the simulations with the observations. This suggests that

  18. Dem Assessment Derived from Close Range Photogrammetry: a Case Study from Kadavur Area, Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasan, S.; Sakthivel, R.

    2012-07-01

    Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet). (Matthews, N.A, 2008). Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape) of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D) photos, (Wolf, P.R, et.al, 2000) DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K., et.al, 2002). In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

  19. Controlling the Interaction and Non-Close-Packed Arrangement of Nanoparticles on Large Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmudde, Madlen; Grunewald, Christian; Goroncy, Christian; Noufele, Christelle N; Stein, Benjamin; Risse, Thomas; Graf, Christina

    2016-03-22

    In light of the importance of nanostructured surfaces for a variety of technological applications, the quest for simple and reliable preparation methods of ordered, nanometer ranged structures is ongoing. Herein, a versatile method to prepare ordered, non-close-packed arrangements of nanoparticles on centimeter sized surfaces by self-assembly is described using monodisperse (118-162 nm Ø), amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles as an exploratory example. It is shown that the arrangement of the particles is governed by the interplay between the electrostatic repulsion between the particles and the interaction between particles and surfaces. The latter is tuned by the properties of the particles such as their surface roughness as well as the chemistry of the linkage. Weak dispersive interactions between amino groups and gold surfaces are compared to a covalent amide linkage of the amino groups with carboxylic acid functionalized self-assembled monolayers. It was shown that the order of the former systems may suffer from capillary forces between particles during the drying process, while the covalently bonded systems do not. In turn, covalently bonded systems can be dried quickly, while the van der Waals bonded systems require a slow drying process to minimize aggregation. These highly ordered structures can be used as templates for the formation of a second, ordered, non-close-packed layer of nanoparticles exemplified for larger polystyrene particles (Ø 368 ± 14 nm), which highlights the prospect of this approach as a simple preparation method for ordered arrays of nanoparticles with tunable properties. PMID:26919385

  20. Land Subsidence Detection in Agricultural Areas of Konya Closed Basin by PS-InSAR and GNSS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaslan Comut, Fatma; Lazecky, Milan; Ustun, Aydin; Yalvack, Sefa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine and to monitor the areas affected by land subsidence caused by the decrease of groundwater, by using geodetic methods in Konya Closed Basin, Turkey. The GPS and InSAR techniques which complement each other perfectly will be used to deduce spatial deformations caused by the land subsidence. The land subsidence activity in the area of Küçükköy situated at the Konya Closed Basin (KCB) of the Central Anatolia Region in Turkey has been studied using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) InSAR technique. Significant movements of land subsidence ranging from mm to cm per year were detected with ENVISAT ASAR data between 2003 and 2010 above the city center. Results are also compared with GNSS measurements. Estimated deformation rate of KCKY GPS station is approximately - 2 cm/yr.

  1. Mobile Video Game Quality Assurance In a Startup Company During a Closed Beta Test Phase : Case Grey Area

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltio, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance in mobile video games development has a crucial role. It improves the product in all frontiers and serves as one of the final steps before introducing the product to an audience. A working quality assurance will offer benefits to both customer and developer company. Startup companies have a unique approach to quality assurance and Grey Area with its product development approach is among so called lean startup companies. When a startup company enters a closed beta test phase,...

  2. 50 CFR 648.81 - NE multispecies closed areas and measures to protect EFH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN... with bottom tending mobile gear on board the vessel may enter, fish in, or be in the EFH Closure Areas...) Restricted Period—(i) Mobile gear. From October 1 through June 15, no fishing vessel with mobile gear...

  3. Plastic limit load of elbows with local thinned area under combined internal pressure and in-plane closing bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic limit load of elbows with local thinned area (LTA) under combined internal pressure and in-plane closing bending moment has been studied by finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments. The results of FEA and experiments show that, with different LTA, the variation of the limit load of elbows to the internal pressure is different. When a/b≤0.313, the limit moment of elbows always decreases with the increasing of the internal pressure. When a/b>0.313, the limit moment of elbows increases with the increasing of the internal pressure and then decreases with the increasing of the internal pressure. By fitting the results of FEA, the safety assessment figure for elbows under combined internal pressure and in-plane closing bending moment is drawn. The safety assessment method using this figure is applicable for the engineer problems. (authors)

  4. Technical Area V (TA-V) transformation project close-out report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Technical Area V (TA-V) has provided unique nuclear experimental environments for decades. The technologies tested in TA-V facilities have furthered the United States Nuclear Weapons program and has contributed to the national energy and homeland security mission. The importance of TA-V working efficiently to produce an attractive and effective platform for experiments should not be underestimated. Throughout its brief history, TA-V has evolved to address multiple and diverse sets of requirements. These requirements evolved over many years; however, the requirements had not been managed nor communicated comprehensively or effectively. A series of programmatic findings over several years of external audits was evidence of this downfall. Today, these same requirements flow down through a new TA-V management system that produces consistently applied and reproducible approaches to work practices. In 2008, the TA-V department managers assessed the state of TA-V services and work activities to understand how to improve customer interfaces, stakeholders perceptions, and workforce efficiencies. The TA-V management team initiated the TA-V Transformation Project after they deemed the pre-June 2008 operational model to be ineffective in managing work and in providing integrated, continuous improvement to TA-V processes. This report summarizes the TA-V Transformation Project goals, activities, and accomplishments.

  5. Thematic mapper detection of changes in the leaf area of closed canopy pine plantations in central Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote sensing studies of conifer forests have previously reported that the Thematic Mapper Band 4/Band 3 ratio is positively correlated with regional differences in leaf area index (LAI). Our study was an attempt to determine whether Landsat Thematic Mapper data can be used to detect differences and changes in the LAI of closed canopy pine plantations on a local scale in central Massachusetts. Field measurements of LAI were obtained using locally-derived allometric relationships between leaf area and trunk diameter (DBH). A thinning treatment, which reduced the LAI of one of the larger plantations by more than 25%, resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the 4/3 ratio from the prethinned value. No significant change in the 4/3 ratio was found in a nearby broadleaved hardwood forest which served as a radiometric control. However, a decrease in the 4/3 ratio similar to that observed in the thinned plantation was observed in nearby unthinned pine plantations. This change in the reflectance of the unthinned stands may be attributable to a moderate natural reduction in LAI. Such a reduction in LAI would demonstrate the limitations of allometric equations for evaluating LAI under conditions in which the relationship between leaf area and DBH may be changing from year to year. It also would explain why no significant relationship (P > 0.1) was found between the 4/3 ratio and the LAI of the different unthinned plantations which had LAI values ranging from 3.96 to 7.01. We conclude that the TM sensor may be a better guide to moderate changes and differences in the LAI of closed canopy pine plantations at local scales than field measurements involving allometric equations. (author)

  6. Analysis of Double Meridian Distance for a Closed Traverse Area towards Developing a Contour Map and Land Title

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. U. Ganiron Jr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze double meridian distance for a closed traverse area in developing a land title for a propose gymnasium in Qassim University. Theodolite, leveling rod and steel tape plays an important role in measuring elevations, bearings and distances of the boundaries of a lot. Contour map is necessary to determine the traces of level surfaces of successive elevation. This will enable to identify the type of contour map and type of contour lines necessary for this project. Corel draw software is used to draw contour map and guide to interpret the significance of the variables. It is essential to check the error of closure for interior angles and for both latitude and departure before applying the Double Meridian Distance (DMD method to obtain the total area of the lot. Technical descriptions of the land such as distance, bearing, boundaries and area are necessary to visualize the shape & exact location of the land. Developing a land title will be obtained using the technical descriptions of the lot in preparation for the type of gymnasium necessary for Qassim University.

  7. Some aspects concerning the management of underground and surface waters resulted during closing a uranium mining area in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under present circumstances relating to the national nuclear program and strategy, the exploitation activities in two important uranium mining areas in Romania are foreseen to be ceased. This shutdown decision implies a number of technical measures concerning the environmental restoration. Reduction of radioactive contamination of the waters in these zones during both operation period and after the closing period is one of the main components of the environmental rehabilitation strategy. In this paper there are presented the current situation and the program foreseen for ground and surface water treatment at an uranium mining unit situated in the SW side of Romania, a program based on the results of our own research carried out to decrease the content of pollutant radioactive elements. (authors)

  8. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Act of 1962 (16 U.S.C. 460k-460k-4) and this subchapter C. See 50 CFR 36 for details on use and access... we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access and use or continue a... closed to public access until and unless we open the area for a use or uses in accordance with...

  9. Studying the Effect of the Noise of a 63.20KV Transformer Post in the Residential area Close to it

    OpenAIRE

    Fereydoon Sheikh Momeni

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the noise caused by a 63.20KV transformer in the residential area close to it that consisted of 36 points inside the post and the surrounding area around it (including 29 points+30 points). the results demonstrated that noise caused by the function of the transformer t1 was 59.1dBA with the standard deviation of 6.89dBA and for transformer t2 was 59.89dBA with a standard deviation of 6.86dBA .The measured noise in the west residential area around the post wa...

  10. Preliminary isotopic study of groundwater salinity variations in the closed basin semiarid area of Los Monegros, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monegros II Irrigation Plan located in a semiarid, evaporite rich area of the Ebro (Ebre) river basin in northeastern Spain has given rise to serious environmental concern. Major potential environmental impacts include: soil and groundwater salinity problems, a change in the hydrological regime of playa lakes, and an increase of salinity in the Ebro river. The analysis and evaluation of these impacts require knowledge of the hydrogeology of the area. Natural groundwaters have high salinity, which generally increases with residence time as well as a result of groundwater evaporation in areas with a shallow water table. In order to gain insight into the groundwater flow and the sources of groundwater salinity, chemical and environmental isotopic surveys were carried out. Electrical conductivity logs show the existence of a sudden salinity increase with depth in some boreholes. The wide range of δ18O, δ2H and 3H values shows the dominance of local flow patterns with relatively short turnover times (from 10 to 100 years). Isotope fractioning evaporation in the unsaturated zone affects groundwater to some extent. The available data indicate the existence of a gypsum dissolution front in the unsaturated zone and point to a possible residual chloride front in the saturated zone. These fronts and the related water isotopic content are controlled in some cases by a clay seam. In other cases, however, they cannot be related to any lithological or hydrological features. (author). 9 refs, 8 figs

  11. Examining the roles that changing harvested areas, closing yield-gaps, and increasing yield ceilings have had on crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, there has been tremendous effort to examine strategies for sustainably increasing agricultural production to meet this surging global demand. Before developing new solutions from scratch, though, we believe it is important to consult our recent agricultural history to see where and how agricultural production changes have already taken place. By utilizing the newly created temporal M3 cropland datasets, we can for the first time examine gridded agricultural yields and area, both spatially and temporally. This research explores the historical drivers of agricultural production changes, from 1965-2005. The results will be presented spatially at the global-level (5-min resolution), as well as at the individual country-level. The primary research components of this study are presented below, including the general methodology utilized in each phase and preliminary results for soybean where available. The complete assessment will cover maize, wheat, rice, soybean, and sugarcane, and will include country-specific analysis for over 200 countries, states, territories and protectorates. Phase 1: The first component of our research isolates changes in agricultural production due to variation in planting decisions (harvested area) from changes in production due to intensification efforts (yield). We examine area/yield changes at the pixel-level over 5-year time-steps to determine how much each component has contributed to overall changes in production. Our results include both spatial patterns of changes in production, as well as spatial maps illustrating to what degree the production change is attributed to area and/or yield. Together, these maps illustrate where, why, and by how much agricultural production has changed over time. Phase 2: In the second phase of our research we attempt to determine the impact that area and yield changes have had on agricultural production at the country-level. We calculate a production

  12. Verification of anticlockwise gyre in the semi-closed water area of Lake Nakaumi, southwest Japan, by using 224Ra/228Ra activity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Honjyo area in Lake Nakaumi is a semi-closed brackish water area where some mixing of up-flowing marine water and down-flowing lake water take place. A large-scale gyre that caused by the residual circulation was once indicated by a temporal algal blooming that spread over the semi-closed Honjyo area in brackish Lake Nakaumi. In order to verify this type of water circulation, we examined 224Ra (t1/2=3.66 d)/228Ra (t1/2=5.75 y) activity ratios of both upper and lower waters that differentiated by a well-developed halocline. The 224Ra/228Ra ratios in the upper water were lowest in the central area, suggesting the formation of anticlockwise gyre. The ratios in the lower water were rather uniform, but a basin-wide anticlockwise flow of water is also indicated. The 224Ra/228Ra ratio is clearly effective to trace the water flow for both the deep and surface waters. (author)

  13. Energy extracted from underground rock area by using a horizontal closed loop system in Mutah University/Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The ground can be used as a storage tank to store hot or cooled water in Jordan. ► The stored energy in rocks was utilized to provide heating cooling, and hot water for homes. ► The underground geothermal horizontal loop in rocks was technically approved. ► It can extract up to six times the heat energy that used in electrical energy. ► Its low capital cost and zero environmental emissions. - Abstract: Earth Energy Systems (EESs) utilize the thermal energy that is stored in rocks and ground water under the earth’s surface to provide homes, commercial buildings, and industrial facilities with heating, cooling, and hot water. Solar energy is absorbed by the earth’s surface which stores up to 50% of the sun’s energy that radiates on it. Consequently, the earth and groundwater’s temperature is relatively constant compared to that of the surface air. The earth’s temperature is generally warmer than the surface temperature during the colder months of the year, while it is generally cooler than the surface temperature during the hot months of the year. In this study, energy was extracted from the underground rocks at Mutah University in Jordan by using the geothermal horizontal closed loop system. Two-meter holes were drilled into the earth’s surface; copper pipes were inserted for liquid to pass through them into the heat exchange system. Then, the liquid was circulated back into the ground. Several temperature differences were measured and reported in the cold and hot months. The experimental results showed that thermal energy stored in rocks can be used to provide homes with heating, cooling, and hot water with low capital cost and zero environmental emissions.

  14. Complex biogeographic patterns in Androsace (Primulaceae) and related genera: evidence from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear internal transcribed spacer and plastid trnL-F sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Gerald; Schönswetter, Peter; Kelso, Sylvia; Niklfeld, Harald

    2004-12-01

    We conducted phylogenetic analyses of Androsace and the closely related genera Douglasia, Pomatosace, and Vitaliana using DNA sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the plastid trnL-F region. Analyses using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference yield congruent relationships among several major lineages found. These lineages largely disagree with previously recognized taxonomic groups. Most notably, (1) Androsace sect. Andraspis, comprising the short-lived taxa, is highly polyphyletic; (2) Pomatosace constitutes a separate phylogenetic lineage within Androsace; and (3) Douglasia and Vitaliana nest within Androsace sect. Aretia. Our results suggest multiple origins of the short-lived lifeform and a possible reversal from annual or biennial to perennial habit at the base of a group that now contains mostly perennial high mountain or arctic taxa. The group containing Androsace sect. Aretia, Douglasia, and Vitaliana includes predominantly high alpine and arctic taxa with an arctic-alpine distribution, but is not found in the European and northeastern American Arctic or in Central and East Asia. This group probably originated in Europe in the Pliocene, from where it reached the amphi-Beringian region in the Pleistocene or late Pliocene. PMID:15764556

  15. Area-wide integrated pest control operation in Thailand: Two interacting closely related species, Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto and Bactrocera correcta, with potential of species complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since 1987, we have set up a pilot project initially for the control of the Oriental fruit fly (OFF), Bactrocera dorsalis (Handel), and recently also for control of the Guava fruit fly (GFF), Bactrocera correcta. In doing so, we integrated the SIT with other monitoring and control methods in the Rajburi province (south) as well as recently in Phichit province (north). These two area-wide control programmes are operated with different management schemes integrating various stakeholders such as crop growers, local field operators, producers of the sterile insects, politicians, activists, reporters, exporters, scientific experts, and researchers from academies and research institutes. Regular feed back information systems of the field monitoring have been set-up with geographical positioning system (GPS) with the support of IAEA. Thus, most trapping sites and infested fruits collection sites from both the control areas have been geo-referenced and have become valuable resources for the population dynamic studies regarding the effectiveness of the area-wide control programme. Recent research is investigating the impact of the presence of two different but conceivably interacting closely related species, B. dorsalis and B. correcta, which are sympatric polyphagous species with highly overlapping commodity host ranges. However, their degree of host preferences is somewhat different. Crop growers and area-wide control experts require that our effective area-wide control programme needs to be tailored so that population suppression for both species is achieved. Besides, there were several (unpublished) reports indirectly suggesting mating interactions between the two species. This presentation reports initial analysis of mating tests between these two fruit fly species, comparison of their natural history, and the demographic data from our area-wide control areas and from general agricultural areas. We also addressed the use of established molecular genetic

  16. Water treatment strategy for underground and surface waters in order to reduce the hydro-network contamination due to close out of a uranium mining area in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the present circumstances, in correlation with the national nuclear program and strategy, it is foreseen to stop the exploitation activities in two important uranium mining areas from Romania. This close-out action is involving a number of technical decisions for environmental restoration. Reduction of waters radioactive contamination in these zones, both during the operating period and after the closeout period, is one of the main components of the environment rehabilitation strategy. In this paper there are presented the today situation and the program foreseen for ground and surface water treatment at an uranium mining unit situated in the SW side of Romania, program based on the results of our own research carried out to decrease the content of pollutant radioactive elements. (author)

  17. Surface Water Rights in and adjacent to the Closed Basin Project salvage areas : and diversions downstream of Alamosa, Colorado on the Rio Grande

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Closed Basin Project was developed to provide conveyance channels from well fields to the Rio Grande. This report focuses on the 15,200 acre feet of surface...

  18. Characteristics of small areas with high rates of hospital-treated self-harm: deprived, fragmented and urban or just close to hospital? A national registry study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, I B

    2014-10-15

    Previous research has shown an inconsistent relationship between the spatial distribution of hospital treated self-harm and area-level factors such as deprivation and social fragmentation. However, many of these studies have been confined to urban centres, with few focusing on rural settings and even fewer studies carried out at a national level. Furthermore, no previous research has investigated if travel time to hospital services can explain the area-level variation in the incidence of hospital treated self-harm.

  19. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Strand, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    potentially affected by anthropogenic pollution originating from chemical dumping sites. The results indicate responses to pollution in all the biomarkers applied at the suspected areas, but the results were not consistent. Seasonal fluctuations in exposure situations at the study sites make interpretation...

  20. Pd Close Coupled Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua SHI; Mao Chu GONG; Yao Qiang CHEN

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst comprised novel high surface area alumina support was prepared to control emission of automobiles. The results showed that prepared catalyst could satisfy the requirements of a high performance close coupled catalyst for its good catalytic activity at low temperature and good stability at high temperature.

  1. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  2. Live music therapy in waiting area of intensive care units: a novel concept for betterment of close relatives of ICU patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Sumathy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Family members of ICU patients experience high levels of stress and anxiety. We explored a novel concept of live music therapy for relatives of ICU patients. Weekly 1-hour sessions of live music therapy consisting of devotional songs and prayers were performed in waiting area of ICU in a tertiary care hospital. Responses of 100 first degree relatives of ICU patients were documented using an 8-item questionnaire. 69% of the subjects rated live music therapy sessions as and ldquo;excellent and rdquo;; 50% of the subjects reported that they felt and ldquo;excellent and rdquo; after a single session. Such sessions were reported as a felt need by 77% of the subjects; 92% of the subjects reported that there were high chances that they would recommend such sessions in the hospital in future. In our study, we found our concept to be feasible, acceptable and highly appreciated as well as encouraged by first degree relatives of ICU patients. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 947-949

  3. 3-D architecture modeling using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control: Example from the Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Tiller, G.M.; Mahaffie, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Economic considerations of the deep-water turbidite play, in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere, require large reservoir volumes to be drained by relatively few, very expensive wells. Deep-water development projects to date have been planned on the basis of high-quality 3-D seismic data and sparse well control. The link between 3-D seismic, well control, and the 3-D geological and reservoir architecture model are demonstrated here for Pliocene turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. This information was used to better understand potential reservoir compartments for development well planning.

  4. Closed suction drain with bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulb drain; Jackson-Pratt drain; JP drain; Blake drain; Wound drain; Surgical drain ... A closed suction drain is used to remove fluids that build up in areas of your body after surgery or when you have ...

  5. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. [Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}E{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  6. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. (Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the [open quotes]E[close quotes] or [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  7. Close to the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Today, a new ALMA outreach and educational book was publicly presented to city officials of San Pedro de Atacama in Chile, as part of the celebrations of the anniversary of the Andean village. ESO PR Photo 50a/07 ESO PR Photo 50a/07 A Useful Tool for Schools Entitled "Close to the sky: Biological heritage in the ALMA area", and edited in English and Spanish by ESO in Chile, the book collects unique on-site observations of the flora and fauna of the ALMA region performed by experts commissioned to investigate it and to provide key initiatives to protect it. "I thank the ALMA project for providing us a book that will surely be a good support for the education of children and youngsters of San Pedro de Atacama. Thanks to this publication, we expect our rich flora and fauna to be better known. I invite teachers and students to take advantage of this educational resource, which will be available in our schools", commented Ms. Sandra Berna, the Mayor of San Pedro de Atacama, who was given the book by representatives of the ALMA global collaboration project. Copies of the book 'Close to the sky' will be donated to all schools in the area, as a contribution to the education of students and young people in northern Chile. "From the very beginning of the project, ALMA construction has had a firm commitment to environment and local culture, protecting unique flora and fauna species and preserving old estancias belonging to the Likan Antai culture," said Jacques Lassalle, who represented ALMA at the hand-over. "Animals like the llama, the fox or the condor do not only live in the region where ALMA is now being built, but they are also key elements of the ancient Andean constellations. In this sense they are part of the same sky that will be explored by ALMA in the near future." ESO PR Photo 50c/07 ESO PR Photo 50c/07 Presentation of the ALMA book The ALMA Project is a giant, international observatory currently under construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile

  8. Close-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Investigations in the close-up and its meaning regarding nearness, abstraction and transparency. Face, facelike and animism are also major key-words in thsi article... . I have always been fascinated with the close-up, not as an end, but a filter of opportunities to open up for and nearness of...... transcendence, associations and memories. The close-up is not the end, it rather in my view to be regarded as a beginning of different perceptions...

  9. Closed Claim Query File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This file is used to hold information about disability claims that have been closed and have been selected for sampling.Sampling is the process whereby OQR reviews...

  10. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program....

  11. Closed Spaces in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Fagundes, Helio V

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with two aspects of relativistic cosmologies with closed (compact and boundless) spatial sections. These spacetimes are based on the theory of General Relativity, and admit a foliation into space sections, which are spacelike hypersurfaces satisfying the postulate of the closure of space: each is a 3-dimensional closed Riemannian manifold. The discussed topics are: (1) A comparison, previously obtained, between Thurston's geometries and Bianchi-Kantowski-Sachs metrics for such 3-manifolds is here clarified and developed. (2) Some implications of global inhomogeneity for locally homogeneous 3-spaces of constant curvature are analyzed from an observational viewpoint.

  12. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  13. Financial Statements and book-closing

    OpenAIRE

    Boušová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the process of creating financial statement preceded by certain preparation works and closing of individual accounts. In its initial part, the thesis describes legal regulations governing the area of the financial statement process. Then it informs about the individual steps of preparation works, which precede closing of accounts. These operations are important for objective accuracy and completeness of accountancy. Next part of the thesis describes accounting s...

  14. Unwrapping Closed Timelike Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Slobodov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear in many solutions of the Einstein equation, even with reasonable matter sources. These solutions appear to violate causality and so are considered problematic. Since CTCs reflect the global properties of a spacetime, one can attempt to change its topology, without changing its geometry, in such a way that the former CTCs are no longer closed in the new spacetime. This procedure is informally known as unwrapping. However, changes in global identifications tend to lead to local effects, and unwrapping is no exception, as it introduces a special kind of singularity, called quasi-regular. This "unwrapping" singularity is similar to the string singularities. We give two examples of unwrapping of essentially 2+1 dimensional spacetimes with CTCs, the Gott spacetime and the Godel universe. We show that the unwrapped Gott spacetime, while singular, is at least devoid of CTCs. In contrast, the unwrapped Godel spacetime still contains CTCs through every point. A "multiple unwrapping"...

  15. Nonrelativistic closed string theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2001-01-01

    We construct a Galilean invariant nongravitational closed string theory whose excitations satisfy a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. This theory can be obtained by taking a consistent low energy limit of any of the conventional string theories, including the heterotic string. We give a finite first order worldsheet Hamiltonian for this theory and show that this string theory has a sensible perturbative expansion, interesting high energy behavior of scattering amplitudes and a Hagedorn tra...

  16. Post-accident response of near-surface 129I levels and 129I/127I ratios in areas close to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Sasa, Kimikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Matsumura, Masumi; Satou, Yukihiko; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    The deposition density and extent of subsurface infiltration of 129I were investigated within the area highly contaminated by the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Depth profiles of 129I activity and 129I/127I ratios were measured in 5-cm-long soil cores that were collected 20-27 months after the accident from three sites (S-1, S-2, and S-3) within 10 km to the west and northwest of the FDNPP. These profiles were compared with the background levels of 129I from the same areas. The deposition densities of 129I were 2.17 Bq m-2 at S-1, 0.80 Bq m-2 at S-2, and 1.41 Bq m-2 at S-3, which are, respectively, about 160, 60, and 100 times larger than the background level (12.8-14.8 mBq m-2). The average 129I/127I ratios in each soil core after the accident (S-1: 2.1 × 10-6; S-2: 4.2 × 10-7; S-3: 2.3 × 10-6) were similar to the value typically found in contaminated surface soil within 80 km of the FDNPP. Therefore, accident-derived 129I deposited at S-1 (4.3 km west of the FDNPP) was 2.7 times larger than at S-2 (8.2 km west of the FDNPP), and 1.5 times larger than at S-3 (7.5 km northwest of the FDNPP). Depth profiles showed that the 129I activity and 129I/127I ratios decayed exponentially with depth. ∼90% of accident-derived 129I deposited in the soil cores was concentrated in the upper 25.2-26.4 kg m-2 of mass depth (2.1-3.1 cm depth). The relaxation mass depths (h0) of 129I were 9.49-11.2 kg m-2 at the three sampling sites, and these values are comparable to those of accident-derived 131I (10.4 kg m-2) at a site 40 km northwest of the FDNPP.

  17. Closed strings from nothing

    OpenAIRE

    Kleban, Matthew; Lawrence, Albion; Shenker, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet bo...

  18. Closed Circuit Videoinstallationen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    and 650 artists. This and the notes on further reading and viewing will enable deeper explorations of the material in a way not unlike the open “hyper-text”- structure. Video technique makes it possible to simultaneously record and reproduce images, sound and sequences of motion; that potential can...... and at the same time general investigations. The research project, ‘Closed-Circuit-Video Installations. A Study on the History and Theory of Media Art’, is being supported by the Fritz-Thyssen Foundation, Cologne....

  19. Closed strings from nothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type-II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori, and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and world sheet boundary renormalization group flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings existing in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size of order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects, and that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting

  20. Closed Strings From Nothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting

  1. Variants of closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianova, E. A., E-mail: Andrianova-EA@nrcki.ru; Davidenko, V. D.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.; Tsibulskiy, S. V. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Influence of the nuclear energy structure, the conditions of fuel burnup, and accumulation of new fissile isotopes from the raw isotopes on the main parameters of a closed fuel cycle is considered. The effects of the breeding ratio, the cooling time of the spent fuel in the external fuel cycle, and the separation of the breeding area and the fissile isotope burning area on the parameters of the fuel cycle are analyzed.

  2. Variants of closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of the nuclear energy structure, the conditions of fuel burnup, and accumulation of new fissile isotopes from the raw isotopes on the main parameters of a closed fuel cycle is considered. The effects of the breeding ratio, the cooling time of the spent fuel in the external fuel cycle, and the separation of the breeding area and the fissile isotope burning area on the parameters of the fuel cycle are analyzed

  3. Science policy up close

    CERN Document Server

    Marburger, John H

    2015-01-01

    In a career that included tenures as president of Stony Brook University, director of Brookhaven National Laboratory, and science advisor to President George W. Bush, John Marburger (1941 2011) found himself on the front line of battles that pulled science ever deeper into the political arena. From nuclear power to global warming and stem cell research, science controversies, he discovered, are never just about science. Science Policy Up Close" presents Marburger s reflections on the challenges science administrators face in the twenty-first century. In each phase of public service Marburger came into contact with a new dimension of science policy. The Shoreham Commission exposed him to the problem of handling a volatile public controversy over nuclear power. The Superconducting Super Collider episode gave him insights into the collision between government requirements and scientists expectations and feelings of entitlement. The Directorship of Brookhaven taught him how to talk to the public about the risks ...

  4. Vortices on closed surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Boatto, Stefanella

    2008-01-01

    We consider $N$ point vortices $s_j$ of strengths $\\kappa_j$ moving on a closed (compact, boundaryless, orientable) surface $S$ with riemannian metric $g$. As far as we know, only the sphere or surfaces of revolution, the latter qualitatively, have been treated in the available literature. The aim of this note is to present an intrinsic geometric formulation for the general case. We give a simple proof of Kimura's conjecture that a dipole describes geodesic motion. Searching for integrable vortex pairs systems on Liouville surfaces is in order. The vortex pair system on a triaxial ellipsoid extends Jacobi's geodesics. Is it Arnold-Liouville integrable? Not in our wildest dreams is another possibility: that quantizing a vortex system could relate with a million dollars worth question, but we took courage - nerve is more like it - to also present it.

  5. Millisecond Pulsars in Close Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    In this Habilitationsschrift (Habilitation thesis) I present my research carried out over the last four years at the Argelander Institute for Astronomy (AIfA) and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR). The thesis summarizes my main findings and has been written to fulfill the requirements for the Habilitation qualification at the University of Bonn. Although my work is mainly focused on the topic of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), there is a fairly broad spread of research areas ranging from the formation of neutron stars (NSs) in various supernova (SN) events, to their evolution, for example, via accretion processes in binary and triple systems, and finally to their possible destruction in merger events. The thesis is organized in the following manner: A general introduction to neutron stars and millisecond pulsars is given in Chapter 1. A selection of key papers published in 2011-2014 are presented in Chapters 2-10, ordered within five main research areas (ultra-stripped SNe in close binaries, ma...

  6. Summary and Closing Remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    The three days of the 'Tradurre il cinema' conference, held respectively in Turin and Trieste, provided the opportunity for scholars, professionals, and students and teachers of translation to discuss a wide range of topics within the general field of film translation, adaptation, and dubbing/subtitling. A similarly wide range of points of view, experiences in the field and theoretical and practical insights into this most fascinating area of translation studies emerged, and th...

  7. The closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  8. Ganymede - close up photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Two close-up photos of Ganymede, largest of Jupiter's 13 moons, were obtained on July 8 by Voyager 2 from 86,000 miles (top) and 192,000 miles. They show different views of the largest block of dark, heavily cratered terrain seen on the giant moon. The bottom image shows objects three to four miles across; has a resolution of about 1.5 miles. The light, linear stripes recurring across the dark region resemble the outer rings of the large ring structure on Callisto. If these features are in fact related to an ancient ring structure formed by a large impact, their small curvature suggests that the original structure was even larger than one seen on Callisto. There is no apparent trace now of the center of this suggested structure, which must have been destroyed by the resurfacing evident over most of Ganymede in the grooved terrain. Another interpretation is that these features are not impact-related rings but are internally produced fractures crossing the dark terrain, similar to the grooved bands.

  9. 50 CFR 32.8 - Areas closed to hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., 1939 Arkansas Big Lake National Wildlife Refuge 3 CFR Cum. Supp. 4 FR 1309. Oct. 24, 1958 .......do... 10030. 2758 Dec. 2, 1947 .......do “Ding” Darling National Wildlife Refuge 3 CFR 1947 Supp.; 12 FR 8039. 2239 Apr. 10, 1939 Georgia Savannah National Wildlife Refuge 3 CFR Cum. Supp.; 4 FR 1595. Nov. 3,...

  10. Closing the value gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's a predicament. For the most part, investor-owned electric utilities trade at a deep discount to the actual (that is, replacement-cost) value to their assets. That's because most utilities fail to earn real returns large enough to justify raising and investing capital. The result is a value gap, where overall market value is significantly lower than the replacement costs of the assets. This gap is wider for utilities than for virtually any other industry in our economy. In addition to providing education and awareness, senior management must determine which businesses and activities create value and which diminish it. Then, management must allocate capital and human resources appropriately, holding down investments in value-diminishing areas until they can improve their profitability, and aggressively investing in value-enhancing businesses while preserving their profitability. But value management must not stop with resource-allocation decisions. To create a lasting transition to a value management philosophy, the utility's compensation system must also change: executives will have motivation to create value when compensation stems from this goal, not from such misleading accounting measures as earnings-per-share growth or ROE. That requires clear value-creation goals, and the organization must continuously evaluate top management's performance in light of the progress made toward those goals

  11. Minnesota Geological Survey may close

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The future of the Minnesota Geological Survey is up in the air until January 1992, when the state legislature reconvenes. On June 4, Governor Arne H. Carlson vetoed a line-item of the 2-year University of Minnesota budget that contains funding for the MGS. If funds are not restored by special legislative appropriation and approved by the governor during the spring of 1992, MGS will be abolished effective July 1992.The possibility of closing the survey reflects a financial decision, according to Robert A. Schroeder, assistant to the governor. It is not based on the usefulness of the survey's work. “The governor's objective with his line-item vetoes was to control overall spending, not to target specific programs,” he said. Since MGS is university-affiliated, it is funded under Minnesota's Higher Education bill, rather than as a state agency. Because of overspending in 1991, the state has had to cut back funds, and the university is one area hit by budget cuts. The university may still choose to fund the program and has the flexibility to reallocate funds within the system.

  12. Chairperson's closing comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I would like to stress that our conclusions are more than just valid, objective, scientific statements. They are a consensus of all of the scientists, international organization staff and representative of governments who participated in the Chernobyl Forum and this conference. All of us agree on the basic underlying facts. We agree with the evaluations of the health and environmental effects. We accept the characterization of the social and economic problems engendered by the accident, and we acknowledge the critique of the response thus far to the existing issues by the governments and the public. We are speaking with one voice on the various issues. Even in the complex situation that we have now and the uncertainties that we face going forward, we are starting out now with consensus views on the issues. We have reached agreement on the recommendations to guide our continuing efforts to ensure the well-being of the populations of the affected areas and contribute to the economic recovery of the region. These consensus views cannot be taken lightly now and then disregarded sooner or later when other statements would seem to be more expedient or would perhaps attract more attention. If we do not hold to these agreements, the disputes will re-emerge. The problems of ineffective government measures to deal with public health problems will continue, and the public will continue to feel that their concerns are not being heard and dealt with. It will also be difficult for international organizations to work effectively with governments to initiate widely supported measures to improve public health and lead to economic stability and prosperity. We must speak with one voice now and with one voice as we go forward

  13. Geotechnical processes in closed oil shale mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1998-2001 geotechnical processes in closed underground oil shale mines and open casts were investigated. In addition to kukersite oil shale deposit, the closed Sillamaee uranium (Dictyonema shale) mine was prospected. The main tools and methods included mine plans, aerial photographs and Geographical Information System data. 290 km2 of underground and 130 km2of strip-mined areas were studied. The mining maps of Estonian underground and surface mines were created. The stability of underground mined area, where room-and-pillar method was used, was the main objective of the study. It was studied with the help of aerial photographs, mine drawings, maps of quaternary sediments and mathematical modeling of rock failure. The main results are: 20 % of subsidences remain undiscovered and 42 % of subsidence occurrences have no remarkable influence to the land cover; the probability of subsidence remains and may increase in the case of mine drowning. As several mines will be closed during the next few years, the problems of drowned waste (which were not subjects of this study) are going to be more actual than before: increasing underground water level, pollution of underground water, formation of technogenic water sources, overflooding of reclaimed areas, etc. (author)

  14. MRI of closed spinal dysraphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badve, Chaitra A.; Khanna, Paritosh C.; Phillips, Grace S.; Thapa, Mahesh M.; Ishak, Gisele E. [Seattle Children' s Hospital and University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We present a pictorial review of MRI features of various closed spinal dysraphisms based on previously described clinicoradiological classification of spinal dysraphisms proposed. The defining imaging features of each dysraphism type are highlighted and a diagnostic algorithm for closed spinal dysraphisms is suggested. (orig.)

  15. Postdivorce Father-Adolescent Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mindy E.; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie; Johnson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that closeness of the father-child bond following parental divorce is associated with better outcomes for children and adolescents. Unlike other investigations, this study takes a long-term developmental approach to understanding stability and change in postdivorce father-adolescent relationship closeness. Drawing on Add Health…

  16. On fuzzy weakly-closed sets

    OpenAIRE

    J Mahanta; P. K. Das

    2012-01-01

    A new class of fuzzy closed sets, namely fuzzy weakly closed set in a fuzzy topological space is introduced and it is established that this class of fuzzy closed sets lies between fuzzy closed sets and fuzzy generalized closed sets. Alongwith the study of fundamental results of such closed sets, we define and characterize fuzzy weakly compact space and fuzzy weakly closed space.

  17. Pollution hazard closes neutrino lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    "A leading astrophysics laboratory in Italy has closed down all but one of its experiments over concerns that toxic polluants could leak form the underground lab into the local water supply" (0.5 page)

  18. Proposed Closing Order : St. Vincent

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The attached letter directed to Secretary Morton from the Florida Chapter of The Nature Conservancy recommends the establishment of a Secretarial closing order on...

  19. Riscos à saúde em áreas próximas a aterros de resíduos sólidos urbanos Riesgos en la salud en áreas próximas a rellenos de residuos sólidos urbanos Health risks in areas close to urban solid waste landfill sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gouveia

    2010-10-01

    bitos por cáncer de hígado, 160 de vejiga y 224 por leucemia en adultos, 25 óbitos por leucemia entre niños y 299 por malformación congénita en las áreas próximas a los rellenos sanitarios. Almacenes intermedios con área de 2 km en torno de 15 depósitos delimitaron las áreas expuestas. Tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas de cada resultado fueron analizadas en modelos espaciales bayesianos. RESULTADOS: De modo general, los mayores valores de las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas se encuentran en áreas más centrales del municipio, mientras que los rellenos se localizan en las áreas más periféricas. Las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas no indicaron exceso de riesgo para los residentes en las áreas próximas a los rellenos de residuos sólidos en el municipio de Sao Paulo. Para rellenos en funcionamiento se encontró riesgo aumentado de cáncer de vejiga, hígado y para muertes por malformaciones congénitas; sin embargo, sin significancia estadística. CONCLUSIONES: No se encontró aumento en el riesgo de cáncer o de malformaciones congénitas en las áreas vecinas a los rellenos de residuos urbanos del municipio de Sao Paulo. Las débiles asociaciones y la imprecisión de las estimaciones obtenidas no permiten establecer relación causal.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between living close to solid waste landfill sites and occurrences of cancer and congenital malformations among populations in their vicinity. METHODS: Deaths among people living in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2002 were selected and geocoded, according to selected causes. Over the period evaluated, there were 351 deaths due to liver cancer, 160 due to bladder cancer and 224 due to leukemia, among adults, 25 due to childhood leukemia and 299 due to congenital malformation, in areas close to landfill sites. Buffer zones of radius 2 km around the 15 sites delimited the areas exposed. Standardized mortality ratios for each outcome were analyzed in

  20. Observing Faint Companions Close to Bright Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serabyn, Eugene

    2012-04-01

    Progress in a number of technical areas is enabling imaging and interferometric observations at both smaller angular separations from bright stars and at deeper relative contrast levels. Here we discuss recent progress in several ongoing projects at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. First, extreme adaptive optics wavefront correction has recently enabled the use of very short (i.e., blue) wavelengths to resolve close binaries. Second, phase-based coronagraphy has recently allowed observations of faint companions to within nearly one diffraction beam width of bright stars. Finally, rotating interferometers that can observe inside the diffraction beam of single aperture telescopes are being developed to detect close-in companions and bright exozodiacal dust. This paper presents a very brief summary of the techniques involved, along with some illustrative results.

  1. Vertex Operators for Closed Superstrings

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. GrassiYITP Stony Book, Piem. Orien. U., IHES; Tamassia, L.

    2004-01-01

    We construct an iterative procedure to compute the vertex operators of the closed superstring in the covariant formalism given a solution of IIA/IIB supergravity. The manifest supersymmetry allows us to construct vertex operators for any generic background in presence of Ramond-Ramond (RR) fields. We extend the procedure to all massive states of open and closed superstrings and we identify two new nilpotent charges which are used to impose the gauge fixing on the physical st...

  2. How close can you go?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard; Rasmussen, Annette

    might be more dubious and a matter of difficulty to handle by the researcher. The obvious dilemma of conflicting interests and difficult handling of proximity is our focus of interest in this paper: One side of this dilemma is to ask the question, how close you need to go to obtain the confidence of the...... participants in the research context and the necessary in-depth insight to understand their cultures and conditions of life. Another side of it is to ask, how close you can go without violating in a symbolic sense the lives of the participants and their rights of privacy. This further raises the question, how...

  3. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  4. Similarity Metrics for Closed Loop Dynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Yang, Lee C.; Bedrossian, Naz; Hall, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways can two closed-loop dynamic systems be said to be "similar?" This question arises in a wide range of dynamic systems modeling and control system design applications. For example, bounds on error models are fundamental to the controller optimization with modern control design methods. Metrics such as the structured singular value are direct measures of the degree to which properties such as stability or performance are maintained in the presence of specified uncertainties or variations in the plant model. Similarly, controls-related areas such as system identification, model reduction, and experimental model validation employ measures of similarity between multiple realizations of a dynamic system. Each area has its tools and approaches, with each tool more or less suited for one application or the other. Similarity in the context of closed-loop model validation via flight test is subtly different from error measures in the typical controls oriented application. Whereas similarity in a robust control context relates to plant variation and the attendant affect on stability and performance, in this context similarity metrics are sought that assess the relevance of a dynamic system test for the purpose of validating the stability and performance of a "similar" dynamic system. Similarity in the context of system identification is much more relevant than are robust control analogies in that errors between one dynamic system (the test article) and another (the nominal "design" model) are sought for the purpose of bounding the validity of a model for control design and analysis. Yet system identification typically involves open-loop plant models which are independent of the control system (with the exception of limited developments in closed-loop system identification which is nonetheless focused on obtaining open-loop plant models from closed-loop data). Moreover the objectives of system identification are not the same as a flight test and

  5. Noncommutative via closed star product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, V. G.; Vitale, P.

    2015-08-01

    We consider linear star products on of Lie algebra type. First we derive the closed formula for the polydifferential representation of the corresponding Lie algebra generators. Using this representation we define the Weyl star product on the dual of the Lie algebra. Then we construct a gauge operator relating the Weyl star product with the one which is closed with respect to some trace functional, Tr ( f ⋆ g) = Tr ( f · g). We introduce the derivative operator on the algebra of the closed star product and show that the corresponding Leibniz rule holds true up to a total derivative. As a particular example we study the space R {/θ 3} with type noncommutativity and show that in this case the closed star product is the one obtained from the Duflo quantization map. As a result a Laplacian can be defined such that its commutative limit reproduces the ordinary commutative one. The deformed Leibniz rule is applied to scalar field theory to derive conservation laws and the corresponding noncommutative currents.

  6. Closed walks for community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Peng Gang; Hu, Xia; Li, Zhou Jun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel measure that integrates both the concept of closed walks and clustering coefficients to replace the edge betweenness in the well-known divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm, the Girvan and Newman method (GN). The edges with the lowest value are removed iteratively until the network is degenerated into isolated nodes. The experimental results on computer generated networks and real-world networks showed that our method makes a better tradeoff of accuracy and runtime. Based on the analysis of the results, we observe that the nontrivial closed walks of order three and four can be considered as the basic elements in constructing community structures. Meanwhile, we discover that those nontrivial closed walks outperform trivial closed walks in the task of analyzing the structure of networks. The double peak structure problem is mentioned in the last part of the article. We find that our proposed method is a novel way to solve the double peak structure problem. Our work can provide us with a new perspective for understanding community structure in complex networks.

  7. Works close to gate B

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    In connection to the TRAM project, drainage works will be carried out close to gate B until the end of next week. In order to avoid access problems, if arriving by car, please use gates A and E. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SE Group

  8. Closed-Loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Terrence C.; DeWolf, Travis; Kleinhans, Ashley; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness and performance of neuromorphic hardware is difficult. It is even more difficult when the task of interest is a closed-loop task; that is, a task where the output from the neuromorphic hardware affects some environment, which then in turn affects the hardware's future input. However, closed-loop situations are one of the primary potential uses of neuromorphic hardware. To address this, we present a methodology for generating closed-loop benchmarks that makes use of a hybrid of real physical embodiment and a type of “minimal” simulation. Minimal simulation has been shown to lead to robust real-world performance, while still maintaining the practical advantages of simulation, such as making it easy for the same benchmark to be used by many researchers. This method is flexible enough to allow researchers to explicitly modify the benchmarks to identify specific task domains where particular hardware excels. To demonstrate the method, we present a set of novel benchmarks that focus on motor control for an arbitrary system with unknown external forces. Using these benchmarks, we show that an error-driven learning rule can consistently improve motor control performance across a randomly generated family of closed-loop simulations, even when there are up to 15 interacting joints to be controlled. PMID:26696820

  9. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  10. Contingency Teaching during Close Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    12 teachers were interviewed and observed as they engaged students in close reading. We analyzed their responses and instruction to determine the scaffolds that were used as well as the contingency teaching plans they implemented when students were unable to understand the text.

  11. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  12. Pornography use and closeness with others in women

    OpenAIRE

    Popović Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Closeness/intimacy and pornography are sometimes linked and frequently presented as competing with each other. They have been the subject of some research but many issues in the area remain controversial and indeterminate. Objective. The aim of this pilot study was to establish whether female pornography users and non-users’ ratings in terms of socio-emotional closeness differed, i.e. to examine the association between pornography use and aspects of socio-emotional closene...

  13. Closed incision negative pressure therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willy, Christian; Agarwal, Animesh; Andersen, Charles A;

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site occurrences (SSOs) affect up to or over 25% of patients undergoing operative procedures, with the subset of surgical site infections (SSIs) being the most common. Commercially available closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT) may offer surgeons an additional option to manage...... of Controlled Trials using key words 'prevention', 'negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT)', 'active incisional management', 'incisional vacuum therapy', 'incisional NPWT', 'incisional wound VAC', 'closed incisional NPWT', 'wound infection', and 'SSIs' identified peer-reviewed studies published from 2000....... A majority presented data supporting ciNPT use. Numerous publications reported SSI risk factors, with the most common including obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) ); diabetes mellitus; tobacco use; or prolonged surgical time. We recommend that the surgeon assess the individual patient's risk factors...

  14. Installment options close to expiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alobaidi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We use an asymptotic expansion to study the behavior of installment options close to expiry. Installment options are contracts where the price is paid over the life of the option rather than as a lump sum at the time of purchase, and where the contract can be allowed to lapse at any time. Series solutions are obtained for the location of the free boundary and the price of the option.

  15. A Closed String Tachyon Vacuum ?

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Haitang; Zwiebach, Barton

    2005-01-01

    In bosonic closed string field theory the "tachyon potential" is a potential for the tachyon, the dilaton, and an infinite set of massive fields. Earlier computations of the potential did not include the dilaton and the critical point formed by the quadratic and cubic interactions was destroyed by the quartic tachyon term. We include the dilaton contributions to the potential and find that a critical point survives and appears to become more shallow. We are led to consider the existence of a ...

  16. Close reality in radiological emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the experiences of conducting close reality field exercises for first responders, customs officers, defence CBRN-forces and specialist teams with international participation in combined efforts to take action in various kinds of radiological emergencies. Large field exercises of this kind have been held twice in Sweden; Barents Rescue 2001 with teams from 12 countries and DEMOEX (Decontamination and Monitoring Exercise) 2006 with teams from 5 countries and observers from 15 countries. In these exercises, low, medium and a few high activity radiation sources were used. In DEMOEX short-lived radioactive material was dispersed to create radioactive contamination. The practical arrangements were optimised to keep radiation doses as low as possible and still provide a realistic 'feel' for the participants. All exercises took place within areas banned to public admittance, although observers were guided in the areas and could follow parts of the exercises. In this paper, three exercise scenarios are described: decontamination of a house and garden after fallout, search of orphan radiation sources in an extensive area and assessment of the radiation situation in a village after a radiological dispersal device event, 'dirty bomb'. The exercises were designed to allow all kind of teams to work together in a safe way. The experiences acquired will be used to improve methods, equipment and organization, to be implemented in a real emergency situation, should it ever happen. (author)

  17. Plasma Stability in Closed Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigate the stability of closed plasma configurations using the general geometric criterion of local stability developed by Mercier and co-workers. To render in an explicit form the equilibrium configuration parameters on which the stability of the configuration depends, the general geometric criterion is transformed by expanding with respect to the deviation from the magnetic axis. In the resulting criterion the terms describing the ballooning mode and plasma stabilization through deepening of the magnetic well due to the toroidal magnetic surface displacement associated with the plasma pressure are rendered explicitly. For circular magnetic surface cross-sections these terms cancel out exactly and the stability condition is found to be independent of the plasma pressure. In the case of elliptical magnetic surface cross-sections, the effect of the ballooning instability predominates over deepening of the magnetic well. In this case the plasma pressure, which is critical for stability, is limited. The resulting stability criterion is applied to a number of toroidal systems. The authors consider the conditions for stability in closed systems with a spatial magnetic axis and in systems with a circular magnetic axis of the two-turn and three-turn stellarator type. They also consider the effect of the longitudinal current on plasma stability in such systems. In closed magnetic traps without longitudinal current, plasma stabilization is relatively simple in the presence of a shallow magnetic well. The critical value of β = 2p/B22 may exceed the relative depth of the vacuum magnetic well ΦV''/V' by an order of magnitude. When there is a longitudinal current, there appear additional factors that affect the stable containment of the plasma. (author)

  18. Fatigue of closed cell foams

    OpenAIRE

    Zenkert, Dan; Shipsha, Andrey; Burman, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    The static properties of foams scale with relative density and scaling can be obtained through various static tests. The same scaling appears to be valid for both crack propagation rates and fatigue properties of the foams. This implies that, once the fatigue behavior of one relative density foam is established, one can predict the fatigue behavior of all other density foams within the same class of materials. This study deals with fatigue of closed cell foams. The main idea is to use a few s...

  19. Fatigue of closed cell foams

    OpenAIRE

    Zenkert, Dan; Shipsha, Andrey; Burman, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with fatigue of closed cell foams. The main idea is to use a few simple tests to predict the tension-tension fatigue properties of foams. The required testing consists of crack propagation rate measurements and one tension-tension fatigue test performed at yield stress for the foam. This data can then be combined to construct a synthetic S-N Curve for the foam. Tests on three densities of Divinycell H-grade foam are performed and the results Support this approach. Some prelim...

  20. On Closed Shells in Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M. G.

    1948-02-01

    It has been suggested in the past that special numbers of neutrons or protons in the nucleus form a particularly stable configuration.{sup1} The complete evidence for this has never been summarized, nor is it generally recognized how convincing this evidence is. That 20 neutrons or protons (Ca{sup40}) form a closed shell is predicted by the Hartree model. A number of calculations support this fact.{sup2} These considerations will not be repeated here. In this paper, the experimental facts indicating a particular stability of shells of 50 and 82 protons and of 50, 82, and 126 neutrons will be listed.

  1. Singularities and Closed String Tachyons

    CERN Document Server

    Silverstein, E

    2006-01-01

    A basic problem in gravitational physics is the resolution of spacetime singularities where general relativity breaks down. The simplest such singularities are conical singularities arising from orbifold identifications of flat space, and the most challenging are spacelike singularities inside black holes (and in cosmology). Topology changing processes also require evolution through classically singular spacetimes. I briefly review how a phase of closed string tachyon condensate replaces, and helps to resolve, basic singularities of each of these types. Finally I discuss some interesting features of singularities arising in the small volume limit of compact negatively curved spaces and the emerging zoology of spacelike singularities.

  2. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  3. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  4. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  5. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  6. Nuclear. When Fessenheim will close..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even if the ASN stated it could keep on operating, the Fessenheim nuclear power station is planned to be closed by 2017, notably because of its age and of its neighbourhood with Germany and Switzerland. This closure raises the question of electricity supply for the region, of job losses not automatically balanced by activities in the field of renewable energies, and of earning losses for EDF. Moreover, dismantling operations will have to be financed. The site could then become a pilot one for dismantling activities

  7. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  8. [Cerebral fat embolism after closed leg injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiel, E; Fleyfel, M; Onimus, J; Godefroy, O; Leclerc, X; Adnet, P

    1997-01-01

    A 21-year-old man sustained a closed fracture of the leg from an industrial accident, without associated head trauma. The orthopaedic treatment consisted of immediate immobilization by setting leg in plaster. Two hours after admission, the Glasgow coma scale score was 10. Four hours after admission he developed a coma (Glasgow coma scale score = 7) with repetitive seizures. No lesion was visible on cerebral CT scan. Chest X-ray was unremarkable. Petechiae on the anterior chest wall and abdomen with bilateral mydriasis occurred. Thrombocytopenia with prothrombine time increase were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging, 27 hours after admission, showed high-intensity areas on T2 weighted views due to fat embolism. Retinal haemorrhages were observed. The bronchoalveolar lavage showing fat staining of tracheal aspirates confirmed the diagnosis of fat embolism. This case report emphasizes the possibility of predominant neurologic manifestations of a fat embolism and the diagnostic help of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:9750647

  9. Close to home. Interview by Terese Hudson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J

    1993-08-20

    The hospital is an integral part of the community, according to James May, CEO and president of Legacy Portland (OR) Hospitals. May has put this principle to work concretely by loaning employees money for initial costs on homes near Emanuel Hospital and Health Center in northeast Portland. Now in its second year, the program has already helped 25 employees purchase homes in a 19-square-mile area targeted for redevelopment. Loans of up to $5,000 for homes with a purchase price of $65,000 or lower are available. The loans can be used for down payments, pre-paid reserves or closing costs. Legacy forgives 20 percent of a loan's outstanding balance each year to employees in good standing. This encourages employees to stay for at least five years. Only the interest payments on the outstanding balance are paid back to Legacy. May spoke recently with Senior Editor Terese Hudson about the program's genesis. PMID:8348171

  10. Closed strings in Misner space

    CERN Document Server

    Berkooz, M; Rozali, M

    2004-01-01

    Misner space, also known as the Lorentzian orbifold $R^{1,1}/boost$, is one of the simplest examples of a cosmological singularity in string theory. In this work, the study of weakly coupled closed strings on this space is pursued in several directions: (i) physical states in the twisted sectors are found to come in two kinds: short strings, which wind along the compact space-like direction in the cosmological (Milne) region, and long strings, which wind along the compact time direction in the (Rindler) whiskers. The latter can be viewed as infinitely long static open strings, stretching from Rindler infinity to a finite radius and folding back onto themselves. (ii) As in the Schwinger effect, tunneling between these states corresponds to local pair production of winding strings. The tunneling rate approaches unity as the winding number $w$ gets large, as a consequence of the singular geometry. (iii) The one-loop string amplitude has singularities on the moduli space, associated to periodic closed string traj...

  11. HEAT-SPINNING TECHNOLOGY OF HARMONIC GEAR-CLOSED FLEXSPLINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on the experiments,heat-spinning forming technology of the closed flexspline is studied and forming area and the laws of variations under the different technological parameters are gained.The semi-finished flexspline products which can meet the quality demands have been successfully applied by matching the optimum technological parameters in the forming area.The research results create the conditions for spreading and applying the harmonic drive.

  12. Pornography use and closeness with others in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Closeness/intimacy and pornography are sometimes linked and frequently presented as competing with each other. They have been the subject of some research but many issues in the area remain controversial and indeterminate. Objective. The aim of this pilot study was to establish whether female pornography users and non-users’ ratings in terms of socio-emotional closeness differed, i.e. to examine the association between pornography use and aspects of socio-emotional closeness in a non-clinical sample of females. Methods. Sixty-six females participated in the study. Their actual and ideal socioemotional closeness was measured by the Perceived Interpersonal Closeness Scale/PICS, while their pornography use was examined by the Background and Pornography Use Information Questionnaire. Potential links between the two variables and comparisons with the relevant results obtained by males are presented. Results. The results showed that there were no significant differences between self-reported female pornography users and non-users in terms of total closeness numbers and scores and also in specific socioemotional closeness with the most significant adults in their lives (i.e., partners, closest friends, mothers and fathers. Conclusion. The results confirmed that there were differences between females and males’ approaches to pornography and closeness; females had lower interest in pornography and their use of it had not been associated with higher total closeness numbers and scores. Due to the participant group’s size (N limitations, this sample was rather used for preliminary investigations that would enable some elementary insight into females’ relevant behaviours. Further investigations of pornography’s complex links with socio-emotional and sexual closeness on larger samples may allow more reliable comparisons between gender and pornography users groups.

  13. On some properties of conjugacy closed loops

    CERN Document Server

    Adeniran, J O

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that central loops are not conjugacy closed loops but instead are loops of units in their loop algebras that are conjugacy closed. It is also shown that certain inner mappings of a conjugacy closed loop are nuclear. Some invariants of left conjugacy closed loops are obtained.

  14. Cooking on a closed fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertmer, Katharina

    2010-07-01

    In rural areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America, wood is the most widespread raw material used to generate heat for cooking and heating. However, this use of biomass in such regions is generally viewed as being harmful to the climate, the environment and human health. Now the situation should be improved by the introduction of more efficient stoves to replace open fires. (orig.)

  15. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  16. Closing the Cybersecurity Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vogel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current consensus is that there is a worldwide gap in skills needed for a competent cybersecurity workforce. This skills gap has implications for the national security sector, both public and private. Although the view is that this will take a concerted effort to rectify, it presents an opportunity for IT professionals, university students, and aspirants to take-up jobs in national security national intelligence as well military and law enforcement intelligence. This paper examines context of the issue, the nature of the cybersecurity skills gap, and some key responses by governments to address the problem. The paper also examines the emerging employment trends, some of the employment challenges, and what these might mean for practice. The paper argues that the imperative is to close the cyber skills gap by taking advantage of the window of opportunity, allowing individuals interested in moving into the cybersecurity field to do so via education and training.

  17. Testing Closeness of Discrete Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Batu, Tugkan; Rubinfeld, Ronitt; Smith, Warren D; White, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Given samples from two distributions over an $n$-element set, we wish to test whether these distributions are statistically close. We present an algorithm which uses sublinear in $n$, specifically, $O(n^{2/3}\\epsilon^{-8/3}\\log n)$, independent samples from each distribution, runs in time linear in the sample size, makes no assumptions about the structure of the distributions, and distinguishes the cases when the distance between the distributions is small (less than $\\max\\{\\epsilon^{4/3}n^{-1/3}/32, \\epsilon n^{-1/2}/4\\}$) or large (more than $\\epsilon$) in $\\ell_1$ distance. This result can be compared to the lower bound of $\\Omega(n^{2/3}\\epsilon^{-2/3})$ for this problem given by Valiant. Our algorithm has applications to the problem of testing whether a given Markov process is rapidly mixing. We present sublinear for several variants of this problem as well.

  18. Closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally the case for closing the nuclear fuel cycle is based on the strategic value of the uranium and plutonium recovered by reprocessing spent fuel. The energy content of 1 t of spent fuel varies from 10,000 to 40,000 t of coal equivalent depending on the reactor type from which the spent fuel arises. Recycling in fast reactors would increase these values by a factor or roughly 40. Reprocessing in the UK has its roots in the technology developed during and after the 1939-45 war to provide plutonium for defence purposes. At BNFL's Sellafield site in northern England the commercial reprocessing of spent fuel has been undertaken for over 30 years with a cumulative throughput of over 30,000 tU. Over 15,000 tU of the uranium recovered has been recycled and some 70% of all the UK's AGR fuel has been produced from this material. As a consequence the UK's bill for imported uranium has been reduced by several hundred million pounds sterling. This report discusses issues associated with reprocessing, uranium, and plutonium recycle

  19. Simulations of closed timelike curves

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Proposed models of closed timelike curves (CTCs) have been shown to enable powerful information-processing protocols. We examine the simulation of models of CTCs both by other models of CTCs and by physical systems without access to CTCs. We prove that the recently proposed transition probability CTCs (T-CTCs) are physically equivalent to postselection CTCs (P-CTCs), in the sense that one model can simulate the other with reasonable overhead. As a consequence, their information-processing capabilities are equivalent. We also describe a method for quantum computers to simulate Deutschian CTCs (but with a reasonable overhead only in some cases). In cases for which the overhead is reasonable, it might be possible to perform the simulation in a table-top experiment. This approach has the benefit of resolving some ambiguities associated with the equivalent circuit model of Ralph et al. Furthermore, we provide an explicit form for the state of the CTC system such that it is a maximum-entropy state, as prescribed by...

  20. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  1. 7 CFR 1942.7 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Community Facility Loans § 1942.7 Loan closing. Loans will be closed in... Manager will take appropriate actions outlined in Rural Development Instruction 2018-D. (f)...

  2. Development of closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.; Ramohalli, G.; Way, P.

    1982-01-01

    This research was undertaken with the goal of demonstrating closed loop control of the roll degree of freedom on the NASA prototype magnetic suspension and balance system at the MIT Aerophysics Laboratory, thus, showing feasibility for a roll control system for any large magnetic balance system which might be built in the future. During the research under this grant, study was directed toward the several areas of torque generation, position sensing, model construction and control system design. These effects were then integrated to produce successful closed loop operation of the analogue roll control system. This experience indicated the desirability of microprocessor control for the angular degrees of freedom.

  3. Microprobe to closely examine minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of South Australia will develop synchrotron-based technology that can determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples at microscopic levels. The planned multi-analysis synchrotron X-ray facility Beam-line 11 is for implementing on the Australian Synchrotron. UniSA's Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies (ACeSSS) will use Beamline 11 to shed new light on factors that constrain recoveries of copper and gold from typical copper ores. ACeSSS director Professor Andrea Gerson is working with an international team and the Australian Synchrotron on the design of Beamline 11. According to Gerson, there is scope to improve processing and/or increase recoveries in copper, gold and valueless pyrite either through separation, smelting, leaching or electro-processing. Using synchrotron technology, researchers will determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples to understand the fundamental behaviour of these materials in order to identify process and : environmental benefits. Three different strategies will be employed: tracing the movement of gold through the mineral processing chain to optimise and increase gold recovery; examining the surface layers formed when copper is leached from the mineral, chalcopyrite, to enhance the understanding of this surface layer formation and ultimately maximise cop-per recovery; and improving environmental remediation by understanding the mineralisation process during acid-rock drainage. ACeSSS will work with the minerals and environmental remediation sectors, building on the I establishment of the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, and cementing close collaboration with UniSA's Ian Wark Research Institute. Contributions from the SA Premier's Science and Research Fund, BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, synchrotron partners Advanced Light Source (USA) and the Canadian Light Source Funding totalling $1.38m are available for

  4. Reheating for closed string inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Mazumdar, Anupam, E-mail: michele.cicoli@desy.de, E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N = 1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation.

  5. Reheating for closed string inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mazumdar, Anupam [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Physics Dept.; Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Niels Bohr Institute

    2010-05-15

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)

  6. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Generalized Beta Closed Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta open mappings. We investigate some of their properties. We also introduce intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings as well as intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta open mappings. We provide the relation between intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings.

  7. Structural properties of close II$_1$ factors

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Jan; Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.; White, Stuart; Wiggins, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    We show that a number of key structural properties transfer between sufficiently close II$_1$ factors, including solidity, strong solidity, uniqueness of Cartan masas and property $\\Gamma$. We also examine II$_1$ factors close to tensor product factors, showing that such factors also factorise as a tensor product in a fashion close to the original.

  8. Physics at the closed shells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G de France

    2001-07-01

    Radioactive beams obtained via fragmentation of the projectile on a primary target have shown to be a powerful tool to produce exotic nuclei and some typical results obtained at GANIL in this area will be shown. To go further, and in particular , to get beams of exotic nuclei, new facilities have been developed recently. The physics expected from the use of these radioactive ion beam facilities is extremely ambitious as stated in the scientific motivations justifying their construction. At GANIL the SPIRAL facility is ready and will hopefully deliver the first radioactive beams in 2001. New experimental devices have been developed to fully exploit the potentiality expected from SPIRAL. EXOGAM is a new, efficient and powerful gamma ray spectrometer currently under installation at GANIL. The design and the performances expected from this array will be discussed.

  9. FINAL CLOSE-OUT REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Carl

    2004-08-03

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FG26-01BC15336 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under another grant because funding resources have been exhausted under The scope of work objectives for the eight projects covered under this grant is as follows: (1) Improve uniformity within state oil and gas data management efforts. (2) Conduct environmental compliance workshops and related educational projects on natural gas and oil exploration and production. (3) Improve regulatory efficiency through partnering opportunities provided by the Appalachian Illinois Basin Directors. (4) Promote the development and implementation of risk-based environmental regulation at the state level through an expertise-sharing program that brings stakeholders together to develop guidelines and models to meet regulatory challenges. (5) Support the IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts, including the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of effort between state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands, and identify the need to enhance and regionalize regulatory coordination and cooperation among the states. (6) Involve states and provinces of Canada that have offshore petroleum exploration and production in a regulatory sharing alliance to identify areas of concern that may be incorporated into standard practices for offshore environmental and regulatory compliance. (7) Coordinate efforts with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to ensure that adequate information is available to the public

  10. Hamiltonian BFV-BRST theory of closed quantum cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenshchik, A Yu

    1996-01-01

    We introduce and study a new discrete basis of gravity constraints by making use of harmonic expansion for closed cosmological models. The full set of constraints is splitted into area-preserving spatial diffeomorphisms, forming closed subalgebra, and Virasoro-like generators. Operatorial Hamiltonian BFV-BRST quantization is performed in the framework of perturbative expansion in the dimensionless parameter which is a positive power of the ratio of Planckian volume to the volume of the Universe. For the (N+1) - dimensional generalization of stationary closed Bianchi-I cosmology the nilpotency condition for the BRST operator is examined in the first quantum approximation. It turns out, that certain relationship between dimensionality of the space and the spectrum of matter fields emerges from the requirement of quantum consistency of the model.

  11. Aerial Triangulation Close-range Images with Dual Quaternion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Qinghong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion is presented. Using dual quaternion to represent the spiral screw motion of the beam in the space, the real part of dual quaternion represents the angular elements of all the beams in the close-range area networks, the real part and the dual part of dual quaternion represents the line elements corporately. Finally, an aerial triangulation adjustment model based on dual quaternion is established, and the elements of interior orientation and exterior orientation and the object coordinates of the ground points are calculated. Real images and large attitude angle simulated images are selected to run the experiments of aerial triangulation. The experimental results show that the new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion can obtain higher accuracy.

  12. HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF LAND AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Karel KUDRNA; Marie ŠINDELÁŘOVÁ

    2010-01-01

    In connection with conception of Unitary System of Agricultural, Forest and Water Management, there was necessary to explain relations between stationary and dynamic elements of land area. Knowledge of symmetry of structure of springs of underground waters then led to further explanation of principles which enabled to define land area as a formation making up a hydrogeomorphologically closed system. That is why, in the presented work, relation between a stationary and a dynamic component of l...

  13. Close encounters of the prototype kind

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. Close encounters of the prototype kind CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. The prototype of the control consoles that will be at the heart of the future CERN Control Centre (CCC) has just been installed in the Roy Billinge Room in Building 354. Until now, there have been four separate control rooms for the CERN accelerators and technical infrastructure. The CCC, which will be located on the Prévessin site, will bring them all together in a single room. The Centre will consist of 40 consoles for four different areas (LHC, SPS, PS complex and technical infrastructure). The prototype was tested by the technicians for a month. Following installation and con...

  14. Route Scherrer closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March.   The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works. The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the car park situated between Buildings 32, 38 and 168.

  15. Area monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of individuals to ionizing radiation is normally subject to legal controls which specify limits, and restriction, of doses that both occupational workers and members of the public are exposed to. The dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and adopted by many countries are specified in terms of body dose equivalents, sometimes referred to as limiting quantities. However these quantities are not measurable since they are defined as average doses in organs and tissues of the human body. Thus for the same physical radiation field the dose delivered to an individual will not have a fixed value but will depend upon each individual's sex, age and physical construction as well as upon their orientation in the field. Ionizing radiation, also, cannot be detected by a person's physical senses of sight, smell, hearing and touch. Thus to control the levels of radiation to which individuals are exposed, special operational quantities are used and quantitative measurements have to be made using personal dosemeters or area monitoring equipment. This report describes the operational quantities that are being increasingly used worldwide for area monitoring. It provides information on the international standards that are available on the performance requirements for monitoring equipment designed to measure these operational quantities. It also reviews the recent international standards that have been published on the calibration and type testing of area monitors and gives an example of legislative requirements on area monitoring equipment. (author)

  16. Effective Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Keinan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a new term, Effective Area, K, of a given territory as a function of four independent parameters: its nominal acreage, A, the intellectual competence of its inhabitants, B, their social competence, C, and their global influence, D, using a simple formalism: K = A x B x C x D. This analysis demonstrates that in our current world any consideration of the physical area of a given territory is meaningless if the quality of its population is ignored. K is a much more useful parameter than A, certainly for political and economical considerations, explaining why claims for territorial expansion are placed low on the national ladder of priorities in the developed countries. In many respects, large geographical areas may become a burden rather than an advantage. Thus, the importance of armed conflicts over geographical territories, which have taken a dominant part of the entire human history, is fading away. Furthermore, although the global acreage is constant, the total effective area of planet Earth keeps growing, providing sufficient room for the growing human population.

  17. Rangelands: a closing carbon sink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Two thirds of the world's agricultural land is suitable for grazing only. Much of this land has experienced severe erosion due to mismanagement, massive redistribution of soil and sediment, and significant degradation of vegetation. As a consequence, geochemical cycles have changed. Unlike croplands, the impact of degradation on nutrient fluxes is hardly compensated on rangelands, potentially disturbing the carbon cycle because of the declining biomass production and the subsequent conversion of litter into soil organic matter. Over time, the degradation leads to a decline in soil C stocks and, if associated with soil erosion, also to a decline in carbon transfer from soil into sediment sinks. A priory reasoning suggests that during the degradation process, with soil productivity not yet massively affected, the Carbon transfer initially increases because soil erosion rates are also greater than in the non-disturbed system. With most soil degradation in rangelands occurring during the past 200 years, this mechanism on a large part of the global land area could have generated an unintentional terrestrial carbon sink during a time period with increasing industrial CO2 emissions. Using global data on soil degradation, soil erosion, soil carbon stocks and dynamics to simulate their interaction and potential role for rangeland carbon cycles supports the assumption that rangelands may have functioned as a carbon sink, but reveals major uncertainties with regards to the size. This highlights the need to improve our knowledge and understanding of rangeland erosion, landscape change and soil formation, both with regards to the recent past, but also the impacts of their future use and climate.

  18. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhan Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration.

  19. CLOSED LOOP SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING PWM

    OpenAIRE

    Mangesh J Nemade

    2015-01-01

    In This work reveals the digital closed loop control system for speed control of DC motor using PWM technique. In present days the power semiconductor devices have co mpletely revolutionized the control of drives especially in the area of control usage of thyristors IGBT’s power MOSFET etc., was increased. The digital circuit can be interfaced to microcontroller. So that the speed can be controlled by Microcontroller there by making speed control of DC motor even more easil...

  20. Weak continuity and strongly closed sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Rose

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available After demonstrating the usual product theorems for weakly continuous functions, strongly closed and extremely closed subsets are contrasted to support the conjecture that a product of faintly continuous functions need not be faintly continuous. Strongly closed sets are used to characterize Hausdorff spaces and Urysohn spaces, and with these characterizations two results obtained by T. Noiri are obtained by function-theoretic means rather than by point-set method.

  1. Social Closeness Increases Salivary Progesterone in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephanie L.; Fredrickson, Barbara L; Wirth, Michelle M.; Poulin, Michael J.; Meier, Elizabeth A.; Heaphy, Emily D.; Michael D. Cohen; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether interpersonal closeness increases salivary progesterone. One hundred and sixty female college students (80 dyads) were randomly assigned to participate in either a closeness task with a partner versus a neutral task with a partner. Those exposed to the closeness induction had higher levels of progesterone relative to those exposed to the neutral task. Across conditions, progesterone increase one week later predicted the willingness to sacrifice for the partner. These resul...

  2. Oriented Open-Closed String Theory Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Zwiebach, Barton

    1997-01-01

    String theory on D-brane backgrounds is open-closed string theory. Given the relevance of this fact, we give details and elaborate upon our earlier construction of oriented open-closed string field theory. In order to incorporate explicitly closed strings, the classical sector of this theory is open strings with a homotopy associative A_\\infty algebraic structure. We build a suitable Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra on moduli spaces of bordered Riemann surfaces, the construction of which involves a...

  3. The Closed Subsemigroups of a Clifford Semigroup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yin-yin; Zhao Xian-zhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the closed subsemigroups of a Clifford semigroup. It is shown that{∪}Gα | Y′ ∈ P (Y ) is the set of all closed subsemigroups ofα∈Y′a Clifford semigroup S = [Y;Gα;ϕα,β], where Y′ denotes the subsemilattice of Y generated by Y′. In particular, G is the only closed subsemigroup of itself for a group G and each one of subsemilattices of a semilattice is closed. Also, it is shown that the semiring P (S ) is isomorphic to the semiring P (Y ) for a Clifford semigroup S=[Y;Gα;ϕα,β].

  4. Global inventory of closed-off Tidal basins and developments after the closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, B.; Hayde, L.G.; Sang-Hyun, P.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-01-01

    Closed-off tidal basin reclamation represents a special type of reclamation. In several countries enclosing dams have been built to close off estuaries, shallow seas, or lagoons, and lands up to 5~6¿m - MSL (below mean sea level) have been reclaimed in the former tidal basins. Although these areas w

  5. Equivalence of open/closed strings

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the open and closed strings are $O(D,D)$ equivalent. The equivalence requires an AdS geometry near the boundaries. The $O(D,D)$ invariance is introduced into the Polyakov action by the Tseytlin's action. Traditionally, there exist disconnected open-open or closed-closed configurations in the solution space of the Tseytlin's action. The open-closed configuration is ruled out by the mixed terms of the dual fields. We show that, under some very general guidances, the dual fields are consistently decoupled if and only if the near horizon geometry is $AdS_5$. We then have open-closed and closed-open configurations in different limits of the distances of the $D3$-brane pairs. Inherited from the definition of the theory, these four configurations are of course related to each other by $O(D,D)$ transformations. We therefore conclude that both the open/closed relation and open/closed duality can be derived from $O(D,D)$ symmetries. By analyzing the couplings of the configurations, the low ...

  6. The type numbers of closed geodesics

    OpenAIRE

    Taimanov, Iskander A.

    2009-01-01

    A short survey on the type numbers of closed geodesics, on applications of the Morse theory to proving the existence of closed geodesics and on the recent progress in applying variational methods to the periodic problem for Finsler and magnetic geodesics

  7. Improved closeness centrality using arithmetic mean approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslan, Nuraimi; Sharif, Shamshuritawati

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we improved the mathematical formulation of closeness centrality measure for weighted network. The proposed measure is used arithmetic mean approach and the performance is successfully better than the existing closeness centrality. This measure can be used as a measure of influential nodes.

  8. Report IAU Comm. 42, Close Binary Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Ignasi; Scarfe, Colin D.; Torres, Guillermo; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Sion, Edward M.; Richards, Mercedes T.; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Olah, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Brief summaries are given about (1) close binary research from the perspective of the Bibliography of Close Binaries, (2) low-mass binaries and model discrepancies, (3) W UMa-type binaries, (4) cataclysmic variables, (5) Algol binaries, (6) the oEA stars, (7) effects of binarity on stellar activity.

  9. 7 CFR 1902.15 - Closing accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Rural Development grant funds in accordance with 7 CFR part 1951, subpart B or (iv) For the return of... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Closing accounts. 1902.15 Section 1902.15 Agriculture... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds § 1902.15 Closing...

  10. Closed bioregenerative life support systems: Applicability to hot deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V.

    2010-09-01

    Water scarcity in hot deserts, which cover about one-fifth of the Earth's land area, along with rapid expansion of hot deserts into arable lands is one of the key global environmental problems. As hot deserts are extreme habitats characterized by the availability of solar energy with a nearly complete absence of organic life and water, space technology achievements in designing closed ecological systems may be applicable to the design of sustainable settlements in the deserts. This review discusses the key space technology findings for closed biogenerative life support systems (CBLSS), which can simultaneously produce food, water, nutrients, fertilizers, process wastes, and revitalize air, that can be applied to hot deserts. Among them are the closed cycle of water and the acceleration of the cycling times of carbon, biogenic compounds, and nutrients by adjusting the levels of light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, and air velocity over plant canopies. Enhanced growth of algae and duckweed at higher levels of carbon dioxide and light intensity can be important to provide complete water recycling and augment biomass production. The production of fertilizers and nutrients can be enhanced by applying the subsurface flow wetland technology and hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacteria for treating liquid and solid wastes. The mathematical models, optimization techniques, and non-invasive measuring techniques developed for CBLSS make it possible to monitor and optimize the performance of such closed ecological systems. The results of long-duration experiments performed in BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Laboratory Biosphere, and other ground-based closed test facilities suggest that closed water cycle can be achieved in hot-desert bioregenerative systems using the pathways of evapotranspiration, condensation, and biological wastewater treatment technologies. We suggest that the state of the art in the CBLSS design along with the possibility of using direct sunlight for

  11. Pilot investigations of surface parts of three closed landfills and factors affecting them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jouko

    2003-05-01

    Aftercare of closed sanitary landfills in a major environmental problem. Rehabilitation of the landfill with vegetation and reducing leachate production are two issues that must be dealt. For this reason, Finnish Environment Institute has conducted several projects on closed landfills. This research aims at determining the physical and chemical properties of the soils at three closed landfills in Helsinki, Finland. Research was conducted to understand the impact by studying the following properties: Chemical, nutrient metal, gamma and radon analysis of surface soils of three closed landfills in Helsinki area. PMID:12733818

  12. Groundwater's carbon 14 age distribution in the Konya closed basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Konya Closed basin extending from Taurids at the south toward Salt Lake at the north covers and area of 80,000 sq.km. Apart from the surface water transfer from neighboring basins, groundwater is the only potable water resource in this area where determination of groundwater age is crucial in view of understanding of the timing or recharge and flow dynamics. 14C model ages at 8 drilling wells scattered along the regional flow path extending between Taurids and Salt Lake were determined. Results indicate that groundwater age increases progressively from recent to ca. 40 ky BP along the flow path. This linear increase with distance from recharge area suggests a homogenous groundwater velocity distribution (3m/year) in the basin. 14C model and hydraulic (kinematic) ages are in agreement. 18O content of groundwater points out a steady decrease of recharge temperature (up to 60C) throughout the Wurm glacial period

  13. High surface area calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

  14. What is a closed-form number?

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Timothy Y.

    1998-01-01

    If a student asks for an antiderivative of exp(x^2), there is a standard reply: the answer is not an elementary function. But if a student asks for a closed-form expression for the real root of x = cos(x), there is no standard reply. We propose a definition of a closed-form expression for a number (as opposed to a *function*) that we hope will become standard. With our definition, the question of whether the root of x = cos(x) has a closed form is, perhaps surprisingly, still open. We show th...

  15. Nuclear. Four obstacles to closing Fessenheim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new President of France has decided to close the Fessenheim nuclear power plant at the end of 2016. However the closing procedure has not yet started, and the shutdown and dismantling process appears complex and could be very costly. The four main obstacles to the closing of Fessenheim are: the absence of any legal text concerning Fessenheim closure, a highly expensive operation (with indemnifications for the plant's partners), a dismantling that could be not so profitable to French industries, and the social constraints of the plant shutdown (thousands of jobs are at risk)

  16. Towards open-closed string duality: Closed Strings as Open String Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Bonora, L.; Bouatta, N.; Maccaferri, C.

    2006-01-01

    We establish a translation dictionary between open and closed strings, starting from open string field theory. Under this correspondence, (off-shell) level-matched closed string states are represented by star algebra projectors in open string field theory. Particular attention is paid to the zero mode sector, which is indispensable in order to generate closed string states with momentum. As an outcome of our identification, we show that boundary states, which in closed string theory represent...

  17. The Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpstdyg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. The study area outline was drawn on the county lines that most closely outline the...

  18. Closed Light Paths in Equiangular Spiral Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    A new type of deformation for microscopic laser disks, the \\textit{equiangular spiral deformation} is proposed. First a short review of the geometry of light paths in equiangular spirals in the language of real two-dimensional geometric calculus is given. Second, the constituting equations for \\textit{closed paths} inside equiangular spirals are derived. Third, their numerical solution is performed and found to yield two generic types of closed light paths. \\textit{Degenerate} closed paths that exist over large intervals of the deformation parameter, and \\textit{nondegenerate} closed paths which only exist over relatively small deformation parameter intervals spanning less than 1% of the nondegenerate intervals. Fourth, amongst the nondegenerate paths a \\textit{stable asymmetric bow-tie} shaped light trajectory was found.

  19. Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095–101; 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770–3; 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641–8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’. (paper)

  20. Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H. M.

    2012-09-01

    Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095-101 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770-3 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641-8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  1. Closed surface modeling with helical line measurement data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruqiong; LI Guanghu; WANG Yuhan

    2007-01-01

    Models for surface modeling of free-form surface and massive data points are becoming an important feature in commercial computer aided design/computer-aided manu- facturing software. However, there are many problems to be solved in this area, especially for closed free-form surface modeling. This article presents an effective method for cloud data closed surface modeling from asynchronous profile modeling measurement. It includes three steps: first, the cloud data are preprocessed for smoothing; second, a helical line is segmented to form triangle meshes; and third, Bezier surface patches are created over a triangle mesh and trimmed to shape on an entire surface. In the end, an illustrative example of shoe last surface modeling is given to show the availability of this method.

  2. The pomeron in closed bosonic string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, A R

    2010-01-01

    We review the features of the pomeron in the S-matrix theory and in quantum field theory. We extend those general properties to the pomeron of closed bosonic string theory in a Minkowskian background. We compute the couplings of the pomeron to the lowest mass levels of closed bosonic string states in flat space. We recognize the deviation from the linearity of the Regge trajectories in a five dimensional anti De Sitter background.

  3. Geology and health:closing the gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.B.Kampunzu

    2004-01-01

    It was discovered several decades ago that the natural geo-environment could substantially impact on the health of animals and humans. However, despite the growth of evidence supporting this discovery, there has not been a close interaction between geoscientists and health scientists in assessing the need to study the various facets of the relationships between human and animal health and air, water, soils and rocks. This book is timely in closing that gap as stated in its title.

  4. Recombination rate variation in closely related species

    OpenAIRE

    Smukowski, C S; Noor, M A F

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance to successful meiosis and various evolutionary processes, meiotic recombination rates sometimes vary within species or between closely related species. For example, humans and chimpanzees share virtually no recombination hotspot locations in the surveyed portion of the genomes. However, conservation of recombination rates between closely related species has also been documented, raising an apparent contradiction. Here, we evaluate how and why conflicting patterns of r...

  5. Laser welding closed-loop power control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    A closed-loop control system is developed to maintain an even seam width on the root side of a laser weld by continually controlling the output laser power of a 1500 W CO2 laser.......A closed-loop control system is developed to maintain an even seam width on the root side of a laser weld by continually controlling the output laser power of a 1500 W CO2 laser....

  6. Climate and Yield in a closed greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Heuvelink, E.; Bakker, M.J.; Marcelis, L. F. M.; Raaphorst, M.

    2008-01-01

    The so-called closed greenhouse (closed ventilation windows) is a recent innovation in Dutch greenhouse industry. The technical concept consists of a heat pump, underground (aquifer) seasonal energy storage as well as daytime storage, air treatment units with heat exchangers, and air distribution ducts. Savings of up to 30% in fossil fuel and production increases by up to 20%, mainly because of the continuously high CO2 concentration, have been reported. Economic feasibility of this innovativ...

  7. Mining Frequent Max and Closed Sequential Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar, Ramin

    2002-01-01

    Although frequent sequential pattern mining has an important role in many data mining tasks, however, it often generates a large number of sequential patterns, which reduces its efficiency and effectiveness. For many applications mining all the frequent sequential patterns is not necessary, and mining frequent Max, or Closed sequential patterns will provide the same amount of information. Comparing to frequent sequential pattern mining, frequent Max, or Closed sequential pattern mining g...

  8. Fast computation of morphological area pattern spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, Arnold; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2001-01-01

    An area based counterpart of the binary structural opening spectra is developed It is shown that these area opening and closing spectra can be computed using an adaptation of Tarjan's union-find algorithm These spectra provide rotation, translation, and scale invariant pattern vectors for texture an

  9. Monolith catalysts for closed-cycle carbon dioxide lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1994-01-01

    The general subject area of the project involved the development of solid catalysts that have high activity at low temperature for the oxidation of gases such as CO. The original application considered was CO oxidation in closed-cycle CO2 lasers. The scope of the project was subsequently extended to include oxidation of gases in addition to CO and applications such as air purification and exhaust gas emission control. The primary objective of the final phase grant was to develop design criteria for the formulation of new low-temperature oxidation catalysts utilizing Monte Carlo simulations of reaction over NASA-developed catalysts.

  10. Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work in the area of Tm3+ and Ho3+-doped tellurite fibre and bulk glass lasers operating close to 2 μm is reviewed. Spectroscopic properties of these doped glasses are discussed as well as the relevant pump schemes and energy transfer processes involved. Results of continuous wave (CW) and Q-switched Tm3+ and Ho3+-doped tellurite fibre lasers are then presented and discussed. Finally, the results of tellurite bulk glass laser experiments conducted to date are reported

  11. Soil microflora over the closed Donbas mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdish, I.K.; Kisten, A.G.; Roi, A.A.; Iakovenko, E.A.; Bezborodov, V.A.

    2005-05-15

    Composition of soil air and microflora in different soil horizons (to 30 cm depth) over some closed Donbas coal mines has been studied. The intensive methane leakages have been found in some soil zones over the closed coal mines. This results in formation of explosive and inflammable gas mixtures. Methane content in soil gas mixtures could vary from trace amounts to 34 %. The essential decrease of oxygen (to 3-4%) and increasing (up to 5 %) of CO2 concentrations that evidences for active microbiological processes in such soils is marked in the latter case. Methanotrophic bacteria involving methane into biogenic cycle are widespread (up to 106 cells per 1 g) in methane-containing soils over the closed coal mines. Microorganisms of different physiological groups in the community with methanotrophic bacteria were found in the given technogenic econiche.

  12. Regge calculus models of closed lattice universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rex G.; Williams, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the behavior of closed "lattice universes" wherein masses are distributed in a regular lattice on the Cauchy surfaces of closed vacuum universes. Such universes are approximated using a form of Regge calculus originally developed by Collins and Williams to model closed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes. We consider two types of lattice universes, one where all masses are identical to each other and another where one mass gets perturbed in magnitude. In the unperturbed universe, we consider the possible arrangements of the masses in the Regge Cauchy surfaces and demonstrate that the model will only be stable if each mass lies within some spherical region of convergence. We also briefly discuss the existence of Regge models that are dual to the ones we have considered. We then model a perturbed lattice universe and demonstrate that the model's evolution is well behaved, with the expansion increasing in magnitude as the perturbation is increased.

  13. Quantum coherence and closed timelike curves

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen William

    1995-01-01

    Various calculations of the S matrix have shown that it seems to be non unitary for interacting fields when there are closed timelike curves. It is argued that this is because there is loss of quantum coherence caused by the fact that part of the quantum state circulates on the closed timelike curves and is not measured at infinity. A prescription is given for calculating the superscattering matrix \\ on space times whose parameters can be analytically continued to obtain a Euclidean metric. It is illustrated by a discussion of a spacetime in with two disks in flat space are identified. If the disks have an imaginary time separation, this corresponds to a heat bath. An external field interacting with the heat bath will lose quantum coherence. One can then analytically continue to an almost real separation of the disks. This will give closed timelike curves but one will still get loss of quantum coherence.

  14. Close Double Stars from Occultation Video Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring Dunham, David; George, Anthony; Loader, Brian; Herald, David Russell

    2015-08-01

    Astronomers around the world, both amateur and professional, have been recording lunar and asteroidal occultations of close double stars during the past several years using inexpensive but quite sensitive video cameras that are now available. Several new double stars have been discovered, and the parameters of many close systems have been determined. Besides rather good measurements of the relative magnitudes of the components, the actual separations and position angles can be measured if observations of the same event are made from two or more separate stations. These observations collected by the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) are published in the Journal of Double Star Observations. Recently, IOTA has encouraged the observation of occultations of stars in the Kepler 2 program, which is interested in data about close duplicity that affects their analyses for exoplanet transits.

  15. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    KAUST Repository

    Morales, Jose A.

    2012-09-01

    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  16. Optimum test interval of closing valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closing valves are the main part of time in stand-by state. It is characteristic that the reliability of the valves decreases during stand-by time. Therefore the valves are tested periodically, in order to check their condition. On the other hand, the testing may cause failures and thus decreases the availability of valves. Through a proper choice of test internal these competing factors can be balanced against each other. Optimum tests interval of closing valves is considered with the aid of simple unavailability models and using reliability data collected from Finnish BWR plants. (orig.)

  17. Flow damping in stellarators close to quasisymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Calvo, Ivan; Velasco, J L; Alonso, J Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Quasisymmetric stellarators are a type of optimized stellarators for which flows are undamped to lowest order in an expansion in the normalized Larmor radius. However, perfect quasisymmetry is impossible. Since large flows may be desirable as a means to reduce turbulent transport, it is important to know when a stellarator can be considered to be sufficiently close to quasisymmetry. The answer to this question depends strongly on the size of the spatial gradients of the deviation from quasisymmetry and on the collisionality regime. Recently, formal criteria for closeness to quasisymmetry have been derived in a variety of situations. In particular, the case of deviations with large gradients was solved in the $1/\

  18. $R$-closed homeomorphisms on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Tomoo

    2012-01-01

    Let $f$ be an $R$-closed homeomorphism on a connected orientable closed surface $M$. In this paper, we show that If $M$ has genus more than one, then each minimal set is either a periodic orbit or an extension of a Cantor set. If $M = \\mathbb{T}^2$ and $f$ is neither minimal nor periodic, then either each minimal set is finite disjoint union of essential circloids or there is a minimal set which is an extension of a Cantor set. If $M = \\mathbb{S}^2$ and $f$ is not periodic but orientation-pre...

  19. Closing valve, especially for large diameter pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A closing valve is described designed for use in large diameter pipes for the transport of dangerous and harmful media in nuclear power facilities. The valve assembly consists of a leak-proof cover, a double-side spindle closure and two parallel seats placed in the through-flow axis of the valve body. The design of the valve spindle closure allows closing pipe mains of large diameter at high operating pressures without the danger of disturbing the tightness of the valve. (J.B.)

  20. Relief Valve Opens And Closes Quickly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejkovsky, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    Relief valve opens quickly to relieve excess pressure and closes quickly when pressure drops slightly below relief pressure. O-ring exposes one or more ports under high pressure, releasing excess pressurized fluid. Adjusting screw used to change compression on Belleville-spring washers and to set pressure at which valve opens. Designed for use aboard Space Shuttle to vent pressurized hydrazine to vacuum, valve concept useful in industrial applications where rapid opening, rapid closing, or low susceptibility to blockage by vented fluid required.

  1. Closed World Assumption for Disjunctive Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kewen; ZHOU Lizhu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between argumentation and closed world reasoning for disjunctive information is studied. In particular, the authors propose a simple and intuitive generalization of the closed world assumption (CWA) for general disjunctive deductive databases (with default negation). This semantics,called DCWA, allows a natural argumentation-based interpretation and can be used to represent reasoning for disjunctive information. We compare DCWA with GCWA and prove that DCWA extends Minker's GCWA to the class of disjunctive databases with default negation. Also we compare our semantics with some related approaches.In addition, the computational complexity of DCWA is investigated.

  2. Closed loop power control for LTE uplink

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Bilal

    2008-01-01

    This thesis study involves designing, implementing and testing of a novel radio resource control algorithm for the closed loop power control in the LTE uplink. Different values of the path loss compensation factor are investigated in the range 0.7-1.0 and an optimal value of 0.8 as allowed by the LTE standard is proposed. Both the ideal and a more realistic case modeled by including delay, error, and power headroom reporting were studied. Simulation results indicated that the closed loop powe...

  3. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  4. High resolution interface circuit for closed-loop accelerometer*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Liang; Liu Xiaowei; Chen Weiping; Zhou Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a low noise switched-capacitor CMOS interface circuit for the closed-loop operation of a capacitive accelerometer. The time division multiplexing of the same electrode is adopted to avoid the strong feedthrough between capacitance sensing and electrostatic force feedback. A PID controller is designed to ensure the stability and dynamic response o fa high Q closed-loop accelerometer with a vacuum package. The architecture only requires single ended operational amplifiers, transmission gates and capacitors. Test results show that a full scale acceleration of ±3 g, non-linearity of 0.05% and signal bandwidth of 1000 Hz are achieved. The complete module operates from a ±5 V supply and has a measured sensitivity of 1.2 V/g with a noise of floor of 0.8μg/√(Hz) in closed-loop. The chip is fabricated in the 2 μm two-metal and two-poly n-well CMOS process with an area of 15.2 mm2. These results prove that this circuit is suitable for high performance micro-accelerometer applications like seismic detection and oil exploration.

  5. Nonlinear equations for p-adic open, closed, and open-closed strings

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimirov, V. S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the structure of solutions of boundary value problems for a one-dimensional nonlinear system of pseudodifferential equations describing the dynamics (rolling) of p-adic open, closed, and open-closed strings for a scalar tachyon field using the method of successive approximations. For an open-closed string, we prove that the method converges for odd values of p of the form p=4n+1 under the condition that the solution for the closed string is known. For p=2, we discuss the questi...

  6. A Low-Density Closed Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Toumbas, Nicolaos

    1996-01-01

    Matter with an equation of state $p=-\\rho/3$ may arise in certain scalar field theories, and the energy density of this matter decreases as $a^{-2}$ with the scale factor $a$ of the Universe. In this case, the Universe could be closed but still have a nonrelativistic-matter density $\\Omega_0

  7. On fluctuations of closed string tachyon solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss fluctuations on solitons in the dilaton/graviton/tachyon system using the low energy effective field theory approach. It is shown that closed string solitons are free of tachyons in this approximation, regardless of the exact shape of the tachyon potential.

  8. Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality…

  9. CONTROL WORK IN CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose,classification,required accuracy and surveying methods of contr ol work for close range photogrammetry have been briefly stated.The different me thods for definition of space object coordinate system are also reviewed.It is suggested that the hab itually-practised rotation angle system for aerophotogrammetry in China should b e used for the future teaching and researching work in the close range photogram metry,and that the rotation angle system for terrestrial deformation photogramme try should be left out in order to avoid the confuse and reduce the amount of ex panse for making softwares.It has been emphasized that there are three improtant aspects in the close range control work with high accuracy using the convention al method of engineering surveying:the use of standard scale for measurement of distance between two general stations,the accurate determination of start direct io n line between two general stations and the handling method of influence of 2C change.A method for se tting up industrial surveying control net with extra-high accuracy ±(0.05-0.2 0 ) mm is presented by the author.This kind of industrial control net is necessa ry for batch process of large industrial components with purposes of measurement,i nspect and lofting.There are some special methods of control work in the close r ange photogrammetry,including two methods presented by the author.

  10. Closed-loop transient stability emergency control

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Damien; Pavella, Mania

    2000-01-01

    The question of transient stability control is revisited, various types of controls are identified, and a general approach to closed-loop emergency control is proposed. The focus is on feasibility aspects, general salient features and illustration of stabilization capabilities of an emergency control scheme relying on generation shedding.

  11. Board Size Effects in Closely Held Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, H.C.; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Previous work on board size effects in closely held corporationshas established a negative correlation between board size and firm performance.We argue that this work has been incomplete in analysing the causalrelationship due to lack of ownership information and weak identificationstrategies in ...

  12. On completeness of H-closed pospaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Tomoo

    2010-01-01

    We generalized the characterization of H-closedness for linearly ordered pospaces as follows: A pospace $X$ without an infinite antichain is an H-closed pospace if and only if $X$ is a directed complete and down-complete poset such that sup $L$ and inf $L$ are contained in the closure of $L$ for any nonempty chain $L$ in $X$.

  13. Protecting Minority Shareholders in Closely Held Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Leechor, Chad

    1999-01-01

    In all but a few advanced countries most publicly listed corporations are closely held, with the main shareholder typically playing an active role in management. In emerging markets firms with active owner-managers provide effective business solutions where business environments are characterized by corruption and weak contract enforcement. But they also pose a significant risk of asset expropriation ...

  14. Key ecological challenges for closed systems facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William F.; Allen, John P.

    2013-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet, recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the maintenance of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of critical elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities, the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and backup technologies and strategic options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  15. Closed depression topography and Harps soil, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Harps soil (Fine-loamy, mixed superactive, mesic Typic Calciaquoll) developed around wetland depressions. The purpose of this study is 1) to delineate surface deposition of carbonates representing Harps soil which results from outward and upward flow around closed depressions, and 2) to relate t...

  16. Closed Timelike Curves in Relativistic Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Andréka, Hajnal; Székely, Gergely

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using closed timelike curves (CTCs) in relativistic hypercomputation. We introduce a wormhole based hypercomputation scenario which is free from the common worries, such as the blueshift problem. We also discuss the physical reasonability of our scenario, and why we cannot simply ignore the possibility of the existence of spacetimes containing CTCs.

  17. Firms Closed Down in Food Safety Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ten people have been arrested and more than 100 companies closed down as officials continue their crackdown on the use of banned animal drugs and toxic pesticides in farm produce. Agricultural safety inspections have been stepped up to guarantee food quality, a senior Chinese agricultural official said recently.

  18. Weakly Closed Unipotent Subgroups in Chevalley Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Guralnick, R.; Roehrle, G.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this note is to classify the weakly closed unipotent subgroups in the split Chevalley groups. In an application we show under some mild assumptions on the characteristic that the Lie algebra of a connected simple algebraic group fails to be a so called 2F-module.

  19. Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-20

    We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.

  20. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis

    2013-01-01

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are...

  1. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are...

  2. Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A theorem due to J. Weiner, which is also proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with nonvanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no subarc with integrated geodesic curvature pi. We prove that the inverse problem...

  3. Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    A theorem due to J. Weiner, which also is proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with non-vanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no sub arc with integrated geodesic curvature Pi. We prove that the inverse problem...

  4. Numerical studies of planar closed random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattice numerical simulations for planar closed random walks and their winding sectors are presented. The frontiers of the random walks and of their winding sectors have a Hausdorff dimension dH = 4/3. However, when properly defined by taking into account the inner 0-winding sectors, the frontiers of the random walks have a Hausdorff dimension dH≈1.77

  5. Glueballs as rotating folded closed strings

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In previous papers we argued that mesons and baryons can be described as rotating open strings in holographic backgrounds. Now we turn to closed strings, which should be the duals of glueballs. We look at the rotating folded closed string in both flat and curved backgrounds. A basic prediction of the closed string model is that the slope of Regge trajectories is half that of open strings. We propose that a simple method to identify glueballs is to look for resonances that belong to trajectories with a slope of approximately 0.45 GeV^-2, half the meson slope. We therefore look at the experimental spectra of flavorless light mesons to see if such a scheme, where some of the states are placed on open string trajectories and some on closed ones, can fit known experimental data. We look at the f_0 (J^PC = 0^++) and f_2 (2^++) resonances. As there is no preference for a single scheme of sorting the different states into meson and glueball trajectories, we present several possibilities, each identifying a different ...

  6. Cyclotron closed orbits on a radial grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgarten, C., E-mail: christian.baumgarten@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-08-11

    A method for the computation of closed orbits in cyclotrons is derived with emphasis on fixed spatial starting coordinates. The method is a direct extension of Gordon's algorithm . It can also be applied to FFAGs and synchro-cyclotrons.

  7. On θ-generalized closed sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Dontchev

    1999-01-01

    θ-generalized Λ-sets and R0-, T1/2- and T1-spaces are characterized. The relations with other notions directly or indirectly connected with generalized closed sets are investigated. The notion of TGO-connectedness is introduced.

  8. Close Range Digital Photogrammetry Applied to Topography and Landslide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Che

    2016-06-01

    Landslide monitoring is a crucial tool for the prevention of hazards. It is often the only solution for the survey and the early-warning of large landslides cannot be stabilized. The objective of present study is to use a low-cost image system to monitor the active landslides. We adopted the direct linear transformation (DLT) method in close range digital photogrammetry to measure terrain of landslide at the Huoyen Shan, Miaoli of central Taiwan and to compare measured results with e-GPS. The results revealed that the relative error in surface area was approximately 1.7% as comparing the photogrammetry with DLT method and e-GPS measurement. It showed that the close range digital photogrammetry with DLT method had the availability and capability to measure the landslides. The same methodology was then applied to measure the terrain before landslide and after landslide in the study area. The digital terrain model (DTM) was established and then was used to calculate the volume of the terrain before landslide and after landslide. The volume difference before and after landslides was 994.16 m3.

  9. 75 FR 7370 - Closed Captioning of Video Programming; Closed Captioning Requirements for Digital Television...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... announcing the effective date of those rules. DATES: 47 CFR 79.1(g)(1) through (5), (i), published at 74 FR... Order, FCC 08-255, published at 74 FR 1594, January 13, 2009. The OMB Control Number is 3060-0761. The... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 79 Closed Captioning of Video Programming; Closed Captioning Requirements for...

  10. Tentative design basis new 100 Area water plant embodying a close cooling water circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-11-14

    The attached document includes a plot plan, flow diagram and delineation of basic assumptions upon which the report was developed. It summarizes the work which has been accomplished to date under RDA No. DC-6 in developing a recirculating water system to serve a new reactor. In order to proceed with the work under RDA No. DC-6 it has been necessary to make certain basic assumptions relative to the primary circuit requirements of RDA No. DC-3. These assumptions are explained in the report and are presented by the exhibits contained therein. Subsequent to the compilation of the basic report certain additional considerations have come to the authors attention and are included in the addendum.

  11. Study of radon levels in some closed areas in Mansoura city, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt The concentration levels of the radioactive 222Rn inert gas in some dwellings of Mansoura city, the capital of Dakahlia Governorate, have been studied for the first time by long-term passive integrated dosimeters (Can-Technique). Fifteen locations have been selected: nine in different house rooms, four in the library and in the chemistry laboratories, and two different locations in Dar Ibn-Lokman museum.In each location two cans were hanged. Two different sensitive Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDS) of the type CR-39 and LR-115 were fixed inside each can and another LR-115 detector was fixed outside the can as a bare detector.The cans were changed every month during a whole year (June 2001-May 2002), and the detectors were etched chemically before counting the tracks of the cc-particles due to radon.The radon activity concentration and the equilibrium factor were measured by the bare and diffusion detectors, the seasonal variation in radon in addition to the yearly effective and equivalent doses, were also calculated

  12. Environmental effect of radon from waste rock piles at closed uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki; Ito, Kimio; Ishimori, Yuu; Nakajima, Yuuji [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-04-01

    The radon concentrations at working area had been measured during uranium exploration by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Although the uranium exploration was closed by 1987, the measurements of environmental radon and the confirmation of public dose under 1 mSv/year out of supervising area has been necessary by the regulation since 1989, the year of the change of Japanese mine safety law. However radon exists in natural environment, it`s quite difficult to distinguish the radon from closed uranium mine from natural`s. Therefore the effective doses were estimated by the calculations using the atmospheric dispersion models, and by the measurements of radon emanation from the waste rock area of closed uranium mines. The radon influence from the waste rock was also investigated by the tracer gas dispersion experiments. Consequently the effective doses from the mining facilities were confirmed under the public limits 1 mSv/year of the regulations by this study. (author)

  13. Virasoro conformal blocks in closed form

    CERN Document Server

    Perlmutter, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro conformal blocks are fixed in principle by symmetry, but a closed-form expression is unknown in the general case. In this work, we provide three closed-form expansions for the four-point Virasoro blocks on the sphere, for arbitrary operator dimensions and central charge $c$. We do so by solving known recursion relations. One representation is a sum over hypergeometric global blocks, whose coefficients we provide at arbitrary level. Another is a sum over semiclassical Virasoro blocks obtained in the limit in which two external operator dimensions scale linearly with large $c$. In both cases, the $1/c$ expansion of the Virasoro blocks is easily extracted. We discuss applications of these expansions to entanglement and thermality in conformal field theories and particle scattering in three-dimensional quantum gravity.

  14. Right thalamic infarction after closed head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported a case of right thalamic infarction after a closed head injury. A 12-year-old boy was hit by an autotruck. He was semi-comatose, with left temporal scalp swelling and excoriation in the left lower limb. Three days after the accident, he exhibited left hemiparesis. CT scans on the day of the accident showed no abnormality, but on the following day, right thalamic infarction appeared. Right carotid angiography showed only an irregular vascular shadow in the cisternal segment of the right internal carotid artery. Vascular obstruction after closed head injury is rare, especially in the intracranial vessels, and several pathogeneses may be postulated. The right thalamic infarction in this case was supposed to be due to the damage of the perforators from the right posterior communicating artery and the right posterior cerebral artery, which were struck as a contre-coup by the force from the left side. (author)

  15. Closed String Thermal Torus From Thermofield Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, Maria Christina B; Nedel, D L; Nedel, Daniel L.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the relationship between Imaginary time and Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) Formalism is made, when both formalism are used to study closed strings at finite temperature. The TFD approach starts by duplicating the degrees of freedom of the system, defining an auxiliary string (tilde string). Bogoliubov transformation is implemented in order to lead the system to finite temperature. We demonstrated that the effect of that Bogoliubov transformation is to glue together both the string and the tilde string in order to make a torus; the very same that comes when the Imaginary Time formalism is applied to closed string. The thermal vacuum appears as the boundary state for this identification. Also, from the thermal state condition, a Kubo-Martin-Schwinger condition for the torus topology is presented.

  16. Physical and Stable Closed Timelike Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Chiu Man

    2012-01-01

    We construct a class of closed timelike curves (CTCs) using a compactified extra dimension $u$. A nonzero metric element $g_{tu}(u)$ enables particles to travel backwards in global time $t$. The compactified dimension guarantees that the geodesic curve closes in $u$. The effective 2D ($t$ and $u$) nature of the metric ensures that spacetime is flat, therein satisfying all the classical stability conditions as expressed by the energy conditions. Finally, stationarity of the metric guarantees that a particle's energy is conserved. The pathologies that plague many hypothesized metrics admitting CTCs, e.g. an infinite cylinder of matter, a negative energy-distribution, particle acceleration/blue-shifting along the CTC, do not occur within our metric class.

  17. Closed timelike curves and causality violation

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, Francisco S N

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual definition and understanding of time, both quantitatively and qualitatively is of the utmost difficulty and importance. As time is incorporated into the proper structure of the fabric of spacetime, it is interesting to note that General Relativity is contaminated with non-trivial geometries which generate closed timelike curves. A closed timelike curve (CTC) allows time travel, in the sense that an observer that travels on a trajectory in spacetime along this curve, may return to an event before his departure. This fact apparently violates causality, therefore time travel and it's associated paradoxes have to be treated with great caution. The paradoxes fall into two broad groups, namely the consistency paradoxes and the causal loops. A great variety of solutions to the Einstein field equations containing CTCs exist and it seems that two particularly notorious features stand out. Solutions with a tipping over of the light cones due to a rotation about a cylindrically symmetric axis and solution...

  18. Pressure tube rupture in a closed tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been prepared on the feasibility of conducting pressure tube/calandria tube rupture tests in a closed tank, simulating a scaled-down calandria vessel. The study includes: i) a review of previous work, ii) an analytical investigation of the scaling problem of the calandria vessel and relevant in-core structures, iii) selection of a method for initiating pressure tube/calandria tube rupture, iv) a set of specifications for the test assembly, v) general arrangement drawings, vi) a proposal for a test matrix, vii) a survey and evaluation of existing facilities which could provide the required high pressure, temperature and fluid inventory, and viii) a cost estimate for the detailed design and construction, instrumentation, data acquisition and reduction, testing and reporting. The study concludes that it is both technically and practically feasible to conduct pressure tube rupture tests in a closed tank

  19. Capillary filling in closed end nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Vinh Nguyen; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Yang, Chun; Joseph, Pierre; Djeghlaf, Lyes; Bourrier, David; Gue, Anne-Marie

    2010-08-17

    We investigated the interactions between liquid, gas, and solid phases in the capillary filling process of closed-end nanochannels. This paper presents theoretical models without and with absorption and diffusion of gas molecules in the liquid. Capillary filling experiments were carried out in closed-end silicon nanochannels with different lengths. The theoretical and measured characteristics of filling length versus time are compared. The results show that the filling process consists of two stages. The first stage resembles the capillary filling process in an open-end nanochannel. However, a remarkable discrepancy between the experimental results and the theory without gas absorption is observed in the second stage. A closer investigation of the second stage reveals that the dissolution of gas in the liquid is important and can be explained by the model with gas absorption and diffusion. PMID:20695566

  20. Enabling Multiple QR Codes in Close Proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Topkara, Mercan; Erickson, Thomas; Topkara, Umut; Narayanaswami, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Quick response codes - 2D patterns that can be scanned to access online resources - are being used in a variety of industrial and consumer applications. However, it is problematic to use multiple QR codes in close proximity: scans can fail or result in access to the wrong resource. While this problem is, strictly speaking, due to the design of the scanning software, the very large number of extant scanning applications makes changing the software a difficult logistical challenge. Instead, we ...

  1. Spatial Database open source o closed source?

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo Carlucci; Fabrizio Bernardini

    2008-01-01

    Spatial Database for GIS: open source or closed source?Today's decision makers who do not have a geospatial information system (GIS) face critical challenges when making decisions pertaining to critical IT infrastructures. Decisions involving spatial components require detailed information, system-structure background and up-to-date IT knowledge. The objective of this paper is to review the fundamental concepts spatial databases used for geographic information systems (GIS) and a comparative ...

  2. Classical and quantum pumping in closed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Doron

    2002-01-01

    Pumping of charge (Q) in a closed ring geometry is not quantized even in the strict adiabatic limit. The deviation form exact quantization can be related to the Thouless conductance. We use Kubo formalism as a starting point for the calculation of both the dissipative and the adiabatic contributions to Q. As an application we bring examples for classical dissipative pumping, classical adiabatic pumping, and in particular we make an explicit calculation for quantum pumping in case of the simpl...

  3. Sustainability in closed and open economies

    OpenAIRE

    Klepper, Gernot; Stähler, Frank

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses unilateral sustainability policies for tradable resources in closed and open economies. The effects of sustainability policies are modelled in an intertemporal, competitive framework by applying different sustainability rules which are introduced unilaterally in the domestic country. The paper shows that no sustainability rule will lead to a slower rate of extraction of the resource. Instead, resource extraction is increased in both countries. It is also shown that the fo...

  4. Homogeneous nucleation kinetics in a closed system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kožíšek, Zdeněk; Demo, Pavel; Sveshnikov, Alexey

    Bratislava: x, 2005 - (Koman, M.; Mikloš, D.), s. 35-35 ISBN 80-89088-42-2. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education - DMS -RE 2005 /15./. Kežmarské Žĺaby (SK), 05.09.2005-09.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : phase transition * nucleation * closed system Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics

  5. Dynamics of closed ecosystems described by operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bagarello, F

    2014-01-01

    We adopt the so--called \\emph{occupation number representation}, originally used in quantum mechanics and recently adopted in the description of several classical systems, in the analysis of the dynamics of some models of closed ecosystems. In particular, we discuss two linear models, for which the solution can be found analytically, and a nonlinear system, for which we produce numerical results. We also discuss how a damping effect could be {\\em effectively} implemented in the model.

  6. Closing CMS to hunt cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Every second the Earth is bombarded by billions of cosmic rays and occasionally one of these cosmic particles will collide with the Earth's atmosphere generating a shower of particles known as an 'air shower'. This is similiar to the collisions and subsequent particle showers observed in accelerators such as the LHC. Here the CMS detector is closed so that systems can be tested using muon cosmic rays in the 'Cosmic Challenge'.

  7. Closed-loop Neurostimulation: The Clinical Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Felice T.; Morrell, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurostimulation is now an established therapy for the treatment of movement disorders, pain, and epilepsy. While most neurostimulation systems available today provide stimulation in an open-loop manner (i.e., therapy is delivered according to preprogrammed settings and is unaffected by changes in the patient’s clinical symptoms or in the underlying disease), closed-loop neurostimulation systems, which modulate or adapt therapy in response to physiological changes, may provide more effective ...

  8. CERN Infirmary closed for building work

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Infirmary (Bldg 57, ground floor) will be closed from 11 December 2013 to 19 January 2014 due to building work.   A minimum service will be provided during this period by nurses and doctors, on the first floor of the Medical Service, bldg. 57. For any questions, please contact the nurses (73802) or the secretariat (73186 / 78435). Note: no complementary examination (audio, visiotest, EFR, etc.) will be possible. Thank you for your understanding and seasons greetings! Medical Service Team

  9. Anticipatory behaviour deficits in closed head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, P E; Bleiberg, J; Freedland, K.

    1987-01-01

    Closed head injured patients demonstrated greater anticipatory behaviour deficit than cerebral vascular accident patients on a shuttlebox-analog avoidance task, even though these two groups did not differ on escape behaviour and on performance on the individual tests of the Halstead-Reitan Battery and Wechsler scales. Neither clarification of instructions, additional trials, nor enhancement of the warning cue appeared to improve the anticipatory behaviour deficit. It was concluded that antici...

  10. Closed string field theory from polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Maha; Zwiebach, Barton

    1989-05-01

    A fully nonpolynomial framework for closed string field theory is studied. All interactions are geometrical, the pattern of string overlaps gives polyhedra with equal perimeter faces and three edges at each vertex. All interactions are cubic in the sense that at most three strings can coincide at a point. The three point vertex used is that of Witten which is seen to be quite natural in the framework of quadratic differentials and to induce a very symmetric decomposition of moduli space.

  11. Partially closed fuel cycle of WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Position of nuclear energy at the energy sources competition is characterised briefly. Multi-tier transmutation system is outlined out as effective back-end solution and consequently as factor that can increase nuclear energy competitiveness. LWR and equivalent WWER are suggested as a first tier reactors. Partially closed fuel cycle with combined fuel assemblies is briefed. Main back-end effects are characterised (Authors)

  12. The evolution equation for closed magnetic geodesics

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Orbits of charged particles under the effect of a magnetic field are mathematically described by magnetic geodesics. They appear as solutions to a system of (nonlinear) ordinary differential equations of second order. But we are only interested in periodic solutions. To this end, we study the corresponding system of (nonlinear) parabolic equations for closed magnetic geodesics and, as a main result, eventually prove the existence of long time solutions. As generalization one can consider a sy...

  13. Thermal Interaction of Closely Spaced Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.; Tøgersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from a pilot study on the thermal interaction of closely spaced persons in a large enclosure. The surface temperature at different densities of persons is evaluated using a high resolution thermo vision camera in a controlled thermal environment. The corresponding...... thermal sensation is evaluated using questionnaires for the various densities. The results indicate that it may be acceptable to consider persons standalone, in a thermal sense, disregarding thermal interaction at usual densities in the design of large enclosures....

  14. Engineering Challenges for Closed Ecological System facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, William; Nelson, Mark; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Engineering challenges for closed ecological systems include methods of achieving closure for structures of different materials, and developing methods of allowing energy (for heating and cooling) and information transfer through the materially closed structure. Methods of calculating degree of closure include measuring degradation rates of inert trace gases introduced into the system. An allied problem is developing means of locating where leaks are located so that they may be repaired and degree of closure maintained. Once closure is achieved, methods of dealing with the pressure differentials between inside and outside are needed: from inflatable structures which might adjust to the pressure difference to variable volume chambers attached to the life systems component. These issues are illustrated through the engineering employed at Biosphere 2, the Biosphere 2 Test Module and the Laboratory Biosphere and a discussion of methods used by other closed ecological system facility engineers. Ecological challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogue to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils.

  15. Closed Timelike Curves in the Galileon Model

    CERN Document Server

    Evslin, Jarah

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that generic solutions to the nonlinear DGP and Galileon models admit superluminal propagation. In this note we present a solution of these models which also admits closed timelike curves (CTCs). We observe that these CTCs only arise when, according to each observer, there exists some region in which the higher derivative terms are larger than the 2-derivative kinetic term.

  16. Identifying false friends between closely related languages

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubešić, Nikola; Fišer, Darja

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a corpus-based approach to automatic identification of false friends for Slovene and Croatian, a pair of closely related languages. By taking advantage of the lexical overlap between the two languages, we focus on measuring the difference in meaning between identicallyspelled words by using frequency and distributional information. Weanalyze the impact of corpora of different origin and size together with different association and similarity measures and compare them ...

  17. On the infinities of closed superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of possible infinities that may be present in uncompactified multi-loop heterotic and type II superstring amplitudes constructed, without use of the short-string limit, in the light-cone gauge, and with use of a closed SUSY field theory algebra. Various types of degenerations of the integrand are discussed on the string world-sheet. No infinities are found, modulo (for type II) a particular identity for Green's functions. (author). 13 refs

  18. Covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acids in spiroplasmas.

    OpenAIRE

    Ranhand, J M; Mitchell, W. O.; Popkin, T J; Cole, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Ten of twelve spiroplasma strains from different sources carried multiple covalently closed circular duplex deoxyribonucleic acid molecules, as shown by ethidium bromide-cesium chloride gradient centrifugation of cell lysates and examination of resulting bands by electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. Two to eight size classes per strain, comprising molecules of masses from 1 X 10(6) to 26 X 10(6), were detected. Several size classes of molecules were found in common in differen...

  19. Numerical studies of planar closed random walks

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    Lattice numerical simulations for planar closed random walks and their winding sectors are presented. The frontiers of the random walks and of their winding sectors have a Hausdorff dimension $d_H=4/3$. However, when properly defined by taking into account the inner 0-winding sectors, the frontiers of the random walks have a Hausdorff dimension $d_H\\approx 1.77$.

  20. Atomistic scattering close to an interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Half-space Green functions and T-matrix theory is used to predict that scattering on discrete dopants close to a perfect interface generates strong deviations from scattering in the bulk. Interference between the scattered wave and its reflection from the interface leads to a dipolar scattering rate. By introducing de-coherence the transition to bulk scattering is described quantitatively for strongly screened Coulomb scattering

  1. Atomistic scattering close to an interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, J R; Watling, J R [Nanoelectronics Research Centre, Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8LT, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    Half-space Green functions and T-matrix theory is used to predict that scattering on discrete dopants close to a perfect interface generates strong deviations from scattering in the bulk. Interference between the scattered wave and its reflection from the interface leads to a dipolar scattering rate. By introducing de-coherence the transition to bulk scattering is described quantitatively for strongly screened Coulomb scattering.

  2. Trapped surfaces and spherical closed cosmologies

    OpenAIRE

    Malec, Edward; Murchadha, Niall Ó

    1992-01-01

    This article gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the formation of trapped surfaces in spherically symmetric initial data defined on a closed manifold. Such trapped surfaces surround a region in which there occurs an enhancement of matter over the average. The conditions are posed directly in terms of physical variables and show that what one needs is a relatively large amount of excess matter confined to a small volume. The expansion of the universe and an outward flow of matter opp...

  3. Close encounters of the stellar kind

    CERN Document Server

    Bailer-Jones, C A L

    2014-01-01

    Stars which pass close to the Sun can perturb the Oort cloud, injecting comets into the inner solar system where they may collide with the Earth. Using van Leeuwen's re-reduction of the Hipparcos data complemented by the original Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues, along with recent radial velocity surveys, I integrate the orbits of over 50 000 stars through the Galaxy to look for close encounters. The search uses a Monte Carlo simulation over the covariance of the data in order to properly characterize the uncertainties in the times, distances, and speeds of the encounters. I show that modelling stellar encounters by assuming instead a linear relative motion produces, for many encounters, inaccurate and biased results. I find 42, 14, and 4 stars which have encounter distances below 2, 1, and 0.5 pc respectively, although some of these stars have questionable data. Of the 14 stars coming within 1 pc, 5 were found by at least one of three previous studies (which found a total of 7 coming within 1 pc). The closes...

  4. Biomechanical analysis of jaw-closing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolstra, J H; van Eijden, T M

    1995-09-01

    This study concerns the complex interaction between active muscle forces and passive guiding structures during jaw-closing movements. It is generally accepted that the ligaments of the joint play a major role in condylar guidance during these movements. While these ligaments permit a wide range of motions, it was assumed that they are not primarily involved in force transmission in the joints. Therefore, it was hypothesized that muscle forces and movement constraints caused by the articular surfaces imply a necessary and sufficient condition to generate ordinary jaw-closing movements. This hypothesis was tested by biomechanical analysis. A dynamic six-degrees-of-freedom mathematical model of the human masticatory system has been developed for qualitative analysis of the contributions of the different masticatory muscles to jaw-closing movements, it was found that the normally observed movement, which includes a swing-slide condylar movement along the articular eminence, can be generated by various separate pairs of masticatory muscles, among which the different parts of the masseter as well as the medial pterygoid muscle appeared to be the most suitable to complete this action. The results seem to be in contrast to the general opinion that a muscle with a forward-directed force component may not be suitable for generating jaw movements in which the condyle moves backward. The results can be explained, however, by biomechanical analysis which includes not only muscle and joint forces as used in standard textbooks of anatomy, but also the torques generated by these forces. PMID:7560417

  5. Close cathode chamber: Low material budget MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of asymmetric-type MWPC-s are presented. In this structure, referred to as Close Cathode Chamber in an earlier study, the material budget is significantly reduced on one hand by the elimination of external support frame, on the other hand by thin detector walls. In this paper it is demonstrated that the outline is compatible with large size detectors (1 m wire length), maintaining mechanical and operation stability, with total weight of 3 kg (including support structure) for a half square meter surface. The detection efficiency and response time is shown to be sufficient for L0 triggering in the ALICE VHMPID layout. Reduced sensitivity to cathode deformations (due to internal overpressure as mechanical strain) is directly demonstrated. On small sized chambers, improvement of position resolution with analog readout is evaluated, reaching 0.09 mm RMS with 2 mm wide cathode segments. Simulation results on signal time evolutions are presented. With the above studies, comparison of classical MWPC-s and the Close Cathode Chamber design is performed in all major aspects. -- Highlights: ► Asymmetric multi-wire proportional chamber, called the Close Cathode Chamber, is studied. ► Large size construction feasibility up to 1 m wire length is demonstrated in test beam and cosmic rays. ► Reduction of dependence of gas gain on chamber internal pressure is directly demonstrated. ► Position resolution and signal formation is shown to be compatible with classical MWPC.

  6. Quantum coherence and closed timelike curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1995-11-01

    Various calculations of the S matrix have shown that it seems to be nonunitary for interacting fields when there are closed timelike curves. It is argued that this is because there is loss of quantum coherence caused by the fact that part of the quantum state circulates on the closed timelike curves and is not measured at infinity. A prescription is given for calculating the superscattering matrix on spacetimes whose parameters can be analytically continued to obtain a Euclidean metric. It is illustrated by a discussion of a spacetime in which two disks in flat space are indentified. If the disks have an imaginary time separation, this corresponds to a heat bath. An external field interacting with the heat bath will lose quantum coherence. One can then analytically continue to an almost real separation of the disks. This will give closed timelike curves but one will still get loss of quantum coherence. A comparison is made with the work of authors who find a nonunitary S matrix. It is shown that this is because the does not factor into an S matrix and its adjoint when the spacetime does not have the property of asymptotic completeness.

  7. Closed-loop, open-source electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, John D; Gross, Robert E; Potter, Steve M

    2010-01-01

    Multiple extracellular microelectrodes (multi-electrode arrays, or MEAs) effectively record rapidly varying neural signals, and can also be used for electrical stimulation. Multi-electrode recording can serve as artificial output (efferents) from a neural system, while complex spatially and temporally targeted stimulation can serve as artificial input (afferents) to the neuronal network. Multi-unit or local field potential (LFP) recordings can not only be used to control real world artifacts, such as prostheses, computers or robots, but can also trigger or alter subsequent stimulation. Real-time feedback stimulation may serve to modulate or normalize aberrant neural activity, to induce plasticity, or to serve as artificial sensory input. Despite promising closed-loop applications, commercial electrophysiology systems do not yet take advantage of the bidirectional capabilities of multi-electrodes, especially for use in freely moving animals. We addressed this lack of tools for closing the loop with NeuroRighter, an open-source system including recording hardware, stimulation hardware, and control software with a graphical user interface. The integrated system is capable of multi-electrode recording and simultaneous patterned microstimulation (triggered by recordings) with minimal stimulation artifact. The potential applications of closed-loop systems as research tools and clinical treatments are broad; we provide one example where epileptic activity recorded by a multi-electrode probe is used to trigger targeted stimulation, via that probe, to freely moving rodents. PMID:20859448

  8. Microdroplet evaporation in closed digital microfluidic biochips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, microdroplet evaporation in the closed digital microfluidic systems is studied for hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The contact angle and contact radius are measured by an enhanced automated polynomial fitting approach. It is observed that the contact angle for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces remains constant during the evaporation process. However, a higher evaporation rate is observed for hydrophilic droplets compared to the hydrophobic droplets. Since no contact line pinning is observed, first, an analytical model based on the uniform vapor mass flux along the liquid–vapor interface is proposed. Interestingly, it is observed that in the hydrophobic case, the analytical model gives a higher evaporation rate, whereas for the hydrophilic case, the analytical model gives a lower evaporation rate. The discrepancy between the results of the analytical modeling and the experimental values is hypothesized to be due the constant flux assumption. To verify the hypothesis, a finite volume-based numerical model is developed to find the local flux along the liquid–vapor interface. The numerical modeling results confirm that for hydrophilic droplets, the evaporation flux increases very close to the three-phase contact line. In the case of the hydrophobic droplets, on the other hand, the flux decreases close to the contact line due to vapor saturation; as a result the uniform flux assumption overestimates the mass loss. (paper)

  9. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  10. On open-closed extension of boundary string field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Akira; Teraguchi, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a classical open-closed string field theory whose open string sector is given by boundary string field theory. The open-closed interaction is introduced by the overlap of a boundary state with a closed string field. With the help of the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, the closed string sector is determined to be the HIKKO closed string field theory. We also discuss the gauge invariance of this theory in both open and closed string sides.

  11. The ecology of micro-organisms in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L.

    1971-01-01

    Microorganisms under closed environmental ecological conditions with reference to astronauts infectious diseases, discussing bacteria growth in Biosatellite 2 and earth based closed chamber experiments

  12. High and low or close to close prices? Evidence from the multifractal volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhichao; Ma, Feng; Long, Yujia

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we examine the daily returns and daily range returns dependent on close-close and the high-low prices when forecasting multifractal volatility in the Chinese stock market. In in-sample forecasting we find that both the daily returns and range returns have a significant impact on the future multifractal volatility, existing the well-established phenomenon of "leverage effects" of the positive and negative returns. Moreover, using the MF-DFA method, we find that both the two series present the persistence and exhibit the multifractal features. Furthermore, our MCS test results show that the ARFIMA-lnMFV-R and ARFIMA-lnMFV-LR models provide relatively superior volatility forecasts in comparison to all other models. Finally, we find that the daily returns calculated by close to close prices have a greater power than the daily range return calculated by high and low prices in forecasting.

  13. Recultivation of the cavity of the closed open pit Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilić Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ore is one of the most important raw materials for industrial production. Increasing demands have been increasing its extraction generally. Shallow deposits with higher copper grade are mostly exhausted and the open pits become deeper, also the amount of overburden and the problems of its disposal are increased. In some cases large quantities of overburden can solve the problem of recultivation of degraded areas. This is the case of recultivation of degraded areas on the location of the closed open pit Bor. Here, the overburden from another open pit, Veliki Krivelj, is disposed into the cavity of the open pit Bor. In this way the overburden is disposed without further area degradation and the cavity is primarily, technically recultivated. When the filling process is finished, waste depot will have a flat top at the level K+450 [2], which is above the neighboring terrain, and the slopes height will vary. This problem was not especially considered up to date, so the experiences in this field are humble. This paper intends to be the basis for further research.

  14. PDE Surface Generation with Combined Closed and Non-Closed Form Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Jun Zhang; Li-Hua You

    2004-01-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) combined with suitably chosen boundary conditions are effective in creating free form surfaces. In this paper, a fourth order partial differential equation and boundary conditions up to tangential continuity are introduced. The general solution is divided into a closed form solution and a non-closed form one leading to a mixed solution to the PDE. The obtained solution is applied to a number of surface modelling examples including glass shape design, vase surface creation and arbitrary surface representation.

  15. DLR-EnviHab - A closed environmental Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, E.; Koch, B.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Graef, P.; Gerzer, R.

    Closed habitats intended for different purposes like confinement studies, life in extreme environments (Antarctica) and as simulation testbeds for complex closed life support systems have been built and achieved different degrees of closure. Those that were built in preparation of space missions oriented themselves on the need of a crew of astronauts during a long term mission in Space, on Mars or Moon. At DLR in Cologne, a modular approach is followed to build a closed environmental habitat for scientific and medical studies, the DLR-EnviHab. This modular structure of the EnviHab is designed to include humans as integral part in a bioregenerative life support system, and allows a step-wise realization of the project, ensuring useful results for a wide field of scientific research during each phase. The DLR-EnviHab provides a platform for international and interdisciplinary research and the development of innovative solutions for cultivation and habitation on Earth as well as for long term space or planetary missions. By the inclusion of humans as integral component of the system, medical research areas including physiological and psychological health and rehabilitation as well as environmental research and monitoring and modelling of coupled and controlled systems are addressed in EnviHab. Results of the research conducted in the individual and combined EnviHab modules will also contribute to most urgent issues like water(recycling) management, food management, pollution/waste management and atmosphere(air) management. In addition, EnviHab contributes to public education and outreach with the open visible and partly accessible structure, an exhibition and an explanatory module.

  16. Closed range multipliers on topological algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate several equivalent conditions under which a multiplier T on a semisimple commutative Frechet algebra A has closed range. It is shown here, for instance, that TA + kerT=A if an only if there is a commuting operator S (i.e., ST=TS) for which T=TST and S=STS, that this happens if and only if S may be taken to be a multiplier. Furthermore, it is proved that these conditions are also equivalent to the existence of a factorization T=PB, where P is an indempotent and B an invertible multiplier. (author). 6 refs

  17. Chaos in closed FRW: an imaginary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jorás, S E

    2003-01-01

    In this work we study the existence of mechanisms of transition to global chaos in a closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with a massive conformally coupled scalar field. We propose a complexification of the radius of the universe so that the global dynamics can be understood. We show numerically the existence of heteroclinic connections of the unstable and stable manifolds to periodic orbits associated to the saddle-center equilibrium points. We find two bifurcations which are crucial in creating non-collapsing universes both in the real and imaginary version of the models. The techniques presented here can be employed in any cosmological model.

  18. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2011-01-01

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are guaranteed to exist and are unique when the symmetry group is (3,4)-trivial, meaning that the group is connected and the third and fourth Lie algebra Betti numbers vanish. We give a structural description of some classes of (3,4)-trivial algebras and provide a number of examples.

  19. Quantum mechanics of the closed collapsing Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Viarenich, K A; Cherkas, S L

    2008-01-01

    Two approaches to quantization of Freedman's closed Universe are compared. In the first approach, the Shrodinger's norm of the wave function of Universe is used, and in the second approach, the Klein-Gordon's norm is used. The second one allows building the quasi-Heisenberg operators as functions of time and finding their average values. It is shown that the average value of the Universe scale factor oscillates with damping and approaches to some constant value at the end of the Universe evolution.

  20. Improving the hygienic design of closed equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2005-01-01

    cleaning action of fluid flow and the interaction between flow characteristics and soil attached to surfaces. Ideally, such information can be contained in fluid dynamics models or rules of thumb which can be used to assist in design of process equipment and when optimising cleaning procedures. Extending...... process plant. In turn the adhesion mechanisms between the soil and the surface of the process equipment must be overcome. In closed processes validation proves rather difficult, as inspection often is not possible. Hence, we benefit from a greater basic understanding of the influence of the mechanical...

  1. Closed string field theory from polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully nonpolynomial framework for closed string field theory is studied. All interactions are geometrical, the pattern of string overlaps gives polyhedra with equal perimeter faces and three edges at each vertex. All interactions are cubic in the sense that at most three strings can coincide at a point. The three point vertex used is that of Witten which is seen to be quite natural in the framework of quadratic differentials and to induce a very symmetric decomposition of moduli space. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  2. Unscheduled School Closings and Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dave E. Marcotte; Steven W. Hemelt

    2008-01-01

    Do students perform better on statewide assessments in years in which they have more school days to prepare? We explore this question using data on math and reading assessments taken by students in the third, fifth, and eighth grades since 1994 in Maryland. Our identification strategy is rooted in the fact that tests are administered on the same day(s) statewide in late winter or early spring, so any unscheduled closings due to snow reduce instruction time and are not made up until after the ...

  3. Thermodynamic nonextensivity in a closed string gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well-known results in string thermodynamics show that there is always a negative specific heat phase in the microcanonical description of a gas of closed free strings whenever there are no winding modes present. We will carefully compute the number of strings in the gas to show how this negative specific heat is related to the fact that the system does not have thermodynamic extensivity. We will also discuss the consequences for a system of having a microcanonical negative specific heat versus the exact result that such a thing cannot happen in any canonical (fixed temperature) description

  4. Overlap in Facebook Profiles Reflects Relationship Closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Araceli M; Wendel, Markie L; Crockett, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the association between self-reported Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) and Facebook overlap. Ninety-two participants completed online measures of IOS and investment model constructs. Researchers then recorded Facebook data from participants' profile pages. Results from multilevel models revealed that IOS predicted Facebook overlap. Furthermore, Facebook overlap was associated with commitment and investment in ways comparable to self-reported IOS. These findings suggest that overlap in Facebook profiles can be used to measure relationship closeness. PMID:25635533

  5. Close-range photogrammetry with video cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Examples of photogrammetric measurements made with video cameras uncorrected for electronic and optical lens distortions are presented. The measurement and correction of electronic distortions of video cameras using both bilinear and polynomial interpolation are discussed. Examples showing the relative stability of electronic distortions over long periods of time are presented. Having corrected for electronic distortion, the data are further corrected for lens distortion using the plumb line method. Examples of close-range photogrammetric data taken with video cameras corrected for both electronic and optical lens distortion are presented.

  6. WTS-2 b: Too close for comfort?

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács G.; Sipőcz B.; Pinfield D.J.; Hodgkin S.T.; Mustill A.; Ivanyuk O.; Koppenhoefer J.; Cruz P; Cappetta M.; Birkby J.L.; Saglia R.; Pavlenko Y.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of WTS-2 b, a typical hot Jupiter in an unusually close 1.02-day orbit to a K-dwarf star. This is the second planet to be discovered in the infrared light curves of the WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS) and is only one-and-a-half times the separation from its host star at which is would be destroyed by Roche lobe overflow. The predicted remaining lifetime of the planet is just 38 Myrs, assuming a tidal dissipation quality factor of Q'* = 106. The magnitude of Q'* is largely u...

  7. Shareveillance: Subjectivity Between Open and Closed Data

    OpenAIRE

    Birchall, Clare

    2016-01-01

    This article articulates “sharing” with “veillance” to focus a discussion of sharing in the digital context away from file-sharing, the business of linking and liking on social media, or the “sharing economy”, towards a form of contemporary subjectivity shaped by both “open” and “opaque” digital data practices and the “open” and “closed” data they deal in. Looking at government open and closed data as case studies, this article demonstrates how “shareveillance” – a state in which we are alway...

  8. Production of Heavy Quarks Close to Threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Adel, K.; Ynduráin, F. J.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate production by vector and axial currents of heavy quark pairs ($c\\bar{c}$, $b\\bar{b}$, $t\\bar{t}$) close to threshold. We take into account strong interaction contributions (including radiative corrections and leading nonperturbative effects) by using the Fermi-Watson final state interaction theorem. We use the results obtained to compare with experiment for open production of $c\\bar{c}$, $b\\bar{b}$ near threshold, and to give a reliable estimate of the so-called ``threshold effec...

  9. Closed power cycles thermodynamic fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Invernizzi, Costante Mario

    2013-01-01

    With the growing attention to the exploitation of renewable energies and heat recovery from industrial processes, the traditional steam and gas cycles are showing themselves often inadequate. The inadequacy is due to the great assortment of the required sizes power and of the large kind of heat sources. Closed Power Cycles: Thermodynamic Fundamentals and Applications offers an organized discussion about the strong interaction between working fluids, the thermodynamic behavior of the cycle using them and the technological design aspects of the machines. A precise treatment of thermal engines op

  10. Closed systems with nonhamiltonian internal forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a preceding paper, we have treated the inequivalence between the exterior (local, potential and selfadjoint) problem, and the interior (nonlocal, nonhamiltonian and nonselfadjoint) problem. In this note, we treat their compatibility via the notion of closed nonselfadjoint systems, i.e. systems which verify all conventional total conservation laws when isolated from the rest of the Universe; yet their interior structure is nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian. The generalized analytic, algebraic and geometrical formulations needed for their treatment are identified, jointly with their direct universality for the case of nonlinear and nonhamiltonian internal forces in local approximation. This allows the technical identification of the open problems for subsequent consideration. (author). 13 refs

  11. CFD simulation of boundary effects on closely spaced jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Ishita; Adams, Eric

    2015-11-01

    In coastal areas characterized by shallow water depth, industrial effluents are often diluted using multiple closely spaced jets. Examples of such effluents include brine from desalination plants, treated wastewater from sewage treatment plants and heated water from thermal power plants. These jets are arranged in various orientations, such as unidirectional diffusers and rosette groups, to maximize mixing with ambient water. Due to effects of dynamic pressure, the jets interact with each other leading to mixing characteristics which are quite different from those of individual jets. The effect of mutual interaction is exaggerated under confinement, when a large number of closely spaced jets discharge into shallow depth. Dilution through an outfall, consisting of multiple jets, depends on various outfall and ambient parameters. Here we observe the effects of shoreline proximity, in relation to diffuser length and water depth, on the performance of unidirectional diffusers discharging to quiescent water. For diffusers located closer to shore, less dilution is observed due to the limited availability of ambient water for dilution. We report on the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and compare the results with experimental observations.

  12. Route Scherrer and Route Einstein closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March and that part of Route Einstein will be closed for two weeks from the end of February.   Figure 1. The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure 1) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works.   The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. Figure 2. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the ca...

  13. Asymptotic expansions for large closed and loss queueing networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Kogan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss and closed queueing network models have long been of interest to telephone and computer engineers and becoming increasingly important as models of data transmission networks. This paper describes a uniform approach that has been developed during the last decade for asymptotic analysis of large capacity networks with product form of the stationary probability distribution. Such a distribution has an explicit form up to the normalization constant, or the partition function. The approach is based on representing the partition function as a contour integral in complex space and evaluating the integral using the saddle point method and theory of residues. This paper provides an introduction to the area and a review of recent work.

  14. NASA Research For Instrument Approaches To Closely Spaced Parallel Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dawn M.; Perry, R. Brad

    2000-01-01

    Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological condition (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technologies. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), working in partnership with Honeywell, Inc., completed in AILS simulation study, flight test, and demonstration in 1999 examining normal approaches and potential collision scenarios to runways with separation distances of 3,400 and 2,500 feet. The results of the flight test and demonstration validate the simulation study.

  15. Closing statement of Friends of the Earth Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A closing statement is presented of the case by Friends of the Earth (FOE) against the proposed construction by UK Nirex Ltd of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site in the Sellafield area. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for an underground repository for the disposal of radioactive waste. The objections were raised at a Planning Inquiry in 1995. The evidence provided by expert witnesses on behalf of FOE is summarised and reviewed. It concerns the adequacy of the geological characterisation and baseline monitoring work carried out by Nirex, and natural and induced changes to the geological barrier which may be associated with geological, engineering and chemical phenomena. Their detailed evidence has been presented to the Inquiry in other papers and constitutes the basis of the recommendation by FOE that planning consent for the RCF be refused. (UK)

  16. Closed-loop separation control using machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, Nicolas; Aider, Jean-Luc; Noack, Bernd; Segond, Marc; Abel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    A novel, model free, approach to experimental closed-loop flow control is implemented on a separated flow. Feedback control laws are generated using genetic programming where they are optimized using replication, mutation and cross-over of best performing laws to produce a new generation of candidate control laws. This optimization process is applied automatically to a backward-facing step flow at Re=1350, controlled by a slotted jet, yielding an effective control law. Convergence criterion are suggested. The law is able to produce effective action even with major changes in the flow state, demonstrating its robustness. The underlying physical mechanisms leveraged by the law are analyzed and discussed. Contrary to traditional periodic forcing of the shear layer, this new control law plays on the physics of the recirculation area downstream the step. While both control actions are fundamentally different they still achieve the same level of effectiveness. Furthermore the new law is also potentially easier and ...

  17. Open and Closed Creations of Black Hole Pair

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, W Z

    1998-01-01

    In the absence of a general no-boundary proposal for open creation, the constrained instanton approach is used in treating both the open and closed creations of black holes. A real (complex) constrained instanton is considered as the seed for the quantum pair creation of black holes in the Kerr-Newman-(anti-)de Sitter family. At the WKB level, for the chargeless and nonrotating case, the creation probability is the exponential of the (minus) entropy of the universe. Also for the other cases (charged, rotating, or both), the creation probability is the exponential of (minus) one quarter of the sum of the inner and outer black hole horizon areas. The study of the open creation of a black hole pair can be considered as a prototype of the constrained instanton method to quantum gravity for an open universe, without appealing to the background subtraction approach.

  18. Differences of EEG between Eyes-Open and Eyes-Closed States Based on Autoregressive Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Lei Xiao; Long Chen

    2009-01-01

    Autoregressive (AR) power spectral density estimate method was used to analyze the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in eyes-open and eyes-closed states. From the topographical distributions of delta, theta, alpha, and beta power spectrum, these two states can be clearly discriminated. In these two states, frontal areas were activated in delta power, both frontal and occipital areas were activated in theta band, and occipital areas were activated in alpha and beta bands. These four bands had significantly higher power in frontal, parietal, and occipital areas when eyes were close. The results also implied that the optimum order of AR model could be more suitable for estimating EEG power spectrum of different states.

  19. Preinduction activities: a closed malpractice claims perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M L; Kremer, M J

    2001-12-01

    The American Association of Nurse Anesthetists Foundation conducts an ongoing study of closed malpractice claims that involve nurse anesthetists. A team of 8 CRNA researchers has to date investigated 223 closed claim files from the St Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company. Research findings have demonstrated that failure to provide appropriate anesthesia care relative to the Scope and Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice was significantly associated with adverse anesthetic outcomes. Claims that involved inadequate preinduction activities (n = 22) were analyzed in the context of their compliance with published standards of care. The largest group of claims in this analysis (59%) involved damaging respiratory events, 28% entailed damaging cardiovascular events, and the principal issue in 13% of these claims involved failure to seek available information such as laboratory studies on the medical record. The most prevalent occurrence with damaging respiratory events was undocumented airway assessment in 27% of the claims. In 55% of these claims, the medical history was not completely documented. The surgical procedure categories were general surgical (32%), obstetrical (27%), otolaryngogical (23%), orthopedic (14%), and gynecologic (5%). The involved standards of care are reviewed, and recommendations are made regarding consistent completion of preinduction activities. PMID:11837148

  20. Closed cycle refrigeration for routine magnetotransport measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Binuka; Ye, Tianyu; Wegscheider, Werner; Mani, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    Condensed matter physics is often interested in the behavior of materials at very low temperatures. Low temperatures have traditionally been realized using liquid helium. However, the recent scarcity of liquid helium and the rapid rise in its cost has encouraged the development of alternative approaches, based on closed cycle refrigerators, for realizing low temperatures. Here, we convey our experiences in developing a home-made, low cost, variable temperature closed cycle refrigeration system for routine magnetotransport measurements down to 10K, and present measurements obtained with this system relating to the electronic properties of the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D semiconductors system. The setup was constructed to examine 0.5cm × 0.5cm semiconductor chips including up to 49 leads and reach ~ 10K within 3 hours. A computer controlled data acquisition system was assembled to collect resistivity and Hall effect data, and extract the carrier Hall mobility and density as a function of the temperature.

  1. Management of radioactive wastes. Closing meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the proceedings of this closing meeting. The aim of this meeting is to make a status of the different public hearings and round-tables and to stress on some particular points of the nuclear waste management debate. Some points concern the social and democratic dimension of this debate which can be summarized in few words like: public information, decision making, secrecy, confidence, transparency, acceptability, ethics. Some other points concern the scientific and technical dimensions of nuclear waste management and refer to the advantages and drawbacks of the different options of the 1991 law (transmutation, deep geologic disposal, and subsurface storage). (J.S.)

  2. Respiratory diagnostic possibilities during closed circuit anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaaik, A P; Erdmann, W

    1990-01-01

    An automatic feed back controlled totally closed circuit system (Physioflex) has been developed for quantitative practice of inhalation anesthesia and ventilation. In the circuit system the gas is moved unidirectionally around by a blower at 70 l/min. In the system four membrane chambers are integrated for ventilation. Besides end-expiratory feed back control of inhalation anesthetics, and inspiratory closed loop control of oxygen, the system offers on-line registration of flow, volume and respiratory pressures as well as a capnogram and oxygen consumption. Alveolar ventilation and static compliance can easily be derived. On-line registration of oxygen consumption has proven to be of value for determination of any impairment of tissue oxygen supply when the oxygen delivery has dropped to critical values. Obstruction of the upper or lower airways are immediately detected and differentiated. Disregulations of metabolism, e.g. in malignant hyperthermia, are seen in a pre-crisis phase (increase of oxygen consumption and of CO2 production), and therapy can be started extremely early and before a disastrous condition has developed. Registration of compliance is only one of the continuously available parameters that guarantee a better and adequate control of lung function (e.g. atalectasis is early detected). The newly developed sophisticated anesthesia device enlarges tremendously the monitoring and respiratory diagnostic possibilities of artificial ventilation, gives new insights in the (patho)physiology and detects disturbances of respiratory parameters and metabolism in an early stage. PMID:2260424

  3. Strategies and national programs of closed fuel cycles: Russian vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generation' was adopted in summer 2009. Within the framework of the program, transition to a new technological platform (NTP) of the Russian nuclear power industry is to be provided. The NTP is based d on the transition to U and Pu-closed NFC with Gen IV fast neutron reactors. Developed on this base, innovative nuclear power engineering shall fulfill the Russian demands for energy resources for a historically observable time period, simultaneously solving the problem concerning a reuse of earlier accumulated SNF. Areas of investigations to provide a transition to NTP of the Russian nuclear power engineering are presented

  4. What makes closed ecological systems sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, I.; Degermendzhy, A.; Rodicheva, E.

    A closed ecosystem has some properties that an open systems lacks. Let us consider the ones that increase the sustainability of an ecosystem. The common feature of biological and physicochemical life support systems is that basically they are both catalytic. There are two fundamental properties distinguishing biological systems: 1) they are auto-catalytic: their catalysts - enzymes of protein nature - are continuously reproduced when the system functions; 2) the program of every process performed by enzymes and the program of their reproduction are inherent in the biological system itself - in the totality of genomes of the species involved in the functioning of the ecosystem. Actually, one cell with the genome capable of the phenotypic realization is enough for the self- restoration of the function performed by the cells of this species in the ecosystem. The multi-cellular organisms with stem cells are constantly ready to repair themselves by intensifying the continuous process of regeneration. We (Gitelson) have made a quantitative investigation of this process by studying the regeneration and reparation of erythrocytes in mammals. The continuous microalgal culture of Chlorella vulgaris was taken to investigate quantitatively the similar functional process of self-restoration in unicellular algae (Rodicheva). Based on the data obtained, we proposed a mathematical model of the restoration process in the cell population that has suffered an acute radiation damage. Besides these general biological mechanisms responsible for their sustainability, closed systems also possess specific features enhancing their stability. They are as follows: 1. Nutrients cannot leave the system. 2. The metabolic pathways of the material cycling are closed. 3. The rates of interlink metabolism are in conformity with each other due to their mutual limitation. We present the data obtained in the Bios-3 experiments that prove the efficiency of this mechanism as a factor of the

  5. Deep Percolation Rates in Closed Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martysevich, V.; Nachabe, M.

    2008-05-01

    Deep percolation or seepage is an important term of the water budget in closed basins that don't have surface water drainage features. In shallow water table environment of Florida, internal drainage of soil controls flooding. With recent rapid population growth and urban development in the state, a simple, field-based method is needed to estimate seepage rates and the impact of anthropogenic activity on the environment. In this study we instrumented five locations within Hillsborough County, Florida, with wells with pressure transducers measuring water level fluctuations at 1 minute resolution. For closed basins with lakes, evapotranspiration (ET) rates were determined using data from a weather station and Penman-Monteith FAO56 method, and then seepage rates were calculated from a water budget. The rates of ET were in the range of 0.3-0.4 cm/d and the seepage rates varied greatly depending on conditions specific to the site. The seepage rates found for the three surface water sites in this study were 1.0 cm/d for a manmade lake surrounded with dense vegetation, 0.2-0.6 cm/d for a natural lake located close to groundwater pumping site, and 0-0.3 for another natural lake with no groundwater pumping in the proximity. A methodology was introduced to calculate seepage rates into semi-confined aquifers, and the rates ranged between 0.3 and 0.4 cm/d in the two sites during the wet season and almost zero during the dry season when the head difference between the surficial and Floridan aquifers became too small. The results of the study indicate that simple and relatively inexpensive field methods can estimate seepage within a narrow range. Another important finding is the impact of the groundwater pumping on the surrounding environment. Further sensitivity studies on hydrological models that use seepage as one of the inputs may indicate that lower data collection resolution or simpler ET estimation methods are acceptable.

  6. Monitoring Digital Closed-Loop Feedback Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A technique of monitoring digital closed-loop feedback systems has been conceived. The basic idea is to obtain information on the performances of closed-loop feedback circuits in such systems to aid in the determination of the functionality and integrity of the circuits and of performance margins. The need for this technique arises as follows: Some modern digital systems include feedback circuits that enable other circuits to perform with precision and are tolerant of changes in environment and the device s parameters. For example, in a precision timing circuit, it is desirable to make the circuit insensitive to variability as a result of the manufacture of circuit components and to the effects of temperature, voltage, radiation, and aging. However, such a design can also result in masking the indications of damaged and/or deteriorating components. The present technique incorporates test circuitry and associated engineering-telemetry circuitry into an embedded system to monitor the closed-loop feedback circuits, using spare gates that are often available in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This technique enables a test engineer to determine the amount of performance margin in the system, detect out of family circuit performance, and determine one or more trend(s) in the performance of the system. In one system to which the technique has been applied, an ultra-stable oscillator is used as a reference for internal adjustment of 12 time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The feedback circuit produces a pulse-width-modulated signal that is fed as a control input into an amplifier, which controls the circuit s operating voltage. If the circuit s gates are determined to be operating too slowly or rapidly when their timing is compared with that of the reference signal, then the pulse width increases or decreases, respectively, thereby commanding the amplifier to increase or reduce, respectively, its output level, and "adjust" the speed of the circuits. The nominal

  7. Latino Scoreboard on Texas Higher Education: "Just Who's 'Closing the Gaps'?" JSRI Research Report No. 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Arturo; Martinez, Ruben O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of the "Closing the Gaps Higher Education Plan" approved and implemented by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board in 2000 to improve the quality of higher education and address educational gaps prevalent among the state's diverse populations. The plan targets the four areas for improvement: (1) student…

  8. 75 FR 9006 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; Notice of Meeting: Partially Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... areas where understanding of science, technology, and innovation is key to strengthening our economy and... TECHNOLOGY POLICY President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; Notice of Meeting: Partially Closed Meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology ACTION: Public...

  9. Closed String Amplitudes from Gauge Fixed String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Drukker, Nadav

    2002-01-01

    Closed string diagrams are derived from cubic open string field theory using a gauge fixed kinetic operator. The basic idea is to use a string propagator that does not generate a boundary to the world sheet. Using this propagator and the closed string vertex, the moduli space of closed string surfaces is covered, so closed string scattering amplitudes should be reproduced. This kinetic operator could be a gauge fixed form of the string field theory action around the closed string vacuum.

  10. Geophysical Processes - 2013 Collapse Potential St. Louis Area (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Collapse potential correlates with locations of underground mines and sinkholes. The file includes areas in close proximity to mines and sinkholes. This project was...

  11. The sensitive area of cosmic ray air shower arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some closed expressions are derived for the collecting area of cosmic ray air shower arrays, taking into account the varying geometry such arrays present to showers arriving from different directions. (orig.)

  12. Microrheology close to an equilibrium phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the microstructural and microrheological response to a tracer particle of a two-dimensional colloidal suspension under thermodynamic conditions close to a liquid-gas phase boundary. On the liquid side of the binodal, increasing the velocity of the (repulsive) tracer leads to the development of a pronounced cavitation bubble, within which the concentration of colloidal particles is strongly depleted. The tendency of the liquid to cavitate is characterized by a dimensionless “colloidal cavitation” number. On the gas side of the binodal, a pulled (attractive) tracer leaves behind it an extended trail of colloidal liquid, arising from downstream advection of a wetting layer on its surface. For both situations the velocity dependent friction is calculated

  13. The Closing of the Insolvency Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Lefter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The achievment of the balance between the offer and the demand in a market economy makes that some merchants win and others lose. Losing in business is a normal risk, usually assumed by any merchant. But when the merchant record losses, the issue is of engaging his responsibility before all those that may be damaged due to his negative results. Faced to this reality, the commercial legislation, by way of the collective procedure, has tried to found the most adequate means to reduce up to the maximum the negative influences that the losses beared by a merchant may have on his creditors. According to this, from the new law of the collective procedure (Law no. 85/2006 there have been analized those cases of closing the procedure and their effects which raised already problems in practice and aroused interesting doctrinal controversies.

  14. Realistic Detectability of Close Interstellar Comets

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Nathaniel V; Granvik, Mikael; Stephens, Denise C

    2016-01-01

    During the planet formation process, billions of comets are created and ejected into interstellar space. The detection and characterization of such interstellar comets (also known as extra-solar planetesimals or extra-solar comets) would give us in situ information about the efficiency and properties of planet formation throughout the galaxy. However, no interstellar comets have ever been detected, despite the fact that their hyperbolic orbits would make them readily identifiable as unrelated to the solar system. Moro-Mart\\'in et al. 2009 have made a detailed and reasonable estimate of the properties of the interstellar comet population. We extend their estimates of detectability with a numerical model that allows us to consider "close" interstellar comets, e.g., those that come within the orbit of Jupiter. We include several constraints on a "detectable" object that allow for realistic estimates of the frequency of detections expected from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other surveys. The inf...

  15. Microorganism billiards in closed plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Madison S

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that many species of microorganisms leave a solid surface at a fixed angle determined by steric interactions and near-field hydrodynamics. This angle is completely independent of the incoming angle. For several collisions in a closed body this determines a unique type of billiard system, an aspecular billiard in which the outgoing angle is fixed for all collisions. We analyze such a system using numerical simulation of this billiard for varying tables and outgoing angles, and also utilize the theory of one-dimensional maps and wavefront dynamics. When applicable we cite results from and compare our system to similar billiard systems in the literature. We focus on examples from three broad classes: the ellipse, the Bunimovich billiards, and the Sinai billiards. The effect of a noisy outgoing angle is also discussed.

  16. Introducing closed circuit television for safeguards surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the second half of the 1980s 8 mm film and camera production, used by the IAEA for safeguards surveillance purposes, was discontinued worldwide as so called camcorders began to dominate the market. It became clear that it would be necessary to replace all of the installed twin camera units by closed circuit television systems, which offer the following advantages over 8 mm film cameras: higher picture capacity and quality; higher light sensitivity; the possibility of date and time annotation; and a lower sensitivity to nuclear radiation. The present article describes the planning of this transition by a special working group, the development of alternative equipment for the film camera systems through the safeguards support programmes of Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA; and the progress that has been achieved so far. 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  17. High distance knots in closed 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Let M be a closed 3-manifold with a given Heegaard splitting. We show that after a single stabilization, some core of the stabilized splitting has arbitrarily high distance with respect to the splitting surface. This generalizes a result of Minsky, Moriah, and Schleimer for knots in S^3. We also show that in the complex of curves, handlebody sets are either coarsely distinct or identical. We define the coarse mapping class group of a Heeegaard splitting, and show that if (S, V, W) is a Heegaard splitting of genus greater than or equal to 2, then the coarse mapping class group of (S,V,W) is isomorphic to the mapping class group of (S, V,W).

  18. Controlled Microbial Cenoses in Closed Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, Lydia; Mikheeva, Galina

    Controlled microbial cenoses have good prospects in closed spaces: for air treatment in LSS and cellars industrial premises; for sewage treatment in LSS; for increase of productivity and protect of plants from infections in LSS. Possible methods of formation of microbiocenoses are: selection, autoselection, artificial formation taking into account their biochemical properties and metabolic interactions. Experimental microbiocenoses, has been produced on the basis of natural association of microorganisms by long cultivation on specially developed medium. Dominating groups are bacteria of genera: Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bidobac-terium, Rhodopseudomonas and yeast of genera: Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces and Torulop-sis. Microbiocenoses do not contain pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, they possess opposing and probiotic properties. Different examples of microbial cenoses actions are to be presented in the paper.

  19. Binding bigraphs as symmetric monoidal closed theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschowitz, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Milner's bigraphs are a general framework for reasoning about distributed and concurrent programming languages. Notably, it has been designed to encompass both the pi-calculus and the Ambient calculus. This paper is only concerned with bigraphical syntax: given what we here call a bigraphical signature K, Milner constructs a (pre-) category of bigraphs BBig(K), whose main features are (1) the presence of relative pushouts (RPOs), which makes them well-behaved w.r.t. bisimulations, and that (2) the so-called structural equations become equalities. Examples of the latter include, e.g., in pi and Ambient, renaming of bound variables, associativity and commutativity of parallel composition, or scope extrusion for restricted names. Also, bigraphs follow a scoping discipline ensuring that, roughly, bound variables never escape their scope. Here, we reconstruct bigraphs using a standard categorical tool: symmetric monoidal closed (SMC) theories. Our theory enforces the same scoping discipline as bigraphs, as a direc...

  20. Open string amplitudes of closed topological vertex

    CERN Document Server

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    2016-01-01

    The closed topological vertex is the simplest "off-strip" case of non-compact toric Calabi-Yau threefolds with acyclic web diagrams. By the diagrammatic method of topological vertex, open string amplitudes of topological string theory therein can be obtained by gluing a single topological vertex to an "on-strip" subdiagram of the tree-like web diagram. If non-trivial partitions are assigned to just two parallel external lines of the web diagram, the amplitudes can be calculated with the aid of techniques borrowed from the melting crystal models. These amplitudes are thereby expressed as matrix elements, modified by simple prefactors, of an operator product on the Fock space of 2D charged free fermions. This fermionic expression can be used to derive $q$-difference equations for generating functions of special subsets of the amplitudes. These $q$-difference equations may be interpreted as the defining equation of a quantum mirror curve.

  1. Closed loop supply chain in printing operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcius Fabius Henriques Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear change in focus in large companies, previously dedicated primarily to the production of physical goods, toward offering complimentary services and changing their focus toward more service-oriented businesses, in order to increase their competitiveness. At the same time, companies are facing increasing product returns due to various reasons leading to reverse logistics practices and toward the introduction of a Closed Loop Supply Chain management perspective. The purpose of this work is to identify, using a case study in the printing industry,  specific characteristics, regarding product returns, both in a product-oriented and a service-oriented operation. Furthermore, the current work performs a diagnosis of current practices applications of CLSC models in the two operating models. The paper concludes that indeed there are relevant differences in managing the CLSC for each case and identify the main gaps for each operation.

  2. Nonlinear Tides in Close Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Nevin N; Quataert, Eliot; Burkart, Josh

    2011-01-01

    We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions and nonlinear excitation of modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, or compact objects, we focus on solar type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include: (1) The linear tidal solution often used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited gravity waves are unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' > 10-100 M_Earth at orbital periods P = 1-10 days. The nearly static equilibrium tide is, however, parametrically s...

  3. Closing the Knowledge Gap in Foreign Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie A.; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    The study explores how firms close their knowledge gaps in relation to business environments of foreign markets. Potential determinants are derived from traditional internationalization process theory as well as more recent literature on organizational learning processes, including the concept of...... absorptive capacity. Building on these two literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primary data of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggests that factors considered essential in traditional internationalization process theory, such as...... experiential learning, explains only a very limited part of perceived knowledge gaps. When factors pertaining to the concepts of absorptive capacity and superstitious learning are added, the explanatory power improves significantly. Apparently, our understanding of firms' internationalization processes can be...

  4. Extrasolar Trojan Planets close to Habitable Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, R; Schwarz, R; Freistetter, F

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the stability regions of hypothetical terrestrial planets around the Lagrangian equilibrium points L4 and L5 in some specific extrasolar planetary systems. The problem of their stability can be treated in the framework of the restricted three body problem where the host star and a massive Jupiter-like planet are the primary bodies and the terrestrial planet is regarded as being massless. From these theoretical investigations one cannot determine the extension of the stable zones around the equilibrium points. Using numerical experiments we determined their largeness for three test systems chosen from the table of the know extrasolar planets, where a giant planet is moving close to the so-called habitable zone around the host star in low eccentric orbits. The results show the dependence of the size and structure of this region, which shrinks significantly with the eccentricity of the known gas giant.

  5. Quantum fields on closed timelike curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienaar, J. L.; Myers, C. R.; Ralph, T. C. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Queensland (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    Recently, there has been much interest in the evolution of quantum particles on closed timelike curves (CTCs). However, such models typically assume pointlike particles with only two degrees of freedom; a very questionable assumption given the relativistic setting of the problem. We show that it is possible to generalize the Deutsch model of CTCs to fields using the equivalent circuit formalism. We give examples for coherent, squeezed, and single-photon states interacting with the CTC via a beamsplitter. The model is then generalized further to account for the smooth transition to normal quantum mechanics as the CTC becomes much smaller than the size of the modes interacting on it. In this limit, we find that the system behaves like a standard quantum-mechanical feedback loop.

  6. Closed-loop approach to thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goupil, C; Herbert, E; Benenti, G; D'Angelo, Y; Lecoeur, Ph

    2016-01-01

    We present the closed-loop approach to linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics considering a generic heat engine dissipatively connected to two temperature baths. The system is usually quite generally characterized by two parameters: the output power $P$ and the conversion efficiency $\\eta$, to which we add a third one, the working frequency $\\omega$. We establish that a detailed understanding of the effects of the dissipative coupling on the energy conversion process, necessitates the knowledge of only two quantities: the system's feedback factor $\\beta$ and its open-loop gain $A_{0}$, the product of which, $A_{0}\\beta$, characterizes the interplay between the efficiency, the output power and the operating rate of the system. The feedback loop approach thus provides a versatile and economical, hence efficient, tool for the study of any conversion engine operation for which a feedback factor may be defined as illustrated with a thermoelectric system.

  7. Open string amplitudes of closed topological vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closed topological vertex is the simplest ‘off-strip’ case of non-compact toric Calabi–Yau threefolds with acyclic web diagrams. By the diagrammatic method of topological vertex, open string amplitudes of topological string theory therein can be obtained by gluing a single topological vertex to an ‘on-strip’ subdiagram of the tree-like web diagram. If non-trivial partitions are assigned to just two parallel external lines of the web diagram, the amplitudes can be calculated with the aid of techniques borrowed from the melting crystal models. These amplitudes are thereby expressed as matrix elements, modified by simple prefactors, of an operator product on the Fock space of 2D charged free fermions. This fermionic expression can be used to derive q-difference equations for generating functions of special subsets of the amplitudes. These q-difference equations may be interpreted as the defining equation of a quantum mirror curve. (paper)

  8. Flow structure in magnetic close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current understanding of mass exchange processes between close binary system (CBS) components is reviewed, with particular attention on the mass flow structure and accretion disk physics. Using 3D MHD calculation results, the variation of key accretion disk characteristics with the accretor magnetic field is studied and the magnetic field generation process is analyzed. In particular, it is shown that the quasi-periodic process of toroidal magnetic field generation in disks results in alternating accretion and decretion regimes in the inner regions of the disk. By treating MHD flows in CBSs self-consistently, disk formation conditions are established and a separation criterion between intermediate-polar and polar flows is found. The possibility of using MHD simulation results for explaining observations is discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  9. Geneva motorway bypass closed for two nights

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The carriageways heading towards France on the airport section of the motorway will be closed from 8.30 p.m. to 5.00 a.m. in the night of 1 to 2 October and those heading towards Lausanne during the same hours in the night of 2 to 3 October. This is to allow dry-surface road-marking and signage work to be performed. The work will be postponed in the event of bad weather, in which case the new date will be announced on Radio RSR and Radio Lac as well as on the telephone traffic news service 163. Diversions will be in operation. Thank you in advance for your understanding. For further information, tel. 163 or www.autoroute-aeroport.ch Civil Engineering Department, DCTI, State of Geneva

  10. Accurate orbit propagation with planetary close encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baù, Giulio; Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Guerra, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    We tackle the problem of accurately propagating the motion of those small bodies that undergo close approaches with a planet. The literature is lacking on this topic and the reliability of the numerical results is not sufficiently discussed. The high-frequency components of the perturbation generated by a close encounter makes the propagation particularly challenging both from the point of view of the dynamical stability of the formulation and the numerical stability of the integrator. In our approach a fixed step-size and order multistep integrator is combined with a regularized formulation of the perturbed two-body problem. When the propagated object enters the region of influence of a celestial body, the latter becomes the new primary body of attraction. Moreover, the formulation and the step-size will also be changed if necessary. We present: 1) the restarter procedure applied to the multistep integrator whenever the primary body is changed; 2) new analytical formulae for setting the step-size (given the order of the multistep, formulation and initial osculating orbit) in order to control the accumulation of the local truncation error and guarantee the numerical stability during the propagation; 3) a new definition of the region of influence in the phase space. We test the propagator with some real asteroids subject to the gravitational attraction of the planets, the Yarkovsky and relativistic perturbations. Our goal is to show that the proposed approach improves the performance of both the propagator implemented in the OrbFit software package (which is currently used by the NEODyS service) and of the propagator represented by a variable step-size and order multistep method combined with Cowell's formulation (i.e. direct integration of position and velocity in either the physical or a fictitious time).

  11. Cerebral Critical Closing Pressure During Infusion Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsos, Georgios V; Czosnyka, Marek; Smielewski, Peter; Garnett, Matthew R; Liu, Xiuyun; Adams, Hadie; Pickard, John D; Czosnyka, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    We studied possible correlations between cerebral hemodynamic indices based on critical closing pressure (CrCP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compensatory dynamics, as assessed during lumbar infusion tests. Our data consisted of 34 patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus who undertook an infusion test, in conjunction with simultaneous transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) monitoring of blood flow velocity (FV). CrCP was calculated from the monitored signals of ICP, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and FV, whereas vascular wall tension (WT) was estimated as CrCP - ICP. The closing margin (CM) expresses the difference between ABP and CrCP. ICP increased during infusion from 6.67 ± 4.61 to 24.98 ± 10.49 mmHg (mean ± SD; p < 0.001), resulting in CrCP rising by 22.93 % (p < 0.001), with WT decreasing by 11.33 % (p = 0.005) owing to vasodilatation. CM showed a tendency to decrease, albeit not significantly (p = 0.070), because of rising ABP (9.12 %; p = 0.005), and was significantly different from zero for the whole duration of the tests (52.78 ± 22.82 mmHg; p < 0.001). CM at baseline correlated inversely with brain elasticity (R = -0.358; p = 0.038). Neither CrCP nor WT correlated with CSF compensatory parameters. Overall, CrCP increases and WT decreases during infusion tests, whereas CM at baseline pressure may act as a characterizing indicator of the cerebrospinal compensatory reserve. PMID:27165909

  12. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Sanchez, Travis

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at

  13. Scenarios for Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in Tropical Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Willem F; Roel Bosma; Han van Dijk; Leontine Visser; Van Zwieten, Paul A. M.; Simon R. Bush; Marc Verdegem

    2010-01-01

    We contend there are currently two competing scenarios for the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of Southeast Asia. First, a landscape approach, where farming techniques for small-scale producers are integrated into intertidal areas in a way that the ecological functions of mangroves are maintained and shrimp farming diseases are controlled. Second, a closed system approach, where problems of disease and effluent are eliminated in closed recirculation ponds behind...

  14. Closing the Gap GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency plays and will continue to play an important role in the world to save energy and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, little is known on how much additional capital should be invested to ensure using energy efficiently as it should be, and very little is known which sub-areas, technologies, and countries shall achieve maximum greenhouse gas emissions mitigation per dollar of investment in energy efficiency worldwide. Analyzing completed and slowly moving energy efficiency projects by the Global Environment Facility during 1991-2010, Closing the Gap: GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency evaluates impacts of multi-billion-dollar investments in the world energy efficiency. It covers the following areas: 1.       Reviewing the world energy efficiency investment and disclosing the global energy efficiency gap and market barriers that cause the gap; 2.       Leveraging private funds with public funds and other resources in energy efficiency investments; using...

  15. Remediation of the closed-down uranium mine in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1960s uranium was extracted from alum shale deposits at Ranstad in the south of Sweden. This mine was part of the development of a Swedish nuclear power program based on the heavy-water/natural uranium concept. In this report the history of Swedish uranium production is briefly presented as well as the reason for the closing-down of the mine at Ranstad. In 1985 the planning of the restoration of the area started. The aim of the remediation work was to find a permanent solution that excluded the need for any maintenance in the future. The procedures and techniques for remedial action are described for the open pit mine and the mill tailing deposits. As the leachate from the mill tailings was collected and purified, there was no urgent need for action. Investigations could be made to find an effective way for reducing the weathering of the pyrite in the tailings and the authorities concerned could accept the remediation plan after a detailed review. The main part of the plan has now been implemented and many experiences from the performance technique and the significant quality assurance program have been obtained. The old open pit mine has already been transformed into a lake and the mill tailings are covered by a leaktight barrier and a protective layer. The natural environment in the whole area has been reestablished

  16. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    CERN Document Server

    Desbois, Jean

    2012-01-01

    We pursue the analysis made in [1] on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay a particular attention to the random variable S{n1,n2, ...,n} (m) which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2, ...,nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m->infinity. A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m paths case the SLE information, valid in the 1-path case, on the 0-winding sectors arithmetic area.

  17. World Economy Close to Leaving Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel Albu

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the world economy crossed the strongest postwar economic crisis, affecting all the economic and social areas. The process of recovery after the global recession started at the end of 2009, but the level of investment and production will be slow in 2010. In 2009, the international trade and FDI flows showed significant decreases as a result of the global financial and economic crisis. Serious consequences of the current economic crisis occurred and affected the employment situation in...

  18. Closed crack growth monitoring using nonlinear ultrasonic imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was necessary to clarify closing mechanism of closed fatigue crack and evaluate such in high precision so as to ensure reliability of nuclear reactor and airplane. Three dimensional crack growth monitoring of closed crack depth distribution in the length direction and change in open and closed region within a crack with crack extension was conducted for closed fatigue crack created at compact tension specimen made of aluminium alloy A 7075 using such developed methods of subharmonic phased array for crack evaluation (SPACE), imaging method for closed cracks using nonlinear response of elastic waves at subharmonic frequency, and also load difference phased array (LPDA), nonlinear ultrasonic imaging method for closed cracks using subtraction of responses at different external loads. Results showed closed region within a crack was different in surface and inside and also open and closed region changed with crack extension in the three-dimensional way. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for fiscal year 2013 (October 2012 - September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    2014-01-31

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs): CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; CAU 111, Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits; and, CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches.

  20. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  1. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  2. Closed-form solutions and scaling laws for Kerr frequency combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, William H; Rakich, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    A single closed-form analytical solution of the driven nonlinear Schrödinger equation is developed, reproducing a large class of the behaviors in Kerr-comb systems, including bright-solitons, dark-solitons, and a large class of periodic wavetrains. From this analytical framework, a Kerr-comb area theorem and a pump-detuning relation are developed, providing new insights into soliton- and wavetrain-based combs along with concrete design guidelines for both. This new area theorem reveals significant deviation from the conventional soliton area theorem, which is crucial to understanding cavity solitons in certain limits. Moreover, these closed-form solutions represent the first step towards an analytical framework for wavetrain formation, and reveal new parameter regimes for enhanced Kerr-comb performance. PMID:27108810

  3. The solar system in close-up

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, John

    2016-01-01

    In response to the new information gained about the Solar System from recent space probes and space telescopes, the experienced science author Dr. John Wilkinson presents the state-of-the art knowledge on the Sun, solar system planets and small solar system objects like comets and asteroids. He also describes space missions like the New Horizon’s space probe that provided never seen before pictures of the Pluto system; the Dawn space probe, having just visited the asteroid Vesta, and the dwarf planet Ceres; and the Rosetta probe inorbit around comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko that has sent extraordinary and most exciting pictures. Those and a number of other probes are also changing our understanding of the solar system and providing a wealth of new up close photos. This book will cover all these missions and discuss observed surface features of planets and moons like their compositions, geisers, aurorae, lightning phenomena etc. Presenting the fascinating aspects of solar system astronomy this book is a c...

  4. WTS-2 b: Too close for comfort?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of WTS-2 b, a typical hot Jupiter in an unusually close 1.02-day orbit to a K-dwarf star. This is the second planet to be discovered in the infrared light curves of the WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS and is only one-and-a-half times the separation from its host star at which is would be destroyed by Roche lobe overflow. The predicted remaining lifetime of the planet is just 38 Myrs, assuming a tidal dissipation quality factor of Q'* = 106. The magnitude of Q'* is largely unconstrained by observations, thus WTS-2 b provides a useful calibration point for theories describing how frictional processes within a host star affect the tidal orbital evolution of its companion giant planets. It is expected that stars with large convective envelopes are more efficient at dissipating the orbital energy of the planet, and WTS-2 b provides an observational constraint in the sparsely populated K-dwarf regime. In addition, despite its relatively faint magnitude, the favourable size ratio of the WTS-2 star-planet system and the predicted hot equilibrium temperature of the planet will make it possible to characterise the planet's atmosphere via secondary eclipse measurements using existing ground-based instrumentation.

  5. Close Contact Fluctuations: Time of Contact

    CERN Document Server

    Bush, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    The letter resolves the long standing debate as to the proper time scale ($$) of the onset of the immunological synapse (IS) bond, the non-covalent chemical bond defining the immune pathways involving T-cells and antigen presenting cells (APC). Results from our model calculations show $$ to be of the order of seconds instead of minutes. Close to the linearly stable regime, we show that in between the two critical spatial thresholds defined by the integrin:ligand pair ($\\Delta_2\\sim$ 40-45 nm) and the T cell receptor (TCR):pMHC bond ($\\Delta_1\\sim$ 14-15 nm), $$ grows monotonically with increasing co-receptor bond length separation $\\delta$ (= $\\Delta_2-\\Delta_1\\sim$ 26-30 nm) while $$ decays with $\\Delta_1$ for fixed $\\Delta_2$. The non-universal $\\delta$-dependent power-law structure of the probability density function (PDF) further explains why only the TCR:pMHC bond is a likely candidate to form a stable synapse.

  6. Tertiary companions to close spectroscopic binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, A; Thomas, S; Udry, S

    2006-01-01

    We have surveyed a sample of 165 solar-type spectroscopic binaries (SB) with periods from 1 to 30 days for higher-order multiplicity. 62 targets have been observed with the NACO adaptive optics system and 13 new physical tertiary companions were detected. Another 12 new wide companions (5 still tentative) were retrieved from the 2MASS sky survey. Our binaries belong to 161 stellar systems; of these 64 are triple, 11 quadruple and 7 quintuple. After correction for incomplete detection, the fraction of SBs with additional companions is 63% +- 5%. We find that this fraction is a strong function of the SB period P, reaching 96% for P12d. Period distributions of SBs with and without tertiaries are significantly different, but their mass ratio distributions are identical. New statistical data on the multiplicity of close SBs indicate that their periods and mass ratios were established very early, but periods of SBs within triples were further shortened by angular momentum exchange with companions.

  7. Random close packing in protein cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Jennifer C.; Smith, W. Wendell; Regan, Lynne; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2016-03-01

    Shortly after the determination of the first protein x-ray crystal structures, researchers analyzed their cores and reported packing fractions ϕ ≈0.75 , a value that is similar to close packing of equal-sized spheres. A limitation of these analyses was the use of extended atom models, rather than the more physically accurate explicit hydrogen model. The validity of the explicit hydrogen model was proved in our previous studies by its ability to predict the side chain dihedral angle distributions observed in proteins. In contrast, the extended atom model is not able to recapitulate the side chain dihedral angle distributions, and gives rise to large atomic clashes at side chain dihedral angle combinations that are highly probable in protein crystal structures. Here, we employ the explicit hydrogen model to calculate the packing fraction of the cores of over 200 high-resolution protein structures. We find that these protein cores have ϕ ≈0.56 , which is similar to results obtained from simulations of random packings of individual amino acids. This result provides a deeper understanding of the physical basis of protein structure that will enable predictions of the effects of amino acid mutations to protein cores and interfaces of known structure.

  8. CLOSED TRANS-SCALE STATISTICAL MICRODAMAGE MECHANICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白以龙; 夏蒙棼; 柯孚久; 李晖凌

    2002-01-01

    Damage and failure due to distributed microcracks or microvoidsare on the challenging frontiers of solid mechanics. This appeals strongly to toolsnot yet fully developed in continuum damage mechanics, in particular to irreversiblestatistical thermodynamics and a unified macroscopic equations of mechanics andkinetic equations of microstructural transformations. This review provides the stateof the art in statistical microdamage mechanics.(1) It clarifies on what level of approximation continuum damage mechanicsworks. Particularly, D-level approximation with dynamic function of damage appearsto be a proper closed trans-scale formulation of the problem.(2) It provides physical foundation of evolution law in damage mechanics. Es-sentially, the damage-dependent feature of the macroscopic evolution law is due tothe movement of microdamage front, resulting from microdamage growth.(3) It is found that intrinsic Deborah number D*, a ratio of nucleation rateover growth rate of microdamage, is a proper indication of critical damage in damagemechanics, based on the idea of damage localization.(4) It clearly distinguishes the non-equilibrium damage evolution from equilib-rium phase transition, like percolation.Finally, some comments on its limitations are made.

  9. Quantum causality in closed timelike curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotaev, S. M.; Kiktenko, E. O.

    2015-08-01

    Although general relativity allows the existence of closed timelike curves (CTCs), self-consistency problems arise (the ‘grandfather paradox’ among others). It is known that quantum mechanical consideration of the matter formally removes all the paradoxes, but the questions about causal structure remain. On the other hand, the idea of postselected CTCs (P-CTC) in quantum teleportation has know been put forward and experimentally implemented. We consider these problems with the aid of quantum causal analysis, where causality is defined without invoking the time relation. It implements the Cramer principle of weak causality, which admits time reversal in entangled states. We analyze Deutsch CTCs (D-CTC) with different kinds of interactions between the chronology-violating and chronology-respecting particles, with refined inferences about mixedness, quantum/classical correlations, entanglement and thermodynamics in the D-CTC. The main result is that time reversal causality can really exist, however, the final quantum state does not place retrospective constraints on the initial state, instead the final state can influence the state inside the D-CTC. This is effectively the implementation of Novikov self-consistency principle. The P-CTC has radically different properties; in particular, if the initial state was pure, the final state is always pure too. Self-consistency is controlled by the initial state-dependent traversability of the P-CTC.

  10. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Barry; Husemann, Bernd; Busch, Gerold; Dierkes, Jens; Eckart, Andreas; Krajnovic, Davor; Scharwaechter, Julia; Tremblay, Grant R.; Urrutia, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    We present the first science results from the Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS). This program is a snapshot survey of 39 local type 1 AGN (0.01 MUSE), an optical wavelength integral field unit (IFU) with a 1'x1' field of view on the VLT. The optical 3D spectroscopy complements existing sub-mm CO(1-0) data and near-IR imaging to establish a unique dataset combining molecular and stellar masses with star formation rates, gas, stellar kinematics and AGN properties. The primary goals of CARS are to:1) investigate if the star formation efficiency and gas depletion time scales are suppressed as a consequence of AGN feedback; 2) identify AGN-driven outflows and their relation to the molecular gas reservoir of the host galaxy; 3) investigate the the balance of AGN feeding and feedback through the ratio of the gas reservoir to the AGN luminosity; and 4) provide the community with a reference survey of local AGN with a high legacy value. Future work will incorporate near-infrared IFU observations to present a complete spatially resolved picture of the interplay among AGN, star-formation, stellar populations, and the ISM.

  11. 13th Techtextil Closes with Record Figures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The technical textile and nonwovens sector came in droves to its leading international trade fair, with numbers never before seen. "Precisely because these are times of economic uncertainty, companies have been setting themselves new targets with innovative products and areas of application -and have in part already managed to achieve them at Techtextil. Some eight percent more exhibitors and two percent more trade visitors represent a double plus for Techtextil - a fantastic outcome," summarizes Detlef Braun, Member of the Board of Management of Messe Frankfurt, looking back over the days of the trade fair.

  12. Guide to Closing and Conditioning Ventilated Crawlspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, B.

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide explains the issues and concerns with conventional ventilated crawlspaces and provides prescriptive measures for improvements that will create healthier and more durable spaces. The methods described in this guide are not the only acceptable ways to treat a crawlspace but represent a proven strategy that works in many areas of the United States. The designs discussed in this guide may or may not meet the local building codes and as such will need to be researched before beginning the project.

  13. 78 FR 53497 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory... closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The special...

  14. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  15. Operative results of closed tibial plateau fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Hitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of tibial plateau fractures remains challenging because of their number, variety and associated soft tissue injuries that further augment their complexity. Comparison of operative results in recent reports has been difficult due to a lack of standard fracture classification scheme and uniform standardized objective criteria for evaluating results. Methods: Between August 1998 to December 2002, 27 closed tibial plateau fractures were treated operatively using methods and principles advocated by AO/ASIF and followed up for an average of 35.74 months (range 24-68 months. Fractures were classified according to Schatzker′s staging system and results evaluated using Rasmussen′s 30-point clinical grading system and Rasmussen′s radiological evaluation of the knee at a minimum follow up of 2 years. Results: Type II was the most common fracture type (9 cases followed by type I (6 cases. There were 37% excellent and 51.85% good functional results with only 3 patients having unacceptable results. The mean Rasmussen′s functional score was 25.062 (range 15-30. Minimal fixation in comminuted or depressed fractures as compared to rigid fixation was the cause of unacceptable results. Loss of knee range of motion in a few cases was attributed to delayed knee mobilization in these cases. Using Rasmussen′s radiological grading, 2 patients had excellent results and 81.48 % patients had good results. Only 3 patients had poor radiological results. The mean Rasmussen′s radiological score was 15.33 (range 10-18. Moreover, clinical evaluation did not correlate with the follow up radiograph. Conclusion: Anatomic reduction and rigid internal fixation followed by early knee motion and partial weight bearing during bone healing are the cornerstones in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures. Standard fracture classification, uniform reporting and evaluating criteria, along with detailed analysis of uniform treatment methods, has helped us

  16. Closed and quasi-closed yoke configurations for travelling wave induction heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. Al-shaikhli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The salient features of the travelling wave induction heating (TWIH make them very important technique in the field of heating flat metals. This study proposed two novel configurations, closed and quasi-closed, of the heater yoke. The proposed yokes designed to reduce the problems of slot effects and reduce the leakage flux, in order to focus the magnetic field within the heating region, which lead to improve the performance of the TWIH system. A finite-element simulation and analysis is represented in this study by using ANSYS^® programme code. A comparison analysis between the proposed configurations and the traditional one shows a superior performance of the proposed types for workpiece thickness >2 mm. The proposed methods give progress in produced power, efficiency and temperature about; 7–23, 15–40 and 10–25%, respectively, for thickness >2 mm. Moreover, wider and uniformed heat distributions are achieved with conjunction of typical yoke.

  17. Rings of star formation: Imprints of a close galaxy encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, I report results from galaxy merger simulations, which suggest the existence of a ring of star formation produced by close galaxy encounters. This is a generic feature of all galaxy interactions, provided that the disc spins are sufficiently aligned. This signature can be used to identify close galaxy pairs that have actually suffered a close interaction.

  18. 47 CFR 79.1 - Closed captioning of video programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closed captioning of video programming. 79.1... CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING § 79.1 Closed captioning of video programming. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section the following definitions shall apply: (1)...

  19. Large angular momentum closed strings colliding with D-branes

    OpenAIRE

    Imamura, Yosuke

    2002-01-01

    We investigate colliding processes of closed strings with large angular momenta with D-branes. We give explicit CFT calculations for closed string states with an arbitrary number of bosonic excitations and no or one fermion excitation. The results reproduce the correspondence between closed string states and single trace operators in the boundary gauge theory recently suggested by Berenstein, Maldacena and Nastase.

  20. Deformations of closed strings and topological open membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.

    2001-01-01

    We study deformations of topological closed strings. A well-known example is the perturbation of a topological closed string by itself, where the associative OPE product is deformed, and which is governed by the WDVV equations. Our main interest will be closed strings that arise as the boundary theo

  1. Deformations of closed strings and topological open membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Ma, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    We study deformations of topological closed strings. A well-known example is the perturba- tion of a topological closed string by itself, where the associative OPE product is deformed, and which isgoverned by the WD VV equations. Our main in terest will be closed strings that arise as the boundary t

  2. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522)....

  3. 24 CFR 3285.803 - Interior close-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior close-up. 3285.803 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.803 Interior close-up. (a) All shipping blocking, strapping, or bracing must be removed from appliances, windows,...

  4. 77 FR 53255 - Art Advisory Panel; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ...:AP:P&V:ART, 999 N. Capitol Street NE., Washington, DC 20002. Telephone (202) 435-5739 (not a toll... Internal Revenue Service Art Advisory Panel; Notice of Closed Meeting AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting of Art Advisory Panel. SUMMARY: Closed meeting of the...

  5. Open-Closed String Correspondence in Open String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartl, Marco; Sachs, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    We address the problem of describing different closed string backgrounds in background independent open string field theory: A shift in the closed string background corresponds to a collective excitation of open strings. As an illustration we apply the formalism to the case where the closed string background is a group manifold.

  6. 77 FR 69931 - Art Advisory Panel; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... of the review and evaluation of the acceptability of fair market value appraisals of works of art... Internal Revenue Service Art Advisory Panel; Notice of Closed Meeting AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting of Art Advisory Panel. SUMMARY: Closed meeting of the...

  7. 7 CFR 1927.56 - Scheduling loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling loan closing. 1927.56 Section 1927.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.56...

  8. 75 FR 73166 - Art Advisory Panel-Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Internal Revenue Service Art Advisory Panel--Closed Meeting AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting of Art Advisory Panel for Decorative Art. SUMMARY: A closed meeting of the Art Advisory Panel will be held in Washington, DC. DATES: The meeting will be held December...

  9. Thermodynamically predicted oscillations in closed chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2010-01-01

    All known up to now models of chemical oscillations are based exclusively on kinetic considerations. The chemical gross-process equation is split usually by elementary steps, each step is supplied by an arrow and a differential equation, joint solution to such a construction under certain, often ad hoc chosen conditions and with ad hoc numerical coefficients leads to chemical oscillations. Kinetic perception of chemical oscillations reigns without exclusions. However, as it was recently shown by the author for the laser and for the electrochemical systems, chemical oscillations follow also from solutions to the basic expressions of discrete thermodynamics of chemical equilibria. Graphically those solutions are various fork bifurcation diagrams, and, in certain types of chemical systems, oscillations are well pronounced in the bistable bifurcation areas. In this work we describe a general thermodynamic approach to chemical oscillations as opposite to kinetic models, and depict some of their new features like s...

  10. Program solicitation. Closing date: March 1, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This document is a solicitation for small business to participate in innovation research. The Department of Energy (DOE) invites small business concerns to submit grant applications under this thirteenth annual solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Firms with strong research capabilities in science or engineering in any of the topic areas described in Appendix 1 are encouraged to participate. DOE will support high-quality research or research and development (R and D) on advanced concepts concerning important energy related scientific or engineering problems and opportunities that could lead to significant public benefit if the research is successful. Objectives of this program include increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through DOE-supported R and D, stimulating technological innovation in the private sector, strengthening the role of small business in meeting Federal research and R and D needs, and improving the return on investment from Federally funded research for economic and social benefits to the Nation.

  11. Program solicitation: Closing date, January 22, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    DOE invites small business firms to submit proposals in this sixth annual solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Firms with strong research capabilities in science or engineering in any of the topic areas described are encouraged to participate. DOE will support high-quality research or research and development (R and D) on advanced concepts concerning important energy related scientific or engineering problems and opportunities that could lead to significant public benefit if the research is successful. Objectives of this program include stimulating technological innovation in the private sector, strengthening the role of small business in meeting Federal R and D needs, increasing the commercial application of DOE-supported research results, and improving the return on investment from Federally funded research for economic and social benefits to the Nation.

  12. Global Polio Eradication: So Close, yet so Far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad EJ Golzari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Launched in 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI never seemed as close to its sole target as by 2012; polio cases decreased by over 99% thanks to the global efforts restricting endemic areas into three countries, i.e. Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria. However, the enchantment did not last long as WPV1 and confirmed new polio cases were reported in Syria (1. Re-emergence of the virus, related to the WPV1 still endemic in Pakistan, had already been identified in some of the Middle Eastern countries and caused an outbreak in China (2. In previous experiences, for instance in Egypt, international outbreak response guidelines issued by the World Health Assembly (WHA in Resolution WHA59 were implemented comprehensively and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs were conducted carefully. Such global measures should immediately be taken in order to halt the risk of transmission and spread of WPV as a public health threat (2.Thanks to the continuing support of WHO and Iranian health ministry, Iran is the only country which has achieved the goal of polio eradication yet neighbouring two of the three polio endemic countries. However, the on-going challenge has become even more daunting as the threat has the potential of exacerbation due to the imported cases or carriers. Although Iran has been successful in eradication of some infectious diseases, imported cases contribute immensely to the failure in realizing the eradication aim for some other infectious diseases (3,4. Bordering Pakistan (909 km (565 mi and Afghanistan (936 km (582 mi to the east is one of the few major obstacles to be perceived as important. In some parts of Pakistan, immunization activities were suspended since June 2012 (2. It is pivotal to the polio eradication goals that immunization is restarted in the halted areas and reinforced in neighboring high-risk areas in order to prevent further spread of this outbreak.Surveillance for cases of acute flaccid

  13. NONLINEAR TIDES IN CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions, i.e., the redistribution of energy among stellar modes of oscillation, and nonlinear excitation of stellar normal modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper, the first in a series, presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism we present is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, and/or compact objects, we focus on non-rotating solar-type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include the following: (1) The linear tidal solution almost universally used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited internal gravity waves in solar-type stars are nonlinearly unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' ∼> 10-100 M⊕ at orbital periods P ≈ 1-10 days. The nearly static 'equilibrium' tidal distortion is, however, stable to parametric resonance except for solar binaries with P ∼3[P/10 days] for a solar-type star) and drives them as a single coherent unit with growth rates that are a factor of ≈N faster than the standard three-wave parametric instability. These are local instabilities viewed through the lens of global analysis; the coherent global growth rate follows local rates in the regions where the shear is strongest. In solar-type stars, the dynamical tide is unstable to this collective version of the parametric instability for even sub-Jupiter companion masses with P ∼< a month. (4) Independent of the parametric instability, the dynamical and equilibrium tides excite a wide range of stellar p-modes and g-modes by nonlinear inhomogeneous forcing

  14. Nonlinear Tides in Close Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Quataert, Eliot; Burkart, Josh

    2012-06-01

    We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions, i.e., the redistribution of energy among stellar modes of oscillation, and nonlinear excitation of stellar normal modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper, the first in a series, presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism we present is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, and/or compact objects, we focus on non-rotating solar-type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include the following: (1) The linear tidal solution almost universally used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited internal gravity waves in solar-type stars are nonlinearly unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' >~ 10-100 M ⊕ at orbital periods P ≈ 1-10 days. The nearly static "equilibrium" tidal distortion is, however, stable to parametric resonance except for solar binaries with P companion masses larger than a few Jupiter masses, the dynamical tide causes short length scale waves to grow so rapidly that they must be treated as traveling waves, rather than standing waves. (3) We show that the global three-wave treatment of parametric instability typically used in the astrophysics literature does not yield the fastest-growing daughter modes or instability threshold in many cases. We find a form of parametric instability in which a single parent wave excites a very large number of daughter waves (N ≈ 103[P/10 days] for a solar-type star) and drives them as a single coherent unit with growth rates that are a factor of ≈N faster than the standard three

  15. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  16. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...

  17. A design method for closed loop solar energy systems with concentrating collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A method of performance prediction and design for closed loop concentrating solar collector systems is presented, along with a comparison of prediction with results using a compound parabolic concentrating collector. The numerical model is an extension of Collares-Pereira and Rabl (1978) model for concentrating collectors to a closed-loop scenario, using a monthly average utilizability factor and the f-chart technique. The predictions were compared with simulations using the TRNSYS program, considering 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 concentration factors, and a sensible heat storage system. Performance predictions were found to depart from the simulations by an average of 14.04% for all cases, with the predictions giving consistently lower results. The method is concluded to be useful for optimizing collector areas and concentration ratios in closed-loop systems.

  18. Observations on open and closed string scattering amplitudes at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputa, Pawel; Hirano, Shinji

    2012-02-01

    We study massless open and closed string scattering amplitudes in flat space at high energies. Similarly to the case of AdS space, we demonstrate that, under the T-duality map, the open string amplitudes are given by the exponential of minus minimal surface areas whose boundaries are cusped closed loops formed by lightlike momentum vectors. We show further that the closed string amplitudes are obtained by gluing two copies of minimal surfaces along their cusped lightlike boundaries. This can be thought of as a manifestation of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relation at high energies. We also discuss the KLT relation in AdS/CFT and its possible connection to amplitudes in mathcal{N} = {8} supergravity as well as the correlator/amplitude duality.

  19. Observations on Open and Closed String Scattering Amplitudes at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Caputa, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    We study massless open and closed string scattering amplitudes in flat space at high energies. Similarly to the case of AdS space, we demonstrate that, under the T-duality map, the open string amplitudes are given by the exponential of minus minimal surface areas whose boundaries are cusped closed loops formed by lightlike momentum vectors. We show further that the closed string amplitudes are obtained by gluing two copies of minimal surfaces along their cusped lightlike boundaries. This can be thought of as a manifestation of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relation at high energies. We also discuss the KLT relation in AdS/CFT and its possible connection to amplitudes in N=8 supergravity as well as the correlator/amplitude duality.

  20. Study on Ka-Band Sheet Beam Traveling Wave Tube Focused by Closed PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-Liang; Shi, Xianbao; Gong, Yu-Bin; Wei, Yan-Yu; Duan, Zhao-Yun; Su, Xiaogang; Gong, Huarong; Feng, Jinjun; Huang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a Ka-band sheet beam traveling wave tube (TWT) focused by a 0.2 T closed periodic cusped magnet (PCM) system. The TWT with one section of staggered double-vane slow-wave structure (SWS) is driven by a 0.8-A sheet beam with rectangular cross-sectional area of 3.2 mm × 0.6 mm. This sheet beam TWT can produce 100 W output power, and the 3 dB band is 33-38.5 GHz. In order to improve the output power, an optimized sheet beam TWT with two sections of SWSs focused by a novel closed PCM system is proposed. The new closed PCM system is with annular magnetic blocks and can be fabricated and adjusted easily. The simulation shows that the optimized sheet beam TWT can produce 2000 W output power and the 3 dB band ranging from 33 to 40 GHz.

  1. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H.; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A.; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino’s petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa.

  2. Whiteflies stabilize their take-off with closed wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribak, Gal; Dafni, Eyal; Gerling, Dan

    2016-06-01

    The transition from ground to air in flying animals is often assisted by the legs pushing against the ground as the wings start to flap. Here, we show that when tiny whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci, body length ca. 1 mm) perform take-off jumps with closed wings, the abrupt push against the ground sends the insect into the air rotating forward in the sagittal (pitch) plane. However, in the air, B. tabaci can recover from this rotation remarkably fast (less than 11 ms), even before spreading its wings and flapping. The timing of body rotation in air, a simplified biomechanical model and take-off in insects with removed wings all suggest that the wings, resting backwards alongside the body, stabilize motion through air to prevent somersaulting. The increased aerodynamic force at the posterior tip of the body results in a pitching moment that stops body rotation. Wing deployment increases the pitching moment further, returning the body to a suitable angle for flight. This inherent stabilizing mechanism is made possible by the wing shape and size, in which half of the wing area is located behind the posterior tip of the abdomen. PMID:27045098

  3. Euro area business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Atilim Seymen

    2012-01-01

    The role of global, euro area and country-specific shocks in business cycle dynamics of six euro area member countries is assessed with the aid of SVAR models. Output fluctuations are driven by global shocks to a large extent in the euro area, and no Europeanisation of business cycles due to, for example the European Monetary Union, could be established. Business cycle heterogeneity is driven mainly by (asymmetric) country-specific shocks in the euro area and not by heterogeneous responses to...

  4. NONLINEAR TIDES IN CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, Nevin N. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Arras, Phil [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Quataert, Eliot; Burkart, Josh, E-mail: nevin@mit.edu [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions, i.e., the redistribution of energy among stellar modes of oscillation, and nonlinear excitation of stellar normal modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper, the first in a series, presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism we present is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, and/or compact objects, we focus on non-rotating solar-type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include the following: (1) The linear tidal solution almost universally used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited internal gravity waves in solar-type stars are nonlinearly unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' {approx}> 10-100 M{sub Circled-Plus} at orbital periods P Almost-Equal-To 1-10 days. The nearly static 'equilibrium' tidal distortion is, however, stable to parametric resonance except for solar binaries with P {approx}< 2-5 days. (2) For companion masses larger than a few Jupiter masses, the dynamical tide causes short length scale waves to grow so rapidly that they must be treated as traveling waves, rather than standing waves. (3) We show that the global three-wave treatment of parametric instability typically used in the astrophysics literature does not yield the fastest-growing daughter modes or instability threshold in many cases. We find a form of parametric instability in which a single parent wave excites a very large number of daughter waves (N Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 3}[P/10 days] for a solar-type star) and drives them as a single

  5. Algebraic and arithmetic area for $m$ planar Brownian paths

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    The leading and next to leading terms of the average arithmetic area $$ enclosed by $m\\to\\infty$ independent closed Brownian planar paths, with a given length $t$ and starting from and ending at the same point, is calculated. The leading term is found to be $ \\sim {\\pi t\\over 2}\\ln m$ and the $0$-winding sector arithmetic area inside the $m$ paths is subleading in the asymptotic regime. A closed form expression for the algebraic area distribution is also obtained and discussed.

  6. Algebraic and arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leading and next to leading terms of the average arithmetic area (S(m)) enclosed by m→∞ independent closed Brownian planar paths, with a given length t and starting from and ending at the same point, are calculated. The leading term is found to be (S(m)) ∼ (πt/2)lnm and the 0-winding sector arithmetic area inside the m paths is subleading in the asymptotic regime. A closed form expression for the algebraic area distribution is also obtained and discussed

  7. Selected areas in cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oorschot, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Selected Areas in Cryptography brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Selected Areas in Cryptography serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.

  8. Closeness and distance: Using close reading as a method of educational enquiry in English studies

    OpenAIRE

    Brookman, Helen; Horn, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on a pedagogical case study in order to reflect on the value of using a Humanities disciplinary practice (the ‘close reading’ of literary studies) as a method of educational enquiry and to provide a worked example of this approach. We explore the introduction of a pedagogic strategy – students writing abstracts for essays and sharing them in advance of group discussion – into the tutorial at the University of Oxford, and an evaluation of it. We then read the student ‘texts’...

  9. We gme P08: Fiber-optic temperature profiles analysis for closed-loop geothermal systems-a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Radioti, Georgia; Delvoie, Simon; Sartor, Kevin; Nguyen, Frédéric; Charlier, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the behaviour of shallow closed-loop geothermal systems four borehole heat exchangers equipped with fiber optics were installed on the campus of the University of Liege (Liege, Belgium) over a surface area of 32m². This paper presents the analysis of continuous, high-resolution temperature profiles measured along the boreholes length. The undisturbed ground temperature measurements indicate heat loss from ground structures located close to the boreholes. A 3D numerical model...

  10. Asbestos in seashore Southern area of Bari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari seashore was place, in the past, of uncontrolled waste disposal. The importance of such situation became evident when Bari Municipal Administration attempted the recovery of Torre Quetta beach. Sampling and analysis in the area showed the presence of quantities of asbestos residues probably coming from Fibronit, an asbestos-cement industry in Bari closed since 1985 and, at present, polluted site of national relevance

  11. President's closing statement to the conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of participation - well over 500 nominated participants from 82 States and 14 organizations - is a clear indication of the level of interest, and the lively discussions during the week have confirmed this. The objective of the conference was to foster the exchange of information on critical issues relating to the safety of transport of radioactive material and to formulate findings based on the papers contributed and the discussions held, and this has been achieved. The transport of radioactive material is essential for a very wide range of beneficial uses: the generation of electricity and many industrial, medical and other applications. It will, therefore, be accepted providing people are confident that it is safe. Historically, the safety record of radioactive material transport is excellent, and all parties involved should continue to cooperate to ensure that this excellent record is maintained. Nevertheless, many people continue to be concerned. The high level of confidence that is needed for widespread acceptance depends on convincing people that the transport of radioactive material is subject to rigorous safety requirements and that those requirements are always complied with. There was broad agreement among participants that the IAEA Transport Regulations, and the regulations of the modal organizations based on those regulations, provide a sound technical basis for the safe transport of radioactive material. There is room for improvement of the regulations in a number of technical areas, and the detailed issues involved - and discussed during this conference - should continue to be pursued by the relevant organizations, with due account of the need to balance the benefits of flexibility and continuing improvement against those of regulatory stability. In particular, we want to be sure that the regulations can readily be applied to all the types of radioactive material that might need to be transported, while leaving some flexibility in the

  12. Topical issues in nuclear safety [Closing comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, how should the IAEA further its efforts in the development and application of its safety standards? The need for international standards, as the global reference of a high level of safety, was recognized in each of our four sessions, and the IAEA is the only international organization with the statutory mandate to serve this role. We must continue our efforts at developing standards for all safety thematic areas and for all types of nuclear installations, and at keeping them current and user friendly by actively incorporating feedback to meet the changes in technology and the needs of our Member States; likewise, we will continue to seek ways to ensure that the standards are applied effectively and universally throughout the world. Second, we must seek out ways to share lessons learned in as deep and wide a manner as possible. Self-sustaining networks within and between Member States, based on strategic knowledge management, is a key vehicle to achieve this objective. The Asian Nuclear Safety Network, supported in China by the Beijing Institute of Nuclear Engineering, CAEA and NNSA (among others), is the flagship of the IAEA's safety networks. The proceedings and results of this conference will be a key input to this network. Further enhancement of the IAEA peer reviews, OSART and IRRT in particular, was also widely perceived to be another very effective way to promote the sharing of lessons more in-depth. Third, it is essential that international legal instruments, such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, are incorporated into the improvement suggestions on the global safety regime that have been proposed. The IAEA will share the insights of this conference with the contracting parties and will work to engage them, as appropriate. Finally, all the valuable suggestions and insights of this conference regarding the future activities of the IAEA will be duly reflected in the planning and implementation of the IAEA's future programmes. We also plan to organize

  13. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    We pursue the analysis made in [1] on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay a particular attention to the random variable S{n1,n2, ...,n} (m) which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2, ...,nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m->infinity. A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m paths case the SLE informatio...

  14. CALCULATION REGARDING THERMAL TRANSFER THROUGH CLOSING ELEMENTS FOR A CATTLE SHELTER KEPT IN LOOSE HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuţa JURCO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calculation regarding thermal transmission due to closing elements for cattle shelter kept loose housing. The shelter is compound from 2 compartments, splitted in the middle by a cross alley. The compartments are divided in feeding area and resting area. The shelter has the opening of 16.35 m, total hall lenght is 40.95 m, with surface about 669.53 sqm and the maximum hight about 6.40 m. After analyzing the calculation of heat transfer through closing elements for a cattle shelter kept in loose housing show that the amount of heat lost through external walls with heterogeneous structure is minimal compared to the classical exterior wall with homogeneous structure.

  15. Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper will discuss the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification. The demonstration will take place at a cold site at the Hanford Geotechnical Test Facility, 400 Area, Hanford, Washington

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of valveless pumping in a closed microfluidic tube-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.S.; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Lemarchard, A.

    In this paper we study the flow which is generated by a valveless pumping mechanism in a closed tube-system consistent of two tubes with different radii. This remarkable system has been investigated by Ottesen [J. T. Ottesen, J. Math. Biol. 46(2003) 309-332] on a macroscopic level and we find tha...... the velocity profiles away from the pumping area can be well fitted to an analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation....

  17. Airborne particle monitoring with urban closed-circuit television camera networks and a chromatic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic approach for the preliminary assessment of 2–10 µm sized (PM10) airborne particle levels in urban areas is described. It uses existing urban closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance camera networks in combination with particle accumulating units and chromatic quantification of polychromatic light scattered by the captured particles. Methods for accommodating extraneous light effects are discussed and test results obtained from real urban sites are presented to illustrate the potential of the approach

  18. Impact on the Quality of Life When Living Close to a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Vantarakis, A.; Paparrodopoulos, S.; Kokkinos, P.; G. Vantarakis; Fragou, K.; I. Detorakis

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact on the quality of life of people living close to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A case control study, including 235 inhabitants living within a 500 m radius by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (cases) and 97 inhabitants living in a different area (controls), was conducted. A standardized questionnaire was self-completed by the participants which examined the general health perception and the overall life satisfaction. Als...

  19. Development of Robots with Soft Sensor Flesh for Achieving Close Interaction Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoaki Yoshikai; Marika Hayashi; Yui Ishizaka; Hiroko Fukushima; Asuka Kadowaki; Takashi Sagisaka; Kazuya Kobayashi; Iori Kumagai; Masayuki Inaba

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve robots' working around humans, safe contacts against objects, humans, and environments with broad area of their body should be allowed. Furthermore, it is desirable to actively use those contacts for achieving tasks. Considering that, many practical applications will be realized by whole-body close interaction of many contacts with others. Therefore, robots are strongly expected to achieve whole-body interaction behavior with objects around them. Recently, it becomes possi...

  20. Application of Close Range Photogrammetry to Deck Measurement in Recreational Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Celestino Ordóñez; Belén Riveiro; Pedro Arias; Julia Armesto

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present results that demonstrate the utility of close range photogrammetry in the measurement of decks in recreational craft as an alternate measurement system to the one based on direct acquisition of coordinates. The areas of deck covered with teakwood for aesthetic or security reasons were measured. Both methods were compared in terms of precision of measurements, time consumption, equipment cost, and ease of manipulation and equipment transportation. Based on the resul...

  1. Foraging movements and habitat niche of two closely related seabirds breeding in sympatry

    OpenAIRE

    Afán, Isabel; Navarro, Joan; Cardador, Laura; Ramírez, Francisco; Kato, Akiko; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Forero, Manuela G.

    2014-01-01

    As central-place foragers, pelagic seabirds are constrained by spatiotemporal heterogeneity to find productive marine areas and compete for prey. We analysed 97 foraging trips to study the movement and oceanographic characteristics of foraging habitats of two different—yet closely related—species of shearwaters (Scopoli’s shearwater Calonectris diomedea and Cory’s shearwater C. borealis) breeding in sympatry in the Mediterranean. We combined various methodological approaches (GPS-tracking, sp...

  2. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  3. Parametric thermodynamic analysis of closed-cycle gas-laser operation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Cycle efficiency and radiator area required were calculated for thermally and electrically pumped lasers operating in closed cycles with a compressor and the required heat exchangers. A thermally pumped laser included within a Brayton cycle was also analyzed. Performance of all components, including the laser, was parametrically varied. For the thermally pumped laser the cycle efficiencies range below 10 percent and are very sensitive to the high-pressure losses associated with the supersonic diffuser required at the laser cavity exit. The efficiencies predicted for the electrically pumped laser cycles range slightly higher, but radiator area also tends to be larger.

  4. Optimization of a natural circulation two phase closed thermosyphon flat plate solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, a natural circulation two phase closed thermosyphon flat plate solar water heater has been investigated theoretically under the actual field conditions of Cairo, Egypt. Also, the heater design parameters are optimized by means of the author's simulation program that was verified experimentally in a previous paper. These parameters include the ratio of storage tank volume to collector area, storage tank dimensions ratios and height between the heater storage tank and collector. The computational results indicate that the storage tank volume to collector area ratio and the storage tank dimensions ratios have significant effects on the heater performance, while the height between the heater tank and collector has little effect

  5. RED TACTON HUMAN AREA NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kakade

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available All the user-friendly services require technologies that enable communication between people and objects in close proximity. This paper describes a model of human area networking technology that enables communication by touching, a technology we call Red Tacton. Human area networking technology for communication between mobile terminals and between terminals that are embedded in the environment has become important. When cables are used for communication between terminals, the routing of the cables is clearly inconvenient. When very weak radio signals are used for the communication, data speeds are reduced by packet collision and other such problems in crowded places such as exhibition sites and security risk from unwanted signal interception is another problem. Technology for solving such problems includes the use of the person body as a signal path for communication. A transmission path is formed automatically when a person comes into contact with a device and communication between mobile terminals begins. Here, the human body acts as a transmission medium supporting IEEE 802.3 half duplex communication at 10Mbit/s.

  6. Why Closely Coupled Work Matters in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Eskild

    2014-01-01

    project members could better anticipate issues and act accordingly. The implications of these findings include a reconsideration of the significance of closely coupled work in distributed settings. Also our findings open up discussions of why closely coupled work matters in global software development.......We report on an ethnographic study of an offshore global software development project between Danish and Philippine developers in a Danish company called GlobalSoft. We investigate why the IT- developers chose to engage in more closely coupled work as the project progressed and argue that closely...... coupled work supported the collaboration in a very challenging project. Three key findings are presented: 1) Closely coupled work practices established connections across the collaboration ensuring knowledge exchange and improving coordination between project members, 2) Closely coupled work practices...

  7. Panorama of the Opening-Closing Tectonics Theory in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Weiran; ZHENG Jiandong

    2004-01-01

    The opening-closing tectonics theory, a theory about opening-closing tectonics, is a viewpoint regarding geotectonics suggested by a group of Chinese scientists. Opening and closing are two basic geological movements, which may result in a series of structures. The highest level of opening is the appearance of oceans and the highest level of closing is the consolidation of continents. Based on field investigations, the authors consider that identifying the marks of openingclosing tectonics is the basis of the issue and classifying the types of opening-closing tectonics is the key of the issue. This paper briefly discusses the substance and the future of the study on the opening-closing tectonics in China. The authors hope to share relevant information with geoscientists in the world in this field.

  8. Landscape Influences on Fisher Success: Adaptation Strategies in Closed and Open Access Fisheries in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Van Holt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinants of fisher success in southern Chile's loco (Concholepas concholepas fishery are examined by comparing fisher success in exclusive access territories that vary in relationship to tree-plantation development, which can affect shellfish quality. The relative importance of fishers' experience and capture technology (traditional measures of fisher success are evaluated against environmental and geospatial characteristics. While knowledge and technology explained variation in catches, this did not translate into higher prices or profit. Fishers succeeded (gained higher prices for locos and had higher monthly incomes from their management areas when they harvested shellfish from closed (exclusive nearshore management areas where the environmental condition produced high quality locos regardless of their fishing experience, technology, and the geospatial features of management areas. Experienced fishers who worked in management areas near tree plantations that fail to produce resources of sufficient quality shifted to offshore fisheries where their experience counted. Offshore fishers working in the congrio (Genypterus chilensis fishery likely exposed themselves to more risk and benefited from their experience and available technology; environmental condition and geospatial factors played little role in their success (price. Closed management areas provided resources to harvest, but may reduce a fisher's ability to adapt to environmental change because success depends on environmental factors outside of a fisher's control. Fishers were not financially rewarded for their experience or their technology in the loco fishery.

  9. Thickened tailings experiment for close-out of uranium mill tailings at Denison Mines Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a prerequisite for the development of an acceptable close-out scenario, a suitable rehabilitation programme is required which will minimize the potential adverse effects on the surrounding environment and hasten the restoration of the area. One 'close-out' alternative which is being investigated in Elliot Lake by Denison Mines is the placement of a cap of thickened tailings during the final stages of tailings deposition in currently active tailings management areas. Laboratory experiments have shown that, by discharging tailings at relatively high solids concentration, the slope of the deposited tailings can be increased to about 5%, thereby increasing surface run-off, minimizing infiltration and providing good surface drainage for future vegetation. A programme of research with a 10,000 tonne 'mini' pile of thickened tailings to investigate the feasibility of in-situ coning and the effects of run-off, seepage flow, pyrite oxidation and evapotranspiration has been initiated, to be followed by the close-out of a tailings management area. This paper discusses the results of the laboratory testing and the geotechnical monitoring of this 'mini' pile. (author)

  10. Caesium-137 and sediment budgeting within a partially closed drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) when combined with landform element analysis and sediment budgeting provides a powerful geomorphological tool in studies of erosion. Application of the 137Cs technique to a partially closed cultivated drainage basin in Saskatchewan, Canada, allowed for the identification of eroded areas, zones of stability, and depositional areas. Sediment redistribution was calculated for a 30 year period and indicated that 68% of the sites had experienced accelerated erosion rates in excess of soil formation rates (1.0 t ha-1 yr-1) 47% of the sites had rates in excess of 5.0 t ha-1 yr-1, and 14% of the sites had erosion rates greater than the upper tolerable soil loss boundary of 11.0 ha-1 yr-1. A digital elevation model indicated that eroded sites primarily had convex (divergent) shapes. These areas were also characterized by thin A-horizons, decreased total nitrogen percent, and thin zones of CaCO3 depletion. Caesium-137 and sediment budgeting indicated that there was a minor net loss of 137Cs and sediment from the partially closed basin and this was attributed to aeolian transport, which is generally ignored in 'closed' basin studies. (orig./BBR)

  11. Closed loop supply chain for end of life textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Pammi; Tipi, Nicoleta S.; Beverley, Katharine J.; Day, Claire L.; Taylor, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to summarise current closed loop supply chain systems available in the literature and identify key characteristics for efficient closed loop supply chains with specific reference to the textile industry. With the aim to reduce the environmental impact of waste textile, this work is looking to identify if this can be achieved by incorporating closed loop elements within the design of a textile supply chain system. This paper also examines supply chain networks and desi...

  12. CFD Simulation Evaluation for Flow Distribution of the Closed Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Bin; Wang Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Taking a closed chamber flow field as object, this paper establishes the 3D model of the Closed Chamber. With the conclusion of flow distribution and gasoline vapor concentration distribution of the Closed Chamber reached via the CFD software of Fluent and experiment research, this paper analyzes the flow distribution and concentration distribution of gasoline vapor. Several improvement projects are proposed, such as improving the wind circulation system to optimize the indoor gas concentrati...

  13. Closed String Cohomology in Open String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, Nicolas; Sachs, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    We show that closed string states in bosonic string field theory are encoded in the cyclic cohomology of cubic open string field theory (OSFT) which, in turn, classifies the deformations of OSFT. This cohomology is then shown to be independent of the open string background. Exact elements correspond to closed string gauge transformations, generic boundary deformations of Witten's 3-vertex and infinitesimal shifts of the open string background. Finally it is argued that the closed string cohom...

  14. Open+Closed String Field Theory From Gauge Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis, Jaume; Moriyama, Sanefumi(Graduate School of Mathematics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8602, Japan); Park, Jongwon

    2003-01-01

    We study open and closed string interactions in the Type IIB plane wave background using open+closed string field theory. We reproduce all string amplitudes from the dual N=2 Sp(N) gauge theory by computing matrix elements of the dilatation operator. A direct diagrammatic correspondence is found between string theory and gauge theory Feynman diagrams. The prefactor and Neumann matrices of open+closed string field theory are separately realized in terms of gauge theory quantities.

  15. Affine extensions of functions with a closed graph

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Wójtowicz; Waldemar Sieg

    2015-01-01

    Let \\(A\\) be a closed \\(G_{\\delta}\\)-subset of a normal space \\(X\\). We prove that every function \\(f_0: A\\to\\mathbb{R}\\) with a closed graph can be extended to a function \\(f: X\\to\\mathbb{R}\\) with a closed graph, too. This is a consequence of a more general result which gives an affine and constructive method of obtaining such extensions.

  16. On The Origins Of Eccentric Close-in Planets

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Soko; Takeda, Genya; Rasio, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Strong tidal interaction with the central star can circularize the orbits of close-in planets. With the standard tidal quality factor Q of our solar system, estimated circularization times for close-in extrasolar planets are typically shorter than the ages of the host stars. While most extrasolar planets with orbital radii a < 0.1 AU indeed have circular orbits, some close-in planets with substantial orbital eccentricities have recently been discovered. This new class of eccentric close-in pl...

  17. Nonlocality, closing the detection loophole, and communication complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the detection loophole that arises when trying to rule out local realistic theories as alternatives for quantum mechanics can be closed if the detection efficiency η≥Cd3/42-0.0035d where d is the dimension of the bipartite entangled system and C is a positive constant. Furthermore it is argued that such an exponential decrease of the detector efficiency required to close the detection loophole is almost optimal. This optimality argument is based on a close connection that exists between closing the detection loophole and the amount of classical communication required to simulate quantum correlations when the detectors are perfect

  18. Protected areas and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ...

  19. Area studies after poststructuralism

    OpenAIRE

    J K Gibson-Graham

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of 'what next after poststructuralism' through a reassessment of area studies. In a narrative of our own involvement with place-oriented research and institutions, we examine the traditional position of area studies in geography and anthropology and its reevaluation by poststructuralist scholars in a number of disciplines. We argue that both prestructuralist and poststructuralist treatments of areas are oriented by a narrative of capitalist development; a...

  20. Optimal Currency Area Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Yves Mersch

    2011-01-01

    Several euro area member states are under increased market scrutiny although public finances in the euro area as a bloc are in a much better shape than in the US or Japan. The main reason is that the euro area is an alliance of sovereign countries with most of the relevant political decisions - including public finance - being taken by national governments whereas the other major currencies are sovereign states with central governments and budgets. In the absence of a central government and a...

  1. Segmentation with Area Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Niethammer, Marc; Zach, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation approaches typically incorporate weak regularity conditions such as boundary length or curvature terms, or use shape information. High-level information such as a desired area or volume, or a particular topology are only implicitly specified. In this paper we develop a segmentation method with explicit bounds on the segmented area. Area constraints allow for the soft selection of meaningful solutions, and can counteract the shrinking bias of length-based regularization. We ...

  2. CVP Service Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Federal Water Contract Service Area boundaries are incorporated boundaries of districts having contracts with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), within...

  3. Seasonality and shift in age-specific malaria prevalence and incidence in Binko and Carrière villages close to the lake in Selingué, Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touré, Mahamoudou; Sanogo, Daouda; Dembele, Soumaila;

    2016-01-01

    but distant from the hydroelectric dam, and Binko, near irrigated rice fields, close to the dam. The aim of this study was to provide baseline data, seasonal pattern and age distribution of malaria incidence in two sites situated close to a lake in Selingué. METHODS: Geographically, Selingué area is...

  4. ECOFERM. The closed-cycle farm; ECOFERM. De kringloopboerderij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Liere, J. [Van Liere Management, Utrecht (Netherlands); Boosten, G. [Stichting DOTank, Bussum (Netherlands); Van Dijk, L. [Sustec Consulting Contracting, Wageningen (Netherlands); Hemke, G. [Hemke Nutriconsult, Best (Netherlands); Verschoor, A. [Ingrepro, Borculo (Netherlands); Van Kasteren, J. (ed.)

    2011-06-15

    . The pre-cultivation of the algae is carried out in a closed bioreactor, with the further growing process taking place in an open pond (hybrid cultivation). The algae serve as a partial substitute for soy pellets and fish oil in the animal feed, but can also be used as a source for medicines or food supplements. The health-promoting substances (such as omega 3 fatty acids) in the algae and the healthier stall climate improve the animals' overall condition and well-being - so that less antibiotics are necessary. The ECOFERM concept breaks with current pig farming practices in certain essential areas. It leads to better animal well-being and health while limiting the usage of antibiotics, providing a substitute for soy and fish oil, and reducing harmful emissions by closing cycles [Dutch] De Nederlandse varkenshouderij staat onder druk. De maatschappelijke weerstand groeit en uit zich onder meer in het verzet tegen de bio-industrie in zijn algemeenheid en 'megastallen' in het bijzonder. Individuele burgers en maatschappelijke organisaties - met in hun kielzog bestuurders en politici - maken zich sterk voor waardigere leefomstandigheden voor de dieren. De gezondheid van de dieren en het veelvuldig gebruik van antibiotica roepen vragen op, mede vanwege de effecten op antibioticaresistentie en de gevolgen voor de menselijke gezondheid. Ook de effecten van mest en broeikasgassen op milieu en klimaat staan hoog op de agenda. De omvangrijke importen van soja als veevoer leiden in de landen van productie tot vernietiging van natuur en biodiversiteit, terwijl hierdoor in Nederland een hardnekkig mestoverschot is ontstaan. Door de samenhang tussen deze problemen zijn op vele fronten fundamentele veranderingen nodig. InnovatieNetwerk heeft een idee ontwikkeld om de varkenshouderij duurzamer te maken en de kringlopen te sluiten: ECOFERM. Centraal in het concept ECOFERM staat het sluiten van kringlopen. De 'afval'-producten van de varkenshouderij (mest

  5. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system studies: closed-cycle vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 requires the DOE to submit a proposal to Congress by June 1985 for the construction of one or more Monitored Retrieval Storage (MRS) facilities. In response, the DOE initiated studies to develop system descriptions and cost estimates for preconceptual designs of storage concepts suitable for use at MRS facilities. This report provides a system description and cost estimates for a Closed-Cycle Vault (CCV) MRS facility. The facility description is divided into four parts: (1) the R and H area, (2) the interface facility, (3) the on-site transport system, and (4) the storage system. The MRS facility has been designed to meet handling rates of 1800 and 3000 MTU/yr. The corresponding peak inventories are 15,000 and 72,000 MTU. Three types of cases were considered, based on the material to be stored: (1) Spent fuel only; (2) HLW and TRU waste; and (3) HLW only. For each of these three types, a cost estimate was done for a 15,000 and a 72,000 MTU facility, resulting in six different cost estimates. Section 4 presents the cost analysis of the CCV MRS system. Tables 4-2 through 4-7 give the construction or capital costs for the six cases. Tables 4-8 through 4-13 show the total discounted life-cycle costs for each of the six cases. These life-cycle costs include operating and decommissioning costs. These tables also show the time distribution of the capital costs. Table 2-1 summarizes the capital, operating, and discounted costs for the six cases studied. 2 references, 15 figures, 18 tables

  6. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area

  7. Comprehensive area assessment consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    The proposals for the new comprehensive area assessment are a very positive step forward for sustainable development compared to previous local performance assessment frameworks, but will need further strengthening if they are to help support the Government's aim of putting sustainable development at the heart of sustainable community strategies and their delivery mechanism, local area agreements. Publisher PDF

  8. Management of mangrove areas

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The article discusses the management of mangrove areas in the Philippines to prevent further negative effects of mangrove depletion on the income of coastal fishers. The article suggests that the conversion of mangrove areas should be regulated by means of land lease.

  9. 5 CFR 1632.7 - Meetings closed to public observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meetings closed to public observation. 1632.7 Section 1632.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 1632.7 Meetings closed to public observation. (a) A meeting or...

  10. 49 CFR 236.786 - Principle, closed circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principle, closed circuit. 236.786 Section 236.786 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Principle, closed circuit. The principle of circuit design where a normally energized electric circuit...

  11. 25 CFR 90.38 - Opening and closing of poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opening and closing of poll. 90.38 Section 90.38 Indians... TRIBE Elections § 90.38 Opening and closing of poll. The poll shall remain open without intermission... poll the supervisor shall open the ballot box in view of the other election officers, shall turn...

  12. 25 CFR 81.15 - Opening and closing of polls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opening and closing of polls. 81.15 Section 81.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT TRIBAL REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.15 Opening and closing of polls. If polling places are established, the polls...

  13. PILOT SCALE STUDIES OF CLOSED-LOOP ASH SLUICING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses pilot scale studies of closed-loop fly ash sluicing. Chemicals leached from fly ash in wet sluicing systems can cause scaling of equipment if the sluice water is recycled. A 50 gpm (190,000 cu cm/min) pilot unit was tested at two power plants to evaluate close...

  14. 75 FR 7368 - Closed Captioning of Video Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    .... DATES: 47 CFR 79.1(i)(3), published at 74 FR 1594, January 13, 2009, and the revisions in this document... Proposed Rulemaking, FCC 08- 255 (2008 Closed Captioning Order), published at 74 FR 1594, January 13, 2009... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 79 Closed Captioning of Video Programming AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  15. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

  16. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June...

  17. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.129 Activities closely related to banking. Courier activities....

  18. 7 CFR 58.731 - Closing and sealing containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Closing and sealing containers. 58.731 Section 58.731... Procedures § 58.731 Closing and sealing containers. Pouches, liners, or containers having product contact... means, so as to assure against contamination. Each container in addition to other required...

  19. In vitro closed loop optical network electrophysiology: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hady, A. El; Stühmer, W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel experimental paradigm "In vitro closed loop optical network electrophysiology (ivCLONE)". This seminar note gives an overviewof the basics of optical neurostimulation, network electrophysiology and closed loop electrophysiology. Moreover, the notes discuss how combination of aforementioned techniqueswould help us to address network-level phenomenon and how single neuron properties are related to collective network dynamics.

  20. 24 CFR 891.825 - Mixed-finance closing documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed-finance closing documents...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.825 Mixed-finance closing documents. The mixed-finance owner must...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower accepts the Agency's offer of incentives, the borrower must complete the following actions: (1) Subject to...

  2. THE DIFFERENTIAL INTEGRAL EQUATIONS ON SMOOTH CLOSED ORIENTABLE MANIFOLDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using integration by parts and Stokes' formula, the authors give a new definition of Hadamard principal value of higher order singular integrals with Bochner-Martinelli kernel on smooth closed orientable manifolds in Cn. The Plemelj formula and composite formula of higher order singular integral arc obtained. Differential integral equations on smooth closed orientable manifolds are treated by using the composite formula.

  3. Efficiency of voluntary closing hand and hook prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Delft Institute of Prosthetics and Orthotics has started a research program to develop an improved voluntary closing, body-powered hand prosthesis. Five commercially available voluntary closing terminal devices were mechanically tested: three hands [Hosmer APRL VC hand, Hosmer Soft VC Male hand,

  4. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  5. Close Friendships among Urban, Ethnic-Minority Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Niobe; Gingold, Rachel; Rotenberg, Mariana; Kuriakose, Geena

    2005-01-01

    In-depth interviews with ethnic-minority, low-income, urban adolescents reveal the multiple meanings of trust and closeness in friendships, the intersection of trust and distrust, and the ways in which close friendships are firmly embedded in cultural contexts.

  6. Closed String Amplitudes in Open String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Tomohiko; Zeze, Syoji

    2003-01-01

    We investigate gauge invariant operators corresponding to on-shell closed string states in open string field theory. Using both oscillator representation and conformal mapping techniques, we calculate a two closed string tachyon amplitude that connects two gauge invariant operators by an open string propagator.We find that this amplitude is in a complete agreement with the usual disc amplitude.

  7. Half-String Approach to Closed String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Antón, Fernando; Abdurrahman, A.; Bordes Villagrasa, José M.

    1993-01-01

    In this letter we present an operator formalism for Closed String Field Theory based on closed half-strings. Our results indicate that the restricted polyhedra of the classical non-polynomial string field theory, can be represented as traces of infinite matrices, with operator insertions that reparametrise the half-strings.

  8. Spinning Strings, Black Holes and Stable Closed Timelike Geodesics

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Valeria M.; Letelier, Patricio S.

    2007-01-01

    The existence and stability under linear perturbation of closed timelike curves in the spacetime associated to Schwarzschild black hole pierced by a spinning string are studied. Due to the superposition of the black hole, we find that the spinning string spacetime is deformed in such a way to allow the existence of closed timelike geodesics.

  9. 75 FR 9588 - Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of subsection... hereby given that the Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board, will meet on March 22 and 23, 2010....

  10. The organization closed water battery plant Aircraft Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Ісаєнко

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  The information on unrational water usage and losts is given in the article. The necessity of closed water cycle introduction is shown for the aircraft repairing plant. The principle scheme of closed cycle water usage is developed for the accumulator department of the aircraft repairing plant. Modern technological equipment is offered for implementation.

  11. Delayed presentation of pseudoaneurysm complicating closed humeral fracture: MR diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular injuries resulting from closed fractures of the humerus are rare. We describe two patients who developed unsuspected pseudoaneurysms following closed humeral fracture. Both patients presented with a mass, suspicious for malignancy. In each case, diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  12. Report of the experimental areas group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on twenty example e+E/sup /minus// experimental arrangements considered during the PEP summer study, experimental area configurations and requirements are defined. These include: easily movable local shielding to permit close access to operating experiments, adjoining set-up areas for either preparation of upcoming experiments or modification of continuing experiments and the provision of modest power and other utilities. Because many experiments require less than the full length of the designed interaction region (+-10m), it is recommended that initially the free length in half the areas be reduced to +-5m and that efforts be made to increase the luminosity by using low β insertions in the beam line. 1 tab

  13. Drainage Areas of Selected Streams in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald C.; Wiegand, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Drainage areas were determined for more than 1,600 basins in the three major river basins of Virginia -- the North Atlantic Slope, South Atlantic Slope, and Ohio River Basins. Drainage areas range from 0.004 square mile to 7,866 square miles. A geographic information system was used to digitize and store data associated with the drainage basins. Drainage divides were digitized from digital U.S. Geological Survey 7.5-minute, 1:24,000-scale, topographic quadrangles using procedures recommended by the Subcommittee on Hydrology, Federal Interagency River Basin Committee. Digital drainage basins were quality assured, polygons of the closed drainage basins were generated, and drainage areas were computed.

  14. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We pursue the analysis made in Desbois and Ouvry (2011 J. Stat. Mech. P05024) on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay particular attention to the random variable Sn1,n2,...,nm(m), which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2,..., and nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m→∞. A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m-path case the SLE information, valid in the one-path case, on the zero-winding sectors arithmetic area

  15. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stéphane

    2012-05-01

    We pursue the analysis made in Desbois and Ouvry (2011 J. Stat. Mech. P05024) on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay particular attention to the random variable Sn1, n2,..., nm(m), which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2,..., and nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m\\to \\infty . A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m-path case the SLE information, valid in the one-path case, on the zero-winding sectors arithmetic area.

  16. Extensive closed cell marine stratocumulus downwind of Europe—A large aerosol cloud mediated radiative effect or forcing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Tom; Rosenfeld, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds (MSC) cover large areas over the oceans and possess super sensitivity of their cloud radiative effect to changes in aerosol concentrations. Aerosols can cause transitions between regimes of fully cloudy closed cells and open cells. The possible role of aerosols in cloud cover has a big impact on the amount of reflected solar radiation from the clouds, thus potentially constitutes very large aerosol indirect radiative effect, which can exceed 100 Wm-2. It is hypothesized that continentally polluted clouds remain in closed cells regime for longer time from leaving continent and hence for longer distance away from land, thus occupying larger ocean areas with full cloud cover. Attributing this to anthropogenic aerosols would imply a very large negative radiative forcing with a significant climate impact. This possibility is confirmed by analyzing a detailed case study based on geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite observations of the microphysical and dynamical evolution of MSC. We show that large area of closed cells was formed over the northeast Atlantic Ocean downwind of Europe in a continentally polluted air mass. The closed cells undergo cleansing process that was tracked for 3.5 days that resulted with a rapid transition from closed to open cells once the clouds started drizzling heavily. The mechanism leading to the eventual breakup of the clouds due to both meteorological and aerosol considerations is elucidated. We termed this cleansing and cloud breakup process maritimization. Further study is needed to assess the climatological significance of such situations.

  17. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  18. Construction close-out report for 1100-EM-1, 1100-EM-2, and 1100-EM-3 operable units, Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides summary descriptions of waste sites, remedial investigations, cleanup actions, and revegetation, as well as other information about the 1100 Area at the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The intent is to provide the documentation necessary for the close-out of remedial work in the 1100 Area and for the delisting from the National Priorities List (NPL). The content and format of this report follows the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance

  19. Protected areas and poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  20. On Nano Generalized Α-Closed Sets & Nano Α-Generalized Closed Sets in Nano Topological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    R .Thanga Nachiyar; Bhuvaneswari, K

    2014-01-01

    The Objective of this paper is to introduce and investigate the Nano generalized α-closed sets and Nano α-generalized closed sets in a Nano Topological Space. Also inevestigate the Nano generalized α-Closure and Nano generalized α-Interior.

  1. Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  2. 300 AREA URANIUM CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (smbullet) Uranium fuel production (smbullet) Test reactor and separations experiments (smbullet) Animal and radiobiology experiments conducted at the. 331 Laboratory Complex (smbullet) .Deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning,. and demolition of 300 Area facilities

  3. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage...

  4. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  5. ABACC's nuclear accounting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functions and activities of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) accounting area is outlined together with a detailed description of the nuclear accounting system used by the bilateral organization

  6. Dynamics of high Weber number drops impacting on hydrophobic surfaces with closed micro-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Hao, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiwen; He, Feng

    2016-06-29

    The impact dynamics and bouncing performance of high Weber number drops on hydrophobic surfaces with open and closed micro-cells are investigated. Central wetted rings are observed on both closed-cell and open-cell surfaces under high Weber number collisions, which are proposed to constitute the key element affecting the bouncing behaviour. It is found that the drops rebound on closed-cell surfaces where the central area is in the "hybrid wetting state" at high Weber numbers, while the drops adhere to the open-cell surfaces where the central region is in the Wenzel state. A theoretical model is developed to explain this interesting phenomenon, in which the liquid cannot reach the bottom of the closed-cell hydrophobic surfaces since the air stored in micro-cavities prevents the sliding motion of the liquid film and functions as a "gas spring" lifting the liquid lamella. This indicates that the hydrophobic surface with simple micro cavities can maintain the water-repellent characteristics under drop impacts at high Weber numbers. These findings are expected to be crucial to a fundamental understanding of the rapid collisions between drops and micro-structured surfaces, as well as a valuable strategy to guide the fabrication of novel super water-repellant and anti-icing surfaces. PMID:27306824

  7. Design of catalytic monoliths for closed-cycle carbon dioxide lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R. K.; Guinn, K.; Goldblum, S.; Noskowski, E.

    1989-01-01

    Pulsed carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers have many applications in aeronautics, space research, weather monitoring and other areas. Full exploitation of the potential of these lasers in hampered by the dissociation of CO2 that occurs during laser operation. The development of closed-cycle CO2 lasers requires active CO-O2 recombination (CO oxidation) catalyst and design methods for implementation of catalysts in CO2 laser systems. A monolith catalyst section model and associated design computer program, LASCAT, are presented to assist in the design of a monolith catalyst section of a closed cycle CO2 laser system. Using LASCAT,the designer is able to specify a number of system parameters and determine the monolith section performance. Trade-offs between the catalyst activity, catalyst dimensions, monolith dimensions, pressure drop, O2 conversion, and other variables can be explored and adjusted to meet system design specifications. An introduction describes a typical closed-cycle CO2 system, and indicates some advantages of a closed cycle laser system over an open cycle system and some advantages of monolith support over other types of supports. The development and use of a monolith catalyst model is presented. The results of a design study and a discussion of general design rules are given.

  8. Experiencing affective music in eyes-closed and eyes-open states: an Electroencephalography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hsuan eChang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners' reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion.

  9. An investigation on groundwater recovery rate within sub sea floor tunnels at closed coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groundwater recovery rate investigated at the closed coal mines extended within sub sea floor tunnels. The Ikeshima and the Taiheiyo coal mine companies exploited the deep coal-bearing strata beneath the ocean. Ikeshima coal mine, excavated S.L. -650m to 6km offshore from Ikeshima island, was closed at November 2002, and Taiheiyo coal mine, excavated S.L. -720m to 9km offshore from Hokkaido, was stopped to excavate from the deep area at January 2003. After closing and stopping of development, we began the investigation of the groundwater recovery rate at both coal mines. The groundwater level of Ikeshima coal mine raised +405m per 1.8 years at the main shaft. The permeability coefficient estimated between 10-8m/s and 10-6m/s to use the water recovery rate at the shaft. Otherwise, at Taiheiyo coal mine, we measured the air pressure in tubes used by 3.5km 2.5km, and 1.5km length 2mm diameters tubes to estimate the groundwater recovery level at the 3.2km offshore plug site. Groundwater didn't reach 4.7km (1.5+3.2km) area until November 2004. There were breakdown of shotcleate and rock mass from the roof of tunnel at 5.3km from offshore line. In this paper, we try to show the groundwater recovery rate of these sub sea floor collieries. (author)

  10. USW area analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the feasibility of and methodology for the development of a set of environmental analogs of operational Undersea Warfare (USW) areas within fleet training areas. It is primarily a discussion of the identification of parameters that characterize the tactical USW environment, prioritization of these parameters, identification of existing databases that contain these parameters and an outline of the processes required to extract the desired data fro...

  11. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  12. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries. PMID:26476068

  13. Complications of close interlock nailing in the management of close tibial fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The objective of this study is to find out the frequency of complications of locally made interlock nailing in tibia after nine months of surgery. Material and Method:. This case series study was done from March 2004 to February 14 in the Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Postgraduate Medical Institute Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar. A total of 58 adults ( after the closure of epiphysis) patients were randomly selected provided that they have; Close diaphysial fracture of tibia which is located 7 cm below the knee joint and 4 cm above the ankle joint and fracture less than one week old. Results: Total numbers of patients were 58. Anterior Knee pain was observed in 14(24.1%), delayed union in 10(17.2%), external of 100 rotation in 4(6.9%) and internal rotation of 50 in 1(1.7%), non union in 4(6.9%), intramedullay infection in 3(5.2%), shortening of 1 centimeter (cm) in 2(3.4), 2 cm in 1(1.7%) and 1.5 cm in 3(5.2%) cases, distal screw broken in 2(3.4%), proximal screw broken in 1(1.7%), Nail broken in 2(3.4), infection at proximal screw in 2(3.4%) and at distal screw was 2(3.4%), Restriction of knee flexion in 1(1.7%), Restricted ankle movements in 1(1.7%), varus angulation of 100 in 1(1.7%), valgus angulation of 100 in 1(1.7%), Ankle pain in 1(1.7%) and deep vein thrombosis in 1(1.7%). Conclusion: interlocking nail is considered to be the gold standard for management of tibial fracture but it is not free of complication especially knee pain and angular rotation. (author)

  14. Evaluating performance of international closed-end funds in US

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Mei

    2007-01-01

    The closed-end funds are the growing field for the investors and researchers. Especially in US, the international closed-end funds develop rapidly, which have influenced the global investment strategy. This dissertation chooses 20 US based international closed-end funds through the time period 2004 to 2007. The quantified method is used in the part of Methodology, the CAPM model is employed as the basic model to measure the performance. The MSCI AC World ex U.S. Index is employed to compare t...

  15. Non locality, closing the detection loophole and communication complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Massar, Serge

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that the detection loophole which arises when trying to rule out local realistic theories as alternatives for quantum mechanics can be closed if the detection efficiency $\\eta$ is larger than $\\eta \\geq d^{1/2} 2^{-0.0035d}$ where $d$ is the dimension of the entangled system. Furthermore it is argued that this exponential decrease of the detector efficiency required to close the detection loophole is almost optimal. This argument is based on a close connection that exists between ...

  16. Cluster speckle structures through multiple apertures forming a closed curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosso, E.; Tebaldi, M.; Lencina, A.; Bolognini, N.

    2010-04-01

    In this work, cluster-like speckle patterns are analyzed. These patterns are generated when a diffuser illuminated by coherent light is imaged by a lens having a pupil mask with multiple apertures forming a closed curve. We show that the cluster structure results from the complex modulation produced inside each speckle which is generated by multiple interferences of light through the apertures. In particular, when the apertures are uniformly distributed along a closed curve, the resulting image speckle cluster replicates the pupil aperture distribution. Experimental results and theoretical simulations show that cluster features depend on the apertures distribution and the size of the closed curves.

  17. Closed string cohomology in open string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Nicolas; Sachs, Ivo

    2011-07-01

    We show that closed string states in bosonic string field theory are encoded in the cyclic cohomology of cubic open string field theory (OSFT) which, in turn, classifies the deformations of OSFT. This cohomology is then shown to be independent of the open string background. Exact elements correspond to closed string gauge transformations, generic boundary deformations of Witten's 3-vertex and infinitesimal shifts of the open string background. Finally it is argued that the closed string cohomology and the cyclic cohomology of OSFT are isomorphic to each other.

  18. Asymmetric exclusion processes on a closed network with bottlenecks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the generic nonequilibrium steady states in asymmetric exclusion processes on a closed network with bottlenecks. To this end we propose and study closed simple networks with multiple-connected non-identical junctions. Depending upon the parameters that define the network junctions and the particle number density, the models display phase transitions with both static and moving density inhomogeneities. The currents in the models can be tuned by the junction parameters. Our models highlight how extended and point defects may affect the density profiles in a closed directed network. Phenomenological implications of our results are discussed. (paper)

  19. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  20. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

  1. Closely Reading Informational Texts in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the differences between close reading in the primary grades and upper elementary grades. We focus on text selection, initial reading. repeated reading, annotation, text-based discussions, and responding to texts.

  2. Preparation and characterization of hexagonal close-packed Ni nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed Ni nanoparticles were synthesized using a heat-treating technique with the precursors prepared by the sol-gel method.The synthesis condition,structure,and morphology of the samples were characterized and analysed by thermogravimetric analysis (TG),differential thermal analysis (DTA),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Results indicate that the hexagonal close packed Ni nanoparticles were synthesized at a heat-treating temperature of 300℃.The cell constants are calculated at a=0.2652 nm and c=0.4334 nm.The average grain size of the hexagonal close-packed Ni particles evaluated by Scherrer equation is about 12 nm.The phase transformation from a hexagonal close-packed Ni to a face-centered cubic Ni structure occurred when the heat-treating temperature was increased.

  3. Sexual disclosures: connections to relational satisfaction and closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffelt, Tina A; Hess, Jon A

    2014-01-01

    This study examines sexual communication by describing the content of sexual disclosures within marital relationships and assessing the association between sexual disclosures and relational outcomes, specifically relational satisfaction and closeness. A survey administered to 293 married individuals (58% female) who had an average age of 40 years (range = 20-73), 13.7 years of marriage (range = 1 month to 54 years), and who reported high levels of relational satisfaction assessed the relation between the content of sexual disclosures and satisfaction and closeness. While sexual disclosures are made infrequently, positive affect and sexual preferences are disclosed more than negative topics and disclosing sexual information is positively related to relationship satisfaction, rρ(280) =.26, p <.001; and closeness, rs(280) =.475, p <.01. Therapists can use these findings to show clients the positive relation between revealing sexual information and relationship satisfaction and closeness, as reported by individuals experiencing relationship satisfaction. PMID:24308272

  4. When Someone Close to You Has Chronic Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... close to someone who has Hepatitis B. Is Hepatitis B vaccination recommended for all infants? Yes. Vaccination is recommended ... to determine if they unknowingly became infected with Hepatitis B before vaccination. Publication No. 21-1304 Is Hepatitis B common? ...

  5. Closed-Circuit Television Trends and Tactics in America's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Dominic

    2002-01-01

    Describes the how school districts use closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance to improve school safety. Discusses technological improvements in CCTV, including digital imagery. Provides examples of CCTV use in several school districts. (PKP)

  6. Closed time like curves enable perfect state distinguishability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, James William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilde, Mark M [USC; Brun, Todd A [USC

    2008-01-01

    The causal self-consistency condition for closed timelike curves can give rise to nonlinear interactions on chronology-respecting qubits. We demonstrate that particular unitary interactions between closed timelike curve qubits and chronology-respecting qubits allow perfect distinguishability of nonorthogonal states, and provide a constructive proof for an arbitrary number of nonorthogonal states. This has a number of highly significant consequences. For example, an adversary with access to closed timelike curves can break the B92, BB84, and SARG04 quantum key distribution protocols, or any prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution scheme. Our result also implies that a party with access to closed timelike curves can violate the Holevo bound by accessing more than log(N) bits of information from an N-dimensional quantum state. In principle, he can transmit an arbitrarily large amount of classical information with a quantum system of fixed size. We discuss the implications of this for quantum cloning.

  7. Off-shell amplitudes for nonoriented closed strings

    CERN Document Server

    Cappiello, L; Pettorino, R; Pezzella, F

    1998-01-01

    In the context of the bosonic closed string theory, by using the operatorial formalism, we give a simple expression of the off-shell amplitude with an arbitrary number of external massless states inserted on the Klein bottle.

  8. Cognitive Modeling for Closed-Loop Task Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) along with collaborators at the University of Iowa and Old Dominion University (ODU) developed an advanced closed-loop Adaptive...

  9. Entanglement crossover close to a quantum critical point

    OpenAIRE

    Amico, Luigi; Patane`, Dario

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the thermal entanglement close to a quantum phase transition by analyzing the concurrence for one dimensional models in the quantum Ising universality class. We demonstrate that the entanglement sensitivity to thermal and to quantum fluctuations obeys universal $T\

  10. Correction of the horizontal closed orbit at all energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method followed is accomplished in two steps. At average energy, the closed orbit is corrected by a remote realignment of the focusing quadrupoles by a known quantity. This closed orbit, created by the position adjustment of the quadrupoles, is valid during the whole cycle; but at low energy level, a closed orbit is added because of constant currents or parasitic fields whose effects decrease as the energy level increases. This residual orbit is corrected during the injection by dipolar correction fields, located on the inside of the quadrupoles and fed by direct currents. Therefore, the closed orbit resulting from the superposition of the two types of corrections and defects is brought back to +- 2.5 mm with respect to the center of the quadrupoles

  11. Physical cosmic strings do not generate closed timelike curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reexamine the causal properties of geometries generated by parallel, moving cosmic strings, particularly our statement that closed timelike curves are forbidden there. Contrary to a recent claim, such acausal behavior cannot be realized by physical, timelike, sources

  12. Rationale for evaluating a closed food chain for space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, M.; Spurlock, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Closed food cycles for long duration space flight and space habitation are examined. Wash water for a crew of six is economically recyclable after a week, while a total closed loop water system is effective only if the stay exceeds six months' length. The stoichiometry of net plant growth is calculated and it is shown that the return of urine, feces, and inedible plant parts to the food chain, along with the addition of photosynthesis, closes the food chain loop. Scenarios are presented to explore the technical feasibility of achieving a closed loop system. An optimal choice of plants is followed by processing, waste conversion, equipment specifications, and control requirements, and finally, cost-effectiveness.

  13. Closed Loop Supply Chains for Sustainable Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    Closed loop supply chains reducing waste, energy consumption and natural resource depletion which all contribute to more sustainable production and products. For mass customization however, the challenges of closed loop supply chains are emphasized by the large variety of inbound end-of-life prod......Closed loop supply chains reducing waste, energy consumption and natural resource depletion which all contribute to more sustainable production and products. For mass customization however, the challenges of closed loop supply chains are emphasized by the large variety of inbound end......-of-life products from customers which complicates handling and forecasting. This paper analyses these challenges in the specific context mass customization using theoretical considerations and three case studies....

  14. Diagonal flips in outer-triangulations on closed surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Parejo, María del Carmen; Grima Ruiz, Clara Isabel; Márquez Pérez, Alberto; Nakamoto, Atsuhiro

    2002-01-01

    We show that any two outer-triangulations on the same closed surface can be transformed into each other by a sequence of diagonal flips, up to isotopy, if they have a sufficiently large and equal number of vertices.

  15. Humans, geometric similarity and the Froude number: is ''reasonably close'' really close enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Patricia Ann; Sylvester, Adam D

    2013-02-15

    we establish for humans. Unfortunately, we currently do not have a simple method to control or adjust for size-shape differences in individuals that are not geometrically similar, although musculoskeletal modeling is a viable, and promising, alternative. In mouse-to-elephant comparisons, size differences could represent the largest source of morphological variation, and isometric scaling factors such as Fr can compensate for much of the variability. Within species, however, shape differences may dominate morphological variation and Fr is not designed to compensate for shape differences. In other words, those shape differences that are "reasonably close" at the mouse-to-elephant level may become grossly different for within-species energetic comparisons. PMID:23431123

  16. Closing LHCb's calorimeter around the beam-pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    Kristic, R

    2008-01-01

    Photos 1 and 2 show the pre-shower, lead absorber and the scintillating pad detector layers moving in towards the beam-pipe. Photos 3,4 and 5 show the hadron calorimeter with both halves closed around the beam-pipe, to the left of the picture and, in the centre, half of the electromagnetic calorimeter closed in towards the beam-pipe.

  17. Validation of Closed Loop Degaussing System for Double Hull Submarines

    OpenAIRE

    Demilier, Laurent; Cauffet, Gilles; Chadebec, Olivier; Coulomb, Jean-Louis; Rouve, Laure-Line

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents last DCNS development on Closed Loop Degaussing System dedicated to high performance electromagnetic silent warship. This paper focuses on an evolution of the CLDG algorithm for degaussed warship. Developed in cooperation with Grenoble Electrical Engineering Lab, this genuine method allows to determine the hull unknown magnetization components, thus the predicted signature, based on real time magnetic measurements from sensors located very close to hull. The inverse proble...

  18. Closed loop spray cooling apparatus. [for particle accelerator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, D. L.; Schwab, W. B.; Furman, E. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A closed loop apparatus for spraying coolant against the back of a radiation target is described. The coolant was circulated through a closed loop with a bubble of inert gas being maintained around the spray. Mesh material was disposed between the bubble and the surface of the liquid coolant which was below the bubble at a predetermined level. In a second embodiment, no inert gas was used, the bubble consisting of a vapor produced when the coolant was sprayed against the target.

  19. Multiple electron capture in close ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple electron capture is reported for Ca17+ in Ar. Close collisions are defined by the observation of a coincident Ca K or Ar K x-ray. A large number of electrons is transferred to the projectile in a single close collision when the Ca ion projectile is of the order of the Ar L-shell electron velocity. The cross section for electron capture is reported

  20. Optimization Model of Close Supply Chain of Green Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Duo-hong; Li, Yu; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Jiang-quan

    2009-01-01

    Close supply chain of green agricultural products is defined, consisting of the supplier, manufacturer, distributor, retailer and consumer (customer). Cost structure of distributor is analyzed, mainly including the order activity-based cost, the inventory cost and the supply transportation cost of agricultural products in upstream and downstream enterprises. Based on this, conceptual model of the close supply chain of green agricultural products is established. According to the idea of dynami...

  1. The Role of Sex in Close Heterosexual Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Hjælmhof-Larsen, Caroline Mathilde; Boukaouit, Dounia; Ølsted, Hannah Klakring

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sex is universal, however difficult to account for as its meaning varies from individual to individual. This project set out to investigate the part sex plays in two relatively new types of close relationships; namely Friends with Benefits and Cross-Sex friendships, and the role of sex in traditional romantic relationships. These three types of close relationships were accounted for utilizing a phenomenological approach, using the results of interviews carried out on st...

  2. Closed description of arbitrariness in resolving quantum master equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-07-01

    In the most general case of the Delta exact operator valued generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion operator, we present a closed solution for the transformed master action in terms of the original master action in the closed form of the corresponding path integral. We show in detail how that path integral reduces to the known result in the case of being the Delta exact generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion function.

  3. Closed description of arbitrariness in resolving quantum master equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Batalin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the most general case of the Delta exact operator valued generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion operator, we present a closed solution for the transformed master action in terms of the original master action in the closed form of the corresponding path integral. We show in detail how that path integral reduces to the known result in the case of being the Delta exact generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion function.

  4. Closed Loop Control of Soft Switched Interleaved Buck Converter

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shenbagalakshmi; Sree Renga Raja

    2012-01-01

    Design, Modeling and Simulation of a closed loop control is presented for Interleaved Buck Converter with Soft Switching. The features of the closed loop system are to reduce the switching losses and load current sharing among the parallel connected converters. The control system of the converter is designed using PWM technique. In order to improve the transient response and dynamic stability of the converters, the controller parameters are designed based on current mode control. Resonant com...

  5. «Closed» Academic Environment and Local Academic Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Elizaveta Sivak; Maria Yudkevich

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the comparative characteristics of the closed and open academic environment. Possible effects of formation of local academic conventions are discussed. Survey data obtained from interviews of representatives of 30 departments of universities of St. Petersburg, producing professionals in economics, allowed to estimate several parameters of the closed academic environment and its impact on the values and individual careers of lecturers. The study revealed that ...

  6. Closed-Form Approximations for Spread Option Prices and Greeks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minqiang

    2008-01-01

    We develop a new closed-form approximation method for pricing spread options. Numerical analysis shows that our method is more accurate than existing analytical approximations. Our method is also extremely fast, with computing time more than two orders of magnitude shorter than one-dimensional numerical integration. We also develop closed-form approximations for the greeks of spread options. In addition, we analyze the price sensitivities of spread options and provide lower and upper bounds f...

  7. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    OpenAIRE

    Bidhan Shrestha; E. Richard Hughes; Raj Kumar Singh; Pramita Suwal; Prakash Kumar Parajuli; Pragya Shrestha; Arati Sharma; Galav Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part ...

  8. The Bullwhip Effect in Closed Loop Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Xing

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Improvement of sustainable consciousness lead attention to be paid on reverse supply chain combined with traditional forward supply chain which is called closed loop supply chain. This project develops a simulation in Excel for bullwhip effect measurement in a closed loop supply chain with supplier, manufacturer, wholesaler, retailer, customer and third recycling company. The simulation employs the demand pattern following normal distribution, exponential smoothing and moving ave...

  9. Interpolating between open and closed strings - a BSFT approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ambjorn, J.; Janik, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    We address the conjecture that at the tachyonic vacuum open strings get transformed into closed strings. We show that it is possible in the context of boundary string field theory to interpolate between the conventional open string theory, characterized by having the D25 brane as the boundary state, and an off-shell (open) string theory where the boundary state is identified with the closed string vacuum, where holomorphic and antiholomorphic modes decouple and where bulk vertex operator corr...

  10. Precomplete clones on infinite sets which are closed under conjugation

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsker, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We show that on an infinite set, there exist no other precomplete clones closed under conjugation except those which contain all permutations. Since on base sets of some infinite cardinalities, in particular on countably infinite ones, the precomplete clones containing the permutations have been determined, this yields a complete list of the precomplete conjugation-closed clones in those cases. In addition, we show that there exist no precomplete submonoids of the full transformation monoid w...

  11. Supersymmetric closed string tachyon cosmology: a first approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a worldline supersymmetric formulation for the effective action of closed string tachyon in a FRW background. This is done considering that, as shown by Vafa, the effective theory of closed string tachyons can have worldsheet supersymmetry. The Hamiltonian is constructed by means of the Dirac procedure and written in a quantum version. By using the supersymmetry algebra we are able to find solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation via a more simple set of first order differential equations

  12. Closing the Detection Loophole in Bell Experiments Using Qudits

    OpenAIRE

    Vértesi, Tamás; Pironio, Stefano; Brunner, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    We show that the detection efficiencies required for closing the detection loophole in Bell tests can be significantly lowered using quantum systems of dimension larger than two. We introduce a series of asymmetric Bell tests for which an efficiency arbitrarily close to 1/N can be tolerated using N-dimensional systems, and a symmetric Bell test for which the efficiency can be lowered down to 61.8% using four-dimensional systems. Experimental perspectives for our schemes look promising conside...

  13. Closed description of arbitrariness in resolving quantum master equation

    CERN Document Server

    Batalin, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    In the most general case of the Delta exact operator valued generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion operator, we present a closed solution for the transformed master action in terms of the original master action in the closed form of the corresponding path integral. We show in detail how that path integral reduces to the known result in the case of being the Delta exact generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion function.

  14. Scattering by closely spaced infinite cylinders in an absorbing medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-C. Lee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Scattering by closely spaced parallel infinite cylinders in an absorbing medium is considered in this paper. The source wave is arbitrarily polarized and propagates in a general direction at the cylinders. The formulation utilizes the Hertz potential approach, and the scattering cross section and intensity distribution in the far-field are developed. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the influence of the absorbing medium on the scattering properties of two configurations of closely-spaced cylinders.

  15. Soil CO2 flux: a method comparison of closed static chambers in a sugarcane field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walane Maria Pereira de Mello Ivo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A large variety of techniques have been used to measure soil CO2 released from the soil surface, and much of the variability observed between locations must be attributed to the different methods used by the investigators. Therefore, a minimum protocol of measurement procedures should be established. The objectives of this study were (a to compare different absorption areas, concentrations and volumes of the alkali trapping solution used in closed static chambers (CSC, and (b to compare both, the optimized alkali trapping solution and the soda-lime trapping using CSC to measure soil respiration in sugarcane areas. Three CO2 absorption areas were evaluated (7; 15 and 20 % of the soil emission area or chamber; two volumes of NaOH (40 and 80 mL at three concentrations (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mol L-1. Three different types of alkaline traps were tested: (a, 80 mL of 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH in glass containers, absorption area 15 % (V0.5; (b 40 mL of 2 mol L-1 NaOH retained in a sponge, absorption area 80 % (S2 and (c 40 g soda lime, absorption area 15 % (SL. NaOH concentrations of 0.5 mol L-1 or lower underestimated the soil CO2-C flux or CO2 flux. The lower limit of the alkali trap absorption area should be a minimum of 20 % of the area covered by the chamber. The 2 mol L-1 NaOH solution trap (S2 was the most efficient (highest accuracy and highest CO2 fluxes in measuring soil respiration.

  16. Using Close White Dwarf + M Dwarf Stellar Pairs to Constrain the Flare Rates in Close Stellar Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Becker, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the statistical flare rates of M dwarfs (dMs) with close white dwarf (WD) companions (WD+dM; typical separations < 1 au). Our previous analysis demonstrated that dMs with close WD companions are more magnetically active than their field counterparts. One likely implication of having a close binary companion is increased stellar rotation through disk-disruption, tidal effects, and/or angular momentum exchange; increased stellar rotation has long been associated with an in...

  17. Effect of closed drainage system on edema and ecchymosis following rhinoplasty: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Asadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to minimize edema and ecchymosis following rhinoplasty through a closed drainage system to address concealed hemorrhage.Methods: This study was designed as a prospective، double blinded, randomized contr-olled study. Fifty one patients who underwent septorhinoplasty were included in this study and divided in two groups. In group A, a closed drainage system was applied in the most dependent posterior septal area following septal harvesting. Concealed bloody secretions were drained out of mouth in a vacutaner tube during three concecutive post operative days. In control group, group B, exactly the same classic rhinoplasty opera-tion by the same surgeon was done as for study group except omitting the closed drainage system. Degree of supra-tip and eyelid edema was evaluated on post operative days through photographic and software image analysis. Edema and ecchymosis rating of eyelids and ecchymosis of paranasal and cheek area done based on photographic analysis by independent plastic surgeons using a defined grading system.Results: Eyelid ecchymosis was reduced significantly on post operative day 14 in the study group (P=0.03. Ecchymosis of paranasal and check was reduced considerably likewise on days 7 and 14 in group A using Mann-Whitney test (P=0.03. There was no significant deference regarding supra tip edema on post operative days. The same hold true for the eyelids edema.Conclusion: Significant decrement observed in eyelids ecchymosis on day 14 and para-nasal and cheek ecchymosis on postoperative days 7 and 14 in study group. There were no positive effects regarding supra tip and eyelid edema reduction using closed drainage system to evacuate concealed haemorrhage in posterior septum space. There could be different etio-pathologies for two common morbidities following rhinoplasty that should be addressed separately.

  18. Closing the proximity gap in a metallic Josephson junction between three superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padurariu, C.; Jonckheere, T.; Rech, J.; Mélin, R.; Feinberg, D.; Martin, T.; Nazarov, Yu. V.

    2015-11-01

    We describe the proximity effect in a short disordered metallic junction between three superconducting leads. Andreev bound states in the multiterminal junction may cross the Fermi level. We reveal that for a quasicontinuous metallic density of states, crossings at the Fermi level manifest as a closing of the proximity-induced gap. We calculate the local density of states for a wide range of transport parameters using quantum circuit theory. The gap closes inside an area of the space spanned by the superconducting phase differences. We derive an approximate analytic expression for the boundary of the area and compare it to the full numerical solution. The size of the area increases with the transparency of the junction and is sensitive to asymmetry. The finite density of states at zero energy is unaffected by the electron-hole decoherence present in the junction, although decoherence is important at higher energies. Our predictions can be tested using tunneling transport spectroscopy. To encourage experiments, we calculate the current-voltage characteristic in a typical measurement setup. We show how the structure of the local density of states can be mapped out from the measurement.

  19. Mined area detection overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Ian A.; Deas, Robert M.; Port, Daniel M.

    2002-08-01

    An overview of the progress on the UK MOD Applied Research Program for Land Mine Detection. The Defense Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) carries out and manages the whole of the UK MOD's Mined Area Detection Applied Research Program both within its own laboratories and in partnership with industrial and academic research organizations. This paper will address two specific areas of Applied Research: hand held mine detection and vehicle mounted mine detection in support of the Mine Detection Neutralization and Route Marking System which started in April 1997. Both are multi-sensor systems, incorporating between them metal detection, ground penetrating radar, nuclear quadrupole resonance, ultra-wideband radar, and polarized thermal imaging.

  20. Area monitoring using neutron albedo thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) were used for area monitoring around neutron sources applying the moderating sphere technique and the albedo technique in which LiF, 6LiF, 7LiF as well TLD-200 were used as TLD. Experimental results indicated that the thermoluminescence (TL) output for moderating sphere system is five times the TL output of the albedo system. In order to increase the TL output for the albedo system a paraffin slab was placed close to the albedo system. (author)