WorldWideScience

Sample records for amphetamine-related disorders

  1. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias Bipolar disorder Depression Mood disorders Personality disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ...

  2. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  3. TMJ disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    TMD; Temporomandibular joint disorders; Temporomandibular muscle disorders ... vessels, and nerves Teeth For many people with temporomandibular joint disorders, the cause is unknown. Some causes given for ...

  4. Phonological disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Articulation disorder; Developmental articulation disorder; Speech distortion; Sound distortion ... Children should be examined for disorders such as: Cognitive problems (such as intellectual disability ) Hearing impairment Neurological ...

  5. Amphetamine-related myocardial infarction in a 42-year old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smędra, A; Szustowski, S; Berent, J

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is an infrequent condition in young adults. In most cases, it occurs due to causes other than atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, including blood hypercoagulability, congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries, their inflammation or spasm induced by amphetamine or cocaine use. Amphetamine and its derivatives, via increasing the levels of epinephrine, serotonin and dopamine in the central nervous system, exert their effect also on the cardiovascular system, causing coronary spasm, enhancing platelet aggregation and inducing tachyarrhythmias. The paper presents a case of a 42-year-old man admitted to the emergency department because of emaciation and dehydration. The man was conscious, without contact, with a significant elevation of body temperature and tachycardia. On the basis of examinations, a fresh infarction of the anterolateral wall of the heart was diagnosed and the patient was transferred to a cardiac intensive care unit. There, laboratory tests revealed significantly elevated markers of myocardial necrosis and the presence of amphetamine in blood and urine. In spite of the institution of treatment the patient developed cardiorespiratory arrest. Advanced resuscitation procedures were undertaken, however, they proved unsuccessful. The presence of an infarction focus was confirmed in autopsy. Toxicological analysis of the blood for the presence of alcohol-like substances detected amphetamine at a concentration of 269.5 ng/ml. After examining the complete body of evidence it was established that the patient had died of acute cardiorespiratory failure secondary to an extensive fresh myocardial infarction. As indicated by the accumulated data, the most probable cause of myocardial infarction was amphetamine poisoning. PMID:27003867

  6. TMJ Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... referred Sally and her parents to a local dentist who specialized in jaw disorders. After examining Sally ... having symptoms of a TMJ disorder, let your dentist know. The earlier a TMJ disorder is diagnosed ...

  7. Mathematics disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their ... Children who have mathematics disorder have trouble with simple ... disorder may appear with: Developmental coordination ...

  8. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  9. Panic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anxiety disorder - panic attacks References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  10. Phonological disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Articulation disorder; Developmental articulation disorder; Speech distortion; Sound distortion ... unknown. Close relatives may have had speech and language problems. ... sounds. These changes may include cleft palate and problems ...

  11. Panic Disorder and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder. Other types of anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder , obsessive compulsive disorder , social phobia , and post-traumatic stress disorders . Panic disorder affects women twice as often ...

  12. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  13. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  14. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  15. Any Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  16. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  17. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  18. Mathematics disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  19. Rumination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001539.htm Rumination disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rumination disorder is a condition in which a person ...

  20. Panic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Hofmann SG, Smits JA. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: ...

  1. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  2. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  3. Adjustment disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Fava ...

  4. Cyclothymic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. Peris RH. Bipolar disorder. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, ...

  5. Adjustment disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  6. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... press the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults Click for more information Studies estimate that anxiety ... anxiety symptoms or make them worse. In older adults, anxiety disorders often occur at the same time as depression, ...

  7. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  8. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Building a Healthy Self-Image and Improving Self-Esteem 8 Things You Should Know About Body Dysmorphic ... personality disorder. Personality disorders are usually recognizable by adolescence or earlier, continue throughout adulthood, and become less ...

  9. Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include depression and bipolar disorder (also called manic depression). Mood disorders can increase a person's risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. With treatment, most ...

  10. Bleeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as clotting factors. If you have a bleeding disorder, you either do not have enough platelets or ... don't work the way they should. Bleeding disorders can be the result of other diseases, such ...

  11. Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the vocal cords. Other causes of voice disorders include infections, upward movement of stomach acids into ... become an effort to talk Treatment for voice disorders varies depending on the cause. Most voice problems ...

  12. Platelet Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... higher risk of blood clots. With other platelet disorders, the platelets do not work as they should. ... This can cause excessive bleeding. Treatment of platelet disorders depends on the cause. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  13. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in ...

  14. Panic disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Snaith, R P

    1983-01-01

    Panic disorder is characterised by recurrent, unpredictable panic attacks, making people worry about or change their behaviour to avert subsequent panic attacks or their consequences. Panic disorder occurs in up to 3% of the adult population at some time, and is associated with other psychiatric and personality disorders, and with drug and alcohol abuse.The risk of suicide and attempted suicide has been found to be higher in people with panic disorder than in people with other psychiatric ...

  15. Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Farah; Celasun Nalan; Gucciardi Enza; Stewart Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...

  16. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  17. Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  18. Bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Iria; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It affects more than 1% of the world's population irrespective of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is difficult in clinical practice because onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression. Moreover, there are currently no valid biomarkers for the disorder. Therefore, the role of clinical assessment remains key. Detection of hypomanic periods and longitudinal assessment are crucial to differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions. Current knowledge of the evolving pharmacological and psychological strategies in bipolar disorder is of utmost importance. PMID:26388529

  19. [Eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  20. Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    LUKEŠOVÁ, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to create an eating disorder prevention program. The thesis particularly focuses on the eating disorder problems during adolescence and early adulthood along with the explanation and specification of basic terms, history and cause of the disorder. A strong emphasis is placed on the possibilities of the prevention. A qualitative research was carried out within the scope of this thesis and it brought useful data about the students and their knowledge of the ea...

  1. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.C. van den Bosch; R. Verheul

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is s

  2. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  3. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  4. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eventually damage a person’s physical and emotional health, self-esteem and sense of control. Factors that may be involved in developing an eating disorder include: Genetics. People with first degree relatives, siblings or parents, with an eating disorder appear to be more ...

  5. EATING DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

  6. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike;

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...

  7. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  8. Conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and ...

  9. Conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Walter HJ, Rashid A, Moseley LR, DeMaso DR. Disruptive, impulse-control, ...

  10. Schizoaffective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Freudenreich O, Weiss AP, Goff DC. Psychosis and schizophrenia. In: Stern ...

  11. Personality disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and ...

  12. Peritoneal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your peritoneum is the tissue that lines your abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in your abdomen. ... the surface of this tissue. Disorders of the peritoneum are not common. They include Peritonitis - an inflammation ...

  13. Smell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like cilia shed light on disorders of the senses Perelman School of Medicine / University of Pennsylvania ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov—Government ...

  14. Anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which may include: Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle Genetics. Anxiety disorders may run in families. Traumatic events. Experiencing abuse, an attack, or sexual assault can lead to serious health problems, including ...

  15. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lows). These aren't the normal periods of happiness and sadness that everyone experiences from time to ... with long-lasting medical conditions (such as asthma , diabetes , or epilepsy ), teens with bipolar disorder need to ...

  16. Bleeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... times I'd miss work and skip the gym because I felt so lousy. So I decided ... cell called platelets. Your body also needs blood proteins called clotting factors. In people with bleeding disorders, ...

  17. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  18. Cephalic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be caused by a disturbance in the proliferation of nerve cells. Micrencephaly may also be associated with maternal problems ... as cephalic disorders. Understanding how genes control brain cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and death, and how radiation, drugs, toxins, ...

  19. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21 (Down syndrome) . Other trisomies include trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) . Monosomy is ... which there is an extra chromosome. Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome): A genetic disorder that causes serious heart ...

  20. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapies Join a Study Learn More Anxiety Disorders Definition Occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. ... and sharing their problems and achievements with others. Internet chat rooms might also be useful, but any ...

  1. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... situation, and affects a person's daily life and happiness. Symptoms of an anxiety disorder can come on ... letting go of worry allows space for more happiness and fun. Reviewed by: D'Arcy Lyness, PhD ...

  2. Eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kontić Olga; Vasiljević Nadja; Trišović Marija; Jorga Jagoda; Lakić Aneta; Jašović-Gašić Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis...

  3. Bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Frederick K; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic ...

  4. Autism and Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) a...

  5. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  6. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sleep has evolved under the influence of the day-night cycle and in response to reproductive needs, food seeking, and predator avoidance, resulting in circadian (predictive) and homeostatic (reactive) regulation. A molecular clock characterized by transcription/translation feedback loops...... mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive...

  7. Penis Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or ... not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump ...

  8. Amnestic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished: anterograd

  9. Tailbone Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors. You rarely break your tailbone. Instead, most injuries cause bruises or pulled ligaments. A backward fall onto a hard surface, such as slipping on ice, is the most common cause of such injuries. Symptoms of various tailbone disorders include pain in ...

  10. Eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

  11. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  12. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too thin, but you don't eat enough because you think you are fat Bulimia nervosa, which involves periods of overeating followed by ...

  13. Eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  14. Somatoform Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a headache may mean a brain tumor. Body dysmorphic disorder occurs when a person becomes obsessed with a flaw in his or her physical appearance that is either a minor flaw or a flaw ... be any part of the body. Wrinkles, hair loss, weight gain, and size and ...

  15. Eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontić, Olga; Vasiljević, Nadja; Trisović, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Lakić, Aneta; Gasić, Miroslava Jasović

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

  16. Autism and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), and Rett's disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as autism spectrum disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiological characteristics compared to Rett's disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews research and clinical information to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  17. Mental disorders, brain disorders and values

    OpenAIRE

    Anneli eJefferson

    2014-01-01

    The debates about the normativity of mental disorders and about the distinction between somatic and mental disorders have long been closely linked. This is very obvious in Szasz, who claims that there can only be brain disorders, no mental disorders and that so-called mental disorders are really problems in living. The implication of the latter claim is that people who have mental disorders are really people whose behavior and emotions depart from societal expectations. One might therefore be...

  18. Social Anxiety Disorder and Mood Disorders Comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Zerrin Binbay; Ahmet Koyuncu

    2012-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder is a common disorder leading functional impairment. The comorbidity between mood disorders with social anxiety disorder is relatively common. This comorbidity impacts the clinical severity, resistance and functionality of patients. The systematic evaluation of the comorbidity in both patient groups should not be ignored and be carefully conducted. In general, social anxiety disorder starts at an earlier age than mood disorders and is reported to be predictor for subseq...

  19. Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cuneyt Evren

    2010-01-01

    High rates of comorbidity were found between alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder in epidemiologic studies. Although many studies show strong relationship between social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder diagnosis, inconsistency about the causal relationship still remains. High rates of comorbidity is a subject of concern since patients with both alcohol use disorder and social anxiety disorder show more severe symptoms and more functional impairment than those patients w...

  20. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  1. Dependent personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependent personality disorder is a mental condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional ... Causes of dependent personality disorder are unknown. The disorder usually ... It is one of the most common personality disorders and ...

  2. Disorder of written expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coordination disorder (includes poor handwriting) Expressive language disorder Mathematics disorder Reading disorder ... JW III, Schor NF, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  3. Language disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... Accessed June 24, 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  4. Psychiatric Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011392 Association Study of GABRB2 gene and antidepressant response to SNRI in patients with major depression. LIU Shanming(劉善明),et al.Psychiatry Dept West China Hosp,Sichuan Univ.Chengdu 610041. Abstract:Objective To investigate whether the Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2(GABRB2) gene polymorphisms is associated with the therapeutic response to venlafaxine,Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor(SNRI) in major depressive disorder patients. Methods The study sample consisted

  5. Movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. PMID:27430452

  6. Imprinting disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Maher, Eamonn R;

    2015-01-01

    Congenital imprinting disorders (IDs) are characterised by molecular changes affecting imprinted chromosomal regions and genes, i.e. genes that are expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Recent years have seen a great expansion in the range of alterations in regulation, dosage or DNA...... impacts upon growth, development and metabolism. Thus, detailed and systematic analysis of IDs can not only identify unifying principles of molecular epigenetics in health and disease, but also support personalisation of diagnosis and management for individual patients and families....

  7. Myotonic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankodi Ami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonia reflects a state of muscle fiber hyperexcitability. Impaired transmembrane conductance of either chloride or sodium ions results in myotonia. Myotonic disorders include the myotonic dystrophies and nondystrophic myotonias. Mutations in the genes encoding chloride (ClC-1 or sodium (SCN4A channels expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle cause nondystrophic myotonias. Genetic defects in the myotonic dystrophies do not involve ion channel or its regulator proteins. Recent research supports a novel RNA-mediated disease mechanism of myotonia in the myotonic dystrophies. Myotonic dystrophy Type 1 is caused by CTG repeat expansion in the 3′ untranslated region in the Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase (DMPK gene. Myotonic dystrophy Type 2 is caused by CCTG repeat expansion in the first intron in Zinc Finger Protein 9 (ZNF9 gene. The expanded repeat is transcribed in RNA and forms discrete inclusions in nucleus in both types of myotonic dystrophies. Mutant RNA sequesters MBNL1, a splice regulator protein and depletes MBNL1 from the nucleoplasm. Loss of MBNL1 results in altered splicing of ClC-1 mRNA. Altered splice products do not encode functional ClC-1 protein. Subsequent loss of chloride conductance in muscle membrane causes myotonia in the myotonic dystrophies. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical presentation, recent advances in understanding the disease mechanism with particular emphasis on myotonic dystrophies and potential therapy options in myotonic disorders.

  8. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  9. Arousal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

    2011-12-01

    Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes. PMID:22136894

  10. Speech and Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism spectrum disorder Brain injury Stroke Some speech and ...

  11. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neuronal Migration Disorders Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Neuronal Migration Disorders? Neuronal migration disorders (NMDs) are a group ...

  12. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your body tissues. If you have a metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose ( ...

  13. Kids and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  14. Persistent depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. Fava M, Cassano P. Mood disorders: major depressive disorder and dysthymic ...

  15. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... psychiatric and other sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and individuals with a strong need for stable ... and circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running type. Prevalence • The prevalence of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in ...

  16. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Health Information > Condition Information Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Eosinophilic lung disorders are a category of ... of Programs and Services Doctors Who Treat Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Rohit K. Katial Rafeul Alam Joshua J. ...

  17. Help With Bipolar Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Bipolar Disorders Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Bipolar disorders are brain disorders that cause changes in a ...

  18. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  19. Preschool Language Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not get a language disorder from learning a second language. It won't confuse your child to speak ... on child language disorders describes research supporting the benefits of speech-language pathology treatment for children with language disorders. It ...

  20. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental health What is binge eating disorder? What causes binge eating disorder? What are the health consequences of binge eating ... more often than men. Return to top What causes binge eating disorder? Researchers are unsure of the causes and nature ...

  1. Eating disorder symptoms in affective disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, P N

    1991-01-01

    Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secon...

  2. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Arya Ashwani; Kumar Tarun; Malik Ajay; Hooda Anil

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher prepo...

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  4. Borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment ...

  5. Binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  6. Narcissistic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Personality disorder - borderline; Narcissism References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  7. Illness anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and related disorders; Hypochondriasis References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. ...

  8. Generalized anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anxiety Generalized anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  9. Somatic symptom disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. ...

  10. Schizoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - schizoid References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  11. Avoidant personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - avoidant References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Obsessive-compulsive disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  13. Histrionic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of histrionic personality disorder. References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  14. Borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - borderline References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  15. Paranoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - paranoid References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  16. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Sleep Disorders (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Sleep Disorders Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Getting ...

  17. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  18. Other Rhythm Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10/23/2014. Arrhythmia • Home • About Arrhythmia Introduction Atrial Fibrillation Bradycardia Conduction Disorders Premature Contractions Tachycardia Ventricular Fibrillation Other Rhythm Disorders Types of ...

  19. Psychiatric Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    15.1 Schizophrenia2007274 Effect and safety of combination therapy of valproate with lithium on recurrent mania. XU Wenwei(徐文炜), et al. Dept Psychiat, Wuxi Ment Health Center, Wuxi 214151. Chin J Psychiat 2007;40(2):86-89. Objective The study was to explore the effectiveness and safety of chronic combination reatment of valproate with lithium on recurrent mania. Method All 105 patients with mania-onset were andomly assigned to receive sodium valproate plus lithium (n=35), and monotherapy with lithium n=35) or sodium valproate (n=35), and were followed up for 5 years. At baseline, the symptom was valuated with the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (BRMS). The drug dosage, times of relapse, effects nd safcty was compared among the three groups. Results After the acute therapy, the reductions in BRMS core were(43±29)% in lithium group, (42±27)% in valproate group, and (58±25)% in combination roup, respectively, with significant differences between the three groups (F=3.579, P=0.031). At ollowed-up, tile relapse times was significantly less in combination group than that in lithium and valproate roup(mean times of 2.0±1.5, 3.5±1.8, and 3.5±2.2, P=0.001). The combination therapy had etter effectiveness especially in patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder(F=4.120, P=0.033) than the ther two monotherapy group. The mean dosage of single drug in combination group was significantly lower han that in lithium and valproate group (P<0.01; P<0.001). There were no significantly statistic differences on side-effects among three groups. Conclusion The efficacy of combination therapy of valproate with lithium on mania is better than the monotherapy of lithium or valproate in the light of safety and reduced occurrence.

  20. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  1. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  2. Mood Disorders after TBI

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Ricardo E.; Arciniegas, David B

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we will examine the epidemiology and risk factors for the development of the most common mood disorders observed in the aftermath of TBI: depressive disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. We will describe the classification approach and diagnostic criteria proposed in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-V). We will also examine the differential diagnosis of post-TBI mood disorders and describe the mainstay of the evaluation ...

  3. : REM sleep behavior disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) enact violent dreams during REM sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia. This disorder is highly frequent in patients with synucleinopathies (60%-100% of patients) and rare in patients with other neurodegenerative disorders. The disorder is detected by interview plus video and sleep monitoring. Abnormal movements expose the patients and bed partners to a high risk of injury and sleep disruption. The disorder is usually alleviated with melat...

  4. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Perihan Cam Ray; Mehmet Emin Demirkol; Lut Tamam

    2012-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common disorder that consists of a distressing or impairing preoccupation with imagined or slight defects in appearance. BDD is commonly considered to be an obsessivecompulsive spectrum disorder, based on similarities it has with obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is important to recognize and appropriately treat BDD, as this disorder is associated with marked impairment in psychosocial functioning, notably poor quality of life, and high suicidali...

  5. Panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Waters, Allison M

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of recent empirical developments, current controversies, and areas in need of further research in relation to factors that are common as well as specific to the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. The relative contribution of broad risk factors to these disorders is discussed, including temperament, genetics, biological influences, cognition, and familial variables. In addition, the role that specific learning experiences play in relation to each disorder is reviewed. In an overarching hierarchical model, it is proposed that generalized anxiety disorder, and to some extent panic disorder, loads most heavily on broad underlying factors, whereas specific life history contributes most strongly to circumscribed phobias. PMID:17716087

  6. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; SOURANDER, ANDRE

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender,...

  7. Anxiety Disorders and the Family: How families affect psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hunsley, John

    1991-01-01

    Family functioning and anxiety disorders, the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorder, influence one another. The empirical literature on family studies of anxiety disorder (ie, aggregration of disorders within families), on parent-child relationships and anxiety disorders, and on marriage and anxiety disorders is reviewed. Finally, the challenges for patients and their families of post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.

  8. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  9. Depression and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, R C

    1998-01-01

    Both depressive disorders and eating disorders are multidimensional and heterogeneous disorders. This paper examines the nature of their relationship by reviewing clinical descriptive, family-genetic, treatment, and biological studies that relate to the issue. The studies confirm the prominence of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders in eating disorders. Other psychiatric syndromes which occur with less frequency, such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders in anorexia nervosa, or personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in bulimia nervosa, also play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Since few studies have controlled for starvation-induced physical, endocrine, or psychological changes which mimic the symptoms considered diagnostic for depression, further research will be needed. The evidence for a shared etiology is not compelling for anorexia nervosa and is at most suggestive for bulimia nervosa. Since in contemporary cases dieting-induced weight loss is the principal trigger, women with self-critical or depressive features will be disproportionately recruited into eating disorders. The model that fits the data best would accommodate a relationship between eating disorders and the full spectrum of depressive disorders from no depression to severe depression, with somewhat higher rates of depression in bulimic anorectic and bulimia nervosa patients than in restricting anorexia nervosa patients, but the model would admit a specific pathophysiology and psychopathology in each eating disorder. PMID:9809221

  10. Conflict Between Maternal Autonomy and Child Health in Substance-use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Substance-Related Disorders; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Amphetamine-Related Disorders; Inhalant Abuse; Cocaine-Related Disorders; Opioid-Related Disorders; Marijuana Abuse; Substance Abuse, Intravenous; Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome; Pregnancy; Pregnancy, High-Risk; Prenatal Education; Antenatal Parenthood Education; Antenatal Education; Health Personnel

  11. Psychiatric rehabilitation of emotional disorders

    OpenAIRE

    BAEK, SANG-BIN

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorder is psychological and behavioral problems of emotional domain that is different from cognitive domain, such as thought and memory. Typical emotional disorders are anxiety disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. In the present study, we discussed on the symptoms, progression, and treatment for the anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive compulsive disorder), depression, and bipolar disorder. The goal of treatment for the emotional disorder is remova...

  12. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland. PMID:25682808

  13. Narcissistic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - borderline; Narcissism ... A person with narcissistic personality disorder may: React to criticism with rage, shame, or humiliation Take advantage of other people to achieve his or her ...

  14. Histrionic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histrionic personality disorder is a mental condition in which people act in a very emotional and dramatic way that ... Causes of histrionic personality disorder are unknown. Genes and ... may be responsible. It is diagnosed more often in women than ...

  15. Antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development ...

  16. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. Approximately 7.2 percent or ...

  17. What Are Reading Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are reading disorders? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... for more information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of ...

  18. Developmental reading disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001406.htm Developmental reading disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Developmental reading disorder is a reading disability that occurs when ...

  19. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Symptoms Hypothyroidism Thyroid Nodules Lifestyle and Prevention Thyroid Disorders The thyroid gland is located at the ... lives, and must be closely monitored by physicians. Thyroid Nodules Thyroid disorders can also occur because of ...

  20. Social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Stein MB, Stein DJ. Social anxiety disorder. Lancet . 2008;371:1115- ...

  1. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular heartbeats, called ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  2. Vestibular Disorders Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How do I know if I have a vestibular disorder?" Find out more about the symptoms of ... find a doctor with a special interest in vestibular disorders." Click here to search our provider directory. ...

  3. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  4. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  5. Illness anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. Feinstein RE, deGruy FV. Difficult patients: personality disorders and somatoform complaints. ...

  6. Somatic symptom disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. Ferri F. Somatization disorder. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor ...

  7. Speech disorders - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001430.htm Speech disorders - children To use the sharing features on ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 32. Read More Autism spectrum disorder Cerebral palsy Hearing loss Intellectual disability ...

  8. Language disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Child speech and language: preschool language disorders. Available at http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/childsandl.htm. Accessed June 24, 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development ...

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH About Mission The NIH Director Organization Budget History NIH Almanac Public Involvement Outreach & Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Small Text Medium Text Large Text Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder According ...

  10. Autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is often based on guidelines from a medical book titled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Autism ...

  11. Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultimately cure this and similar disorders. NIH Patient Recruitment for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Clinical Trials At NIH ... 1055 (TTY) National Institute of Child Health and Human Information Resource Center P.O. Box 3006 Rockville, MD 20847 ...

  12. Oppositional defiant disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppositional defiant disorder is a pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures. ... In many cases, children with oppositional defiant disorder grow up ... some cases children may grow up to have antisocial personality ...

  13. Genetic Brain Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  14. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... Blood Disorders Bone Marrow Examination Blood disorders can cause various symptoms in almost any area of the ...

  15. Binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of binge eating is unknown. Things that may lead to this disorder include: Genes, such as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, such as feeling upset or ...

  16. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  17. Bleeding Disorders Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pictures Young Voices Compendium of Assessment Tools Educational Games Video Library Find a Treatment Centre Haemophilia Journal About Bleeding Disorders Bleeding Disorders The Clotting Process Drugs That Can Cause Bleeding Hemophilia How Do You ...

  18. Neuroimaging of neurotic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroimaging has been involved in recent biological approaches with evidence for neurotic disorders in place of diagnostic criteria on Freud theory hitherto. This review describes the present states of brain imaging in those disorders. Emotion has such three bases for environmental stimuli as recognition/evaluation of causable factors, manifestation, and its control, each of which occurs in various different regions connected by neuro-net work in the brain. The disorders are regarded as abnormality of the circuit that can be imaged. Documented and discussed are the actual regions imaged by MRI and PET in panic disorder, social phobia, phobias to specified things, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The approach is thought important for elucidating not only the pathogenesis of the disorders but also the human emotional functions and mechanism of the mind, which may lead to a better treatment of the disorders in future. (T.I)

  19. Genetic Brain Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form of a ... is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the brain. ...

  20. How to characterize disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, T.

    2016-05-01

    Researchers working on nuclear materials encounter disorder in the atomic structure all the time, usually caused by irradiation. The nature of disorder varies widely, from lattice defects to amorphous phase formation. Generally it is not easy to characterize the state of disorder with the accuracy necessary to elucidate the properties caused by structural disorder. However, owing to advances in the tools of characterization and rapid rise in computer power, significant progress has been made in characterizing structural disorder. We discuss how to describe and determine the structure and dynamics of disordered materials using scattering measurements and modeling. Lattice defects caused by irradiation usually has negative effects on properties, but glasses and highly disordered materials can be irradiation resistant, and could be useful as nuclear materials. Characterizing and controlling disorder is becoming an important endeavor in the field of nuclear materials.

  1. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve the lives of people who have mood disorders. The Power of Peers DBSA envisions wellness for people who live with depression and bipolar disorder. Because DBSA was created for and is led ...

  2. About Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve the lives of people who have mood disorders. The Power of Peers DBSA envisions wellness for people who live with depression and bipolar disorder. Because DBSA was created for and is led ...

  3. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to helpful sources of care. [ Top ] What causes binge eating disorder? No one knows for sure what causes binge ... Swendsen J, Merikangas KR. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in adolescents. Results from the national comorbidity survey replication adolescent ...

  4. Specific Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links from the National Institutes of Health. Specific Genetic Disorders Many human diseases have a genetic component. ... Condition in an Adult The Undiagnosed Diseases Program Genetic Disorders Achondroplasia Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Antiphospholipid Syndrome ...

  5. Staging Bipolar Disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-; Reinares, M.; Rosa, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evidence supporting a staging model for bipolar disorder. The authors conducted an extensive Medline and Pubmed search of the published literature using a variety of search terms (staging, bipolar disorder, early intervention) to find relevant articles, which were reviewed in detail. Only recently specific proposals have been made to apply clinical staging to bipolar disorder. The staging model in bipolar disorder suggests a progression from prodro...

  6. Eating disorders in women

    OpenAIRE

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our und...

  7. MOVEMENT DISORDERS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujitnath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary movements of different types are associated with many diseases in children. Movement disorders in adult have been published in different journals, but in children these disorders have been ignored, even in most of the paediatric neurology books. Here is a brief attempt to describe different types of movement disorders and their various names in different diseases. Possible investigations and treatment of the disorders have been described in short.

  8. Sexual Desire Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the phys...

  9. Costs of Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Leah S. Kleinman; Ana Lowin; Emuella Flood; Gian Gandhi; Eric Edgell; Revicki, Dennis A

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic affective disorder that causes significant economic burden to patients, families and society. It has a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1.3%. Bipolar disorder is characterised by recurrent mania or hypomania and depressive episodes that cause impairments in functioning and health-related quality of life. Patients require acute and maintenance therapy delivered via inpatient and outpatient treatment. Patients with bipolar disorder often have contact with the s...

  10. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lut Tamam; Meliha Zengin Eroglu; Ozlem Paltaci

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etio...

  11. Autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Faras Hadeel; Al Ateeqi Nahed; Tidmarsh Lee

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, reciprocal social interaction and restricted repetitive behaviors or interests. The term autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been used to describe their variable presentation. Although the cause of these disorders is not yet known, studies strongly suggest a genetic basis with a complex mode of inheritance. More research is needed to explore environmental factors that c...

  12. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...... to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder...

  13. Metacognition in Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Olstad, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study were to compare patients with eating disorders to healthy controls on a self-report measure of metacognitions, and to investigate the relationship between metacognitions and eating disorder pathology in the clinical group.Method: Female patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) (N = 48) completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire – 30 and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0. The co...

  14. Personality disorder diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Widiger, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general persona...

  15. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Staner, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...

  16. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    "SH. Akhondzadeh; L. Kashani "

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy....

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Doğangün, Burak; Yavuz, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is characterized by excessive overactiviy inattention and impulsiveness It is reported that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affects 5 12 of children worldwide It has significant negative effects on psychological and social development and academic functioning of the children if it remains nbsp; untreated The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is unknown Genetic neurodevelopmental neurophysiological and psychosocial factors ar...

  18. Problems Disorders Receipt Food

    OpenAIRE

    VALIŠOVÁ, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The work deals with eating disorders, the issue, describing the occurrence. It shows the difference between boys and girls. It introduces us to the history and seeks to show that eating disorders are not just a matter of last time. It also seeks to show the new (modern) forms of eating disorders and explain their specific features.

  19. Eating disorders in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Damon B; Williams, Jeffrey

    2016-09-22

    Eating disorders are traditionally thought of as a problem specific to women, but evidence suggests the disorders also occur in men. Identifying the problem and referring patients for treatment can be difficult. Understanding the nuances of these disorders and realizing the incidence in men is important, as it is often overlooked as a differential diagnosis. PMID:27552690

  20. Diagnosing Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Diagnosing Sleep Disorders Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents Depending ... several possible tests when trying to diagnose a sleep disorder: Sleep history and sleep log If you believe ...

  1. Asbestos Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Bégin; André Dufresne; François Plante; Serge Massé

    1994-01-01

    An updated summary of current understanding of asbestos related disorders is presented, along with a review of the history of the disorders, and the mineralogy, biological tissue burden, pathogenesis, pathology and clinical aspects of the asbestos related disorders, with particular emphasis on important information for the clinician.

  2. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: ...

  3. Chronobiology and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.

  4. Disorders of diminished motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Robert S; Wilkosz, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Disorders of diminished motivation occur frequently in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Motivation is an ever-present, essential determinant of behavior and adaptation. The major syndromes of diminished motivation are apathy, abulia, and akinetic mutism. Depending on their etiology, disorders of diminished motivation may be a primary clinical disturbance, a symptom of another disorder, or a coexisting second disorder. This article presents a biopsychosocial approach to the assessment and management of motivational impairments in patients with traumatic brain injury. The recognition and differential diagnosis of disorders of diminished motivation, as well as the mechanism and clinical pathogenesis, are discussed. PMID:16030444

  5. La Tourette's Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Oviedo Lugo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder in which tic symptoms emerge prior to age of 18 and have, at least, a minimum duration of 12 months. This disorder produces distress and impairs normal functioning; it has a well-known chronic-waxing and waning course. TS has several comorbid conditions like obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and learning disorders, among others. This article will review the epidemiologic, etiologic and phenomenological concepts of the disease and its therapeutic perspectives.

  6. Autoimmune basal ganglia disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771

  7. [Eating disorders in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Despite of being perceived as 'woman's diseases', eating disorders were described among boys and adult men. This article presents epidemiological data on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in men. The clinical presentation of eating disorders in men was described and compared with similar data from the female population. Moreover, a significance of selected risk factors, specifically those referring to men, was discussed. These are: the disturbance of body perception, personality traits and potential association of eating disorders with sexual orientation. Efficacy of different psychotherapy approaches aimed at eating disorders was summarized. Rules governing psychotherapy of men suffering from eating disorders were described. Specific features of eating disorders' aetiology were taken into account together with characteristic difficulties influencing treatment. PMID:19697523

  8. [Language in autistic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, J

    1999-02-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder affecting social relationships, communication and flexibility of thought. These three basic aspects of autism may present in many different forms and degrees. Therefore autism should be considered to be a spectrum of autistic disorders rather than a single strictly defined condition. The spectrum of autistic disorders extends from intelligent individuals with acceptable social integration, to severely retarded patients with scarcely any social interaction. Language is almost always affected either in its formal aspects or in its usage. Autistic linguistic disorders form a specific language disorder (developmental dysphasia) and a pragmatic disorder linked both to the primary language problem and to the social cognitive deficit. We discuss the different linguistic syndromes observed in autistic patients with special emphasis on the semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:10778500

  9. [Adolescent eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Hagenah, Ulrich; Vloet, Timo; Holtkamp, Kristian

    2005-04-01

    Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa are common psychiatric disorders in adolescent girls. In discrepancy to ICD-10 and DSM-IV we would propose the 10th BMI percentile as weight criterium for anorexia nervosa. Both disorders have a high somatic and psychiatric comorbidity; the most severe complication at long term follow-up is osteoporosis. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders are affective disorders, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse. There is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition and a range of general and personal environmental risk factors. Treatment of adolescent eating disorders mostly requires a multimodal approach which consists of several components, e.g. weight rehabilitation, nutritional counselling, individual and family psychotherapy, and treatment of comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:15918539

  10. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  11. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ozkan; Abdurrahman Altindag

    2003-01-01

    Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male), who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia). Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders...

  12. Radiation disorder in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive study of the radiation disorder accompayning implantation of 27 different ions in single crystals of Al, Cu and Ni has been made. The technique of Rutherford backscattering and channeling of MeV helium ions is used to determine the relative amount and the depth of radiation disorder. The dependence on fluence, energy and temperature of implantation is also studied. The results show minimum disorder for self ion bombardment. The disorder depths are anomalously high, e.g. about 7-19 times the mean ion ranges in copper. The observed disorder depths are also found to exceed well beyond the maximum range of a small channeled fraction of the implanted ions in Cu and Ni. It is observed that the recent conclusions of Borders and Poats, regarding the nature of disorder in metals, are not consistent with those of the present extensive study. (author)

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  14. Autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faras Hadeel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, reciprocal social interaction and restricted repetitive behaviors or interests. The term autism spectrum disorders (ASD has been used to describe their variable presentation. Although the cause of these disorders is not yet known, studies strongly suggest a genetic basis with a complex mode of inheritance. More research is needed to explore environmental factors that could be contributing to the cause of these disorders. The occurrence of ASD has been increasing worldwide, with the most recent prevalence studies indicating that they are present in 6 per 1000 children. The objectives of this article are to provide physicians with relevant information needed to identify and refer children presenting with symptoms suggestive of ASDs to specialized centers early, and to make them feel comfortable in dealing with public concerns regarding controversial issues about the etiology and management of these disorders.

  15. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  16. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling. PMID:26394523

  17. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "SH. Akhondzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  18. Eating disorders: between people

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinowski, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has suggested that 1.6 million people in the UK are affected by eating disorders (NICE, 2004). Generally speaking, eating disorders have major physical, psychological and social consequences (Hjern et al., 2006), often characterized by a poor quality of life (De la Rie et al., 2007)and a high health burden (Mond et al., 2009). Furthermore, anorexia nervosa has the highest rate of mortality of any psychiatric disorder, due to both...

  19. Chronobiology and Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz Selvi; Lutfullah Besiroglu; Adem Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, slee...

  20. Capsulotomy in anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rück, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are common and a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to conventional treatments such as SSRIs or CBT. Capsulotomy is a neurosurgical treatment for treatment refractory patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other anxiety disorders. The aim of this thesis was to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of capsulotomy. Methods and results In Study I, 26 consecutive patients who underwent capsulotomy from 1975-...

  1. Eating disorders in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    JÁGLOVÁ, Štěpánka

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor degree work deals with disorders food intake, in particular, mental anorexia and mental bulimia in maturing period. The theoretical part is aimed at maturing problems and food intake disorders generally. There is characteristics and division of maturing period into early and late adolescence including psychological and physical changes which are typical for this period. Then food intake disorders, their causes, effects and their possible treatment are specified. The aim of the pr...

  2. EATING DISORDERS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndro...

  3. Classification of Sleep Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Thorpy

    2012-01-01

    The classification of sleep disorders is necessary to discriminate between disorders and to facilitate an understanding of symptoms, etiology, and pathophysiology that allows for appropriate treatment. The earliest classification systems, largely organized according to major symptoms (insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and abnormal events that occur during sleep), were unable to be based on pathophysiology because the cause of most sleep disorders was unknown. These 3 symptom-based categories ar...

  4. Sleep disorders and stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Douglas M; Ramos, Alberto R.; Rundek, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight existing literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatments of stroke sleep disorders. Stroke sleep disorders are associated with many intermediary vascular risk factors leading to stroke, but they may also influence these risk factors through direct or indirect mechanisms. Sleep disturbances may be further exacerbated by stroke or caused by stroke. Unrecognized and untreated sleep disorders may influence rehabilitation efforts and poor ...

  5. Asthma and Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kewalramani, Anupama; Bollinger, Mary E.; Teodor T. Postolache

    2008-01-01

    The high rate of comorbidity of asthma and mood disorders would imply the possibility of potential shared pathophysiologic factors. Proposed links between asthma and mood disorders include a vulnerability (trait) and state connection. Vulnerability for both asthma and mood disorders may involve genetic and early developmental factors. State-related connections may include obstructive factors, inflammatory factors, sleep impairment, psychological reactions to chronic medical illness, as well a...

  6. Treatment Resistant Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Elvan Ozalp; Ersin Hatice Karslioglu

    2015-01-01

    Many patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder respond incompletely or unsatisfactorily to available treatments. Defining refractoriness in bipolar disorder is a complex issue and should concern and include either every phase and pole or the disorder as a whole. There are only limited and sometimes confusing data on the treatment of refractory bipolar patients. The objective of this paper was to review the evidence for treatment options in treatment resistant patients on depressive, manic atta...

  7. Eating Disorders in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to International Classification of Diseases by World Health Organization, eating disorders are behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances [1]. Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, atypical bulimia nervosa, overeating associated with other psychological disturbances and vomiting associated with other psychological disturbances [1]. Maladaptive eating pattern and inadequate physical activity are seen in adolescents with eating disorders and obesity [2]. Those with comorbid eating disorder and obesity have a poorer prognosis and are at higher risk for future medical problems.

  8. Mood and affect disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

    2015-02-01

    Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians. PMID:25646309

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shared Neurobiology of Autism and Related Disorders NINDS Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Conference Summary Summary of Clinical Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Conference September 19-22, 2002. Publicaciones en ...

  10. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  11. Managing obsessive compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2015-01-01

    Unlike obsessive compulsive personality traits or occasional repetitive habits, obsessive compulsive disorder can be highly distressing and associated with significant disability. Treatment should always be offered.

  12. Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Steven B; Abbott, Jeremy J

    2016-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and primary headaches can be perpetual and debilitating musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The presence of both can affect up to one-sixth of the population at any one time. Initially, TMDs were thought to be predominantly musculoskeletal disorders, and migraine was thought to be solely a cerebrovascular disorder. The further understanding of their pathophysiology has helped to clarify their clinical presentation. This article focuses on the role of the trigeminal system in associating TMD and migraine. By discussing recent descriptions of prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of headache and TMD, we will further elucidate this relationship. PMID:27475510

  13. Boys with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  14. Eating Disorders in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2015-01-01

    According to International Classification of Diseases by World Health Organization, eating disorders are behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances [1]. Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, atypical bulimia nervosa, overeating associated with other psychological disturbances and vomiting associated with other psychological disturbances [1]. Maladaptive eating pattern and inadequate physical activity are seen ...

  15. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-09

    Immune Deficiency Disorders:; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorder:; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  16. Understanding Panic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Mary Lynn

    This booklet is part of the National Institute of Mental Health's efforts to educate the public and health care professionals about panic disorder. Discussed here are the causes, definition, and symptoms of the disorder. Panic attacks, which can seriously interfere with a person's life, may strike more than three million U.S. citizens at some time…

  17. Defining Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background: ICD-10 and DSM-IV include similar criterial symptom lists for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but while DSM-IV treats each list separately, ICD-10 considers them jointly. One consequence is that ICD-10 identifies a group of children with ODD subtype who do not receive a diagnosis under DSM-IV. Methods: We…

  18. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  19. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  20. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  1. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Eating Disorders What Can I Do About Overeating? Body Image and Self-Esteem How Much Food Should I Eat? I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do? Contact Us Print Resources ...

  2. From Disorder to Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X-G. Yue (Xiao-Guang); Y. Cao (Yong); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn the physical sciences, order and disorder refer to the presence or absence of some symmetry or correlation in a many-particle system. It follows that it is important to examine whether there is any regularity hidden in the phase transition of the disorder- order relationship. In this

  3. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  4. Epigenetics and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, Eneda; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kas, Martien J; Campbell, Iain C

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating disorders are complex psychiatric disorders in which genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions (G×E) have a role. Such G×E may occur in adulthood or during development. They may also be modified by factors such as (mal)nutrition or stress and this may result in

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  6. Neurobiology of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Gorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiologically spoken, the supstrate of the mind is formed by neuronal networks, and dysregulated neurocircuitry can cause psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders are diagnosed by symptom clusters that are the result of abnormal brain tissue, and/or activity in specialized areas of the brain. Dysregulated circuitry results from abnormal neural function, or abnormal neural connections from one brain area to another, which leads to neurotransmitter imbalances. Each psychiatric disorder has uniquely dysregulated circuitry and thereby unique neurotransmitter imbalance, such as: prefrontal cortical-limbic pathways in depression or prefrontal cortical-striatal pathways in schizophrenia ie. serotonin-norepinephrin-dopamin imbalance in depression, or dopamine hyperactivity in schizophrenia. Biological psychiatry has completely changed the farmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders, and new foundings in that field are supportive to futher more neuropsychopharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy studies, whish has as a result more safe and effective therapy for psychiatric disorders.

  7. Genomics in Neurological Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangchun Han; Jiya Sun; Jiajia Wang; Zhouxian Bai; Fuhai Song; Hongxing Lei

    2014-01-01

    Neurological disorders comprise a variety of complex diseases in the central nervous system, which can be roughly classified as neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. The basic and translational research of neurological disorders has been hindered by the difficulty in accessing the pathological center (i.e., the brain) in live patients. The rapid advancement of sequencing and array technologies has made it possible to investigate the disease mechanism and biomarkers from a systems perspective. In this review, recent progresses in the discovery of novel risk genes, treatment targets and peripheral biomarkers employing genomic technologies will be dis-cussed. Our major focus will be on two of the most heavily investigated neurological disorders, namely Alzheimer’s disease and autism spectrum disorder.

  8. Gender identity disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Urs; Milos, Gabriella

    2002-12-01

    We report three cases of transsexual patients who are suffering from an eating disorder: a biological male patient diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN), a biological male patient with bulimia nervosa (BN), and a biological female patient with AN as well as a severe alcohol dependence. The relationship between eating behavior, gender identity, sexual orientation, and body dissatisfaction is discussed. PMID:12386912

  9. Conduct disorders as a result of specific learning disorders

    OpenAIRE

    VOKROJOVÁ, Nela

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on relationship between specific learning disorders and conduct disorders in puberty. The theoretical part explains the basic terms apearing in the thesis such as specific learning disorders, conduct disorders, puberty and prevention of conduct disorder formation. It presents Czech and foreign research which have already been done in this and related areas. The empirical part uses a quantitative method to measure anxiety and occurrence of conduct disorders in second grade ...

  10. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgenthaler TI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhanu P Kolla,1,2 R Robert Auger,1,2 Timothy I Morgenthaler11Mayo Center for Sleep Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Misalignment between endogenous circadian rhythms and the light/dark cycle can result in pathological disturbances in the form of erratic sleep timing (irregular sleep–wake rhythm, complete dissociation from the light/dark cycle (circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running type, delayed sleep timing (delayed sleep phase disorder, or advanced sleep timing (advanced sleep phase disorder. Whereas these four conditions are thought to involve predominantly intrinsic mechanisms, circadian dysrhythmias can also be induced by exogenous challenges, such as those imposed by extreme work schedules or rapid transmeridian travel, which overwhelm the ability of the master clock to entrain with commensurate rapidity, and in turn impair approximation to a desired sleep schedule, as evidenced by the shift work and jet lag sleep disorders. This review will focus on etiological underpinnings, clinical assessments, and evidence-based treatment options for circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Topics are subcategorized when applicable, and if sufficient data exist. The length of text associated with each disorder reflects the abundance of associated literature, complexity of management, overlap of methods for assessment and treatment, and the expected prevalence of each condition within general medical practice.Keywords: circadian rhythm sleep disorders, assessment, treatment

  11. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios D Kotzalidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuroinflammation-related terms and crossed them with bipolar disorder-related terms. The search produced 310 articles and the number rose to 350 after adding articles from other search engines and reference lists. Twenty papers were included that appropriately tackled the issue of the presence (but not of its pathophysiological role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder. Of these, 15 were postmortem and 5 were carried out in living humans. Most articles were consistent with the presence of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but factors such as treatment may mask it. All studies were cross-sectional, preventing causality to be inferred. Thus, no inference can be currently made about the role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but a link is likely. The issue remains little investigated, despite an excess of reviews on this topic.

  12. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  13. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Obsessive-compulsive disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Post-traumatic stress disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  15. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  16. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration. PMID:26939485

  17. From Disorder to Order

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Xiao-Guang; Cao, Yong; McAleer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn the physical sciences, order and disorder refer to the presence or absence of some symmetry or correlation in a many-particle system. It follows that it is important to examine whether there is any regularity hidden in the phase transition of the disorder- order relationship. In this paper a series of experiments are devised and executed to reveal the power law relationship between order and disorder, and to determine that the power law is indeed an important regular pattern in...

  18. Skin disorders at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ray; Boniface, Keith; Hite, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the types of skin disorders occurring at sea requiring acute treatment. The case logs of a tele-medicine service for US flagged ships at sea were reviewed from March 1, 2006 until March 1, 2009. Of 1844 total cases, 10% (n = 183) were for skin disorders. Sixty-eight percent (n = 125) were infections, 14% (n = 25) were inflammatory, 7% (n = 13) were environmental, and 11% (n = 20) were non-specific rashes. Cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis (n = 84) were the most common acute skin disorders encountered. In some cases (n = 81), still digital photographs aided in the diagnosis. PMID:20496321

  19. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Cam Ray

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder are crucial because of increased suicidality and reduction in life quality. In this article the symptoms, etiology, clinical features and treatment of body dysmorphic disorder are briefly reviewed.

  20. The relationship of body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders to obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Kaye, Walter H

    2007-05-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and eating disorders are body image disorders that have long been hypothesized to be related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Available data suggest that BDD and eating disorders are often comorbid with OCD. Data from a variety of domains suggest that both BDD and eating disorders have many similarities with OCD and seem related to OCD. However, these disorders also differ from OCD in some ways. Additional research is needed on the relationship of BDD and eating disorders to OCD, including studies that directly compare them to OCD in a variety of domains, including phenomenology, family history, neurobiology, and etiology. PMID:17514080

  1. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SAD. These two chemicals help regulate a person's sleep-wake cycles, energy, and mood. Shorter days and longer ... doctor. People who have another type of depressive disorder, skin that's sensitive to light, or medical conditions ...

  2. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Upcoming and past meetings Follow Us Social media, RSS feeds, and more Follow Us Health Information > Health Topics > Weight Management > Binge Eating Disorder | Share External Link Disclaimer Weight Management Binge Eating ...

  3. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and ...

  5. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at age 5 or 6 and get worse until age 12. They often improve during adulthood.

  6. Dependent personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and ...

  7. Brief psychotic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Freudenriech O, Weiss AP, Goff DC. Psychosis and schizophrenia. In: Stern ...

  8. Antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and ...

  9. Schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and ...

  10. Schizoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and ...

  11. Avoidant personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and ...

  12. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental ... key findings. About Us Overview of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New New Data on Autism: Five Facts ...

  14. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a friend or colleague Request free mailed brochure Autismo Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... list of all NINDS Disorders Publicaciones en Español Autismo Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison ...

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  17. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with normal activity or have the potential to cause bodily harm. ... Stereotypic movement disorder is more common among boys than ... occur with other conditions, is unknown. Stimulant drugs such ...

  18. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... expect. For instance, a person who has generalized anxiety disorder may constantly worry about a child who is perfectly healthy. About 4 million adults in the United States have GAD. Women are ...

  19. Speech disorders - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of speech disorders may disappear on their own. Speech therapy may help with more severe symptoms or speech problems that do not improve. In therapy, the child will learn how to create certain sounds.

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arise and they are feeling unstable. A Treatable Disorder Diagnosis is often a relief ... with emotionally intense mental images of themselves and others. The therapist helps ...

  1. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  2. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer ... Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia Announcements Depression and Anxiety Podcasts & Videos Resources Clinical Practice Reviews & Teaching Tools ...

  3. Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2008 Previous Next Related Articles: Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMD) Are You Biting Off More Than You Can Chew? Equilibration May Lessen TMD Pain Fender-benders: Source of TMD? First Comes ...

  4. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  5. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  6. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build up in the body. For these people, eating foods that are high in protein can cause serious health problems and, sometimes, death. People with these kinds of disorders may need to limit or avoid certain foods ...

  7. Hearing Disorders and Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impossible, to hear. They can often be helped. Deafness can keep you from hearing sound at all. ... certain medicines, and surgery. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  8. Disordered Materials An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ossi, Paolo M

    2006-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces the physics of structurally disordered condensed systems at the level of advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Among the topics are the geometry and symmetries of the structural units used as building blocks of extended structures, the various kinds of disorder, the phenomenology and the main theories of the glass transition, the structure of amorphous systems and the techniques to investigate it, the evolution of system's structure with its size (clusters) and the presence of orientational order in the absence of translational order (quasicrystals). In the second edition, the treatment of the mode coupling theory of the glass transition has been enlarged and connects now to a new section on collective excitations in disordered systems. Special attention has been devoted to nanometer-sized disordered systems, with emphasis on cluster-assembled materials. Questions of what governs the occurrence and stability of quasicrystals, the features of the amorphous to quasicr...

  9. Medications for Panic Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinchik, Sofya M.; Kablinger, Anita S.; Gardner, J. Suzette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Approximately 30% of women experience some type of anxiety disorder during their lifetime. In addition, some evidence exists that anxiety disorders can affect pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the literature on the course of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period and presents guidelines for management.

  10. Congenital imprinting disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Netchine, Irène; Temple, I Karen;

    2015-01-01

    consortium EUCID.net (European network of congenital imprinting disorders) now aims to promote better clinical care and scientific investigation of imprinting disorders by establishing a concerted multidisciplinary alliance of clinicians, researchers, patients and families. By encompassing all IDs and...... specific clinical features, and, as each appeared to be associated with specific imprinting defects, they have been widely regarded as separate entities. However, they share clinical characteristics and can show overlapping molecular alterations. Nevertheless, IDs are usually studied separately despite...

  11. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  12. Myelination and myelin disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this thesis contains the results of a study into the capabilities of MR in the assessment of normal cerebral development. The process of normal myelination under the age of 1 year is divided into stages with specific MRI characteristics. An indication of normal age limits for each stage is given. The relationships between changes in signal intensities and biochemical background, and between progress of myelination and psychomotor development are discussed. The latter in the light of a study performed in hydrocephalic children, prior to and repeatedly after shunt implantation. Normal changes in 1H and 31P spectra of the brain in infants and children are described. The relationship between observed spectral changes and cerebral maturational processes is discussed. The second part deals with assessment of myelin disorders with MRI. Basic information about demyelinating disorders and biochemical background are reviewed. A new classification of myelin disorders, underlying the development of an MRI pattern recognition scheme, is proposed based on the most recent scientific developments. Common histological characteristics are described for all main categories of myelin disorders. Extensive information is presented about MRI patterns of abnormalities in patients in whom the disease is predominantly or exclusively located in the white matter. On the basis of the data of these patients a global MRI pattern recognition scheme has been developed covering all white matter disorders that were encountered. Also an example of an in-depth pattern recognition in a circumscribed category of disorders is presented. Finally a study of MRS in demyelinating disorders as opposed to neuronal disorders is described. While MRI provides information about the extent of the process of demyelination and about the disease category, MRS turns out to provide information about the severity of the demyelination and of the concomitant neuronal damage. (H.W.). 725 refs.; 53 figs

  13. Myelination and myelin disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaap, M.S. van der.

    1991-05-28

    The first part of this thesis contains the results of a study into the capabilities of MR in the assessment of normal cerebral development. The process of normal myelination under the age of 1 year is divided into stages with specific MRI characteristics. An indication of normal age limits for each stage is given. The relationships between changes in signal intensities and biochemical background, and between progress of myelination and psychomotor development are discussed. The latter in the light of a study performed in hydrocephalic children, prior to and repeatedly after shunt implantation. Normal changes in {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P spectra of the brain in infants and children are described. The relationship between observed spectral changes and cerebral maturational processes is discussed. The second part deals with assessment of myelin disorders with MRI. Basic information about demyelinating disorders and biochemical background are reviewed. A new classification of myelin disorders, underlying the development of an MRI pattern recognition scheme, is proposed based on the most recent scientific developments. Common histological characteristics are described for all main categories of myelin disorders. Extensive information is presented about MRI patterns of abnormalities in patients in whom the disease is predominantly or exclusively located in the white matter. On the basis of the data of these patients a global MRI pattern recognition scheme has been developed covering all white matter disorders that were encountered. Also an example of an in-depth pattern recognition in a circumscribed category of disorders is presented. Finally a study of MRS in demyelinating disorders as opposed to neuronal disorders is described. While MRI provides information about the extent of the process of demyelination and about the disease category, MRS turns out to provide information about the severity of the demyelination and of the concomitant neuronal damage.

  14. [Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is categorized as a subclass in depressive disorders of DSM-5. Speaking without fear of misunderstanding, my opinion is that patients with PMDD should be treated with medication, if there is no misdiagnosis as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). For the appropriate treatment of PMDD, it must be diagnosed accurately according to the DSM-5 criteria. The differential diagnosis and treatment of PMDD should be carried out by experienced psychiatrists. PMID:26524841

  15. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Middha Akanksha; Kataria Sahil; Sandhu Premjeet; Kapoor Bhawna

    2011-01-01

    Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a serious neurological disorder affecting communication skills, social interactions, adaptability in an individual, and also causes dramatic changes in behavioral patterns. This condition typically lasts throughout one’s lifetime and affects both, children as well as adults. Research has shown a tenfold increase in autism cases over the past decade and still rising at an alarming pace. The origins of autism are not known even to modern science. Aut...

  16. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, “normal anxiety” does not equal “pathological anxiety” although many phenomena are evident in ...

  17. Eating disorders and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J F

    1999-05-01

    Eating disorders are common and characteristically affect young women at what would otherwise be their peak of reproductive functioning. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa impinge on reproduction both behaviourally and physiologically, with effects on menstruation, ovarian function, fertility, sexuality and pregnancy. This review presents a summary of current knowledge and makes suggestions for future research, along with some clinical recommendations for the management of eating disorders in pregnancy. PMID:10755771

  18. Chronobiology and mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2003-01-01

    The clinical observations of diurnal variation of mood and early morning awakening in depression have been incorporated into established diagnostic systems, as has the seasonal modifier defining winter depression (seasonal affective disorder, SAD). Many circadian rhythms measured in depressive patients are abnormal: earlier in timing, diminished in amplitude, or of greater variability. Whether these disturbances are of etiological significance for the role of circadian rhythms in mood disorde...

  19. Eating disorders and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

  20. Bipolar Disorder and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sermin Kesebir; Arzu Bayrak

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence studies and studies on causation relations have shown that the relation between psychiatric disorders and chronic physical diseases is neglected. For heterogeneous diseases an increasing number of susceptibility variants are being defined. Alzheimer disease, bipolar disorder, breast and prostate cancer, coronary artery disease, Chron's disease, systemic lupus eritematosus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are mentioned together with epigenetic concept. In acrocentric zone of chr...

  1. DEPRESSIVE DISORDER AND ALOPECIA

    OpenAIRE

    Grahovac, Tanja; Ružić, Klementina; Šepić Grahovac, Dubravka; Dadić Hero, Elizabeta

    2010-01-01

    Psychophysical dermatitis is frequently manifested in patients that suffer from psychiatric illnesses and disorders as well as in patients that suffer from depressive disorders. These diseases occur or worsen after acute stress that may trigger them. Difficulties in expressing feelings or impossibility to verbalise them are connected to somatic diseases. In order to emphasize their importance, we will present a case of a 58 years old woman who has been suffering from alopecia areata that d...

  2. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  3. Pharmacotherapy of panic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pull, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Charles B Pull1, Cristian Damsa21Department of Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, Luxembourg; 2Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Investigation Program, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, USAAbstract: Panic disorder (PD) is a common, persistent and disabling mental disorder. It is often associated with agoraphobia. The present article reviews the current status of pharmacotherapy for PD with or without agoraphobia as well as the current status of treatments combing p...

  4. Obsessive compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Soomro, G Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Obsessions or compulsions that cause personal distress or social dysfunction affect about 1% of adult men and 1.5% of adult women. Prevalence in children and adolescents is 2.7%. About half of adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have an episodic course, whereas the other half have continuous problems. Up to half of adults show improvement of symptoms over time. The disorder persists in about 40% of children and adolescents at mean follow-up of 5.7 years.

  5. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but i...

  6. Memory disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Van Der Linden, Martial

    2013-01-01

    Memory disorders are a frequent consequence of a variety of childhood neurological conditions. We will review the characteristics of memory disorders as a function of the main four memory systems: short-term memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, and procedural memory. For each system, we will identify the most typical cerebral and/or genetic correlates, and we will discuss the impact of impairment of each memory system on everyday life functioning. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Transverse myelitis spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit Lekha

    2009-01-01

    Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that affects the spinal cord focally resulting in motor sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Establishing the diagnosis of ATM is not as difficult as determining the possible etiology. There is a difference in the perception of ATM seen in the West as compared to developing countries. In the West multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. An attack of ATM may be the beg...

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic t...

  9. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  10. Inheritance of intersex disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Muram, D; Dewhurst, J

    1984-01-01

    Intersex disorders result from abnormalities of the sex chromosomes, gonads, internal and external genitalia, sex hormones and gender role. This article reviews the literature on intersex disorders, outlining the characteristics and mode of inheritance, if known, of each. For appropriate and effective management and counselling of patients and their families, physicians must have a good knowledge of the development of the genital tract and of the interaction between genetic sex and environmen...

  11. Night Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...

  12. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Perihan Çam; Demirkol, Mehmet Emin; Tamam, Lut

    2012-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder a...

  13. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  14. Eating disorders in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  15. The spreading of disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Kees; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda

    2008-12-12

    Imagine that the neighborhood you are living in is covered with graffiti, litter, and unreturned shopping carts. Would this reality cause you to litter more, trespass, or even steal? A thesis known as the broken windows theory suggests that signs of disorderly and petty criminal behavior trigger more disorderly and petty criminal behavior, thus causing the behavior to spread. This may cause neighborhoods to decay and the quality of life of its inhabitants to deteriorate. For a city government, this may be a vital policy issue. But does disorder really spread in neighborhoods? So far there has not been strong empirical support, and it is not clear what constitutes disorder and what may make it spread. We generated hypotheses about the spread of disorder and tested them in six field experiments. We found that, when people observe that others violated a certain social norm or legitimate rule, they are more likely to violate other norms or rules, which causes disorder to spread. PMID:19023045

  16. Neurological disorders and travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Adnan; Kojan, Suleiman

    2003-02-01

    Travel is associated with a number of neurological disorders that can be divided into two categories: (1) Neurological infections including encephalitides, neurotuberculosis, neurobrucellosis, cysticercosis and trichinosis. Some of these disorders can be prevented by vaccinations, such as Japanese B encephalitis and rabies, some by the use of insect repellents and some by avoiding raw milk products and undercooked meat. (2) Non-infective neurological disorders, such as acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral oedema, problems occurring during air travel such as syncope, seizures, strokes, nerve compression, barotrauma and vertigo, motion sickness and foodborne neurotoxic disorders such as ciguatera, shellfish poisoning and intoxication by cassava. This group of diseases and disorders could be prevented if the traveller knows about them, applies simple physiological rules, takes some specific medications and knows how to avoid intoxications in certain geographical areas. Meningococcal meningitis, malaria and jet lag syndrome are extensively discussed in other articles of this issue. The discussion in this paper will be limited to the other disorders. PMID:12615385

  17. Infranuclear ocular motor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Christian J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter covers the very large number of possible disorders that can affect the three ocular motor nerves, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles. Conditions affecting the nerves are discussed under two major headings: those in which the site of damage can be anatomically localized (e.g., fascicular lesions and lesions occurring in the subarachnoid space, the cavernous sinus, the superior orbital fissure, or the orbit) and those in which the site of the lesion is either nonspecific or variable (e.g., vascular lesions, tumors, "ophthalmoplegic migraine," and congenital disorders). Specific comments on the diagnosis and management of disorders of each of the three nerves follow. Ocular motor synkineses (including Duane's retraction syndrome and aberrant regeneration) and disorders resulting in paroxysms of excess activity (e.g., neuromyotonia) are then covered, followed by myasthenia gravis and other disorders that affect the neuromuscular junction. A final section discusses disorders of the extraocular muscles themselves, including thyroid disease, orbital myositis, mitochondrial disease, and the muscular dystrophies. PMID:21601071

  18. Eating disorders in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam

    2015-07-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  19. Transverse myelitis spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Lekha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute transverse myelitis (ATM is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that affects the spinal cord focally resulting in motor sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Establishing the diagnosis of ATM is not as difficult as determining the possible etiology. There is a difference in the perception of ATM seen in the West as compared to developing countries. In the West multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. An attack of ATM may be the beginning of MS. However, this may not be the case in developing countries where MS is uncommon. Most often transverse myelitis is monophasic and at best represents a site-restricted form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM. Traditionally the combination of optic neuritis and ATM, occurring as a monophasic illness would have been called as neuromyelitis optica (NMO. Changing concepts in the definition of NMO and the discovery of a biomarker, neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin (NMO_IgG, has changed the way relapsing autoimmune disorders are being perceived currently. A variety of idiopathic inflammatory disorders such as Japanese form of optic spinal MS, recurrent myelitis, and recurrent optic neuritis have been brought under the umbrella of neuromyelitis spectrum disorders because of the association with NMO-IgG. Complete transverse myelitis accompanied by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis which is seronegative for this biomarker has also been reported from several countries including Japan, Australia, and India. Thus, ATM is a heterogeneous disorder with a varied clinical spectrum, etiology, and outcome.

  20. Social (pragmatic) communication disorders and autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, G; Norbury, C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Changes have been made to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and similar changes are likely in the WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) due in 2017. In light of these changes, a new clinical disorder, social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD), was added to the neurodevelopmental disorders section of DSM-5. This article describes the key features of ASD, ...

  1. Occupational Psychiatric Disorders in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We searched databases and used various online resources to identify and systematically review all articles on occupational psychiatric disorders among Korean workers published in English and Korean before 2009. Three kinds of occupational psychiatric disorders were studied: disorders related to job stress and mental illness, psychiatric symptoms emerging in victims of industrial injuries, and occupational psychiatric disorders compensated by Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI). ...

  2. The Genetics of Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer H Barnett; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by impairing episodes of mania and depression. Twin studies have established that bipolar disorder is among the most heritable of medical disorders and efforts to identify specific susceptibility genes have intensified over the past two decades. The search for genes influencing bipolar disorder has been complicated by a paucity of animal models, limited understanding of pathogenesis, and the genetic and phenotypic complexity of the syndrome. L...

  3. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Karen F; Lakhan Shaheen E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable ...

  4. Panic disorder and locomotor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumano Hiroaki; Kaiya Hisanobu; Takimoto Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi Hiroe; Yoshiuchi Kazuhiro; Sakamoto Noriyuki; Yamamoto Yoshiharu; Akabayashi Akira

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Panic disorder is one of the anxiety disorders, and anxiety is associated with some locomotor activity changes such as "restlessness". However, there have been few studies on locomotor activity in panic disorder using actigraphy, although many studies on other psychiatric disorders have been reported using actigraphy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between panic disorder and locomotor activity pattern using a wrist-worn activity...

  5. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Öncü, Bedriye; Sakarya, Direnç

    2013-01-01

    Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies within %0 and %5.3 in eating disorder patients. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among patients with eating disorder are subtype of the eating disorder, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses (e.g. depression, alcohol and substabce abuse, personality disorders), ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, sui...

  6. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedriye Oncu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.

  7. Circadian Rhythm Characteristics in Mood Disorders: Comparison among Bipolar I Disorder, Bipolar II Disorder and Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jae Kyung; Lee, Kyu Young; KIM, SE HYUN; Kim, Eui-Joong; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Jung-Eun; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik; Joo, Eun-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Morningness/eveningness (M/E) is a stable characteristic of individuals. Circadian rhythms are altered in episodes of mood disorder. Mood disorder patients were more evening-type than normal population. In this study, we compared the characteristics of M/E among the 257 patients with bipolar I disorder (BPD1), bipolar II disorder (BPD2) and major depressive disorder, recurrent (MDDR). Methods M/E was evaluated using the Korean version of the composite scale of morningness (CS). Fact...

  8. Disability associated with mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, Pranit K.; Deka, Kamala; Chetia, Dhrubajyoti

    2006-01-01

    Background: Disability associated with mental illness is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. The present study looks at some aspects of disability associated with 7 psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, obsessive–compulsive disorder, dementia, and mental and behavioural disorders due to the use of alcohol. Aims: (i) To evaluate the nature and quantity of disabilities in the study groups; (ii) to compare the degree of ...

  9. Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Somatoform Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijke, A.; Ford, J.D.; Van der Hart, O.; Van Son, M.J.M.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Buerhing, M.

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS), also known as Complex posttraumatic stress disorder, was assessed in a sample (N = 472) of adult psychiatric patients with confirmed diagnoses of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Somatoform Disorders (SoD), comorbid BPD + SoD, or Af

  10. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

  11. Psychosexual disorders and dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Narang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual problems that are psychological in origin, rather than physiological, are called psychosexual disorders. Multiple factors, such as general health of the patient, chronic illnesses, psychiatric/psychological disorders, and socio-cultural factors, alone or in combination can be attributed to the development of psychosexual dysfunctions. The symptoms of these disorders vary for each individual and differ with gender. These disorders may be categorized as sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders. Dermatologists are sometimes consulted for sexual dysfunctions in their routine practice by the patients visiting sexually transmitted infections (STI clinics because a majority of the patients believe that these problems are caused by dysfunctions in the sex organs, and because people are hesitant to go to sexuality clinics and psychiatrists for such problems. Sometimes these patients are referred from other specialties such as urology or gynecology; most often, we attempt to search for STIs or other dermatoses on the genitalia and refer them back. We often underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns of the patients or feel uncomfortable discussing matters of sexuality with them. Dermatologists should understand basic sexual medicine and ask patients for sexual problems. They should be trained to manage such patients accordingly. In this review, we will be focusing on sexual dysfunctions, their etiopathogenesis, and management from a dermatologist's perspective.

  12. Esophageal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the better understanding of esophageal motility, the muscle texture and the distribution of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in the esophagus are of crucial importance. Esophageal physiology will be shortly mentioned as far as necessary for a comprehensive understanding of peristaltic disturbances. Besides the pure depiction of morphologic criteria, a complete esophageal study has to include an analysis of the motility. New diagnostic tools with reduced radiation for dynamic imaging (digital fluoroscopy, videofluoroscopy) at 4-30 frames/s are available. Radiomanometry is a combination of a functional pressure measurement and a simultaneous dynamic morphologic analysis. Esophageal motility disorders are subdivided by radiologic and manometric criteria into primary, secondary, and nonclassifiable forms. Primary motility disorders of the esophagus are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and the hypertonic lower esophageal sphincter. The secondary motility disorders include pseudoachalasia, reflux-associated motility disorders, functionally caused impactions, Boerhaave's syndrome, Chagas' disease, scleroderma, and presbyesophagus. The nonclassificable motility disorders (NEMD) are a very heterogeneous collective. (orig.)

  13. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  14. Electroencephalography in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera1,21Behavioral Sciences Institute, 2Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images.Keywords: electroencephalography, event-related potentials, sleep, depression, refeeding, weight gain

  15. Night Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tuncel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.

  16. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Tyagi; Rupal Patel; Fabienne Rughooputh; Hannah Abrahams; Watson, Andrew J.; Lynne Drummond

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbi...

  17. Social (pragmatic) communication disorders and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2016-08-01

    Changes have been made to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and similar changes are likely in the WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) due in 2017. In light of these changes, a new clinical disorder, social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD), was added to the neurodevelopmental disorders section of DSM-5. This article describes the key features of ASD, SPCD and the draft ICD-11 approach to pragmatic language impairment, highlighting points of overlap between the disorders and criteria for differential diagnosis. PMID:26699538

  18. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Carla J; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Van Patten, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders” section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. PMID:27051333

  19. Treatments for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pietro, Nina C; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Mizgalewicz, Ania;

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is a major source of health-related information for parents of sick children despite concerns surrounding quality. For neurodevelopmental disorders, the websites of advocacy groups are a largely unexamined source of information. We evaluated treatment information posted on nine highly......-trafficked advocacy websites for autism, cerebral palsy, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. We found that the majority of claims about treatment safety and efficacy were unsubstantiated. Instead, a range of rhetorical strategies were used to imply scientific support. When peer-reviewed publications were cited, 20...... % were incorrect or irrelevant. We call for new partnerships between advocacy and experts in developmental disorders to ensure better accuracy and higher transparency about how treatment information is selected and evidenced on advocacy websites....

  20. Diffusion in disordered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, Shlomo; Ben-Avraham, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion in disordered systems does not follow the classical laws which describe transport in ordered crystalline media, and this leads to many anomalous physical properties. Since the application of percolation theory, the main advances in the understanding of these processes have come from fractal theory. Scaling theories and numerical simulations are important tools to describe diffusion processes (random walks: the 'ant in the labyrinth') on percolation systems and fractals. Different types of disordered systems exhibiting anomalous diffusion are presented (the incipient infinite percolation cluster, diffusion-limited aggregation clusters, lattice animals, and random combs), and scaling theories as well as numerical simulations of greater sophistication are described. Also, diffusion in the presence of singular distributions of transition rates is discussed and related to anomalous diffusion on disordered structures.

  1. Psychopathy, adaptation, and disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, Daniel Brian; Sewall, Lindsay A; Lalumière, Martin L; Sheriff, Craig; Harris, Grant T

    2013-01-01

    In a recent study, we found a negative association between psychopathy and violence against genetic relatives. We interpreted this result as a form of nepotism and argued that it failed to support the hypothesis that psychopathy is a mental disorder, suggesting instead that it supports the hypothesis that psychopathy is an evolved life history strategy. This interpretation and subsequent arguments have been challenged in a number of ways. Here, we identify several misunderstandings regarding the harmful dysfunction definition of mental disorder as it applies to psychopathy and regarding the meaning of nepotism. Furthermore, we examine the evidence provided by our critics that psychopathy is associated with other disorders, and we offer a comment on their alternative model of psychopathy. We conclude that there remains little evidence that psychopathy is the product of dysfunctional mechanisms. PMID:23543424

  2. Delusion disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.

  3. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in...... psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience...... comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology...

  4. Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Erten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a chronic disorder in which irregular course of depressive, mania or mixed episodes or a complete recovery between episodes can be observed. The studies about the effects of traumatic events on bipolar disorder showed that they had significant and long-term effects on the symptoms of the disorder. Psychosocial stress might change the neurobiology of bipolar disorder over time. The studies revealed that the traumatic events could influence not only the onset of the disorder but also the course of the disorder and in these patients the rate of suicide attempt and comorbid substance abuse might increase. Bipolar patients who had childhood trauma had an earlier onset, higher number of episodes and comorbid disorders. In this review, the relationship between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder is reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 157-165

  5. Tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic categories of tic disorders include both transient and chronic tic disorders and Tourette's disorder. Changes for this group of disorders proposed for the forthcoming DSM-5 system include: (1) The term "stereotyped" will be eliminated in the definition of tics and the new definition will...... be applied consistently across all entities of tic disorders; (2) the diagnosis "Transient Tic Disorder" will change its name to "Provisional Tic Disorder"; (3) introduction of two new categories in individuals whose tics are triggered by illicit drugs or by a medical condition; (4) specification of...... chronic tic disorders into those with motor tics or with vocal tics only; (5) specification of the absence of a period longer than 3 months without tics will disappear for Tourette's Disorder. This overview discusses a number of implications resulting from these diagnostic modifications of the diagnostic...

  6. [Endocrine disorders and osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuka

    2015-10-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by decreased bone mass that predisposes fractures due to underlying disorders or medication. Disorders of the endocrine system, such as primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency, Cushing's syndrome, and anorexia nervosa frequently cause secondary osteoporosis. In those diseases, hormone excess or deficiency affects functions of osteoblasts, osteocyte, and osteoclasts, leading to aberrant bone remodeling. Bisphosphonates are the first-choice pharmacological agents for fracture prevention in most patients with secondary osteoporosis along with treatment of the underlying disease. PMID:26529938

  7. Disordered chaotic strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    Chaotic strings are coupled Tchebyscheff maps on a ring-network. With a well-specified empirical prescription they are able to explain the coupling constants of the standard model of elementary particle physics. This empirical relationship is tested further by introducing a tunable disorder to...... chaotic strings. Inhomogeneous coupling weights as well as small-world perturbations of the ring-network structure are discussed. It is found that certain combinations of coupling and network disorder preserve the empirical relationship between chaotic strings and the weak and strong sector of the...

  8. Acute Gynecologic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Carolyn K

    2015-11-01

    Premenopausal women with acute pelvic pain comprise a significant percentage of patients who present to the emergency room. Etiologies can be gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, or vascular. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific and overlapping. The choice of imaging modality is determined by the clinically suspected differential diagnosis. Ultrasound (US) is the preferred imaging modality for suspected obstetric or gynecologic disorders. CT is more useful when gastrointestinal or urinary tract pathology is likely. MR imaging is rarely used in the emergent setting, except to exclude appendicitis in pregnant women. This article presents a comprehensive review of imaging of acute gynecologic disorders. PMID:26526439

  9. Genomics of platelet disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, S K; Mumford, A D

    2016-07-01

    Genetic diagnosis in families with inherited platelet disorders (IPD) is not performed widely because of the genetic heterogeneity of this group of disorders and because in most cases, it is not possible to select single candidate genes for analysis using clinical and laboratory phenotypes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has revolutionized the scale and cost-effectiveness of genetic testing, and has emerged as a valuable tool for IPD. This review examines the potential utility of NGS as a diagnostic tool to streamline detection of causal variants in known IPD genes and as a vehicle for new gene discovery. PMID:27405671

  10. Genetic disorders in portraits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, A E

    1996-12-18

    Many artists have depicted genetic disorders in portrait paintings. In some instances such disorders can be identified in self-portraits, most notably the tetralogy of Fallot in the Dutch painter Dick Ket, or in portraits of the famous, such as the Habsburg jaw in the Emperor Charles V. But it is in other portraits that most examples can be found, such as the different types of dwarfism depicted by Velázquez. A table listing over 70 examples is provided. PMID:8985496

  11. Disorder in large- N theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2016-04-01

    We consider Euclidean Conformal Field Theories perturbed by quenched disorder, namely by random fluctuations in their couplings. Such theories are relevant for second-order phase transitions in the presence of impurities or other forms of disorder. Theories with quenched disorder often flow to new fixed points of the renormalization group. We begin with disorder in free field theories. Imry and Ma showed that disordered free fields can only exist for d > 4. For d > 4 we show that disorder leads to new fixed points which are not scale-invariant. We then move on to large- N theories (vector models or gauge theories in the `t Hooft limit). We compute exactly the beta function for the disorder, and the correlation functions of the disordered theory. We generalize the results of Imry and Ma by showing that such disordered theories exist only when disorder couples to operators of dimension Δ > d/4. Sometimes the disordered fixed points are not scale-invariant, and in other cases they have unconventional dependence on the disorder, including non-trivial effects due to irrelevant operators. Holography maps disorder in conformal theories to stochastic differential equations in a higher dimensional space. We use this dictionary to reproduce our field theory results. We also study the leading 1 /N corrections, both by field theory methods and by holography. These corrections are particularly important when disorder scales with the number of degrees of freedom.

  12. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. PMID:26600106

  13. Random walk in dynamically disordered chains: Poisson white noise disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exact solutions are given for a variety of models of random walks in a chain with time-dependent disorder. Dynamic disorder is modeled by white Poisson noise. Models with site-independent (global) and site-dependent (local) disorder are considered. Results are described in terms of an affective random walk in a nondisordered medium. In the cases of global disorder the effective random walk contains multistep transitions, so that the continuous limit is not a diffusion process. In the cases of local disorder the effective process is equivalent to usual random walk in the absence of disorder but with slower diffusion. Difficulties associated with the continuous-limit representation of random walk in a disordered chain are discussed. In particular, the authors consider explicit cases in which taking the continuous limit and averaging over disorder sources do not commute

  14. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Tyagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.

  15. Traumatic Stress Disorders and Risk of Subsequent Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder or Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Trabjerg, Betina; Arendt, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    schizophrenia (IRR 3.80, CI 2.33-5.80), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (IRR 2.34, CI 1.46-3.53), and bipolar disorder (IRR 4.22, CI 2.25-7.13). Risks were highest in the first year after diagnosis of the traumatic stress disorder and remained significantly elevated after more than 5 years. Mental illness in a......OBJECTIVE: Traumatic stress disorders are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, there is a lack of prospective longitudinal studies investigating the risk of severe mental illness for people diagnosed with traumatic stress disorders. We aimed to assess if patients...... with acute stress reaction (ASR) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders or bipolar disorder. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study covering the entire Danish population including information on inpatient and outpatient mental...

  16. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Patel, Rupal; Rughooputh, Fabienne; Abrahams, Hannah; Watson, Andrew J.; Drummond, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population. PMID:26366407

  17. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Patel, Rupal; Rughooputh, Fabienne; Abrahams, Hannah; Watson, Andrew J; Drummond, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population. PMID:26366407

  18. Types of Frontotemporal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain that control movement are affected. The disorders may affect thinking and language abilities, too. CBS can be caused by corticobasal degeneration —gradual atrophy and loss of nerve cells in specific parts of the brain. This degeneration causes progressive ...

  19. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  20. Psychotherapy of Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    GABBARD, GLEN O.

    2000-01-01

    Although personality disorders are often regarded as “untreatable” by third-party payers, there is actually a growing empirical literature suggesting that Axis II conditions may be eminently treatable by psychotherapy. This literature is critically reviewed, the implications for length of treatment are discussed, and cost-effectiveness issues are examined.

  1. Exporting Our Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association will release its newest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5). This tome has evolved over the decades, originally including just 112 diagnoses across 128 pages. The upcoming edition is expected to eclipse the 943 pages, and 350+ disorders of the current DSM-IV-TR, offering a variety of…

  2. Hemostatic disorders in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, R A; Davies, J

    2013-06-01

    The past few decades have seen major advances in multidisciplinary obstetric care and management of gynecological conditions in women with bleeding disorders. Awareness of the impact of bleeding disorders has improved among the obstetric and gynecological community. Undiagnosed bleeding disorders can be the underlying cause for a significant proportion of women with heavy menstrual bleeding. They may also be the cause or a contributory factor for other gynecological problems, such as dysmenorrhea, intermenstrual bleeding, and endometriosis. Hemostatic assessment should be considered in women referred for menstrual abnormalities if they have a positive bleeding history as quantified by bleeding assessment tools. The reproductive choices and options for prenatal diagnosis are also expanding for families with hemophilia with a drive toward achieving a non-invasive approach. Current non-invasive prenatal diagnostic techniques are limited to identification of fetal gender. Research is ongoing to overcome the specific diagnostic challenges of identifying hemophilia mutations, utilizing free fetal DNA circulating in maternal plasma. The management of obstetric hemorrhage has recently evolved to include a greater focus on the identification of and early treatment for coagulation disorders. Deficiencies in certain hemostatic variables are associated with progression to more severe bleeding; therefore, specific interventions have been proposed to target this. Evidence is still lacking to support such strategy, and future research is required to assess the efficacy and the safety of these hemostatic interventions in women with persistent PPH. PMID:23809121

  3. Binge eating disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In May 2013, a new version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the common manual health care providers ... use these terms to describe someone with ASD. Diagnostic and Statistical ... , 5th Edition. (2013). American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC. [ ...

  5. Disorder effects in cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobornik, I.; Grioni, M.; Berger, Helmuth; Forro, Laszlo; Pavuna, Davor; Margaritondo, Giorgio; Karkin, A.; Kelley, Ronald J.; Onellion, Marshall

    2000-09-01

    We report on ab-plane resistivity ((rho) ) and angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) spectra for Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystals irradiated with neutrons or electron-beam irradiation. Both the normal and superconducting states were measured with angle-resolved photoemission. Electron-beam irradiation leads to an increase in the residual resistivity, and a decrease in the superconducting transition temperature (Tc). The resistivity data does not indicate any pseudogap; the resistivity is linear from Tc to 300 K for all levels of disorder, and the slope (d(rho) /dT) is the same for all levels of disorder. The superconducting state ARPES data exhibits no change in the binding energy of the 'peak' for Brillouin zone locations near the (O,(pi) ) point. The peak spectral intensity decreases with increasing disorder, the gap fills in, but the peak neither shifts nor broadens. The normal state exhibits a pseudogap developing with disorder; the size of the pseudogap increases as the residual resistivity increases. The pseudogap is anisotropic, largest near the (O,(pi) ) point and zero in the direction. Neutron-beam irradiation causes an increase in the residual resistivity. The resistivity data exhibit a change of slope and indications of a pseudogap for neutron irradiation. For normal state ARPES data of neutron-beam irradiated samples, there is also an anisotropic pseudogap; it is also zero in the direction and large near the (O,(pi) ) point. We discuss implications of these data.

  6. Wikipedia and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. PMID:25890773

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wayne K; Grice, Dorothy E; Lapidus, Kyle A B; Coffey, Barbara J

    2014-09-01

    This article reviews the clinical features and neurochemical hypotheses of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with a focus on the serotonin system. In DSM-5, OCD was moved from the anxiety disorders to a new category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. OCD is a common, typically persistent disorder marked by intrusive and disturbing thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that the person feels driven to perform. The preferential efficacy of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in OCD led to the so-called serotonin hypothesis. However, direct support for a role of serotonin in the pathophysiology (e.g., biomarkers in pharmacological challenge studies) of OCD remains elusive. A role of the glutamatergic system in OCD has been gaining traction based on imaging data, genomic studies and animal models of aberrant grooming behavior. These findings have spurred interest in testing the efficacy of medications that modulate glutamate function. A role of glutamate is compatible with circuit-based theories of OCD. PMID:25150561

  8. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M; Heindel, Jerrold; Ho, Shuk-mei; Hunt, Patricia; Iguchi, Taisen; Juul, Anders; McLachlan, John A; Schwartz, Jackie; Skakkebaek, Niels; Soto, Ana M; Swan, Shanna; Walker, Cheryl; Woodruff, Teresa K; Woodruff, Tracey J; Giudice, Linda C; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  9. Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Dehgan Shahreza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal disorders commonly experienced by dental professionals can affect their health and well-being. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among dentists in Iran. A cross sectional study was carried out in Rasht, northern Iran. Participants were dental workers who completed structured questionnaire on the topic of musculoskeletal disorders related to their job. The first part of the questionnaire was self-administered regarding their demographic information and job satisfaction. The second part was the Nordic Musculoskeletal questionnaire for determining the site of pain, if any. The severity of pain was assessed by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS. The third section was RULA questionnaire (Rapid Upper Limb disorder Assessment to determine the awkward posture during their work and eventually the need to improve the condition. A total of 92 dentists responded to the questionnaire. Seventy three percent of participant dentists had musculoskeletal pain. The common painful sites of the body were as follows: neck (43.4%, back (35.8%, and shoulder and wrist (each 25%. Direct inspection was a risk factor for neck pain (OR: 35.34, p<0.001. This study revealed a relatively high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among dentists. The severity of pain was related to higher action level of the RULA score; indicating that dentists with higher RULA scores needed to adopt better working posture.

  10. Bipolar Disorder in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kadri Gultekin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of studies related with bipolar disorder in Turkey did not reveal an epidemiologically qualified field study. Most of the studies are hospital based or clinical studies which did not include a systematical scanning and did not aim to collect any epidemiological data and transfer information to health authorities. The generalizability of these studies to our community is far from being valid and reliable. On the other hand, a profile which will be created by reviewing the findings of these studies performed in various regions of Turkey will have a contribution to knowing the and ldquo;unique to us and rdquo; features of bipolar disorder and determining cultural risk factors. All this information can constitute a basis for formation and development of public mental health services related with bipolar disorder. In Turkey, the need for epidemiologically significant, polycentric, public sampled studies with broad participation is indispensable. Although our psychiatric epidemiology and clinical studies include necessary scientific basis, they are not powerful enough to evaluate the authentic and progressional relations such as rapid urbanization and immigration. The aim of this review is to evaluate and discuss prominent epidemiological findings, deficiencies and possibile future activities related with studies conducted in Turkey about bipolar disorder.. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 199-209

  11. Autoimmune sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    A number of autoantibodies, some paraneoplastic, are associated with sleep disorders. Morvan syndrome and limbic encephalitis, associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies, principally against CASPR2 and LGI1, can result in profound insomnia and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies and neuromyelitis optica may develop narcolepsy in association with other evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction, sometimes as the initial presentation. Central sleep apnea and central neurogenic hypoventilation are found in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis, and obstructive sleep apnea, stridor, and hypoventilation are prominent features of a novel tauopathy associated with IgLON5 antibodies. In addition, paraneoplastic diseases may involve the hypothalamus and cause sleep disorders, particularly narcolepsy and RBD in those with Ma1 and Ma2 antibodies. Patients with antineuronal nuclear autoantibodies type 2 may develop stridor. Several lines of evidence suggest that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder. There is a strong relationship with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*06:02 haplotype and polymorphisms in the T-cell receptor alpha locus and purinergic receptor P2Y11 genes. Patients with recent-onset narcolepsy may have high titers of antistreptococcal or other antibodies, although none has yet been shown to be disease-specific but, supporting an immune basis, recent evidence indicates that narcolepsy in children can be precipitated by one type of vaccination against the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic. PMID:27112685

  12. Studies of Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Oldham, John M; Maffei, Cesare; Gunderson, John; Chanen, Andrew M; Millon, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    The past 25 years have shown major advances in the studies of personality disorders. This collaborative article by the presidents, past and present, of ISSPD reflects on the progress within several significant areas of studies, i.e., assessment, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, advocacy, and...

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  14. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hari Charan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with normal development till 5 years of age followed by deterioration in previously acquired language and social skills with stereotypic hand movements suggestive of childhood disintegrative disorder. This case is reported as this condition is very rare.

  15. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  16. Difference or Disorder? Cultural Issues in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sparks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment, are biologically based disorders that currently rely on behaviorally defined criteria for diagnosis and treatment. Specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic frameworks and the point at which individual differences in behavior constitute abnormality…

  17. Treatment of comorbid anxiety disorders and personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arntz

    2014-01-01

    For a long time the diagnosis of personality disorder was associated with therapeutic pessimism: People with these problems were viewed as untreatable, due to fundamental character complications. Failures of anxiety disorder treatment tended to be labeled as "personality disorder". There is little e

  18. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W;

    2015-01-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological...

  19. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  20. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in the elderly To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep ...

  1. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Pancreas test Common Disorders of the Pancreas There are a variety of disorders of the ... the NPF Shop at our eStore The National Pancreas Foundation 3 Bethesda Metro Center Suite 700 Bethesda, ...

  2. Neuropsychopathological comorbidities in learning disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Margari, Lucia; Buttiglione, Maura; Craig, Francesco; Cristella, Arcangelo; de Giambattista, Concetta; Matera, Emilia; Operto, Francesca; Simone, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Background Learning Disorders (LD) are complex diseases that affect about 2-10% of the school-age population. We performed neuropsychological and psychopathological evaluation, in order to investigate comorbidity in children with LD. Methods Our sample consisted of 448 patients from 7 to 16 years of age with a diagnosis of LD, divided in two subgroups: Specific Learning Disorders (SLD), including reading, writing, mathematics disorders, and Learning Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (LD NOS)....

  3. Prophylactic treatment in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Eroğlu, Meliha Zengin; Özpoyraz, Nurgül; Tamam, Lut

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prophylactic treatment response and its relationship between clinical variables among the bipolar disorder patient group followed up in the Bipolar Disorder Unit of Psychiatry Department of Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine. Methods: One hundred patients, in euthymic period, diagnosed as bipolar disorder, were included in this study. “Affective Disorders Patient Registry Form” developed by our unit, SCID-I, Young Mani Rating Scale...

  4. The Genetics of Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Berrettini, Wade

    2004-01-01

    The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa traditionally have been viewed as sociocultural in origin. However, recent behavioral genetic findings suggest substantial genetic influence on these disorders. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infancy, but initial results are promising. This article reviews findings from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies that support substantial genetic influences on disordered eating and highlights additional areas fo...

  5. Clinical services for sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stores, G; Wiggs, L.

    1998-01-01

    Children's sleep disorders are common and often harmful to development and well being. The clinical services available to affected children and their families need to be improved. At present, professional interest and expertise in sleep disorders medicine is severely limited by the paucity of appropriate teaching and training. The work of a mainly tertiary sleep disorders clinic was reviewed, which showed that accurate diagnosis of a wide range of sleep disorders is possible...

  6. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bedriye Oncu; Direnc Sakarya

    2013-01-01

    Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders), ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal be...

  7. Neurobiology of Pediatric Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Patino, Luis R.; Doyle, Christopher D.; Picard, Lara S.; Phan, K. Luan

    2014-01-01

    While the fear-based anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and separation anxiety disorder) are among the most common psychiatric conditions in children and adolescents, only recently has an integrated understanding of the neurobiology of these disorders developed. In this regard, both structural and functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated neuroanatomic and functional abnormalities within the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in youth with fear-based anxi...

  8. LIFE EVENTS AND SOMATOFORM DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekhar, C.R.; Reddy, Venkataswamy; Isaac, Mohan K.

    1997-01-01

    Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES) was administered to 69 physically ill, 23 patients with somatoform disorders and 45 patients with psychiatric disorders other than somatoform disorders who sought medical help in primary health care settings. The 137 patients were cluster analysed in orderto obtain the patterns of distribution of 39 life events. Five clusters emerged. All the patients in cluster Vhad somatoform disorders and life events had a significant occurrence and discrimin...

  9. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozkan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male, who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia. Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Patients who had a history of sexual abuse were assessed with Sexual Abuse Severity Scale. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, agoraphobia, different panic attack symptoms, sexual abuse, and early onset of disorders. The rates of comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders were 80.3% and 33.9%, consecutively, in patients with panic disorder. Panic disorder patients with comorbid personality disorders had more severe anxiety, depression and agoraphobia symptoms, and had earlier ages of onset, and lower levels of functioning. The rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 34.8% and 9.8%, consecutively, in subjects with panic disorder. The rate of patients with panic disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse was 12.5%. The predictor of sexual abuse was more than one comorbid Axis II diagnosis. The predictors of suicide attempt were comorbid paranoid and borderline personality disorders, and the predictor of suicidal ideation was major depressive disorder in subjects with panic disorder. In conclusion, this study documents that comorbid personality disorders increase the clinical severity of panic disorder. Patients with more than one

  10. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  11. Knowledge About Recommended Treatment and Management of Major Depressive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Family Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    KATERNDAHL, DAVID; Ferrer, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been raised about whether primary care physicians appropriately manage mental disorders. We assessed family physicians' knowledge of appropriate management of major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

  12. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The e

  13. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments and Therapies Join a Study Learn More Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Definition Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, ... page for more information. Share Science News About Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) CBT Boosts SSRI for OCD NIMH Hosts ...

  15. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were conceptualiz

  16. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  17. CATATONIA IN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadheesan, K.; Nizamie, Haque S.; Thakur, Anupam

    2002-01-01

    Catatonia occurs in a wide range of neuropsychiatric conditions. Among the psychiatric disorders, occurrence of catatonia has rarely been documented in obsessive-complsive disorder. Given the paucity of reports, we report two cases of obsessive compulsive disorder that presented as catatonia.

  18. [Comorbidity of eating disorders and bipolar affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Katarzyna; Rybakowski, Filip

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders--anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) occur usually in young females. The significant pathogenic differences between patients who only restrict food, and patients with binge eating and compensatory behaviours, such as vomiting and purging were described. The prevalence of bipolar affective disorders--especially bipolar II and bipolar spectrum disorders (BS) may reach 5% in the general population. About half of the depressive episodes are associated with a "mild" bipolar disorder, and such a diagnosis is suggested by impulsivity and mood-instability. Previously, majority of research on the comorbidity between eating and affective disorders focused on depressive symptomatology, however difficulties in the reliable assessment of hypomania may obfuscate the estimation of the co-occurrence of eating disorders with BS. Epidemiological studies suggest the association between BS and eating disorders with binge episodes (bulimia nervosa, anorexia- bulimic type and EDNOS with binge episodes). Co-occurrence of such disorders with depressive symptoms probably suggests the diagnosis of BS, not recurrent depression. Bulimic behaviours, impulsivity and affective disorders might be related to the impairment of the serotonergic neurotransmission, which may result from the genetic vulnerability and early life trauma. Currently, the first-line pharmacological treatment of co-occurring eating disorders with binge episodes and BS are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However in some cases, the use of mood-stabilising agents as monotherapy or in combination with serotonergic drugs may be helpful. PMID:17037812

  19. Are impulse-control disorders related to bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, S L; Pope, H G; Keck, P E; Hudson, J I; Phillips, K A; Strakowski, S M

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed available evidence regarding a possible relationship between impulse-control disorders (ICDs) and bipolar disorder. Studies examining the phenomenology, course, comorbidity, family history, biology, and treatment response of ICDs were compared with similar studies of bipolar disorder. Although no studies directly compare a cohort of ICD patients with a cohort of mood disorder patients, available data suggest that ICDs and bipolar disorder share a number of features: (1) phenomenologic similarities, including harmful, dangerous, or pleasurable behaviors, impulsivity, and similar affective symptoms and dysregulation; (2) onset in adolescence or early adulthood and episodic and/or chronic course; (3) high comorbidity with one another and similar comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders; (4) elevated familial rates of mood disorder; (5) possible abnormalities in central serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission; and (6) response to mood stabilizers and antidepressants. However, ICDs and bipolar disorder differ in important respects. In particular, some ICDs may be more closely related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) than is bipolar disorder. Although the similarities between ICDs and bipolar disorder may be coincidental, they suggest that the two conditions may be related and thus may share at least one common pathophysiologic abnormality. To explain this possible relationship, we hypothesize that impulsivity and bipolarity (or mania) are related, that compulsivity and unipolarity (or depression) are similarly related, and that each state may represent opposing poles of related, or even a single, psychological dimension. PMID:8826686

  20. Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Jennifer A; Hollander, Eric

    2006-05-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is classified as an anxiety disorder in the DSM-IV-TR [American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fourth ed., rev. Washington, DC: Author]; however, the notion of a spectrum of obsessive-compulsive (OC) related disorders that is comprised of such disparate disorders as OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, certain eating disorders, pathological gambling, and autism, is gaining acceptance. The fact that these disorders share obsessive-compulsive features and evidence similarities in patient characteristics, course, comorbidity, neurobiology, and treatment response raises the question of whether OCD is best conceptualized as an anxiety or an OC spectrum disorder. This article reviews evidence from comorbidity and family studies, as well as biological evidence related to neurocircuitry, neurotransmitter function, and pharmacologic treatment response that bear on this question. The implications of removing OCD from the anxiety disorders category and moving it to an OC spectrum disorders category, as is being proposed for the DSM-V, is discussed. PMID:16455175

  1. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder and substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Walsh, Emily; Rosenstein, Lia; Zimmerman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are disabling and life-threatening conditions. Both disorders share relevant comorbidities, particularly the risk of having a lifetime substance use disorder (SUD). We tested the hypothesis that patients with both BD type I (BDI) or II (BDII) and BPD would have a higher rate of SUD than would patients with either disorder alone. A total of 3651 psychiatric patients were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, axis I and II disorders. A total of 63 patients were diagnosed with both BD and BPD, and these patients were significantly more likely to have a SUD compared with BDII patients without BPD (76% vs. 50%, χ = 9.69, p disorders increased the risk of having a SUD especially when compared with BDII alone. PMID:25494335

  2. BIPOLAR DISORDER IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Jaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness, which may require life-long treatment. Patients will spend 3-5 times more days in the depressed episode then in the manic phase. Due to this variability in episodes, polypharmacy is used quite frequently in practice, though the evidence to do this remains quite limited. Many positive and negative outcomes can occur from this practice. Bipolar disorder is the 6th leading cause of disability in the developed world among those between the ages 15 and 44 years age groups. Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitter in the brain, and one of that strongly affects the person mood. Clozapine (clozaril, olanzapine (zyperexa, risperidone (Risperdal, and ziprasidone (zeldox and the clozapine may be helpful as mood stabilizer for people who do not respond to lithium and anticonvulsant.

  3. Polymers in disordered environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Blavatska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of our recent studies aiming at a better understanding of the scaling behaviour of polymers in disordered environments is given. The main emphasis is on a simple generic model where the polymers are represented by (interacting self-avoiding walks and the disordered environment by critical percolation clusters. The scaling behaviour of the number of conformations and their average spatial extent as a function of the number of monomers and the associated critical exponents γ and ν are examined with two complementary approaches: numerical chain-growth computer simulations using the PERM algorithm and complete enumerations of all possible polymer conformations employing a recently developed very efficient exact counting method.

  4. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  5. Hematological and vascular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous blood-related disorders will demonstrate skeletal alterations. These include various anemias, leukemias, lymphomas, and clotting-deficient diseases (hemophilia). Of all the various types of anemias only those that are chronic and severe will result in radiographically visible osseous changes. The skeletal alterations which are observed are invariably related to the direct effects on the bone marrow or are secondary to the inherent complications of the disease. The most notable osseous changes are seen in the congenital hemolytic anemias, especially thalassemia (Cooley's anemia), sickle cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Chronic iron deficiency anemia produces very minor skeletal changes, usually isolated to the skull. Leukemia demonstrates characteristic changes largely dependent on age. Hemophilia primarily alters joint function due to recurrent intraarticular hemorrhage. This chapter discusses blood-related disorders that affect the bones

  6. Myofascial Temporomandibular Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-de-Las-Penas, César; Svensson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have been discussed for more than 70 years without reaching consensus on causes, etiological factors, pathophysiology, or rationale management. Indeed, TMD pain remains an enigma and a diagnostic and management challenge for many clinicians. Perhaps the many and often conflicting views on TMD pain by different health care providers are routed in professional traditions, personal beliefs, experience, and clinical training. This review aims to provide an updated and critical discussion on what is known and supported by scientific evidence about myofascial TMD pain and which gaps there still may be in our understanding of this condition. It has not been the intention to make a systematic review on all aspects of TMD but rather to point out some of the more recent (and important) pieces of information that may help us to better appreciate TMD pain as a complex and multifaceted pain disorder manifested in the craniofacial system. PMID:26717949

  7. Endocannabinoids and Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Cota, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is known to exert regulatory control on essentially every aspect related to the search for, and the intake, metabolism and storage of calories, and consequently it represents a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and eating disorders. While the clinical use of the first generation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor blockers has been halted due to the psychiatric side effects that their use occasioned, recent research in animals and humans has provided new knowledge on the mechanisms of actions of the ECS in the regulation of eating behavior, energy balance, and metabolism. In this review, we discuss these recent advances and how they may allow targeting the ECS in a more specific and selective manner for the future development of therapies against obesity, metabolic syndrome, and eating disorders. PMID:26408168

  8. New described dermatological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Keseroglu, Havva Ozge; Kaya Akis, Havva

    2014-01-01

    Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are "circumferential skin creases Kunze type" and "unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome"; autoinflammatory diseases include "chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome," "pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome," and "pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH) syndrome"; tumors include "acquired reactive digital fibroma," "onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma," "infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma," and "acral histiocytic nodules"; unclassified disorders include "saurian papulosis," "symmetrical acrokeratoderma," "confetti-like macular atrophy," and "skin spicules," "erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans." PMID:25243162

  9. [Zinc and gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimura, Yasuki; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, affects immune responses, skin metabolism, hormone composition, and some sensory function, so that the deficiency presents various symptoms such as immunodeficiency and taste obstacle. Further, the zinc deficiency also considers as a risk of various diseases. Recent reports demonstrated that -20% of the Japanese population was marginally zinc deficiency, and over 25% of the global population is at high risk of zinc deficiency. In gastrointestinal disorders, zinc plays an important role in the healing of mucosal and epithelial damage. In fact, polaprezinc, a chelate compound of zinc and L-carnosine, has been used for the treatment of gastric ulcer and gastritis. We describe here the therapeutic effect of zinc on gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27455800

  10. Eating Disorders: About More Than Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders? Where can I find more information? Share Eating Disorders: About More Than Food Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What are eating disorders? The eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and ...

  11. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychothera...

  12. Ghrelin and Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Donzelli Fabbri; Sophie Deram; Daniel Shikanai Kerr; Táki Athanássios Cordás

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED), particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and LILACS databases u...

  13. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purp...

  14. Electroencephalography in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera1,21Behavioral Sciences Institute, 2Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main...

  15. Panic Disorder or Spasmophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author describes a case in which a 30 year- old female patient presents with sudden and unexpected episodes of paresthesias, sensations of shortness of breath and choking, dysarthria and carpal spasm which can easily be mistaken for Panic Disorder. A theoretical dissection on the issue of Spasmophilia and its possible connection with Panic Attacks is followed by a discussion of the differential diagnosis regarding the clinical case.

  16. Disordered Quantum smectics

    OpenAIRE

    Orignac, E.; R. Chitra

    2002-01-01

    We study the impurity pinning of the Quantum Hall (QH) smectic state arising in two dimensional electron systems in high Landau levels. We use replicas and a Gaussian Variational method to deal with the disorder. The pinned quantum smectic exhibits very anisotropic behaviour, with density correlations along the direction of the stripes manifesting a Bragg-Glass type behaviour i.e., quasi long range order whereas those in the transverse direction are infra red divergent. We calculate the dynam...

  17. Polymers in Fractal Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fricke, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a numerical investigation of self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on percolation clusters, a canonical model for polymers in disordered media. A new algorithm has been developed allowing exact enumeration of over ten thousand steps. This is an increase of several orders of magnitude compared to previously existing enumeration methods, which allow for barely more than forty steps. Such an increase is achieved by exploiting the fractal structure of critical percolation clusters: they a...

  18. Disordered graphene Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2014-01-01

    A tight-binding approach based on the Chebyshev-Bogoliubov-de Gennes method is used to describe disordered single-layer graphene Josephson junctions. Scattering by vacancies, ripples or charged impurities is included. We compute the Josephson current and investigate the nature of multiple Andreev reflections, which induce bound states appearing as peaks in the density of states for energies below the superconducting gap. In the presence of single atom vacancies, we observe a strong suppressio...

  19. Disability, Disorder, and Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organizations International Classification of Diseases is the most important diagnostic tool, worldwide, to ensure that people with intellectual and developmental disabilities receive the supports they need to live richer, fuller lives. And yet, the ICD has naming conventions that create a conundrum for the field, requiring that all “conditions” in the ICD be named as a “disorder.” This article discusses the effect of naming on how people with intellectual disability are perc...

  20. Personality and psychotic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Boyette, L.L.N.J.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the current thesis is the contribution of normal personality traits as conceptualized by the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) to the manifestation of illness in patients with psychotic disorders. These studies were part of the Dutch national Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. The main objective of this thesis was to examine whether normal personality traits as conceptualized by the FFM contribute to the vast heterogeneity found in expression of psychotic...

  1. Coma and related disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Habbal, Dina; Laureys, Steven; Gosseries, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of consciousness represent a major challenge in clinical practice. The last decade of neuroscience research brought new insights about brain function and neural correlates of these pathological states of consciousness. Although behavioural evaluation still remains the gold standard, conscious behaviours are too often missed, leading to unwanted grey zones between conscious and unconscious patients. In order to increase the chances of detecting the signs of consci...

  2. Voice disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S D; Smith, M E; Schneider, H

    1996-12-01

    Pediatric patients with voice or speech problems usually should receive a team assessment in which communication between the pediatrician or primary care physician, the otolaryngologist, and speech pathologist occurs. Although speech or voice problems may prompt an otolaryngologic evaluation, the voice or speech problem simply may be the manifestation or symptom of a larger or more complex disease process. Whether that is the case of hypernasal speech, eventually leading to the diagnosis of velocardiofacial syndrome, or bilateral vocal fold paralysis, eventually leading to the diagnosis of hydrocephalus, it is apparent that patients with speech or voice disorders may eventually require multidisciplinary evaluation. The outlook for children with speech and voice difficulties is better than ever. Recent equipment advances, such as flexible laryngoscopy, video stroboscopy, and nasometry, for detection, evaluation, and management of speech problems have created a better environment than ever existed for care of these problems. Much research is being performed in the area of pediatric voice and speech problems. The National Institute of Deafness and Communicative Disorders and the National Institute of Dental Research have funded and currently fund many projects in these areas. Many pediatric hospitals now have voice or speech disorder clinics in which multiple disciplines are brought together to evaluate children with these problems. Children benefit best when speech and voice problems are managed in an interdisciplinary setting when necessary and by professionals who have experience and training in these specialized pediatric problems. Given the local, professional, and national resources that are expended toward recognition and treatment of speech disorders in children, it is truly a tragedy when those resources cannot be brought to assist children with voice and speech problems. Although voice and speech problems usually are recognized by parents or concerned family

  3. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Jean-Christophe Gris; Benjamin Brenner

    2014-01-01

    The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking ...

  4. Psychopathy, adaptation, and disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Brian Krupp; Sewall, Lindsay A.; Martin L. Lalumière; Craig eSheriff; Grant eHarris

    2013-01-01

    In a recent study, we found a negative association between psychopathy and violence against genetic relatives. We interpreted this result as a form of nepotism and argued that it failed to support the hypothesis that psychopathy is a mental disorder, suggesting instead that it supports the hypothesis that psychopathy is an evolved life history strategy. This interpretation and subsequent arguments have been challenged in a number of ways. Here, we identify several misunderstandings regarding ...

  5. Diamagnetism in disordered graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Koshino, Mikito; Ando, Tsuneya

    2007-01-01

    The orbital magnetism is studied in graphene monolayer within the effective mass approximation. In models of short-range and long-range disorder, the magnetization is calculated with self-consistent Born approximation. In the zero-field limit, the susceptibility becomes highly diamagnetic around zero energy, while it has a long tail proportional to the inverse of the Fermi energy. We demonstrated how the magnetic oscillation vanishes and converges to the susceptibility, on going from a strong...

  6. Diabetes and Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Goebel-Fabbri, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of insulin restriction is an important women's health issue in type 1 diabetes. This behavior is associated with increased rates of diabetes complications and decreased quality of life. Clinical and technological research is greatly needed to improve treatment tools and strategies for this problem. In this commentary, the author describes the scope of the problem of eating disorders and diabetes, as well as offers ideas about ways technology may be applied to help solve this compl...

  7. Body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, D

    2004-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a preoccupation with an "imagined" defect in one's appearance. Alternatively, where there is a slight physical anomaly, then the person's concern is markedly excessive. The preoccupation is associated with many time consuming rituals such as mirror gazing or constant comparing. BDD patients have a distorted body image, which may be associated with bullying or abuse during childhood or adolescence. Such patients have a poor quality of life, are soci...

  8. Postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, G.E.; Stewart, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum blues, postpartum neurotic depression and puerperal psychoses have distinct clinical features; they affect women in all social classes and in all cultures, and despite numerous studies they have not been linked definitively with any biologic or psychosocial variables. The only possible exception is puerperal psychosis, which emerges much more often in women with a personal or family history of a bipolar affective disorder than in women without, a finding that probably explains the ...

  9. Treatment of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Geddes, John R.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in t...

  10. Brain Imaging in Gambling Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Quester, Saskia; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Gambling disorder recently was reclassified under the category “substance-related and addictive disorders.” With regard to the diagnostic criteria, it overlaps a great deal with substance use disorder, i.e., loss of control, craving/withdrawal, and neglect of other areas of life. However, the gambling disorder symptom “chasing one’s losses” is the only criterion absent from substance use disorder. Therefore, special forms of reward (i.e., gain/loss) processing, such as the processing of loss ...

  11. Nonepileptic paroxysmal sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, Eric; Guilleminault, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Events occurring during nighttime sleep in children can be easily mislabeled, as witnesses are usually not immediately available. Even when observers are present, description of the events can be sketchy, as these individuals are frequently aroused from their own sleep. Errors of perception are thus common and can lead to diagnosis of epilepsy where other sleep-related conditions are present, sometimes initiating unnecessary therapeutic interventions, especially with antiepileptic drugs. Often not acknowledged, paroxysmal nonepileptic behavioral and motor episodes in sleep are encountered much more frequently than their epileptic counterpart. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) 2nd edition displays an extensive list of such conditions that can be readily mistaken for epilepsy. The most prevalent ones are reviewed, such as nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias, comprised of sleepwalking, confusional arousals and sleep terrors, periodic leg movements of sleep, repetitive movement disorders, benign neonatal myoclonus, and sleep starts. Apnea of prematurity is also briefly reviewed. Specific issues regarding management of these selected disorders, both for diagnostic consideration and for therapeutic intervention, are addressed. PMID:23622294

  12. Inherited mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Though inherited mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are most well known for their syndromic forms, for which widely known acronyms (MELAS, MERRF, NARP, LHON etc.) have been coined, the vast majority of inherited MIDs presents in a non-syndromic form. Since MIDs are most frequently multisystem disorders already at onset or during the disease course, a MID should be suspected if there is a combination of neurological and non-neurological abnormalities. Neurological abnormalities occurring as a part of a MID include stroke-like episodes, epilepsy, migraine-like headache, movement disorders, cerebellar ataxia, visual impairment, encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, dementia, psychosis, hypopituitarism, aneurysms, or peripheral nervous system disease, such as myopathy, neuropathy, or neuronopathy. Non-neurological manifestations concern the ears, the endocrine organs, the heart, the gastrointestinal tract, the kidneys, the bone marrow, and the skin. Whenever there is an unexplained combination of neurological and non-neurological disease in a patient or kindred, a MID should be suspected and appropriate diagnostic measures initiated. Genetic testing should be guided by the phenotype, the biopsy findings, and the biochemical results. PMID:22399423

  13. REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, L; Zucconi, M

    2000-09-01

    REM sleep is the stage associated with vivid dream mentation, desynchronous cortical EEG, and atonia of antigravitary muscles. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by the intermittent loss of REM sleep atonia and by the appearance of elaborate motor activity associated with dream mentation. The animal model of REM sleep without atonia indicates that lesions to the perilocus coeruleus disrupt the excitatory connection to the nucleus reticularis magnocellularis in the descending medullary reticular formation and disable the hyperpolarization of the alpha spinal motoneurons. Extensive neurologic evaluations in humans suffering from both idiopathic and symptomatic forms have not identified specific lesions; however, findings in some patients suggest that diffuse lesions of the hemispheres, bilateral thalamic abnormalities, or primary brain-stem lesions may result in the RBD. Symptomatic RBD cases are associated with several neurologic disorders such as dementia, cerebrovascular diseases, multiple sclerosis, brain-stem neoplasm. RBD has been often documented to precede or to co-occur with neurodegenerative disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Most importantly, RBD is readily diagnosable and treatable. Patients and their bed partners usually report immediate improvement in sleep-related motor behavior with small doses of clonazepam. PMID:10996567

  14. Coprophagia in neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Parisi, Joseph E; Lapid, Maria I

    2016-05-01

    We report on the unusual behavior of coprophagia (eating one's own feces) in neurologic disorders. The Mayo Clinic Health Sciences-computerized clinical database was queried for all patients evaluated at our institution between 1995 and 2015 in which coprophagia was documented in the medical records. Twenty-six patients were identified of which 17 had coprophagia. Of the 17 patients, five were excluded due to age at onset less than 10 years, leaving 12 adult patients for this study. The median age at onset of coprophagia in the 12 patients was 55 years (range 20-88 years), and half were female. Additional behaviors were common including scatolia (fecal smearing), hypersexuality, aggression, and pica (eating objects of any kind). Coprophagia was associated with neurodegenerative dementia in six patients, developmental delay in two, and one each with seizures, steroid psychosis, frontal lobe tumor, and schizoaffective disorder. Brain imaging in the six patients with dementia showed moderate-to-severe medial temporal lobe atrophy, as well as mild frontal lobe atrophy. Autopsy examination was performed in one patient and revealed frontotemporal lobar degeneration pathology. Many different behavioral and pharmacologic therapies were implemented, yet only haloperidol was associated with discontinuation of the behavior. Coprophagia is associated with different neurologic disorders, particularly neurodegenerative dementias. The behavior may be related to medial temporal lobe atrophy, similar to the Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Haloperidol appears to be effective in treating the behavior, at least in some patients. PMID:27017341

  15. Obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

    2014-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common heterogeneous psychiatric disorder manifesting with obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are intrusive, recurrent, and persistent unwanted thoughts. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to the obsessions. The heterogeneity of OCD includes themes of obsessions, types of rituals, presence or absence of tics, etiology, genetics, and response to pharmacotherapy. Complications of OCD include interpersonal difficulties, unemployment, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and physical injuries. Areas of the brain involved in the pathophysiology include the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and basal ganglia. Overall, OCD may be due to a malfunction in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit in the brain. Neurotransmitters implicated in OCD include serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. Numerous drugs such as atypical antipsychotics and dopaminergic agents can cause or exacerbate OCD symptoms. The etiology includes genetics and neurological insults. Treatment of OCD includes psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic simulation, and in extreme cases surgery. Exposure and response prevention is the most effective form of psychotherapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the preferred pharmacotherapy. Higher doses than listed in the package insert and a longer trial are often needed for SSRIs than compared to other psychiatric disorders. Alternatives to SSRIs include clomipramine and serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Treatment of resistant cases includes augmentation with atypical antipsychotics, pindolol, buspirone, and glutamate-blocking agents. PMID:24576790

  16. Pharmacotherapy of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B Pull

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Charles B Pull1, Cristian Damsa21Department of Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, Luxembourg; 2Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Investigation Program, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, USAAbstract: Panic disorder (PD is a common, persistent and disabling mental disorder. It is often associated with agoraphobia. The present article reviews the current status of pharmacotherapy for PD with or without agoraphobia as well as the current status of treatments combing pharmacotherapy with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT. The review has been written with a focus on randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and reviews that have been published over the past few years. Effective pharmacological treatments include tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and various benzodiazepines. Treatment results obtained with CBT compare well with pharmacotherapy, with evidence that CBT is at least as effective as pharmacotherapy. Combining pharmacotherapy with CBT has been found to be superior to antidepressant pharmacotherapy or CBT alone, but only in the acute-phase treatment. Long term studies on treatments combining pharmacotherapy and CBT for PD with or without agoraphobia have found little benefit, however, for combination therapies versus monotherapies. New investigations explore the potential additional value of sequential versus concomitant treatments, of cognitive enhancers and virtual reality exposure therapy, and of education, self management and Internet-based interventions.Keywords: Panic disorder, agoraphobia, pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, combination treatments.

  17. Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Hoffmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of autoantibodies targeting the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R, which causes neurological and psychiatric symptoms, has reinvigorated the hypothesis that other patient subgroups may also suffer from an underlying autoimmune condition. In recent years, a wide range of neuropsychiatric diseases and autoantibodies targeting ion-channels or neuronal receptors including NMDA-R, voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC complex, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA-R and dopamine receptor (DR were studied and conflicting reports have been published regarding the seroprevalence of these autoantibodies. A clear causative role of autoantibodies on psychiatric symptoms has as yet only been shown for the NMDA-R. Several other autoantibodies have been related to the presence of certain symptoms and antibody effector mechanisms have been proposed. However, extensive clinical studies with large multicenter efforts to standardize diagnostic procedures for autoimmune etiology and animal studies are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of these autoantibodies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of neuronal autoantibodies in the major neuropsychiatric disorders: psychotic, major depression, autism spectrum, obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders.

  18. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrikson, Mats; Faria, Vanda

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to evaluate neurofunctional and neurochemical alterations related to the generation and control of affect in patients with anxiety disorders are reviewed. We performed a meta-analysis of symptom provocation studies, where neural activity was measured using fMRI, PET or SPECT to test the hypothesis that prefrontal regions modulate amygdala activity. Data revealed that reactivity in the amygdala was enhanced in patients with phobia as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was activated in concert with the amygdala, both in PTSD and in phobic states, suggesting a role in fear expression, rather than emotional control. Activity in emotion-regulating areas in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex including the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and the medial orbitofrontal cortex was compromised in the symptomatic state in PTSD and phobic disorders, respectively. Increased amygdala reactivity was restored with psychological treatment. Treatment effects across different modalities including pharmacological and psychological interventions as well as with placebo regimens support that reduction of neural activity in the amygdala may be a final common pathway for successful therapeutic interventions irrespective of method, thereby linking neurotransmission to plasticity in a pivotal node of the core fear network of the brain. PMID:25225017

  19. Hypnotherapy for Esophageal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Megan E; Keefer, Laurie

    2015-07-01

    Hypnotherapy is an evidence based intervention for the treatment of functional bowel disorders, particularly irritable bowel syndrome. While similar in pathophysiology, less is known about the utility of hypnotherapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal disorders, most of which are functional in nature, cause painful and uncomfortable symptoms that impact patient quality of life and are difficult to treat from a medical perspective. After a thorough medical workup and a failed trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy, options for treatment are significantly limited. While the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial, two critical factors are believed to drive esophageal symptoms--visceral hypersensitivity and symptom hypervigilance. The goal of esophageal directed hypnotherapy is to promote a deep state of relaxation with focused attention allowing the patient to learn to modulate physiological sensations and symptoms that are not easily addressed with conventional medical intervention. Currently, the use of hypnosis is suitable for dysphagia, globus, functional chest pain/non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia, and functional heartburn. In this article the authors will provide a rationale for the use of hypnosis in these disorders, presenting the science whenever available, describing their approach with these patients, and sharing a case study representing a successful outcome. PMID:26046715

  20. Major Depressive Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Do the Sexual Dysfunctions Differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kendurkar, Arvind; Kaur, Brinder

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are known to have significant impact on sexual functioning. They have been studied individually. Therefore, this study was planned to compare the sexual dysfunction between MDD, OCD, and GAD with healthy subjects as controls.

  1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Porgali Zayman

    2016-01-01

    There have been some changes of the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in DSM-V in terms of its classification and description. First of all, it has been suggested that the disorder should be out of a lower cap of the anxiety disorders and with DSM-5 a new heading has become an issue like obsessive compulsive disorder and related disorders. The ones that suggest the obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders fundamentally assume that the obsessive compulsive disorder and the disorders defined as rel...

  2. Nontraumatic disorders of the clavicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Rodney K; Sauser, Donald D

    2006-04-01

    Other than those resulting from trauma and arthritis, disorders of the clavicle are uncommon. Some nontraumatic disorders are found only in infancy and childhood, such as birth fracture, infantile cortical hyperostosis, congenital pseudarthrosis, cleidocranial dysplasia, and short clavicle syndrome. Other nontraumatic disorders occur in both children and adults; these include anterior subluxation of the sternoclavicular joint, Friedrich's disease, hypertrophic osteitis, chronic multifocal periosteitis and arthropathy, and osteomyelitis. Some nontraumatic clavicular disorders are found only in adults, such as distal osteolysis. Because the description and nomenclature of these disorders arise from several medical disciplines, they often are confusing. Until clear, distinguishing features are described, it is advisable to combine some of the entities. This is especially true of the nonsuppurative inflammatory disorders of the clavicle, which appear to fall under the heading of spondyloarthropathy. Treatment varies by disorder and may include symptomatic and expectant management, drug therapy, and nonsurgical or surgical treatment. PMID:16585362

  3. Panic disorder and exercise avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo W. Muotri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To identify whether patients with panic disorder in general and those with the respiratory subtype in particular actively avoid exercise; 2 to investigate physiological differences in cardiopulmonary function parameters in patients with panic disorder in general, patients with the respiratory subtype of panic disorder, and healthy controls upon exercise challenge. Methods: Patients with panic disorder were classified as having either the respiratory or the non-respiratory subtype. Both groups were compared to controls in terms of exercise avoidance patterns and performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results: Patients with panic disorder exhibited higher exercise avoidance scores and worse performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing as compared with controls. No differences were found between patients with the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes. Conclusions: Exercise avoidance is present in panic disorder and is associated with poorer performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. These findings are not limited to patients with the respiratory subtype of the disorder.

  4. Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  5. Functional neuroimaging of sleep disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep disorders may affect the health and normal life of human badly. However, the pathophysiology underlying adult sleep disorders is still unclear. Functional neuroimaging can be used to investigate whether sleep disorders are associated with specific changes in brain structure or regional activity. This paper reviews functional brain imaging findings in major intrinsic sleep disorders (i.e., idiopathic insomnia, narcolepsy, and obstructive sleep apnea) and in abnormal motor behavior during sleep (i.e., periodic limb movement disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder). Metabolic/functional investigations (positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging) are mainly reviewed, as well as neuroanatomical assessments (voxel-based morphometry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Meanwhile, here are some brief introduction of different kinds of sleep disorders. (authors)

  6. Disordered hyperuniform heterogeneous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-10-19

    Disordered hyperuniform many-body systems are distinguishable states of matter that lie between a crystal and liquid: they are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These systems play a vital role in a number of fundamental and applied problems: glass formation, jamming, rigidity, photonic and electronic band structure, localization of waves and excitations, self-organization, fluid dynamics, quantum systems, and pure mathematics. Much of what we know theoretically about disordered hyperuniform states of matter involves many-particle systems. In this paper, we derive new rigorous criteria that disordered hyperuniform two-phase heterogeneous materials must obey and explore their consequences. Two-phase heterogeneous media are ubiquitous; examples include composites and porous media, biological media, foams, polymer blends, granular media, cellular solids, and colloids. We begin by obtaining some results that apply to hyperuniform two-phase media in which one phase is a sphere packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space [Formula: see text]. Among other results, we rigorously establish the requirements for packings of spheres of different sizes to be 'multihyperuniform'. We then consider hyperuniformity for general two-phase media in [Formula: see text]. Here we apply realizability conditions for an autocovariance function and its associated spectral density of a two-phase medium, and then incorporate hyperuniformity as a constraint in order to derive new conditions. We show that some functional forms can immediately be eliminated from consideration and identify other forms that are allowable. Specific examples and counterexamples are described. Contact is made with well-known microstructural models (e.g. overlapping spheres and checkerboards) as well as irregular phase-separation and Turing-type patterns. We also ascertain a family

  7. An investigation of Goodman's addictive disorder criteria in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Mario; Revah-Levy, Anne; Giquel, Ludovic; Loas, Gwenolé; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Jeammet, Philippe; Corcos, Maurice

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how far Goodman's addictive disorder criteria were met by individuals with eating disorders according to subtypes. The study provided a cross-sectional comparison among three samples of eating disorders [restricting anorexia nervosa (R-AN), N = 68; purging anorexia nervosa (P-AN), N = 42; and bulimia nervosa (BN), N = 66], a sample of substance-related disorders (SRDs, N = 48) and a sample of matched controls (N = 201). Diagnosis of addictive disorder was made following Goodman's criteria. Addictive personality traits were assessed with the Addiction Potential Scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 and with the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale. Results showed that individuals with BN met Goodman's addictive disorder criteria in the same proportion as drug-addicted individuals (65% vs 60%, p = NS). They both showed higher rates than R-AN individuals (35%; R-AN versus BN: F = 11.9, p addictive disorders compared with P-AN, differences were not significant. Scores on the Sensation Seeking and on the Addictive Potential scales paralleled the distribution of addictive disorders, with individuals with BN and with P-AN showing higher levels than individuals with R-AN. Results showed that a subgroup of individuals with an eating disorder experiences their disorder as an addiction and may deserve specific therapeutic attention. PMID:21834026

  8. Counseling the Conduct-Disordered Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Cindy

    Conduct disorder (CD), primarily a childhood disorder, is associated with oppositional defiance disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Differentiating between the disorders requires a preview of the intensity of the disorder. There are many approaches to treating CD. The traditional approach has been psychoanalytically oriented…

  9. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Guide for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is one of a group of behavioral disorders called disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). These disorders are called this because children who have these disorders tend to disrupt those around them. ODD is one of the more common mental health disorders found in children and adolescents. This paper discusses the…

  10. Which Neurodevelopmental Disorders Get Researched and Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: There are substantial differences in the amount of research concerned with different disorders. This paper considers why. Methods: Bibliographic searches were conducted to identify publications (1985–2009) concerned with 35 neurodevelopmental disorders: Developmental dyslexia, Developmental dyscalculia, Developmental coordination disorder, Speech sound disorder, Specific language impairment, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autistic spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, In...

  11. [Antipsychotics in bipolar disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheron-Trystram, M-N; Braitman, A; Cheref, S; Auffray, L

    2004-01-01

    This article is a review of the various treatments that are currently available, in particular in France, for the treatment of bipolar disorders. This article specifically addresses the use of novel antipsychotic agents as alternative therapy to a lithium therapy and/or the use of conventional antipsychotics. The prevalence of bipolar disorder over a lifetime is around 1% of the general population. Bipolar disorder consists of alternating depressive and manic episodes. It mainly affects younger subjects, and is often associated with alcohol and drug addictions. There are two main subtypes of bipolar disorder. According to the DSM IV-R, type 1 of bipolar disorder is characterised when at least one manic episode (or a mixed episode) has been diagnosed. Type 2 of bipolar disorder is related to patients enduring recurrent depressive episodes but no manic episode. Type 2 affects women more frequently as opposed to type 1 affecting individuals of both sexes. Manic-depressive disorder (or cyclo-thymic disorder) appears in relation to patients who has never suffered manic episode, mixed episode or severe depressive episode but have undergone numerous periods with some symptoms of depression and hypomanic symptoms over a two-year period during which any asymptomatic periods last no longer than two months. The average age of the person going through a first episode (often a depressive one) is 20 years-old. Untreated bipolar patients may endure more than ten manic or depressive episodes. Finally, in relation to 10 to 20% of patients, the bipolar disorder will turn into a fast cycle form, either spontaneously or as a result of certain medical treatments. Psychiatrists are now able to initiate various treating strategies which are most likely to be effective as a result of the identification of clinical subtypes of the bipolar disorder. Lithium therapy has been effectively and acutely used for patients with pure or elated mania and its prophylaxis. However, lithium medication

  12. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research. PMID:26401297

  13. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Vieira, Karen F

    2008-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such noncompliant patients who

  14. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Karen F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such

  15. Mood disorders and substance use disorder: a complex comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quello, Susan B; Brady, Kathleen T; Sonne, Susan C

    2005-12-01

    Mood disorders, including depression and bipolar disorders, are the most common psychiatric comorbidities among patients with substance use disorders. Treating patients' co-occurring mood disorders may reduce their substance craving and taking and enhance their overall outcomes. A methodical, staged screening and assessment can ease the diagnostic challenge of distinguishing symptoms of affective disorders from manifestations of substance intoxication and withdrawal. Treatment should maximize the use of psychotherapeutic interventions and give first consideration to medications proven effective in the context of co-occurring substance abuse. Expanded communication and collaboration between substance abuse and mental health providers is crucial to improving outcomes for patients with these complex, difficult co-occurring disorders. PMID:18552741

  16. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...... for the first time, an acknowledgement to its debilitating nature. This article explores the overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders (SUD). METHODS: The bibliographic search was a computerized screen of PubMed databases from January 1990 to the present. Binge eating disorder, substance...... use disorder, binging, obesity, food addiction, comorbidity, dopamine, opioid, serotonin, glutamate, and pharmacological treatment were the keywords used in searching. RESULTS: BED shares similar phenomenology to SUD, including significant urges to engage in binging episodes, resulting in distress...

  17. Anomalies of Imagination and Disordered Self in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Andreas Christian Rosén; Parnas, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Vivid mental imagery occurs frequently in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Overlapping phenomena, such as obsessions or ruminations, are also frequent in other psychiatric disorders, raising significant diagnostic challenges. Unfortunately, contemporary operational psychopathology lacks t...... an important psychopathological aspect of the schizophrenia spectrum, with significant relevance for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis.......Vivid mental imagery occurs frequently in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Overlapping phenomena, such as obsessions or ruminations, are also frequent in other psychiatric disorders, raising significant diagnostic challenges. Unfortunately, contemporary operational psychopathology lacks the...... of 'irreality' of the fantasy may become compromised. We articulate these anomalies of imagination as being entailed by the underlying generative disorder of schizophrenia, namely the disorder of minimal self (unstable ipseity or first-person perspective). We propose that pathology of imagination is...

  18. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rash CJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carla J Rash,1 Jeremiah Weinstock,2 Ryan Van Patten2 1Calhoun Cardiology Center – Behavioral Health, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders” section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. Keywords: pathological gambling, problem gambling, behavioral addiction, transdiagnostic factors, addiction syndrome 

  19. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-01-01

    The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presen...

  20. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rash CJ; Weinstock J; Van Patten R

    2016-01-01

    Carla J Rash,1 Jeremiah Weinstock,2 Ryan Van Patten2 1Calhoun Cardiology Center – Behavioral Health, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders&r...

  1. Affective disorders in children and adolescents: The dysthymic disorder dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, S.; M. Moretti; Haley, G.; Marriage, K.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the use of psychiatric ratings and self-report information in distinguishing major depression and dysthymic disorders from each other and from other disorders. 60 adolescent psychiatry patients (mean age 13.05 yrs) completed the Children's Depression Scale and a children's depression inventory, and the results were compared with those from diagnostic interviews using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria. Findings suggest that diagnostic ratings...

  2. Bipolar and related disorders and depressive disorders in DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Łojko, Dorota; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Rybakowski, Janusz,

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, a version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), having number 5, was published. The DSM is a textbook which aims to present diagnostic criteria for each psychiatric disorder recognized by the U.S. healthcare system. The DSM-5 comprises the most updated diagnostic criteria of psychiatric disorders as well as their description, and provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about the patients. Diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5 have been popula...

  3. Mood Disorders Are Glial Disorders: Evidence from In Vivo Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten Mueller; Blasig, Ingolf E.; Johann Steiner; Hashim Abdul-Khaliq; Julia Sacher; Matthias L. Schroeter

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that mood disorders can be characterized by glial pathology as indicated by histopathological postmortem findings. Here, we review studies investigating the glial marker S100B in serum of patients with mood disorders. This protein might act as a growth and differentiation factor. It is located in, and may actively be released by, astro- and oligodendrocytes. Studies consistently show that S100B is elevated in mood disorders; more strongly in major depressive tha...

  4. Personality Disorders in Persons with Gender Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dragana Duišin; Borjanka Batinić; Jasmina Barišić; Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Svetlana Vujović; Marta Bizic

    2014-01-01

    Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID) have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs). Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth) heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The stud...

  5. Physiologic instability in panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, F H; Trabert, W.; Roth, W. T.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because panic attacks can be accompanied by surges in physiologic activation, we tested the hypothesis that panic disorder is characterized by fluctuations of physiologic variables in the absence of external triggers. METHODS: Sixteen patients with panic disorder, 15 with generalized anxiety disorder, and 19 normal control subjects were asked to sit quietly for 30 min. Electrodermal, cardiovascular, and respiratory measures were analyzed using complex demodulation to quantify vari...

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Stress Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Shalev, Arieh Y

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent anxiety disorder. PTSD typically follows a psychologically traumatic event, and thus has a recognizable point of onset. PTSD symptoms are present shortly after an exposure to a traumatic event, abate with time in the majority of those who initially express them, and leave a significant minority with chronic PTSD. PTSD may be treated with pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy. The treatment of the early expressions of disorder constitutes a separ...

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Borsari, Brian; Read, Jennifer P.; Campbell, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that many college students report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or substance use disorder (SUD), yet there has been scant attention paid to the co-occurrence of these disorders in college students. This review examines the co-occurrence of PTSD and SUD in college students. Recommendations for counseling centers are provided regarding the assessment of this population, an overview of treatment issues, and three areas of clinical importance when working with this popu...

  8. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey

    OpenAIRE

    Solano Paola; Mattei Chiara; Rizzato Salvatore; Fornaro Stefania; Albano Claudio; Gabrielli Filippo; Fornaro Michele; Vinciguerra Valentina; Fornaro Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders, since it is a pivotal issue in current c...

  9. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bi...

  10. [Hemorrhagic disorders in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, H

    1999-10-01

    When bleeding disorders coincide with pregnancy, they might be congenital or acquired diseases, if not arising as a more acute complication of the pregnancy itself. The paper gives a review of the most common bleeding disorders out of internal medical constellations. History taking is the most effective way to open the diagnostic approach. If childbearing is desired the couple in question should be counselled accordingly in collaboration with a hematologist. Some conditions might be unfavourable, e.g. hemophila in male offspring, others might be serious but manageable, as in v. Willebrand-Disease or autoimmunologic thrombocytopenic purpura. Prenatal invasive diagnostics with fetal blood sampling at an early stage of pregnancy may reduce the hazards for the baby insofar, as it allows the more precise estimation of fetal risks at birth. Cesarean section will not in all cases be the way of choice (e.g. in v. Willebrand-Disease), in others it might be the better way to deliver a fetus at risk in order to avoid intracranial hemorrhage (in severe cases of ITP). Always both, mother and fetus, are at risk, but almost in any cases in different shades and grades of severeness. There is rarely a firm correlation of the maternal and the fetal hemostatic parameters in cases of connatal or acquired hemorrhagic disorders. Pregnancy itself leads to a certain compensation of defects in clotting factors, since the synthesis of factors increase or they are circulating more in activated form. Pregnancy is a state of a silently ongoing intravascular coagulation at least in the uteroplacental circulation. From there it is linked with the general circulation of the maternal organism. When immunologic etiologies in thrombocytopenias play a role, there will always be the incalculable rate of placental transfer of antiplatelet-antibodies to the fetus. The entire field requires knowledge, counseling, collaboration and foresight. PMID:10549234

  11. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder. PMID

  12. Autophagy and neurodegenerative disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelia Kesidou; Roza Lagoudaki; Olga Touloumi; Kyriaki-Nefeli Poulatsidou; Constantina Simeonidou

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aberrant proteins and inclusion bodies are hallmarks in most neurodegenerative diseases. Consequently, these aggregates within neurons lead to toxic effects, overproduction of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Autophagy is a significant intracel ular mechanism that removes damaged organelles and misfolded proteins in order to maintain cel homeostasis. Excessive or insufficient autophagic activity in neurons leads to altered homeostasis and influences their survival rate, causing neurodegeneration. The review article provides an update of the role of autophagic process in representative chronic and acute neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. MRI in neuromuscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuromuscular disorders are caused by damage of the skeletal muscles or supplying nerves, in many cases due to a genetic defect, resulting in progressive disability, loss of ambulation and often a reduced life expectancy. Previously only supportive care and steroids were available as treatments, but several novel therapies are under development or in clinical trial phase. Muscle imaging can detect specific patterns of involvement and facilitate diagnosis and guide genetic testing. Quantitative MRT can be used to monitor disease progression either to monitor treatment or as a surrogate parameter for clinical trails. Novel imaging sequences can provide insights into disease pathology and muscle metabolism. (orig.)

  14. Eating disorders in midlife women: A perimenopausal eating disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D

    2016-03-01

    Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions. PMID:26857889

  15. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.

  16. Comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koyuncu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite high rates of reported comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity was not evaluated in these studies. Studies, investigating the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD comorbidity in social anxiety disorder are limited and little is known about it. The reason for this may be the fact that, ADHD have been seen as a childhood disease over a period of time. In the prospective studies ,it is reported that ADHD is often observed in the adulthood and effects persist . On the other hand, studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, higher rates of social anxiety disorder comorbidity have been reported. The presence of comorbid anxiety disorder increases the risk of impulsive feature in ADHD, causes problems in functionality, impaired compliance and resistance to the treatment. The aim of this article is to investigate the the status of social anxiety disorder and ADHD comorbidity and to discuss the hypothesis of antidepressant-associated hypomanic shift due to antidepressant treatment in social anxiety disorder patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 10-21

  17. Postmodern Stress Disorder (PMSD): A Possible New Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiser, Arnold R

    2015-11-01

    The murder of cardiovascular surgeon, Michael Davidson, MD, suggests the existence of a new disorder, postmodern stress disorder. This disorder is characterized by repetitive exposure to digital images of violence in a variety of electronic media, including films, television, video games, music videos, and other online sources. This disorder appears to be a variant of posttraumatic stress disorder, and shares with it excessive stimulation of the amygdala and loss of the normal inhibitory inputs from the orbitofrontal cingulate cortical gyrus. In postmodern stress disorder, repetitive digital microtraumas appear to have an effect similar to that of macrotraumas of warfare or civilian assaults. Other elements of the disorder include the development of fixed ideas of bullying or public shaming, access to weapons, and loss of impulse control. This syndrome could explain a number of previously inexplicable murders/suicides. Violence against health care professionals is a profound concern for the medical profession, as are assaults on nonclinicians. The recommendation is made to change forensic procedures to include obtaining historic information concerning the use of digital media during investigations of violent crimes and murders so that the disorder may be further characterized. Gaining an understanding of this disorder will require a multidisciplinary approach to this life-threatening public health problem. Research should also focus on the development and evaluation of possible antidotes to postmodern toxicities. PMID:26031889

  18. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Wolfgang; Ringling, Jutta; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Vogelgesang, Monika; Rösler, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent mental disorder with childhood onset and high persistence into adulthood. There is much evidence that ADHD increases the risk for the development of other psychiatric disorders and functional problems in several domains of everyday life. In this study, the association of ADHD with gambling disorder (GD) was investigated. 163 adult subjects suffering from GD were examined for childhood and current ADHD according to DSM-5 as well as co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Moreover, characteristics of gambling behavior have been evaluated. The prevalence of lifetime ADHD was 28.8 %, with 25.2 % of the study population presenting ADHD as a full syndrome according to DSM-5. The prevalence of co-morbid substance use disorders and adjustment disorders and cluster B personality disorders was higher in GD patients with current ADHD than in the group without. Also, an increased rate of suicide attempts was detected in gamblers with ADHD. In contrast with gamblers without ADHD, those with ADHD were reported to spend more time with gambling, a sedative effect of gambling and a faster development of GD. The high prevalence of ADHD in patients with GD indicates that childhood ADHD is a risk factor for the development of GD in later life. Moreover, treatment of patients with GD and ADHD is complicated by a high rate of co-morbid disorders. Regarding therapeutic approaches, it should be considered that functional aspects of gambling differ in GD patients with and without ADHD. PMID:27328979

  19. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  20. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  1. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  2. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. PMID:26581970

  3. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  4. [Mental disorders and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Rießland-Seifert, Angelika; Fasching, Peter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Toplak, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications. Improvement of therapeutic outcome is a challenge in the modern health care system. The intentions behind this position paper are to rise awareness of this special set of problems, to intensify cooperation between involved health care providers and to reduce incidence of diabetes mellitus as well as morbidity and mortality from diabetes in this patient group. PMID:27052238

  5. Recognizing body dysmorphic disorder (dysmorphophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anukriti Varma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial.This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder.

  6. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Anukriti; Rastogi, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. PMID:26644741

  7. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Gönül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.”

  8. [Neurological Disorders and Pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlit, P

    2016-02-01

    Neurological disorders caused by pregnancy and puerperium include the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, the amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES), the postpartum angiopathy due to reversible vasoconstriction syndrome, and the Sheehan syndrome. Hypertension and proteinuria are the hallmarks of preeclampsia, seizures define eclampsia. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets constitute the HELLP syndrome. Vision disturbances including cortical blindness occur in the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The Sheehan syndrome presents with panhypopituitarism post partum due to apoplexia of the pituitary gland in severe peripartal blood loss leading to longstanding hypotension. Some neurological disorders occur during pregnancy and puerperium with an increased frequency. These include stroke, sinus thrombosis, the restless legs syndrome and peripheral nerve syndromes, especially the carpal tunnel syndrome. Chronic neurologic diseases need an interdisciplinary approach during pregnancy. Some anticonvulsants double the risk of birth defects. The highest risk exists for valproic acid, the lowest for lamotrigine and levetiracetam. For MS interval treatment, glatiramer acetate and interferones seem to be safe during pregnancy. All other drugs should be avoided. PMID:26953551

  9. Neuromuscular junctional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, A S; Ashraf, V V

    2008-07-01

    Neuromuscular junctional disorders (NMJ) in children are distinct entity. They may be acquired or hereditary. They pose problem in diagnosis because of the higher occurrence of sero negative Myasthenia Gravis (MG) cases in children. The identity of MusK antibody positivity in a good percentage of sero negative cases further adds to problems in diagnosis. The Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome (CMS) which are rare disorders of hereditary neuromuscular transmission (NMT) has to be differentiated because immunotherapy has no benefit in this group. Molecular genetic studies of these diseases helps to identify specific type of CMS which is important as other drugs like Fluoxetine, Quinidine are found to be effective in some. In infancy, all can manifest as floppy infant syndrome. The important key to diagnosis is by detailed electrophysiological studies including repetitive nerve stimulation at slow and high rates and its response to anticholinesterases and estimation of Acetyl choline receptor antibodies. Other causes of neuromuscular transmission defects viz. snake venom poisoning and that due to drugs are discussed. PMID:18716738

  10. [Social Anxiety Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is not a rare psychiatric disorder, and the recent World Mental Health Japan Survey, Second (WMHJ2) reported the possibility that the twelve-month prevalence of SAD has increased from 0.7 to 2.3% over the last ten years. However, ten years have already passed since selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) were approved for the treatment of SAD in Japan, and not only laypersons but also mental health professionals still misunderstand SAD as public speech phobia. As a result, the boundary between normal shyness and SAD and threshold to start pharmacotherapy have been debated. Participants in most double-blind studies of SSRI were limited to those with a generalized subtype of SAD. While benzodiazepine led to a significantly more favorable response and symptom improvement and the effect size of benzodiazepine was larger than those of SSRI, it did not lead to a "cure" and is sometimes deleterious for atypical SAD patients. To sum up, a psychotherapeutic approach including cognitive behavioral therapy is suggested as first-line treatment for non-generalized SAD according to the NICE guidelines. On the other hand, patients with generalized SAD and secondary depression are still misunderstood (and under-recognized) as those with "treatment-resistant depression", and they suffer from severe impairment of the psycho-social function, including absences or withdrawal from working or schooling. They need more effective combination treatment of SSRI and cognitive behavioral therapy as generalized SAD patients. PMID:26524840

  11. Gait and balance disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach. PMID:27430451

  12. Nutritional and Pubertal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Calvo, M Teresa; Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Caloric-protein malnutrition can slow growth and cause pubertal delay. This chapter focuses on endocrine abnormalities and pubertal alterations in patients with eating disorders, childhood obesity, the female athlete triad and children cancer survivors. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit multiple endocrine abnormalities, including isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The delay in pubertal development and reduction in growth seen in AN patients may be a direct result of malnutrition. Appropriate psychiatric, nutritional and hormonal therapy is necessary. It is suggested that obesity during childhood can accelerate pubertal onset and these children usually exhibit accelerated linear growth during puberty. In girls the relationship between childhood obesity and early pubertal onset could be related to their insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia. The female athlete triad is often observed in physically active girls and women in whom low energy availability with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density can be present. In prepubertal girls excess exercise can cause delayed menarche with no effects on adult height, while in postpubertal females it results in menstrual cycle irregularities. The consequences of childhood cancer depend on the type of cancer, its location, the age at which the disease was diagnosed, the dose of radiotherapy, and the type and dose of chemotherapy. PMID:26680577

  13. Disorders of semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, R A; Warrington, E K

    1994-10-29

    It is now established that selective disorders of semantic memory may arise after focal cerebral lesions. Debate and dissension remain on three principal issues: category specificity, the status of modality-dependent knowledge, and the stability and sufficiency of stored information. Theories of category specificity have focused on the frequently reported dissociation between living things and man-made objects. However, other dimensions need theoretical integration. Impairments can be both finer-grain and broader in range. A second variable of importance is stimulus modality. Reciprocal interactive dissociations between vision and language and between animals and objects will be described. These indicate that the derivation of semantic information is constrained by input modality: we appear to have evolved separable databases for the visual and the verbal world. Thirdly, an orthogonal distinction has been drawn between degradation disorders, where representations are insufficient for comprehension, and access deficits, in which representations have become unstable. These issues may have their parallel in the acquisition of knowledge by the developing child. PMID:7886158

  14. Language acquisition in developmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, I review recent research into language acquisition in developmental disorders, and the light that these findings shed on the nature of language acquisition in typically developing children. Disorders considered include Specific Language Impairment, autism, Down syndrome, and Williams syndrome. I argue that disorders of language should be construed in terms of differences in the constraints that shape the learning process, rather than in terms of the normal system with compone...

  15. Sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry Alaa; Abo-Zenah Hamdy; Wafa Ehab; Mahmoud Khaled; El-Dahshan Khaled; Hassan Ahmed; Abbas Tarek; Saleh Abd El-Baset; Okasha Kamal

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep disorders is higher in patients with kidney failure than the general population. We studied the prevalence of sleep disorders in 88 (mean age; 41.59 ± 16.3 years) chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients at the Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura Uni-versity, Egypt over 4-month period. The investigated sleep disorders included insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), narcolepsy and sleep walk...

  16. Stroke and Disorders of Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Zikrija Dostović; Dževdet Smajlović; Ernestina Dostović; Omer Ć. Ibrahimagić

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the severity of stroke and mortality in relation to the type of disturbance of consciousness and outcome of patients with disorders of consciousness. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 201 patients. Assessment of disorders of consciousness is performed by Glasgow Coma Scale (Teasdale and Jennet, 1974) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Anonymous, 2000). The severity of stroke was determined by National Institutes of Health St...

  17. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight ef...

  18. Genetic determinants of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Slof-Op 't Landt, Margarita Cornelia Theodora

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, a series of studies on different aspects of the genetics of eating disorders is presented. The heritability of disordered eating behavior and attitudes in relation with body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in a large adolescent twin-family sample ascertained through the Netherlands Twin Registry. Furthermore, the association of four candidate genes with anorexia nervosa and eating disorders characterized by self-induced vomiting was tested in a female patient group from the Gen...

  19. Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Domine, F.; Dadoumont, C.; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key...

  20. Sleep disorders in psychiatric practice

    OpenAIRE

    Szelenberger, Waldemar; SOLDATOS, CONSTANTIN

    2005-01-01

    Over the last years, a large body of evidence has accumulated showing that complaints of disordered sleep are quite prevalent in the community. Insomnia is by far the most common disturbance and is often associated with concurrent psychiatric illness, in particular anxiety and mood disorders. On the other hand, sleep complaints are frequently present among psychiatric patients and have been incorporated in the official diagnostic criteria for many mental disorders, such as m...

  1. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Rejean; Beaudry, Paul

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of panic attacks and panic disorders have progressed markedly during the last decade. Unlike phobic disorders, the key feature of panic disorders is the many panic attacks that are mostly spontaneous or not caused by a particular situation. Recent studies linking its pathogenesis with lactate infusion tests are reviewed. For treatment, psychotherapy combined with in vivo exposure and pharmacotherapy is more efficacious than either treatment alone. In most cases, ps...

  2. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V;

    2015-01-01

    bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  3. Oxidative Stress and Psychological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Samina

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an imbalance between cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the counteracting antioxidant mechanisms. The brain with its high oxygen consumption and a lipid-rich environment is considered highly susceptible to oxidative stress or redox imbalances. Therefore, the fact that oxidative stress is implicated in several mental disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, is not surprising. Although several elegant studies have...

  4. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Kardum; Asmir Gračanin; Jasna Hudek-Knežević

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evoluti...

  5. Nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cottraux, Jean

    2002-01-01

    An evidence-based review of nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders is presented. The vast majority of the controlled research is devoted to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and shows its efficiency and effectiveness in all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in meta-analyses. Relaxation, psychoanalytic therapies, Rogerian nondirective therapy, hypnotherapy and supportive therapy were examined in a few controlled stu...

  6. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; R Porter; Moncrieff, J.; Ferrier, I. N.; Young, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  7. Neuronal Autophagy and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Hwang, Su-Kyung; Lee, Jin-A

    2013-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders include a wide range of diseases such as autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation. Mutations in several genes that regulate neural development and synapse function have been identified in neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, some affected genes and pathways in these diseases are associated with the autophagy pathway. Autophagy is a complex, bulky degradative process that involves the sequestration of cellular proteins, RNA, lipids, and cellular org...

  8. Occupational Neurological Disorders in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative d...

  9. Somatosensory processing in neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cascio, Carissa J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the role of somatosensory perception in typical development, its aberration in a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, and the potential relations between tactile processing abnormalities and central features of each disorder such as motor, communication, and social development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that represent a range of symptoms and etiologies, and for which multiple peer-reviewed articles on somatosensory differences have been published,...

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI; Seyyed Hossein FAKHRAEE; Sina MIRAFKHAMI; Mojtaba YOUSEFI; Mona VARZANDEH FAR

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD), that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association  (APA). DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantl...

  11. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and ...

  12. GENDER ROLE AND PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Klonsky, E. David; Jane, J. Serrita; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Many researchers have hypothesized relationships between personality disorders and gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity). However, research has not addressed if people who are masculine or feminine more often meet the criteria for personality disorders. The present study examined whether college students (N = 665, 60% women) higher in masculinity or femininity more often exhibited features of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. Feminine men exhibited more features of all the persona...

  13. Scientific attitudes towards bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu; Sahar Biglu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition that is also called manic-depressive disease. It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. In the present study, 3 sets of data were considered and analyzed: first, all papers categorized under Bipolar Disorders in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) database through 2001-2011; second, papers published by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in SCI-E d...

  14. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia)

    OpenAIRE

    Anukriti Varma; Rajesh Rastogi

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in...

  15. Modeling eating disorders of cognitive impaired people

    OpenAIRE

    Coronato, Antonio; De Pietro, Giuseppe; Augusto, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Millions of people all around the world suffer from eating disorders, known as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, pica, and others. When eating disorders coexist with other mental health disorders, eating disorders often go undiagnosed and untreated; a low number of sufferers obtain treatment for the eating disorder. Unfortunately, eating disorders have also the highest mortality rate of any mental illness, upwards of 20%. This paper focuses on monitoring eating disorders of cogniti...

  16. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  17. Panic disorder and locomotor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumano Hiroaki

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panic disorder is one of the anxiety disorders, and anxiety is associated with some locomotor activity changes such as "restlessness". However, there have been few studies on locomotor activity in panic disorder using actigraphy, although many studies on other psychiatric disorders have been reported using actigraphy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between panic disorder and locomotor activity pattern using a wrist-worn activity monitor. In addition, an ecological momentary assessment technique was used to record panic attacks in natural settings. Methods Sixteen patients with panic disorder were asked to wear a watch-type computer as an electronic diary for recording panic attacks for two weeks. In addition, locomotor activity was measured and recorded continuously in an accelerometer equipped in the watch-type computer. Locomotor activity data were analyzed using double cosinor analysis to calculate mesor and the amplitude and acrophase of each of the circadian rhythm and 12-hour harmonic component. Correlations between panic disorder symptoms and locomotor activity were investigated. Results There were significant positive correlations between the frequency of panic attacks and mesor calculated from double cosinor analysis of locomotor activity (r = 0.55 and between HAM-A scores and mesor calculated from double cosinor analysis of locomotor activity (r = 0.62. Conclusion Panic disorder patients with more panic attacks and more anxiety have greater objectively assessed locomotor activity, which may reflect the "restlessness" of anxiety disorders.

  18. Disordered regions in transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusnády, Gábor E; Dobson, László; Tompa, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The functions of transmembrane proteins in living cells are widespread; they range from various transport processes to energy production, from cell-cell adhesion to communication. Structurally, they are highly ordered in their membrane-spanning regions, but may contain disordered regions in the cytosolic and extra-cytosolic parts. In this study, we have investigated the disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by a stringent definition of disordered residues on the currently available largest experimental dataset, and show a significant correlation between the spatial distributions of positively charged residues and disordered regions. This finding suggests a new role of disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by providing structural flexibility for stabilizing interactions with negatively charged head groups of the lipid molecules. We also find a preference of structural disorder in the terminal--as opposed to loop--regions in transmembrane proteins, and survey the respective functions involved in recruiting other proteins or mediating allosteric signaling effects. Finally, we critically compare disorder prediction methods on our transmembrane protein set. While there are no major differences between these methods using the usual statistics, such as per residue accuracies, Matthew's correlation coefficients, etc.; substantial differences can be found regarding the spatial distribution of the predicted disordered regions. We conclude that a predictor optimized for transmembrane proteins would be of high value to the field of structural disorder. PMID:26275590

  19. The Relationship between Concurrent Substance Use Disorders and Eating Disorders with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Courbasson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current pilot study investigated whether patients with concurrent substance use disorders and eating disorders (SUD and ED who experienced a reduction in SUD and ED symptoms following treatment for SUD and ED also experienced a reduction in personality disorder (PD symptoms. Method: Twenty patients with SUD and ED and PD were assessed pre and post treatment using clinical interviews, self-report questionnaires, and a therapist questionnaire on DSM-IV-TR symptoms for PD. Results: Symptoms for the personality disorders were reduced following treatment. This reduction was correlated with a decrease in the number of symptoms of ED at post treatment. Discussion: Chronic concurrent SUD and ED may make it difficult to separate PD symptoms from co-occurring disorders. Many features attributed to PDs may be reduced when problematic substance use and disordered eating are addressed, a fact that may increase clinician and patients’optimism about therapeutic change.

  20. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise;

    2014-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviour (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern due to their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy...