Sample records for amphetamine-related disorders

  1. Amphetamine-related mental disorder%精神活性物质所致精神障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晗晖; 何燕玲; 诸索宇; 赵敏


    @@ 1 病史摘要 患者,男,35岁,因 "反复使用冰毒4年,易激惹2个月,猜疑,耳闻人语伴失眠10 d" 第二次入住上海市精神卫生中心戒毒科.患者于2006年在朋友影响下,因好奇开始吸食冰毒(甲基苯丙胺),当时人很兴奋,不停地说话.最初1 ~2个月才使用一次.2007年使用频率增加,有时隔几天一次,后来几乎每天使用,每次1 ~6条,剂量不等.%A 35-year-old male with a 4-year history of amphetamine abuse was admitted after l0 days of psychotic symptoms.The symptoms resolved after 10 days of treatment with olanzapine and he remained abstinent from amphetamine use for 5 months after discharge, as verified by urine tests at three clinic visits. This case is used to discuss several related issues: the source and classification of amphetamine drugs, the prevalence of amphetamine abuse in youth, the differential diagnosis in drug abusers, clinical problems in managing amphetamine abuse, and the mechanisms underlying the brain changes associated with amphetamine use.

  2. Medico-legal aspect of amphetamine-related deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Kula


    Full Text Available The subject of the work included 41 cases of death in which amphetamine was involved as the direct or indirect cause. Identification and determination of xenobiotics in blood samples collected from post-mortem cases were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS. Only for two cases was the cause of death amphetamine poisoning. In most of the investigated cases the death was caused by poisoning due to complex amphetamine and other psychoactive substances (e.g. opiates, benzodiazepines, cocaine. In other cases, multi-organ damage (fall from a height, traffic accident, a puncture wound and wound incised, drowning, or asphyxiation by hanging were reported. It can be explained as risky, murderous, or suicidal actions of people who were under the influence of amphetamines. The presented paper focuses on the interpretation of amphetamine concentration in blood samples from the perspective of direct or indirect cause of death.

  3. Amphetamine-related ischemic colitis causing gastrointestinal bleeding


    Panikkath, Ragesh; Panikkath, Deepa


    A 43-year-old woman presented with acute lower intestinal bleeding requiring blood transfusion. Multiple initial investigations did not reveal the cause of the bleeding. Colonoscopy performed 2 days later showed features suggestive of ischemic colitis. On detailed history, the patient admitted to using amphetamines, and her urine drug screen was positive for them. She was managed conservatively and advised not to use amphetamines again. She did not have any recurrence on 2-year follow-up.

  4. Amphetamine-related ischemic colitis causing gastrointestinal bleeding (United States)

    Panikkath, Deepa


    A 43-year-old woman presented with acute lower intestinal bleeding requiring blood transfusion. Multiple initial investigations did not reveal the cause of the bleeding. Colonoscopy performed 2 days later showed features suggestive of ischemic colitis. On detailed history, the patient admitted to using amphetamines, and her urine drug screen was positive for them. She was managed conservatively and advised not to use amphetamines again. She did not have any recurrence on 2-year follow-up. PMID:27365888

  5. Tongue Disorders (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  6. Mental Disorders (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  7. Conduct disorder (United States)

    ... Conduct disorder is often linked to attention-deficit disorder . Conduct disorder also can be an early sign of ... child or teen has a history of conduct disorder behaviors. A physical examination and blood tests can help ...

  8. Conversion Disorder (United States)

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  9. Psychotic Disorders (United States)

    Psychotic disorders are severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. People with psychoses lose touch ... is not there. Schizophrenia is one type of psychotic disorder. People with bipolar disorder may also have ...

  10. Conflict Between Maternal Autonomy and Child Health in Substance-use (United States)


    Substance-Related Disorders; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Amphetamine-Related Disorders; Inhalant Abuse; Cocaine-Related Disorders; Opioid-Related Disorders; Marijuana Abuse; Substance Abuse, Intravenous; Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome; Pregnancy; Pregnancy, High-Risk

  11. Schizoaffective disorder (United States)

    ... cause of schizoaffective disorder is unknown. Changes in genes and chemicals in the brain (neurotransmitters) may play a role. Schizoaffective disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ...

  12. Genetic Disorders (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  13. Antisocial Personality Disorder (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  14. Borderline Personality Disorder (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  15. Panic Disorder among Adults (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  16. Any Personality Disorder (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  17. Menstrual Disorders (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Menstrual Disorders in Teens Page Content Article Body Within ... test Measurement of gonadotropins, prolactin and androgens How Menstrual Disorders are treated with Drug Therapy: After exclusion ...

  18. Movement Disorders (United States)

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  19. Anxiety Disorders (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders A A ... Do en español Trastornos de ansiedad What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger ...

  20. Bipolar Disorder (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  1. Panic Disorder (United States)

    ... This is the basis for a condition called agoraphobia. A person who has agoraphobia finds it difficult to leave home (or another ... Disorders Education Program Last Updated: April 2014 Tags: agoraphobia, Alprazolam, antidepressants, anxiety disorders, behavior therapy, clonazepam, klonopin, ...

  2. Personality Disorders (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  3. Metabolic Disorders (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  4. Mathematics disorder (United States)

    ... this page: // Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  5. Eating Disorders (United States)

    ... eating disorders, or problems with weight, eating, or body image. Eating disorders are more than just going on a diet to lose weight or trying to exercise every day. They represent extremes in eating behavior ...

  6. Eating Disorders (United States)

    ... Binge-eating, which is out-of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can lead ...

  7. Micturition disorders. (United States)

    Byron, Julie K


    Evaluation of dogs and cats with micturition disorders can be challenging. It is important to determine the duration, timing, and frequency of the disorder, as well as assessing for any additional medical problems, such as neurologic or orthopedic disease, that may be affecting micturition. Observation of the patient during voiding can be particularly helpful in determining the type of disorder. Treatment of micturition disorders is varied and outcome depends on an accurate diagnosis. Patient response is also highly variable, even with appropriate therapy, and owners' expectations must be set accordingly.

  8. White Blood Cell Disorders (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  9. Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  10. Overview of Movement Disorders (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  11. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.


    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  12. Anxiety Disorders (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.


    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  13. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.


    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is s

  14. Cyclothymic disorder (United States)

    ... swings (these are less severe than in bipolar disorder or major depression) Ongoing symptoms, with no more than 2 symptom-free months in a row Exams and Tests ... Treatments for this disorder include mood-stabilizing medicine, antidepressants, talk therapy, or ...

  15. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike


    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...

  16. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  17. Screening for Panic Disorder (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  18. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  19. [Affective disorders and eating disorders]. (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M


    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity.

  20. [Delusional disorders]. (United States)

    Garnier, Marion; Llorca, Pierre-Michel


    Delusional disorders are divided in French nosography into three clinical disease entities: paranoid delusions, psychose hallucinatoire chronique, and paraphrenia. Their common characteristics are a late start, a chronic evolution, no cognitive impairment and no dissociation. Delusio- nal syndrome is often at the forefront with a predominant mechanism characterizing each disorder (interpretation for paranoid delusions, hallucination for psychose hallucinatoire chronique and imagination for paraphrenia). Although these disorders are less sensitive to the medication than schizophrenia, care is based on second generation antipsychotic treatment, in association with psychotherapy and social care. The aim of treatment is to alleviate delusion intensity to improve global functioning and to prevent violent incidents or suicide attempt.

  1. Taste Disorders (United States)

    ... may help scientists develop drugs targeting the gut taste receptors to treat obesity and diabetes. Where can I ... Smell Smell Disorders News Unraveling the enigma of salty taste detection: New findings could help identify successful ...

  2. Panic disorder (United States)

    Panic attacks; Anxiety attacks; Fear attacks; Anxiety disorder - panic attacks ... symptoms occur. Imagine the things that cause the anxiety, starting ... your fears. The following may also help reduce the number ...

  3. Muscle disorder (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  4. Muscle Disorders (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  5. Blood Disorders (United States)

    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  6. Bleeding disorders (United States)

    ... can occur when certain factors are low or missing. Bleeding problems can range from mild to severe. Some bleeding disorders are present at birth and are passed through families (inherited). Others develop from: Illnesses such as vitamin ...

  7. Schizoaffective Disorder (United States)

    ... depression or mania. The two types of schizoaffective disorder — both of which include some symptoms of schizophrenia — are: Bipolar type , which includes episodes of mania and sometimes major depression Depressive type , which includes only major depressive episodes ...

  8. Parathyroid Disorders (United States)

    ... much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders, or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance of calcium and phosphorous. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  9. Personality Disorders (United States)

    ... for Building a Healthy Self-Image and Improving Self-Esteem 8 Things You Should Know About Body Dysmorphic ... is more of a daydreamer than a practical action taker. Paranoid Personality Disorder. The essential feature for ...

  10. Phonological disorder (United States)

    ... and language problems. Other risk factors may include poverty and coming from a large family. Phonological disorders ... In a child developing normal speech patterns: By age 3, at least one half of what a child says should be ...

  11. Sleep Disorders (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  12. Eating Disorders (United States)

    ... This kind of research can help guide the development of new means of diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. Treatments and Therapies Adequate nutrition, reducing excessive exercise, and stopping purging behaviors are the foundations of treatment. Treatment plans are ...

  13. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens) (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical ...

  14. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  15. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel


    Mammalian sleep has evolved under the influence of the day-night cycle and in response to reproductive needs, food seeking, and predator avoidance, resulting in circadian (predictive) and homeostatic (reactive) regulation. A molecular clock characterized by transcription/translation feedback loops...... mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas...

  16. [Headache disorders]. (United States)

    Takeshima, Takao; Kikui, Shoji


    Primary headache disorders such as migraine, tension-type headache, and cluster headache are prevalent and disabling neurological disorders. Although most headache disorders are largely treatable, they are under-recognized, under-diagnosed, and under-treated. Many headache sufferers in Japan do not receive appropriate and effective health care; hence, the illness, which should be relieved, persists and acts as an individual and societal burden. One of the barriers most responsible for this is poor awareness of the disorders. For lifting the burden, health care must be improved. Education is an essential way to resolve these issues at multiple levels. We have a Japanese version of the international headache classification and diagnostic criteria II (ICHD-II) and guidelines for the management of chronic headaches. Utilization of these resources is key for the improvement of headache management in our country. Not only neurologists, but also neurosurgeons and other medical specialists are participating in headache care in Japan. The Japanese Headache Society and the Japanese Society for Neurology should play major roles in health care service, education programs, as well as clinical and basic research for headache disorders. The road map for realizing our aim on headache treatment is as follows: (1) increase the number of units concerning headache in lectures for medical students, implement training programs for residents and neurologists, and offer continuous medical educations for physicians and neurologists; (2) secure more funding for headache research; (3) propagate medical care for headache in primary care settings and regional fundamental hospitals; (4) reform the health care system for headache and incentivize appropriate compensation for headache care in public health insurance; and (5) spread appropriate information on medical and socio-ethical issues related to headache for the sufferers and citizens. The authors expect that many neurologists have an

  17. Photoaggravated disorders. (United States)

    O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, Gillian M


    Photoaggravated skin disorders are diseases that occur without UV radiation but are sometimes or frequently exacerbated by UV radiation. In conditions, such as lupus erythematosus, photoaggravation occurs in a majority of patients, whereas in conditions, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, only a subset of patients demonstrate photoaggravation. Polymorphous light eruption is a common photodermatosis in all skin types, making it important to differentiate photoaggravation of an underlying disorder, such as lupus erythematosus, from superimposed polymorphous light eruption. Disease-specific treatments should be instituted where possible. A key component of management of photoaggravated conditions is photoprotection with behavioral change, UV-protective clothing, and broad-spectrum sunscreen.

  18. Eating disorders (United States)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  19. Penis Disorders (United States)

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or ... not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump ...

  20. Eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontić Olga


    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

  1. Amnestic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.


    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished: anterograd

  2. Psychiatric Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    2009122 The comparative study on plasma interleukin and soluble interleukin receptors between first-episode schizophrenic patients and first-episode depressive patients. SHI Tianyuan(师天元),et al.2nd Affili Hosp, Xinxiang Med Univ, Xinxiang 453002.Chin J Nerv Ment Dis 2009;35(1):26-29. Objective To explore the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and depressive disorder at cellular level.

  3. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin


    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  4. Psychiatric Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    2011392 Association Study of GABRB2 gene and antidepressant response to SNRI in patients with major depression. LIU Shanming(劉善明),et al.Psychiatry Dept West China Hosp,Sichuan Univ.Chengdu 610041. Abstract:Objective To investigate whether the Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2(GABRB2) gene polymorphisms is associated with the therapeutic response to venlafaxine,Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor(SNRI) in major depressive disorder patients. Methods The study sample consisted

  5. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (United States)

    ... Anxiety, anxiety disorders, anxious, behavior therapy, GAD, generalized anxiety disorder, mental health neuroses, mood disorders, psychiatric disorder, psychotherapy Family Health, Men, Seniors, Women January 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  6. Pain Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Capela


    Full Text Available Pain disorder is a psychiatric disorder diagnosed when the pain becomes the predominant focus of the clinical presentation and causes significant distress or impairment. Besides the high economic impact, there is a reciprocal relationship with the affective state. Pain is a subjective sensation and its severity and quality of experience in an individual is dependent on a complex mix of factors. In the treatment of acute pain, the primary purpose is pain relief, while chronic pain typically requires a combination of psychotropic drugs. In this context, it is also important to recognize and treat depression. Psychological treatments aimed at providing mechanisms to allow patients to "control and live with the pain" rather than aspire to eliminate it completely. A growing group of researchers proposes the elimination of the chapter of Somatoform Disorders and the modification of the category "psychological factors affecting a medical condition" to "psychological factors affecting an identified or feared medical condition" with clinical entities as ubchapters, largely based upon Diagnostics for Psychosomatic Research criteria.

  7. Mitochondrial disorders. (United States)

    Zeviani, M; Tiranti, V; Piantadosi, C


    Mitochondrial respiration, the most efficient metabolic pathway devoted to energy production, is at the crosspoint of 2 quite different genetic systems, the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA). The latter encodes a few essential components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and has unique molecular and genetic properties that account for some of the peculiar features of mitochondrial disorders. However, the perpetuation, propagation, and expression of mtDNA, the majority of the subunits of the respiratory complexes, as well as a number of genes involved in their assembly and turnover, are contained in the nuclear genome. Although mitochondrial disorders have been known for more than 30 years, a major breakthrough in their understanding has come much later, with the discovery of an impressive, ever-increasing number of mutations of mitochondrial DNA. Partial deletions or duplications of mtDNA, or maternally inherited point mutations, have been associated with well-defined clinical syndromes. However, phenotypes transmitted as mendelian traits have also been identified. These include clinical entities defined on the basis of specific biochemical defects, and also a few autosomal dominant or recessive syndromes associated with multiple deletions or tissue-specific depletion of mtDNA. Given the complexity of mitochondrial genetics and biochemistry, the clinical manifestations of mitochondrial disorders are extremely heterogenous. They range from lesions of single tissues or structures, such as the optic nerve in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy or the cochlea in maternally inherited nonsyndromic deafness, to more widespread lesions including myopathies, encephalomyopathies, cardiopathies, or complex multisystem syndromes. The recent advances in genetic studies provide both diagnostic tools and new pathogenetic insights in this rapidly expanding area of human pathology.

  8. Imprinting disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Maher, Eamonn R


    Congenital imprinting disorders (IDs) are characterised by molecular changes affecting imprinted chromosomal regions and genes, i.e. genes that are expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Recent years have seen a great expansion in the range of alterations in regulation, dosage or DNA...... impacts upon growth, development and metabolism. Thus, detailed and systematic analysis of IDs can not only identify unifying principles of molecular epigenetics in health and disease, but also support personalisation of diagnosis and management for individual patients and families....

  9. Temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Thomas; Jensen, Rigmor Højland


    , limitations in jaw movement, and noise from the TMJs during jaw movements. TMD affects up to 15% of adults and 7% of adolescents. Chronic pain is the overwhelming reason that patients with TMD seek treatment. TMD can associate with impaired general health, depression, and other psychological disabilities......, and may affect the quality of life of the patient. Assessment Evaluations indicate that the recently published Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) are reliable and valid. These criteria cover the most common types of TMD, which include pain-related disorders (e.g., myalgia, headache attributable to TMD...

  10. Myotonic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankodi Ami


    Full Text Available Myotonia reflects a state of muscle fiber hyperexcitability. Impaired transmembrane conductance of either chloride or sodium ions results in myotonia. Myotonic disorders include the myotonic dystrophies and nondystrophic myotonias. Mutations in the genes encoding chloride (ClC-1 or sodium (SCN4A channels expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle cause nondystrophic myotonias. Genetic defects in the myotonic dystrophies do not involve ion channel or its regulator proteins. Recent research supports a novel RNA-mediated disease mechanism of myotonia in the myotonic dystrophies. Myotonic dystrophy Type 1 is caused by CTG repeat expansion in the 3′ untranslated region in the Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase (DMPK gene. Myotonic dystrophy Type 2 is caused by CCTG repeat expansion in the first intron in Zinc Finger Protein 9 (ZNF9 gene. The expanded repeat is transcribed in RNA and forms discrete inclusions in nucleus in both types of myotonic dystrophies. Mutant RNA sequesters MBNL1, a splice regulator protein and depletes MBNL1 from the nucleoplasm. Loss of MBNL1 results in altered splicing of ClC-1 mRNA. Altered splice products do not encode functional ClC-1 protein. Subsequent loss of chloride conductance in muscle membrane causes myotonia in the myotonic dystrophies. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical presentation, recent advances in understanding the disease mechanism with particular emphasis on myotonic dystrophies and potential therapy options in myotonic disorders.

  11. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say


    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  12. Overview of Optic Nerve Disorders (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  13. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  14. Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  15. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar


    Full Text Available Psychogenic movement Disorders (PMD may result from somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression anxiety disorders and less frequently, histrionic personality disorders. First recognized by Henry Head in early twentieth century, PMD s commonly encountered and clues to their differentiation from organic disease. A generally accepted management protocol has been outlined.

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder - A Complex Genetic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Hristo Y.


    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder is an entity that reflects a scientific consensus that several previously separated disorders are actually a single spectrum disorder with different levels of symptom severity in two core domains - deficits in social communication and interaction, and restricted repetitive behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups and because of its increased prevalence, reported worldwide through the last years, made it one of the most discussed child psychiatric disorders. In term of aetiology as several other complex diseases, Autism spectrum disorder is considered to have a strong genetic component.

  17. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  18. Eating Disorders Glossary (United States)

    ... Personality Characteristics Associated with Eating Disorders Personality disorder Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Self-harm, self-mutilation, self-injury (SI) Skin Picking (Dermatillomania) Substance abuse Suicide, suicidal ideation Trichotillomania 7. Non-clinical terms, slang & ...

  19. Eye Movement Disorders (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  20. Paranoia and Delusional Disorders (United States)

    ... Disorder (BDD) and Youth 7 Important Facts About Eating Disorders Eating Disorders and Youth 6 Things to Know About Self- ... Myths About Mental Illness Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Clifford Beers ...

  1. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens) (United States)

    ... disorder, but they think that biochemical, genetic, and environmental_factors may all be involved. It's believed this condition ... the gene or genes involved in bipolar disorder. Environmental factors may play a role in bipolar disorder. For ...

  2. Paranoid personality disorder (United States)

    ... have a full-blown psychotic disorder, such as schizophrenia . ... American Psychiatric Association. Paranoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013: ...

  3. Histrionic personality disorder (United States)

    Personality disorder - histrionic; Attention seeking - histrionic personality disorder ... Causes of histrionic personality disorder are unknown. Genes and early childhood events may be responsible. It is diagnosed more often in ...

  4. Reactive Attachment Disorder (United States)

    ... Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Children with RAD are less likely to interact with other people because of negative experiences with adults in their early years. They have difficulty calming ...

  5. Types of Bipolar Disorder (United States)

    ... same time, which is also known as major depressive disorder with mixed features. Bipolar Disorder and Other Illnesses Some bipolar disorder symptoms are similar to other illnesses, which can make ...

  6. Chronic motor tic disorder (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  7. Kids and Eating Disorders (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders A ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  8. Binge Eating Disorder (United States)

    ... Our ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  9. Symptoms of Blood Disorders (United States)

    ... leg (causing most often swelling, redness, and/or warmth of the leg or shortness of breath) Petechiae ( ... Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests for Blood ...

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder - A Complex Genetic Disorder


    Ivanov Hristo Y.; Stoyanova Vili K.; Popov Nikolay T.; Vachev Tihomir I.


    Autism spectrum disorder is an entity that reflects a scientific consensus that several previously separated disorders are actually a single spectrum disorder with different levels of symptom severity in two core domains - deficits in social communication and interaction, and restricted repetitive behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups and because of its increased prevalence, reported worldwide through the last years, made it one of the...

  11. Trichotillomania, stereotypic movement disorder, and related disorders. (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Garner, Joseph P; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Walkup, John T; Woods, Douglas W


    Trichotillomania is currently classified as an impulse control disorder not otherwise classified, whereas body-focused behaviors other than hair-pulling may be diagnosed as stereotypic movement disorder. A number of disorders characterized by repetitive, body-focused behaviors (eg, skin-picking) are prevalent and disabling and may have phenomenological and psychobiological overlap. Such disorders deserve greater recognition in the official nosology, and there would seem to be clinical utility in classifying them in the same diagnostic category.

  12. [Conduct disorders]. (United States)

    Stadler, Christina


    The diagnosis conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by aggressive (e.g., physical aggression) as well as nonaggressive symptoms (e.g., violation of rules, truancy). Conclusions regarding the course and prognosis, or recommendations for effective interventions, seem not to be equally valid for the whole patient group. DSM-IV-TR included subtyping age-of-onset as a prognostic criterion, even though the evidence base for subtyping from age of onset was rather sparse. The relevant literature on CD has grown substantially since the publication of DSM-IV-TR in 1994. For the new DSM-5 edition, some important issues were discussed, for example, consideration of personality traits, female-specific or dimensional criteria, and adding a childhood-limited subtype (Moffitt et al., 2008). Nevertheless, the diagnostic protocol for CD was not changed in the most parts in the new edition of the DSM-5; the addition of a CD specifier with limited emotions is the most relevant change. On the basis of the existing evidence base, this review discusses whether the modifications in DSM-5 are helpful for fulfilling the requirements of a reliable and valid psychiatric classification.

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders) (United States)

    Strock, Margaret


    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  14. Borderline personality disorder (United States)

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment ...

  15. Psychiatric Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    15.1 Schizophrenia2007274 Effect and safety of combination therapy of valproate with lithium on recurrent mania. XU Wenwei(徐文炜), et al. Dept Psychiat, Wuxi Ment Health Center, Wuxi 214151. Chin J Psychiat 2007;40(2):86-89. Objective The study was to explore the effectiveness and safety of chronic combination reatment of valproate with lithium on recurrent mania. Method All 105 patients with mania-onset were andomly assigned to receive sodium valproate plus lithium (n=35), and monotherapy with lithium n=35) or sodium valproate (n=35), and were followed up for 5 years. At baseline, the symptom was valuated with the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (BRMS). The drug dosage, times of relapse, effects nd safcty was compared among the three groups. Results After the acute therapy, the reductions in BRMS core were(43±29)% in lithium group, (42±27)% in valproate group, and (58±25)% in combination roup, respectively, with significant differences between the three groups (F=3.579, P=0.031). At ollowed-up, tile relapse times was significantly less in combination group than that in lithium and valproate roup(mean times of 2.0±1.5, 3.5±1.8, and 3.5±2.2, P=0.001). The combination therapy had etter effectiveness especially in patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder(F=4.120, P=0.033) than the ther two monotherapy group. The mean dosage of single drug in combination group was significantly lower han that in lithium and valproate group (P<0.01; P<0.001). There were no significantly statistic differences on side-effects among three groups. Conclusion The efficacy of combination therapy of valproate with lithium on mania is better than the monotherapy of lithium or valproate in the light of safety and reduced occurrence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani


    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  17. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders


    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de [UNIFESP; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin [UNIFESP


    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...

  18. Movement disorders and sleep. (United States)

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H


    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  19. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam


    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  20. Adult onset tic disorders


    Chouinard, S; Ford, B.


    BACKGROUND—Tic disorders presenting during adulthood have infrequently been described in the medical literature. Most reports depict adult onset secondary tic disorders caused by trauma, encephalitis, and other acquired conditions. Only rare reports describe idiopathic adult onset tic disorders, and most of these cases represent recurrent childhood tic disorders.
OBJECTIVE—To describe a large series of patients with tic disorders presenting during adulthood, to compare cl...

  1. Lithium and Thyroid Disorders


    Lut Tamam; Emel Kulan; Nurgul Ozpoyraz


    Lithium is a mood stabilizator drug which has been used in the treatment of many mental disorders including bipolar disorders, cyclothymia, recurrent depression, and schizoaffective disorder for the last 50 years. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that patients under lithium treatment could develop thyroid disorders in a range from single disorder in TSH response to severe mxyedema. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000): 99-114

  2. Lithium and Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam


    Full Text Available Lithium is a mood stabilizator drug which has been used in the treatment of many mental disorders including bipolar disorders, cyclothymia, recurrent depression, and schizoaffective disorder for the last 50 years. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that patients under lithium treatment could develop thyroid disorders in a range from single disorder in TSH response to severe mxyedema. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 99-114

  3. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan


    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  4. Asperger disorder in adults. (United States)

    Arora, Manu; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar


    Asperger disorder was first described in 1944 by the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger. It was introduced as a separate diagnostic category from autistic disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The pattern of comorbidity in Asperger disorder is different from autistic disorder, with a higher level of psychosis, violent behavior, anxiety, and mood disorders. We present three cases of Asperger disorder diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, with psychosis being the predominant reason for the referral. In each case, the psychosis improved with antipsychotic treatment, although core autistic symptoms remained the same.

  5. Neuroimaging in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara


    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent attacks, significantly disrupts the functionality of a chronic mental disorder. Although there is growing number of studies on the neurobiological basis of the disorder, the pathophysiology has not yet been clearly understood. Structural and functional imaging techniques present a better understanding of the etiology of bipolar disorder and has contributed significantly to the development of the diagnostic approach. Recent developments in brain imaging modalities have let us learn more about the underlying abnormalities in neural systems of bipolar patients. Identification of objective biomarkers would help to determine the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, a disorder which causes significant deterioration in neurocognitive and emotional areas.

  6. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder]. (United States)

    Haraldsson, Magnús


    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland.

  7. [Personality disorders in eating disorder patients]. (United States)

    Martín Murcia, Francisco M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Pozo, Eugenia M; Martínez Sánchez, Margarita; López Pérez, Manuel


    Personality disorders in eating disorder patients. A follow-up study was designed to analyze the relation between personality disorders (PD) and the course of eating disorders (ED) in 34 patients who required treatment over 4 years and half. 91% of the clinical sample met the criteria for PD at the initial assessment and 36% at the end of treatment, with a significant reduction in MCMI-II scores at follow-up. The outcome of the ED was significantly related to the PD outcome. There was a higher rate of improvement of PD in the bulimic group (61%) than in anorexic group (34%). The patients who presented schizoid and avoidant personality disorders were the most resistant and they adhered less to treatment. The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed.

  8. [Skin-picking disorder]. (United States)

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U


    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated.

  9. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  10. Epilepsy and bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H


    It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders.

  11. Sleep and Eating Disorders. (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M


    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  12. Stereotypic movement disorder (United States)

    ... page: // Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  13. Narcissistic personality disorder (United States)

    ... this page: // Narcissistic personality disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Narcissistic personality disorder is a mental condition in which ...

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (United States)

    ... OCD What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? Everyone feels anxiety, fear, uncertainty, or worry at some time. These normal ... OCD. What Should I Do? Anxiety: Rachel's Story Anxiety Disorders ADHD Fears and Phobias Going to a Therapist Finding Low- ...

  15. Thyroid Disorders Overview (United States)

    ... and Symptoms Hypothyroidism Thyroid Nodules Lifestyle and Prevention Thyroid Disorders The thyroid gland is located at the ... lives, and must be closely monitored by physicians. Thyroid Nodules Thyroid disorders can also occur because of ...

  16. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids) (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Thyroid Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Thyroid Disorders A A ... the world is a thyroid? What Is the Thyroid? The thyroid (say: THYE-royd) is a gland, ...

  17. Schizotypal personality disorder (United States)

    ... have depression. A second personality disorder, such as paranoid personality disorder , is also common. Common signs of ... of risk, such as a family history of schizophrenia, may allow early diagnosis. References American Psychiatric Association. ...

  18. Lipid Metabolism Disorders (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like substances. They ...

  19. Chromosome Disorder Outreach (United States)

    ... BLOG Join Us Donate You are not alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, ... Support For all those diagnosed with any rare chromosome disorder. Since 1992, CDO has supported the parents ...

  20. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (United States)

    ... for disorders of endocrine glands other than the thyroid, compared to 3.1 percent of visits made by women. The rate of visits due to metabolic and immunity disorders was also higher among men than women (2. ...

  1. Functional Movement Disorder (United States)

    ... improvement in symptoms following psychotherapy, use of a placebo (a medicine with no specific pharmacological benefit for the disorder ... improvement in symptoms following psychotherapy, use of a placebo (a medicine with no specific pharmacological benefit for the disorder ...

  2. Antisocial personality disorder (United States)

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development of ...

  3. Diagnosing Tic Disorders (United States)

    ... Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Diagnosing Tic Disorders Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... or postviral encephalitis). Persistent (Chronic) Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder For a person to be diagnosed with ...

  4. Males and Eating Disorders (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  5. Binge Eating Disorder (United States)

    ... Events Upcoming and past meetings Follow Us Social media, RSS feeds, and more Follow Us ... and Facts for Binge Eating Disorder Symptoms and Causes of Binge Eating Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment of ...

  6. Genetic Brain Disorders (United States)

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  7. How to characterize disorder (United States)

    Egami, T.


    Researchers working on nuclear materials encounter disorder in the atomic structure all the time, usually caused by irradiation. The nature of disorder varies widely, from lattice defects to amorphous phase formation. Generally it is not easy to characterize the state of disorder with the accuracy necessary to elucidate the properties caused by structural disorder. However, owing to advances in the tools of characterization and rapid rise in computer power, significant progress has been made in characterizing structural disorder. We discuss how to describe and determine the structure and dynamics of disordered materials using scattering measurements and modeling. Lattice defects caused by irradiation usually has negative effects on properties, but glasses and highly disordered materials can be irradiation resistant, and could be useful as nuclear materials. Characterizing and controlling disorder is becoming an important endeavor in the field of nuclear materials.

  8. Social anxiety disorder (United States)

    ... to participate in social functions. Social anxiety disorder affects the ability to function in work and relationships. ... Alcohol or other drug use may occur with social anxiety disorder. Loneliness and social isolation may occur.

  9. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars


    BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...... to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients...

  10. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes. (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo


    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed.

  11. Diagnosing Sleep Disorders (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Diagnosing Sleep Disorders Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents Depending ... several possible tests when trying to diagnose a sleep disorder: Sleep history and sleep log If you believe ...

  12. Rare Disorders and Diseases (United States)

    Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott


    According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

  13. Dissociative Identity Disorder (United States)

    Schmidt, Tom


    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  14. Illness anxiety disorder (United States)

    ... a serious disease is unreasonable or unfounded. Illness anxiety disorder is different from somatic symptom disorder. With somatic symptom disorder, the person has physical pain or other symptoms, but the medical cause is not found. Exams and Tests The doctor or nurse will examine you and ...

  15. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.


    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular t

  16. 6: Movement disorders II: the hyperkinetic disorders. (United States)

    Rice, J E; Thompson, P D


    Involuntary movements or hyperkinesias are classified into syndromes of chorea, ballism, tremor, dystonia, myoclonus and tics. The hyperkinesias are caused by disturbances in the circuitry connecting the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Drugs are a common cause of movement disorders. The aim of management is to characterise the movement disorder, identify and treat the cause or institute symptomatic treatment. The genetic basis of many movement disorders is increasingly recognised. Where there are potential implications for family members, accurate diagnosis and counselling are particularly important.

  17. Developmental disorders of vision. (United States)

    Galaburda, Albert M; Duchaine, Bradley C


    This review of developmental disorders of vision focuses on only a few of the many disorders that disrupt visual development. Given the enormity of the human visual system in the primate brain and complexity of visual development, however, there are likely hundreds or thousands of types of disorders affecting high-level vision. The rapid progress seen in developmental dyslexia and WMS demonstrates the possibilities and difficulties inherent in researching such disorders, and the authors hope that similar progress will be made for congenital prosopagnosia and other disorders in the near future.

  18. Chronobiology and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi


    Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.

  19. Perturbatively charged holographic disorder

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, Daniel K


    Within the framework of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study a model of perturbatively charged disorder in D=4 dimensions. Starting from initially uncharged AdS_4, a randomly fluctuating boundary chemical potential is introduced by turning on a bulk gauge field parameterized by a disorder strength and a characteristic scale k_0. Accounting for gravitational backreaction, we construct an asymptotically AdS solution perturbatively in the disorder strength. The disorder averaged geometry displays unphysical divergences in the deep interior. We explain how to remove these divergences and arrive at a well behaved solution. The disorder averaged DC conductivity is calculated and is found to contain a correction to the AdS result. The correction appears at second order in the disorder strength and scales inversely with k_0. We discuss the extension to a system with a finite initial charge density. The disorder averaged DC conductivity may be calculated by adopting a technique developed for hologr...

  20. Mood disorders in Asians. (United States)

    Yeung, Albert; Chang, Doris


    Mood disorders are disorders that have a disturbance in mood as the predominant feature. They are common psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant distress and functional impairment. As the theory of mood disorders is based on the philosophy of mind/body dichotomy in the West, it contradicts the holistic tradition of medicine in the East. This may partially explain why many Asians with mood disorders emphasize their physical symptoms in discussions with their treatment providers. In the development of the DSM and ICD diagnostic systems, it is presumed that the diagnostic categories are applicable to all races and ethnicities. Similarly, many consider pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches to mood disorders universally applicable. To effectively treat Asians with mood disorders, clinicians need to customize biological and psychosocial interventions in consideration of patients' potential genetic and cultural differences.

  1. Cancer and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcan Gulec


    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis which is used as synonym of “death”, “pain” and “sorrow” leads to a hard-coping period in these patients which requires a rapid intervention. Studies conducted in cancer patients regarding prevalance of psychiatric illnesses reported rates ranging from 9 % to 60%. In many cancer patients, psychiatric disorders can be seen as a reaction to disease or cancer tratment, while in ten precent of cases it can be seen as an aggrevation of premorbid personality disorders or anxiety disorders. Although psychiatric disorders in cancer patients can be treated and by this way, morbidity and mortality of these disorders can be prevented, these disorders are underdiagnosed and not properly treated in many patients. In this article, we briefly reviewed literature about psychiatric disorders and symptoms in cancer patients, their diagnosis and treatment suggestions.

  2. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B


    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  3. Histrionic personality disorder in women with somatization disorder. (United States)

    Morrison, J


    The clinical distinctions between histrionic personality disorder and somatization disorder have frequently been blurred. In this study, 60 women with somatization disorder were found to have histrionic personality disorder. A DSM-III diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder did not significantly help to improve the diagnosis of somatization disorder. A diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder should stimulate a search for better-validated Axis I diagnoses.

  4. The spreading of disorder. (United States)

    Keizer, Kees; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda


    Imagine that the neighborhood you are living in is covered with graffiti, litter, and unreturned shopping carts. Would this reality cause you to litter more, trespass, or even steal? A thesis known as the broken windows theory suggests that signs of disorderly and petty criminal behavior trigger more disorderly and petty criminal behavior, thus causing the behavior to spread. This may cause neighborhoods to decay and the quality of life of its inhabitants to deteriorate. For a city government, this may be a vital policy issue. But does disorder really spread in neighborhoods? So far there has not been strong empirical support, and it is not clear what constitutes disorder and what may make it spread. We generated hypotheses about the spread of disorder and tested them in six field experiments. We found that, when people observe that others violated a certain social norm or legitimate rule, they are more likely to violate other norms or rules, which causes disorder to spread.

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg


    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.



    Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter


    Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndro...

  7. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders


    Georgios D. Kotzalidis; Elisa Ambrosi; Alessio Simonetti; Ilaria Cuomo; Antonio Del Casale; Matteo Caloro; Valeria Savoja; Chiara Rapinesi


    Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuro...

  8. Congenital imprinting disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Netchine, Irène; Temple, I Karen


    Imprinting disorders (IDs) are a group of eight rare but probably underdiagnosed congenital diseases affecting growth, development and metabolism. They are caused by similar molecular changes affecting regulation, dosage or the genomic sequence of imprinted genes. Each ID is characterised...... (European network of congenital imprinting disorders) now aims to promote better clinical care and scientific investigation of imprinting disorders by establishing a concerted multidisciplinary alliance of clinicians, researchers, patients and families. By encompassing all IDs and establishing...

  9. Dream disorders and treatment. (United States)

    Eiser, Alan S


    Consensus does not exist regarding what should constitute a "dream disorder." Conditions with disordered dreaming may be thought of as primary (ie, arising from changes in dreaming per se) or secondary to extrinsic disorders that impinge on structures involved in dreaming. The major primary disorder of dreaming, nightmare disorder, is covered in depth in this article. Definition of nightmare, diagnostic criteria for nightmare disorder, and differential diagnosis are discussed. The value of a sleep-disorders perspective on nightmares, and the possible exacerbating effects of sleep disorders that cause arousals, are indicated. The importance of a perspective that appreciates nightmares as richly and personally meaningful, with links to complex psychological factors present and past, is emphasized. Two types of treatment approaches are discussed: approaches that target the symptom of nightmares in relative isolation, and approaches that aim at working out psychological issues viewed as causing nightmares and a variety of other interconnected symptoms and problems. The former type of treatment includes the cognitive-behavioral approach "imagery rehearsal therapy," and the medication prazosin. The latter approach entails exploratory or psychodynamic psychotherapies. The approaches are seen as so different in scope, aim, and conceptual framework as to defy ready comparison. I think that a thorough psychological/psychiatric evaluation is essential for informed consideration in conjunction with the patient's choice of treatment approach. Sleep terrors are discussed as a non-rapid eye movement sleep arousal disorder that at times may be linked to broader psychological issues warranting consideration of psychotherapy. Brief summaries are provided of dream disorders secondary to other sleep disorders, drug and alcohol effects, medical disorders, and organic brain damage.

  10. From Self-Disorders to Ego Disorders. (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas


    While the concept of disorders of basic self-experience as the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders has gained increasing significance and empirical support, several questions remain still unresolved. One major problem is to understand how the basic and prodromal self-disturbances are related to Schneider's first rank symptoms, in particular to the so-called 'ego disorders' found in acute psychotic episodes. The study of the transition from prodromal to first rank symptoms, for example from alienated thoughts to thoughts aloud or thought insertions, is of particular importance for understanding the nature and course of schizophrenia. The paper analyses the emergence of ego disorders from basic self-disorders in phenomenological terms, taking the examples of motor passivity experiences and thought insertion. It is argued that full-blown delusions of alien control are ultimately based on a disturbance of the intentionality of thinking, feeling and acting. This disturbance, for its part, may be traced back to anomalies of self-experience in prodromal stages of schizophrenia.

  11. Mental disorders are not brain disorders. (United States)

    Banner, Natalie F


    As advances in neuroscience and genetics reveal complex associations between brain structures, functions and symptoms of mental disorders, there have been calls for psychiatric classifications to be reconfigured, to conceptualize mental disorders as disorders of the brain. In this paper, I argue that this view is mistaken, and that the level at which we identify mental disorders is, and should be, the person, not the brain. This is not to deny physicalism or argue that the mental realm is somehow distinct from the physical, but rather to suggest the things that are going 'wrong' in mental disorder are picked out at the person-level: they are characterized by breaches in epistemic, rational, evaluative, emotional, social and moral norms. However, as our scientific understanding of the brain becomes advanced, what makes an identified neurobiological difference in brain structure or functioning indicative of pathology is its association with these behaviours at the person-level. Instead of collapsing psychiatry into biomedicine, biomedicine may benefit from drawing closer to the expertise of psychiatry, as it is able to accommodate social, psychological and biological explanations while focusing on the person, within their environment.

  12. Neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy. (United States)

    Guidon, Amanda C; Massey, E Wayne


    Preexisting and coincident neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy are challenging for clinicians because of the heterogeneity of disease and the limited data in the literature. Many questions arise regarding the effect of disease on the pregnancy, delivery, and newborn in addition to the effect of pregnancy on the course of disease. Each disorder has particular considerations and possible complications. An interdisciplinary team of physicians is essential. This article discusses the most recent literature on neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy including acquired root, plexus, and peripheral nerve lesions; acquired and inherited neuropathies and myopathies; disorders of the neuromuscular junction; and motor neuron diseases.

  13. Mood and affect disorders. (United States)

    Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G


    Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians.

  14. [Schizophrenia and eating disorders]. (United States)

    Foulon, C


    The comorbidity of schizophrenia and eating disorders is understudied. In the early nineteenth century, Eugen Bleuler has reported cases of schizophrenia with eating disorders that were related to delusional ideas. Potomania, merycism and pica have often been described in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients with eating disorders usually do not meet all criteria for typical eating disorders and are therefore classified as "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS). It may even be difficult to recognize schizophrenia in patients with eating disorders associated to delusional ideas and distorted cognitions related to food or body perception. In any case, the diagnosis of schizophrenia should preferably be made and is only valid after renutrition is achieved. The prevalence of schizophrenia in samples of patients with eating disorders is generally below 10% but reaches 35% in males, the most frequent form being hebephrenia. Cognitive behavioural therapies for eating disorders need to be adapted in cases of comorbid schizophrenia. The new antipsychotic medications seem helpful in patients with eating disorders with or without schizophrenia. They reduce anxiety towards eating and bring in better adherence to treatments.

  15. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases]. (United States)

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva


    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  16. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (United States)

    ... for the Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... about what they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...

  17. Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  18. Related Addictive Disorders. (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  19. Boys with Eating Disorders (United States)

    Hatmaker, Grace


    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... factors that may put children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities. More E-mail ...

  1. Posttraumatic functional movement disorders. (United States)

    Ganos, C; Edwards, M J; Bhatia, K P


    Traumatic injury to the nervous system may account for a range of neurologic symptoms. Trauma location and severity are important determinants of the resulting symptoms. In severe head injury with structural brain abnormalities, the occurrence of trauma-induced movement disorders, most commonly hyperkinesias such as tremor and dystonia, is well recognized and its diagnosis straightforward. However, the association of minor traumatic events, which do not lead to significant persistent structural brain damage, with the onset of movement disorders is more contentious. The lack of clear clinical-neuroanatomic (or symptom lesion) correlations in these cases, the variable timing between traumatic event and symptom onset, but also the presence of unusual clinical features in a number of such patients, which overlap with signs encountered in patients with functional neurologic disorders, contribute to this controversy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the movement disorders, most notably dystonia, that have been associated with peripheral trauma and focus on their unusual characteristics, as well as their overlap with functional neurologic disorders. We will then provide details on pathophysiologic views that relate minor peripheral injuries to the development of movement disorders and compare them to knowledge from primary organic and functional movement disorders. Finally, we will comment on the appropriate management of these disorders.

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    ... with related symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Antipsychotic medications are used to treat severe behavioral ... brain development and functioning; genetic and non-genetic risk factors, ... studies on genetic disorders associated with ASD, such as TSC, Fragile X ...

  3. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik


    are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  4. Clindamycin and taste disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mark C H; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P


    AIMS: Topical use of clindamycin has been associated with taste disorders in the literature, but little is known about the nature of this adverse drug reaction. The aim of this article was to describe reports of clindamycin-induced taste disorders and to analyse the factors involved. METHODS: The ad

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.


    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  6. Epigenetics and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, Eneda; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kas, Martien J; Campbell, Iain C


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating disorders are complex psychiatric disorders in which genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions (G×E) have a role. Such G×E may occur in adulthood or during development. They may also be modified by factors such as (mal)nutrition or stress and this may result in

  7. Disorders of visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ffytche, Dominic H.; Blom, J. D.; Catani, M.


    Visual perceptual disorders are often presented as a disparate group of neurological deficits with little consideration given to the wide range of visual symptoms found in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disease. Here, the authors attempt a functional anatomical classification of all disorders li

  8. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol (United States)


    Immune Deficiency Disorders; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorders; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  9. Eosinophilic Disorders Glossary (United States)

    ... psychologic components. Anorexia Nervosa A psychological disorder of body image in which the individual feels overweight regardless of actual weight. Persons affected by this disorder have a fear of gaining weight and may use excessive exercise, laxatives and/or skipping of meals in order ...

  10. Temperament and Attachment Disorders (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.


    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  11. Autoimmune autonomic disorders. (United States)

    Mckeon, Andrew; Benarroch, Eduardo E


    Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility. Historically, these disorders were poorly recognized, and thought to be neurodegenerative. Over the last 20 years a number of autoantibody biomarkers have been discovered that have enabled the identification of certain patients as having an autoimmune basis for either autonomic failure or hyperactivity. Peripheral autoimmune autonomic disorders include autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG), paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy, and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. AAG manifests with acute or subacute onset of generalized or selective autonomic failure. Antibody targeting the α3 subunit of the ganglionic-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α3gAChR) is detected in approximately 50% of cases of AAG. Some other disorders are characterized immunologically by paraneoplastic antibodies with a high positive predictive value for cancer, such as antineuronal nuclear antibody, type 1 (ANNA-1: anti-Hu); others still are seronegative. Recognition of an autoimmune basis for autonomic disorders is important, as their manifestations are disabling, may reflect an underlying neoplasm, and have the potential to improve with a combination of symptomatic and immune therapies.

  12. Electrodiagnosis of myotonic disorders. (United States)

    Hehir, Michael K; Logigian, Eric L


    Clinical and electrical myotonia is caused by a small group of neuromuscular disorders. This article reviews myotonia and its differential diagnosis. The use of electrodiagnostic testing to evaluate the primary myotonic disorders (myotonic dystrophy and the nondystrophic myotonias) is also discussed.

  13. Skin picking disorder. (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J


    Although skin picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, only now is it receiving serious consideration as a DSM psychiatric disorder in discussions for DSM-5. Recent community prevalence studies suggest that skin picking disorder appears to be as common as many other psychiatric disorders, with reported prevalences ranging from 1.4% to 5.4%. Clinical evaluation of patients with skin picking disorder entails a broad physical and psychiatric examination, encouraging an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment. Approaches to treatment should include cognitive-behavioral therapy (including habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy) and medication (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine, or naltrexone). Based on clinical experience and research findings, the authors recommend several management approaches to skin picking disorder.

  14. Genomics in Neurological Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangchun Han; Jiya Sun; Jiajia Wang; Zhouxian Bai; Fuhai Song; Hongxing Lei


    Neurological disorders comprise a variety of complex diseases in the central nervous system, which can be roughly classified as neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. The basic and translational research of neurological disorders has been hindered by the difficulty in accessing the pathological center (i.e., the brain) in live patients. The rapid advancement of sequencing and array technologies has made it possible to investigate the disease mechanism and biomarkers from a systems perspective. In this review, recent progresses in the discovery of novel risk genes, treatment targets and peripheral biomarkers employing genomic technologies will be dis-cussed. Our major focus will be on two of the most heavily investigated neurological disorders, namely Alzheimer’s disease and autism spectrum disorder.

  15. Neurobiology of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Gorica


    Full Text Available Neurobiologically spoken, the supstrate of the mind is formed by neuronal networks, and dysregulated neurocircuitry can cause psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders are diagnosed by symptom clusters that are the result of abnormal brain tissue, and/or activity in specialized areas of the brain. Dysregulated circuitry results from abnormal neural function, or abnormal neural connections from one brain area to another, which leads to neurotransmitter imbalances. Each psychiatric disorder has uniquely dysregulated circuitry and thereby unique neurotransmitter imbalance, such as: prefrontal cortical-limbic pathways in depression or prefrontal cortical-striatal pathways in schizophrenia ie. serotonin-norepinephrin-dopamin imbalance in depression, or dopamine hyperactivity in schizophrenia. Biological psychiatry has completely changed the farmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders, and new foundings in that field are supportive to futher more neuropsychopharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy studies, whish has as a result more safe and effective therapy for psychiatric disorders.

  16. Conduct disorders as a result of specific learning disorders



    This thesis focuses on relationship between specific learning disorders and conduct disorders in puberty. The theoretical part explains the basic terms apearing in the thesis such as specific learning disorders, conduct disorders, puberty and prevention of conduct disorder formation. It presents Czech and foreign research which have already been done in this and related areas. The empirical part uses a quantitative method to measure anxiety and occurrence of conduct disorders in second grade ...

  17. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Nordem Sjåstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. METHODS: In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773, we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043 had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636. Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. RESULTS: More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than

  18. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  19. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  20. Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: bipolar disorder (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions bipolar disorder bipolar disorder Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that causes extreme ...

  2. Autoimmune movement disorders. (United States)

    Mckeon, Andrew; Vincent, Angela


    Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment.

  3. Addictive eating disorders. (United States)

    Flood, M


    Addictive eating disorders have been a part of history and have only recently been recognized as psychiatric disorders. Increased publicity has enabled family and friends of eating disordered individuals to recognize the disease and seek help for them from trained medical professionals. Everyone is "at risk," but certain subpopulations have been "coming out of the closet" in epidemic proportions. An ever-increasing number of high school-aged and college-aged females have developed some form of eating disorder, from fad diets to self-induced vomiting. In these individuals, the obsession with thinness takes priority over family, friends, schoolwork, or career. Strangely enough, the eating disordered person's addiction is not to food but to the feeling of numbness her behavior brings. Over time, the need to control is desperately sought and many patients transfer their obsession to other patterns of self-abuse. Nursing intervention should include setting the appropriate example in terms of the professional's relationship with food, while providing much needed emotional support. An innovative method of intervention available to nursing professionals includes the use of creative, visual imagery to repeatedly diffuse fear and anxiety about food until a level of personal autonomy over the disorder and other emotional concerns is achieved. Therefore, a system of recovery can be designed for the anorectic or bulimic patient and the experience of recovery from the eating disorder can be a lifelong process of personal growth.

  4. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgenthaler TI


    Full Text Available Bhanu P Kolla,1,2 R Robert Auger,1,2 Timothy I Morgenthaler11Mayo Center for Sleep Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Misalignment between endogenous circadian rhythms and the light/dark cycle can result in pathological disturbances in the form of erratic sleep timing (irregular sleep–wake rhythm, complete dissociation from the light/dark cycle (circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running type, delayed sleep timing (delayed sleep phase disorder, or advanced sleep timing (advanced sleep phase disorder. Whereas these four conditions are thought to involve predominantly intrinsic mechanisms, circadian dysrhythmias can also be induced by exogenous challenges, such as those imposed by extreme work schedules or rapid transmeridian travel, which overwhelm the ability of the master clock to entrain with commensurate rapidity, and in turn impair approximation to a desired sleep schedule, as evidenced by the shift work and jet lag sleep disorders. This review will focus on etiological underpinnings, clinical assessments, and evidence-based treatment options for circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Topics are subcategorized when applicable, and if sufficient data exist. The length of text associated with each disorder reflects the abundance of associated literature, complexity of management, overlap of methods for assessment and treatment, and the expected prevalence of each condition within general medical practice.Keywords: circadian rhythm sleep disorders, assessment, treatment

  5. Epilepsy and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir


    Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.

  6. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios D Kotzalidis


    Full Text Available Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuroinflammation-related terms and crossed them with bipolar disorder-related terms. The search produced 310 articles and the number rose to 350 after adding articles from other search engines and reference lists. Twenty papers were included that appropriately tackled the issue of the presence (but not of its pathophysiological role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder. Of these, 15 were postmortem and 5 were carried out in living humans. Most articles were consistent with the presence of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but factors such as treatment may mask it. All studies were cross-sectional, preventing causality to be inferred. Thus, no inference can be currently made about the role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but a link is likely. The issue remains little investigated, despite an excess of reviews on this topic.

  7. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora


    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  8. Kinetics of tetrataenite disordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dos Santos, E., E-mail: [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P. [Centre Européen de Recherche et d’Enseignement des Géosciences de l’Environnement, UM34, CNRS/Aix-Marseille University, Aix-en-Provence (France); Fillion, G. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses (LNCMI), CNRS, UJF, 38042 Grenoble (France); Scorzelli, R.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Tetrataenite is a chemically ordered L1{sub 0}-type Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} alloy detected for the first time in 1977 by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy studies in iron meteorites. The thermal history of meteorites, in particular short thermal events like those associated to hypervelocity impacts, can be constrained by tracing the presence of tetrataenite or its disordering into taenite. The knowledge of the disordering kinetics of tetrataenite, that is associated with changes in its magnetic properties, is still very fragmentary so that the time–temperature history of these meteorites cannot be constrained in details. Furthermore, knowledge of disordering kinetics is important due to potential technological application of tetrataenite as a rare-earth free strong magnet. Thus, this work provides the first time–temperature data for disordering reaction of tetrataenite. We have shown that disordering is not an instantaneous process but is a kinetic limited reaction. It was shown that disordering may take place at any temperature above the order–disorder transition for L{sub 10} superstructure phase (∼320 °C) when the appropriate time-scale is considered. This result means that the apparent Curie point for tetrataenite is not an absolute property in the sense that any estimate of this parameter should be referred to a given time-scale. - Highlights: • The first time–temperature data for tetrataenite disordering reaction is provided. • Previous works does not give a complete picture of tetrataenite disordering. • Apparent Curie temperature of tetrataenite should be referred to a time-scale. • Tetrataenite can be used as a probe to detect thermal/shock events recorded in meteorites.

  9. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips


    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  10. Disordered chaotic strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    Chaotic strings are coupled Tchebyscheff maps on a ring-network. With a well-specified empirical prescription they are able to explain the coupling constants of the standard model of elementary particle physics. This empirical relationship is tested further by introducing a tunable disorder to ch...... of the standard model of elementary particle physics. For the electromagnetic sector it is found that already a small disorder pushes the associated energy scale of the running coupling constant far away from the result without disorder....

  11. [Antisocial personality disorder]. (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero


    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  12. About Mood Disorders (United States)

    ... people of all ages, races, ethnic groups and social classes. Although it can occur at any age, the ... is found among all races, ethnic groups and social classes. Like depression and other serious illnesses, bipolar disorder ...

  13. Connective Tissue Disorders (United States)

    Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    ... Child Is Raped Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress About Teen Suicide Sadness and Depression Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Phobias Five Steps for Fighting Stress Going to a Psychologist, Psychiatrist, or Therapist Being ...

  15. Toe Injuries and Disorders (United States)

    ... severe arthritis, can cause toe problems and pain. Gout often causes pain in the big toe. Common toe problems include Corns and bunions Ingrown toenails Sprains and dislocations Fractures Treatments for toe injuries and disorders vary. They might ...

  16. Pelvic Floor Disorders (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pelvic Floor Disorders: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is the pelvic floor? The term "pelvic floor" refers to the group ...

  17. Interventions for Learning Disorders (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Interventions for Learning Disorders Page Content Article Body After you and your ... not the fault of the child, parent, or teacher. Learning disabilities affect families, and families affect learning disabilities. ...

  18. Sleep Disorders (PDQ) (United States)

    ... to sleep and wake at the right times. Parasomnia : Acting in unusual ways while falling asleep, sleeping, ... will suggest a sleep disorder clinic for treatment. Children with Somnolence Syndrome Somnolence syndrome (SS) is a side ...

  19. Disorders of heavy metals. (United States)

    Woimant, France; Trocello, Jean-Marc


    Heavy metals and trace elements play an important role in relation to the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. Neurologic diseases related to disorders of metabolism of copper and iron are reviewed. Copper disorders are divided into two classes: ATP7A- or ATP7B-related inherited copper transport disorders (Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy, and Wilson disease) and acquired diseases associated with copper deficiency or copper excess. Iron brain disorders are divided into genetic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, neuroferritinopathy, and aceruloplasminemia), genetic systemic iron accumulation with neurologic features (hemochromatosis), and acquired diseases associated with iron excess (superficial siderosis) or iron deficiency (restless leg syndrome). The main features of cadmium, lead, aluminum, mercury, and manganese toxicity are summarized.

  20. Other Rhythm Disorders (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Other Heart Rhythm Disorders Updated:Dec 21,2016 In ... page to further explore diagnosis, treatment options, and other information about conditions associated with atrial flutter. SICK ...

  1. Paranoid personality disorder. (United States)

    Triebwasser, Joseph; Chemerinski, Eran; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J


    Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is currently included in DSM-IV's "odd cluster" or "cluster A." In the present article, the authors review available information pertaining to the psychometric properties of PPD, as derived from the relevant literature and from databases of personality disorder study groups. There is comparatively little published evidence for the reliability and validity of PPD, and researchers by and large have tended not to study the disorder, either because of investigators' difficulty recruiting individuals with PPD into research studies, or (as seems more likely) because the trait-paranoia from which many psychiatric patients suffer has seemed better explained by other DSM-IV disorders on Axis I and/or Axis II than by PPD. Given the scant empirical evidence on PPD, it seems reasonable to remove it as an independent diagnosis from the next edition of DSM, and instead to encourage clinicians to code trait-paranoia using a dimensional approach.

  2. Skin Pigmentation Disorders (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  3. Hearing Disorders and Deafness (United States)

    ... impossible, to hear. They can often be helped. Deafness can keep you from hearing sound at all. ... certain medicines, and surgery. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  4. Disordered Materials An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ossi, Paolo M


    This self-contained text introduces the physics of structurally disordered condensed systems at the level of advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Among the topics are the geometry and symmetries of the structural units used as building blocks of extended structures, the various kinds of disorder, the phenomenology and the main theories of the glass transition, the structure of amorphous systems and the techniques to investigate it, the evolution of system's structure with its size (clusters) and the presence of orientational order in the absence of translational order (quasicrystals). In the second edition, the treatment of the mode coupling theory of the glass transition has been enlarged and connects now to a new section on collective excitations in disordered systems. Special attention has been devoted to nanometer-sized disordered systems, with emphasis on cluster-assembled materials. Questions of what governs the occurrence and stability of quasicrystals, the features of the amorphous to quasicr...

  5. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk


    Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, "normal anxiety" does not equal "pathological anxiety" although many phenomena are evident in healthy subjects, however to a lower extent. Differential effects of distinct brain regions and lateralization phenomena in different anxiety disorders are mentioned. An overview of neuroimaging investigations in anxiety disorders is given after a brief summary of results from healthy volunteers. Concluding implications for future research are made by the authors.

  6. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M


    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  7. Language disorder - children (United States)

    ... this page: // Language disorder - children To use the sharing features on ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    ... the lights on or take a favorite stuffed animal to bed, it might help them get through ... Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress About Teen Suicide Sadness and Depression Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Phobias Five ...

  9. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids) (United States)

    ... main kinds of thyroid disorder or thyroid disease. Hyperthyroidism (say: hi-per-THYE-roy-diz-em) happens ... Are the Symptoms of Thyroid Disease? Kids with hyperthyroidism can feel jumpy and have trouble concentrating. Like ...

  10. Cyclothymia (Cyclothymic Disorder) (United States)

    ... methods or stress-reduction techniques such as meditation, yoga or tai chi. There's no sure way to prevent cyclothymia. However, treatment at the earliest indication of a mental health disorder can help prevent cyclothymia from worsening. Long- ...

  11. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders. (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  12. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  13. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders (United States)

    ... acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? The March of Dimes recommends that all babies ... in behavior Diarrhea, nausea (feeling sick to your stomach) and throwing up Drowsiness Fever Fussiness Little appetite ...

  14. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) (United States)

    ... the better. Treatment can help restore your child's self-esteem and rebuild a positive relationship between you and ... with oppositional defiant disorder. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. ...

  15. Schizophrenia: a systemic disorder. (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio


    The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics.

  16. Speech disorders - children (United States)

    ... this page: // Speech disorders - children To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  17. Medications for Panic Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder During Pregnancy


    Rubinchik, Sofya M.; Kablinger, Anita S.; Gardner, J. Suzette


    Objective: Approximately 30% of women experience some type of anxiety disorder during their lifetime. In addition, some evidence exists that anxiety disorders can affect pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the literature on the course of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period and presents guidelines for management.

  18. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;


    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...



    Middha Akanksha; Kataria Sahil; Sandhu Premjeet; Kapoor Bhawna


    Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a serious neurological disorder affecting communication skills, social interactions, adaptability in an individual, and also causes dramatic changes in behavioral patterns. This condition typically lasts throughout one’s lifetime and affects both, children as well as adults. Research has shown a tenfold increase in autism cases over the past decade and still rising at an alarming pace. The origins of autism are not known even to modern science. Aut...

  20. Oral and esophageal disorders. (United States)

    Noyer, C M; Simon, D


    This article focused on the approach to oral and esophageal disorders in patients with AIDS. Most of these disorders respond to various therapeutic regimens. Some of the oral complications can be prevented with dental prophylaxis, whereas recurrent esophageal disease in some patients may require long-term suppressive therapy. As patients with AIDS live longer with lower CD4 counts, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with the approach to and management of the more common lesions of the mouth and esophagus.

  1. Metabolic disorders in menopause


    Grzegorz Stachowiak; Tomasz Pertyński; Magdalena Pertyńska-Marczewska


    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopaus...

  2. Neurodevelopmental disorders and orthodontics


    Uysal, Cemile; Işık Aslan, Belma


    Neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by impairment of brain or central nervous system, is defined as a condition of abnormal brain function that affects the growing child's emotional condition, learning ability and memory. Delayed social development, communication problems, repetitive behaviors, unusual eating behavior, insomnia, sensitivity to sounds, motor problems related to poor muscle tonus may be seen in this type of disorder. Cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, Autism...

  3. Primary headache disorders. (United States)

    Benoliel, Rafael; Eliav, Eli


    Primary headache disorders include migraine, tension-type headaches, and the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs). "Primary" refers to a lack of clear underlying causative pathology, trauma, or systemic disease. The TACs include cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing; hemicrania continua, although classified separately by the International Headache Society, shares many features of both migraine and the TACs. This article describes the features and treatment of these disorders.

  4. Disordered horizons: Holography of randomly disordered fixed points

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnoll, Sean A


    We deform conformal field theories with classical gravity duals by marginally relevant random disorder. We show that the disorder generates a flow to IR fixed points with a finite amount of disorder. The randomly disordered fixed points are characterized by a dynamical critical exponent $z>1$ that we obtain both analytically (via resummed perturbation theory) and numerically (via a full simulation of the disorder). The IR dynamical critical exponent increases with the magnitude of disorder, probably tending to $z \\to \\infty$ in the limit of infinite disorder.

  5. Etiology of temporomandibular disorders. (United States)

    Greene, C S


    This article discusses the subject of causation (etiology) as it has been applied to the field of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). These disorders have been the focus of considerable disagreement about what constitutes proper diagnosis and treatment, and it is clear that the main basis for these controversies has been conflicting views about the etiology of the various disorders. Many earlier theories emphasized dental morphological factors of malocclusion, occlusal dysharmony, and bad mandibular alignment as being primarily responsible for the development of TMD symptoms. Certain versions of these dental/skeletal concepts have long been a part of the belief system of the orthodontic specialty, leading to some special orthodontic protocols for managing TM disorders. Today, it is generally agreed that the etiology of TM disorders includes a multifactorial combination of physical and psychosocial factors, with some of them being either poorly understood or difficult to assess. In most cases, there are no special occlusal or orthodontic factors to be considered, and therefore occlusion-changing procedures are not generally required for successful treatment. This means that contemporary orthodontists must face the same challenge as all their other dental colleagues: to learn about modern concepts of diagnosis and treatment for all types of orofacial pain patients, and then to use currently recommended protocols for pain management and musculoskeletal therapy for those patients who have temporomandibular disorders.

  6. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin


    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  7. Transverse myelitis spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Lekha


    Full Text Available Acute transverse myelitis (ATM is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that affects the spinal cord focally resulting in motor sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Establishing the diagnosis of ATM is not as difficult as determining the possible etiology. There is a difference in the perception of ATM seen in the West as compared to developing countries. In the West multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. An attack of ATM may be the beginning of MS. However, this may not be the case in developing countries where MS is uncommon. Most often transverse myelitis is monophasic and at best represents a site-restricted form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM. Traditionally the combination of optic neuritis and ATM, occurring as a monophasic illness would have been called as neuromyelitis optica (NMO. Changing concepts in the definition of NMO and the discovery of a biomarker, neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin (NMO_IgG, has changed the way relapsing autoimmune disorders are being perceived currently. A variety of idiopathic inflammatory disorders such as Japanese form of optic spinal MS, recurrent myelitis, and recurrent optic neuritis have been brought under the umbrella of neuromyelitis spectrum disorders because of the association with NMO-IgG. Complete transverse myelitis accompanied by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis which is seronegative for this biomarker has also been reported from several countries including Japan, Australia, and India. Thus, ATM is a heterogeneous disorder with a varied clinical spectrum, etiology, and outcome.

  8. Perfectionism in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders. (United States)

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Lauro, Leonor J Romero; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria; Mauri, Massimo C; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Frost, Randy


    High levels of perfectionism have been observed in major depression, anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Though few studies have compared levels of perfectionism across these disorders, there is reason to believe that different dimensions of perfectionism may be involved in eating disorders than in depression or anxiety [Bardone-Cone, A. M. et al. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: Current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 84-405]. The present study compared patients with major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders on dimensions of perfectionism. Concern over Mistakes was elevated in each of the patient groups while Pure Personal Standards was only elevated in the eating disorder sample. Doubts about Actions was elevated in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, but not in depressed patients. Analyses of covariance indicated that Concern over Mistakes accounted for most of the variance in the relationship of perfectionism to these forms of psychopathology.



    Knezevic R. Milan; Andjelic S. Gordana; Knezevic M. Milena


    A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a) congenital dental developmental disorders, (b) chromosomal anomalies, (c) radiations, (d) immune disorders, (e) intoxications, (f) neurological alterations, (g) gastrointestinal diseases, (h) osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i) skin diseases, (j) metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k) craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital g...

  10. Schizophrenia as a semiotic disorder. (United States)

    Harrod, J B


    Lanin-Kettering and Harrow (1985) argue the traditional position that schizophrenia is a thought disorder. Chaika and Lambe (1985) counter that it is a speech disorder at the syntactic-discursive level, and not a thought disorder. On the basis of state-of-the-art research in linguistics, it is suggested that the symptoms of schizophrenia are evidence of neither a thought disorder nor a syntactic-discursive disorder but a semiotic disorder. Semiotic structures have the form of saying something about something to someone and involve speech act, reference, pragmatics, and interpretation. Therefore, it appears that schizophrenic disorder is located in this structure.

  11. Disability associated with mental disorders



    Background: Disability associated with mental illness is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. The present study looks at some aspects of disability associated with 7 psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, obsessive–compulsive disorder, dementia, and mental and behavioural disorders due to the use of alcohol. Aims: (i) To evaluate the nature and quantity of disabilities in the study groups; (ii) to compare the degree of ...

  12. Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Somatoform Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijke, A.; Ford, J.D.; Van der Hart, O.; Van Son, M.J.M.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Buerhing, M.


    Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS), also known as Complex posttraumatic stress disorder, was assessed in a sample (N = 472) of adult psychiatric patients with confirmed diagnoses of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Somatoform Disorders (SoD), comorbid BPD + SoD, or Af

  13. Eating disorders in Malta. (United States)

    Grech, Anton


    In the beginning of 2014 a new service (residential and non residential) for eating disorders is being planned to open in Malta. A telephone based survey was conducted between 30 May and 11 June 2012. A randomized sample of 6000 of the population between 15 and 50 years old was chosen. 2.9 per cent of respondents have suffered from an eating disorder at some point in time. 2.0 percent of these had suffered from an eating disorder in the past, while the remaining (0.9 per cent) were suffering from an eating disorder at the time of study. Out of these 2,008 individuals participated in the study. Binge Eating was the most common eating disorder, with 55.8 per cent of respondents having this condition, followed by Anorexia (34.3 per cent) and Bulimia (13.3 per cent). These results were comparable to those of other European countries. Awareness of these conditions in the general population was generally good, higher in females and in those with a higher educational level.

  14. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I


    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  15. Psychosexual disorders and dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Narang


    Full Text Available Sexual problems that are psychological in origin, rather than physiological, are called psychosexual disorders. Multiple factors, such as general health of the patient, chronic illnesses, psychiatric/psychological disorders, and socio-cultural factors, alone or in combination can be attributed to the development of psychosexual dysfunctions. The symptoms of these disorders vary for each individual and differ with gender. These disorders may be categorized as sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders. Dermatologists are sometimes consulted for sexual dysfunctions in their routine practice by the patients visiting sexually transmitted infections (STI clinics because a majority of the patients believe that these problems are caused by dysfunctions in the sex organs, and because people are hesitant to go to sexuality clinics and psychiatrists for such problems. Sometimes these patients are referred from other specialties such as urology or gynecology; most often, we attempt to search for STIs or other dermatoses on the genitalia and refer them back. We often underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns of the patients or feel uncomfortable discussing matters of sexuality with them. Dermatologists should understand basic sexual medicine and ask patients for sexual problems. They should be trained to manage such patients accordingly. In this review, we will be focusing on sexual dysfunctions, their etiopathogenesis, and management from a dermatologist's perspective.

  16. Night Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tuncel


    Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.

  17. [Creativity and bipolar disorder]. (United States)

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin


    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  18. Immunologic endocrine disorders. (United States)

    Michels, Aaron W; Eisenbarth, George S


    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA-like molecules determining tissue-specific targeting that, with the loss of tolerance, leads to organ-specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Addison disease, and many others result from autoimmune-mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in patients with type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. Although therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies.

  19. Metabolic disorders in menopause. (United States)

    Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Pertyński, Tomasz; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena


    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance - IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus - T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women's life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases) in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT). According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy). Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  20. [Sleep related eating disorder]. (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko


    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED.

  1. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Stachowiak


    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women’s life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT. According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy. Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  2. Personality disorders in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lenkiewicz


    Full Text Available Adult personality disorders are well recognized and described in the literature. The discussion about the possibility of the presence of personality disorders in adolescents started about 20 years ago. Some authors claim the before the age of 18 it is only possible to identify precursors of future personality disorders and such a standpoint is reflected in diagnostic criteria. This is based on the assumption that personality in adolescence is still not well established. Consequently, the criterion on the persistence of symptoms for the period of time cannot be met (the persistence of symptoms of personality disorders for the period of at least two years. Other approach postulates that problems presented in adolescence should not be exclusively limited to Axis I according to DSM. The proponents of this approach claim that current diagnostic tools are not adjusted to adolescents, thus it is very difficult to measure stability and persistence of symptoms in this age group. This paper presents literature review on personality disorders in adolescence.

  3. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James;


    in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome. Aims.  The aims of this brief review are to give definitions of the different types of FSAD, describe their aetiology, prevalence and comorbidity with somatic....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...... comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology...

  4. Treatments for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pietro, Nina C; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Mizgalewicz, Ania


    The Internet is a major source of health-related information for parents of sick children despite concerns surrounding quality. For neurodevelopmental disorders, the websites of advocacy groups are a largely unexamined source of information. We evaluated treatment information posted on nine highly......-trafficked advocacy websites for autism, cerebral palsy, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. We found that the majority of claims about treatment safety and efficacy were unsubstantiated. Instead, a range of rhetorical strategies were used to imply scientific support. When peer-reviewed publications were cited, 20...... % were incorrect or irrelevant. We call for new partnerships between advocacy and experts in developmental disorders to ensure better accuracy and higher transparency about how treatment information is selected and evidenced on advocacy websites....

  5. [Cannabis-induced disorders]. (United States)

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E


    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  6. [Epidemiology of mood disorders]. (United States)

    Rouillon, Frédéric


    The 12 months and lifetime prevalence of is respectively 5 and 9% in the general population; moreover 10 to 20% of general practice patients are depressed. Depression is involved in about 40 to 80% of suicide and induces one of the greatest social burden. Mood disorders are more frequent in women, individual living alone and people with low socio-economic level. Risk factors are stressfull life events, biological vulnerability (genetic factors), somatic diseases, psychiatric comorbidity including personality disorders and addictions. Depressive disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated despite efficacious pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies in their treatment. It's the reason why public health programs to prevent depression have been promoted by many countries like European Alliance against Depression. Their efficacy must be evaluated as their cost-efficiency.

  7. Phosphate homeostasis and disorders. (United States)

    Manghat, P; Sodi, R; Swaminathan, R


    Recent studies of inherited disorders of phosphate metabolism have shed new light on the understanding of phosphate metabolism. Phosphate has important functions in the body and several mechanisms have evolved to regulate phosphate balance including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Disorders of phosphate homeostasis leading to hypo- and hyperphosphataemia are common and have clinical and biochemical consequences. Notably, recent studies have linked hyperphosphataemia with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the recent advances in the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and describes the causes, investigation and management of hypo- and hyperphosphataemia.

  8. Basophils and skin disorders. (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Granata, Francescopaolo; Marone, Gianni


    Since their discovery in 1879, basophils have been viewed as circulating blood granulocytes with limited immune function. New research tools for their functional analysis in vivo have revealed previously unrecognized roles for basophils in several skin disorders. Human basophils infiltrate different skin lesions and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases ranging from chronic idiopathic urticaria to systemic lupus erythematosus. In mouse models, basophils participate in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation of the skin and have a protective role in tick infestation. In this review, we discuss critical advances in our understanding of basophil biology and their roles in the pathophysiology of skin disorders.

  9. [Narcissistic personality disorder]. (United States)

    Lammers, C-H; Vater, A; Roepke, S


    Narcissism is a multifaceted term which encompasses traits of normal personality as well as a specific personality disorder. While much research has been concerned with narcissism as a trait there are only few empirical studies available on narcissistic personality disorder (NPS). The current diagnostic of NPS according to DSM-IV-TR focuses on grandiose type narcissism whereas vulnerable narcissism, which has been described by clinicians and researchers has not yet been recognised. Psychotherapy of narcissistic patients through different psychotherapeutic schools focuses mainly on processes in the therapeutic relationship, the analysis and change of grandiose and vulnerable schemas, emotion regulation techniques and correction of narcissistic behavior in favor of prosocial interactions.

  10. Selected disorders of malabsorption. (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zafreen; Osayande, Amimi S


    Malabsorption syndrome encompasses numerous clinical entities that result in chronic diarrhea, abdominal distention, and failure to thrive. These disorders may be congenital or acquired and include cystic fibrosis and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome; the rare congenital lactase deficiency; glucose-galactose malabsorption; sucrase-isomaltase deficiency; adult-type hypolactasia leading to acquired lactose intolerance. The pathology may be due to impairment in absorption or digestion of nutrients resulting in Nutritional deficiency, gastrointestinal symptoms, and extra gastrointestinal symptoms. Treatment is aimed at correcting the deficiencies and symptoms to improve quality of life. Common disorders of malabsorption celiac disease, pernicious anemia, and lactase deficiency are discussed in this article.

  11. Stereotypic movement disorders. (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S


    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable.

  12. Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Erten


    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a chronic disorder in which irregular course of depressive, mania or mixed episodes or a complete recovery between episodes can be observed. The studies about the effects of traumatic events on bipolar disorder showed that they had significant and long-term effects on the symptoms of the disorder. Psychosocial stress might change the neurobiology of bipolar disorder over time. The studies revealed that the traumatic events could influence not only the onset of the disorder but also the course of the disorder and in these patients the rate of suicide attempt and comorbid substance abuse might increase. Bipolar patients who had childhood trauma had an earlier onset, higher number of episodes and comorbid disorders. In this review, the relationship between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder is reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 157-165

  13. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders. (United States)

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik


    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood.

  14. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders. (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M


    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed.

  15. Psychobiology of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Stein, Dan J


    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is currently classified as an anxiety disorder. However, there is growing interest in the concept of an obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders (OCSDs). The relationship between anxiety disorders and OCSDs has been questioned. The psychobiology of anxiety disorders and OCSDs is briefly reviewed in this article. While there appear to be several distinct contrasts in the underlying psychobiology of these conditions, there is also evidence of overlapping mechanisms. In addition, there are crucial gaps in our current database, confounding nosological decision-making. Conceptualizing various anxiety disorders and putative OCSDs as lying within a broader spectrum of emotional disorders may be useful. However, clinicians must also recognize that individual anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions, including disorders characterized by body-focused repetitive behaviors, have distinct psychobiological underpinnings and require different treatment approaches.

  16. Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. (United States)

    Fombonne, Eric


    Is the incidence of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) increasing? Recent epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and other PDDs have heightened awareness of and concern about the prevalence of these disorders; however, differences in survey methodology, particularly changes in case definition and case identification over time, have made comparisons between surveys difficult to perform and interpret. Recent surveys suggest that the rate of all PDDs is about 60 per 10,000. The prevalence of autism today is estimated at 13 per 10,000, Asperger's disorder is approximately 3 per 10,000, and childhood disintegrative disorder is very rare at about 0.2 per 10,000. The assessment process, sample size, publication year, and geographic location of studies all have an effect on prevalence estimates. In addition, data from many of these surveys indicate correlates of autistic disorder and other PDDs with IQ, gender, and other medical disorders.

  17. Traumatic Stress Disorders and Risk of Subsequent Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder or Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Trabjerg, Betina; Arendt, Mikkel


    OBJECTIVE: Traumatic stress disorders are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, there is a lack of prospective longitudinal studies investigating the risk of severe mental illness for people diagnosed with traumatic stress disorders. We aimed to assess if patients...... with acute stress reaction (ASR) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders or bipolar disorder. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study covering the entire Danish population including information on inpatient and outpatient mental hospitals...... over 2 decades. Predictors were in- or outpatient diagnoses of ASR or PTSD. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% CIs of schizophrenia, schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and bipolar disorder. RESULTS: Persons with a traumatic stress disorder had a significantly increased risk...

  18. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Tyagi


    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.

  19. Adrenal Gland Disorders (United States)

    ... t live without, including sex hormones and cortisol. Cortisol helps you respond to stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones. In Cushing's ... too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. ...

  20. Disorder effects in cuprates (United States)

    Vobornik, I.; Grioni, M.; Berger, Helmuth; Forro, Laszlo; Pavuna, Davor; Margaritondo, Giorgio; Karkin, A.; Kelley, Ronald J.; Onellion, Marshall


    We report on ab-plane resistivity ((rho) ) and angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) spectra for Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystals irradiated with neutrons or electron-beam irradiation. Both the normal and superconducting states were measured with angle-resolved photoemission. Electron-beam irradiation leads to an increase in the residual resistivity, and a decrease in the superconducting transition temperature (Tc). The resistivity data does not indicate any pseudogap; the resistivity is linear from Tc to 300 K for all levels of disorder, and the slope (d(rho) /dT) is the same for all levels of disorder. The superconducting state ARPES data exhibits no change in the binding energy of the 'peak' for Brillouin zone locations near the (O,(pi) ) point. The peak spectral intensity decreases with increasing disorder, the gap fills in, but the peak neither shifts nor broadens. The normal state exhibits a pseudogap developing with disorder; the size of the pseudogap increases as the residual resistivity increases. The pseudogap is anisotropic, largest near the (O,(pi) ) point and zero in the direction. Neutron-beam irradiation causes an increase in the residual resistivity. The resistivity data exhibit a change of slope and indications of a pseudogap for neutron irradiation. For normal state ARPES data of neutron-beam irradiated samples, there is also an anisotropic pseudogap; it is also zero in the direction and large near the (O,(pi) ) point. We discuss implications of these data.

  1. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming. (United States)

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  2. Multiple personality disorder. (United States)

    Salama, A A


    This paper presents a description of Multiple Personality Disorder--its development, etiology, and presentation. The paper stresses the criteria for diagnosis that can help professionals to identify individuals at an early stage. An overview of treatment approaches and indications for hospitalization, length of treatment, and goals are also explained.

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (United States)

    ... with: 1 Communication and interaction with other people Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors Different people with autism can have different symptoms. For this reason, autism is known as a spectrum disorder —which means that there is a range of ...

  4. Studies of Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Oldham, John M;


    The past 25 years have shown major advances in the studies of personality disorders. This collaborative article by the presidents, past and present, of ISSPD reflects on the progress within several significant areas of studies, i.e., assessment, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, advocacy...

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  6. Binge eating disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette


    Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...

  7. Temporomandibular joint disorders. (United States)

    Buescher, Jennifer J


    Temporomandibular joint disorders are common in adults; as many as one third of adults report having one or more symptoms, which include jaw or neck pain, headache, and clicking or grating within the joint. Most symptoms improve without treatment, but various noninvasive therapies may reduce pain for patients who have not experienced relief from self-care therapies. Physical therapy modalities (e.g., iontophoresis, phonophoresis), psychological therapies (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy), relaxation techniques, and complementary therapies (e.g., acupuncture, hypnosis) are all used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders; however, no therapies have been shown to be uniformly superior for the treatment of pain or oral dysfunction. Noninvasive therapies should be attempted before pursuing invasive, permanent, or semi-permanent treatments that have the potential to cause irreparable harm. Dental occlusion therapy (e.g., oral splinting) is a common treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders, but a recent systematic review found insufficient evidence for or against its use. Some patients with intractable temporomandibular joint disorders develop chronic pain syndrome and may benefit from treatment, including antidepressants or cognitive behavior therapy.

  8. Exporting Our Disorders (United States)

    Foltz, Robert


    In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association will release its newest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5). This tome has evolved over the decades, originally including just 112 diagnoses across 128 pages. The upcoming edition is expected to eclipse the 943 pages, and 350+ disorders of the current DSM-IV-TR, offering a variety of…

  9. Women's Sexual Pain Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin


    Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatme

  10. Reactive Attachment Disorder. (United States)

    Chapman, Sue


    Written by a British parent, this case study tells the story of an adopted child who experienced many difficulties adjusting to life at home and school. It describes attachment disorder, possible causes of attachment difficulties, the bonding cycle, therapeutic parenting, and how schools can support the re-nurturing process. (Contains references.)…

  11. Hip Injuries and Disorders (United States)

    ... problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited motion. Osteoporosis of the hip causes weak bones that break easily. Both of these are common in older people. Treatment for hip disorders may include rest, medicines, physical therapy, or surgery, including hip replacement.

  12. Attachment and Personality Disorders (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap


    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  13. Menopause related sleep disorders. (United States)

    Eichling, Philip S; Sahni, Jyotsna


    Sleep difficulty is one of the hallmarks of menopause. Following recent studies showing no cardiac benefit and increased breast cancer, the question of indications for hormonal therapy has become even more pertinent. Three sets of sleep disorders are associated with menopause: insomnia/depression, sleep disordered breathing and fibromyalgia. The primary predictor of disturbed sleep architecture is the presence of vasomotor symptoms. This subset of women has lower sleep efficiency and more sleep complaints. The same group is at higher risk of insomnia and depression. The "domino theory" of sleep disruption leading to insomnia followed by depression has the most scientific support. Estrogen itself may also have an antidepressant as well as a direct sleep effect. Treatment of insomnia in responsive individuals may be a major remaining indication for hormone therapy. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) increases markedly at menopause for reasons that include both weight gain and unclear hormonal mechanisms. Due to the general under-recognition of SDB, health care providers should not assume sleep complaints are due to vasomotor related insomnia/depression without considering SDB. Fibromyalgia has gender, age and probably hormonal associations. Sleep complaints are almost universal in FM. There are associated polysomnogram (PSG) findings. FM patients have increased central nervous system levels of the nociceptive neuropeptide substance P (SP) and lower serotonin levels resulting in a lower pain threshold to normal stimuli. High SP and low serotonin have significant potential to affect sleep and mood. Treatment of sleep itself seems to improve, if not resolve FM. Menopausal sleep disruption can exacerbate other pre-existing sleep disorders including RLS and circadian disorders.

  14. Treatment of comorbid anxiety disorders and personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntz, A.; Emmelkamp, P.; Ehring, T.


    For a long time the diagnosis of personality disorder was associated with therapeutic pessimism: People with these problems were viewed as untreatable, due to fundamental character complications. Failures of anxiety disorder treatment tended to be labeled as "personality disorder". There is little e

  15. Movement disorders in cerebrovascular disease. (United States)

    Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph


    Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. Some of these disorders occur immediately after acute stroke, whereas others can develop later, and yet others represent delayed-onset progressive movement disorders. These movement disorders have been encountered in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula affecting the basal ganglia, their connections, or both.

  16. Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders (United States)

    ... Disorders Overview of Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders Cholecystitis Gallstones Biliary Pain Without Gallstones Narrowing of the ... ducts are blocked, the gallbladder may become inflamed ( cholecystitis ). Biliary pain without gallstones (acalculous biliary pain) can ...

  17. [Basic disorders in human communication]. (United States)

    Peñaloza-López, Y; Gutiérrez-Silva, J; Andrade-Illañez, E N; Fierro-Evans, M A; Hernández-López, X


    This paper specifies the areas and disorders that concern human communication medicine. The frequency of the diverse disorders is analyzed in relation to age and sex, and the distribution in group ages of several disabling diseases is also discussed.

  18. Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders? Pleurisy (PLUR-ih-se) is a ... Many conditions can cause pleurisy, including viral infections. Other Pleural Disorders Pneumothorax Air or gas can build ...

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (United States)

    ... this page: // Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by the presence ...

  20. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders (United States)

    ... Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table ... Center First to Study Minimally Verbal Children / Smartphone App for Voice Disorders / Stop the World from Spinning / ...

  1. Tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J


    Diagnostic categories of tic disorders include both transient and chronic tic disorders and Tourette's disorder. Changes for this group of disorders proposed for the forthcoming DSM-5 system include: (1) The term "stereotyped" will be eliminated in the definition of tics and the new definition wi...... emphasize the importance of facilitating the dissemination of several behavioral treatment approaches, such as "Exposure Response Prevention", yet the most well documented being "Habit Reversal Training"....

  2. Disorder Operators and their Descendants

    CERN Document Server

    Fradkin, Eduardo


    I review the concept of a {\\em disorder operator}, introduced originally by Kadanoff in the context of the two-dimensional Ising model. Disorder operators acquire an expectation value in the disordered phase of the classical spin system. This concept has had applications and implications to many areas of physics ranging from quantum spin chains to gauge theories to topological phases of matter. In this paper I describe the role that disorder operators play in our understanding of phases of matter.

  3. Systemic disorders affecting dental pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Milan R


    Full Text Available A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a congenital dental developmental disorders, (b chromosomal anomalies, (c radiations, (d immune disorders, (e intoxications, (f neurological alterations, (g gastrointestinal diseases, (h osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i skin diseases, (j metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital general malformations. The associated dental pathology is described in each case.

  4. Disorders of Erythrocyte Volume Homeostasis


    Glogowska, Edyta; Gallagher, Patrick G.


    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneity characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants ...

  5. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozkan


    Full Text Available Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male, who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia. Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Patients who had a history of sexual abuse were assessed with Sexual Abuse Severity Scale. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, agoraphobia, different panic attack symptoms, sexual abuse, and early onset of disorders. The rates of comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders were 80.3% and 33.9%, consecutively, in patients with panic disorder. Panic disorder patients with comorbid personality disorders had more severe anxiety, depression and agoraphobia symptoms, and had earlier ages of onset, and lower levels of functioning. The rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 34.8% and 9.8%, consecutively, in subjects with panic disorder. The rate of patients with panic disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse was 12.5%. The predictor of sexual abuse was more than one comorbid Axis II diagnosis. The predictors of suicide attempt were comorbid paranoid and borderline personality disorders, and the predictor of suicidal ideation was major depressive disorder in subjects with panic disorder. In conclusion, this study documents that comorbid personality disorders increase the clinical severity of panic disorder. Patients with more than one

  6. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.


    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  7. Discriminating Between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. (United States)

    Vöhringer, Paul A; Perlis, Roy H


    Rates of misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder have been reported to be substantial, and the consequence of such misdiagnosis is likely to be a delay in achieving effective control of symptoms, in some cases spanning many years. Particularly in the midst of a depressive episode, or early in the illness course, it may be challenging to distinguish the 2 mood disorders purely on the basis of cross-sectional features. To date, no useful biological markers have been reliably shown to distinguish between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  8. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W


    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD.

  9. [Memory disorders in schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Danion, J M; Peretti, S; Gras-Vincendon, A; Singer, L


    The current interest in memory disorders in schizophrenia results from the way perceptions of schizophrenia--whose organic origin is becoming increasingly evident--and memory--according to which there exist not one, but several memories--have developed. Memory disorders in the schizophrenic cannot be considered in isolation from knowledge accumulated in other areas of the cognitive and neuro-sciences; a more detailed understanding of these disorders requires a comparison of the different cognitive approaches, both with each other and with the neurobiological and clinical approaches, so that they can be integrated. Despite numerous methodological and conceptual difficulties, it now appears to have been established that the schizophrenic's memory deficit should be seen in the context of a wider cognitive deficit, that the memory tasks are not all disturbed and that the memory deficit cannot be identified with one specific form of memory. Thus, iconic formation, short-term memory in the traditionally accepted sense and implicit memory are hardly, if at all, affected; in contrast, the early processing of information, working memory and explicit memory are disturbed, probably to the extent that they require the implementation of strategies to organise the information to be memorized. Finally, in certain tasks, such as those evaluating latent inhibition or negative priming, schizophrenics perform better than normal subjects, suggesting that schizophrenics' cognitive deficit is localised. This profile of memory disorders is compatible with a dysfunction predominating in the frontal and temporo-hippocampal regions. Neuroleptics and anticholinergics have opposite effects on cognitive and mnesic performance, which is improved by the former and aggravated by the latter. The influence of clinical symptoms, positive or negative, institutionalisation of patients and chronic tardive dyskinesia is unclear. Among the theoretical proposals put forward to account for the observed

  10. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males (United States)

    Ray, Shannon L.


    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  11. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (United States)

    ... Treatments and Therapies Join a Study Learn More Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Definition Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, ... page for more information. Share Science News About Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) CBT Boosts SSRI for OCD NIMH Hosts ...



    Jagadheesan, K.; Nizamie, Haque S.; Thakur, Anupam


    Catatonia occurs in a wide range of neuropsychiatric conditions. Among the psychiatric disorders, occurrence of catatonia has rarely been documented in obsessive-complsive disorder. Given the paucity of reports, we report two cases of obsessive compulsive disorder that presented as catatonia.

  13. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der


    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The e

  14. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.


    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were conceptualiz

  15. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa


    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  16. Updates on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders. (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Bledsoe, Jesse


    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to learning disorders was reviewed and included reading disability, mathematics learning disability, and nonverbal learning disability. Genetic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological functioning were examined for each disorder, along with a discussion of any existing literature when ADHD co-occurred with the disorder. All the disorders were found to frequently co-occur with ADHD. A review of the underlying neuroanatomic and neurofunctional data found specific structures that frequently co-occur in these disorders with others that are specific to the individual diagnosis. Aberrations in structure and/or function were found for the caudate, corpus callosum, and cerebellum, making these structures sensitive for the disorder but not specific. Suggestions for future research, particularly in relation to intervention, are provided.

  17. Comorbid sleep disorders in neuropsychiatric disorders across the life cycle. (United States)

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Nanovska, Svetoslava; Baglioni, Chiara; Riemann, Dieter


    The association between psychopathology and poor sleep has long been recognized. The current review focuses on the association between the most prevalent sleep disorders (insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders and restless legs syndrome) and four major psychiatric disorders: alcohol dependence, schizophrenia, depression and anxiety disorders. Decreased total sleep time and increased sleep onset latency as measured by polysomnography as well an increase of the prevalence of insomnia has been reported in all of these psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, sleep disturbance is a risk factor for their development. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia has been shown to have a positive impact on both sleep and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Whether adequate treatment of sleep disorders can prevent the incidence of psychiatric disorders, remains to be investigated.

  18. Endocannabinoids and Metabolic Disorders. (United States)

    Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Cota, Daniela


    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is known to exert regulatory control on essentially every aspect related to the search for, and the intake, metabolism and storage of calories, and consequently it represents a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and eating disorders. While the clinical use of the first generation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor blockers has been halted due to the psychiatric side effects that their use occasioned, recent research in animals and humans has provided new knowledge on the mechanisms of actions of the ECS in the regulation of eating behavior, energy balance, and metabolism. In this review, we discuss these recent advances and how they may allow targeting the ECS in a more specific and selective manner for the future development of therapies against obesity, metabolic syndrome, and eating disorders.

  19. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Akinci


    Full Text Available The circadian rhythm sleep disorders define the clinical conditions where sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted despite optimum environmental and social conditions. They occur as a result of the changes in endogenous circadian hours or non-compatibility of environmental factors or social life with endogenous circadian rhythm. The sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted continuously or in repeating phases depending on lack of balance between internal and external cycles. This condition leads to functional impairments which cause insomnia, excessive sleepiness or both in people. Application of detailed sleep anamnesis and sleep diary with actigraphy record, if possible, will be sufficient for diagnosis. The treatment aims to align endogenous circadian rhythm with environmental conditions. The purpose of this article is to review pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 178-189

  20. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta


    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  1. [Borderline personality disorder]. (United States)

    Machizawa, S


    Although Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) overlaps considerably with Major Depression, recent studies of biology, genetics and childhood trauma have demonstrated that there are substantial differences between the two disorders. It is suggested that their apparent relationship is rather nonspecific. In this paper, the author emphasizes that the core symptom of BPD is impulsiveness, which causes depressive symptoms and/or is induced by depressive episodes, forming a vicious cycle. Furthermore, in BPD patients, depressive symptoms are modified by impulsiveness, masochism, vanity, despair, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. The author concludes that BPD is not a homogeneous but heterogeneous syndrome, classified into subtypes: depressive type, impulsive type, and identity diffusion type. Treatment needs to be considered according to these types.

  2. Balance Function Disorders (United States)


    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  3. Smell and taste disorders [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landis, Basile N.


    Full Text Available [english] Smell and taste disorders can markedly affect the quality of life. In recent years we have become much better in the assessment of the ability to smell and taste. In addition, information is now available to say something about the prognosis of individual patients. With regard to therapy there also seems to be low but steady progress. Of special importance for the treatment is the ability of the olfactory epithelium to regenerate.

  4. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy


    Mammaro, Alessia; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Pappalardo, Elisa Maria; Militello, Mariapia; Pedata, Rosa


    Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories, as recommended by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: 1) chronic hypertension, 2) preeclampsia-eclampsia, 3) preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, and 4) gestational hypertension (transient hypertension of pregnancy or chronic hyper...

  5. [Obsessive compulsive disorders]. (United States)


    Obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) are a nosographic entity. Their biological rating in serotonergic pathways and the efficacy of serotonergic antidepressants allows for developing a clinical and biological models of OCD. J. Guyotat, one of the first in 1959 to observe the favorable effects of antidepressants on OCD, presents their history. Epidemiological surveys conducted since 1980 have shown that the prevalence of OCD was underestimated until then. The prevalence is 2 to 3% in the adult population, with more women affected. The disorder develops early in childhood and adolescence. Loss of time is an important criteria for OCD but, according to M. Bourgeois, who reviewed the symptoms precisely, this does not warrant identifying a separate "primary obsessive slowness" syndrome. According to M. Bouvard, the prognosis of the disorder, in contrast to that for rituals observed in children between 3 and 5 years of age, is poor, with a risk of chronicity and social disturbances. The prevalence of OCD in children and adolescents is 0.8% and remains stable. The comorbidity, in particular with tics, is discussed. The favorable effects of fluoxetine are reported. J.M. Chignon reviews the concept of comorbidity, developed in internal medicine, and explains that it could be rigorously applied to psychiatry only starting with the DSM III-R. The comorbidity of OCD with other psychiatric diseases is highly variable: it is reviewed for personality disorders (0 to 55%), schizophrenia (4%), substance abuse (10%) and especially depression: one third of patients with OCD will develop a major depressive episode. Based on a clinical case report, M. Faruch leads us from symptoms to behavior therapy. The symptom must be considered for itself, whether it is part or not of the obsessive neurosis. It is legitimate to use antidepressants in combination with behavior therapy.

  6. Psychopathy, adaptation, and disorder


    Daniel Brian Krupp; Sewall, Lindsay A.; Lalumière, Martin L.; Craig eSheriff; Grant eHarris


    In a recent study, we found a negative association between psychopathy and violence against genetic relatives. We interpreted this result as a form of nepotism and argued that it failed to support the hypothesis that psychopathy is a mental disorder, suggesting instead that it supports the hypothesis that psychopathy is an evolved life history strategy. This interpretation and subsequent arguments have been challenged in a number of ways. Here, we identify several misunderstandings regarding ...

  7. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children (United States)

    ... for the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Swallowing Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children What are ... children with feeding and swallowing disorders ? What are feeding and swallowing disorders? Feeding disorders include problems gathering ...

  8. Panic Disorder in Children and Adolescents (United States)

    ... for Families Guide Panic Disorder In Children And Adolescents No. 50; Updated July 2013 Panic disorder is a common and treatable disorder. Children and adolescents with panic disorder have unexpected and repeated periods ...

  9. Nonepileptic paroxysmal sleep disorders. (United States)

    Frenette, Eric; Guilleminault, Christian


    Events occurring during nighttime sleep in children can be easily mislabeled, as witnesses are usually not immediately available. Even when observers are present, description of the events can be sketchy, as these individuals are frequently aroused from their own sleep. Errors of perception are thus common and can lead to diagnosis of epilepsy where other sleep-related conditions are present, sometimes initiating unnecessary therapeutic interventions, especially with antiepileptic drugs. Often not acknowledged, paroxysmal nonepileptic behavioral and motor episodes in sleep are encountered much more frequently than their epileptic counterpart. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) 2nd edition displays an extensive list of such conditions that can be readily mistaken for epilepsy. The most prevalent ones are reviewed, such as nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias, comprised of sleepwalking, confusional arousals and sleep terrors, periodic leg movements of sleep, repetitive movement disorders, benign neonatal myoclonus, and sleep starts. Apnea of prematurity is also briefly reviewed. Specific issues regarding management of these selected disorders, both for diagnostic consideration and for therapeutic intervention, are addressed.

  10. Temporomandibular disorders and occlusion. (United States)

    Badel, Tomislav; Marotti, Miljenko; Pavicin, Ivana Savić; Basić-Kes, Vanja


    Occlusion has an important place within the multifactorial concept of the temporomandibular disorder (TMD) etiopathogenesis as well as in every form of dental treatment. The modern concept of treatment of these disorders differentiates initial and definitive forms of treatment. The aim of this paper is to analyze recent viewpoints on the role of occlusion in the etiopathogenesis and treatment ofTMDs. Masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joints are directly connected with occlusal relations and TMDs are traditionally linked with occlusal disorders. The initial occlusal treatment can be applied to all TMD patients, regardless of their having intact teeth with respect to physiological occlusal relations and in patients in need of orthodontic or prosthodontic treatment or an oral surgical procedure. On managing TMD patients, there are doubts about the indications for definitive treatment and whether there has been a possibility of treating a painful TMD by reversible treatment modalities, that is, by initial treatment. Other types of orofacial pain such as trigeminal neuralgia can be comorbid with TMDs but also result in unnecessary procedures on the teeth and prosthodontic work if they are not recognized. Although dental profession mainly recognizes the importance of occlusal treatment of TMD problems, their relationship is controversial because it is not strictly demonstrated in numerous scientific studies. Occlusion is not the dominant cause of TMD problems.

  11. Autism and sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti A Devnani


    Full Text Available “Autism Spectrum Disorders” (ASDs are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included.

  12. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder]. (United States)

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier


    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  13. Pharmacotherapy of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B Pull


    Full Text Available Charles B Pull1, Cristian Damsa21Department of Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, Luxembourg; 2Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Investigation Program, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, USAAbstract: Panic disorder (PD is a common, persistent and disabling mental disorder. It is often associated with agoraphobia. The present article reviews the current status of pharmacotherapy for PD with or without agoraphobia as well as the current status of treatments combing pharmacotherapy with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT. The review has been written with a focus on randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and reviews that have been published over the past few years. Effective pharmacological treatments include tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and various benzodiazepines. Treatment results obtained with CBT compare well with pharmacotherapy, with evidence that CBT is at least as effective as pharmacotherapy. Combining pharmacotherapy with CBT has been found to be superior to antidepressant pharmacotherapy or CBT alone, but only in the acute-phase treatment. Long term studies on treatments combining pharmacotherapy and CBT for PD with or without agoraphobia have found little benefit, however, for combination therapies versus monotherapies. New investigations explore the potential additional value of sequential versus concomitant treatments, of cognitive enhancers and virtual reality exposure therapy, and of education, self management and Internet-based interventions.Keywords: Panic disorder, agoraphobia, pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, combination treatments.

  14. Prions mediated neurodegenerative disorders. (United States)

    Huang, W-J; Chen, W-W; Zhang, X


    Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that are devoid of nucleic acid and cause a group of rare and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders, affecting approximately 1 person per 1 million inhabitants annually worldwide. These disorders include Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), kuru, fatal insomnia (FI), and variable protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr), all of which involve a conformational change of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the abnormal scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) through a posttranslational process during which PrPc acquires high β-sheet content. This structural change is accompanied by profound changes in the physicochemical properties of PrPC, rendering the molecule resistant to proteolysis. The conformational change of PrPC can occur due to either spontaneous conversion, dominant mutations in the prion protein (PRNP) gene encoding PrPC, or infection with pathogenic isoform PrPsc from exogenous sources. There is general agreement that PrPC serves as a substrate for conversion to abnormal PrPSc. This latter multiplies exponentially and aggregates in the brain, forming deposits that are associated with the neurodegenerative changes. Although the understanding of the primary causes of prion-induced neurodegeneration is still limited, propagation of PrPSc and neurotoxic signaling seem to interplay in pathogenic process of prions. Here, we review recent findings that have provided fresh insights into this process, and present an overview of incidence, causes and spectrum of related disorders.

  15. [Hearing disorders with glaucoma]. (United States)

    Kremmer, S; Anastassiou, G; Selbach, J M


    One of the most common sensory impairments of elderly people is hearing loss. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Hearing and vision loss typically increase with older age. There is scientific evidence that the coincidence of hearing and vision loss is more frequent than expected by the prevalence of individual disorders. With regards to demographic changes and an aging population, in future, it is probable that the incidence of combined hearing and vision impairments will increase, representing a particular challenge not only for doctors and nurses but also a high burden for the private environment of the patients. Therefore, it is of particular importance to diagnose and to treat hearing and vision loss (dual sensory loss) as early as possible. The treatment of hearing disorders and glaucoma as well as possibly underlying systemic diseases such as circulatory disturbances is as important as responsible rehabilitation measures and the supply of hearing and low vision aids. During the last years, knowledge about the molecular biological background of hearing loss and glaucoma has continuously increased but it is currently still at the level of laboratory and animal experiments. Therefore, it remains to be seen whether and to what extent a real therapy for the underlying genetic, immunological and in particular mitochondrial disorders may be accessible in the future.

  16. Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Hoffmann


    Full Text Available Little is known about the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of autoantibodies targeting the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R, which causes neurological and psychiatric symptoms, has reinvigorated the hypothesis that other patient subgroups may also suffer from an underlying autoimmune condition. In recent years, a wide range of neuropsychiatric diseases and autoantibodies targeting ion-channels or neuronal receptors including NMDA-R, voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC complex, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA-R and dopamine receptor (DR were studied and conflicting reports have been published regarding the seroprevalence of these autoantibodies. A clear causative role of autoantibodies on psychiatric symptoms has as yet only been shown for the NMDA-R. Several other autoantibodies have been related to the presence of certain symptoms and antibody effector mechanisms have been proposed. However, extensive clinical studies with large multicenter efforts to standardize diagnostic procedures for autoimmune etiology and animal studies are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of these autoantibodies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of neuronal autoantibodies in the major neuropsychiatric disorders: psychotic, major depression, autism spectrum, obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders.

  17. Thyroid disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menaka Ramprasad


    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders are common in pregnancy and the most common disorder is subclinical hypothyroidism. Due to the complex hormonal changes during pregnancy, it is important to remember that thyroxine requirements are higher in pregnancy. According to recent American Thyroid Association (ATA guidelines, the recommended reference ranges for TSH are 0.1 to 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester, 0.2 to 3.0 mIU/L in the second trimester, and 0.3 to 3.0 mIU/L in the third trimester. Maternal hypothyroidism is an easily treatable condition that has been associated with increased risk of low birth weight, fetal distress, and impaired neuropsychological development. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is less common as conception is a problem. Majority of them are due to Graves′ disease, though gestational hyperthyroidism is to be excluded. Preferred drug is propylthiouracil (PTU with the target to maintain free T4 in upper normal range. Doses can be reduced in third trimester due to the immune-suppressant effects of pregnancy. Early and effective treatment of thyroid disorder ensures a safe pregnancy with minimal maternal and neonatal complications.

  18. Disorder on the landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Podolsky, Dmitry I; Jokela, Niko


    Disorder on the string theory landscape may significantly affect dynamics of eternal inflation leading to the possibility for some vacua on the landscape to become dynamically preferable over others. We systematically study effects of a generic disorder on the landscape starting by identifying a sector with built-in disorder -- a set of de Sitter vacua corresponding to compactifications of the Type IIB string theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with a number of warped Klebanov-Strassler throats attached randomly to the bulk part of the Calabi-Yau. Further, we derive continuum limit of the vacuum dynamics equations on the landscape. Using methods of dynamical renormalization group we determine the late time behavior of the probability distribution for an observer to measure a given value of the cosmological constant. We find the diffusion of the probability distribution to significantly slow down in sectors of the landscape where the number of nearest neighboring vacua for any given vacuum is small. We discuss rela...

  19. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Inés Ybarra


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  20. The crystallography of correlated disorder. (United States)

    Keen, David A; Goodwin, Andrew L


    Classical crystallography can determine structures as complicated as multi-component ribosomal assemblies with atomic resolution, but is inadequate for disordered systems--even those as simple as water ice--that occupy the complex middle ground between liquid-like randomness and crystalline periodic order. Correlated disorder nevertheless has clear crystallographic signatures that map to the type of disorder, irrespective of the underlying physical or chemical interactions and material involved. This mapping hints at a common language for disordered states that will help us to understand, control and exploit the disorder responsible for many interesting physical properties.

  1. Brain Imaging in Gambling Disorder


    Quester, Saskia; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina


    Gambling disorder recently was reclassified under the category “substance-related and addictive disorders.” With regard to the diagnostic criteria, it overlaps a great deal with substance use disorder, i.e., loss of control, craving/withdrawal, and neglect of other areas of life. However, the gambling disorder symptom “chasing one’s losses” is the only criterion absent from substance use disorder. Therefore, special forms of reward (i.e., gain/loss) processing, such as the processing of loss ...

  2. [Sleep disorders in neurological diseases]. (United States)

    Kotterba, S


    Sleep disorders can be diagnosed in approximately 15 % of the population and have been shown to increase with age. The relationship between sleep disorders and neurological disorders, however, is still insufficiently considered in the clinical practice. Sleep disorders can be an early symptom of the disease, such as the presence of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as an early indicator of neurodegeneration. Sleep disorders have also been shown to be a main symptom of various neurological syndromes, such as in restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and narcolepsy. The international classification of sleep disorders 2nd edition (ICSD 2) describes the main diagnoses, insomnia, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, sleep-related breathing disorders and hypersomnia but all of these can also appear as symptoms in various neurological diseases. Parasomnias are largely considered a differential diagnosis to nocturnal epilepsy. In this review, the main sleep disorders are described with a particular focus on how they relate to neurological diseases; in particular, how they influence disease-related symptoms and how they affect the course of the disease.

  3. Disordered hyperuniform heterogeneous materials (United States)

    Torquato, Salvatore


    Disordered hyperuniform many-body systems are distinguishable states of matter that lie between a crystal and liquid: they are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These systems play a vital role in a number of fundamental and applied problems: glass formation, jamming, rigidity, photonic and electronic band structure, localization of waves and excitations, self-organization, fluid dynamics, quantum systems, and pure mathematics. Much of what we know theoretically about disordered hyperuniform states of matter involves many-particle systems. In this paper, we derive new rigorous criteria that disordered hyperuniform two-phase heterogeneous materials must obey and explore their consequences. Two-phase heterogeneous media are ubiquitous; examples include composites and porous media, biological media, foams, polymer blends, granular media, cellular solids, and colloids. We begin by obtaining some results that apply to hyperuniform two-phase media in which one phase is a sphere packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Among other results, we rigorously establish the requirements for packings of spheres of different sizes to be ‘multihyperuniform’. We then consider hyperuniformity for general two-phase media in {{{R}}d} . Here we apply realizability conditions for an autocovariance function and its associated spectral density of a two-phase medium, and then incorporate hyperuniformity as a constraint in order to derive new conditions. We show that some functional forms can immediately be eliminated from consideration and identify other forms that are allowable. Specific examples and counterexamples are described. Contact is made with well-known microstructural models (e.g. overlapping spheres and checkerboards) as well as irregular phase-separation and Turing-type patterns. We also ascertain a family of

  4. Modeling psychiatric disorders through reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen J. Brennand


    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, are extremely heritable complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorders. It is now possible to directly reprogram fibroblasts from psychiatric patients into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and subsequently differentiate these disorder-specific hiPSCs into neurons. This means that researchers can generate nearly limitless quantities of live human neurons with genetic backgrounds that are known to result in psychiatric disorders, without knowing which genes are interacting to produce the disease state in each patient. With these new human-cell-based models, scientists can investigate the precise cell types that are affected in these disorders and elucidate the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to disease initiation and progression. Here, we present a short review of experiments using hiPSCs and other sophisticated in vitro approaches to study the pathways underlying psychiatric disorders.

  5. [Motor disorders in neurodevelopmental disorders. Tics and stereotypies]. (United States)

    Eirís-Puñal, Jesús


    Tics are repetitive, sharp, rapid, non-rhythmic movements or utterances that are the result of sudden, abrupt and involuntary muscular contractions. Stereotypies are repetitive, apparently impulsive, rhythmic, purposeless movements that follow an individual repertoire that is specific to each individual and that occur under a variable time pattern, which may be either transient or persistent. Both are included in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), among the neurodevelopmental disorders, and together with coordination development disorder go to make up the group of motor disorders. For tics, the categories of 'Tourette's disorder', 'chronic motor or vocal tic disorder' and 'unspecified tic disorder' have been maintained, whereas the category 'transient tics' has disappeared and 'provisional tic disorder' and 'other specified tic disorders' have been incorporated. Within stereotypic movement disorder, the DSM-5 replaces 'non-functional' by 'apparently purposeless'; the thresholds of the need for medical care are withdrawn and replaced with the manual's standard involvement criterion; mental retardation is no longer mentioned and emphasis is placed on the severity of the stereotypic movement; and a criterion concerning the onset of symptoms and specifiers of the existence or not of self-injurious behaviours have been added, together with the association with genetic or general medical diseases or extrinsic factors. Moreover, a categorisation depending on severity has also been included.

  6. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation? (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A


    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research.

  7. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders. (United States)

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Vieira, Karen F


    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such noncompliant patients who

  8. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Karen F


    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such

  9. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the Structure of Common Mental Disorders. (United States)

    Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S


    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.

  10. The relationship between panic disorder/agoraphobia and personality disorders. (United States)

    Mavissakalian, M


    This selective review of the relationship between panic disorder/agoraphobia and DSM-III personality disorders points to a preponderance of dependent, avoidant, and histrionic features and reveals a certain degree of covariation between severity of Axis I disorder and personality functioning. However, the link between panic/agoraphobia and Axis II disorders does not appear to be specific because (1) general features such as neuroticism, stress, dysphoric mood, and interpersonal sensitivity, rather than duration and severity of panic attacks and phobias, emerge as unique predictors or determinants of personality disorder; and (2) similar personality profiles are obtained in a heterogenous population of psychiatric outpatients or patients with social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depression.

  11. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rash CJ


    Full Text Available Carla J Rash,1 Jeremiah Weinstock,2 Ryan Van Patten2 1Calhoun Cardiology Center – Behavioral Health, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders” section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. Keywords: pathological gambling, problem gambling, behavioral addiction, transdiagnostic factors, addiction syndrome 

  12. Inherited or acquired metabolic disorders. (United States)

    Eichler, Florian; Ratai, Eva; Carroll, Jason J; Masdeu, Joseph C


    This chapter starts with a description of imaging of inherited metabolic disorders, followed by a discussion on imaging of acquired toxic-metabolic disorders of the adult brain. Neuroimaging is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. Among these, inherited white-matter disorders commonly affect both the nervous system and endocrine organs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled new classifications of these disorders that have greatly enhanced both our diagnostic ability and our understanding of these complex disorders. Beyond the classic leukodystrophies, we are increasingly recognizing new hereditary leukoencephalopathies such as the hypomyelinating disorders. Conventional imaging can be unrevealing in some metabolic disorders, but proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may be able to directly visualize the metabolic abnormality in certain disorders. Hence, neuroimaging can enhance our understanding of pathogenesis, even in the absence of a pathologic specimen. This review aims to present pathognomonic brain MRI lesion patterns, the diagnostic capacity of proton MRS, and information from clinical and laboratory testing that can aid diagnosis. We demonstrate that applying an advanced neuroimaging approach enhances current diagnostics and management. Additional information on inherited and metabolic disorders of the brain can be found in Chapter 63 in the second volume of this series.

  13. Bipolar and related disorders and depressive disorders in DSM-5


    Łojko, Dorota; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Rybakowski, Janusz


    In 2013, a version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), having number 5, was published. The DSM is a textbook which aims to present diagnostic criteria for each psychiatric disorder recognized by the U.S. healthcare system. The DSM-5 comprises the most updated diagnostic criteria of psychiatric disorders as well as their description, and provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about the patients. Diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5 have been popula...

  14. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors


    Vanesa Carina Góngora


    The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presen...

  15. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Paola


    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders, since it is a pivotal issue in current clinical psychiatry.

  16. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. (United States)

    Berry, Casey; Atta, Mohamed G


    Renal injury or failure may occur in the context of pregnancy requiring special considerations with regard to fetal and maternal health. The condition of pregnancy itself may be a major factor in such injuries. In addition, for many young women previously known to be healthy, pregnancy may be the first presentation for routine urine and blood testing which may yield previously subclinical renal disease. As such, pregnancy may add complexity to considerations in the management of renal disease presenting coincidentally requiring knowledge of the physiologic changes and potential renal disorders that may be encountered during pregnancy.

  17. Autophagy and neurodegenerative disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelia Kesidou; Roza Lagoudaki; Olga Touloumi; Kyriaki-Nefeli Poulatsidou; Constantina Simeonidou


    Accumulation of aberrant proteins and inclusion bodies are hallmarks in most neurodegenerative diseases. Consequently, these aggregates within neurons lead to toxic effects, overproduction of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Autophagy is a significant intracel ular mechanism that removes damaged organelles and misfolded proteins in order to maintain cel homeostasis. Excessive or insufficient autophagic activity in neurons leads to altered homeostasis and influences their survival rate, causing neurodegeneration. The review article provides an update of the role of autophagic process in representative chronic and acute neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Order, Disorder and Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    D'Elia, M; Pica, C


    Studying the order of the chiral transition for $N_f=2$ is of fundamental importance to understand the mechanism of color confinement. We present results of a numerical investigation on the order of the transition by use of a novel strategy in finite size scaling analysis. The specific heat and a number of susceptibilities are compared with the possible critical behaviours. A second order transition in the O(4) and O(2) universality classes are excluded. Substantial evidence emerges for a first order transition. Results are in agreement with those found by studying the scaling properties of a disorder parameter related to the dual superconductivity mechanism of color confinement.

  19. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorders. (United States)

    Chinn, Ivan K; Shearer, William T


    Severe combined immunodeficiency disorders represent pediatric emergencies due to absence of adaptive immune responses to infections. The conditions result from either intrinsic defects in T-cell development (ie, severe combined immunodeficiency disease [SCID]) or congenital athymia (eg, complete DiGeorge anomaly). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant provides the only clinically approved cure for SCID, although gene therapy research trials are showing significant promise. For greatest survival, patients should undergo transplant before 3.5 months of age and before the onset of infections. Newborn screening programs have yielded successful early identification and treatment of infants with SCID and congenital athymia in the United States.

  20. [Classification of headache disorders]. (United States)

    Heinze, A; Heinze-Kuhn, K; Göbel, H


    In 2003 the International Headache Society (IHS) published the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Diagnostic criteria for no less than 206 separate headache diagnoses are presented in the parts (I) primary headaches, (II) secondary headaches and (III) cranial neuralgia, central and primary facial pain. The headaches are classified according to the etiology in case of the secondary headaches and according to the phenomenology in case of the primary headaches. It is the task of the headache specialist to identify the correct headache diagnose with the smallest effort possible. Both, the differentiation between secondary and primary headaches and the differentiation between the various primary headaches are of equal importance.

  1. Disorders of lymph flow. (United States)

    Witte, C L; Witte, M H


    Disturbances in blood capillary exchange of fluid, macromolecules, and cells across intact and abnormal microvessels and deranged lymphatic transport are integral, interacting components in disorders of tissue swelling. Lymphedema or low-output failure of the lymph circulation is often indolent for many years before lymphatic insufficiency (failure) and tissue swelling emerge and persist. Superimposed occult or overt infection (lymphangitis) are probably major contributors to progressive limb deformity (elephantiasis). Long-standing lymphedema is characterized by trapping in the skin and subcutaneous tissue of fluid, extravasated plasma proteins, and other macromolecules: impaired immune cell trafficking; abnormal processing of autologous and foreign antigens; heightened susceptibility to superimposed infection; local immunodysregulation; defective lymphatic (lymphangion) propulsion from an imbalance of mediators regulating vasomotion; soft-tissue overgrowth; scarring and hypertrophy; and exuberant angiogenesis occasionally culminating in vascular tumors (Fig. 8). In contrast to the blood circulation, where flow depends primarily on the propulsive force of the myocardium, lymph propulsion depends predominately on intrinsic truncal contraction, a phylogenetic vestige of amphibian lymph hearts. Whereas venous "plasma" flows rapidly (2-3 l/min) against low vascular resistance, lymph flows slowly (1-2 ml/min) against high vascular resistance. On occasion, impaired transport of intestinal lymph may be associated with reflux and accumulation and leakage of intestinal chyle in a swollen leg. Although the term "lymphedema" is usually reserved for extremity swelling, the pathogenesis of a wide variety of visceral disorders also may be traceable to defective tissue fluid and macromolecular circulation and impaired cell trafficking of lymphocytes and macrophages. Thus, lymph stasis, with impaired tissue fluid flow, underlies or complicates an indolent subclinical course with

  2. [Treatment of bipolar disorder]. (United States)

    Barde, Michael; Bellivier, Frank


    Bipolar disorder is a chronic pathology whose management must lead to limit the social, professional and family impacts as well as suicidal risk. The treatment of acute episodes and prophylaxis is based on mood stabilizer treatments whose lithium is a leader. They will be chosen according to the background and history of the disease. Anti-depressants must be used with care to minimize the risk of manic episode and the induction of rapid cycles. The prognosis is not solving major episodes but avoiding major mood episodes. The management of residual symptoms (especially neuro-cognitive) is also a major challenge prognosis and justifies the implementation of adjuvant psychotherapeutic strategies.

  3. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK


    Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.

  4. Eating disorders in midlife women: A perimenopausal eating disorder? (United States)

    Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D


    Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions.

  5. Seasonal affective disorder, grief reaction, and adjustment disorder. (United States)

    Osborn, Justin; Raetz, Jacqueline; Kost, Amanda


    Seasonal affective disorder is a subtype of other affective disorders. The most studied treatment is light therapy, although second-generation antidepressants are also an option. Grief reactions are normal for patients experiencing loss, and primary care providers (PCPs) should be aware of both the expected course of grief and the more severe symptoms that indicate complex grief. Adjustment disorder is a time-limited abnormal response to a stressor. PCPs can manage patients with adjustment disorder by arranging counseling, screening for suicidality, assessing for substance abuse, and ruling out other psychiatric diagnoses. At present there are no reliable data to suggest medication management.

  6. Postmodern Stress Disorder (PMSD): A Possible New Disorder. (United States)

    Eiser, Arnold R


    The murder of cardiovascular surgeon, Michael Davidson, MD, suggests the existence of a new disorder, postmodern stress disorder. This disorder is characterized by repetitive exposure to digital images of violence in a variety of electronic media, including films, television, video games, music videos, and other online sources. This disorder appears to be a variant of posttraumatic stress disorder, and shares with it excessive stimulation of the amygdala and loss of the normal inhibitory inputs from the orbitofrontal cingulate cortical gyrus. In postmodern stress disorder, repetitive digital microtraumas appear to have an effect similar to that of macrotraumas of warfare or civilian assaults. Other elements of the disorder include the development of fixed ideas of bullying or public shaming, access to weapons, and loss of impulse control. This syndrome could explain a number of previously inexplicable murders/suicides. Violence against health care professionals is a profound concern for the medical profession, as are assaults on nonclinicians. The recommendation is made to change forensic procedures to include obtaining historic information concerning the use of digital media during investigations of violent crimes and murders so that the disorder may be further characterized. Gaining an understanding of this disorder will require a multidisciplinary approach to this life-threatening public health problem. Research should also focus on the development and evaluation of possible antidotes to postmodern toxicities.

  7. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann


    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  8. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh


    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  9. Neurodegenerative disorders and metabolic disease. (United States)

    Pierre, Germaine


    Most genetic causes of neurodegenerative disorders in childhood are due to neurometabolic disease. There are over 200 disorders, including aminoacidopathies, creatine disorders, mitochondrial cytopathies, peroxisomal disorders and lysosomal storage disorders. However, diagnosis can pose a challenge to the clinician when patients present with non-specific problems like epilepsy, developmental delay, autism, dystonia and ataxia. The variety of specialist tests involved can also be daunting. This review aims to give a practical approach to the investigation and diagnosis of neurometabolic disease from the neonatal period to late childhood while prioritising disorders where there are therapeutic options. In particular, patients who have a complex clinical picture of several neurological and non-neurological features should be investigated.

  10. [Mental disorders and diabetes mellitus]. (United States)

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Rießland-Seifert, Angelika; Fasching, Peter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Toplak, Hermann


    Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications. Improvement of therapeutic outcome is a challenge in the modern health care system. The intentions behind this position paper are to rise awareness of this special set of problems, to intensify cooperation between involved health care providers and to reduce incidence of diabetes mellitus as well as morbidity and mortality from diabetes in this patient group.

  11. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum


    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  12. [Anxiety disorders in DSM-5]. (United States)

    Márquez, Miguel


    The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders.

  13. The Stigma of Personality Disorders. (United States)

    Sheehan, Lindsay; Nieweglowski, Katherine; Corrigan, Patrick


    This article reviews the recent literature on the stigma of personality disorders, including an overview of general mental illness stigma and an examination of the personality-specific stigma. Overall, public knowledge of personality disorders is low, and people with personality disorders may be perceived as purposefully misbehaving rather than experiencing an illness. Health provider stigma seems particularly pernicious for those with borderline personality disorder. Most stigma research on personality disorders has been completed outside the USA, and few stigma-change interventions specific to personality disorder have been scientifically tested. Limited evidence suggests that health provider training can improve stigmatizing attitudes and that interventions combining positive messages of recovery potential with biological etiology will be most impactful to reduce stigma. Anti-stigma interventions designed specifically for health providers, family members, criminal justice personnel, and law enforcement seem particularly beneficial, given these sources of stigma.

  14. Ghrelin and eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Donzelli Fabbri


    Full Text Available Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED, particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, and LILACS databases using the keywords “eating disorder”, “ghrelin”, “polymorphism”, “anorexia nervosa”, “bulimia nervosa”, “binge eating disorder”, and their combinations. We found 319 articles. Thirty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Results High levels of ghrelin were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially in the purging subtype (AN-P. There was also a positive correlation between fasting ghrelin level and frequency of episodes of bingeing/purging in bulimia nervosa (BN and the frequency of bingeing in periodic binge eating disorder (BED. Some polymorphisms were associated with AN and BN. Conclusion Changes in ghrelin levels and its polymorphism may be involved in the pathogenesis of EDs; however, further studies should be conducted to clarify the associations.

  15. Autistic spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Singhania, Rajeshree


    Autistic spectrum disorders is a complex developmental disorder with social and communication dysfunction at its core. It has a wide clinical spectrum with a common triad of impairments -- social communication, social interaction and social imagination. Even mild or subtle difficulties can have a profound and devastating impact on the child. To be able to provide suitable treatments and interventions the distinctive way of thinking and learning of autistic children has to be understood. The core areas of social, emotional, communication and language deficits have to be addressed at all levels of functioning. The important goals of assessment include a categorical diagnosis of autism that looks at differential diagnosis, a refined precise documentation of the child's functioning in various developmental domains and ascertaining presence of co-morbid conditions. The interventions have to be adapted to the individual's chronological age, developmental phase and level of functioning. The strategies of curriculum delivery and teaching the child with autism is distinctive and includes presence of structure to increase predictability and strategies to reduce arousal of anxiety.

  16. Reading disorders and dyslexia (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.


    Purpose of review We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Recent findings Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. Summary There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed. PMID:27496059

  17. Cannabis in movement disorders. (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, K R; Kolbe, H; Schneider, U; Emrich, H M


    Central cannabinoid receptors are densely located in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (globus pallidus, substantia nigra pars reticulata), suggesting their involvement in the regulation of motor activity. Furthermore, there is evidence that endogenous cannabinoid transmission plays a role in the manipulation of other transmitter systems within the basal ganglia by increasing GABAergic transmission, inhibiting glutamate release and affecting dopaminergic uptake. Most hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders are caused by a dysfunction of basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. It has been suggested that an endogenous cannabinoid tone participates in the control of movements and, therefore, the central cannabinoid system might play a role in the pathophysiology of these diseases. During the last years in humans a limited number of clinical trials demonstrated that cannabinoids might be useful in the treatment of movement disorders. Despite the lack of controlled studies there is evidence that cannabinoids are of therapeutic value in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome, the reduction of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson s disease and some forms of tremor and dystonia. It can be speculated that cannabinoid antagonists might be useful in the treatment of chorea in Huntington s disease and hypokinetic parkinsonian syndromes.

  18. Movement disorders in childhood. (United States)

    Cardoso, Francisco


    The aim of this article is to review movement disorders in children. They are common but have etiology and phenomenology different than in adults. Tics are the most common phenomena although in most instances they are mild and have a favorable long-term prognosis. Dystonia is the second most common phenomena but when present it is usually genetic or idiopathic and causes meaningful disability. Sydenham's chorea is the most common cause of chorea in children worldwide. Systemic lupus erythematosus is a much rarer cause of chorea but it is always to be ruled out given the lack of a specific diagnostic marker for Sydenham's chorea. Tremor, usually caused by drugs or essential tremor, is regarded as rather uncommon in children. Arguably, most pediatric patients with tremor do not seek medical attention because of the lack of disability. Stereotypies are relatively uncommon but their recognition is clinically relevant since they are usually associated with severe conditions such as autism and Rett syndrome. Parkinsonism is quite rare in children and either results from encephalitis or is a side effect of medications. Wilson's disease must be ruled out in all children with movement disorders.

  19. Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan


    The central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by severe daytime sleepiness, which is present despite normal quality and timing of nocturnal sleep. Recent reclassification distinguishes three main subtypes: narcolepsy type 1, narcolepsy type 2, and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), which are the focus of this review. Narcolepsy type 1 results from loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons, while the pathophysiology underlying narcolepsy type 2 and IH remains to be fully elucidated. Treatment of all three disorders focuses on the management of sleepiness, with additional treatment of cataplexy in those patients with narcolepsy type 1. Sleepiness can be treated with modafinil/armodafinil or sympathomimetic CNS stimulants, which have been shown to be beneficial in randomized controlled trials of narcolepsy and, quite recently, IH. In those patients with narcolepsy type 1, sodium oxybate is effective for the treatment of both sleepiness and cataplexy. Despite these treatments, there remains a subset of hypersomnolent patients with persistent sleepiness, in whom alternate therapies are needed. Emerging treatments for sleepiness include histamine H3 antagonists (eg, pitolisant) and possibly negative allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (eg, clarithromycin and flumazenil). PMID:26149554

  20. Disorders of communication: dysarthria. (United States)

    Enderby, Pam


    Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder which can be classified according to the underlying neuropathology and is associated with disturbances of respiration, laryngeal function, airflow direction, and articulation resulting in difficulties of speech quality and intelligibility. There are six major types of dysarthria: flaccid dysarthria associated with lower motor neuron impairment, spastic dysarthria associated with damaged upper motor neurons linked to the motor areas of the cerebral cortex, ataxic dysarthria primarily caused by cerebellar dysfunction, and hyperkinetic dysarthria and hypokinetic dysarthria, which are related to a disorder of the extrapyramidal system. The sixth is generally termed a mixed dysarthria and is associated with damage in more than one area, resulting in speech characteristics of at least two groups. The features of the speech disturbance of these six major types of dysarthria are distinctive and can assist with diagnosis. Dysarthria is a frequent symptom of many neurological conditions and is commonly associated with progressive neurological disease. It has a profound effect upon the patient and their families as communication is integrally related with expressing personality and social relationships. Speech and language therapy can be used to encourage the person to use the speech that is already available to them more effectively, can increase the range and consistency of sound production, can teach strategies for improving intelligibility and communicative effectiveness, can guide the individual to use methods that are less tiring and more successful, and can introduce the appropriate Augmentative and Alternative Communication approaches as and when required.

  1. [Neurological Disorders and Pregnancy]. (United States)

    Berlit, P


    Neurological disorders caused by pregnancy and puerperium include the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, the amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES), the postpartum angiopathy due to reversible vasoconstriction syndrome, and the Sheehan syndrome. Hypertension and proteinuria are the hallmarks of preeclampsia, seizures define eclampsia. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets constitute the HELLP syndrome. Vision disturbances including cortical blindness occur in the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The Sheehan syndrome presents with panhypopituitarism post partum due to apoplexia of the pituitary gland in severe peripartal blood loss leading to longstanding hypotension. Some neurological disorders occur during pregnancy and puerperium with an increased frequency. These include stroke, sinus thrombosis, the restless legs syndrome and peripheral nerve syndromes, especially the carpal tunnel syndrome. Chronic neurologic diseases need an interdisciplinary approach during pregnancy. Some anticonvulsants double the risk of birth defects. The highest risk exists for valproic acid, the lowest for lamotrigine and levetiracetam. For MS interval treatment, glatiramer acetate and interferones seem to be safe during pregnancy. All other drugs should be avoided.

  2. Trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), skin picking disorder, and stereotypic movement disorder: toward DSM-V. (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Grant, Jon E; Franklin, Martin E; Keuthen, Nancy; Lochner, Christine; Singer, Harvey S; Woods, Douglas W


    In DSM-IV-TR, trichotillomania (TTM) is classified as an impulse control disorder (not classified elsewhere), skin picking lacks its own diagnostic category (but might be diagnosed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified), and stereotypic movement disorder is classified as a disorder usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. ICD-10 classifies TTM as a habit and impulse disorder, and includes stereotyped movement disorders in a section on other behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence. This article provides a focused review of nosological issues relevant to DSM-V, given recent empirical findings. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Although TTM fits optimally into a category of body-focused repetitive behavioral disorders, in a nosology comprised of relatively few major categories it fits best within a category of motoric obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, (2) available evidence does not support continuing to include (current) diagnostic criteria B and C for TTM in DSM-V, (3) the text for TTM should be updated to describe subtypes and forms of hair pulling, (4) there are persuasive reasons for referring to TTM as "hair pulling disorder (trichotillomania)," (5) diagnostic criteria for skin picking disorder should be included in DSM-V or in DSM-Vs Appendix of Criteria Sets Provided for Further Study, and (6) the diagnostic criteria for stereotypic movement disorder should be clarified and simplified, bringing them in line with those for hair pulling and skin picking disorder.

  3. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V


    of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  4. Procedures for restoring vestibular disorders



    This paper will discuss therapeutic possibilities for disorders of the vestibular organs and the neurons involved, which confront ENT clinicians in everyday practice. Treatment of such disorders can be tackled either symptomatically or causally. The possible strategies for restoring the body's vestibular sense, visual function and co-ordination include medication, as well as physical and surgical procedures. Prophylactic or preventive measures are possible in some disorders which involve vert...

  5. Functional neuroimaging of sleep disorders. (United States)

    Nofzinger, Eric A


    Functional neuroimaging methods provide a means to understand brain function in patients with sleep disorders. This paper summarizes functional neuroimaging findings in sleep disorders patients, and studies addressing the pharmacology of sleep and sleep disorders. Areas in which functional neuroimaging methods may be helpful in sleep medicine, and in which future development is advised, include: 1) clarification of pathophysiology; 2) aid in differential diagnosis; 3) assessment of treatment response; 4) guiding new drug development; and 5) monitoring treatment response.

  6. Nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders


    Cottraux, Jean


    An evidence-based review of nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders is presented. The vast majority of the controlled research is devoted to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and shows its efficiency and effectiveness in all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in meta-analyses. Relaxation, psychoanalytic therapies, Rogerian nondirective therapy, hypnotherapy and supportive therapy were examined in a few controlled stu...

  7. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder


    Watson, Stuart; Gallagher, Peter; Dougall, Dominic; Porter, Richard; Moncrieff, Joanna; Ferrier, I Nicol; Young, Allan H.


    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  8. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder.


    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; Porter, R.; Moncrieff, J; Ferrier, I N; Young, A.H.


    Objective:There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder.Methods:Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipolar...

  9. Movement disorders in systemic diseases. (United States)

    Poewe, Werner; Djamshidian-Tehrani, Atbin


    Movement disorders, classically involving dysfunction of the basal ganglia commonly occur in neurodegenerative and structural brain disorders. At times, however, movement disorders can be the initial manifestation of a systemic disease. In this article we discuss the most common movement disorders which may present in infectious, autoimmune, paraneoplastic, metabolic and endocrine diseases. Management often has to be multidisciplinary involving primary care physicians, neurologists, allied health professionals including nurses, occupational therapists and less frequently neurosurgeons. Recognizing and treating the underlying systemic disease is important in order to improve the neurological symptoms.

  10. Emotional intelligence and mental disorder. (United States)

    Hertel, Janine; Schütz, Astrid; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich


    Emotional abilities were measured with a performance test of emotional intelligence (The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002) in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, substance abuse disorder, or borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a nonclinical control group. Findings showed that all clinical groups differed from controls with respect to their overall emotional intelligence score, which dovetails with previous findings from self-report measures. Specifically, we found that the ability to understand emotional information and the ability to regulate emotions best distinguished the groups. Findings showed that patients with substance abuse disorder and BPD patients were most impaired.

  11. Neurobiology of generalized anxiety disorder. (United States)

    Stein, Murray B


    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common illness with diagnostic criteria that have changed substantially over time. Symptoms of GAD overlap with those of major depressive disorder to such an extent that studying one disorder without studying the other may be impossible. Such an overlap, combined with potentially inappropriate diagnostic criteria for GAD, makes diagnosing and researching GAD challenging. Recent research into the genetics and neural circuitry of GAD may suggest solutions for the disorder's diagnostic controversies and point the way to productive future studies of etiology and pathophysiology.

  12. Etiology of temporomandibular disorder pain. (United States)

    Oral, Koray; Bal Küçük, Burcu; Ebeoğlu, Buğçe; Dinçer, Sibel


    Pain in the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint is the main symptom of temporomandibular disorders. The etiology of temporomandibular disorder pain is multifactorial. Several studies have reported that there are predisposing, initiating and aggravating factors contributing to this disorder. Although factors such as trauma, occlusal discrepancies, stress, parafunctions, hypermobility, age, gender, and heredity have been implicated in the maintenance of temporomandibular disorder pain, there are still controversies regarding the actual etiology. This review will summarize the past and current concepts related to the etiology of arthrogenic- and myogenic-originated temporomandibular pain.

  13. Disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis. (United States)

    Glogowska, E; Gallagher, P G


    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneities characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants that influence erythrocyte hydration and how they have yielded a better understanding of the pathways that influence cellular water and solute homeostasis.

  14. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal


    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  15. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...

  16. Objective Sleep in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.


    A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Time for Integration? (United States)

    Hodges, Shannon


    An increasing prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses among women illustrates problems and limitations of the medical model system. Article explores overlapping relationship between BPD and PTSD and critiques how both are viewed within the mental health community. Previous research is…

  18. Risk of Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder (United States)

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Biederman, Joseph; Kwon, Anne; Ditterline, Jeffrey; Forkner, Peter; Moore, Hadley; Swezey, Allison; Snyder, Lindsey; Henin, Aude; Wozniak, Janet; Faraone, Stephen V.


    Objective: Previous work in adults and youths has suggested that juvenile onset bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk of substance use disorders (SUD). Considering the public health importance of this issue, the authors now report on a controlled study of adolescents with and without BPD to evaluate the risk of SUD. Method:…

  19. Tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder : Is autoimmunity involved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Minderaa, RB


    The precise cause of tic disorders and paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown. In addition to genetic factors, autoimmunity may play a role, possibly as a sequela of preceding streptococcal throat infections in susceptible children. Here we review the most recent findings, from Ju

  20. Perspectives on Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Psychopathic Features (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey; Pardini, Dustin A.


    This paper presents a few perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and early forms of psychopathy. The developmental changes and stability of each, and the interrelationship between the three conditions are reviewed, and correlates and predictors are highlighted. The paper also examines effective interventions…

  1. Recent Advances in the Study of Sleep in the Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. (United States)

    Boland, Elaine M; Ross, Richard J


    Sleep disturbance is frequently associated with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article reviews recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of the sleep disturbances in these disorders and discusses the implications for developing improved treatments.

  2. [Differential diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)]. (United States)

    Stübner, S; Völkl, G; Soyka, M


    Recently the concept of dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) has attracted increasing public and scientific interest. However, it is rarely diagnosed in the clinical setting. the reported case of a 47-year-old woman with a history of child abuse demonstrates the problems of differential diagnosis. A number of psychopathologic symptoms pointed to a multiple personality disorder, but in the follow-up psychotic symptoms such as delusions, possible hallucinations and bizarre behavior clearly emerged. The differential diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder includes paranoid schizophrenia, as in the case described, borderline personality disorder, hysteria, simulation and the false memory syndrome. Finally, social and cultural factors have to be considered.

  3. Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Neurological Disorders: Metabolic Disorders (United States)

    Gessler, Dominic J.; Gao, Guangping


    Metabolic disorders comprise a large group of heterogeneous diseases ranging from very prevalent diseases such as diabetes mellitus to rare genetic disorders like Canavan Disease. Whether either of these diseases is amendable by gene therapy depends to a large degree on the knowledge of their pathomechanism, availability of the therapeutic gene, vector selection, and availability of suitable animal models. In this book chapter, we review three metabolic disorders of the central nervous system (CNS; Canavan Disease, Niemann–Pick disease and Phenylketonuria) to give examples for primary and secondary metabolic disorders of the brain and the attempts that have been made to use adeno-associated virus (AAV) based gene therapy for treatment. Finally, we highlight commonalities and obstacles in the development of gene therapy for metabolic disorders of the CNS exemplified by those three diseases. PMID:26611604

  4. Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Neurological Disorders: Metabolic Disorders. (United States)

    Gessler, Dominic J; Gao, Guangping


    Metabolic disorders comprise a large group of heterogeneous diseases ranging from very prevalent diseases such as diabetes mellitus to rare genetic disorders like Canavan Disease. Whether either of these diseases is amendable by gene therapy depends to a large degree on the knowledge of their pathomechanism, availability of the therapeutic gene, vector selection, and availability of suitable animal models. In this book chapter, we review three metabolic disorders of the central nervous system (CNS; Canavan Disease, Niemann-Pick disease and Phenylketonuria) to give examples for primary and secondary metabolic disorders of the brain and the attempts that have been made to use adeno-associated virus (AAV) based gene therapy for treatment. Finally, we highlight commonalities and obstacles in the development of gene therapy for metabolic disorders of the CNS exemplified by those three diseases.

  5. Bipolar disorder and substance use disorders. Madrid study on the prevalence of dual disorders/pathology. (United States)

    Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesías, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Rentero, David


    Given its prevalence and impact on public health, the comorbidity of bipolar and substance use disorders is one of the most relevant of dual diagnoses. The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of patients from community mental health and substance abuse centres in Madrid. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from mental health and substance abuse centres. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ4+) to evaluate axis I and II disorders. Of these patients, 174 had a lifetime bipolar disorder, 83 had bipolar disorder type I and 91 had type II. Most patients had dual pathology. Of the 208 participants from the mental health centres, 21 had bipolar disorder and 13 (61.9%) were considered dually-diagnosed patients, while 33.2% of non-bipolar patients had a dual diagnoses (p = 0.03). Of the 629 participants from the substance abuse centres, 153 patients (24.3%) had a bipolar diagnosis. Bipolar dual patients had higher rates of alcohol and cocaine dependence than non-bipolar patients. Moreover, age at onset of alcohol use was earlier in bipolar duallydiagnosed patients than in other alcoholics. Bipolar dually-diagnosed patients had higher personality and anxiety disorder comorbidities and greater suicide risk. Thus, alcohol and cocaine are the drugs most associated with bipolar disorder. Given the nature of the study, the type of relationship between these disorders cannot be determined.

  6. [Addictive behavior disorders]. (United States)

    Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Tani, Naosuke; Fukui, Kenji


    "Addiction" used to remind anyone of the use or abuse of chemical substances. In recent years, however, researchers and clinicians have begun to classify other excessive behaviors including gambling, eating shopping and self-injury into the addictive behavior. Above all, pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients often make trouble for psychiatrists and psychologists, not only for their family. On the other hand, the neural substrata underlying substance dependence have been revealed. Especially, it is implicated that the mesolimbic neuron plays a crucial role on the reward system. The recent studies suggest that reduced activation of the reward system might be related to the addictive behaviors such as pathological gambling, binge eating and sexual behavior. Further biological researches about the addictive behavior would help our deeper understanding of its disorders. As to the pharmacotherapy, many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating the addictive behaviors.

  7. [Musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture]. (United States)

    Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias


    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD.

  8. [Female conduct disorders]. (United States)

    Vloet, Timo D; Großheinrich, Nicola; Konrad, Kerstin; Freitag, Christine; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate


    The last few years have seen much research on girls with conduct disorder (CD). This article summarizes the gender-specific data regarding prevalence, differences with respect to symptomatology (e.g., subtypes of aggression, callous-unemotional (cu)-traits), and it presents data on the autonomic and neuroendocrine stress system as well as genetic, neurocognitive, and neuroimaging data. Differences in the impact of environmental factors on boys and girls for the development of CD are discussed. Taken together, the data indicate that there is great overlap in symptomatology, personality traits, and neurobiological aberrations in girls and boys with CD. Since fewer girls than boys exhibit CD symptomatology, further investigations on CD in girls might help to identify resilience factors that could improve future therapeutic interventions.

  9. Disorders of fructose metabolism. (United States)

    Froesch, E R


    There are fundamental differences between the metabolic fate of fructose and of glucose. Whereas the metabolism of glucose is controlled by hormones such as insulin, fructose uptake and phosphorylation in the liver occurs independently of hormones and its ultimate metabolic fate is unpredictable. Essential fructosuria, a harmless inherited anomaly of fructose metabolism, is the least harmful of the disorders of fructose metabolism. Hereditary fructose intolerance and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency are discussed in greater detail with regard to biochemical abnormalities and clinical aspects. HFI is most serious in bottle-fed infants who cannot reject their sucrose-containing diet. Patients with HFI will have no clinical symptoms if kept on a fructose-free diet. In contrast, patients with fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency can tolerate frucose. However, severe infections precipitate attacks of hypoglycaemia and lactic acidosis.

  10. Disability, Disorder, and Identity (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.


    The World Health Organizations International Classification of Diseases is the most important diagnostic tool, worldwide, to ensure that people with intellectual and developmental disabilities receive the supports they need to live richer, fuller lives. And yet, the ICD has naming conventions that create a conundrum for the field, requiring that all “conditions” in the ICD be named as a “disorder.” This article discusses the effect of naming on how people with intellectual disability are perceived by others and how they perceive themselves. The importance of continuing to move the field toward the adoption of functional/person-environment fit models of disability is discussed. “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.”William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (II, ii, 1–2) PMID:23537360

  11. Rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Weinstock, L B; Thyssen, E P


    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common inflammatory facial skin condition. Recent genetic and epidemiological studies have suggested pathogenic links between rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders, but data are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the association between rosacea...... and coeliac disease (CeD), Crohn disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), Helicobacter pylori infection (HPI), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), respectively. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study. A total of 49 475 patients with rosacea and 4 312 213...... with rosacea. RESULTS: The prevalence of CeD, CD, UC, HPI, SIBO and IBS, respectively, was higher among patients with rosacea when compared with the control subjects. Adjusted HRs revealed significant associations between rosacea and CeD (HR 1·46, 1·11-1·93), CD (HR 1·45, 1·19-1·77), UC (HR 1·19, 1...

  12. The Relationship of Personality to Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Besharat


    Full Text Available This paper highlights a variety of personality disorders in individuals with eating disorder and also emphasizes the importance of identifying clinically meaningful eating disorders subtypes based on concurrent personality disorder. The relationship between personality disorders and eating disorders is an important issue as this association has implications for assessment and treatment. Different hypotheses concerning the relationship between personality disorders and eating disorders will be reviewed. The prevalence rates of concomitant personality disorder diagnoses in eating disorder patients is highlighted to illustrate some of the pertinent conceptual issues concerning the meaning of the co-occurrence of separately defined diagnostic entities. The literature review reveals a robust finding that patients with ersonality pathology have a poorer response to treatment of Axis I disorders than those without such pathology. It is also argued that therapeutic relationship deserves more attention in the assessment and treatment of eating disorder patients with a co morbid personality disorder.

  13. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  14. The new world disorder. (United States)

    Checa, Nicolas; Maguire, John; Barney, Jonathan


    On January 1, 1995, representatives from 76 countries signed the World Trade Organization charter, which for years had been part of a temporary trade agreement. The WTO's emergence as a fully empowered supranational body seemed to reflect the triumph of what the first President Bush had described as the "new world order." That order was based on two assumptions: that a healthy economy and a sound financial system make for political stability, and that countries in business together do not fight each other. The number one priority of U.S. foreign policy was thus to encourage the former Communist countries of Europe and the developing nations in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to adopt business-friendly policies. Private capital would flow from the developed world into these countries, creating economic growth. It sounded too good to be true, and so it proved. The new world order of Bush père and his successor, Bill Clinton, has been replaced by the new world disorder of Bush fils. Under the second Bush's administration, the economic and political rationale-behind the Washington consensus of the 1990s has unraveled, forcing a radical change in our perceptions of which countries are safe for business. Negotiating this new environment will require companies to more rigorously evaluate political events and more carefully assess the links between political, economic, and financial risk factors. They'll need to be more selective about which markets to enter, and they'll need to think differently about how to position themselves in those markets. The geopolitical events of the past year, the Bush administration's global war on terror, as well as ongoing convulsions in traditional political and economic relationships must be understood and managed by corporate leaders worldwide. With careful analysis, business leaders can increase their companies' visibility and better respond to the uncertainties of the new world disorder.

  15. Gender identity disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    De Gascun, C


    Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is a relatively rare condition of atypical gender development in which there is a psychological perception of self as masculine or feminine which is incongruent with ones phenotype. GID replaced the term Transsexualism in DSM-IV in 1994. The demographics of GID in Ireland have not been established. Since 2000 we have received 52 referrals of individuals with confirmed GID to our endocrine service for consideration for hormonal treatment (HT). Of the 52 patients 45 have male to female (MTF) GID (mean age 38.9 years) and 7 have female to male (FTM) GID (mean age 30.7 years). The age at presentation in this group is approximately 9 years older than in international series for both MTF (39 years v 30yrs) and FTM (31 yrs v 22yrs). The karyotype where analysed has been normal for their phenotypic sex. Twenty-three of the patients had received HT prior to attending our clinic that in only one case had been prescribed by a specialist. A number of patients had obtained HT via the internet or from overseas sources without medical review. Eighteen of the patients have been or are married and 14 of the group have children. The scale of referrals confirms that GID exists in the Irish population to a significant degree. Thus an appropriate care pathway for people with the condition needs to be established. This will facilitate optimum medical management of the patient group and a coherent approach to the many difficult social issues faced individuals with this disorder.

  16. Integrative interpersonal psychotherapy for personality disorder


    Divac-Jovanović, Mirjana; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica


    Multidimensional diagnosis of personality disorders defines personality disorders as borderline level of functioning of various types of personality adaptations. This multilevel diagnosis enables dynamic insight into personality disorder as a reversible adaptation disorder in personalities fundamentally belonging to different structures and types (narcissistic, histrionic, obsessive, schizoid, antisocial, etc). Efficient therapy for personality disorders must also be multidimensional, as it n...

  17. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder? (United States)

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea


    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  18. Movement disorders in spinocerebellar ataxias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalen, J. van; Giunti, P.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de


    Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) can present with a large variety of noncerebellar symptoms, including movement disorders. In fact, movement disorders are frequent in many of the various SCA subtypes, and they can be the presenting, dominant, or even isolated disease feature. When c

  19. Catatonia and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Malone, Caroline


    The phenomenon of catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum disorders is discussed in the context of current knowledge about catatonia as it occurs in severe mental illness and, less frequently documented, in conjunction with developmental disorders. The existing literature on catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum…

  20. Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, G.E.


    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the prevale

  1. Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir


    Full Text Available Comorbid endocrine and cardiovascular situations with bipolar disorder usually result from the bipolar disorder itself or as a consequence of its treatment. With habits and lifestyle, genetic tendency and side effects, this situation is becoming more striking. Subpopulations of bipolar disorders patients should be considered at high risk for diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bipolar disorder may be three times greater than in the general population. Comorbidity of diabetes causes a pathophysiological overlapping in the neurobiological webs of bipolar cases. Signal mechanisms of glycocorticoid/insulin and immunoinflammatory effector systems are junction points that point out the pathophysiology between bipolar disorder and general medical cases susceptible to stress. Glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3 is a serine/treonine kinase and inhibits the transport of glucose stimulated by insulin. It is affected in diabetes, cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer disease and bipolar disorder. Hypoglycemic effect of lithium occurs via inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase. When comorbid with diabetes, the other disease -for example bipolar disorder, especially during its acute manic episodes-, causes a serious situation that presents its influences for a lifetime. Choosing pharmacological treatment and treatment adherence are another important interrelated areas. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the etiological, clinical and therapeutic properties of diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder comorbidity.

  2. Behavior Disorders in the Classroom (United States)

    Quay, Herbert C.


    The research findings of most studies on student behavior problems have shown that these behaviors can be reduced to four major clusters of interrelated characteristics--conduct disorder, personality disorder, inadequacy-immaturity and socialized delinquency. Discusses these behaviors and some research on behavior change. (Author/RK)

  3. Explicit memory in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Roth, W.T.; Andrich, M.; Margraf, J.


    Two experiments were conducted to study selective memory bias favoring anxiety-relevant materials in patients with anxiety disorders. In the 1st experiment, 32 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 30 with social phobia (speaking anxiety), and 31 control participants incidentally learned

  4. Dimensions of multiple personality disorder. (United States)

    Murray, J B


    Research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has burgeoned, and large-scale investigations indicate that a typical MPD patient is a woman, a victim of childhood abuse (especially sexual abuse), a person whose symptoms meet criteria for other psychiatric disorders, and a person who would employ many psychological defenses. Treatment approaches have frequently included hypnotherapy, which requires skill and caution.

  5. Treatment of functional motor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelauff, Jeannette M.; Dreissen, Yasmine E. M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Stone, Jon


    OPINION STATEMENT: For the treatment of functional motor disorder, we recommend a three-stage approach. Firstly, patients must be assessed and given an unambiguous diagnosis, with an explanation that helps them understand that they have a genuine disorder, with the potential for reversibility. A key

  6. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders (United States)

    Arntz, Arnoud


    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  8. Advances in eating disorder therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht


    Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment.......Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment....

  9. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms (United States)

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari


    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  10. The Internet gaming disorder scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Gentile, D.A.


    Recently, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The main aim of the current study was to test the reliability and validity of 4 survey instruments to measur

  11. Perfectionism and Eating Disorders Reconsidered. (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Kottman, Terry; Schoen, Eva


    Examines differences between college women being treated for eating disorders and a comparison group on measures of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism. Results show that individuals with eating disorders had significantly higher scores on a factor representing perfectionism; however, there were no significant differences between the two groups…

  12. Genetic determinants of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof-Op 't Landt, Margarita Cornelia Theodora


    In this thesis, a series of studies on different aspects of the genetics of eating disorders is presented. The heritability of disordered eating behavior and attitudes in relation with body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in a large adolescent twin-family sample ascertained through the Netherlands Tw

  13. Stacking disorder in ice I. (United States)

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Murray, Benjamin J; Salzmann, Christoph G; Molinero, Valeria; Pickering, Steven J; Whale, Thomas F


    Traditionally, ice I was considered to exist in two well-defined crystalline forms at ambient pressure: stable hexagonal ice (ice Ih) and metastable cubic ice (ice Ic). However, it is becoming increasingly evident that what has been called cubic ice in the past does not have a structure consistent with the cubic crystal system. Instead, it is a stacking-disordered material containing cubic sequences interlaced with hexagonal sequences, which is termed stacking-disordered ice (ice Isd). In this article, we summarise previous work on ice with stacking disorder including ice that was called cubic ice in the past. We also present new experimental data which shows that ice which crystallises after heterogeneous nucleation in water droplets containing solid inclusions also contains stacking disorder even at freezing temperatures of around -15 °C. This supports the results from molecular simulations, that the structure of ice that crystallises initially from supercooled water is always stacking-disordered and that this metastable ice can transform to the stable hexagonal phase subject to the kinetics of recrystallization. We also show that stacking disorder in ice which forms from water droplets is quantitatively distinct from ice made via other routes. The emerging picture of ice I is that of a very complex material which frequently contains stacking disorder and this stacking disorder can vary in complexity depending on the route of formation and thermal history.

  14. Muscle ultrasound in neuromuscular disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillen, S.; Arts, I.M.P.; Zwarts, M.J.


    Muscle ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders, as these disorders result in muscle atrophy and intramuscular fibrosis and fatty infiltration, which can be visualized with ultrasound. Several prospective studies have reported high sensitivities and specificities in th

  15. Scientific attitudes towards bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu


    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition that is also called manic-depressive disease. It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. In the present study, 3 sets of data were considered and analyzed: first, all papers categorized under Bipolar Disorders in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E database through 2001-2011; second, papers published by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in SCI-E during a period of 11 years; and third, all papers distributed by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in MEDLINE during the period of study. Methods: The SCI-E database was used to extract all papers indexed with the topic of Bipolar Disorders as well as all papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Extraction of data from MEDLINE was restricted to the journals name from setting menu. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders through 2009-2011. Results: Analysis of data showed that the majority of publications in the subject area of bipolar disorders indexed in SCI-E were published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Although journal articles consisted of 59% of the total publication type in SCI-E, 65% of publications distributed by The Journal of Bipolar Disorders were in the form of meetingabstracts. Journal articles consisted of only 23% of the total publications. USA was the leading country regarding sharing data in the field of bipolar disorders followed by England, Canada, and Germany. Conclusion: The editorial policy of The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders has been focused on new themes and new ways of researching in the subject area of bipolar disorder. Regarding the selection of papers for indexing, the SCI-E database selects data more comprehensively than MEDLINE. The number of papers

  16. [Eating disorders and mass media]. (United States)

    Peroutsi, A; Gonidakis, F


    During the last 50 years, eating disorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eating disorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eating disorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eating disorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders.

  17. Faking attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A


    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase alertness, energy, academic performance, and athletic performance. Stimulants may also decrease psychological distress, alleviate restlessness and weight concerns, and be used for recreational purposes. According to the findings of five studies, the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be believably faked, particularly when assessed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom checklists. Thus, the faking of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a realistic concern in both psychiatric and primary care settings.

  18. Genetic relationships between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder. (United States)

    Cardno, Alastair G; Owen, Michael J


    There is substantial evidence for partial overlap of genetic influences on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with family, twin, and adoption studies showing a genetic correlation between the disorders of around 0.6. Results of genome-wide association studies are consistent with commonly occurring genetic risk variants, contributing to both the shared and nonshared aspects, while studies of large, rare chromosomal structural variants, particularly copy number variants, show a stronger influence on schizophrenia than bipolar disorder to date. Schizoaffective disorder has been less investigated but shows substantial familial overlap with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A twin analysis is consistent with genetic influences on schizoaffective episodes being entirely shared with genetic influences on schizophrenic and manic episodes, while association studies suggest the possibility of some relatively specific genetic influences on broadly defined schizoaffective disorder, bipolar subtype. Further insights into genetic relationships between these disorders are expected as studies continue to increase in sample size and in technical and analytical sophistication, information on phenotypes beyond clinical diagnoses are increasingly incorporated, and approaches such as next-generation sequencing identify additional types of genetic risk variant.

  19. Bipolar and related disorders and depressive disorders in DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In 2013, a version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, having number 5, was published. The DSM is a textbook which aims to present diagnostic criteria for each psychiatric disorder recognized by the U.S. healthcare system. The DSM-5 comprises the most updated diagnostic criteria of psychiatric disorders as well as their description, and provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about the patients. Diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5 have been popular all over the world, including countries where the ICD-10 classification is obligatory, and are widely used for clinical and neurobiological research in psychiatry. In this article, two chapters of the DSM-5 pertained to mood (affective disorders are presented, such as “Bipolar and related disorders” and “Depressive disorders” replacing the chapter titled “Mood disorders” in the previous version of DSM-IV. The aim of this article is to discuss a structure of new classification, to point out differences compared with previous version (DSM-IV. New diagnostic categories, such as e.g. disruptive mood dysregulation disorder or premenstrual dysphoric disorder were depicted as well as some elements of dimensional approach to mood disorders were presented.

  20. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)


    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  1. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W


    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological...... studies, 16 (29.1%) had co-occurring BDD. SPD participants with and without BDD were compared to each other and to 40 healthy volunteers on measures of symptom severity, social functioning, and cognitive assessments using the Stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra...

  2. [Effect of developmental disorders on personality and personality disorders]. (United States)

    Honda, Hideo


    Developmental disorders (DD) are now so common that it is even more necessary to investigate the relationship between DD and personality disorders (PD). Despite the lack of studies, DD and PD have much in common. For research on personality and its disorders, direct, real-time observation by researchers themselves on the "black box" of temperament and its interaction with the environment is needed. For research on DD, especially in those with mild DD symptoms, how developmental characteristics and their interaction with the environment affect the personality in adulthood should be investigated.

  3. ADHD with Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder: Discrete or Nondistinct Disruptive Behavior Disorders? (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F.; Doerfler, Leonard A.


    Objective: In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Method: Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male…

  4. Eating Disorder Examination – Differences in eating disorder pathology between men and women with eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Maja Schølarth; Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian


    found to have more vomiting. Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is “the golden standard” of diagnostic interviewing in eating disorder but analysis of gender differences in scores on the EDE have never been reported. The present study aim to explore gender differences on the EDE among adolescents...

  5. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Sanne M.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Spijker, Jan; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.


    Background: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the Netherl

  6. Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children: Disorder-Specific Responses to Experimental Separation from the Mother (United States)

    Kossowsky, Joe; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Roth, Walton T.; Schneider, Silvia


    Background: Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders in childhood and is predictive of adult anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. However, the disorder has seldom been studied and the attempt to distinguish SAD from other anxiety disorders with regard to psychophysiology has not been made. We expected…

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    ... Just Figuring Out CGG Repeats! Donate Print PDF Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X ... known single gene cause of ASD What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Read my Story Autism spectrum disorder ( ...

  8. National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (United States)

    ... Resources Register for Updates The National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) Located within the National Heart, Lung, ... 60 percent have a chronic disorder. Each year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add an estimated $15. ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder (United States)

    ... Health Conditions congenital mirror movement disorder congenital mirror movement disorder Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital mirror movement disorder is a condition in which intentional movements of ...

  10. IBS and Non-GI Functional Disorders (United States)

    ... disorders, particularly IBS and FMS. Estimates of the prevalence of IBS in FMS patients range from 30% ... Migraine and tension headaches Temperomandibular joint disorder (TMJ) Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) Interstitial cystitis and ...

  11. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  12. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Michalska


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Method. The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED, pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES, sleep-related eating disorder (SRED, bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. Results. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5–4.7% (SRED to about 7% (orthorexia. With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. Conclusions. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  13. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens (United States)

    ... is in crisis. What do I do? Share Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens Download PDF Download ePub ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  14. Eating Disorders: Symptoms and Warning Signs (United States)

    ... from diuretic abuse severe dehydration from purging Binge Eating Disorder frequently eating large amounts of food (binge-eating) ... can lead to more binge-eating Read More "Eating Disorders" Articles Understanding Eating Disorders: Anorexia, Bulemia, and Binge- ...

  15. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel


    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  16. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.


    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, dep

  17. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders (United States)

    ... other mental health disorders, including the effects of stress and gender differences on these disorders. With a fuller understanding of all the ways alcohol and other mental health disorders affect one another, researchers may be able to better ...

  18. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders (United States)

    ... Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders Depression and bipolar disorder (also ... a Confidential Online Mood Disorder Screening Signs and symptoms of depression Prolonged sadness or unexplained crying spells ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middha Akanksha


    Full Text Available Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD is a serious neurological disorder affecting communication skills, social interactions, adaptability in an individual, and also causes dramatic changes in behavioral patterns. This condition typically lasts throughout one’s lifetime and affects both, children as well as adults. Research has shown a tenfold increase in autism cases over the past decade and still rising at an alarming pace. The origins of autism are not known even to modern science. Autism exists at different levels in individuals affected by the disease and is classified into five types. Symptoms for autism are more pronounced and prevalent in children compared to adults. Though some studies attribute autism to gene abnormality, science is yet to furnish hard facts about exact autism causes. Scientists and doctors are also unanimous in their opinion that autism, as of yet, has no cure. Treatments of autism are widely available and help in alleviating the symptoms of autism which make living with the condition easier.Several factors work together in causing autism but isolation and identification of a chief cause or causes has yet to be accomplished by modern science. Some people mistakenly believe that autism is related to bad parenting, vaccinations, or malnutrition. But these misconceptions are due to improper knowledge related to the disease. Symptoms of autism usually surface within the first two years of birth in children. Autistic children usually avoid eye contact and are poor imitators of sound together with a disliking towards a change in routines as well as non adaptability to new environments. At present, there is an absence of medical tests which can diagnose autism. The diagnosis of autism is largely based on developmental history and behavioral patterns. Medicinal treatments of autism have a downside as autism patients develop resistance to certain drugs over long period of use. All types of autism demand a good plan of

  20. Nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Cottraux, Jean


    An evidence-based review of nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders is presented. The vast majority of the controlled research is devoted to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and shows its efficiency and effectiveness in all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in meta-analyses. Relaxation, psychoanalytic therapies, Rogerian nondirective therapy, hypnotherapy and supportive therapy were examined in a few controlled studies, which preclude any definite conclusion about their effectiveness in specific phobias, agoraphobia, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), CBT was clearly better than psychoanalytic therapy in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and performance anxiety Psychological debriefing for PTSD appeared detrimental to the patients in one high-quality meta-analysis. Uncontrolled studies of psychosurgery techniques for intractable OCD demonstrated a limited success and detrimental side effects. The same was true for sympathectomy in ereutophobia. Transcranial neurostimulation for OCD is under preliminary study. The theoretical and practical problems of CBT dissemination are discussed.

  1. [Disorders of body schema]. (United States)

    Tsuruya, Natsuko; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka


    A variety of disorders have been associated with the concept of body schema. However, this concept has been interpreted in many ways, and there is no consensus on the nature and cognitive mechanisms of body schema. Historically, two major issues have been discussed. One was the body-specificity of the body schema, and the other was the relationship between input and output modality. Autotopagnosia, an inability to localize and orient different parts of the body, has been a focus of attention because it is thought to provide insight into the function of body schema. Although there have not been many cases of pure autotopagnosia, a double dissociation indicating the independence of body-specific system. There are a few working hypotheses for cognitive models of body schema, which can explain the different types of autotopagnosia. One model includes multiple representation subsystems for body processing, while another assumes the use of intrinsic and extrinsic egocentric coordinates to maintain on-line processing for body state. The consistency of these accounts should be examined in light of extensive neuroimaging and psychological data, to construct a plausible model for body schema.

  2. Watersheds in disordered media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S. Andrade Jr.


    Full Text Available What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watershedsseparating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have beenused to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes betweencountries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance,slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in awatershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arisesnaturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide,and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields suchas image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scalingproperties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a moreprofound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed andstatistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of awatershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometricaland physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificialmodel landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be ingood qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  3. [Dependence disorders in psychopathology]. (United States)

    Fernandez, L; Sztulman, H


    Research concerning the psychopathological aspects of dependence implicates a wide range of behaviors reassembled under the term of "dependence behaviors": sexual, medical, alcoholic and tobacco dependencies. Speech samples of dependent subjects show that encountering the object of dependence (product, element, ...) introduces a particular form of organized psychological processes. According to several authors, psychopathological dependence can be attributed to: early personality development; failures in the separation-individuation processes; disorders in mother-infant interactions; and a deficit in the psychological functioning of the subjects. For psychopathology, the dependence cannot be reduced to physiological dependence on the product but is understood rather in terms of a complex process indicative of either specific or non-specific suffering which is addressed by abused substance that represents a solution--the effects of which constitute the addictive process. Understanding this process requires an analysis of the psychopathological dependence from a triple meta-psychological viewpoint (topographical, dynamic, economic). Such analysis allows for a psychoanalytical theoretical interpretation of dependence based on three models: pleasure, narcissism and stress reduction. At the same time, the analysis extends the examination of psychopathological dependence towards issues concerning the body. Such body issues are critically placed between the biological and the psychological processes.

  4. [Functional gastrointestinal disorders]. (United States)

    Vogt, W


    Functional gastrointestinal disorders particularly dyspepsia an irritable bowel syndrome are frequent problems for the general practitioner and also for the specialist. Both are diseases and not only a kind of discomfort. The high frequency of dispepsia and irritable bowel syndrome induces very high direct and indirect charges. Both diseases depend on a number of factors or causes, for whom the evidence is not good. But there are good experimental data for the visceral hypersensitivity as one of the main factors. Gastroscopy is the most important examination in the diagnosis of dyspepsia. Endoscopy has to be done in all patients with alarm symptoms an in all patients older than 45 years. The therapy of dyspepsia is an empirical one. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori is a therapeutical option, but only 8% of the patients will have benefit for a long time. Other therapeutical options are the use of proton-pump inhibitors, prokinetics or phytotherapeutics. The therapy of the irritable bowel syndrome depends on the subtype of the disease (diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, bloating). First of all a good doctor-patient relationship is mandatory. Furthermore the use of dietary fibre, antidiarrhoeics, laxatives and muscle relaxants may be beneficial. And phytotherapeutics can be an additional therapeutic approach.

  5. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. (United States)

    Leeman, Lawrence; Dresang, Lee T; Fontaine, Patricia


    Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks' gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks' gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension. Preeclampsia is defined as hypertension and either proteinuria or thrombocytopenia, renal insufficiency, impaired liver function, pulmonary edema, or cerebral or visual symptoms. Proteinuria is not essential for the diagnosis and does not correlate with outcomes. Severe features of preeclampsia include a systolic blood pressure of at least 160 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of at least 110 mm Hg, platelet count less than 100 × 103 per µL, liver transaminase levels two times the upper limit of normal, a doubling of the serum creatinine level or level greater than 1.1 mg per dL, severe persistent right upper-quadrant pain, pulmonary edema, or new-onset cerebral or visual disturbances. Preeclampsia without severe features can be managed with twice-weekly blood pressure monitoring, antenatal testing for fetal well-being and disease progression, and delivery by 37 weeks' gestation. Preeclampsia with any severe feature requires immediate stabilization and inpatient treatment with magnesium sulfate, antihypertensive drugs, corticosteroids for fetal lung maturity if less than 34 weeks' gestation, and delivery plans. Preeclampsia can worsen or initially present after delivery. Women with hypertensive disorders should be monitored as inpatients or closely at home for 72 hours postpartum.

  6. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes (United States)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.


    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  7. [Circadian rhythm sleep disorder]. (United States)

    Mishima, Kazuo


    Primary pathophysiology of circadian rhythm sleep disorders(CRSDs) is a misalignment between the endogenous circadian rhythm phase and the desired or socially required sleep-wake schedule, or dysfunction of the circadian pacemaker and its afferent/efferent pathways. CRSDs consist of delayed sleep phase type, advanced sleep phase type, free-running type, irregular sleep-wake type, shift work type and jet lag type. Chronotherapy using strong zeitgebers (time cues), such as bright light and melatonin/ melatonin type 2 receptor agonist, is effective when administered with proper timing. Bright light is the strongest entraining agent of circadian rhythms. Bright light therapy (appropriately-timed exposure to bright light) for CRSDs is an effective treatment option, and can shift the sleep-wake cycle to earlier or later times, in order to correct for misalignment between the circadian system and the desired sleep-wake schedule. Timed administration of melatonin, either alone or in combination with light therapy has also been shown to be useful in the treatment of CRSDs.

  8. Phytomedicine in Joint Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Dragos


    Full Text Available Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even though many of them have been proven effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available scientific information on the following joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswellia spp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytum procumbens, Salix spp., Sesamum indicum, Symphytum officinalis, Zingiber officinalis, Panax notoginseng, and Whitania somnifera.

  9. Phytomedicine in Joint Disorders (United States)

    Dragos, Dorin; Gilca, Marilena; Gaman, Laura; Vlad, Adelina; Iosif, Liviu; Stoian, Irina; Lupescu, Olivera


    Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents) is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even though many of them have been proven effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available scientific information on the following joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswellia spp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytum procumbens, Salix spp., Sesamum indicum, Symphytum officinalis, Zingiber officinalis, Panax notoginseng, and Whitania somnifera.

  10. Oncogenes in myeloproliferative disorders. (United States)

    Tefferi, Ayalew; Gilliland, D Gary


    Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) constitute a group of hematopoietic malignancies that feature enhanced proliferation and survival of one or more myeloid lineage cells. William Dameshek is credited for introducing the term "MPDs" in 1951 when he used it to group chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) under one clinicopathologic category. Since then, other myeloid neoplasms have been added to the MPD member list: chronic neutrophilic (CNL), eosinophilic (CEL) and myelomonocytic (CMML) leukemias; juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML); hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES); systemic mastocytosis (SM); and others. Collectively, MPDs are stem cell-derived clonal proliferative diseases whose shared and diverse phenotypic characteristics can be attributed to dysregulated signal transduction--a consequence of acquired somatic mutations. The most recognized among the latter is BCR-ABL, the disease-causing mutation in CML. Other mutations of putative pathogenetic relevance in MPDs include: JAK2V617F in PV, ET, and PMF; JAK2 exon 12 mutations in PV; MPLW515L/K in PMF and ET; KITD816V in SM; FIP1L1-PDGFRA in CEL-SM; rearrangements of PDGFRB in CEL-CMML and FGFR1 in stem cell leukemia-lymphoma syndrome; and RAS/PTPN11/NF1 mutations in JMML. This increasing repertoire of mutant molecules has streamlined translational research and molecularly targeted drug development in MPDs.

  11. Cadherins and neuropsychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Redies, Christoph; Hertel, Nicole; Hübner, Christian A


    Cadherins mediate cell-cell adhesion but are also involved in intracellular signaling pathways associated with neuropsychiatric disease. Most of the ∼100 cadherins that are expressed in the brain exhibit characteristic spatiotemporal expression profiles. Cadherins have been shown to regulate neural tube regionalization, neuronal migration, gray matter differentiation, neural circuit formation, spine morphology, synapse formation and synaptic remodeling. The dysfunction of the cadherin-based adhesive system may alter functional connectivity and coherent information processing in the human brain in neuropsychiatric disease. Several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as epilepsy/mental retardation, autism, bipolar disease and schizophrenia, have been associated with cadherins, mostly by genome-wide association studies. For example, CDH15 and PCDH19 are associated with cognitive impairment; CDH5, CDH8, CDH9, CDH10, CDH13, CDH15, PCDH10, PCDH19 and PCDHb4 with autism; CDH7, CDH12, CDH18, PCDH12 and FAT with bipolar disease and schizophrenia; and CDH11, CDH12 and CDH13 with methamphetamine and alcohol dependency. To date, disease-causing mutations are established for PCDH19 in patients with epilepsy, cognitive impairment and/or autistic features. In conclusion, genes encoding members of the cadherin superfamily are of special interest in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disease because cadherins play a pivotal role in the development of the neural circuitry as well as in mature synaptic function.

  12. REM sleep Behaviour Disorder. (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Marelli, Sara; Galbiati, Andrea


    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by loss of the muscle atonia that typically occurs during REM sleep, therefore allowing patients to act out their dreams. RBD manifests itself clinically as a violent behaviour occurring during the night, and is detected at the polysomnography by phasic and/or tonic muscle activity on the electromyography channel. In absence of neurological signs or central nervous system lesions, RBD is defined as idiopathic. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the development of neurodegenerative diseases in RBD patients has been described, with the duration of the follow-up representing a fundamental aspect. A growing number of clinical, neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies aimed to detect early markers of neurodegenerative dysfunction in RBD patients. Anyway, the evidence of impaired cortical activity, subtle neurocognitive dysfunction, olfactory and autonomic impairment and neuroimaging brain changes in RBD patients is challenging the concept of an idiopathic form of RBD, supporting the idea of RBD as an early manifestation of a more complex neurodegenerative process.

  13. Biliary Tract Disorders, Gallbladder Disorders, and Gallstone Pancreatitis (United States)

    ... of biliary disorders? What is the biliary tract? Enfermedades de la Vesicula y de la Via Biliar, ... Biliar - Ricardo Morgenstern, MD and Ruben Acosta, MD Enfermedades de la Vesicula y de la Via Biliar, ...

  14. Increased mortality among patients admitted with major psychiatric disorders: a register-based study comparing mortality in unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete


    : Unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were associated with the same pattern of excess mortality. Schizophrenia had a lower mortality from unnatural causes of death and a higher mortality from natural causes compared to the 3 other disorders. Family history...... disorder has never been examined in a population-based study. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine and compare mortality rates after admission with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, unipolar depressive disorder, or bipolar affective disorder and to examine the impact of family history...

  15. Sleep disorders in cerebellar ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Pedroso


    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias comprise a wide range of etiologies leading to central nervous system-related motor and non-motor symptoms. Recently, a large body of evidence has demonstrated a high frequency of non-motor manifestations in cerebellar ataxias, specially in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA. Among these non-motor dysfunctions, sleep disorders have been recognized, although still under or even misdiagnosed. In this review, we highlight the main sleep disorders related to cerebellar ataxias focusing on REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, restless legs syndrome (RLS, periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, insomnia and sleep apnea.

  16. Theory of disordered Heisenberg ferromagnets (United States)

    Stubbs, R. M.


    A Green's function technique is used to calculate the magnetic properties of Heisenberg ferromagnets in which the exchange interactions deviate randomly in strength from the mean interaction. Systems of sc, bcc, and fcc topologies and of general spin values are treated. Disorder produces marked effects in the density of spin wave states, in the form of enhancement of the low-energy density and extension of the energy band to higher values. The spontaneous magnetization and the Curie temperature decrease with increasing disorder. The effects of disorder are shown to be more pronounced in the ferromagnetic than in the paramagnetic phase.

  17. Holographic Conductivity in Disordered Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Shinsei; Ugajin, Tomonori


    The main purpose of this paper is to holographically study the behavior of conductivity in 2+1 dimensional disordered systems. We analyze probe D-brane systems in AdS/CFT with random closed string and open string background fields. We give a prescription of calculating the DC conductivity holographically in disordered systems. In particular, we find an analytical formula of the conductivity in the presence of codimension one randomness. We also systematically study the AC conductivity in various probe brane setups without disorder and find analogues of Mott insulators.

  18. Binge Eating Disorder and Youth. (United States)

    Lipsky, Rachele K; McGuinness, Teena M


    Children and adolescents who eat unusually large amounts of food, feel guilty about it, and try to hide their overeating may be struggling with binge eating disorder (BED), a condition associated with suicidal ideation and other eating disorders. Although BED is new to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the syndrome is becoming increasingly recognized. The study of BED in children and adolescents is in its natal phase, but the importance of recognition and possible treatment strategies are discussed in the current article along with psychiatric nursing implications.

  19. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin


    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran


    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin


    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  1. Creative treatment of bipolar disorders. (United States)

    Tavčar, Rok


    Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder with chronic and remitting course. The disorder is related to high mortality and severely impairs everyday functioning. Therefore a scientifically sound and practical approach to treatment is needed. Making a long-term treatment plan usually also demands some creativity. The patient is interested in a number of issues, from the choice of therapy in acute phases to long-term treatment. Usual questions are how long shall I take the medications, do I really need all those pills or can we decrease the dosage of some drugs? This paper discussed the above mentioned questions in light of latest publications in this field.

  2. Psilocybin and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. (United States)

    Wilcox, James Allen


    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. This condition disables many individuals and is often refractory to treatment. Research suggests that serotonin plays a role in OCD symptom reduction. We present a case of an individual who successfully used psilocybin, a serotonergic agent, to reduce the core symptoms of OCD for several years. Although not endorsing this form of treatment, we feel that the successful use of this agent highlights the role of serotonergic factors in OCD and the need for further, legitimate research into the value of psilocybin in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  3. Is "drunkorexia" an eating disorder, substance use disorder, or both? (United States)

    Hunt, Tyler K; Forbush, Kelsie T


    Researchers have identified a specific behavior pattern labeled "drunkorexia" to describe recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors (e.g., fasting and self-induced vomiting) to avoid weight gain from consuming alcohol (referred to as ICB-WGA). Several studies have investigated the prevalence of these behaviors among college students, but few have tested whether this behavior pattern is more strongly related to substance use or disordered eating, which may have future implications for eating disorder and substance abuse research fields. The aim of this project was to test: (1) whether disordered eating or alcohol use adds incremental validity to the prediction of ICB-WGA when controlling for the other variable and (2) the effect of sex on ICB-WGA. College participants (N=579; 53% female) completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and several questions designed to measure ICB-WGA. Results indicated that EPSI Restricting and Body Dissatisfaction scales were not significant predictors of ICB-WGA, whereas the AUDIT and EPSI Cognitive Restraint, Excessive Exercise, Purging, and Binge Eating scales significantly predicted ICB-WGAs. Results indicated that disordered eating and alcohol use both added incremental validity to the prediction of ICB-WGA; however, ICB-WGA was more strongly related to disordered eating, and this was particularly true for women. Our findings suggest that individuals engaging in ICB-WGA may be at-risk for future development of both eating and substance disorders. Notably, our findings highlight the need for future research to focus on trans-diagnostic prevention programs that target mechanisms that underlie both disordered eating and substance misuse.

  4. [Anxiety and cognition disorders]. (United States)

    Peretti, C S


    Anxious subjects present attentional disorders that are manifest with an increased bias towards threatening contents stimuli. In tasks derived from the Stroop task (such as emotional Stroop, a variant of the classic Stroop task) congruence between anxious themes or manifestations and stimuli content induces information processing changes leading to a slowness of response speed. In this case, results are similar to those obtained in signal detection tasks either when information is visually or auditorily presented. In anxious subjects an inconscious activation provoked by anxiogenic words is observed. Because such activation is independent from the semantic content of the words, an emotional priming has been hypothesized. Berck formulated an hypervigilance theory according to which anxiety provokes a selective distractibility regarding non pertinent stimuli. Such attentional selectivity would be responsible of a cognitive vulnerability in anxious subjects. State but not trait anxiety induces working memory performances deficit. On the bases of Baddeley's working memory framework, Eysenck proposed that anxiety uses part of the limited attentional capacity, placing the subject in a dual task situation. In that, he has to cope with pertinent information and anxiety generated information. If anxiety leads to better performance in simple tasks by recruiting motivational capacities, in tasks with high information content, anxious subjects performances are impaired. Changes in the long-term memory do not seem to fit with the theoretical models based on cognitive impairment observed in patients suffering from depressive states. Anxious subjects presented a memory bias towards anxiogenic information in implicit memory tasks. But experimental data are still too searce to describe implicit performance of anxious subjects and more systematic studies are therefore needed.

  5. [Martin Luther's seizure disorder]. (United States)

    Feldmann, H


    Martin Luther's diseases are well documented, because he used to discuss them freely in his letters. There is also a wealth of evidence through reports by his friends. Most of his diseases were common and well known to the contemporary physicians, who accordingly interpreted them correctly: bladder stones, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids. Luther's death obviously was due to a coronary thrombosis. During the last 19 years of his life, in addition to these "natural diseases", Luther also suffered from recurring attacks of a peculiar symptomatology. Luther himself and his friends considered these seizures to be no "natural disease", but Satan punching his flesh, and he compared them to St. Paul's disease (2. Cor. 12). The first of these attacks occurred on July 6, 1527, when Luther was 43 years of age. It began with a roaring tinnitus in his left ear, which increased dramatically and seemed to occupy the left half of his head. Then a state of sickness and collapse followed, however, consciousness was retained throughout the whole period. After a night's rest all the symptoms had subsided, except the tinnitus, which, from that day on, continued for all the following years in varying intensity. Similar attacks with increase of the tinnitus and vertigo as the leading symptoms, seized Luther at irregular intervals and distressed him extremely. Former investigators of Luther's diseases interpreted these attacks as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder and a chronic inflammatory disease of the middle ear. The present detailed study reveals that it was a typical case of Menière's disease of the left ear manifesting itself more than 330 years before Menière's classical observation.

  6. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue (United States)

    ... Connective Tissue Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Connective Tissue August 2016 Questions and Answers about Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue This publication contains general information about heritable (genetic) ...

  7. Borderline disorder and attachment pathology. (United States)

    West, M; Keller, A; Links, P; Patrick, J


    In this paper, the authors investigate the theoretical and empirical association between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline personality disorder. Attachment theory focuses on the maintenance of a sense of safety and security through a close personal relationship with a particular person. Based on a biological behavioural system, functional attachment relationships in adulthood rely on experiences and expectations of security within the relationship. These issues are also important to the definition and dynamics of borderline personality disorder. The dimensions and patterns of reciprocal attachment were compared with other scales measuring components of psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. In a sample of 85 female outpatients, only four of the attachment scales--feared loss, secure base, compulsive care-seeking and angry withdrawal--identified patients with high scores on a measure of borderline disorder. Of these four scales, feared loss had the predominant effect. These empirical results support the hypothesized relationship between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline disorder.

  8. Gaze disorders: A clinical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulikottil Wilson Vinny


    Full Text Available A single clear binocular vision is made possible by the nature through the oculomotor system along with inputs from the cortical areas as well their descending pathways to the brainstem. Six systems of supranuclear control mechanisms play a crucial role in this regard. These are the saccadic system, the smooth pursuit system, the vestibular system, the optokinetic system, the fixation system, and the vergence system. In gaze disorders, lesions at different levels of the brain spare some of the eye movement systems while affecting others. The resulting pattern of eye movements helps clinicians to localize lesions accurately in the central nervous system. Common lesions causing gaze palsies include cerebral infarcts, demyelinating lesions, multiple sclerosis, tumors, Wernicke's encephalopathy, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative disorders such as progressive supranuclear palsy. Evaluation of the different gaze disorders is a bane of most budding neurologists and neurosurgeons. However, a simple and systematic clinical approach to this problem can make their early diagnosis rather easy.

  9. Sensory aspects of movement disorders. (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark


    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  10. Autistic disorder: a neuropsychological enigma. (United States)

    Huebner, R A


    Autism is increasingly viewed as an expression of an unidentified neurological disorder. Because understanding of neurological dysfunction is basic to evaluation and treatment in occupational therapy, this article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the literature since 1985 concerning the neuropsychology of autistic disorder. The research is categorized into four basic types: (a) neuropsychological testing of functional abilities, (b) treatment studies based on neuropsychological hypotheses, (c) autistic-related diseases and genetic disorders, and (d) neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies. The research shows a spectrum of neurological impairments within the brain stem, cerebellum, midbrain, and frontal lobe. These impairments are associated with deficits in socioemotional skills, sensory processing, motor planning, and cognitive flexibility. This research suggests that persons with autistic disorder need evaluation and treatment of a wide spectrum of functional deficits.

  11. National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation (United States)

    ... triggers undiagnosed fatal urea cycle disorder in Tennessee wife and teacher. Story . More information about bariatric surgery ... with sodium phenylbutyrate may decrease liver dysfunction in patients with ASA. Details "IN TRIBUTE TO HER SON, ...

  12. Multiple personality disorder following childbirth. (United States)

    O'Dwyer, J M; Friedman, T


    A case of multiple personality disorder is described as a coping mechanism protecting the patient from the abuse to which she was subjected throughout her life. The multiple personalities became more prominent following the birth of a severely handicapped child.

  13. Causes of Internet Addiction Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Internet Addiction Disorder diagnostic manual approved by psychologists on November 8 divides Internet addiction into five categories,which are addiction to online games,pornography,social networking,Internet information and Internetshopping.

  14. [Copper metabolism and genetic disorders]. (United States)

    Shimizu, Norikazu


    Copper is one of essential trace elements. Copper deficiency lead to growth and developmental failure and/or neurological dysfunction. However, excess copper is also problems for human life. There are two disorders of inborn error of copper metabolism, Menkes disease and Wilson disease. Menkes disease is an X linked recessive disorder with copper deficiency and Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder with copper accumulation. These both disorders result from the defective functioning of copper transport P-type ATPase, ATP7A of Menkes disease and ATP7B of Wilson disease. In this paper, the author describes about copper metabolism of human, and clinical feature, diagnosis and treatment of Menkes disease and Wilson disease.

  15. [Differential diagnosis in potency disorders]. (United States)

    Kockott, G; Dittmar, F


    Disorders of sexual libido are seldom organic, in general they are of psychological origin. It is, however, difficult to obtain a differential diagnosis. One of the first diagnostic considerations must be the establishment of primary or secondary libidinal dificit, or indeed, whether there is no libido at all. In cases of libido disorders with primary libido dificit, depression, organic disease, or side effects of pharmaca may be the cause. Libido disorders in the presence of functional libido, however, must be regarded as primarily psychologically caused. An exception are libido problems in the presence of diabetes mellitus and peripheral vasculatory defeciencies. In these cases libido is either totally absent or appears only secondarily. The symptomatology of libido disorders in the presence of depression, diabetes melitus, and peripheral vasculatory disturbancies, as well as psychologically caused erectile and ejaculatory difficulties are discussed in detail. These groups are compared with respect to libido and behavior involving erection, ejaculation, anxiety and avoidance.

  16. Discourse on order vs. disorder. (United States)

    Annila, Arto; Baverstock, Keith


    The second law of thermodynamics is on one hand understood to account for irrevocable flow of energy from the top down, on the other hand it is seen to imply irreversible increase of disorder. This tension between the 2 stances is resolved in favor of the free energy consumption when entropy is derived from the statistical mechanics of open systems. The change in entropy is shown to map directly to the decrease in free energy without any connotation attached to disorder. Increase of disorder, just as order, is found to be merely a consequence of free energy consumption. The erroneous association of disorder with entropy stems from an unwarranted assumption that a system could undergo changes of state without concomitant dissipation, i.e., a change in energy.

  17. Sleep disorders in the elderly (United States)

    ... More Alzheimer disease Arthritis Caffeine in the diet Depression - older adults Heart failure - overview Neurocognitive disorder Urinating more at night Review Date 8/22/2016 Updated by: Laura J. ...

  18. Genetic disorders producing compressive radiculopathy. (United States)

    Corey, Joseph M


    Back pain is a frequent complaint seen in neurological practice. In evaluating back pain, neurologists are asked to evaluate patients for radiculopathy, determine whether they may benefit from surgery, and help guide management. Although disc herniation is the most common etiology of compressive radiculopathy, there are many other causes, including genetic disorders. This article is a discussion of genetic disorders that cause or contribute to radiculopathies. These genetic disorders include neurofibromatosis, Paget's disease of bone, and ankylosing spondylitis. Numerous genetic disorders can also lead to deformities of the spine, including spinal muscular atrophy, Friedreich's ataxia, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, familial dysautonomia, idiopathic torsional dystonia, Marfan's syndrome, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, the extent of radiculopathy caused by spine deformities is essentially absent from the literature. Finally, recent investigation into the heritability of disc degeneration and lumbar disc herniation suggests a significant genetic component in the etiology of lumbar disc disease.

  19. Co-occurrence of dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ferrell, Lynn; Schroeder, Elizabeth


    The literature indicates that, among individuals with borderline personality disorder, pathological dissociation correlates with a wide range of impairments and difficulties in psychological function. It also predicts a poorer response to dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. We hypothesized that (a) dissociative identity disorder commonly co-occurs with borderline personality disorder and vice versa, and (b) individuals who meet criteria for both disorders have more comorbidity and trauma than individuals who meet criteria for only 1 disorder. We interviewed a sample of inpatients in a hospital trauma program using 3 measures of dissociation. The most symptomatic group was those participants who met criteria for both borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder on the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, followed by those who met criteria for dissociative identity disorder only, then those with borderline personality disorder only, and finally those with neither disorder. Greater attention should be paid to the relationship between borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder.

  20. Dissociative Disorder Presenting as Catatonia


    Sarkar, P; Patra, B.; Sattar, F.A.; Chatterjee, K.; Gupta, A; Walia, T.S.


    Three cases of dissociative disorder presenting with catatonia are described. Catatonia is generally believed to be associated with schizophrenia. However, many other conditions are also known to cause catatonia. A brief review of literature is provided. All the cases improved rapidly with a few ECTs. This report aims to highlight the presentation of dissociative disorders with catatonia. It also seeks to bring to notice the need to avoid lumping all non-organic catatonics under the rubric of...

  1. Faking Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder



    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase aler...

  2. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders? (United States)

    Juli, Maria Rosaria


    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative

  3. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence. (United States)

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya


    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.

  4. Work-related voice disorder


    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny; Luciana Tironi Sanson Przysiezny


    INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia), vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related...

  5. Shock waves in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Ghofraniha, N; Folli, V; DelRe, E; Conti, C


    We experimentally investigate the interplay between spatial shock waves and the degree of disorder during nonlinear optical propagation in a thermal defocusing medium. We characterize the way the shock point is affected by the amount of disorder and scales with wave amplitude. Evidence for the existence of a phase diagram in terms of nonlinearity and amount of randomness is reported. The results are in quantitative agreement with a theoretical approach based on the hydrodynamic approximation.

  6. [Sleep disorders and their treatment]. (United States)

    Holsboer-Trachsler, E


    Disturbed or inadequate sleep is a frequent complaint, often with a chronic course, requiring adequate treatment. To choose an appropriate therapy it is necessary to develop a useful, reliable valid and specific diagnostic procedure. Primary care physicians can recognize and treat most sleep disorders. For special diagnostic cases sleep centers are recommended. Sleep disorders may be managed by adequate pharmacological as well as nonpharmacological treatments. Besides specific pharmacological interventions, education in sleep/wake hygiene and several psychotherapeutic strategies may be valuable.

  7. Sleep disorders in kidney disease. (United States)

    De Santo, R M; Perna, A; Di Iorio, B R; Cirillo, M


    Sleep disorders are common in patients with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. However also a well functioning renal graft does not cure the poor sleep pattern which now emerges as a problem even in early chronic kidney disease (CKD). When patients are made aware for the first time of a disease such as CKD, which may brink to dialysis or at the best to a renal transplant patients begin to experience a disordered sleep. Sleeping disorders include insomnia (I), sleep apnoea (SAS), restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), excessive daily sleeping (EDS), sleepwalking, nightmares, and narcolepsy. Disordered sleep did not meet the clinical and scientific interest it deserves, in addition and we do not have a well defined solution for sleeping complaints. However, awareness that a poor sleep is associated with poor quality of life and carries an increase in mortality risk has recently stimulated interest in the field. There are many putative causes for a disordered sleep in chronic kidney disease and in end-stage renal disease. For a unifying hypothesis demographic factors, lifestyles, disease related factors, psychological factors, treatment related factors, and social factor must be taken into consideration.

  8. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder]. (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F


    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation.

  9. Work-related voice disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.

  10. Personality traits and personality disorders. (United States)

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G


    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  11. [Perioperative disorders of mental functions]. (United States)

    Tonković, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacević, Marko; Bogović, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert


    Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and

  12. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidemantel T


    Full Text Available Thomas Scheidemantel,1 Irina Korobkova,2 Soham Rej,3,4 Martha Sajatovic1,2 1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 4Geri PARTy Research Group, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Asenapine (Saphris® is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD. Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be

  13. Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Combat Veterans (United States)


    mental disorders), excluding 305.1 (nondependent tobacco use disorder); 307.81 (tension headache); and 310.20 ( postconcussive disorder). The observation...conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan: persistent postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Epidemiol 2008, 167(12):1446–1452. 21

  14. Anxiety and Related Disorders in Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Joe E.; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence


    may differentially impact men (Grant and Potenza 2007 ), the goal of this chapter is to discuss the role of gender in our understanding and treating of anxiety disorders. Specifically, we will be discussing the impact of gender on social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder...

  15. Nonsurgical management of disc-interference disorders. (United States)

    Okeson, J P


    Disc-interference disorders are a group of intracapsular problems that make up one category of temporomandibular disorders. The dental profession's understanding of these disorders has changed greatly in recent years. This article reviews current concepts regarding the diagnosis and management of these disorders as revealed through recent clinical studies.

  16. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder


    Hendriks, S.M.; Licht, C.M.M.; Spijker, J; Beekman, A T F; Hardeveld, F.; de Graaf, R.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.


    Background: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose MDD and GAD. Cognitive profiles were measured using the Leiden Index of Depression S...

  17. Automaticity in Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A.; Joormann, Jutta; Steinman, Shari; Gotlib, Ian H.


    In this paper we examine the nature of automatic cognitive processing in anxiety disorders and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Rather than viewing automaticity as a unitary construct, we follow a social cognition perspective (Bargh, 1994) that argues for four theoretically independent features of automaticity: unconscious (processing of emotional stimuli occurs outside awareness), efficient (processing emotional meaning uses minimal attentional resources), unintentional (no goal is needed to engage in processing emotional meaning), and uncontrollable (limited ability to avoid, alter or terminate processing emotional stimuli). Our review of the literature suggests that most anxiety disorders are characterized by uncontrollable, and likely also unconscious and unintentional, biased processing of threat-relevant information. In contrast, MDD is most clearly typified by uncontrollable, but not unconscious or unintentional, processing of negative information. For the anxiety disorders and for MDD, there is not sufficient evidence to draw firm conclusions about efficiency of processing, though early indications are that neither anxiety disorders nor MDD are characterized by this feature. Clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed and directions for future research are offered. In particular, it is clear that paradigms that more directly delineate the different features of automaticity are required to gain a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of the importance of automatic processing in emotion dysregulation. PMID:22858684

  18. Orofacial manifestations of hematological disorders: Anemia and hemostatic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilope A Adeyemo


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the literature and identify orofacial manifestations of hematological diseases, with particular reference to anemias and disorders of hemostasis. A computerized literature search using MEDLINE was conducted for published articles on orofacial manifestations of hematological diseases, with emphasis on anemia. Mesh phrases used in the search were: oral diseases AND anaemia; orofacial diseases AND anaemia; orofacial lesions AND anaemia; orofacial manifestations AND disorders of haemostasis. The Boolean operator "AND" was used to combine and narrow the searches. Anemic disorders associated with orofacial signs and symptoms include iron deficiency anemia, Plummer-Vinson syndrome, megaloblastic anemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassaemia and aplastic anemia. The manifestations include conjunctiva and facial pallor, atrophic glossitis, angular stomatitis, dysphagia, magenta tongue, midfacial overgrowth, osteoclerosis, osteomyelitis and paraesthesia/anesthesia of the mental nerve. Orofacial petechiae, conjunctivae hemorrhage, nose-bleeding, spontaneous and post-traumatic gingival hemorrhage and prolonged post-extraction bleeding are common orofacial manifestations of inherited hemostatic disorders such as von Willebrand′s disease and hemophilia. A wide array of anemic and hemostatic disorders encountered in internal medicine has manifestations in the oral cavity and the facial region. Most of these manifestations are non-specific, but should alert the hematologist and the dental surgeon to the possibilities of a concurrent disease of hemopoiesis or hemostasis or a latent one that may subsequently manifest itself.

  19. Gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders in patients with eating disorders. (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Fukudo, Shin


    The two most clinically serious eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A drive for thinness and fear of fatness lead patients with anorexia nervosa either to restrict their food intake or binge-eat then purge (through self-induced vomiting and/or laxative abuse) to reduce their body weight to much less than the normal range. A drive for thinness leads patients with bulimia nervosa to binge-eat then purge but fail to reduce their body weight. Patients with eating disorders present with various gastrointestinal disturbances such as postprandial fullness, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, gastric distension, and early satiety, with altered esophageal motility sometimes seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. Other common conditions noted in patients with eating disorders are postprandial distress syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional constipation. Binge eating may cause acute gastric dilatation and gastric perforation, while self-induced vomiting can lead to dental caries, salivary gland enlargement, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and electrolyte imbalance. Laxative abuse can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Vomiting and/or laxative abuse can cause hypokalemia, which carries a risk of fatal arrhythmia. Careful assessment and intensive treatment of patients with eating disorders is needed because gastrointestinal symptoms/disorders can progress to a critical condition.

  20. Subcortical volumes differentiate Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and remitted Major Depressive Disorder. (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Livermore, Emily E; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Glover, Gary H; Gotlib, Ian H


    Subcortical gray matter regions have been implicated in mood disorders, including Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD). It is unclear, however, whether or how these regions differ among mood disorders and whether such abnormalities are state- or trait-like. In this study, we examined differences in subcortical gray matter volumes among euthymic BD, MDD, remitted MDD (RMD), and healthy (CTL) individuals. Using automated gray matter segmentation of T1-weighted MRI images, we estimated volumes of 16 major subcortical gray matter structures in 40 BD, 57 MDD, 35 RMD, and 61 CTL individuals. We used multivariate analysis of variance to examine group differences in these structures, and support vector machines (SVMs) to assess individual-by-individual classification. Analyses yielded significant group differences for caudate (p = 0.029) and ventral diencephalon (VD) volumes (p = 0.003). For the caudate, both the BD (p = 0.004) and the MDD (p = 0.037) participants had smaller volumes than did the CTL participants. For the VD, the MDD participants had larger volumes than did the BD and CTL participants (ps disorders are characterized by anomalies in subcortical gray matter volumes and that the caudate and VD contribute uniquely to differential affective pathology. Identifying abnormalities in subcortical gray matter may prove useful for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mood disorders.