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Sample records for amperometric biosensor based

  1. Current Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Amperometric Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hayat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed an intensive research effort in the field of electrochemical sensors, with a particular focus on the design of amperometric biosensors for diverse analytical applications. In this context, nanomaterial integration in the construction of amperometric biosensors may constitute one of the most exciting approaches. The attractive properties of nanomaterials have paved the way for the design of a wide variety of biosensors based on various electrochemical detection methods to enhance the analytical characteristics. However, most of these nanostructured materials are not explored in the design of amperometric biosensors. This review aims to provide insight into the diverse properties of nanomaterials that can be possibly explored in the construction of amperometric biosensors.

  2. Novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on MXene nanocomposite

    KAUST Repository

    Rakhi, R. B.

    2016-11-10

    A biosensor platform based on Au/MXene nanocomposite for sensitive enzymatic glucose detection is reported. The biosensor leverages the unique electrocatalytic properties and synergistic effects between Au nanoparticles and MXene sheets. An amperometric glucose biosensor is fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on Nafion solubilized Au/ MXene nanocomposite over glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The biomediated Au nanoparticles play a significant role in facilitating the electron exchange between the electroactive center of GOx and the electrode. The GOx/Au/MXene/Nafion/GCE biosensor electrode displayed a linear amperometric response in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 18 mM with a relatively high sensitivity of 4.2 μAmM−1 cm−2 and a detection limit of 5.9 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent stability, reproducibility and repeatability. Therefore, the Au/MXene nanocomposite reported in this work is a potential candidate as an electrochemical transducer in electrochemical biosensors.

  3. Amperometric biosensors based on conducting nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary study towards the development of a glucose biosensor that in the future can be used for in vivo implantations. The research focuses on three major topics, viz. the construction of the glucose sensor, the development of a biocompatible coating and a study of

  4. Flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors based on graphene/Nafion hybrid electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bong Gill, E-mail: k1811@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 Program), KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jinkyu, E-mail: JINQ@paran.com [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegidong, Dongdamoongu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoon Sik, E-mail: khs2004@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegidong, Dongdamoongu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, HoSeok, E-mail: phs0727@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seochon-dong, Giheung-gu, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Amperometric biosensors based on graphene hybrids showed the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses in the flow injection system for automatically monitoring glucose. Display Omitted Highlights: > Flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors were fabricated using reduced graphene oxide/Nafion hybrids. > The electrochemical kinetics of biosensors were comprehensively investigated by analysing electron transfer rate, charge transfer resistance, and ion diffusion coefficient, respectively. > The biosensors exhibited the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses in the flow injection system for detecting glucose. - Abstract: In this research, we demonstrated the fabrication of flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors based on RGO/Nafion hybrids. The nanohybridization of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by Nafion provided the fast electron transfer (ET) for the sensitive amperometric biosensor platforms. The ET rate (k{sub s}) and the charge transfer resistance (R{sub CT}) of GOx-RGO/Nafion hybrids were evaluated to verify the accelerated ET. Moreover, hybrid biosensors revealed a quasi-reversible and surface controlled process, as confirmed by the low peak-to-peak ({Delta}E{sub p}) and linear relations between I{sub p} and scan rate ({nu}). Hybrid biosensors showed the fast response time of {approx}3 s, the sensitivity of 3.8 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, the limit of detection of 170 {mu}M, and the linear detection range of 2-20 mM for the flow-injection amperometric detection of glucose. Furthermore, interference effect of oxidizable species such as ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) on the performance of hybrid biosensors was prevented at the operating potential of -0.20 V even under the flow injection mode. Therefore, the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses of hybrid biosensors in the flow injection system make it highly suitable for automatically monitoring glucose.

  5. A Novel Amperometric Glutamate Biosensor Based on Glutamate Oxidase Adsorbed on Silicalite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatkina, O. V.; Soldatkin, O. O.; Kasap, B. Ozansoy; Kucherenko, D. Yu.; Kucherenko, I. S.; Kurc, B. Akata; Dzyadevych, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we developed a new amperometric biosensor for glutamate detection using a typical method of glutamate oxidase (GlOx) immobilization via adsorption on silicalite particles. The disc platinum electrode ( d = 0.4 mm) was used as the amperometric sensor. The procedure of biosensor preparation was optimized. The main parameters of modifying amperometric transducers with a silicalite layer were determined along with the procedure of GlOx adsorption on this layer. The biosensors based on GlOx adsorbed on silicalite demonstrated high sensitivity to glutamate. The linear range of detection was from 2.5 to 450 μM, and the limit of glutamate detection was 1 μM. It was shown that the proposed biosensors were characterized by good response reproducibility during hours of continuous work and operational stability for several days. The developed biosensors could be applied for determination of glutamate in real samples.

  6. Implantable enzyme amperometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanen, Christian N; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Carrara, Sandro; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2012-05-15

    The implantable enzyme amperometric biosensor continues as the dominant in vivo format for the detection, monitoring and reporting of biochemical analytes related to a wide range of pathologies. Widely used in animal studies, there is increasing emphasis on their use in diabetes care and management, the management of trauma-associated hemorrhage and in critical care monitoring by intensivists in the ICU. These frontier opportunities demand continuous indwelling performance for up to several years, well in excess of the currently approved seven days. This review outlines the many challenges to successful deployment of chronically implantable amperometric enzyme biosensors and emphasizes the emerging technological approaches in their continued development. The foreign body response plays a prominent role in implantable biotransducer failure. Topics considering the approaches to mitigate the inflammatory response, use of biomimetic chemistries, nanostructured topographies, drug eluting constructs, and tissue-to-device interface modulus matching are reviewed. Similarly, factors that influence biotransducer performance such as enzyme stability, substrate interference, mediator selection and calibration are reviewed. For the biosensor system, the opportunities and challenges of integration, guided by footprint requirements, the limitations of mixed signal electronics, and power requirements, has produced three systems approaches. The potential is great. However, integration along the multiple length scales needed to address fundamental issues and integration across the diverse disciplines needed to achieve success of these highly integrated systems, continues to be a challenge in the development and deployment of implantable amperometric enzyme biosensor systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon coated magnesium oxide based amperometric glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.L.; Mello, J.M.M.; Fiori, M.A.; Duarte, G.W. [Universidade Comunitaria Regional de Chapeco (UNICHAPECO), SC (Brazil); Fernandes, S.C. [Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Centro Universitario Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE), Orleans, SC (Brazil); Anzolin, C.; Figueiro, A.; Grando, M.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Diabetes is a serious disease that is harmful to human health since it is related to cardiovascular and stroke events. Since the first glucose oxidase (GOx) sensor, different approaches have been explored. Carbon was used to cover nano-magnesium oxide (MgO-C) forming a core-shell which was used to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of GOx biosensor. MgO nanostructures have been prepared by calcination of the gel formed by the reaction of magnesium acetate tetrahydrate dissolved in cetyltrimethylammonium with the addition of tartaric acid solution. MgO-C nanostructures were obtained by heating MgO nanoparticles previously prepared together with glucose and PEG dissolved in an aqueous suspension. Reaction conditions such as concentration of magnesium precursor, temperature and aging time show important roles in the size, morphology and growth process of the final products. The core-shell structure was evidenced by SEM/FEG and XRD and showed that the product appeared to have morphological forms of nanowires. GOx was spread onto the surface of a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) doped with MgO-C and the effect on the biosensing properties investigated by comparing the electrochemical properties of the proposed biosensor with bare and modified CPEs by cyclic voltammetry. The amount of modifier in CPE (5-75 weight% with respect to graphite) influences the peak current and the influence of different experimental parameters (enzyme percentage, pH solution and amperometric methods) was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the GOx retains its biocatalytic activity and that the bioelectrode modified can be a possible use for other nanotechnological purposes including biomedical ones. (author)

  8. Thick-film textile-based amperometric sensors and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang-Li; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Lou, Shyh-Liang; Wang, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    The incorporation of amperometric sensors into clothing through direct screen-printing onto the textile substrate is described. Particular attention is given to electrochemical sensors printed directly on the elastic waist of underwear that offers tight direct contact with the skin. The textile-based printed carbon electrodes have a well-defined appearance with relatively smooth conductor edges and no apparent defects or cracks. Convenient voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements of 0-3 mM ferrocyanide, 0-25 mM hydrogen peroxide, and 0-100 muM NADH have been documented. The favorable electrochemical behavior is maintained under folding or stretching stress, relevant to the deformation of clothing. The electrochemical performance and tolerance to mechanical stress are influenced by the physical characteristics of the textile substrate. The results indicate the potential of textile-based screen-printed amperometric sensors for future healthcare, sport or military applications. Such future applications would benefit from tailoring the ink composition and printing conditions to meet the specific requirements of the textile substrate.

  9. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  10. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 (μA · cm−2·mM−1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM) with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity) after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. PMID:26346240

  11. Disposable amperometric biosensor based on nanostructured bacteriophages for glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu Ri; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Soo Won; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Nam, Chang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The selection of electrode material profoundly influences biosensor science and engineering, as it heavily influences biosensor sensitivity. Here we propose a novel electrochemical detection method using a working electrode consisting of bio-nanowires from genetically modified filamentous phages and nanoparticles. fd-tet p8MMM filamentous phages displaying a three-methionine (MMM) peptide on the major coat protein pVIII (designated p8MMM phages) were immobilized on the active area of an electrochemical sensor through physical adsorption and chemical bonding. Bio-nanowires composed of p8MMM phages and silver nanoparticles facilitated sensitive, rapid and selective detection of particular molecules. We explored whether the composite electrode with bio-nanowires was an effective platform to detect the glucose oxidase. The current response of the bio-nanowire sensor was high at various glucose concentrations (0.1 µm–0.1 mM). This method provides a considerable advantage to demonstrate analyte detection over low concentration ranges. Especially, phage-enabled bio-nanowires can serve as receptors with high affinity and specificity for the detection of particular biomolecules and provide a convenient platform for designing site-directed multifunctional scaffolds based on bacteriophages and may serve as a simple method for label-free detection

  12. Amperometric Enzyme-Based Biosensors for Application in Food and Beverage Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöoregi, Elisabeth; Gáspñr, Szilveszter; Niculescu, Mihaela; Mattiasson, Bo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    Continuous, sensitive, selective, and reliable monitoring of a large variety of different compounds in various food and beverage samples is of increasing importance to assure a high-quality and tracing of any possible source of contamination of food and beverages. Most of the presently used classical analytical methods are often requiring expensive instrumentation, long analysis times and well-trained staff. Amperometric enzyme-based biosensors on the other hand have emerged in the last decade from basic science to useful tools with very promising application possibilities in food and beverage industry. Amperometric biosensors are in general highly selective, sensitive, relatively cheap, and easy to integrate into continuous analysis systems. A successful application of such sensors for industrial purposes, however, requires a sensor design, which satisfies the specific needs of monitoring the targeted analyte in the particular application, Since each individual application needs different operational conditions and sensor characteristics, it is obvious that biosensors have to be tailored for the particular case. The characteristics of the biosensors are depending on the used biorecognition element (enzyme), nature of signal transducer (electrode material) and the communication between these two elements (electron-transfer pathway).

  13. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif, E-mail: e.erhan@gyte.edu.tr

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44-1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 {mu}g/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  14. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44–1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 μg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: ► K 3 Fe(CN) 6 has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. ► Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. ► Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  15. Detection of Benzoic Acid by an Amperometric Inhibitor Biosensor Based on Mushroom Tissue Homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric benzoic acid-sensing inhibitor biosensor was prepared by immobilizing mushroom (Agaricus bisporus tissue homogenate on a Clark-type oxygen electrode. The effects of the quantity of mushroom tissue homogenate, the quantity of gelatin and the effect of the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde percent on the biosensor were studied. The optimum concentration of phenol used as substrate was 200 μM. The bioanalytical properties of the proposed biosensor, such as dependence of the biosensor response on the pH value and the temperature, were investigated. The biosensor responded linearly to benzoic acid in a concentration range of 25–100 μM. Standard deviation (s.d. was ±0.49 μM for 7 successive determinations at a concentration of 75 μM. The inhibitor biosensor based on mushroom tissue homogenate was applied for the determination of benzoic acid in fizzy lemonade, some fruits and groundwater samples. Results were compared to those obtained using AOAC method, showing a good agreement.

  16. Fabrication of amperometric xanthine biosensors based on direct chemistry of xanthine oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yansheng; Shen Chunping [Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Di Junwei, E-mail: djw@suda.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Tu Yifeng [Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2009-08-31

    The construction of amperometric xanthine biosensor by immobilization of xanthine oxidase (XOD) on the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode surface was investigated. The direct chemistry of XOD was accomplished and the formal potential was about - 0.465 V (vs SCE). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was evaluated to be 2.0 {+-} 0.3 s{sup -1}. The xanthine biosensor based on XOD entrapped in silica sol-gel (SG) thin film on CNTs-modified GC electrode surface was also investigated. The XOD still maintains its activity to xanthine. The amperometric response to xanthine showed a linear relation in the range from 0.2 {mu}M to 10 {mu}M and a detection limit of 0.1 {mu}M (S/N = 3). The enzyme electrode retained 95% of its initial activity after 90 days of storage. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity, rapid response and good long-term stability.

  17. Microneedle array-based carbon paste amperometric sensors and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Zhou, Nandi; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Santhosh, Padmanabhan; Miller, Philip R; Narayan, Roger; Wang, Joseph

    2011-05-07

    The design and characterization of a microneedle array-based carbon paste electrode towards minimally invasive electrochemical sensing are described. Arrays consisting of 3 × 3 pyramidal microneedle structures, each with an opening of 425 µm, were loaded with a metallized carbon paste transducer. The renewable nature of carbon paste electrodes enables the convenient packing of hollow non-planar microneedles with pastes that contain assorted catalysts and biocatalysts. Smoothing the surface results in good microelectrode-to-microelectrode uniformity. Optical and scanning electron micrographs shed useful insights into the surface morphology at the microneedle apertures. The attractive performance of the novel microneedle electrode arrays is illustrated in vitro for the low-potential detection of hydrogen peroxide at rhodium-dispersed carbon paste microneedles and for lactate biosensing by the inclusion of lactate oxidase in the metallized carbon paste matrix. Highly repeatable sensing is observed following consecutive cycles of packing/unpacking the carbon paste. The operational stability of the array is demonstrated as well as the interference-free detection of lactate in the presence of physiologically relevant levels of ascorbic acid, uric acid, and acetaminophen. Upon addressing the biofouling effects associated with on-body sensing, the microneedle carbon paste platform would be attractive for the subcutaneous electrochemical monitoring of a number of physiologically relevant analytes.

  18. An improved amperometric creatinine biosensor based on nanoparticles of creatininase, creatinase and sarcosine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Pundir, C S

    2017-11-15

    An improved amperometric biosensor for detection of creatinine was developed based on immobilization of nanoparticles (NPs) of creatininase (CA), creatinase (CI), and sarcosine oxidase (SOx) onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed for characterization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) at different stages of its amendment. The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s at pH 6.0 in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer and 25 °C, when operated at 1.0 V against Ag/AgCl. Biosensor exhibited wider linear range from 0.01 μM to 12 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.01 μM. The analytical recoveries of added creatinine in sera were 97.97 ± 0.1% for 0.1 mM and 98.76 ± 0.2% for 0.15 mM, within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.06% and 3.09% respectively. A good correlation (R 2  = 0.99) was observed between sera creatinine values obtained by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present biosensor. This biosensor measured creatinine level in sera of apparently healthy subjects and persons suffering from renal and muscular dysfunction. The ENPs electrode lost 10% of its initial activity within 240 days of its regular uses, when stored at 4 °C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on epoxy resin membrane bound cholesterol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti; Chauhan, Nidhi; Sharma, Preety; Sharma, Renu

    2012-10-01

    The use of epoxy resin membrane as a support for immobilization of enzyme has resulted into improved sensitivity and stability of biosensors for uric acid, ascorbic acid and polyphenols. The present work was aimed to prepare an improved amperometric biosensor for determination of serum cholesterol required in the diagnostics and management of certain pathological conditions. Epoxy resin membrane with immobilized cholesterol oxidase was mounted on the cleaned platinum (Pt) electrode with a parafilm to construct a working electrode. This working electrode along with Ag/AgCl as reference and Ag wire as an auxiliary electrode were connected through a three terminal electrometer to construct a cholesterol biosensor. The sensor showed optimum response within 25 sec at pH 7.0 and 45°C. The linear working range of biosensor was 1.0 to 8.0 mM cholesterol. K m and I max for cholesterol were 5.0 mM and 9.09 μA, respectively. The biosensor measured serum cholesterol. The minimum detection limit of the sensor was 1.0 mM. The mean analytical recoveries of added cholesterol in serum (2.84 and 4.13 mM) were 91.4 ± 2.8 and 92.3 ± 3.1 per cent (n=6), respectively. Within and between assay coefficient of variation (CV) were epoxy resin membrane as a support for immobilization of cholesterol oxidase has resulted into an improved amperometric cholesterol biosensor. The present biosensor had an advantage over the existing biosensors as it worked at comparatively lower potential.

  20. Highly sensitive amperometric biosensor based on electrochemically-reduced graphene oxide-chitosan/hemoglobin nanocomposite for nitromethane determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yunping; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2016-05-15

    Nitromethane (CH3NO2) is an important organic chemical raw material with a wide variety of applications as well as one of the most common pollutants. Therefore it is pretty important to establish a simple and sensitive detection method for CH3NO2. In our study, a novel amperometric biosensor for nitromethane (CH3NO2) based on immobilization of electrochemically-reduced graphene oxide (rGO), chitosan (CS) and hemoglobin (Hb) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the Hb-CS/rGO-CS composite film. The effects of scan rate and pH of phosphate buffer on the biosensor have been studied in detail and optimized. Due to the graphene and chitosan nanocomposite, the developed biosensor demonstrating direct electrochemistry with faster electron-transfer rate (6.48s(-1)) and excellent catalytic activity towards CH3NO2. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor exhibited fast amperometric response (<5s) to CH3NO2 with a wide linear range of 5 μM~1.46 mM (R=0.999) and a low detection limit of 1.5 μM (S/N=3). In addition, the biosensor had high selectivity, reproducibility and stability, providing the possibility for monitoring CH3NO2 in complex real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytical Problems in Exposing Amperometric Enzyme Biosensors to Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Rocchitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme-based chemical biosensors are based on biological recognition. In order to operate, the enzymes must be available to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction and be stable under the normal operating conditions of the biosensor. Design of biosensors is based on knowledge about the target analyte, as well as the complexity of the matrix in which the analyte has to be quantified. This article reviews the problems resulting from the interaction of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors with complex biological matrices containing the target analyte(s. One of the most challenging disadvantages of amperometric enzyme-based biosensor detection is signal reduction from fouling agents and interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix. This article, therefore, investigates the principles of functioning of enzymatic biosensors, their analytical performance over time and the strategies used to optimize their performance. Moreover, the composition of biological fluids as a function of their interaction with biosensing will be presented.

  2. Development of Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Tyrosinase-Conducting Polymer Composite Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier del Campo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-composite coatings consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT and tyrosinase (Ty were successfully electrodeposited on conventional size gold (Au disk electrodes and microelectrode arrays using sinusoidal voltages. Electrochemical polymerization of the corresponding monomer was carried out in the presence of various Ty amounts in aqueous buffered solutions. The bio-composite coatings prepared using sinusoidal voltages and potentiostatic electrodeposition methods were compared in terms of morphology, electrochemical properties, and biocatalytic activity towards various analytes. The amperometric biosensors were tested in dopamine (DA and catechol (CT electroanalysis in aqueous buffered solutions. The analytical performance of the developed biosensors was investigated in terms of linear response range, detection limit, sensitivity, and repeatability. A semi-quantitative multi-analyte procedure for simultaneous determination of DA and CT was developed. The amperometric biosensor prepared using sinusoidal voltages showed much better analytical performance. The Au disk biosensor obtained by 50 mV alternating voltage amplitude displayed a linear response for DA concentrations ranging from 10 to 300 μM, with a detection limit of 4.18 μM.

  3. An Amperometric Biosensor Based on Alanine Dehydrogenase for the Determination of Low Level of Ammonium Ion in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ling Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric electrochemical biosensor has been developed for ammonium (NH4+ ion detection by immobilising alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH enzyme in a photocurable methacrylic membrane made up of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPE. The current detected was based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH that is proportional to the consumption of NH4+ ion whilst enzymatic amination of AlaDH and pyruvate is taking place. The biosensor was operated amperometrically at a potential of +0.6 V and optimum pH 7. The NH4+ biosensor demonstrated linear response to NH4+ ion concentration in the range of 0.03–1.02 mg/L with a limit of detection (LOD of 8.52 μg/L. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of NH4+ ion in river water samples without any pretreatment. The levels of possible interferents in the waters were negligible to cause any interference on the proposed method. The analytical performance of the biosensor was comparable to the colorimetric method using Nesslerisation but with much lower detection limit and linear response range at ppb level.

  4. A novel, disposable, screen-printed amperometric biosensor for glucose in serum fabricated using a water-based carbon ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-11-15

    Screen-printed amperometric glucose biosensors have been fabricated using a water-based carbon ink. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) and the electro-catalyst cobalt phthalocyanine were mixed with the carbon ink prior to the screen-printing process; therefore, biosensors are prepared in a one-step fabrication procedure. Optimisation of the biosensor performance was achieved by studying the effects of pH, buffer strength, and applied potential on the analytical response. Calibration studies were performed under optimum conditions, using amperometry in stirred solution, with an operating potential of +500 mV versus SCE. The sensitivity was found to be 1170 nA mM(-1), with a linear range of 0.025-2 mM; the former represents the detection limit. The disposable amperometric biosensor was evaluated by carrying out replicate determinations on a sample of bovine serum. This was achieved by the method of multiple standard additions and included a correction for background currents arising from oxidizable serum components. The mean serum concentration was calculated to be 8.63 mM and compared well with the supplier's value of 8.3 mM; the coefficient of variation was calculated to be 3.3% (n=6).

  5. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bo [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Shu [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Lang, Qiaolin [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liu, Aihua, E-mail: liuah@qibebt.ac.cn [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • E. coli surface-dispalyed Gldh exhibiting excellent enzyme activity and stability. • Sensitive amperometric biosensor for glutamate using Gldh-bacteria and MWNTs. • The glutamate biosensor exhibited high specificity and stability. - Abstract: A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP{sup +}-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP{sup +} involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current–time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM–1 mM and 2–10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N = 3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection.

  7. Determination of Patulin Using Amperometric Tyrosinase Biosensors Based on Electrodes Modified with Carbon Nanotubes and Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Varlamova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New amperometric biosensors based on platinum screen printed electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, and immobilized enzyme – tyrosinase have been developed for determination of patulin in the concentrations of 1·10–6 – 8·10–12 mol/L with an error of no more than 0.063. The best conditions for obtaining gold nanoparticles have been chosen. The conditions for immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles on the surface of the planar electrode have been revealed. The conditions for functioning of the proposed biosensors have been identified. The results have been used to control the content of patulin in food products within and lower than the maximum allowable levels.

  8. Detection of Waterborne and Airborne Formaldehyde: From Amperometric Chemosensing to a Visual Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Sigawi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory prototype of a microcomputer-based analyzer was developed for quantitative determination of formaldehyde in liquid samples, based on catalytic chemosensing elements. It was shown that selectivity for the target analyte could be increased by modulating the working electrode potential. Analytical parameters of three variants of the amperometric analyzer that differed in the chemical structure/configuration of the working electrode were studied. The constructed analyzer was tested on wastewater solutions that contained formaldehyde. A simple low-cost biosensor was developed for semi-quantitative detection of airborne formaldehyde in concentrations exceeding the threshold level. This biosensor is based on a change in the color of a solution that contains a mixture of alcohol oxidase from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, horseradish peroxidase and a chromogen, following exposure to airborne formaldehyde. The solution is enclosed within a membrane device, which is permeable to formaldehyde vapors. The most efficient and sensitive biosensor for detecting formaldehyde was the one that contained alcohol oxidase with an activity of 1.2 U·mL−1. The biosensor requires no special instrumentation and enables rapid visual detection of airborne formaldehyde at concentrations, which are hazardous to human health.

  9. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2014-06-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M-1 with a detection limit of 0.31 μM and a linear detection range from 0.39 μM to 8.98 μM for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis-Menten \\left( K_{M}^{app} \\right) was 6.28 μM. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor.

  10. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Qiang; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M −1 with a detection limit of 0.31 μM and a linear detection range from 0.39 μM to 8.98 μM for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis–Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis–Menten (K M app ) was 6.28 μM. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor. (papers)

  11. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2014-06-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M -1 with a detection limit of 0.31 μ M and a linear detection range from 0.39 μ M to 8.98 μ M for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis-Menten [Formula: see text] was 6.28 μ M. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor.

  12. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on hemoglobin entrapped in titania sol-gel film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiuhong; Ju Huangxian

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was entrapped in a titania sol-gel matrix and used as a mimetic peroxidase to construct a novel amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide. The Hb entrapped titania sol-gel film was obtained with a vapor deposition method, which simplified the traditional sol-gel process for protein immobilization. The morphologies of both titania sol-gel and the Hb films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and proved to be chemically clean, porous, homogeneous. This matrix provided a biocompatible microenvironment for retaining the native structure and activity of the entrapped Hb and a very low mass transport barrier to the substrates. H 2 O 2 could be reduced by the catalysis of the entrapped hemoglobin at -300 mV without any mediator. The reagentless H 2 O 2 sensor exhibited a fast response (less than 5 s) and sensitivity as high as 1.29 mA mM -1 cm -2 . The linear range for H 2 O 2 determination was from 5.0x10 -7 to 5.4x10 -5 M with a detection limit of 1.2x10 -7 M. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of the encapsulated hemoglobin was calculated to be 0.18±0.02 mM. The stability of the biosensor was also evaluated

  13. Non-invasive determination of glucose directly in raw fruits using a continuous flow system based on microdialysis sampling and amperometric detection at an integrated enzymatic biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E; Ruiz, M A; Campuzano, S; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2016-03-31

    A non-destructive, rapid and simple to use sensing method for direct determination of glucose in non-processed fruits is described. The strategy involved on-line microdialysis sampling coupled with a continuous flow system with amperometric detection at an enzymatic biosensor. Apart from direct determination of glucose in fruit juices and blended fruits, this work describes for the first time the successful application of an enzymatic biosensor-based electrochemical approach to the non-invasive determination of glucose in raw fruits. The methodology correlates, through previous calibration set-up, the amperometric signal generated from glucose in non-processed fruits with its content in % (w/w). The comparison of the obtained results using the proposed approach in different fruits with those provided by other method involving the same commercial biosensor as amperometric detector in stirred solutions pointed out that there were no significant differences. Moreover, in comparison with other available methodologies, this microdialysis-coupled continuous flow system amperometric biosensor-based procedure features straightforward sample preparation, low cost, reduced assay time (sampling rate of 7 h(-1)) and ease of automation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Complexing of heavy metals with DNA and new bioaffinity method of their determination based on amperometric DNA-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkina, S S; Ulakhovich, N A

    2005-09-01

    The immobilized single-stranded DNA (ssIDNA) has been found to be a very effective biospecific analytical reagent when used in a newly developed bioaffinity method of the determination of heavy metals based on the amperometric DNA-based biosensor. This has been concluded from the comparative study of the complexing of heavy metals with double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, and ssIDNA, using Fe(III) and Cu(II) as a model (metal/nucleotide ratio and stability constants are maximum for ssIDNA), from the study of adsorption of Fe(III), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Cd(II) on nitrocellulose membranes, containing single-stranded DNA, and from the determination of their binding constants with ssIDNA. According to these data, the chosen heavy metals can be lined up in a series of binding strengths with ssIDNA: Cu(II) > Pb(II) > Fe(III) > Cd(II). The method of the determination of heavy metals is based on biospecific preconcentration of metal ions on the biosensor followed by the destruction of DNA-metal complexes with ethylenediaminetetraacetate and voltammogram recording has been proposed. The lower detection limits are 4.0 x 10(-11), 1.0 x 10(-10), 1.0 x 10(-9), and 5.0 x 10(-9) M for Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Fe(III), respectively. The heavy metals have been assayed in multicomponent environmental and biological systems such as natural and drinking water, milk, and blood serum samples.

  15. The use of different glucose oxidases for the development of an amperometric reagentless glucose biosensor based on gold nanoparticles covered by polypyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, Natalija; Kausaite-Minkstimiene, Asta; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Semashko, Tatiana; Mikhailova, Raisa; Ramanaviciene, Almira

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- ABSTRACT: The amperometric glucose biosensors based on adsorbed electron transfer mediator (ETM) tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) or 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (PD) and glucose oxidase (GOx) from Aspergillus niger (GOx A.niger ), Penicillium adametzii (GOx P.adametzii ) or Penicillium funiculosum (GOx P.funiculosum ) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde were investigated. ETM and enzyme were immobilized layer by layer on bare graphite rod electrode (GR) premodified with gold nanoparticles (AuNP) of (i) 3.5 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP 3.5 /GR), (ii) 6.0 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP 6.0 /GR) and (iii) 13.0 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP 13.0 /GR) size. The amperometric signals for all the developed biosensors were higher using PD in comparison with TTF. The biosensor based on GOx P.funiculosum showed higher analytical signal to glucose in a comparison to biosensors based on GOx A.niger and GOx P.adametzii . The registered current to glucose using GOx P.funiculosum /PD/AuNP 3.5 /GR electrode was linear in the glucose range from 0.1 to 10.0 mmol L −1 and the limit of detection was 0.024 mmol L −1 . Enzymatical synthesis of polypyrrole (Ppy) layer on the electrode was applied in order to expand the linear glucose detection range. After 22 h of polymerization the amperometric signal was linear in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 25.0 mmol L −1 , while after 69 h this rage was increased up to 50.0 mmol L −1 . Additionally Ppy layer on the electrode surface reduced the influence of interfering species on the amperometric signal. The performance of developed biosensor was investigated in human serum samples

  16. Amperometric L-lysine biosensor based on carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes-SnO2 nanoparticles-graphene composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Ceren; Erden, Pınar Esra; Kılıç, Esma

    2017-10-01

    A novel matrix, carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes-tin oxide nanoparticles-graphene-chitosan (c-MWCNTs-SnO2-GR-CS) composite, was prepared for biosensor construction. Lysine oxidase (LOx) enzyme was immobilized covalently on the surface of c-MWCNTs-GR-SnO2-CS composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using N-ethyl-N‧-(3-dimethyaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS). Effects of electrode composition and buffer pH on biosensor response were investigated to optimize the working conditions. The biosensor exhibited wide linear range (9.9 × 10-7 M-1.6 × 10-4 M), low detection limit (1.5 × 10-7 M), high sensitivity (55.20 μA mM-1 cm-2) and fast amperometric response (alternative for L-lysine biosensing. The practical applicability of the biosensor in two dietary supplements has also been addressed.

  17. A disposable amperometric ethanol biosensor based on screen-printed carbon electrodes mediated with ferricyanide-magnetic nanoparticle mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, M.-H. [Department of Cosmetology Styling, Applied Science Technology Research Center, Transworld Institute of Technology, Douliou, Yunlin 64063, Taiwan (China); Guo, J.-C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123, University Rd., Sec 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.-C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123, University Rd., Sec 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chenwc@yuntech.edu.tw

    2006-09-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and used to develop a reagentless disposable amperometric ethanol (EtOH) biosensor. The electrochemical characteristics of modified processes were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). Results showed that the presence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles could enhance the peak currents of redox species. Moreover, the alcohol biosensor exhibited an excellent sensitivity and fast response time for EtOH with a wide linear response range from 1.0 to 9.0 mM.

  18. All Inkjet-Printed Amperometric Multiplexed Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conductive Hydrogel Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanlan; Pan, Lijia; Ma, Zhong; Yan, Ke; Cheng, Wen; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2018-02-12

    Multiplexing, one of the main trends in biosensors, aims to detect several analytes simultaneously by integrating miniature sensors on a chip. However, precisely depositing electrode materials and selective enzymes on distinct microelectrode arrays remains an obstacle to massively produced multiplexed sensors. Here, we report on a "drop-on-demand" inkjet printing process to fabricate multiplexed biosensors based on nanostructured conductive hydrogels in which the electrode material and several kinds of enzymes were printed on the electrode arrays one by one by employing a multinozzle inkjet system. The whole inkjet printing process can be finished within three rounds of printing and only one round of alignment. For a page of sensor arrays containing 96 working electrodes, the printing process took merely ∼5 min. The multiplexed assays can detect glucose, lactate, and triglycerides in real time with good selectivity and high sensitivity, and the results in phosphate buffer solutions and calibration serum samples are comparable. The inkjet printing process exhibited advantages of high efficiency and accuracy, which opens substantial possibilities for massive fabrication of integrated multiplexed biosensors for human health monitoring.

  19. Amperometric biosensor for Salmonella typhimurium detection in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports an amperometric biosensor for rapid and sensitive Salmonella Typhimurium detection in milk. The biosensor was assembled from the self-assembled monolayers technique on a gold surface. In this device, polyclonal antibodies were oriented by protein A. The biosensor structure was cha...

  20. Development of a novel biosensor based on a polypyrrole-dodecylbenzene sulphonate (PPy-DBS) film for the determination of amperometric cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Bayram Oğuz; Çete, Servet

    2017-06-01

    Herein a novel amperometric biosensor based on a conducting polymer with anionic dopant modified electrode was successfully developed for detection of cholesterol. Polypyrrole is deposited on a platinum surface and the sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (DBS) ion-doped polypyrrole film was electrochemically prepared by scanning the electrode potential between -0.8 and +0.8 V at a scan rate of 20 mV/s. The present electrochemical biosensor was optimized in terms of working potential, number of cycles, concentrations of monomer, and anionic dopant. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was physically entrapped in PPy-DBS to construct an amperometric cholesterol biosensor. Amperometric determination is based on the electrochemical detection of H 2 O 2 generated in the enzymatic reaction of cholesterol. Kinetic parameters, operational and storage stabilities, pH, and temperature dependencies were determined. Km and Imax were calculated as 0.11 μM and 0.967 nM/min, respectively. The operational stability results showed that 90.0% of the response current was retained after 30 activity assays. Morphology of electrodes was characterized by SEM and AFM. Additionally, contact angle measurements were made with 1 μL water of polymer film and enzyme electrode. As a result, the cholesterol biosensor suggested in this study is easy to prepare and is highly cost-effective. This composite (PPy-DBS) can supply a biocompatible and electrochemical microenvironment for immobilization of the enzyme, making this material a good candidate for the fabrication of highly sensitive and selective cholesterol biosensors.

  1. A new amperometric method for rapid detection of Escherichia coli density using a self-assembled monolayer-based bienzyme biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hui; Zhang Wen; Geng Ping; Wang Qingjiang; Jin Litong; Wu Zirong; Lou Min

    2006-01-01

    A new amperometric method was developed for rapid detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) density using a bienzyme biosensor. The bienzyme biosensor was fabricated based on the covalent immobilization of laccase and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) monolayer. The bienzyme biosensor showed a high sensitivity in determination of the polyphenolic compounds, which was microbially generated from the salicylic acid (SA) added into the culture medium during the course of E. coli metabolism. Since the amount of polyphenolic compounds depends on E. coli density, the bienzyme biosensor was applied for the rapid and high sensitive detection of E. coli density after the E. coli solution was incubated in culture medium with salicylic acid for 2.5 h at 37 deg. C. By chronoamperometry, the amplified response current was obtained at the bienzyme biosensor, due to the substrate recycling of the polyphenolic compounds driven by bienzyme-catalyzed oxidation and electrochemical reduction. The amplified response current at the biosensor was linear with the E. coli density ranging from 1.6 x 10 3 to 1.0 x 10 7 cells/mL. The bienzyme biosensor could detect the E. coli density with a detection limit of 9.7 x 10 2 cells/mL within 3 h

  2. Elaboration of new method of enzyme adsorption on silicalite and nano beta zeolite for amperometric biosensor creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatkin O. O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Optimization of a new method of enzyme immobilization for amperometric biosensor creation. Methods. The amperometric biosensor with glucose oxidase immobilized on zeolites as bioselective elements and platinum disk electrode as transducers of biochemical signal into the electric one was used in the work. Results. The biosensors based on glucose oxidase adsorbed on zeolites were characterized by a higher sensitivity to glucose and a better inter-reproducibility. The best analytical characteristics were obtained for the biosensors based on nano beta zeolite. It has been found that an increase in the amount of zeolite on the surface of amperometric transducer may change such biosensor parameters as sensitivity to the substrate and duration of the analysis. Conclusions. The proposed method of enzyme immobilization by adsorption on zeolites is shown to be quite promising in the development of amperometric biosensors and therefore should be further investigated.

  3. Amperometric detection of glucose in fruit juices with polypyrrole-based biosensor with an integrated permselective layer for exclusion of interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayenimo, Joseph G; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2017-08-15

    A novel polypyrrole (PPy)-based bilayer amperometric glucose biosensor integrated with a permselective layer has been developed for detection of glucose in the presence of interferences. It comprises of a PPy-GOx film grown, in the absence of electrolyte, as an inner layer, and a permselective PPy-Cl film as an outer layer. The PPy-GOx/PPy-Cl bilayer biosensor was effective in rejecting 98% of ascorbic acid and 100% of glycine, glutamic acid and uric acid. With an outer layer thickness of 6.6nm, the bilayer biosensor gave nearly identical glucose response to that of a single layer PPy-GOx biosensor. The biosensor also exhibited good reproducibility (1.9% rsd, n=10), high stability (more than 2months), wide linear range (0.5-24mM), low K m (8.4mM), high I max (77.2μAcm -2 ), low detection limit (26.9μM) and good sensitivity (3.5μAcm -2 mM -1 ). The bilayer biosensor was successfully employed for glucose determination in various fruit juices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensitive amperometric biosensor for phenolic compounds based on graphene-silk peptide/tyrosinase composite nanointerface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ying; Ma, Ming; Wang, Zhengguo; Zhan, Guoqing; Li, Buhai; Wang, Xian; Fang, Huaifang; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Chunya

    2013-06-15

    New graphene-silk peptide (Gr-SP) nanosheets were prepared and successfully fabricated with tyrosinase (Tyr) as a novel biosensor for the determination of phenolic compounds. The Gr-SP nanosheets were fully characterized with transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV/Vis and FTIR spectra. The developed biosensors were also characterized with scanning electronic microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Using bisphenol A (BPA) as a model substrate in the sensing system, a number of key factors including the volume of Gr-SP-Tyr solution, the applied potential, pH values, temperature, and the Tyr/Gr-SP ratio that influence the analytical performance of the biosensor were investigated. The biosensor gave a linear response on the concentration ranges of 0.001-16.91 μM for catechol with the sensitivity of 7634 mA M(-1)cm(-2), 0.0015-21.12 μM for phenol with the sensitivity of 4082 mA M(-1)cm(-2), and 0.002-5.48 μM for BPA with the sensitivity of 2511 mA M(-1)cm(-2). The low detection limits were estimated to be 0.23, 0.35 and 0.72 nM (S/N=3) for catechol, phenol and BPA, respectively. The biosensors also exhibit good repeatability and long-term stability. The practical application of the biosensor was also demonstrated by the determination of BPA leaching from commercial plastic drinking bottles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biosensors and environmental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preedy, Victor R; Patel, Vinood B

    2012-01-01

    ..., bacterial biosensors, antibody-based biosensors, enzymatic, amperometric and electrochemical aspects, quorum sensing, DNA-biosensors, cantilever biosensors, bioluminescence and other methods and applications...

  6. An amperometric uric acid biosensor based on Bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate crosslinker/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane surface modified ITO glass electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Tarushee; Rajesh; Kumar, Devendra; Tanwar, Vinod Kumar; Sharma, Vikash; Singh, Nahar; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2010-01-01

    A label free, amperometric uric acid biosensor is described by immobilizing enzyme uricase through a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using a crosslinker, Bis[sulfosuccinimidyl]suberate (BS 3 ) on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plate. The biosensor (uricase/BS 3 /APTES/ITO) was characterized by, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical techniques. Chronoamperometric response was measured as a function of uric acid concentration in aqueous solution (pH 7.4). The biosensor shows a linear response over a concentration range of 0.05 to 0.58 mM with a sensitivity of 39.35 μA mM -1 . The response time is 50 s reaching to a 95% steady state current value and about 90% of enzyme activity is retained for about 7 weeks. These results indicate an efficient binding of enzyme with the crosslinker over the surface of APTES modified ITO glass plates, which leads to an improved sensitivity and shelf life of the biosensor.

  7. An amperometric penicillin biosensor with enhanced sensitivity based on co-immobilization of carbon nanotubes, hematein, and {beta}-lactamase on glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Bi; Ma Ming [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Su Xiaoli, E-mail: xsu@hunnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2010-07-26

    An amperometric penicillin biosensor with enhanced sensitivity was successfully developed by co-immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), hematein, and {beta}-lactamase on glassy carbon electrode using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Under catalysis of the immobilized enzyme, penicillin was hydrolyzed, decreasing the local pH. The pH change was monitored amperometrically with hematein as a pH-sensitive redox probe. MWCNTs were used as an electron transfer enhancer as well as an efficient immobilization matrix for the sensitivity enhancement. The effects of immobilization procedure, working potential, enzyme quantity, buffer concentration, and sample matrix were investigated. The biosensor offered a minimum detection limit of 50 nM (19 {mu}g L{sup -1}) for penicillin V, lower than those of the conventional pH change-based biosensors by more than two orders of magnitude. The electrode-to-electrode variation of the response sensitivity was 7.0% RSD.

  8. Homemade Bienzymatic-Amperometric Biosensor for Beverages Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Lopez, M. C.; Lobo-Castanon, M. J.; Miranda-Ordieres, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    The construction of an amperometric biosensor for glucose analysis is described demonstrating that the analysis is easy to perform and the biosensor gives good analytical performance. This experiment helped the students to acquire problem-solving and teamwork skills, allowing them to reach a high level of independent and critical thought.

  9. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Zhang, Shu; Lang, Qiaolin; Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-16

    A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP(+)-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP(+) involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current-time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM-1 mM and 2-10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N=3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Diamine Oxidase/Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for Histamine Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Irina Mirela; Apetrei, Constantin

    2016-03-24

    This work describes the development and optimization studies of a novel biosensor employed in the detection and quantification of histamine in freshwater fish samples. The proposed biosensor is based on a modified carbon screen-printed electrode with diamineoxidase, graphene and platinum nanoparticles, which detects the hydrogen peroxide formed by the chemical process biocatalysed by the enzyme diamine oxidase and immobilized onto the nanostructurated surface of the receptor element. The amperometric measurements with the biosensor have been implemented in buffer solution of pH 7.4, applying an optimal low potential of +0.4 V. The novel biosensor shows high sensitivity (0.0631 μA·μM), low detection limit (2.54 × 10(-8) M) and a broad linear domain from 0.1 to 300 μM. The applicability in natural complex samples and the analytical parameters of this enzyme sensor have been performed in the quantification of histamine in freshwater fish. An excellent correlation among results achieved with the developed biosensor and results found with the standard method for all freshwater fish samples has been achieved.

  11. A novel amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide for sensitive detection of l-lactate tumor biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouzi, Sawsen; Rotariu, Lucian; Benito, Ana M; Maser, Wolfgang K; Ben Ali, Mounir; Bala, Camelia

    2015-07-15

    In this work, a novel amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO-AuNPs) and l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was developed for the sensing of l-lactate. Firstly, the RGO-AuNPs modified screen printed electrodes were tested for NADH detection showing a wide dynamic range and a low detection limit. Next, the biosensor was constructed by incorporating both enzyme and RGO-AuNPs in a sol gel matrix derived from tetrametoxysilane and methyltrimetoxysilane. The enzyme loading, working pH, and coenzyme concentration were optimized. The biosensor linearly responded to l-lactate in the range of 10µM-5mM and showed a good specific sensitivity of 154µA/mMcm(2) with a detection limit of 0.13µM. This was accompanied by good reproducibility and operational stability. Tests on artificial serum proved that l-lactate can be determined practically without interferences from commonly interfering compounds such as urate, paracetamol and l-ascorbate. Our LDH/RGO-AuNPs/SPCE based biosensor thus performs as electrochemical device for the detection of l-lactate as a viable early cancer bio-marker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An amperometric H2O2 biosensor based on hemoglobin nanoparticles immobilized on to a gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Vinay; Yadav, Neelam; Thakur, Manisha; Pundir, Chandra S

    2017-08-31

    The nanoparticles (NPs) of hemoglobin (Hb) were prepared by desolvation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectroscopy and Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. An amperometric H 2 O 2 biosensor was constructed by immobilizing HbNPs covalently on to a polycrystalline Au electrode (AuE). HbNPs/AuE were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) before and after immobilization of HbNPs. The HbNPs/AuE showed optimum response within 2.5 s at pH 6.5 in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (PB) containing 100 μM H 2 O 2 at 30°C, when operated at -0.2 V against Ag/AgCl. The HbNPs/AuE exhibited V max of 5.161 ± 0.1 μA cm -2 with apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ( K m ) of 0.1 ± 0.01 mM. The biosensor showed lower detection limit (1.0 μM), high sensitivity (129 ± 0.25 μA cm -2 mM -1 ) and wider linear range (1.0-1200 μM) for H 2 O 2 as compared with earlier biosensors. The analytical recoveries of added H 2 O 2 in serum (0.5 and 1.0 μM) were 97.77 and 98.01% respectively, within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 3.16 and 3.36% respectively. There was a good correlation between sera H 2 O 2 values obtained by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present biosensor (correlation coefficient, R 2 =0.99). The biosensor measured H 2 O 2 level in sera of apparently healthy subjects and persons suffering from diabetes type II. The HbNPs/AuE lost 10% of its initial activity after 90 days of regular use, when stored dry at 4°C. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. A Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase in Chitosan Matrix Cross-linked with Glyoxal for Amperometric Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Xiang Wang

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 was developed viaan easy and effective enzyme immobilization method with the “sandwich” configuration:ferrocene-chitosan: HRP: chitosan-glyoxal using a glassy carbon electrode as the basicelectrode. In order to prevent the loss of immobilized HRP under optimized conditions,the biosensor surface was cross-linked with glyoxal. Ferrocene was selected andimmobilized on the glassy carbon electrode surface as a mediator. The fabricationprocedure was systematically optimized to improve the biosensor performance. Thebiosensor had a fast response of less than 10 s to H2O2, with a linear range of 3.5×10-5 to1.1×10-3 M, and a detection limit of 8.0×10-6 M based on S/N = 3.

  14. A new amperometric glucose biosensor based on screen printed carbon electrodes with rhenium(IV - oxide as a mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBANA VESELI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhenium(IV-oxide, ReO2, was used as a mediator for carbon paste (CPE and screen printed carbon (SPCE electrodes for the catalytic amperometric determination of hydro-gen peroxide, whose overpotential for the reduction could be lowered to -0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl in flow injection analysis (FIA using phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH=7.5 as a carrier. For hydrogen peroxide a detection limit (3σ of 0.8 mg L-1 could be obtained.ReO2-modified SPCEs were used to design biosensors with a template enzyme, i.e. glucose oxidase, entrapped in a Nafion membrane. The resulting glucose sensor showed a linear dynamic range up to 200 mg L-1 glucose with a detection limit (3σ of 0.6 mg L-1. The repeatability was 2.1 % RSD (n = 5 measurements, the reproducibility 5.4 % (n = 5 sensors. The sensor could be applied for the determination of glucose in blood serum in good agreement with a reference method.

  15. Microfluidics and nanoparticles based amperometric biosensor for the detection of cyanobacteria (Planktothrix agardhii NIVA-CYA 116) DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ölcer, Zehra; Esen, Elif; Ersoy, Aylin; Budak, Sinan; Sever Kaya, Dilek; Yağmur Gök, Mehmet; Barut, Serkan; Üstek, Duran; Uludag, Yildiz

    2015-08-15

    Some of the cyanobacteria produce protease inhibitor oligopeptides such as cyanopeptolins and cause drinking water contamination; hence, their detection has great importance to monitor the well-being of water sources that is used for human consumption. In the current study, a fast and sensitive nucleic acid biosensor assay has been described where cyanopeptolin coding region of one of the cyanobacteria (Planktothrix agardhii NIVA-CYA 116) genome has been used as target for monitoring of the fresh water resources. A biochip that has two sets of Au electrode arrays, each consist of shared reference/counter electrodes and 3 working electrodes has been used for the assay. The biochip has been integrated to a microfluidics system and all steps of the assay have been performed during the reagent flow to achieve fast and sensitive DNA detection. On-line hybridization of the target on to the capture probe immobilized surface resulted in a very short assay duration with respect to the conventional static assays. The binding of the avidin and enzyme modified Au nanoparticles to the biotinylated detection probe and the subsequent injection of the substrate enabled a real-time amperometric measurement with a detection limit of 6×10(-12) M target DNA (calibration curve r(2)=0.98). The developed assay enables fast and sensitive detection of cyanopeptolin producing cyanobacteria from freshwater samples and hence shows a promising technology for toxic microorganism detection from environmental samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication of an Amperometric Flow-Injection Microfluidic Biosensor Based on Laccase for In Situ Determination of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Gonzalez-Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to develop an in situ microfluidic biosensor based on laccase from Trametes pubescens with flow-injection and amperometry as the transducer method. The enzyme was directly immobilized by potential step chronoamperometry, and the immobilization was studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode response by amperometry was probed using ABTS and syringaldazine. A shift of interfacial electron transfer resistance and the electron transfer rate constant from 18.1 kΩ to 3.9 MΩ and 4.6 × 10−2 cm s−1 to 2.1 × 10−4 cm s−1, respectively, evidenced that laccase was immobilized on the electrode by the proposed method. We established the optimum operating conditions of temperature (55°C, pH (4.5, injection flow rate (200 µL min−1, and applied potential (0.4 V. Finally, the microfluidic biosensor showed better lower limit of detection (0.149 µM and sensitivity (0.2341 nA µM−1 for ABTS than previous laccase-based biosensors and the in situ operation capacity.

  17. Amperometric, screen-printed, glucose biosensor for analysis of human plasma samples using a biocomposite water-based carbon ink incorporating glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the optimisation of a screen-printing water-based carbon ink containing cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) and glucose oxidase (GOD) for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. To optimise the performance of the biosensor, the loadings of the electrocatalyst (CoPC) and enzyme (GOD) were varied. It was found that the maximum linear range was achieved with a CoPC loading of 20% (m/m, relative to the mass of carbon) and a GOD loading of 628 U per gram of carbon. In our studies we chose to employ chronoamperometry, as this technique is commonly used for commercial devices. The optimum operating applied potential was found to be +0.5 V, following an incubation period of 60 s. The optimum supporting electrolyte was found to be 0.05 M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, which resulted in a linear range of 0.2-5 mM, the former represents the detection limit. The sensitivity was 1.12 microA mM(-1). The effect of temperature was also investigated, and it was found that 40 degrees C gave optimal performance. The resulting amperometric biosensors were evaluated by measuring the glucose concentrations for 10 different human plasma samples containing endogenous glucose and also added glucose. The same samples were analysed by a standard spectrophotometric method, and the results obtained by the two different methods were compared. A good correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.95) and slope (0.98) were calculated from the experimental data, indicating that the new devices hold promise for biomedical studies.

  18. Evaluation of permselective membranes for optimization of intracerebral amperometric glutamate biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahono, N.; Qin, S.; Oomen, P.; Cremers, T. I. F.; de Vries, M. G.; Westerink, B. H. C.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of extracellular brain glutamate concentrations by intracerebral biosensors is a promising approach to further investigate the role of this important neurotransmitter. However, amperometric biosensors are typically hampered by Faradaic interference caused by the presence of other

  19. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Monica Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE. Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, and Cyclic voltamogram (CV. The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  20. An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Nidhi [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Pundir, Chandra Shekhar, E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2011-09-02

    Graphical abstract: The stepwise amperometric biosensor fabrication process and immobilized acetylcholinesterase inhibition in pesticide solution. Highlights: {center_dot} Constructed a novel composite material using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT at Au electrode for electrocatalysis. {center_dot} The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by SEM, FTIR, CVs and EIS. {center_dot} The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA {mu}M{sup -1}) {center_dot} The half life of electrode was 2 months. {center_dot} The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water. - Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 deg. C, 600 {mu}M substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The

  1. Single-Step Incubation Determination of miRNAs in Cancer Cells Using an Amperometric Biosensor Based on Competitive Hybridization onto Magnetic Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vargas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports an amperometric biosensor for the determination of miRNA-21, a relevant oncogene. The methodology involves a competitive DNA-target miRNA hybridization assay performed on the surface of magnetic microbeads (MBs and amperometric transduction at screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs. The target miRNA competes with a synthetic fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-modified miRNA with an identical sequence for hybridization with a biotinylated and complementary DNA probe (b-Cp immobilized on the surface of streptavidin-modified MBs (b-Cp-MBs. Upon labeling, the FITC-modified miRNA attached to the MBs with horseradish peroxidase (HRP-conjugated anti-FITC Fab fragments and magnetic capturing of the MBs onto the working electrode surface of SPCEs. The cathodic current measured at −0.20 V (versus the Ag pseudo-reference electrode was demonstrated to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the target miRNA. This convenient biosensing method provided a linear range between 0.7 and 10.0 nM and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.2 nM (5 fmol in 25 μL of sample for the synthetic target miRNA without any amplification step. An acceptable selectivity towards single-base mismatched oligonucleotides, a high storage stability of the b-Cp-MBs, and usefulness for the accurate determination of miRNA-21 in raw total RNA (RNAt extracted from breast cancer cells (MCF-7 were demonstrated.

  2. The procedure of ethanol determination in wine by enzyme amperometric biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyadevych S. V.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of the procedure of ethanol determination in wine by an enzyme amperometric biosensor. Methods. The amperometric biosensor method of ethanol analysis has been used in this work. Results. The paper presents comparative analysis of two methods of alcohol oxidase (AO immobilization for development of amperometric biosensor for ethanol determination in wine. The method of AO immobilization in glutaraldehyde vapour was chosen as optimal for this purpose. The selectivity, operational and storage stability, and pH-optimum for operation of the created biosensor were determined. The procedure of ethanol determination in wine by amperometric biosensor on the basis of platinum printed electrode SensLab and AO was optimized. The analysis of ethanol concentration in wine and must samples was carried out using the developed high-stable biosensor. A good correlation between the data obtained by the biosensor and densitometry methods was shown. Conclusion. The proposed method of ethanol analysis could be used in wine production

  3. Amperometric biosensor based on denatured DNA for the study of heavy metals complexing with DNA and their determination in biological, water and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkina, S S; Ulakhovich, N A

    2004-06-01

    Amperometric biosensor (BS) has been elaborated based on the stationary mercury-film electrode (SMFE) with silver support and cellulose nitrate (CN) membrane containing immobilized single-stranded DNA (ssIDNA). The sorption isotherms and ssDNA-heavy metal binding constants have been obtained with the BS. According to these data, the chosen heavy metals form the following series of binding strength with ssIDNA: Pb(II)>Fe(III)>Cd(II). It has been found that upon the competitive adsorption, there exists practically simultaneous sorption of different ions at ssIDNA containing membrane. The method of the determination of heavy metals based on preconcentration of metal ions on the BS followed by the destruction of DNA-metal complexes with ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) and voltammogram recording has been proposed. The lower limits of detectable contents are 1.0x10(-10), 1.0x10(-9) and 1.0x10(-7) mol l(-1) for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Fe(III), respectively. Heavy metals have been assayed in natural and drinking water, milk and blood serum samples even under simultaneous presence with a selectivity factor of 1:10. The effect of matrix components has been estimated.

  4. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Hövell, W.F.M. van; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were fabricated for the first time. The resulting biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements.

  5. Amperometric biosensor based on prussian blue and nafion modified screen-printed electrode for screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harrad, Loubna; Amine, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    A simple and sensitive amperometric biosensor was developed for the screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants. This biosensor was prepared by immobilization of xanthine oxidase on the surface of prussian blue modified screen-printed electrodes using nafion and glutaraldehyde. The developed biosensor showed a linear amperometric response at an applied potential of +0.05 V toward the detection of hypoxanthine from 5 μM to 45 μM with a detection limit of 0.4 μM (S/N=3) and its sensitivity was found to be 600 mA M(-1) cm(-2). In addition, the biosensor exhibited a good storage stability. The inhibition of xanthine oxidase by allopurinol was studied under the optimized conditions. The linear range of allopurinol concentration is obtained up to 2.5 μM with an estimated 50% of inhibitionI50=1.8 μM. The developed biosensor was successfully applied to the screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitors from 13 medicinal plants belonging to different families. Indeed, Moroccan people traditionally use these plants as infusion for the treatment of gout and its related symptoms. For this purpose, water extracts obtained from the infusion of these plants were used for the experiments. In this work, 13 extracts were assayed and several of them demonstrated xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, with an inhibition greater than 50% compared to spectrophotometry measurements that only few extracts showed an inhibition greater than 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel amperometric biosensor based on banana peel (Musa cavendish) tissue homogenate for determination of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Hakki Mevlut; Sagiroglu, Ayten

    2010-08-01

    In this study the biosensor was constructed by immobilizing tissue homogenate of banana peel onto a glassy carbon electrode surface. Effects of immobilization materials amounts, effects of pH, buffer concentration and temperature on biosensor response were studied. In addition, the detection ranges of 13 phenolic compounds were obtained with the help of the calibration graphs. Storage stability, repeatability of the biosensor, inhibitory effect and sample applications were also investigated. A typical calibration curve for the sensor revealed a linear range of 10-80 microM catechol. In reproducibility studies, variation coefficient and standard deviation were calculated as 2.69%, 1.44 x 10(-3) microM, respectively.

  7. An improved amperometric triglyceride biosensor based on co-immobilization of nanoparticles of lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol 3-phosphate oxidase onto pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Vinay; Pundir, C S

    2017-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of commercial lipase from Candida rugosa, of glycerol kinase (GK) from Cellulomonas species, of glycerol-3- phosphate oxidase (GPO) from Aerococcus viridans were prepared, characterized and co-immobilized onto a pencil graphite (PG) electrode. The morphological and electrochemical characterization of PG electrode was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) before and after co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). An improved amperometric triglyceride (TG) biosensor was fabricated using Lipase NPs/GKNPs/GPONPs/PG electrode as the working electrode, Ag/AgCl as the standard electrode and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 2.5s at a pH 7.0 and temperature of 35°C. The biosensor measured current due to electrons generated at 0.1V against Ag/AgCl, from H 2 O 2 , which is produced from triolein by co-immobilized ENPs. A linear relationship was obtained over between a wide triolein concentration range (0.1mM-45mM) and current (mA) under optimal conditions. The Lipase NPs/GKNPs/GPONPs/PG electrode showed high sensitivity (1241±20mAcm -2 mM -1 ); a lower detection limit (0.1nM) and good correlation coeficient (R 2 =0.99) with a standard enzymic colorimetric method. Analytical recovery of added triolein in serum was 98.01%, within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.05% and 0.06% respectively. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for determination of TG in the serum of apparently healthy subject and persons suffering from hypertriglyceridemia. The biosensor lost 20% of its initial activity after its continued uses over a period of 240days, while being stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on core-shell organosilica-chitosan nanospheres and multiwall carbon nanotubes composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shihong; Yuan Ruo; Chai Yaqin; Yin Bin; Li Wenjun; Min Ligen

    2009-01-01

    The application of the composites of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and core-shell organosilica-chitosan crosslinked nanospheres as an immobilization matrix for the construction of an amperometric hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) biosensor was described. MWNTs and positively charged organosilica-chitosan nanospheres were dispersed in acetic acid solution (0.6 wt%) to achieve organosilica-chitosan/MWNTs composites, which were cast onto a glass carbon electrode (GCE) surface directly. And then, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), as a model enzyme, was immobilized onto it through electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged organosilica-chitosan nanospheres and HRP. The direct electron transfer of HRP was achieved at HRP/organosilica-chitosan/MWNTs/GCE, which exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H 2 O 2 . The catalysis currents increased linearly to H 2 O 2 concentration in a wide range of 7.0 x 10 -7 to 2.8 x 10 -3 M, with a sensitivity of 49.8 μA mM -1 cm -2 and with a detection limit of 2.5 x 10 -7 M at 3σ. A Michaelies-Menten constant K M app value was estimated to be 0.32 mM, indicating a high-catalytic activity of HRP. Moreover, the proposed biosensor displayed a rapid response to H 2 O 2 and possessed good stability and reproducibility. When used to detect H 2 O 2 concentration in disinfector samples and sterilized milks, respectively, it showed satisfactory results

  9. Amperometric biosensor based on tyrosinase immobilized onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes-cobalt phthalocyanine-silk fibroin film and its application to determine bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Huanshun [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Zhou Yunlei; Xu Jing [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Ai Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Cui Lin [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Zhu Lusheng, E-mail: lushzhu@sdau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China)

    2010-02-05

    An amperometric bisphenol A (BPA) biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing tyrosinase on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)-cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc)-silk fibroin (SF) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In MWNTs-CoPc-SF composite film, SF provided a biocompatible microenvironment for the tyrosinase to retain its bioactivity, MWNTs possessed excellent inherent conductivity to enhance the electron transfer rate and CoPc showed good electrocatalytic activity to electrooxidation of BPA. The cyclic voltammogram of BPA at this biosensor exhibited a well defined anodic peak at 0.625 V. Compared with bare GCE, the oxidation signal of BPA significantly increased; therefore, this oxidation signal was used to determine BPA. The effect factors were optimized and the electrochemical parameters were calculated. The possible oxidation mechanism was also discussed. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current was proportional to BPA concentration in the range from 5.0 x 10{sup -8} to 3.0 x 10{sup -6} M with correlation coefficient of 0.9979 and detection limit of 3.0 x 10{sup -8} M (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine BPA in plastic products and the recovery was in the range from 95.36% to 104.39%.

  10. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Diamine Oxidase/Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for Histamine Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Apetrei, Irina Mirela; Apetrei, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development and optimization studies of a novel biosensor employed in the detection and quantification of histamine in freshwater fish samples. The proposed biosensor is based on a modified carbon screen-printed electrode with diamineoxidase, graphene and platinum nanoparticles, which detects the hydrogen peroxide formed by the chemical process biocatalysed by the enzyme diamine oxidase and immobilized onto the nanostructurated surface of the receptor element. The ampe...

  11. An improved amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on covalent immobilization of microbial lactate oxidase onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/copper nanoparticles/polyaniline modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Kusum; Pundir, C S

    2017-01-01

    An improved amperometric l-lactate biosensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) from Pediococcus species onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT)/copper nanoparticles (CuNPs)/polyaniline (PANI) hybrid film electrodeposited on the surface of a pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The enzyme electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), while CuNPs synthesized by chemical reduction method, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectrascopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The biosensor showed maximum response within 5s at pH 8.0 in 0.05M sodium phosphate buffer and 37°C, when operated at 20mVs -1 . The biosensor had a detection limit of 0.25μM with a wide working range between 1μM-2500μM. The biosensor was employed for measurement of l-lactic acid level in plasma of apparently healthy and diseased persons. Analytical recovery of added lactic acid in plasma was 95.5%. Within- and between-batch coefficients of variations were 6.24% and 4.19% respectively. There was a good correlation (R 2 =0.97) between plasma lactate values as measured by standard enzymatic spectrophotometric method and the present biosensor. The working enzyme electrode was used 180 times over a period of 140 days, when stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Determination of selected persistent organic pollutants in wastewater from landfill leachates, using an amperometric biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomngongo, Philiswa N.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Gumbi, Bhekumuzi P.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    Landfill leachates that contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a big threat to groundwater systems and are projected to have hazardous effects in the long term if proper management strategies of the landfills are not put in place by those responsible. Monitoring the levels of POPs in landfill leachates is very crucial. This work presents an amperometric biosensor for determination of selected POPs in landfill leachates. The biosensor is based on kinetic inhibition of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The enzyme was immobilised by electrostatic attachment on a polyaniline-modified Pt electrode surface. Selected POPs inhibited HRP enzyme activity and the decrease in the enzyme activity was used to determine these environmental pollutants. Selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the analytes of choice because they are commonly found in South Africa water systems. Limits of detection for the amperometric biosensor were established as 0.014, 0.018, 0.022, 0.016 and 0.019 μg l-1 for BDE-100, PBB-1, PCB-1, PCB-28 and PCB-101, respectively. The HRP biosensor system gave different linear ranges for; BDE-100 (0.424-25.8 μg l-1), PBB-1 (0.862-13.4 μg l-1), PCB-1 (0.930-18.1 μg l-1), PCB-28 (0.730-15.7 μg l-1) and PCB-101 (0.930-27.1 μg l-1). Inhibition studies on HRP biosensor response toward the reduction of H2O2 in the absence and presence of the selected POPs were carried out to investigate the inhibition kinetics and its mechanism. The results obtained indicated that the inhibition mechanism was competitive for PBDEs and non-competitive for biphenyls (PCBs and PBBs). The application of the biosensor was tested on wastewater samples obtained from landfill leachate for determination of selected POPs. The leachate samples were found to contain PCB-28 (0.28 ± 0.03 μg l-1) and PCB-101 (0.31 ± 0.02 μg l-1). The samples were also analysed by GC-MS as a cross-check method and the

  13. Increasing amperometric biosensor sensitivity by length fractionated single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tasca, Federico; Gorton, Lo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    chromatography. Transmission electron micrographs of different fractions of SWCNTs were collected. Diaphorase ``wired'' to an osmium redox polymer was blended with the shortened SWCNTs of different lengths. Depending on the average length of the SWCNTs the sensitivity of the amperometric biosensor model system...... limit was 1 mu M. The biosensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic properties. Even at relatively high NADH concentrations the oxidative current was limited by the diffusion rate of NADH. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Cytosine-assisted synthesis of gold nanochains and gold nanoflowers for the construction of a microperoxidase-11 based amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qian-Li; Zhou, Dan-Ling; Wang, Ai-Jun; Qin, Su-Fang; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Li, Yong-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A simple method was developed for synthesis of network-like gold nanochains and gold nanoflowers in the presence of cytosine by reduction of tetrachloroauric acid with sodium borohydride and ascorbic acid, respectively. The resulting gold nanocrystals were coated with microperoxidase-11 via electrostatic interactions. Electrodes modified with protein-coated gold nanochains or nanoflowers display well-defined and quasi reversible redox peaks and enhanced high electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 that is due to direct electron transfer to the protein. The effects were exploited for the amperometric detection of H 2 O 2 with a linear response from 0.5 μM to 0.13 mM (for the gold nanochains) and from 1.0 μM to 0.11 mM (for the gold nanoflowers), respectively. The sensor shows lower detection limit and faster response time than sensors based on the use of spherical gold nanoparticles. (author)

  15. Automatic bionalyzer using an integrated amperometric biosensor for the determination of L-malic acid in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E; Ruiz, M A; Ferrero, F J; Campuzano, S; Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel, V; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2016-09-01

    A new automatic bioanalyzer for L-malic acid using an integrated amperometric biosensor as detector is reported for the first time in this work. The biosensor is constructed by gold film sputtering deposition on a stainless steel disk electrode and co-immobilization of the enzymes malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and diaphorase (DP) together with the redox mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) by means of dialysis membrane. The analytical performance of the biosensor was evaluated when it was used as amperometric detector in three different analytical methodologies: stirred solutions, semiautomatic FIA system and automatic bioanalyzer. The bienzyme biosensor exhibited great analytical performance in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility of the measurements and its usefulness was demonstrated by analyzing wine reference materials with certified content of L-malic acid. The attractive analytical and operational characteristics demonstrated by the automatic bioanalyzer make it a promising simple, rapid and field-based tool for routine wine and fruit control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of an Amperometric Biosensor Platform for the Combined Determination of L-Malic, Fumaric, and L-Aspartic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhlen, Désirée L; Pilas, Johanna; Schöning, Michael J; Selmer, Thorsten

    2017-10-01

    Three amperometric biosensors have been developed for the detection of L-malic acid, fumaric acid, and L -aspartic acid, all based on the combination of a malate-specific dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) and diaphorase (DIA, EC 1.8.1.4). The stepwise expansion of the malate platform with the enzymes fumarate hydratase (FH, EC 4.2.1.2) and aspartate ammonia-lyase (ASPA, EC 4.3.1.1) resulted in multi-enzyme reaction cascades and, thus, augmentation of the substrate spectrum of the sensors. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in presence of the cofactor β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) and the redox mediator hexacyanoferrate (III) (HCFIII). The amperometric detection is mediated by oxidation of hexacyanoferrate (II) (HCFII) at an applied potential of + 0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. For each biosensor, optimum working conditions were defined by adjustment of cofactor concentrations, buffer pH, and immobilization procedure. Under these improved conditions, amperometric responses were linear up to 3.0 mM for L-malate and fumarate, respectively, with a corresponding sensitivity of 0.7 μA mM -1 (L-malate biosensor) and 0.4 μA mM -1 (fumarate biosensor). The L-aspartate detection system displayed a linear range of 1.0-10.0 mM with a sensitivity of 0.09 μA mM -1 . The sensor characteristics suggest that the developed platform provides a promising method for the detection and differentiation of the three substrates.

  17. Layer-by-layer assemblies of chitosan/multi-wall carbon nanotubes and glucose oxidase for amperometric glucose biosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Baoyan; Hou Shihua; Yu Min; Qin Xia; Li, Sha; Chen Qiang

    2009-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on multilayer films containing chitosan, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) was developed. MWCNTs were solubilized in chitosan (Chit-MWCNTs) used to interact with GOD. Poly (allylamine) (PAA) and polyvinylsulfuric acid potassium salt (PVS) were alternately deposited on the cleaned Pt electrode surface ((PVS/PAA) 3 /Pt). The (PVS/PAA) 3 /Pt electrode was alternately immersed in Chit-MWCNTs and GOD to assemble different layers of multilayer films. PBS washing was applied at the end of each assembly deposition for dissociating the weak adsorption. Micrographs of MWCNTs were obtained by scanning electron microscope, and properties of the resulting biosensors were measured by electrochemical measurements. Among the resulting biosensors, the biosensor based on eight layers of multilayer films was best. The resulting biosensor was able to efficiently monitor glucose, with the response time within 8 s, a detection limit of 21 μM estimated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, a linear range of 1-10 mM, the sensitivity of 0.45 μA/mM, and well stability. The study can provide a feasible simple approach on developing a new immobilization matrix for biosensors and surface functionalization

  18. Simultaneous topographic and amperometric membrane mapping using an AFM probe integrated biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Sarmiza Elena; Csaki, Andrea; Urban, Matthias; Nietzsche, Sandor; Biskup, Christoph; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2011-02-15

    The investigation of the plasma membrane with intercorrelated multiparameter techniques is a prerequisite for understanding its function. Presented here, is a simultaneous electrochemical and topographic study of the cell membrane using a miniaturized amperometric enzymatic biosensor. The fabrication of this biosensor is also reported. The biosensor combines a scanning force microscopy (AFM) gold-coated cantilever and an enzymatic transducer layer of peroxidases (PODs). When these enzymes are brought in contact with the substrate, the specific redox reaction produces an electric current. The intensity of this current is detected simultaneously with the surface imaging. For sensor characterization, hydroquinone-2-carboxylic acid (HQ) is selected as an intrinsic source of H(2)O(2). HQ has been electrochemically regenerated by the reduction of antraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ). The biosensor reaches the steady state value of the current intensity in 1 ± 0.2s. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. p-Benzoquinone-mediated amperometric biosensor developed with Psychrobacter sp. for toxicity testing of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejiang; Liu, Mian; Wang, Xin; Wu, Zhen; Yang, Lianzhen; Xia, Siqing; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jianfu

    2013-03-15

    A rapid and reliable p-benzoquinone-mediated amperometric biosensor (ToxTell) incorporated with Psychrobacter sp. to detect toxicities of heavy metal ions has been developed. This ToxTell biosensor relied on the real-time monitoring of inhibition effect for metabolism by toxicant to provide early detection and assessment of the degree of toxicity to living cells. The effect of growth phase on the sensitivity of Psychrobacter sp. biosensor was studied. The results showed that at the middle of the logarithmic phase or transition from logarithmic to stationary phase, the Psychrobacter sp. ToxTell biosensor had a higher sensitivity to toxicants. The effects of pH, salinity in respiratory substrates and incubation time on the performance of Psychrobacter sp. biosensor were also investigated. EC(50) values of Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Cr(6+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) to Psychrobacter sp. determined at incubation time 30 min were 2.6 mg/L, 47.3 mg/L, 10.9 mg/L, 14.0 mg/L, 0.8 mg/L and 110.1 mg/L, respectively. The ToxTell microbial biosensor developed in this work demonstrated excellent storage stability for more than 60 days. The biosensor could incorporate different microbial species as biocomponent to reflect the comprehensive values for toxicants in real samples and the results therefore had high degree of validity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Doped Polyaniline Modified Electrode Amperometric Biosensor for Gluconic Acid Determination in Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Donatella; Malvano, Francesca; Sannini, Adriana; Pilloton, Roberto; Di Matteo, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    In winemaking gluconic acid is an important marker for quantitative evaluation of grape infection by Botrytis cinerea. A screen-printed amperometric bienzymatic sensor for the determination of gluconic acid based on gluconate kinase (GK) and 6-phospho-D-gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) coimmobilized onto polyaniline/poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid; PANI-PAAMPSA) is reported in this study. The conductive polymer electrodeposed on the working electrode surface allowed the detection of NADH at low potential (0.1 V) with a linear range from 4 × 10−3 to 1 mM (R2 = 0.99) and a sensitivity of 419.44 nA·mM−1. The bienzymatic sensor has been optimized with regard to GK/6PGDH enzymatic unit ratio and ATP/NADP+ molar ratio which resulted equal to 0.33 and 1.2, respectively. Under these conditions a sensitivity of 255.2 nA·mM−1, a limit of detection of 5 μM and a Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of 4.2% (n = 5) have been observed. Finally, the biosensor has been applied for gluconic acid measurements in must grape samples and the matrix effect has been taken into consideration. The results have been compared with those obtained on the same samples with a commercial kit based on a spectrophotometric enzyme assay and were in good agreement, showing the capability of the bienzymatic PANI-PAAMPSA biosensor for gluconic acid measurements and thus for the evaluation of Botrytis cinerea infection in grapes. PMID:24960084

  1. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembling Gold Nanorods and Glucose Oxidase onto Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized Sol-Gel Matrix for an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs and glucose oxidase (GOD onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au electrode, and then the alternate self-assembly of AuNRs and GOD were repeated to assemble multilayer films of AuNRs-GOD onto SWCNTs-functionalized silica gel for optimizing the biosensor. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, the four layers of AuNRs-GOD-modified electrode showed the best performance. The sol-SWCNTs-(AuNRs- GOD4/Au biosensor exhibited a good linear range of 0.01–8 mM glucose, high sensitivity of 1.08 μA/mM, and fast amperometric response within 4 s. The good performance of the proposed glucose biosensor could be mainly attributed to the advantages of the three-dimensional sol-gel matrix and stereo self-assembly films, and the natural features of one-dimensional nanostructure SWCNTs and AuNRs. This study may provide a new facile way to fabricate the enzyme-based biosensor with high performance.

  2. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembling Gold Nanorods and Glucose Oxidase onto Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized Sol-Gel Matrix for an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baoyan; Hou, Shihua; Miao, Zhiying; Zhang, Cong; Ji, Yanhong

    2015-09-18

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au electrode, and then the alternate self-assembly of AuNRs and GOD were repeated to assemble multilayer films of AuNRs-GOD onto SWCNTs-functionalized silica gel for optimizing the biosensor. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, the four layers of AuNRs-GOD-modified electrode showed the best performance. The sol-SWCNTs-(AuNRs- GOD)₄/Au biosensor exhibited a good linear range of 0.01-8 mM glucose, high sensitivity of 1.08 μA/mM, and fast amperometric response within 4 s. The good performance of the proposed glucose biosensor could be mainly attributed to the advantages of the three-dimensional sol-gel matrix and stereo self-assembly films, and the natural features of one-dimensional nanostructure SWCNTs and AuNRs. This study may provide a new facile way to fabricate the enzyme-based biosensor with high performance.

  3. An Amperometric Biosensor for Uric Acid Determination Prepared From Uricase Immobilized in Polyaniline-Polypyrrole Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new amperometric uric acid biosensor was developed by immobilizing uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on polyaniline-polypyrrole (pani-ppy composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode. Determination of uric acid was performed by the oxidation of enzymatically generated H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The linear working range of the biosensor was 2.5×10-6 – 8.5×10-5 M and the response time was about 70 s. The effects of pH, temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 9.0, 55 oC, respectively. The stability and reproducibility of the enzyme electrode have been also studied.

  4. An amperometric enzyme biosensor for real-time measurements of cellobiohydrolase activity on insoluble cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Guilin, Ren; Tatsumi, Hirosuke

    2012-01-01

    An amperometric enzyme biosensor for continuous detection of cellobiose has been implemented as an enzyme assay for cellulases. We show that the initial kinetics for cellobiohydrolase I, Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei, acting on different types of cellulose substrates, semi-crystalline and amorphous......) and this provided experimental access to the transient kinetics of cellobiohydrolases acting on insoluble cellulose. The response from the CDH-biosensor during enzymatic hydrolysis was corrected for the specificity of PcCDH for the β-anomer of cello-oligosaccharides and the approach were validated against HPLC....... It is suggested that quantitative, real-time data on pure insoluble cellulose substrates will be useful in attempts to probe the molecular mechanism underlying enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose...

  5. Development of an amperometric sulfite biosensor based on a gold nanoparticles/chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polyaniline-modified gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Rachna; Chawla, Sheetal; Dahiya, Tulika; Pundir, Chandra Shekhar

    2011-11-01

    A sulfite oxidase (SOx) purified from leaves of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) was immobilized covalently onto a gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)/chitosan (CHIT)/carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs)/polyaniline (PANI) composite that was electrodeposited onto the surface of a gold (Au) electrode. A novel and highly sensitive sulfite biosensor was developed that used this enzyme electrode (SOx/AuNPs/CHIT/cMWCNT/PANI/Au) as the working electrode, Ag/AgCl as the standard electrode, and Pt wire as the auxiliary electrode. The modified electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) before and after the immobilization of the SOx. The sensor produced its optimum response within 3 s when operated at 50 mVs(-1) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, and at 35 °C. The linear range and detection limit of the sensor were 0.75-400 μM and 0.5 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The biosensor was employed to determine sulfite levels in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages. The enzyme electrode was used 300 times over a period of three months when stored at 4 °C.

  6. Amperometric biosensor for the determination of phenols using a crude extract of sweet potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Vieira, I. da; Fatibello-Filho, O. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (Brazil)

    1997-03-01

    An amperometric biosensor for the determination of phenols is proposed using a crude extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) as an enzymatic source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO; tyrosinase; catechol oxidase; EC 1.14.18.1). The biosensor is constructed by the immobilization of sweet potato crude extract with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin onto an oxygen membrane. This biosensor provides a linear response for catechol, pyrogallol, phenol and p-cresol in the concentration ranges of 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.3 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.3 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.5 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} and 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.5 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, respectively. The response time was about 3-5 min for the useful response range, and the lifetime of this electrode was excellent for fifteen days (over 220 determinations for each enzymatic membrane). Application of this biosensor for the determination of phenols in industrial wastewaters is presented.

  7. Dual enzymatic biosensor for simultaneous amperometric determination of histamine and putrescine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Escobar, W; Del Torno-de Román, L; Domínguez-Renedo, O; Alonso-Lomillo, M A; Arcos-Martínez, M J

    2016-01-01

    A disposable electrodic system consisting of two working electrodes connected in array mode has been developed for the simultaneous determination of histamine (His) and putrescine (Put). Histamine deshydrogenase and putrescine oxidase enzymes were respectively immobilized by crosslinking on each working screen-printed electrode, both modified with tetrathiafulvalene. The dual system allowed the simultaneous amperometric determination of both species by measuring the oxidation current of the mediator in each working electrode. The effect of other potentially interfering biogenic amines was also evaluated. The capability of detection was of 8.1 ± 0.7 for His and 10 ± 0.6 μM for Put. The precision in terms of relative standard deviation was of 3.5% and 6.7% for His and Put, respectively. The developed biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of His and Put in different food samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Amperometric Biosensor for the Determination of Bacterial Sepsis Biomarker, Secretory Phospholipase Group 2-IIA Using a Tri-Enzyme System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nurhanan Nik Mansor

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A tri-enzyme system consisting of choline kinase/choline oxidase/horseradish peroxidase was used in the rapid and specific determination of the biomarker for bacterial sepsis infection, secretory phospholipase Group 2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA. These enzymes were individually immobilized onto the acrylic microspheres via succinimide groups for the preparation of an electrochemical biosensor. The reaction of sPLA2-IIA with its substrate initiated a cascading enzymatic reaction in the tri-enzyme system that led to the final production of hydrogen peroxide, which presence was indicated by the redox characteristics of potassium ferricyanide, K3Fe(CN6. An amperometric biosensor based on enzyme conjugated acrylic microspheres and gold nanoparticles composite coated onto a carbon-paste screen printed electrode (SPE was fabricated and the current measurement was performed at a low potential of 0.20 V. This enzymatic biosensor gave a linear range 0.01–100 ng/mL (R2 = 0.98304 with a detection limit recorded at 5 × 10−3 ng/mL towards sPLA2-IIA. Moreover, the biosensor showed good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD of 3.04% (n = 5. The biosensor response was reliable up to 25 days of storage at 4 °C. Analysis of human serum samples for sPLA2-IIA indicated that the biosensor has potential for rapid bacterial sepsis diagnosis in hospital emergency department.

  9. Self-assembled dipeptide-gold nanoparticle hybrid spheres for highly sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yufei; Chen, Xu; Lu, Yanluo; Yang, Wensheng

    2015-04-15

    Novel self-assembled dipeptide-gold nanoparticle (DP-AuNP) hybrid microspheres with a hollow structure have been prepared in aqueous solution by a simple one-step method. Diphenylalanine (FF) dipeptide was used as a precursor to form simultaneously peptide spheres and a reducing agent to reduce gold ions to gold nanoparticles in water at 60°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that formed AuNPs were localized both inside and on the surface of the dipeptide spheres. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a model enzyme was further immobilized on the dipeptide-AuNP hybrid spheres to construct a mediate H2O2 amperometric biosensor. UV-vis spectroscopy showed that the immobilized HRP retained its original structure. Cyclic voltammetry characterization demonstrated that the HRP/dipeptide-AuNP hybrid spheres modified glassy carbon electrode showed high electrocatalytic activity to H2O2. The proposed biosensor exhibited a wide linear response in the range from 5.0×10(-7) to 9.7×10(-4)M with a high sensitivity of 28.3µAmM(-1). A low detection limit of 1.0×10(-7)M was estimated at S/N=3. In addition, the biosensor possessed satisfactory reproducibility and long-term stability. These results indicated that the dipeptide-AuNP hybrid sphere is a promising matrix for application in the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors due to its excellent biocompatibility and good charge-transfer ability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An amperometric biosensor for fish freshness detection from xanthine oxidase immobilized in polypyrrole-polyvinylsulphonate film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmaci, Nezaket; Çete, Servet; Arslan, Fatma; Yaşar, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    A new amperometric biosensor was developed for determining hypoxanthine in fish meat. Xanthine oxidase with pyrrole and polyvinylsulphonate was immobilized on the surface of a platinum electrode by electropolymerization. The determination of xanthine-hypoxanthine was performed by means of oxidation of uric acid liberated during the enzyme reaction on the surface of the enzyme electrode at + 0.30V (SCE). The effects of pH, substrate concentration, and temperature on the response of the xanthine-hypoxanthine biosensor were investigated. The linear working range of the enzyme electrode was 1.0 × 10(-7) -1.0 × 10(-3) M of the hypoxanthine concentration, and the detection limit was 1.0 × 10(-7)M. The apparent K(m(app)) and I(max) of the immobilized xanthine oxidase were found to be 0.0154 mM and 1.203 μA/mM, respectively. The best pH and temperature value for xanthine oxidase were selected as 7.75 and 25°C, respectively. The sensor was used for the determination of hypoxhantine in fish meat. Results show that the fish degraded very rapidly after seven days and the hypoxanthine amount was found to increase over days of storage.

  11. An Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose Determination Prepared from Glucose Oxidase Immobilized in Polyaniline-Polyvinylsulfonate Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Arslan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel amperometric glucose biosensor with immobilization of glucose oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polyaniline-polyvinylsulphonate (Pani-Pvs films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique. Electropolymerization of aniline on the Pt surface of the Pt electrode was carried out at constant potential (0.75 V, vs. Ag/AgCl using an electrochemical cell containing aniline and polyvinylsulphonate. Firstly, the optimum working conditions for preparing polyaniline-polyvinylsulfonate films were investigated. Determination of glucose was carried out by the oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated and the optimum pH value was found to be 7.5. The storage stability and operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied. The results show that 75% of the response current was retained after 16 activity assays. The prepared glucose biosensor retained 80.6% of initial activity after 40 days when stored in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at 4 °C.

  12. An Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose Determination Prepared from Glucose Oxidase Immobilized in Polyaniline-Polyvinylsulfonate Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Fatma; Ustabaş, Selvin; Arslan, Halit

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a novel amperometric glucose biosensor with immobilization of glucose oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polyaniline-polyvinylsulphonate (Pani-Pvs) films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique. Electropolymerization of aniline on the Pt surface of the Pt electrode was carried out at constant potential (0.75 V, vs. Ag/AgCl) using an electrochemical cell containing aniline and polyvinylsulphonate. Firstly, the optimum working conditions for preparing polyaniline-polyvinylsulfonate films were investigated. Determination of glucose was carried out by the oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated and the optimum pH value was found to be 7.5. The storage stability and operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied. The results show that 75% of the response current was retained after 16 activity assays. The prepared glucose biosensor retained 80.6% of initial activity after 40 days when stored in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at 4 °C. PMID:22164068

  13. Simultaneous and accurate real-time monitoring of glucose and ethanol in alcoholic drinks, must, and biomass by a dual-amperometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentana, Annalisa; Palermo, Carmen; Nardiello, Donatella; Quinto, Maurizio; Centonze, Diego

    2013-01-09

    In this work the optimization and application of a dual-amperometric biosensor for simultaneous monitoring of glucose and ethanol content, as quality markers in drinks and alcoholic fermentation media, are described. The biosensor is based on glucose oxidase (GOD) and alcohol oxidase (AOD) immobilized by co-cross-linking with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutaraldehyde (GLU) both onto a dual gold electrode, modified with a permselective overoxidized polypyrrole film (PPYox). Response, rejection of interferents, and stability of the dual biosensor were optimized in terms of PPYox thickness, BSA, and enzyme loading. The biosensor was integrated in a flow injection system coupled with an at-line microdialysis fiber as a sampling tool. Flow rates inside and outside the fiber were optimized in terms of linear responses (0.01-1 and 0.01-1.5 M) and sensitivities (27.6 ± 0.4 and 31.0 ± 0.6 μA·M(-1)·cm(-2)) for glucose and ethanol. Excellent anti-interference characteristics, the total absence of "cross-talk", and good response stability under operational conditions allowed application of the dual biosensor in accurate real-time monitoring (at least 15 samples/h) of alcoholic drinks, white grape must, and woody biomass.

  14. Amperometric biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide using catalase modified electrodes in polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Shailly; Mattiasson, Bo

    2005-09-23

    A simple biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide in organic solvents has been developed and coupled to a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. Catalase was entrapped in polyacrylamide gel and placed on the surface of platinum (working electrode) fixed in a Teflon holder with Ag-wire (auxiliary electrode), followed by addition of filter paper soaked in KCl. The entrapped catalase gel was held on the electrode using membranes. The effects of cellulose and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) membranes on the electrode response towards hydrogen peroxide have been studied. The modified electrode has been used to study the detection of hydrogen peroxide in solvents like water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 1,4-dioxane using amperometric techniques like cyclic voltammetry (CV) and FIA. The CV of modified catalase electrode showed a broad oxidation peak at -150 mV and a clear reduction peak at -212 mV in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Comparison of CV with hydrogen peroxide in various solvents has been carried out. The electrode showed an irreversible kinetics with DMSO as the solvent. A flow cell has been designed in order to carry on FIA studies to obtain calibration plots for hydrogen peroxide with the modified electrode. The calibration plots in several solvents such as water, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane have been obtained. The throughput of the enzyme electrode was 10 injections per hour. Due to the presence of membrane the response time of the electrode is concentration dependent.

  15. Development of amperometric L-tyrosine sensor based on Fe-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanchana, P.; Lavanya, N.; Sekar, C., E-mail: Sekar2025@gmail.com

    2014-02-01

    A novel biosensor based on Fe-doped hydroxyapatite (Fe-HA) nanoparticles and tyrosinase has been developed for the detection of L-tyrosine. Nanostructured Fe-HA was synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method, and its phase formation, morphology and magnetic property were examined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Electrochemical performance of the nano Fe-HA/tyrosinase modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for detection of L-tyrosine was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric methods. The fabricated biosensor exhibited a linear response to L-tyrosine over a wide concentration range of 1.0 × 10{sup −7} to 1.0 × 10{sup −5} M with a detection limit of 245 nM at pH 7.0. In addition, the fabricated sensor showed an excellent selectivity, good reproducibility, long-term stability and anti-interference towards the determination of L-tyrosine. - Highlights: • A novel amperometric L-tyrosine biosensor has been fabricated using nanostructured Fe-HA. • The fabricated sensor exhibits a wide linear range, good stability and high reproducibility. • Fe-HA assists microenvironment and direct electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface. • The nano Fe-HA and electrode fabrication procedure are simple and less expensive.

  16. Nanostructured progesterone immunosensor using a tyrosinase-colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon biosensor as amperometric transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carralero, Veronica [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: yseo@quim.ucm.es; Pingarron, Jose M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-16

    A novel progesterone immunosensor using a colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon-tyrosinase composite biosensor as amperometric transducer is reported. A sequential competitive configuration between the analyte and progesterone labelled with alkaline phosphatase (AP) was used. Phenyl phosphate was employed as the AP-substrate and the enzyme reaction product, phenol, was oxidized by tyrosinase to o-quinone, which is subsequently reduced at -0.1 V at the biocomposite electrode. Variables such as the concentration of phenyl phosphate, the amount of antibody attached to the electrode surface, immersion time in a 2% BSA solution, working pH and incubation times in progesterone and AP conjugate were optimized. A linear calibration graph for progesterone was obtained between 0 and 40 ng mL{sup -1} with a slope value of -82.3 nA ng{sup -1} mL, and a detection limit of 0.43 ng mL{sup -1}. The time needed to reach the steady-state current from the addition of phenyl phosphate was 30-40 s. These analytical characteristics improve substantially those reported for other progesterone immunosensors. A lifetime of 14 days with no need to apply any regeneration procedure was also achieved. The usefulness of the immunosensor was evaluated by determining progesterone in milk samples spiked with the analyte at 5.0 and 1.5 ng mL{sup -1} concentration levels. Following a very simple procedure, involving only sample dilution, mean recoveries (n = 7) of 98 {+-} 3% and 99 {+-} 3%, respectively, were obtained.

  17. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface stress-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Pengwei; Hu, Jie; Li, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Surface stress-based biosensors, as one kind of label-free biosensors, have attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for the biological, chemical and medical application with the development of technology and society. This kind of biosensors offers many advantages such as short response time (less than milliseconds) and a typical sensitivity at nanogram, picoliter, femtojoule and attomolar level. Furthermore, it simplifies sample preparation and testing procedures. In this work, progress made towards the use of surface stress-based biosensors for achieving better performance is critically reviewed, including our recent achievement, the optimally circular membrane-based biosensors and biosensor array. The further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also summarized. Critical remark and future steps towards the ultimate surface stress-based biosensors are addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of yeast pretreatment on the characteristics of yeast-modified electrodes as mediated amperometric biosensors for lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garjonyte, R; Melvydas, V; Malinauskas, A

    2008-11-01

    Carbon paste electrode modified with baker' and wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a source of flavocytochrome b(2)) were investigated as amperometric biosensors for L-lactic acid. Before immobilization on the electrode surface, yeast cells were pretreated with various electrolytes, alcohols and weak organic acids. Electrode responses to L-lactic acid were tested in the presence of various mediators (potassium ferricyanide, phenazine methosulfate, 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol sodium salt hydrate, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid sodium salt). The highest (144+/-7 nA per 0.2 mM L-lactic acid) and the most stable responses were obtained after yeast pretreatment with 30% ethanol using potassium ferricyanide as a mediator. Different electrode sensitivities with mediator phenazine methosulphate probably reflected diverse changes in yeast membrane (and/or cell wall).

  20. Biossensores amperométricos para determinação de compostos fenólicos em amostras de interesse ambiental Amperometric biosensors for phenolic compounds determination in the environmental interess samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Soares Rosatto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are widely used in many areas and commonly found as industrial by-products. A great number of agricultural and industrial activities realise phenolic compounds in the environmental. Waste phenols are produced mainly by the wood-pulp industry and during production of synthetic polymers, drugs, plastics, dyes, pesticides and others. Phenols are also released into the environmental by the degradation of pesticides with phenolic skeleton. The phenols level control is very important for the environmental protection. Amperometric biosensor has shown the feasibility to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for the determination of phenolic compounds, providing alternatives to conventional methods which have many disadvantages. This brief review considers the evolution of an approach to amperometric measurement using the catalytic properties of some enzymes for phenolic compounds monitoring.

  1. A nanocomposite/crude extract enzyme-based xanthine biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Fooladi, Ebrahim; Malekaneh, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    A novel amperometric biosensor for xanthine was developed based on covalent immobilization of crude xanthine oxidase (XOD) extracted from bovine milk onto a hybrid nanocomposite film via glutaraldehyde. Toward the preparation of the film, a stable colloids solution of core-shell Fe3O4/polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI/Fe3O4 NPs) was dispersed in solution containing chitosan (CHT) and H2PtCl6 and electrodeposited over the surface of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) in one step. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for characterization of the electrode surface. The developed biosensor (XOD/CHT/Pt NPs/PANI/Fe3O4/CPE) was employed for determination of xanthine based on amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduction at -0.35V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor exhibited a fast response time to xanthine within 8s and a linear working concentration range from 0.2 to 36.0μM (R(2)=0.997) with a detection limit of 0.1μM (signal/noise [S/N]=3). The sensitivity of the biosensor was 13.58μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The apparent Michaelis-Menten (Km) value for xanthine was found to be 4.7μM. The fabricated biosensor was successfully applied for measurement of fish and chicken meat freshness, which was in agreement with the standard method at the 95% confidence level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. New Signal Transduction Principles for Amperometric Enzyme and Antibody based Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinke, Axel

    2008-10-01

    The way of how the signal transfer from the analyte recognizing biocomponent to the sensor surface is performed influences strongly the characteristics of a biosensor e.g. response time, sensitivity and specificity. Most of the described amperometric enzyme sensors are using oxidases. The signal transduction is carried out simply by electrochemical indication of the produced hydrogen peroxide or via a sensor-immobilized redox polymer. However, due to the limited number of appropriate oxidases the range of detectable analytes is restricted. Hence, we have developed a new general principle for the sensitive transduction of the more than 400 different NAD(P) dependent dehydrogenase reactions. The transduction is based on a hydroxylase reaction which produces an electrochemically active substance under the consumption of NAD(P)H. The principle should be applicable to miniaturized sensor configuration and could be the basis for a new generation of point-of-care devices. For other analytes where no oxidases and dehydrogenases are available antibodies can be used as specific recognition element. We have developed a new principle of redox-labeled immunoassays called size exclusion redox-labeled immunoassay (SERI), where after the antigen antibody binding reaction the indication is carried out amperometrically without a washing step in between. The principle was proved for measurement of creatinine. At the moment the assay needs a relatively high amount of antibodies. However, in future it should be possible to reduce the amount of antibodies by using miniaturized microfluidic chips.

  3. Design of a macroalgae amperometric biosensor; application to the rapid monitoring of organophosphate insecticides in an agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, G S; Lins, J A P; Silva, F G S; Araujo, L C; Silva, F E P S; Mendonça, C D; Badea, M; Hayat, A; Marty, J-L

    2014-09-01

    The immobilization of enzymes onto transducer support is a mature technology and has been successfully implemented to improve biocatalytic processes for diverse applications. However, there exists still need to design more sophisticated and specialized strategies to enhance the functional properties of the biosensors. In this work, a biosensor platform based on innovative fabrication strategy was designed, and employed for the detection of organophosphate (OP) in natural waters. The biosensor was prepared by incorporating acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) to the graphite paste modified with tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) mediator, along with the use of a macroalgae (Cladaphropsis membranous) as a functional immobilization support. The novel immobilization design resulted in a synergic effect, and led to enhanced stability and sensitivity of the biosensor. The designed biosensor was used to analyze methyl parathion OP insecticide in water samples collected from a demonstrably contaminated lake of São Luis Island, Maranhão, Northeast of Brazil. Water analysis revealed that the aquatic ecosystem was polluted by sub-ppm concentrations of the OP insecticide, and a good correlation was found between values obtained through biosensor and GC-MS techniques. Our results demonstrated that macroalgae-biosensor could be used as a low-cost and sensitive screening method to detect target analyte. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A sensitive and selective on-line amperometric sulfite biosensor using sulfite oxidase immobilized on a magnetite-gold-folate nanocomposite modified carbon-paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroysee, Wongduan; Ponlakhet, Kitayanan; Chairam, Sanoe; Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan

    2016-08-15

    We describe a novel amperometric sulfite biosensor, comprising a carbon-paste electrode (Fe3O4@Au-Cys-FA/CPE) modified with immobilized sulfite oxidase (SOx) on a gold-coated magnetite nanoparticle core, encased within a conjugated folic acid (FA) cysteine (Cys) shell. The biosensor electrode was fabricated using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and mineral oil mixture as binder, which also enhances the physical stability and sensitivity of the electrode. The developed biosensor displays good electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of H2O2, which occurs by an enzymatic reaction between SOx and sulfite. The Fe3O4@Au-Cys-FA electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity, and has good retention of chemisorbed SOx on the electrode because of its large surface area. Sulfite was quantified using amperometric measurements from the Fe3O4@Au-Cys-FA/CPE biosensor, and using an in-house assembled flow cell at +0.35V (vs. Ag/AgCl), with a phosphate buffer carrier (0.10M, pH 7.0) at a flow rate of 0.8mLmin(-1). The system detects sulfite over the range 0.1-200mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.998), with a detection limit of 10µgL(-1) (3σ of blank). The system exhibits acceptable precision (%R.S.D.=3.1%), rapid sample throughput (109samplesh(-1)), and good stability (2w). The developed biosensor shows satisfactory tolerance to potential interferences, such as sugars, anions, ascorbic acid, and ethanol. We applied the developed method to the determination of sulfite content in wines and pickled food extracts, and our results are in good agreement with those obtained by the standard iodometric method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a micro-planar amperometric bile acid biosensor for urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, S; Ito, N; Karube, I

    2007-04-15

    The determination of bile acid concentration in urine is useful for the screening and diagnosis of various hepatobiliary diseases. Currently, there is no concise method to determine bile acid concentration in urine. This study describes a bile acid biosensor fabricated by electrochemical technique for urinalysis. The micro-planar electrodes employed for the study consisted of a working electrode (platinum), a counter electrode (platinum) and a reference electrode (silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl)). The sensor chip was coated with Nafion using a spin-coater in order to both eliminate many interference species in urine and achieve long-term stability of the reference electrode. Nafion coating allowed the sensor chip to prevent the electrode reaction from interference species in urine, because it is charged negative strongly (Nafion contains sulfonic acid group). Three enzymes (bile acid sulfate sulfatase: BSS, beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: beta-HSD, and NADH oxidase: NHO) were immobilized by glutaraldehyde (GA: cross-linker) onto the sensor chip, because the immobilization of enzymes by GA is simple and commonly carried out. The sensor chip was able to detect bile acid in buffer solution. The optimum enzyme ratio immobilized onto the sensor chip was BSS:beta-HSD:NHO=4:4:20 U/1 chip. There was a relationship between the concentration of bile acid and the response current value. The dynamic range of the sensor chip was 2-100 microM for bile acid. Additionally, bile acid in the urine specimen could be detected using this bile acid biosensor. We present a simple and rapid bile acid biosensor with high sensitivity and high reproducibility.

  6. An Amperometric Acetylcholinesterase Sensor Based on the Bio-templated Synthesis of Hierarchical Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhuo; Luo, Ruiping; Xi, Lijuan; Chen, Yang; Wang, Hongsu

    2017-11-01

    This work describes the synthesis of three-dimensional hollow hierarchical mesoporous bioactive glass (HMBG) microspheres based on Herba leonuri pollen grains via a hydrothermal method. The HMBG microspheres perfectly copied the hierarchical porous structure and inner hollow structure constituting the double-layer surface of the natural Herba leonuri pollen grains. This structural mimicry of the pollen grains resulted in a higher degree of adsorption of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on HMBG microspheres in comparison with mesoporous bioactive glass. Subsequently, an amperometric biosensor for the detection of Malathion was fabricated by immobilizing AChE onto an HMBG microspheres-modified carbon paste electrode. The biosensor response exhibited two good linear ranges during an incubation time of 10 min in the malathion concentration ranges of 0.02-50 ppb and 50-600 ppb, with a detection limit of 0.0135 ppb ( S/ N = 3). Overall, the prepared enzymatic biosensor showed high sensitivity in the rapid detection of Malathion and could be applied to detect pesticide residues in vegetable matter.

  7. Biosensors based on nanomechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Javier; Kosaka, Priscila M; Ruz, José J; San Paulo, Álvaro; Calleja, Montserrat

    2013-02-07

    The advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies enable the preparation of increasingly smaller mechanical transducers capable of detecting the forces, motion, mechanical properties and masses that emerge in biomolecular interactions and fundamental biological processes. Thus, biosensors based on nanomechanical systems have gained considerable relevance in the last decade. This review provides insight into the mechanical phenomena that occur in suspended mechanical structures when either biological adsorption or interactions take place on their surface. This review guides the reader through the parameters that change as a consequence of biomolecular adsorption: mass, surface stress, effective Young's modulus and viscoelasticity. The mathematical background needed to correctly interpret the output signals from nanomechanical biosensors is also outlined here. Other practical issues reviewed are the immobilization of biomolecular receptors on the surface of nanomechanical systems and methods to attain that in large arrays of sensors. We then describe some relevant realizations of biosensor devices based on nanomechanical systems that harness some of the mechanical effects cited above. We finally discuss the intrinsic detection limits of the devices and the limitation that arises from non-specific adsorption.

  8. A sensitive acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on gold nanorods modified electrode for detection of organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qiaolin; Han, Lei; Hou, Chuantao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Aihua

    2016-08-15

    A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor, based on gold nanorods (AuNRs), was developed for the detection of organophosphate pesticide. Compared with Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, AuNRs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic properties, which can electrocatalytically oxidize thiocholine, the hydrolysate of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) by AChE at +0.55V (vs. SCE). The AChE/AuNRs/GCE biosensor was fabricated on basis of the inhibition of AChE activity by organophosphate pesticide. The biosensor could detect paraoxon in the linear range from 1nM to 5μM and dimethoate in the linear range from 5nM to 1μM, respectively. The detection limits of paraoxon and dimethoate were 0.7nM and 3.9nM, which were lower than the reported AChE biosensor. The proposed biosensor could restore to over 95% of its original current, which demonstrated the good reactivation. Moreover, the biosensor can be applicable to real water sample measurement. Thus, the biosensor exhibited low applied potential, high sensitivity and good stability, providing a promising tool for analysis of pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Putrescine biosensor based on putrescine oxidase from Kocuria rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bóka, Beáta; Adányi, Nóra; Szamos, Jenő; Virág, Diána; Kiss, Attila

    2012-10-10

    The novel putrescine oxidase based amperometric biosensor selectively measures putrescine, which can be considered as an indicator of microbial spoilage. Putrescine oxidase (PUOX, EC 1.4.3.10) was isolated from Kocuria rosea (Micrococcus rubens) by an improved and simplified purification process. Cells were grown on brain heart infusion medium supplemented with putrescine. Cell-free extract was prepared in Tris buffer (pH 8.0) by Bead-beater. A newly elaborated step based on three-phase partitioning (TPP) was applied in the purification protocol of PUOX. The purified enzyme was immobilized on the surface of a spectroscopic graphite electrode in redox hydrogel with horseradish peroxidase, Os mediator and poly(ethylene glycol) (400) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) as crosslinking agent. This modified working electrode was used in wall-jet type amperometric cell together with the Ag/AgCl (0.1M KCl) reference electrode and a platinum wire as auxiliary electrode in flow injection analysis system (FIA). Hydrogel composition, pH and potential dependence were studied. Optimal working conditions were 0.45 mLmin(-1) flow rate of phosphate buffer (66 mM, pH 8.0) and +50 mV polarizing potential vs. Ag/AgCl. The linear measuring range of the method was 0.01-0.25 mM putrescine, while the detection limit was 5 μM. Beer samples were investigated by the putrescine biosensor and the results were compared by those of HPLC reference method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanodevices links interdisciplinary research from leading experts to provide graduate students, academics, researchers, and industry professionals alike with a comprehensive source for key advancements and future trends in nanostructured biosensor development. It describes the concepts, principles, materials, device fabrications, functions, system integrations, and applications of various types of biosensors based on signal transduction mechanisms, including fluorescence, photonic crystal, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrochemistry, electro-lumine

  11. A screen-printed, amperometric biosensor array incorporated into a novel automated system for the simultaneous determination of organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, A; Lonsdale, D; Byrd, N; Pittson, R; Hart, J P

    2011-02-15

    Organophosphate pesticides present serious risks to human and environmental health. A rapid reliable, economical and portable analytical system will be of great benefit in the detection and prevention of contamination. A biosensor array based on six acetylcholinesterase enzymes for use in a novel automated instrument incorporating a neural network program is described. Electrochemical analysis was carried out using chronoamperometry and the measurement was taken 10s after applying a potential of 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The total analysis time for the complete assay was less than 6 min. The array was used to produce calibration data with six organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in the concentration range of 10(-5) M to 10(-9) M to train a neural network. The output of the neural network was subsequently evaluated using different sample matrices. There were no detrimental matrix effects observed from water, phosphate buffer, food or vegetable extracts. Furthermore, the sensor system was not detrimentally affected by the contents of water samples taken from each stage of the water treatment process. The biosensor system successfully identified and quantified all samples where an OP was present in water, food and vegetable extracts containing different OPs. There were no false positives or false negatives observed during the evaluation of the analytical system. The biosensor arrays and automated instrument were evaluated in situ in field experiments where the instrument was successfully applied to the analysis of a range of environmental samples. It is envisaged that the analytical system could provide a rapid detection system for the early warning of contamination in water and food. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Nafion -based co-planar electrode amperometric sensor for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Dedicated to the memory of the late Professor S K Rangarajan ... A co-planar electrode device, fabricated with all electrodes (working, counter and reference) on the same face of a Nafion. ® polymer electrolyte membrane, is proposed for the amperometric detection of gaseous methanol using Pt as the working electrode.

  13. Graphene based biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürel, Hikmet Hakan, E-mail: hhakan.gurel@kocaeli.edu.tr [Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Salmankurt, Bahadır [Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    Nanometer-sized graphene as a 2D material has unique chemical and electronic properties. Because of its unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties, its interesting shape and size make it a promising nanomaterial in many biological applications. It is expected that biomaterials incorporating graphene will be developed for the graphene-based drug delivery systems and biomedical devices. The interactions of biomolecules and graphene are long-ranged and very weak. Development of new techniques is very desirable for design of bioelectronics sensors and devices. In this work, we present first-principles calculations within density functional theory to calculate effects of charging on nucleobases on graphene. It is shown that how modify structural and electronic properties of nucleobases on graphene by applied charging.

  14. Amperometric biosensors using poly-L-lysine/poly-(styrenesulfonate) membranes with immobilized enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, F.; Yabuki, S.; Hirata, Y. [National Institute of bioscience and Human-Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-12-05

    Enzyme electrodes for L-lactic acid, choline and glucose were prepared by immobilizing lactate oxidase, choline oxidase and glucose oxidase into polygon complex membranes, respectively: an aqueous solution containing poly-L-lysine and each enzyme was placed on a glassy carbon electrode, then an aqueous solution of poly(4-styrenesulfonate) was added to the polycation/enzyme mixture and dried. The anodic current (at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of each enzyme electrode increased after the addition of the corresponding analyte, due to the electrolytic oxidation of the hydrogen peroxide produced through the oxidase-catalyzed reaction in the membrane. The membrane showed permselectivity based on the solute size with the molecular cut-off of 110. For the L-lactate and choline-sensing electrodes, the permselectivity was effective in reducing the interferential response as compared to the response for the analyte: the permeation of interferents such as L-ascorbic acid, uric acid and acetaminophen, was restricted, whereas the analyte permeated easily to undergo the enzymatic reaction. In the case of the glucose oxidase/polyion complex layer, the restriction of glucose transport resulted in the enzyme electrode suitable for the determination of the analyze in high concentrations. Each enzyme electrode was highly stable, e.g., the glucose-sensing electrode could be used for more than 20 weeks. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Flow electrochemical biosensors based on enzymatic porous reactor and tubular detector of silver solid amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josypčuk, Bohdan, E-mail: josypcuk@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Barek, Jiří [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Josypčuk, Oksana [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2013-05-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor was constructed. •The biosensor is based on a reactor of a novel material – porous silver solid amalgam. •Tubular amalgam detector was used for determination of decrease of O{sub 2} concentration. •Covalent bonds amalgam−thiol−enzyme contributed to the sensor long-term stability. •LOD of glucose was 0.01 mmol L{sup −1} with RSD = 1.3% (n = 11). -- Abstract: A flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor for the determination of glucose was constructed. The biosensor consists of a flow reactor based on porous silver solid amalgam (AgSA) and a flow tubular detector based on compact AgSA. The preparation of the sensor and the determination of glucose occurred in three steps. First, a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) was formed at the porous surface of the reactor. Second, enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was covalently immobilized at MUA-layer using N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. Finally, a decrease of oxygen concentration (directly proportional to the concentration of glucose) during enzymatic reaction was amperometrically measured on the tubular detector under flow injection conditions. The following parameters of glucose determination were optimized with respect to amperometric response: composition of the mobile phase, its concentration, the potential of detection and the flow rate. The calibration curve of glucose was linear in the concentration range of 0.02–0.80 mmol L{sup −1} with detection limit of 0.01 mmol L{sup −1}. The content of glucose in the sample of honey was determined as 35.5 ± 1.0 mass % (number of the repeated measurements n = 7; standard deviation SD = 1.2%; relative standard deviation RSD = 3.2%) which corresponds well with the declared values. The tested biosensor proved good long-term stability (77% of the current response of glucose was retained after 35 days)

  16. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition-based biosensor for aluminum(III) chronoamperometric determination in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero-Quirós, Miriam; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Alonso-Lomillo, Maria Asunción; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2014-05-07

    A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of Al(III) based on the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase has been developed. The immobilization of the enzyme was performed on screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles. The oxidation signal of acetylthiocholine iodide enzyme substrate was affected by the presence of Al(III) ions leading to a decrease in the amperometric current. The developed system has a detection limit of 2.1 ± 0.1 μM for Al(III). The reproducibility of the method is 8.1% (n = 4). Main interferences include Mo(VI), W(VI) and Hg(II) ions. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Al(III) in spiked tap water . The analysis of a certified standard reference material was also carried out. Both results agree with the certified values considering the respective associated uncertainties.

  17. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition-Based Biosensor for Aluminum(III) Chronoamperometric Determination in Aqueous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero-Quirós, Miriam; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Alonso-Lomillo, Maria Asunción; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2014-01-01

    A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of Al(III) based on the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase has been developed. The immobilization of the enzyme was performed on screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles. The oxidation signal of acetylthiocholine iodide enzyme substrate was affected by the presence of Al(III) ions leading to a decrease in the amperometric current. The developed system has a detection limit of 2.1 ± 0.1 μM for Al(III). The reproducibility of the method is 8.1% (n = 4). Main interferences include Mo(VI), W(VI) and Hg(II) ions. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Al(III) in spiked tap water. The analysis of a certified standard reference material was also carried out. Both results agree with the certified values considering the respective associated uncertainties. PMID:24811076

  18. A New Laccase Based Biosensor for Tartrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zulaikha Mazlan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM (R2 = 0.979 and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis.

  19. A New Laccase Based Biosensor for Tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Lee, Yook Heng; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2017-12-09

    Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM ( R ² = 0.979) and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis.

  20. Improved biosensor-based detection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Described is a new biosensor-based detection system for effector compounds, useful for in vivo applications in e.g. screening and selecting of cells which produce a small molecule effector compound or which take up a small molecule effector compound from its environment. The detection system...... comprises a protein or RNA-based biosensor for the effector compound which indirectly regulates the expression of a reporter gene via two hybrid proteins, providing for fewer false signals or less 'noise', tuning of sensitivity or other advantages over conventional systems where the biosensor directly...

  1. Development of a catalase based biosensor for alcohol determination in beer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, Erol; Dinçkaya, Erhan

    2003-10-17

    An amperometric biosensor based on catalase enzyme for alcohol determination was developed. To construct the biosensor catalase was immobilized by using gelatin and glutaraldehyde on a Clark type dissolved oxygen (DO) probe covered with a teflon membrane which is sensitive for oxygen. The working principle of the biosensor depends on two reactions, which one is related to another, catalyzed by catalase enzyme. In the first reaction catalase catalyzes the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen is produced and also a steady-state DO concentration occurs in a few minutes. When ethanol added to the medium catalase catalyzes the degradation of both hydrogen peroxide and ethanol and this results in a new steady-state DO concentration. Difference for first and the last steady-state DO concentration occurred in the interval surface of DO probe membrane, which related to ethanol concentration, are detected by the biosensor. The biosensor response depends linearly on ethanol concentration between 0.05 and 1.0 mM with a detection limit of 0.05 mM and a response time of 3 min. In the optimization studies of the biosensor phosphate buffer (pH 7.0; 50 mM) and 35 degrees C were established as providing the optimum working conditions. In the characterization studies of the biosensor some parameters such as reproducibility, substrate specificity, operational and storage stability were carried out. Finally, by using the biosensor developed and enzimatic-spectrophotometric method alcohol concentration of some alcoholic drinks were determined and results were compared.

  2. A Stable Glutamate Biosensor Based on MnO2 Bulk-modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An amperometric glutamate biosensor was developed using screen-printed carbon electrodes bulk-modified with MnO2 (5%, m:m) onto which glutamate oxidase was immobilized via Nafion(R) film entrapment. The analytical performance of the biosensor was assessed in a flow injection mode and peak heights of the ...

  3. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kun; Liang, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Nandi

    2010-01-01

    Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications. PMID:22399891

  4. A Comprehensive Review of Glucose Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Metal-Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Saleh Ahammad, A. J.; Jin, Joon-Hyung; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has opened new and exhilarating opportunities for exploring glucose biosensing applications of the newly prepared nanostructured materials. Nanostructured metal-oxides have been extensively explored to develop biosensors with high sensitivity, fast response times, and stability for the determination of glucose by electrochemical oxidation. This article concentrates mainly on the development of different nanostructured metal-oxide [such as ZnO, Cu(I)/(II) oxides, MnO2, TiO2, CeO2, SiO2, ZrO2, and other metal-oxides] based glucose biosensors. Additionally, we devote our attention to the operating principles (i.e., potentiometric, amperometric, impedimetric and conductometric) of these nanostructured metal-oxide based glucose sensors. Finally, this review concludes with a personal prospective and some challenges of these nanoscaled sensors. PMID:22399911

  5. Trends in protein-based biosensor assemblies for drug screening and pharmaceutical kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana M; Pedro, Augusto Q; Santos, Fátima M; Martins, Luís M; Maia, Cláudio J; Queiroz, João A; Passarinha, Luís A

    2014-08-18

    The selection of natural and chemical compounds for potential applications in new pharmaceutical formulations constitutes a time-consuming procedure in drug screening. To overcome this issue, new devices called biosensors, have already demonstrated their versatility and capacity for routine clinical diagnosis. Designed to perform analytical analysis for the detection of a particular analyte, biosensors based on the coupling of proteins to amperometric and optical devices have shown the appropriate selectivity, sensibility and accuracy. During the last years, the exponential demand for pharmacokinetic studies in the early phases of drug development, along with the need of lower molecular weight detection, have led to new biosensor structure materials with innovative immobilization strategies. The result has been the development of smaller, more reproducible biosensors with lower detection limits, and with a drastic reduction in the required sample volumes. Therefore in order to describe the main achievements in biosensor fields, the present review has the main aim of summarizing the essential strategies used to generate these specific devices, that can provide, under physiological conditions, a credible molecule profile and assess specific pharmacokinetic parameters.

  6. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan-polypyrrole-gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Dervisevic, Esma; Çevik, Emre; Şenel, Mehmet

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan-polypyrrole-gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1-200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dervisevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1–200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements.

  8. A flow-through amperometric sensor based on dialysis tubing and free enzyme reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohm, S.; Pijanowska, D.G.; Pijanowska, D.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2001-01-01

    A generic flow-through amperometric microenzyme sensor is described, which is based on semi-permeable dialysis tubing carrying the sample to be analyzed. This tubing (300 μm OD) is led through a small cavity, containing the working and reference electrode. By filling this cavity with a few μl of an

  9. A Nafion®-based co-planar electrode amperometric sensor for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based ... amperometric mode. The methanol detector could be operated both in a nitrogen stream and (in what is essential for practical applications) in an air atmosphere too, with estimated detection limits of 1.2 and 1.4 Torr respectively.

  10. Yeast-based biosensors: design and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, Adebola; Sherer, Michael; Tyo, Keith E J

    2015-02-01

    Yeast-based biosensing (YBB) is an exciting research area, as many studies have demonstrated the use of yeasts to accurately detect specific molecules. Biosensors incorporating various yeasts have been reported to detect an incredibly large range of molecules including but not limited to odorants, metals, intracellular metabolites, carcinogens, lactate, alcohols, and sugars. We review the detection strategies available for different types of analytes, as well as the wide range of output methods that have been incorporated with yeast biosensors. We group biosensors into two categories: those that are dependent upon transcription of a gene to report the detection of a desired molecule and those that are independent of this reporting mechanism. Transcription-dependent biosensors frequently depend on heterologous expression of sensing elements from non-yeast organisms, a strategy that has greatly expanded the range of molecules available for detection by YBBs. Transcription-independent biosensors circumvent the problem of sensing difficult-to-detect analytes by instead relying on yeast metabolism to generate easily detected molecules when the analyte is present. The use of yeast as the sensing element in biosensors has proven to be successful and continues to hold great promise for a variety of applications. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  11. Fiber optic-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1991-01-01

    The NRL fiber optic biosensor is a device which measures the formation of a fluorescent complex at the surface of an optical fiber. Antibodies and DNA binding proteins provide the mechanism for recognizing an analyze and immobilizing a fluorescent complex on the fiber surface. The fiber optic biosensor is fast, sensitive, and permits analysis of hazardous materials remote from the instrumentation. The fiber optic biosensor is described in terms of the device configuration, chemistry for protein immobilization, and assay development. A lab version is being used for assay development and performance characterization while a portable device is under development. Antibodies coated on the fiber are stable for up to two years of storage prior to use. The fiber optic biosensor was used to measure concentration of toxins in the parts per billion (ng/ml) range in under a minute. Immunoassays for small molecules and whole bacteria are under development. Assays using DNA probes as the detection element can also be used with the fiber optic sensor, which is currently being developed to detect biological warfare agents, explosives, pathogens, and toxic materials which pollute the environment.

  12. Development and characterization in vitro of a catalase-based biosensor for hydrogen peroxide monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K B; Killoran, S J; O'Neill, R D; Lowry, J P

    2007-06-15

    There is increasing evidence that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) may act as a neuromodulator in the brain, as well as contributing to neurodegeneration in diseased states, such as Parkinson's disease. The ability to monitor changes in endogenous H(2)O(2)in vivo with high temporal resolution is essential in order to further elucidate the roles of H(2)O(2) in the central nervous system. Here, we describe the in vitro characterization of an implantable catalase-based H(2)O(2) biosensor. The biosensor comprises two amperometric electrodes, one with catalase immobilized on the surface and one without enzyme (blank). The analytical signal is then the difference between the two electrodes. The H(2)O(2) sensitivity of various designs was compared, and ranged from 0 to 56+/-4 mA cm(-2)M(-1). The most successful design incorporated a Nafion layer followed by a poly-o-phenylenediamine (PPD) polymer layer. Catalase was adsorbed onto the PPD layer and then cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. The ability of the biosensors to exclude interference from ascorbic acid, and other interference species found in vivo, was also tested. A variety of the catalase-based biosensor designs described here show promise for in vivo monitoring of endogenous H(2)O(2) in the brain.

  13. Graphene-based field-effect transistor biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen; , Junhong; Mao, Shun; Lu, Ganhua

    2017-06-14

    The disclosure provides a field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor and uses thereof. In particular, to FET-based biosensors using thermally reduced graphene-based sheets as a conducting channel decorated with nanoparticle-biomolecule conjugates. The present disclosure also relates to FET-based biosensors using metal nitride/graphene hybrid sheets. The disclosure provides a method for detecting a target biomolecule in a sample using the FET-based biosensor described herein.

  14. Recent Progress in Lectin-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress in the development of lectin-based biosensors used for the determination of glucose, pathogenic bacteria and toxins, cancer cells, and lectins. Lectin proteins have been widely used for the construction of optical and electrochemical biosensors by exploiting the specific binding affinity to carbohydrates. Among lectin proteins, concanavalin A (Con A is most frequently used for this purpose as glucose- and mannose-selective lectin. Con A is useful for immobilizing enzymes including glucose oxidase (GOx and horseradish peroxidase (HRP on the surface of a solid support to construct glucose and hydrogen peroxide sensors, because these enzymes are covered with intrinsic hydrocarbon chains. Con A-modified electrodes can be used as biosensors sensitive to glucose, cancer cells, and pathogenic bacteria covered with hydrocarbon chains. The target substrates are selectively adsorbed to the surface of Con A-modified electrodes through strong affinity of Con A to hydrocarbon chains. A recent topic in the development of lectin-based biosensors is a successful use of nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, for amplifying output signals of the sensors. In addition, lectin-based biosensors are useful for studying glycan expression on living cells.

  15. Ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate-induced nanofibrillarity of polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate electropolymer and application in an amperometric enzyme biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndangili, Peter M.; Waryo, Tesfaye T.; Muchindu, Munkombwe; Baker, Priscilla G.L.; Ngila, Catherine J.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of nanofibrillar polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate (Pani-PVS) composite by electropolymerization of aniline in the presence of ferrocenium hexafluorophophate (FcPF 6 ) and its application in mediated-enzyme biosensor using the horseradish peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide (HRP/H 2 O 2 ) enzyme-substrate system is reported. The electropolymerization was carried out at glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) and screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) in a strongly acidic medium (HCl). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that 100 nm diameter nanofibrils were formed on the SPCE in contrast to the 800-1000 nm cauliflower-shaped clusters which were formed in the absence of FcPF 6 . A model biosensor (GCE//Pani-PVS/BSA/HRP/Glu), consisting of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized by drop coating atop the GCE//Pani-PVS in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutaraldehyde (glu) in the enzyme layer casting solution, exhibited voltammetric responses characteristic of a mediated-enzyme system. The biosensor response to H 2 O 2 was very fast (5 s) and it exhibited a detection limit of 30 μM (3σ) and a linearity of up to 2 mM (R 2 = 0.998). The relatively high apparent Michaelis-Menten constant value (K M app =1.7mM) of the sensor indicated that the immobilized enzyme was in a biocompatible microenvironment. The freshly prepared biosensor was successfully applied in the determination of the H 2 O 2 content of a commercial tooth whitening gel with a very good recovery rate (97%).

  16. Poly(neutral red) based hydrogen peroxide biosensor for chromium determination by inhibition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aisha; Emilia Ghica, M; Amine, Aziz; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-08-30

    Amperometric hydrogen peroxide enzyme inhibition biosensors based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilised on electropolymerised neutral red (NR) or directly on the surface of carbon film electrodes (CFE) have been successfully applied to the determination of toxic Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Parameters influencing the performance of the biosensor including the enzyme immobilisation method, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, applied potential and electrolyte pH were optimised. The inhibition of horseradish peroxidase by the chromium species was studied under the optimised conditions. Results from the quantitative analysis of chromium ions are discussed in terms of detection limit, linear range and sensitivity. The HRP kinetic interactions reveal mixed binding of Cr(III) with I50=3.8μM and inhibition binding constant Ki=11.3μM at HRP/PNR/CFE biosensors and uncompetitive binding of Cr(VI) with I50=3.9μM and Ki=0.78μM at HRP/CFE biosensors in the presence of H2O2 substrate. Interferences from other heavy metal ions were studied and the inhibition show very good selectivity towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enzyme Biosensors for Biomedical Applications: Strategies for Safeguarding Analytical Performances in Biological Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchitta, Gaia; Spanu, Angela; Babudieri, Sergio; Latte, Gavinella; Madeddu, Giordano; Galleri, Grazia; Nuvoli, Susanna; Bagella, Paola; Demartis, Maria Ilaria; Fiore, Vito; Manetti, Roberto; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme-based chemical biosensors are based on biological recognition. In order to operate, the enzymes must be available to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction and be stable under the normal operating conditions of the biosensor. Design of biosensors is based on knowledge about the target analyte, as well as the complexity of the matrix in which the analyte has to be quantified. This article reviews the problems resulting from the interaction of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors with complex biological matrices containing the target analyte(s). One of the most challenging disadvantages of amperometric enzyme-based biosensor detection is signal reduction from fouling agents and interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix. This article, therefore, investigates the principles of functioning of enzymatic biosensors, their analytical performance over time and the strategies used to optimize their performance. Moreover, the composition of biological fluids as a function of their interaction with biosensing will be presented. PMID:27249001

  18. Amperometric screen-printed algal biosensor with flow injection analysis system for detection of environmental toxic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitanda, Isao; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    A screen-printed algal biosensor was fabricated for evaluation of toxicity of chemicals. An algal ink was prepared by mixing unicellular microalga Chlorella vulgaris cells, carbon nanotubes and sodium alginate solution. The algal ink was immobilized directly on a screen-printed carbon electrode surface using screen-printing technique. Photosynthetically generated oxygen of the immobilized algae was monitored amperometically. Responses of the algal biosensor to four toxic compounds, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (atrazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-diethylurea (DCMU) were evaluated as inhibition ratios of the reduction current. The concentrations that gave 50% inhibition of the oxygen reduction current (IC ' 50 ) for atrazine and DCMU were 12 and 1 μmol dm -3 , respectively. In comparison with the conventional algal biosensors, in which the algal cells were entrapped in an alginate gel and immobilized on the surface of a transparent indium tin oxide electrode, the present sensor is much smaller and less expensive, with the shorter assay time.

  19. Non-enzymatic amperometric sensor for hydrogen peroxide based on a biocomposite made from chitosan, hemoglobin, and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, L.; Feng, Y.; Qi, Y.; Wang, B.; Chen, Y.; Fu, X.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a novel non-enzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (HP) that is based on a biocomposite made up from chitosan (CS), hemoglobin (Hb), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were prepared in the presence of CS and glucose in an ultrasonic bath, and CS is found to act as a stabilizing agent. They were then combined with Hb and CS to construct a carbon paste biosensor. The resulting electrode gave a well-defined redox couple for Hb, with a formal potential of about -0.17 V (vs. SCE) at pH 6. 86 and exhibited a remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of HP. The sensor was used to detect HP by flow injection analysis, and a linear response is obtained in the 0. 08 to 250 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 0.05 μM (at S/N = 3). These characteristics, along with its long-term stability make the sensor highly promising for the amperometric determination of HP. (author)

  20. Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes theory and principles behind biosensors that incorporate biological components as part of a sensor or probe. Projects major applications in medicine and veterinary medicine, biotechnology, food and agriculture, environmental studies, and the military. Surveys current use of biosensors. (ML)

  1. Amperometric S-Nitrosothiol Sensor with Enhanced Sensitivity Based on Organoselenium Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Wansik; Anderson, Meredith R.; Zhang, Fenghua; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    A new S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) detection strategy based on an electrochemical sensor is described for rapidly estimating levels of total RSNOs in blood and other biological samples. The sensor employs a cellulose dialysis membrane covalently modified with an organoselenium catalyst that converts RSNOs to NO at the distal tip of an amperometric NO sensor. The sensor is characterized by very low detection limits (< 20 nM), good long-term stability and can be employed for the rapid detection of tot...

  2. A flow-through amperometric sensor based on dialysis tubing and free enzyme reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, S; Pijanowska, D; Olthuis, W; Bergveld, P

    2001-08-01

    A generic flow-through amperometric microenzyme sensor is described, which is based on semi-permeable dialysis tubing carrying the sample to be analyzed. This tubing (300 microm OD) is led through a small cavity, containing the working and reference electrode. By filling this cavity with a few microl of an appropriate enzyme solution, an amperometric enzyme sensor results. As the dialysis tubing is impermeable for large molecular species such as enzymes, this approach does not require any immobilization chemistry, and as a consequence the enzyme is present in its natural free form. Based on this principle, amperometric sensors for lactate, glucose, and glutamate were formed by filling cavities, precision machined in Perspex, with buffered solutions containing respectively, lactate-, glucose-, and glutamate-oxidase. All sensors showed a large linear range (0-35 mM for glucose, 0-3 mM for lactate, and 0-5 mM for glutamate) covering the complete physiological range. The lower detection limit was in the order of 15-50 microM. Applicability in flow injection analysis systems is demonstrated.

  3. A new PANI biosensor based on catalase for cyanide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Aydin, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide is one of the most widespread of compounds measured in environmental analysis due to their toxic effects on environment and health. We report a highly sensitive, reliable, selective amperometric sensor for determination of cyanide, using a polyaniline conductive polymer. The enzyme catalase was immobilized by electropolymerization. The steps during the immobilization were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Optimum pH, temperature, aniline concentration, enzyme concentration, and the number of scans obtained during electropolymerization, were investigated. In addition, the cyanide present in artificial waste water samples was determined. In the characterization studies of the biosensor, some parameters such as reproducibility and storage stability, were analyzed.

  4. Spreeta-based biosensor for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta¿-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  5. Study of ZnS Nanostructures Based Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Biosensors for Uric Acid Detection †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Wei, Xueyong; Peng, Niancai; Wang, Jiuhong; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2017-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) is a kind of purine metabolism product and important in clinical diagnosis. In this work, we present a study of ZnS nanostructures-based electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensors for UA detection. Through a simple hydrothermal method and varying the ratio of reaction solvents, we obtained ZnS nanomaterials of one-dimensional to three-dimensional morphologies and they were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). To fabricate the UA biosensor and study the effect of material morphology on its performance, ZnS nanomaterials were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) conducting glass and then coated with uricase by physical absorption. Three kinds of working electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry method. The effect of material morphology on performance of UA detection was investigated via amperometric response based electrochemical method based on enzymatic reaction. The ZnS urchin-like nanostructures electrode shows better sensitivity compared with those made of nanoparticles and nanoflakes because of its high surface-area-to-volume ratio. The photoelectrochemical method for detection of UA was also studied. The sensitivity was increased 5 times after irradiation of 300 nm UV light. These results indicate that ZnS nanostructures are good candidate materials for developing enzyme-based UA biosensors. PMID:28555028

  6. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2017-04-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  7. Fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepaniak, Michael J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1993-01-01

    A fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor. The biosensor is particularly suitable for use in microscale work in situ. In one embodiment, the biosensor comprises a reaction chamber disposed adjacent the distal end of a waveguide and adapted to receive therein a quantity of a sample containing an analyte. Leading into the chamber is a plurality of capillary conduits suitable for introducing into the chamber antibodies or other reagents suitable for selective interaction with a predetermined analyte. Following such interaction, the contents of the chamber may be subjected to an incident energy signal for developing fluorescence within the chamber that is detectable via the optical fiber and which is representative of the presence, i.e. concentration, of the selected analyte. Regeneration of the biosensor is accomplished by replacement of the reagents and/or the analyte, or a combination of these, at least in part via one or more of the capillary conduits. The capillary conduits extend from their respective terminal ends that are in fluid communication with the chamber, away from the chamber to respective location(s) remote from the chamber thereby permitting in situ location of the chamber and remote manipulation and/or analysis of the activity with the chamber.

  8. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daungruthai Jarukanont

    Full Text Available Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles' arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We

  9. A DNA biosensor based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of amine by a threading intercalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhiqiang; Tansil, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical biosensor for the detection of DNA based a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) capture probe (CP) modified indium tin oxide electrode (ITO) is described in this report. After hybridization, a threading intercalator, N,N'-bis[(3-propyl)-imidazole]-1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide (PIND) imidazole complexed with Ru(bpy) 2 Cl (PIND-Ru, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), was introduced to the biosensor. PIND-Ru selectively intercalated to double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) and became immobilized on the biosensor surface. Voltammetric tests showed highly stable and reversible electrochemical oxidation/reduction processes and the peak currents can directly be utilized for DNA quantification. When the tests were conducted in an amine-containing medium, Tris-HCl buffer for example, a remarkable improvement in the voltammetric response and noticeable enhancements of voltammetric and amperometric sensitivities were observed due to the electrocatalytic activity of the [Ru(bpy) 2 Cl] redox moieties. Electrocatalytic current was observed when as little as 3.0 attomoles of DNA was present in the sample solution

  10. Biosensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    systems and hence into drinking water. Important targets for pollution biosensors now include anionic pollutants such as nitrates and phosphates. The area of biosensor development is of great importance to military and defense applications such as detection of chemical and biological species used in weapons.

  11. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A H2O2 Biosensor Based on Immobilization of HorseradishPeroxidase in a Gelatine Network Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Zhu

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple and promising H2O2 biosensor has been developed by successfulentrapment of horseradish peroxidase (HRP in a gelatine matrix which was cross-linkedwith formaldehyde. The large microscopic surface area and porous morphology of thegelatine matrix lead to high enzyme loading and the enzyme entrapped in this matrix canretain its bioactivity. This biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response to hydrogenperoxide (H2O2. The linear range for H2O2 determination was from 2.5×10-5 to2.5×10-3 M, with a detection limit of 2.0×10-6 M based on S / N = 3. This biosensorpossessed very good reproducibility.

  13. Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirste, Ronny; Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-07-01

    We review recent advances of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT)-based electronic biosensors. We discuss properties and fabrication of III-nitride-based biosensors. Because of their superior biocompatibility and aqueous stability, GaN-based devices are ready to be implemented as next-generation biosensors. We review surface properties, cleaning, and passivation as well as different pathways toward functionalization, and critically analyze III-nitride-based biosensors demonstrated in the literature, including those detecting DNA, bacteria, cancer antibodies, and toxins. We also discuss the high potential of these biosensors for monitoring living cardiac, fibroblast, and nerve cells. Finally, we report on current developments of covalent chemical functionalization of III-nitride devices. Our review concludes with a short outlook on future challenges and projected implementation directions of GaN-based HEMT biosensors.

  14. Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirste, Ronny; Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    We review recent advances of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT)-based electronic biosensors. We discuss properties and fabrication of III-nitride-based biosensors. Because of their superior biocompatibility and aqueous stability, GaN-based devices are ready to be implemented as next-generation biosensors. We review surface properties, cleaning, and passivation as well as different pathways toward functionalization, and critically analyze III-nitride-based biosensors demonstrated in the literature, including those detecting DNA, bacteria, cancer antibodies, and toxins. We also discuss the high potential of these biosensors for monitoring living cardiac, fibroblast, and nerve cells. Finally, we report on current developments of covalent chemical functionalization of III-nitride devices. Our review concludes with a short outlook on future challenges and projected implementation directions of GaN-based HEMT biosensors.

  15. Recent advances in biosensors based on enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, A; Arduini, F; Moscone, D; Palleschi, G

    2016-02-15

    Enzyme inhibitors like drugs and pollutants are closely correlated to human and environmental health, thus their monitoring is of paramount importance in analytical chemistry. Enzymatic biosensors represent cost-effective, miniaturized and easy to use devices; particularly biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful analytical tools for fast screening and monitoring of inhibitors. The present review will highlight the research carried out in the last 9 years (2006-2014) on biosensors based on enzyme inhibition. We underpin the recent advances focused on the investigation in new theoretical approachs and in the evaluation of biosensor performances for reversible and irreversible inhibitors. The use of nanomaterials and microfluidic systems as well as the applications of the various biosensors in real samples is critically reviewed, demonstrating that such biosensors allow the development of useful devices for a fast and reliable alarm system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A biosensor based on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) homogenate as a biorecognition layer for ascorbic acid determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal; Koca, Halit Buğra; Ozben, Yavuz Selim; Dinçkaya, Erhan

    2010-08-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) tissue homogenate is presented. The zucchini tissue homogenate was crosslinked with gelatine using glutaraldehyde and fixed on a pretreated teflon membrane. The zucchini tissue contained the enzyme ascorbate oxidase and this enzyme catalyzed the oxidation of ascorbic acid in the presence of dissolved oxygen. The principle of the measurements was based on the determination of the decrease in the dissolved oxygen level. Determinations were carried out by standard curves, which were obtained by the measurement of the decrease in the oxygen level related to ascorbic acid concentration. Optimization and characterization studies of the biosensor were carried out in detail. First of all, the amounts of zucchini tissue homogenate, gelatin, and glutaraldehyde percentage were optimized. Experimental parameters such as buffer system, pH, buffer concentration, and temperature were also optimized carefully. Thermal stability, storage stability, and repeatability of the biosensor were investigated. A linear response was observed from 5x10(-6) M to 1.2x10(-3) M ascorbic acid. Finally, the results of some plant and drug samples analyzed with the presented biosensor compared with the spectrophotometric method (Tillman reagent) used as a reference.

  17. Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowire Based Optical Waveguide Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyu; Liu, Yong; Chen, Yangqing; He, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire have been developed for label free molecular detection. This paper reviews our work on the design, fabrication and measurement of SOI nanowire based high-sensitivity biosensors employing Vernier effect. Biosensing experiments using cascaded double-ring sensor and Mach-Zehnder- ring sensor integrated with microfluidic channels are demonstrated

  18. Biosensors Based on Lipid Modified Graphene Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is one of the new materials which has shown a large impact on the electronic industry due to its versatile properties, such as high specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability, and large spectrum of electrochemical properties. The graphene material-based electronic industry has provided flexible devices which are inexpensive, simple and low power-consuming sensor tools, therefore opening an outstanding new door in the field of portable electronic devices. All these attractive advantages of graphene give a platform for the development of a new generation of devices in both food and environmental applications. Lipid-based sensors have proven to be a good route to the construction of novel devices with improved characteristics, such as fast response times, increased sensitivity and selectivity, and the possibility of miniaturization for the construction of portable biosensors. Therefore, the incorporation of a lipid substrate on graphene electrodes has provided a route to the construction of a highly sensitive and selective class of biosensors with fast response times and portability of field applications for the rapid detection of toxicants in the environment and food products.

  19. Non-antibody protein-based biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrigno, Paul?Ko

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors that depend on a physical or chemical measurement can be adversely affected by non-specific interactions. For example, a biosensor designed to measure specifically the levels of a rare analyte can give false positive results if there is even a small amount of interaction with a highly abundant but irrelevant molecule. To overcome this limitation, the biosensor community has frequently turned to antibody molecules as recognition elements because they are renowned for their exquisite...

  20. Polymer Based Biosensors for Medical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherré, Solène; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to give an overview about the newest developments in biosensors made of polymers for medical applications. Biosensors are devices that can recognize and detect a target with high selectivity. They are widely used in many fields such as medical diagnostic, environm......The objective of this chapter is to give an overview about the newest developments in biosensors made of polymers for medical applications. Biosensors are devices that can recognize and detect a target with high selectivity. They are widely used in many fields such as medical diagnostic...

  1. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong [Knoxville, TN; Wang, Xiaoling [San Jose, CA

    2012-04-17

    A method of biosensor-based detection of toxins comprises the steps of providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  2. Functional materials in amperometric sensing polymeric, inorganic, and nanocomposite materials for modified electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Seeber, Renato; Zanardi, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Amperometric sensors, biosensors included, particularly rely on suitable electrode materials. Progress in material science has led to a wide variety of options that are available today. For the first time, these novel functional electrode coating materials are reviewed in this monograph, written by and for electroanalytical chemists. This includes intrinsically conducting, redox and ion-exchange polymers, metal and carbon nanostructures, silica based materials. Monolayers and relatively thick films are considered. The authors critically discuss preparation methods, in addition to chemical and

  3. A microband lactate biosensor fabricated using a water-based screen-printed carbon ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, F J; Purcell, W M; Xu, J; Pemberton, R M; Fielden, P R; Biddle, N; Hart, J P

    2009-01-15

    The present study demonstrated for the first time that screen-printed carbon microband electrodes fabricated from water-based ink can readily detect H(2)O(2) and that the same ink, with the addition of lactate oxidase, can be used to construct microband biosensors to measure lactate. These microband devices were fabricated by a simple cutting procedure using conventional sized screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) containing the electrocatalyst cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC). These devices were characterised with H(2)O(2) using several electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammograms were found to be sigmoidal; a current density value of 4.2 mA cm(-2) was obtained. A scan rate study revealed that the mass transport mechanism was a mixture of radial and planar diffusion. However, a further amperometric study under quiescent and hydrodynamic conditions indicated that radial diffusion predominated. A chronoamperometric study indicated that steady-state currents were obtained with these devices for a variety of H(2)O(2) concentrations and that the currents were proportional to the analyte concentration. Lactate microband biosensors were then fabricated by incorporating lactate oxidase into the water-based formulation prior to printing and then cutting as described. Voltammograms demonstrated that lactate oxidase did not compromise the integrity of the electrode for H(2)O(2) detection. A potential of +400 mV was selected for a calibration study, which showed that lactate could be measured over a dynamic range of 1-10mM which was linear up to 6mM; a calculated lower limit of detection of 289 microM was ascertained. This study provides a platform for monitoring cell metabolism in-vitro by measuring lactate electrochemically via a microband biosensor.

  4. Fabrication of Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conducting Polyaniline (NSPANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshikha SAINI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, glucose and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 biosensors based on nanostructured conducting polyaniline (NSPANI (synthesized using sodiumdodecyl sulphate (SDS as structure directing agent were developed. Because of the large specific surface area, excellent conductivity of NSPANI, horseradish peroxidase (HRP and glucose oxidase (GOx could be easily immobilized with high loading and activity. In addition the small dimensions and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the NSCP allow the rapid transmission of electron and enhance current response. The linear dynamic range of optical glucose and H2O2 biosensors is 5–40 mM for glucose and 1–50 mM for H2O2, respectively where as the bulk PANI exhibits linearity between 5-20 mM/l. The miniature optical glucose biosensor also exhibits good reproducibility. The storage stability of optical glucose and H2O2 biosensors is two weeks for glucose and five days for H2O2. The high response value of NSPANI based biosensors as compared to bulk PANI based biosensor reflects higher enzymatic affinity of GOx/NSPANI and HRP/NSPANI with glucose and H2O2 due to biocompatibility, active surface area and high electron communication capability of nanobiopolymer film. In conclusion, the NSPANI based biosensors proposed herein have many advantages such as a low response time, high reproducibility, high sensitivity, stable and wide dynamic range.

  5. Simulation Study of Nano Aqueous Flow Sensor Based on Amperometric Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengguo Lou

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel nano aqueous flow sensor which consists of two closelyspaced amperometric sensors is investigated by digital simulation. The simulation resultsindicate that the ratio of the responses of two closely spaced amperometric sensors is onlyrelated to flow rates in the channel, insensitive to the analyte concentration in the solution.By comparing the output of two amperometric sensors, the flow rate in the channel can bededuced. It is not necessary to determine the analyte concentration in advance. Thesimulation results show it is able to detect flow rate by in the range of several nano-liters perminute when the distance between the working electrodes of two amperometric sensors is200 nm and the cross-section of the channel is 1 μm x 1 μm.

  6. Amperometric glucose sensor based on enhanced catalytic reduction of oxygen using glucose oxidase adsorbed onto core-shell Fe3O4-silica-Au magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijun; Li Yongfang; Li Zhonghua; Feng Jiuju; Sun Yanli; Chen Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Monodisperse Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared under facile solvothermal conditions and successively functionalized with silica and Au to form core/shell Fe 3 O 4 -silica-Au NPs. Furthermore, the samples were used as matrix to construct a glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase (GOD). The immobilized GOD retained its bioactivity with high protein load of 3.92 × 10 −9 mol·cm −2 , and exhibited a surface-controlled quasi-reversible redox reaction, with a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate of 7.98 ± 0.6 s −1 . The glucose biosensor showed a broad linear range up to 3.97 mM with high sensitivity of 62.45 μA·mM −1 cm −2 and fast response (less than 5 s). - Graphical abstract: Core-shell structured Fe 3 O 4 -silica-Au nanoparticles were prepared and used as matrix to construct an amperometric glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase, which showed broad linear range, high sensitivity, and fast response. Highlights: ► Synthesis of monodispersed Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. ► Fabrication of core/shell Fe 3 O 4 -silica-Au nanoparticles. ► Construction of a novel glucose sensor with wide linear range, high sensitivity and fast response.

  7. Amperometric noise at thin film band electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Simon T; Heien, Michael L; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-09-18

    Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive polymers and measured the current noise in physiological buffer solution for a wide range of different electrode areas. The noise measurements could be modeled by an analytical expression, representing the electrochemical cell as a resistor and capacitor in series. The studies revealed three domains; for electrodes with low capacitance, the amplifier noise dominated, for electrodes with large capacitances, the noise from the resistance of the electrochemical cell was dominant, while in the intermediate region, the current noise scaled with electrode capacitance. The experimental results and the model presented here can be used for choosing an electrode material and dimensions and when designing chip-based devices for low-noise current measurements.

  8. A Mediated BOD Biosensor Based on Immobilized B. Subtilis on Three-Dimensional Porous Graphene-Polypyrrole Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfang Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel mediated biochemical oxygen demand (BOD biosensor based on immobilized Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis on three-dimensional (3D porous graphene-polypyrrole (rGO-PPy composite. The 3D porous rGO-PPy composite was prepared using hydrothermal method following with electropolymerization. Then the 3D porous rGO-PPy composite was used as a support for immobilizing negatively charged B. subtilis denoted as rGO-PPy-B through coordination and electrostatic interaction. Further, the prepared rGO-PPy-B was used as a microbial biofilm for establishing a mediated BOD biosensor with ferricyanide as an electronic acceptor. The indirect determination of BOD was performed by electrochemical measuring ferrocyanide generated from a reduced ferricyanide mediator using interdigited ultramicroelectrode array (IUDA as the working electrode. The experimental results suggested a good linear relationship between the amperometric responses and BOD standard concentrations from 4 to 60 mg/L, with a limit detection of 1.8 mg/L (S/N ≥ 3. The electrochemical measurement of real water samples showed a good agreement with the conventional BOD5 method, and the good anti-interference as well as the long-term stability were well demonstrated, indicating that the proposed mediated BOD biosensor in this study holds a potential practical application of real water monitoring.

  9. An integrated lab-on-a-chip-based electrochemical biosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Yildiz; Narter, Fehmi; Sağlam, Erkin; Köktürk, Güzin; Gök, M Yağmur; Akgün, Mete; Barut, Serkan; Budak, Sinan

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in the area of biosensor technology and microfluidic applications have enabled the miniaturisation of the sensing platforms. Here we describe a new integrated and fully automated lab-on-a-chip-based biosensor device prototype (MiSens) that has potential to be used for point-of-care cancer biomarker testing. The key features of the device include a new biochip, a device integrated microfluidic system and real-time amperometric measurements during the flow of enzyme substrate. For ease of use, a new plug and play type sensor chip docking station has been designed. This system allows the formation of an ∼7 μL capacity flow cell on the electrode array with the necessary microfluidic and electronic connections with one move of a handle. As a case study, the developed prototype has been utilised for the detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in serum that is routinely used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The patient samples from a nearby hospital have been collected and tested using the MiSens device, and the results have been compared to the hospital results. The obtained results indicate the potential of the MiSens device as a useful tool for point-of-care testing. Graphical abstract Microfluidics integrated and automated electrochemical biosensor device "MiSens" has been designed and fabricated by a multidisciplinary team and utilised to detect PSA from clinical samples.

  10. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli

    2008-01-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated

  11. Impedimetric biosensor based on magnetic nanoparticles for electrochemical detection of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sudeshna; Arora, Kunal; Bahadur, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of dopamine biosensor based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). ► Elimination of interference from ascorbic acid using the negatively charged MNPs. ► Amperometric detection of dopamine (DA) with a detection limit of 7.25 μM. ► Impedance spectroscopy revealed the interfacial properties of modified electrodes. ► Biosensor suitably designed for screening and determination of DA. - Abstract: One of the difficulties which limit the use of electrochemical sensors for detection of dopamine is the interference from ascorbic acid. We have sought to address this problem through the synthesis and characterization of a suitable electrode material based on magnetic nanoparticles. The interference from the ascorbic acid was overcome by fabricating a negatively charged electrode surface using PEGylated arginine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PA-MNPs). The nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction, FT-Infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The electrochemical behavior of the proposed sensor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and the sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity for dopamine. The response mechanism of the modified electrode is based on the interaction between the negatively charged electrode and the positively charged dopamine. Under optimized conditions, linear calibration plots were obtained for amperometric detection of dopamine (DA) over the concentration range of 1–9 mM dopamine, with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.9836, sensitivity of 121 μA/mM and a detection limit of 7.25 μM. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to study the interface properties of modified electrodes. The value of the polarization resistance (R p ) increases linearly with dopamine concentration in the range of 10 μM to 1 mM and the limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 14.1 μM. High sensitivity and selectivity

  12. Biosensors based on electrochemical lactate detection: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Rathee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactate detection plays a significant role in healthcare, food industries and is specially necessitated in conditions like hemorrhage, respiratory failure, hepatic disease, sepsis and tissue hypoxia. Conventional methods for lactate determination are not accurate and fast so this accelerated the need of sensitive biosensors for high-throughput screening of lactate in different samples. This review focuses on applications and developments of various electrochemical biosensors based on lactate detection as lactate being essential metabolite in anaerobic metabolic pathway. A comparative study to summarize the L-lactate biosensors on the basis of different analytical properties in terms of fabrication, sensitivity, detection limit, linearity, response time and storage stability has been done. It also addresses the merits and demerits of current enzyme based lactate biosensors. Lactate biosensors are of two main types – lactate oxidase (LOD and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH based. Different supports tried for manufacturing lactate biosensors include membranes, polymeric matrices-conducting or non-conducting, transparent gel matrix, hydrogel supports, screen printed electrodes and nanoparticles. All the examples in these support categories have been aptly discussed. Finally this review encompasses the conclusion and future emerging prospects of lactate sensors.

  13. Progress in chemical luminescence-based biosensors: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Aldo; Mirasoli, Mara; Michelini, Elisa; Di Fusco, Massimo; Zangheri, Martina; Cevenini, Luca; Roda, Barbara; Simoni, Patrizia

    2016-02-15

    Biosensors are a very active research field. They have the potential to lead to low-cost, rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and miniaturized bioanalytical devices, which exploit the high binding avidity and selectivity of biospecific binding molecules together with highly sensitive detection principles. Of the optical biosensors, those based on chemical luminescence detection (including chemiluminescence, bioluminescence, electrogenerated chemiluminescence, and thermochemiluminescence) are particularly attractive, due to their high-to-signal ratio and the simplicity of the required measurement equipment. Several biosensors based on chemical luminescence have been described for quantitative, and in some cases multiplex, analysis of organic molecules (such as hormones, drugs, pollutants), proteins, and nucleic acids. These exploit a variety of miniaturized analytical formats, such as microfluidics, microarrays, paper-based analytical devices, and whole-cell biosensors. Nevertheless, despite the high analytical performances described in the literature, the field of chemical luminescence biosensors has yet to demonstrate commercial success. This review presents the main recent advances in the field and discusses the approaches, challenges, and open issues, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing chemical luminescence biosensors and improving their commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Nur Hamidah Abdul; Heng, Lee Yook; Hashim, Uda

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a biosensor utilizing modified titania, TiO2 particles using aminopropyl-triethoxy-silane, (APTS) for developing hydrogen peroxide biosensor is presented. The surface of Ti-APTS particles is used as a support for hemoglobin immobilization via covalent bonding. The performance of the biosensor is determined by differential pulse voltammetry. The linear response was observed at the reduction current of redox mediator probe [FeCN6]3-/4- at potential between 0.22 V to 0.24 V. The preliminary result for electrochemistry study on this modified electrode is reported. The preliminary linear range is obtained from 1×10-2 M to 1×10-8 M.

  15. Magnetic Beads-Based Sensor with Tailored Sensitivity for Rapid and Single-Step Amperometric Determination of miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vargas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a sensitive amperometric magneto-biosensor for single-step and rapid determination of microRNAs (miRNAs. The developed strategy involves the use of direct hybridization of the target miRNA (miRNA-21 with a specific biotinylated DNA probe immobilized on streptavidin-modified magnetic beads (MBs, and labeling of the resulting heteroduplexes with a specific DNA–RNA antibody and the bacterial protein A (ProtA conjugated with an horseradish peroxidase (HRP homopolymer (Poly-HRP40 as an enzymatic label for signal amplification. Amperometric detection is performed upon magnetic capture of the modified MBs onto the working electrode surface of disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs using the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ system. The magnitude of the cathodic signal obtained at −0.20 V (vs. the Ag pseudo-reference electrode demonstrated linear dependence with the concentration of the synthetic target miRNA over the 1.0 to 100 pM range. The method provided a detection limit (LOD of 10 attomoles (in a 25 μL sample without any target miRNA amplification in just 30 min (once the DNA capture probe-MBs were prepared. This approach shows improved sensitivity compared with that of biosensors constructed with the same anti-DNA–RNA Ab as capture instead of a detector antibody and further labeling with a Strep-HRP conjugate instead of the Poly-HRP40 homopolymer. The developed strategy involves a single step working protocol, as well as the possibility to tailor the sensitivity by enlarging the length of the DNA/miRNA heteroduplexes using additional probes and/or performing the labelling with ProtA conjugated with homopolymers prepared with different numbers of HRP molecules. The practical usefulness was demonstrated by determination of the endogenous levels of the mature target miRNA in 250 ng raw total RNA (RNAt extracted from human mammary epithelial normal (MCF-10A and cancer (MCF-7 cells and tumor tissues.

  16. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.

  17. Amperometric enzyme-based biosensors: refined bioanalytical tools for in vivo biomonitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lima Braga Lopes Cordeiro, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    In de medische zorg wint gepersonaliseerde gezondheidszorg steeds meer terrein. Deze nieuwe benadering is gericht op de individuele patiënt en streeft naar persoonlijke gezondheidsplanning, mogelijk gemaakt door persoonsgerichte biomedische hulpmiddelen. Uiteindelijk zullen nieuwe biomedische

  18. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition-based biosensors for pesticide determination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundir, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Nidhi

    2012-10-01

    Pesticides released intentionally into the environment and through various processes contaminate the environment. Although pesticides are associated with many health hazards, there is a lack of monitoring of these contaminants. Traditional chromatographic methods-high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry-are effective for the analysis of pesticides in the environment but have certain limitations such as complexity, time-consuming sample preparation, and the requirement of expensive apparatus and trained persons to operate. Over the past decades, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition-based biosensors have emerged as simple, rapid, and ultra-sensitive tools for pesticide analysis in environmental monitoring, food safety, and quality control. These biosensors have the potential to complement or replace the classical analytical methods by simplifying or eliminating sample preparation and making field-testing easier and faster with significant decrease in cost per analysis. This article reviews the recent developments in AChE inhibition-based biosensors, which include various immobilization methods, different strategies for biosensor construction, the advantages and roles of various matrices used, analytical performance, and application methods for constructing AChE biosensors. These AChE biosensors exhibited detection limits and linearity in the ranges of 1.0×10(-11) to 42.19 μM (detection limits) and 1.0×10(-11)-1.0×10(-2) to 74.5-9.9×10(3)μM (linearity). These biosensors were stable for a period of 2 to 120days. The future prospects for the development of better AChE biosensing systems are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Engineering nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Man; Liu, Yang; Geng, Jinhui; Kou, Xiaohong; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Dayong

    2018-05-30

    Food safety always remains a grand global challenge to human health, especially in developing countries. To solve food safety pertained problems, numerous strategies have been developed to detect biological and chemical contaminants in food. Among these approaches, nanomaterials-based biosensors provide opportunity to realize rapid, sensitive, efficient and portable detection, overcoming the restrictions and limitations of traditional methods such as complicated sample pretreatment, long detection time, and relying on expensive instruments and well-trained personnel. In this review article, we provide a cross-disciplinary perspective to review the progress of nanomaterials-based biosensors for the detection of food contaminants. The review article is organized by the category of food contaminants including pathogens/toxins, heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drugs and illegal additives. In each category of food contaminant, the biosensing strategies are summarized including optical, colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, and immune- biosensors; the relevant analytes, nanomaterials and biosensors are analyzed comprehensively. Future perspectives and challenges are also discussed briefly. We envision that our review could bridge the gap between the fields of food science and nanotechnology, providing implications for the scientists or engineers in both areas to collaborate and promote the development of nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-07-18

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process.

  1. Transient Convection, Diffusion, and Adsorption in Surface-Based Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus; Bruus, Henrik; Callisen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and computational investigation of convection, diffusion, and adsorption in surface-based biosensors. In particular, we study the transport dynamics in a model geometry of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The work, however, is equally relevant for other...... microfluidic surface-based biosensors, operating under flow conditions. A widely adopted approximate quasi-steady theory to capture convective and diffusive mass transport is reviewed, and an analytical solution is presented. An expression of the Damköhler number is derived in terms of the nondimensional...... concentration to the maximum surface capacity is critical for reliable use of the quasi-steady theory. Finally, our results provide users of surface-based biosensors with a tool for correcting experimentally obtained adsorption rate constants....

  2. Amperometric Metronidazole Sensor Based on the Supermolecular Recognition by Metalloporphyrin Incorporated In Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Qin Yu

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric metronidazole (MTZ sensor using a glycosylated metalloporphyrin as a recognition element, which was incorporated in a carbon paste electrode, is reported. For the preparation of a MTZ-sensitive active material, 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis [2-(2, 3, 4, 6-tetraacetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1-O-phenyl]porphyrin (T(oglu PPH2 and its Mn(III complex MnT(o-gluPPCl were synthesized from the reaction of pyrrole with ortho-acetylglycosylated benzaldehyde by Lindsay’s method. The MnT(oglu PPCl-modified electrode showed excellent selectivity toward MTZ with respect to a number of interferents and exhibited stable response. The calibration graph obtained with the proposed sensor was linear over the range of 2.9×10-3-5.8×10-8 M/L, with a detection limit of 5.8×10-8 M/L for MTZ. Cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated that MnT(oglu PPCl included in graphite-epoxy resin matrices could efficiently mediate electron transfer from the base electrode to MTZ causing a decrease of reduction potential for MTZ detection. The sensor could be regenerated by simply polishing with an alumina paper, with an excellent reproducibility (RSD=1.6%. The experimental conditions such as pH and applied working potential were optimized. The prepared sensor is applied for the determination of MTZ in pharmaceutical preparations and the results agreed with the values obtained by the pharmacopoeia method.

  3. A novel urea biosensor based on zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumana, G. [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, Materials Physics and Engineering Division, National Physical Laboratory(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr.K.S.Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Das, Maumita [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, Materials Physics and Engineering Division, National Physical Laboratory(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr.K.S.Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Srivastava, Saurabh [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, Materials Physics and Engineering Division, National Physical Laboratory(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr.K.S.Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Malhotra, B.D., E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.co [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, Materials Physics and Engineering Division, National Physical Laboratory(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr.K.S.Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2010-11-30

    Electrochemically deposited biocompatible zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) film on gold coated glass electrodes has been utilized for the fabrication of urea biosensor. The prepared ZrO{sub 2} films and bioelectrodes have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical techniques, respectively. The urea biosensor, fabricated by immobilizing mixed enzyme [urease (Urs) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH)] on this nanobiomaterial, shows linearity up to 40 mg dL{sup -1} of analyte (urea) and sensitivity of 0.071 {mu}A/(mM cm{sup -2}) with stability up to 4 months when stored at 4 {sup o}C. The low value of Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}) estimated using Hans plot as 0.5 mM indicates enhancement in the affinity and/or activity of enzyme attached to this nanostructured biocompatible matrix.

  4. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on less aggregated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiangjie; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Liping

    2017-03-15

    As a novel single-atom-thick sheet of sp 2 hybridized carbon atoms, graphene (GR) has attracted extensive attention in recent years because of its unique and remarkable properties, such as excellent electrical conductivity, large theoretical specific surface area, and strong mechanical strength. However, due to the π-π interaction, GR sheets are inclined to stack together, which may seriously degrade the performance of GR with the unique single-atom layer. In recent years, an increasing number of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors are reported, which may reflect that GR has been considered as a kind of hot and promising electrode material for electrochemical sensor and biosensor construction. However, the active sites on GR surface induced by the irreversible GR aggregations would be deeply secluded inside the stacked GR sheets and therefore are not available for the electrocatalysis. So the alleviation or the minimization of the aggregation level for GR sheets would facilitate the exposure of active sites on GR and effectively upgrade the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Less aggregated GR with low aggregation and high dispersed structure can be used in improving the electrochemical activity of GR-based electrochemical sensors or biosensors. In this review, we summarize recent advances and new progress for the development of electrochemical sensors based on less aggregated GR. To achieve such goal, many strategies (such as the intercalation of carbon materials, surface modification, and structural engineering) have been applied to alleviate the aggregation level of GR in order to enhance the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Finally, the challenges associated with less aggregated GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well as related future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simple approach for the fabrication of screen-printed carbon-based electrode for amperometric detection on microchip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Jacqueline Marques; Lucca, Bruno Gabriel; Ferreira, Valdir Souza

    2017-02-15

    This paper describes a simple method for the fabrication of screen-printed based electrodes for amperometric detection on microchip electrophoresis (ME) devices. The procedure developed is quite simple and does not require expensive instrumentation or sophisticated protocols commonly employed on the production of amperometric sensors, such as photolithography or sputtering steps. The electrodes were fabricated through manual deposition of home-made conductive carbon ink over patterned acrylic substrate. Morphological structure and electrochemical behavior of the carbon electrodes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The produced amperometric sensors were coupled to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchips at end-channel configuration in order to evaluate their analytical performance. For this purpose, electrophoretic experiments were carried out using nitrite and ascorbic acid as model analytes. Separation of these substances was successfully performed within 50s with good resolution (R = 1.2) and sensitivities (713.5 pA/μM for nitrite and 255.4 pA/μM for ascorbate). The reproducibility of the fabrication method was evaluated and revealed good values concerning the peak currents obtained (8.7% for nitrite and 9.3% for ascorbate). The electrodes obtained through this method exhibited satisfactory lifetime (ca. 400 runs) over low fabrication cost (less than $1 per piece). The feasibility of the proposed device for real analysis was demonstrated through the determination of nitrite concentration levels in drinking water samples. Based on the results achieved, the approach proposed here shows itself as an interesting alternative for simple fabrication of carbon-based electrodes. Furthermore, the devices indicate great promise for other kind of analytical applications involving ME devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A.; Tulip, Fahmida S.; MacArthur, Kimberly; McFarlane, Nicole; Islam, Syed K.; Hensley, Dale

    2014-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  7. Development of a Transcription Factor-Based Lactam Biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Barajas, Jesus F.; Burdu, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Lactams are an important class of commodity chemicals used in the manufacture of nylons, with millions of tons produced every year. Biological production of lactams could be greatly improved by high-throughput sensors for lactam biosynthesis. To identify biosensors of lactams, we applied a chemoi......Lactams are an important class of commodity chemicals used in the manufacture of nylons, with millions of tons produced every year. Biological production of lactams could be greatly improved by high-throughput sensors for lactam biosynthesis. To identify biosensors of lactams, we applied...... a chemoinformatic approach inspired by small molecule drug discovery. We define this approach as analogue generation toward catabolizable chemicals or AGTC. We discovered a lactam biosensor based on the ChnR/Pb transcription factor-promoter pair. The microbial biosensor is capable of sensing ε-caprolactam, Î......´-valerolactam, and butyrolactam in a dose-dependent manner. The biosensor has sufficient specificity to discriminate against lactam biosynthetic intermediates and therefore could potentially be applied for high-throughput metabolic engineering for industrially important high titer lactam biosynthesis....

  8. Simple approach for the fabrication of screen-printed carbon-based electrode for amperometric detection on microchip electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Jacqueline Marques [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, 79074-460 (Brazil); Lucca, Bruno Gabriel, E-mail: bruno.lucca@ufes.br [Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, São Mateus, ES, 29932-540 (Brazil); Ferreira, Valdir Souza [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, 79074-460 (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This paper describes a simple method for the fabrication of screen-printed based electrodes for amperometric detection on microchip electrophoresis (ME) devices. The procedure developed is quite simple and does not require expensive instrumentation or sophisticated protocols commonly employed on the production of amperometric sensors, such as photolithography or sputtering steps. The electrodes were fabricated through manual deposition of home-made conductive carbon ink over patterned acrylic substrate. Morphological structure and electrochemical behavior of the carbon electrodes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The produced amperometric sensors were coupled to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchips at end-channel configuration in order to evaluate their analytical performance. For this purpose, electrophoretic experiments were carried out using nitrite and ascorbic acid as model analytes. Separation of these substances was successfully performed within 50s with good resolution (R = 1.2) and sensitivities (713.5 pA/μM for nitrite and 255.4 pA/μM for ascorbate). The reproducibility of the fabrication method was evaluated and revealed good values concerning the peak currents obtained (8.7% for nitrite and 9.3% for ascorbate). The electrodes obtained through this method exhibited satisfactory lifetime (ca. 400 runs) over low fabrication cost (less than $1 per piece). The feasibility of the proposed device for real analysis was demonstrated through the determination of nitrite concentration levels in drinking water samples. Based on the results achieved, the approach proposed here shows itself as an interesting alternative for simple fabrication of carbon-based electrodes. Furthermore, the devices indicate great promise for other kind of analytical applications involving ME devices. - Highlights: • A novel method to fabricate screen-printed electrodes for amperometric detection in ME is demonstrated. • No sophisticated

  9. Simple approach for the fabrication of screen-printed carbon-based electrode for amperometric detection on microchip electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Jacqueline Marques; Lucca, Bruno Gabriel; Ferreira, Valdir Souza

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a simple method for the fabrication of screen-printed based electrodes for amperometric detection on microchip electrophoresis (ME) devices. The procedure developed is quite simple and does not require expensive instrumentation or sophisticated protocols commonly employed on the production of amperometric sensors, such as photolithography or sputtering steps. The electrodes were fabricated through manual deposition of home-made conductive carbon ink over patterned acrylic substrate. Morphological structure and electrochemical behavior of the carbon electrodes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The produced amperometric sensors were coupled to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchips at end-channel configuration in order to evaluate their analytical performance. For this purpose, electrophoretic experiments were carried out using nitrite and ascorbic acid as model analytes. Separation of these substances was successfully performed within 50s with good resolution (R = 1.2) and sensitivities (713.5 pA/μM for nitrite and 255.4 pA/μM for ascorbate). The reproducibility of the fabrication method was evaluated and revealed good values concerning the peak currents obtained (8.7% for nitrite and 9.3% for ascorbate). The electrodes obtained through this method exhibited satisfactory lifetime (ca. 400 runs) over low fabrication cost (less than $1 per piece). The feasibility of the proposed device for real analysis was demonstrated through the determination of nitrite concentration levels in drinking water samples. Based on the results achieved, the approach proposed here shows itself as an interesting alternative for simple fabrication of carbon-based electrodes. Furthermore, the devices indicate great promise for other kind of analytical applications involving ME devices. - Highlights: • A novel method to fabricate screen-printed electrodes for amperometric detection in ME is demonstrated. • No sophisticated

  10. Recent advances in nanomaterial-based biosensors for antibiotics detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Lingyi; Yao, Yao; Ping, Jianfeng; Ying, Yibin

    2017-05-15

    Antibiotics are able to be accumulated in human body by food chain and may induce severe influence to human health and safety. Hence, the development of sensitive and simple methods for rapid evaluation of antibiotic levels is highly desirable. Nanomaterials with excellent electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties have been recognized as one of the most promising materials for opening new gates in the development of next-generation biosensors. This review highlights the current advances in the nanomaterial-based biosensors for antibiotics detection. Different kinds of nanomaterials including carbon nanomaterials, metal nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, up-conversion nanoparticles, and quantum dots have been applied to the construction of biosensors with two main signal-transducing mechanisms, i.e. optical and electrochemical. Furthermore, the current challenges and future prospects in this field are also included to provide an overview for future research directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aptamer-based molecular recognition for biosensor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Battig, Mark R; Wang, Yong

    2010-11-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers are an emerging class of synthetic ligands and have recently attracted significant attention in numerous fields. One is in biosensor development. In principle, nucleic acid aptamers can be discovered to recognize any molecule of interest with high affinity and specificity. In addition, unlike most ligands evolved in nature, synthetic nucleic acid aptamers are usually tolerant of harsh chemical, physical, and biological conditions. These distinguished characteristics make aptamers attractive molecular recognition ligands for biosensing applications. This review first concisely introduces methods for aptamer discovery including upstream selection and downstream truncation, then discusses aptamer-based biosensor development from the viewpoint of signal production.

  12. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyin; Dai, Zhihui

    2015-04-01

    Carbon materials on the nanoscale exhibit diverse outstanding properties, rendering them extremely suitable for the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors. Over the past two decades, advances in this area have continuously emerged. In this review, we attempt to survey the recent developments of electrochemical biosensors based on six types of carbon nanomaterials (CNs), i.e., graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon dots, carbon nanofibers, nanodiamonds and buckminsterfullerene. For each material, representative samples are introduced to expound the different roles of the CNs in electrochemical bioanalytical strategies. In addition, remaining challenges and perspectives for future developments are also briefly discussed.

  13. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; Grajales García, Daniel; Ramirez, Jhonattan C.; Lechuga, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies. PMID:26927105

  14. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Fernández Gavela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  15. Modified Laccase-Gold Nanoparticles-Tetrathiafulvalene-SPCEs Based Biosensor to Determine W(VI in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lorena Alvarado-Gámez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It was developed an amperometric biosensor to determine tungsten in water, based on the inhibition of laccase enzyme, by tungsten ions using pyrocathecol as a substrate. The enzyme was immobilized with a proper mixture containing, bovine serum albumin, and glutaraldehyde, for a cross-linking process over screen-printed carbon electrodes, previously modified with tetrathiafulvalen and gold nanoparticles. Optimized experimental conditions are: pyrocatechol in cell 0.040 mM in a phosphate buffer pH 6.5 and applied potential +350 mV. The repeatability and reproducibility, in terms of relative standard deviation values, of de developed biosensor were 3.3 % (n=3, and 2.2 % (n = 5 respectively, and detection limit was 1.8 × 10-7 mol L-1. Additionally it was determined the kinetics of the systems by means of Michaelis-Menten Km apparent constants, calculated using Lineweaver-Burk plots, with and without tungsten. Kinetic study resembles to be competitive inhibition. A recovery study was performed with spiked blanks with a tungsten certified reference standard, traceable to NIST, giving as a result 102.3 ± 6.7 %; tap water samples analyzed presented a mean concentration of 1.75 µM, and recovery of the tungsten certified reference standard on the tap water samples gave 98.8 ± 3.1 %.

  16. Polyphenols Determination in Olive Oil Samples Based on a Thick Film Voltammetric Sensor and a Tyrosinase Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capannesi, Cecilia; Palchetti, Ilaria; Mascini, Marco

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare different techniques to evaluate the variation with the storage time and storage conditions in the phenolic content of an extra-virgin olive oil. A disposable screen-printed sensor (SPE) was coupled with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) to determine the phenolic fractions after extraction with glycine buffer; DPV parameters were chosen in order to study oxidation peak of oleuropein, that was used as reference compound. Moreover a tyrosinase based biosensor operating in organic solvent (hexane) was assembled, using an amperometric oxygen probe as transducer. Calibration curves were realised in flow injection analysis (F.I.A.) using phenol as substrate. Both of these methods are easy to operate, require no extraction (biosensor) or a rapid extraction procedure (SPE), and the analysis time is short (min.). The results obtained with these two innovative procedures were compared with classical spectrophotometric assay using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Other extra-virgin olive oil quality parameters were investigated with classical methods in order to better define the alteration process and results are reported.

  17. Single-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with polytyrosine: A new material for the development of NADH-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguílaz, Marcos; Gutierrez, Fabiana; González-Domínguez, Jose Miguel; Martínez, María T; Rivas, Gustavo

    2016-12-15

    We report for the first time the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) covalently functionalized with polytyrosine (Polytyr) (SWCNT-Polytyr) as a new electrode material for the development of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-based biosensors. The oxidation of glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with SWCNT-Polytyr at potentials high enough to oxidize the tyrosine residues have allowed the electrooxidation of NADH at low potentials due to the catalytic activity of the quinones generated from the primary oxidation of tyrosine without any additional redox mediator. The amperometric detection of NADH at 0.200V showed a sensitivity of (217±3)µAmM(-1)cm(-2) and a detection limit of 7.9nM. The excellent electrocatalytic activity of SWCNT-Polytyr towards NADH oxidation has also made possible the development of a sensitive ethanol biosensor through the immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) via Nafion entrapment, with excellent analytical characteristics (sensitivity of (5.8±0.1)µAmM(-1)cm(-2), detection limit of 0.67µM) and very successful application for the quantification of ethanol in different commercial beverages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spreeta-based biosensor assays for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; meulenberg, E.P.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta™-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  19. Cantilever-Based Microwave Biosensors: Analysis, Designs and Optimizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Jónasson, Sævar Þór

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel microwave readout scheme for measuring deflection of cantilevers in nanometer range. The cantilever deflection can be sensed by the variation of transmission levels or resonant frequencies of microwave signals. The sensitivity of the cantilever biosensor based on LC...

  20. Electrochemical DNA Biosensor Based on a Tetrahedral Nanostructure Probe for the Detection of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shibiao; Zhao, Rongtao; Zhu, Jiangong; Lu, Xiao; Li, Yang; Qiu, Shaofu; Jia, Leili; Jiao, Xiong; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai; Hao, RongZhang; Song, HongBin

    2015-04-29

    A DNA tetrahedral nanostructure-based electrochemical biosensor was developed to detect avian influenza A (H7N9) virus through recognizing a fragment of the hemagglutinin gene sequence. The DNA tetrahedral probe was immobilized onto a gold electrode surface based on self-assembly between three thiolated nucleotide sequences and a longer nucleotide sequence containing complementary DNA to hybridize with the target single-stranded (ss)DNA. The captured target sequence was hybridized with a biotinylated-ssDNA oligonucleotide as a detection probe, and then avidin-horseradish peroxidase was introduced to produce an amperometric signal through the interaction with 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine substrate. The target ssDNA was obtained by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cDNA template, reversely transcribed from the viral lysate of influenza A (H7N9) virus in throat swabs. The results showed that this electrochemical biosensor could specifically recognize the target DNA fragment of influenza A (H7N9) virus from other types of influenza viruses, such as influenza A (H1N1) and (H3N2) viruses, and even from single-base mismatches of oligonucleotides. Its detection limit could reach a magnitude of 100 fM for target nucleotide sequences. Moreover, the cycle number of the asymmetric PCR could be reduced below three with the electrochemical biosensor still distinguishing the target sequence from the negative control. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of target DNA from clinical samples using a tetrahedral DNA probe functionalized electrochemical biosensor. It displays that the DNA tetrahedra has a great potential application as a probe of the electrochemical biosensor to detect avian influenza A (H7N9) virus and other pathogens at the gene level, which will potentially aid the prevention and control of the disease caused by such pathogens.

  1. Silica suspended waveguide splitter-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. C.; Hawk, R. M.; Armani, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, a novel integrated optical waveguide 50/50 splitter was developed. It is fabricated using standard lithographic methods, a pair of etching steps and a laser reflow step. However, unlike other integrated waveguide splitters, the waveguide is elevated off of the silicon substrate, improving its interaction with biomolecules in solution and in a flow field. Additionally, because it is fabricated from silica, it has very low optical loss, resulting in a high signal-to-noise ratio, making it ideal for biosensing. By functionalizing the device using an epoxy-silane method using small samples and confining the protein solutions to the device, we enable highly efficient detection of CREB with only 1 μL of solution. Therefore, the waveguide coupler sensor is representative of the next generation of ultra-sensitive optical biosensors, and, when combined with microfluidic capabilities, it will be an ideal candidate for a more fully-realized lab-on-a-chip device.

  2. Nanoelectronic biosensors based on CVD grown graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinxi; Dong, Xiaochen; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Chang Ming; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Peng

    2010-08-01

    Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors.Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM images of graphene film before and after functionalization, transfer curves of graphene after every step, SEM image of CNT-net, and detection results using CNT-net devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00142b

  3. Optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Immobilized laccase-based biosensor for the detection of disubstituted methyl and methoxy phenols - application of Box-Behnken design with response surface methodology for modeling and optimization of performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarika, C; Rekha, K; Narasimha Murthy, B

    2016-11-01

    An amperometric principle-based biosensor, employing immobilized laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor, was developed for the detection of disubstituted methyl and methoxy phenols. Three immobilization methods such as entrapment, cross-linking, and co-cross-linking, with bovine serum albumin (BSA) on nylon membrane have been compared. Among tested methods of immobilization, co-cross-linking method with BSA was superior to the other methods in terms of; sensitivity, limit of detection, response time, and operating stability. The increased sensitivity of the probe optimization of concentrations of laccase, BSA and glutaraldehyde can be achieved by, employing the Box-Behnken design of experiment.

  5. Analytical modeling of glucose biosensors based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourasl, Ali H; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmani, Meisam; Chin, Huei Chaeng; Lim, Cheng Siong; Ismail, Razali; Tan, Michael Loong Peng

    2014-01-15

    In recent years, carbon nanotubes have received widespread attention as promising carbon-based nanoelectronic devices. Due to their exceptional physical, chemical, and electrical properties, namely a high surface-to-volume ratio, their enhanced electron transfer properties, and their high thermal conductivity, carbon nanotubes can be used effectively as electrochemical sensors. The integration of carbon nanotubes with a functional group provides a good and solid support for the immobilization of enzymes. The determination of glucose levels using biosensors, particularly in the medical diagnostics and food industries, is gaining mass appeal. Glucose biosensors detect the glucose molecule by catalyzing glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of oxygen. This action provides high accuracy and a quick detection rate. In this paper, a single-wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistor biosensor for glucose detection is analytically modeled. In the proposed model, the glucose concentration is presented as a function of gate voltage. Subsequently, the proposed model is compared with existing experimental data. A good consensus between the model and the experimental data is reported. The simulated data demonstrate that the analytical model can be employed with an electrochemical glucose sensor to predict the behavior of the sensing mechanism in biosensors.

  6. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito-Peña, Elena [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valdés, Mayra Granda [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of La Habana, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Glahn-Martínez, Bettina [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno-Bondi, Maria C., E-mail: mcmbondi@quim.ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-02

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  7. Direct and mediated electrochemistry of peroxidase and its electrocatalysis on a variety of screen-printed carbon electrodes: amperometric hydrogen peroxide and phenols biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekin, Fereshteh; Gorton, Lo; Tapsobea, Issa

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the behaviour of direct and mediated electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilised on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs), screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with carboxyl-functionalised multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-SPCEs) and screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with carboxyl-functionalised single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-SPCEs). The techniques of cyclic voltammetry and amperometry in the flow mode were used to characterise the properties of the HRP immobilised on screen-printed electrodes. From measurements of the mediated and mediatorless currents of hydrogen peroxide reduction at the HRP-modified electrodes, it was concluded that the fraction of enzyme molecules in direct electron transfer (DET) contact with the electrode varies substantially for the different electrodes. It was observed that the screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-SPCEs and SWCNT-SPCEs) demonstrated a substantially higher percentage (≈100 %) of HRP molecules in DET contact than the screen-printed carbon electrodes (≈60 %). The HRP-modified electrodes were used for determination of hydrogen peroxide in mediatorless mode. The SWCNT-SPCE gave the lowest detection limit (0.40 ± 0.09 μM) followed by MWCNT-SPCE (0.48 ± 0.07 μM) and SPCE (0.98 ± 0.2 μM). These modified electrodes were additionally developed for amperometric determination of phenolic compounds. It was found that the SWCNT-SPCE gave a detection limit for catechol of 110.2 ± 3.6 nM, dopamine of 640.2 ± 9.2 nM, octopamine of 3341 ± 15 nM, pyrogallol of 50.10 ± 2.9 nM and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine of 980.7 ± 8.7 nM using 50 μM H2O2 in the flow carrier.

  8. A novel glucose biosensor based on phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles for sensitive detection of glucose in real samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wenbo; Fang, Yi; Zhu, Qinshu; Wang, Kuai; Liu, Min; Huang, Xiaohua; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    An effective strategy for preparation amperometric biosensor by using the phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (PFSi NPs) as special modified materials is proposed. In such a strategy, glucose oxidase (GOD) was selected as model protein to fabricate glucose biosensor in the presence of phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (PFSi NPs). The PFSi NPs were first modified on the surface of glassy carbon (GC) electrode, then, GOD was adsorbed onto the PFSi NPs film by drop-coating. The PFSi NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The interaction of PFSi NPs with GOD was investigated by the circular dicroism spectroscopy (CD). The results showed PFSi NPs could essentially maintain the native conformation of GOD. The direct electron transfer of GOD on (PFSi NPs)/GCE electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose. The proposed biosensor modified with PFSi NPs displayed a fast amperometric response (5 s) to glucose, a good linear current–time relation over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 5.00 × 10 −4 to 1.87 × 10 −1 M, and a low detection limit of 2.44 × 10 −5 M (S/N = 3). Moreover, the biosensor can be used for assessment of the concentration of glucose in many real samples (relative error < 3%). The GOD biosensor modified with PFSi NPs will have essential meaning and practical application in future that attributed to the simple method of fabrication and good performance

  9. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-03

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  10. Recent progress in design of protein-based fluorescent biosensors and their cellular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tomonori; Hamachi, Itaru

    2014-12-19

    Protein-based fluorescent biosensors have emerged as key bioanalytical tools to visualize and quantify a wide range of biological substances and events in vitro, in cells, and even in vivo. On the basis of the construction method, the protein-based fluorescent biosensors can be principally classified into two classes: (1) genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors harnessing fluorescent proteins (FPs) and (2) semisynthetic biosensors comprised of protein scaffolds and synthetic fluorophores. Recent advances in protein engineering and chemical biology not only allowed the further optimization of conventional biosensors but also facilitated the creation of novel biosensors based on unique strategies. In this review, we survey the recent studies in the development and improvement of protein-based fluorescent biosensors and highlight the successful applications to live cell and in vivo imaging. Furthermore, we provide perspectives on possible future directions of the technique.

  11. Nanopatterned Bulk Metallic Glass Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Emily R; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Yu, Roy; Corona, Sydney L; Li, Jinyang; Vaddiraju, Sagar; Legassey, Allen; Loye, Ayomiposi; Balestrini, Jenna; Solly, Dawson A; Schroers, Jan; Taylor, André D; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Herzog, Raimund I; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2017-12-22

    Nanopatterning as a surface area enhancement method has the potential to increase signal and sensitivity of biosensors. Platinum-based bulk metallic glass (Pt-BMG) is a biocompatible material with electrical properties conducive for biosensor electrode applications, which can be processed in air at comparably low temperatures to produce nonrandom topography at the nanoscale. Work presented here employs nanopatterned Pt-BMG electrodes functionalized with glucose oxidase enzyme to explore the impact of nonrandom and highly reproducible nanoscale surface area enhancement on glucose biosensor performance. Electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric voltammetry (AV) were completed to compare the performance of 200 nm Pt-BMG electrodes vs Flat Pt-BMG control electrodes. Glucose dosing response was studied in a range of 2 mM to 10 mM. Effective current density dynamic range for the 200 nm Pt-BMG was 10-12 times greater than that of the Flat BMG control. Nanopatterned electrode sensitivity was measured to be 3.28 μA/cm 2 /mM, which was also an order of magnitude greater than the flat electrode. These results suggest that nonrandom nanotopography is a scalable and customizable engineering tool which can be integrated with Pt-BMGs to produce biocompatible biosensors with enhanced signal and sensitivity.

  12. Fluorescent Biosensors Based on Single-Molecule Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Li, Ying; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2016-09-20

    Biosensors for highly sensitive, selective, and rapid quantification of specific biomolecules make great contributions to biomedical research, especially molecular diagnostics. However, conventional methods for biomolecular assays often suffer from insufficient sensitivity and poor specificity. In some case (e.g., early disease diagnostics), the concentration of target biomolecules is too low to be detected by these routine approaches, and cumbersome procedures are needed to improve the detection sensitivity. Therefore, there is an urgent need for rapid and ultrasensitive analytical tools. In this respect, single-molecule fluorescence approaches may well satisfy the requirement and hold promising potential for the development of ultrasensitive biosensors. Encouragingly, owing to the advances in single-molecule microscopy and spectroscopy over past decades, the detection of single fluorescent molecule comes true, greatly boosting the development of highly sensitive biosensors. By in vitro/in vivo labeling of target biomolecules with proper fluorescent tags, the quantification of certain biomolecule at the single-molecule level is achieved. In comparison with conventional ensemble measurements, single-molecule detection-based analytical methods possess the advantages of ultrahigh sensitivity, good selectivity, rapid analysis time, and low sample consumption. Consequently, single-molecule detection may be potentially employed as an ideal analytical approach to quantify low-abundant biomolecules with rapidity and simplicity. In this Account, we will summarize our efforts for developing a series of ultrasensitive biosensors based on single-molecule counting. Single-molecule counting is a member of single-molecule detection technologies and may be used as a very simple and ultrasensitive method to quantify target molecules by simply counting the individual fluorescent bursts. In the fluorescent sensors, the signals of target biomolecules may be translated to the

  13. Simultaneous determination of cadaverine and putrescine using a disposable monoamine oxidase based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Escobar, Wilder; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Asunción Alonso-Lomillo, M; Julia Arcos-Martínez, M

    2013-12-15

    The selective and simultaneous amperometric determination of putrescine (Put) and cadaverine (Cad) has been carried out using a novel design of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with two working electrodes connected in array mode. A mixture of 3% of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), as mediator, and carbon ink was used for the construction of the screen-printed working electrode. The employment of different amounts of monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme on these modified TTF/SPCEs and the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) allowed performing the simultaneous determination of both analytes. The amperometric detection has been performed by measuring the oxidation current of the mediator at a potential of+250 mV vs. screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A linear response in the Cad concentration range from 19.6 till 107.1 µM and from 9.9 till 74.1 μM for Put was obtained at the MAO/AuNPs/TTF/SPCE biosensor. This device showed a capability of detection of 9.9 and 19.9±0.9 µM (n=4 α=β=0.05) and a precision of 4.9% and 10.3% in terms of relative standard deviation for Put and Cad, respectively. The developed biosensor was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of Put and Cad in octopus samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Graphene-Based Materials for Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phitsini Suvarnaphaet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The advantages conferred by the physical, optical and electrochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials have contributed to the current variety of ultrasensitive and selective biosensor devices. In this review, we present the points of view on the intrinsic properties of graphene and its surface engineering concerned with the transduction mechanisms in biosensing applications. We explain practical synthesis techniques along with prospective properties of the graphene-based materials, which include the pristine graphene and functionalized graphene (i.e., graphene oxide (GO, reduced graphene oxide (RGO and graphene quantum dot (GQD. The biosensing mechanisms based on the utilization of the charge interactions with biomolecules and/or nanoparticle interactions and sensing platforms are also discussed, and the importance of surface functionalization in recent up-to-date biosensors for biological and medical applications.

  15. Graphene-Based Materials for Biosensors: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarnaphaet, Phitsini; Pechprasarn, Suejit

    2017-01-01

    The advantages conferred by the physical, optical and electrochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials have contributed to the current variety of ultrasensitive and selective biosensor devices. In this review, we present the points of view on the intrinsic properties of graphene and its surface engineering concerned with the transduction mechanisms in biosensing applications. We explain practical synthesis techniques along with prospective properties of the graphene-based materials, which include the pristine graphene and functionalized graphene (i.e., graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and graphene quantum dot (GQD). The biosensing mechanisms based on the utilization of the charge interactions with biomolecules and/or nanoparticle interactions and sensing platforms are also discussed, and the importance of surface functionalization in recent up-to-date biosensors for biological and medical applications. PMID:28934118

  16. Effect of immobilization technique on performance ZnO nanorods based enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, ZnO Nanorods (ZNR) have been synthesized over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate with in-situ addition KMnO4 during hydrothermal growth process. Significant variation in ZnO nanostructures was observed by KMnO4 addition during the growth. Glucose oxidase was later immobilized over ZNRs. The as-prepared ZNRs were further utilized for glucose detection by employing amperometric electrochemical transduction method. In order to optimize the performance of the prepared biosensor two different immobilization techniques i.e. physical adsorption and cross linking have been employed and compared. Further investigations suggest that immobilization via cross linking method resulted in the improvement of the biosensor performance, thereby significantly affecting the sensitivity and linear range of the fabricated biosensor. Among the two types of biosensors fabricated using ZNR, the best performance was shown by cross linked electrodes. The sensitivity for the same was found to be 17.7 mA-cm-2-M-1, along with a wide linear range of 0.5-8.5 mM.

  17. Screening and Biosensor-Based Approaches for Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of lung cancer helps to reduce the cancer death rate significantly. Over the years, investigators worldwide have extensively investigated many screening modalities for lung cancer detection, including computerized tomography, chest X-ray, positron emission tomography, sputum cytology, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy. However, these techniques are not suitable for patients with other pathologies. Developing a rapid and sensitive technique for early diagnosis of lung cancer is urgently needed. Biosensor-based techniques have been recently recommended as a rapid and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of lung tumor markers. This paper reviews the recent development in screening and biosensor-based techniques for early lung cancer detection.

  18. New trends in aptamer-based electrochemical biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Garcia, Maria; Missailidis, Sotiris

    2009-01-01

    The analytical characteristics of aptamers are comparable with those of antibodies for the development of biosensor technology. However, aptamers offer some crucial advantages over antibodies such as selection capability for a variety of targets, easy synthesis, improved reproducibility and stability, simple modification for immobilization to solid supports and enhanced selectivity. This article reviews aptamer technology as well as aptamer-based assay configurations and goes on to explore re...

  19. Determination of uric acid level by polyaniline and poly (allylamine: Based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Wathoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The uric acid biosensor has been much developed by immobilizing uricase enzyme into the membrane of conductive polymer and the membrane of polyelectrolyte such as polyaniline (PANI and poly (allylamine (PAA respectively. The purpose of this research was to create a new amperometric uric acid biosensor by immobilization of uricase in combination between PANI and PAA membranes. The working electrode was Pt plate (0.5 mm. The auxiliary and the reference electrode were Pt wire 0.4 mm and Ag/AgCl respectively. Uricase, uric acid, PAA, pyrrole and glutaraldehyde were supplied from Sigma. All other chemical was obtained from Merck. The biosensor was created by immobilizing of uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on PANI composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode while the polyelectrolyte layer of PAA were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly on the electrode, functioning as H 2 O 2 -selective film. Standard of deviation, coefficient of variation (CV and coefficient of correlation (r analysis were used in this study. The biosensor had a good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and it could be used up to 27 times with the CV value of 3.97%. The presence of other compounds such as glucose and ascorbic acid gave 1.3 ± 1.13% and 3.27 ± 2.29% respectively on the interference effect toward the current response of uric acid biosensor. The polymer combination of PANI and PAA can be used as a selective matrix of uric acid biosensor.

  20. [FRET-based biosensors in cell migration research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, Sławomir; Baster, Zbigniew; Witko, Tomasz; Zimoląg, Eliza; Sroka, Jolanta; Rajfur, Zenon; Madeja, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is a complicated process, which is crucial for functioning of multicellular organisms. Multiple signalling pathways are deeply involved in the precise control of consecutive cell migration stages based on remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton. Small Rho GTPases (RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42) as well as multiple protein and lipid kinases, calcium ions and mechanosensors are crucial components in this process. Exploration of those complicated correlations is possible with constant advancement of fluorescence microscopy. A significant progress in this field has been achieved since discovery of fluorescent proteins and subsequently FRET-based biosensors. Such protein constructs react with a change of FRET efficiency in response to the particular protein activity change. Properly designed and regularly improved biosensors offer the possibility of real-time imaging of signalling pathways dynamics in migrating cells. The perception of Rho GTPases involvement and some other signalling pathways connected with cell migration have been clarified with multiple experiments already carried out with such FRET-based biosensors.

  1. A new polyaniline-catalase-glutaraldehyde-modified biosensor for hydrogen peroxide detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, Erol; Oyman, Gizem; Cınar, Ezgi; Odabas, Gorkem

    2017-01-02

    A new biosensor based on catalase enzyme immobilized on electrochemically constructed polyaniline (PANI) film modified with glutaraldehyde has been developed for the determination of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in milk samples. Assembly processes of polyaniline and immobilization of the enzyme were monitored with the help of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Amperometric measurements have been performed at cathodic peak (-0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCI) which was attributed to reduction of PANI. Hydrogen peroxide was determined by using amperometric method at -0.3 V. The biosensor responses were correlated linearly with the hydrogen peroxide concentrations between 5.0 × 10 -6 and 1.0 × 10 -4  M by amperometric method. Detection limit of the biosensor is 2.18 × 10 -6  M for H 2 O 2 . In the optimization studies of the biosensor, some parameters such as optimum pH, temperature, concentration of aniline, amount of enzyme, and number of scans during electropolymerization were investigated.

  2. Determination of uranium and plutonium in plutonium based fuels by sequential amperometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.R.; Lohithakshan, K.V.; Xavier, M.; Marathe, S.G.; Jain, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for the sequential determination of uranium and plutonium in plutonium bearing fuel materials. Uranium and plutonium are reduced to U(IV) and Pu(III) with titanous chloride and then titrated with dichromate to two end points which are detected amperometrically using two polarized platinum electrodes. Uranium-plutonium solutions of known concentrations containing plutonium in the proportions of 4, 30, 50, and 70% were analyzed with precisions better than 0.3%, maintaining the amounts of plutonium per aliquot in the range of 2-10 mg. No significant bias could be detected. Several samples of (U,Pu)O 2 and (U,Pu)C were analyzed by this procedure. The effects of iron, fluoride, oxalic acid and mellitic acid on the method were also studied. (author) 5 refs.; 6 tabs

  3. Rapid amperometric detection of coliforms based on MWNTs/Nafion composite film modified glass carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuxiao; Liu, Yajun; Huang, Jingjing; Xian, Yuezhong; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Zhonghai; Jin, Litong

    2008-03-15

    A multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated for the rapid amperometric detection of coliforms, represented by Escherichia coli (E. coli). In the bacterial solution, beta-galactosidase which was used as an indicator of coliforms reacted with substrate, p-aminophenol-beta-galactopyranoside (PAPG), and produced p-aminophenol (PAP). PAP was detected by MWNTs/Nafion modified GCE. Due to the cation-exchange capacity of Nafion and the electrocatalytic ability of MWNTs, the detection sensitivity of PAP was improved and the detection time of coliforms was shortened. The bacterial can be detected within 5h ranging from 10 to 10(4)cfu/mL. The MWNTs/Nafion modified GCE was easy to be constructed and regenerated. To our best knowledge, it was the first time to use MWNTs/Nafion modified GCE to detect the concentration of coliforms.

  4. Amperometric and impedance monitoring systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Punter-Villagrasa, Jaime; del Campo, Francisco J; Miribel, Pere

    2017-01-01

    The book presents the conception and realization of a pervasive electronic architecture for electrochemical applications, focusing on electronic instrumentation design and device development, particularly in electrochemical Point-of-Care and Lab-on-a-Chip devices, covering examples based on amperometric (DC) and impedance detection (AC) techniques. The presented electronics combine tailored front-end instrumentation and back-end data post-processing, enabling applications in different areas, and across a variety of techniques, analytes, transducers and environments. It addresses how the electronics are designed and implemented with special interest in the flow process: starting from electronic circuits and electrochemical biosensor design to a final validation and implementation for specific applications. Similarly, other important aspects are discussed throughout the book, such as electrochemical techniques, different analytes, targets, electronics reliability and robustness. The book also describes the use ...

  5. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Peña, Elena; Valdés, Mayra Granda; Glahn-Martínez, Bettina; Moreno-Bondi, Maria C

    2016-11-02

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances in Enzyme-Based Biosensors for Pesticide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Bucur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensive use of toxic and remanent pesticides in agriculture has prompted research into novel performant, yet cost-effective and fast analytical tools to control the pesticide residue levels in the environment and food. In this context, biosensors based on enzyme inhibition have been proposed as adequate analytical devices with the added advantage of using the toxicity of pesticides for detection purposes, being more “biologically relevant” than standard chromatographic methods. This review proposes an overview of recent advances in the development of biosensors exploiting the inhibition of cholinesterases, photosynthetic system II, alkaline phosphatase, cytochrome P450A1, peroxidase, tyrosinase, laccase, urease, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. While various strategies have been employed to detect pesticides from different classes (organophosphates, carbamates, dithiocarbamates, triazines, phenylureas, diazines, or phenols, the number of practical applications and the variety of environmental and food samples tested remains limited. Recent advances focus on enhancing the sensitivity and selectivity by using nanomaterials in the sensor assembly and novel mutant enzymes in array-type sensor formats in combination with chemometric methods for data analysis. The progress in the development of solar cells enriched the possibilities for efficient wiring of photosynthetic enzymes on different surfaces, opening new avenues for development of biosensors for photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides.

  7. Papers Based Electrochemical Biosensors: From Test Strips to Paper-Based Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bingwen; Du, Dan; Hua, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-08

    Papers based biosensors such as lateral flow test strips and paper-based microfluidic devices (or paperfluidics) are inexpensive, rapid, flexible, and easy-to-use analytical tools. An apparent trend in their detection is to interpret sensing results from qualitative assessment to quantitative determination. Electrochemical detection plays an important role in quantification. This review focuses on electrochemical (EC) detection enabled biosensors. The first part provides detailed examples in paper test strips. The second part gives an overview of paperfluidics engaging EC detections. The outlook and recommendation of future directions of EC enabled biosensors are discussed in the end.

  8. Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} nanostructures produced by convenient microwave-hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongying, E-mail: liuhongying@hdu.edu.cn [College of Life Information Science & Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Gu, Chunchuan [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310002 (China); Li, Dujuan; Zhang, Mingzhen [College of Life Information Science & Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: A non-enzymatic H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor with high selectivity and sensitivity based on rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} synthesized by the convenient microwave-assisted hydrothermal method, was fabricated. - Highlights: • Rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} is synthesized within 10 min via microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach. • Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on FeMoO{sub 4} nanomaterials is fabricated. • The biosensor exhibits good performance. - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrated a simple, rapid and reliable microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach to synthesize the uniform rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} within 10 min. The morphologies of the synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, a non-enzymatic amperometric sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was fabricated on the basis of the FeMoO{sub 4} as electrocatalysis. The resulting FeMoO{sub 4} exhibited high sensitivity and good stability for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which may be attributed to the rose-shaped structure of the material and the catalytic property of FeMoO{sub 4}. Amperometric response showed that the modified electrode had a good response for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with a linear range from 1 μM to 1.6 mM, a detection limit of 0.5 μM (S/N = 3), high selectivity and short response time. Additionally, good recoveries of analytes in real milk samples confirm the reliability of the prepared sensor in practical applications.

  9. Self-assembly of glucose oxidase on reduced graphene oxide-magnetic nanoparticles nanocomposite-based direct electrochemistry for reagentless glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakapongpan, Saithip; Poo-Arporn, Rungtiva P

    2017-07-01

    A novel approach of the immobilization of a highly selective and stable glucose biosensor based on direct electrochemistry was fabricated by a self-assembly of glucose oxidase (GOD) on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) covalently conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) modified on a magnetic screen-printed electrode (MSPE). The RGO-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite has remarkable enhancement in large surface areas, is favorable environment for enzyme immobilization, facilitates electron transfer between enzymes and electrode surfaces and possesses superparamagnetism property. The morphology and electrochemical properties of RGO-Fe 3 O 4 /GOD were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. The modified electrode was a fast, direct electron transfer with an apparent electron transfer rate constant (k s ) of 13.78s -1 . The proposed biosensor showed fast amperometric response (3s) to glucose with a wide linear range from 0.05 to 1mM, a low detection limit of 0.1μM at a signal to noise ratio of 3 (S/N=3) and good sensitivity (5.9μA/mM). The resulting biosensor has high stability, good reproducibility, excellent selectivity and successfully applied detection potential at -0.45V. This mediatorless glucose sensing used the advantages of covalent bonding and self-assembly as a new approach for immobilizing enzymes without any binder. It would be worth noting that it opens a new avenue for fabricating excellent electrochemical biosensors. This is a new approach that reporting the immobilization of glucose oxidase on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) covalently conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) by electrostatic interaction and modified screen printed electrode. We propose the reagentless with fabrication method without binder and adhesive agents for immobilized enzyme. Fe 3 O 4 NPs increasing surface area to enhance the immobilization and prevent

  10. Lab-on-a-chip based biosensor for the real-time detection of aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Yıldız; Esen, Elif; Kokturk, Guzin; Ozer, Hayrettin; Muhammad, Turghun; Olcer, Zehra; Basegmez, H Imge Oktay; Simsek, Senay; Barut, Serkan; Gok, M Yagmur; Akgun, Mete; Altintas, Zeynep

    2016-11-01

    Polymers were synthesized and utilized for aflatoxin detection coupled with a novel lab-on-a-chip biosensor: MiSens and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were preferred to be designed and used due to the toxic nature of aflatoxin template and also to avoid difficult clean-up protocols. Towards an innovative miniaturized automated system, a novel biochip has been designed that consists of 6 working electrodes (1mm diameter) with shared reference and counter electrodes. The aflatoxin detection has been achieved by a competition immunoassay that has been performed using the new biochips and the automated MiSens electrochemical biosensor device. For the assay, aflatoxin antibody has been captured on the Protein A immobilized electrode. Subsequently the sample and the enzyme-aflatoxin conjugate mixture has been injected to the electrode surfaces. The final injection of the enzyme substrate results in an amperometric signal. The sensor assays for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in different matrices were also performed using enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and HPLC for confirmation. High recovery was successfully achieved in spiked wheat samples using NIP coupled HPLC and NIP coupled MiSens biosensor [2ppb of aflatoxin was determined as 1.86ppb (93% recovery), 1.73ppb (86.5% recovery), 1.96ppb (98% recovery) and 1.88ppb (94.0% recovery) for immunoaffinity column (IAC)-HPLC, NIP-HPLC, Supel™ Tox SPE Cartridges (SUP)-HPLC and NIP-MiSens, respectively]. Aflatoxin detection in fig samples were also investigated with MiSens biosensor and the results were compared with HPLC method. The new biosensor allows real-time and on-site detection of AFB1 in foods with a rapid, sensitive, fully automated and miniaturized system and expected to have an immense economic impact for food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of mercury (II) ion biosensors based on mercury-specific oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanying; Wen, Yanli; Xu, Li; Xu, Qin; Song, Shiping; Zuo, Xiaolei; Yan, Juan; Zhang, Weijia; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (II) ion (Hg(2+)) contamination can be accumulated along the food chain and cause serious threat to the public health. Plenty of research effort thus has been devoted to the development of fast, sensitive and selective biosensors for monitoring Hg(2+). Thymine was demonstrated to specifically combine with Hg(2+) and form a thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) structure, with binding constant even higher than T-A Watson-Crick pair in DNA duplex. Recently, various novel Hg(2+) biosensors have been developed based on T-rich Mercury-Specific Oligonucleotide (MSO) probes, and exhibited advanced selectivity and excellent sensitivity for Hg(2+) detection. In this review, we explained recent development of MSO-based Hg(2+) biosensors mainly in 3 groups: fluorescent biosensors, colorimetric biosensors and electrochemical biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Amperometric detector for gas chromatography based on a silica sol-gel solid electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinecker, William H; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Kulesza, Pawel J; Sandlin, Zechariah D; Cox, James A

    2017-11-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a silica sol-gel solid electrolyte, a working electrode that protrudes into a gas phase, and reference and counter electrodes that contact the solid electrolyte comprises an amperometric detector for gas chromatography. Under potentiostatic conditions, a current related to the concentration of an analyte in the gas phase is produced by its oxidation at the three-phase boundary among the sol-gel, working electrode, and the gas phase. The sol-gel is processed to contain an electrolyte that also serves as a humidistat to maintain a constant water activity even in the presence the gas chromatographic mobile phase. Response was demonstrated toward a diverse set of analytes, namely hydrogen, 1,2-ethandithiol, phenol, p-cresol, and thioanisole. Using flow injection amperometry of hydrogen with He as the carrier gas, 90% of the steady-state current was achieved in < 1s at a flow rate of 20mLmin -1 . A separation of 1,2-ethandithiol, phenol, p-cresol, and thioanisole at a 2.2mLmin -1 flow rate was achieved with respective detection limits (k = 3 criterion) of 4, 1, 3, and 70 ppmv when the working electrode potential was 800mV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Protein A/Deposited Gold Nanocrystals Modified Electrode for Carbofuran Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV, respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA’s oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  14. Amperometric Formaldehyde Sensor Based on a Pd Nanocrystal Modified C/Co2P Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine Pd nanocrystals were grown on the cobalt phosphide (Co2P decorated Vulcan XC-72 carbon (C/Co2P, which is realized by first implementing the corresponding metal precursor and then the further chemical reduction process. The as-synthesized C/Co2P/Pd composite was further constructed to form a gas permeable electrode. This electrode can be applied for formaldehyde (HCHO detection. The results demonstrate that the Co2P nanocrystal can significantly improve the sensing performance of the C/Co2P/Pd electrode for catalytic oxidation of HCHO, which is considered to be attributed to the effective electron transfer from Co2P to Pd in the C/Co2P/Pd composites. Furthermore, the assembled C/Co2P/Pd sensor exhibits high sensitivity of 617 nA/ppm and good selectivity toward various interfering gases such as NO2, NO, SO2, CO2, and CO. It also shows the excellent linear response that the correlation coefficient is 0.994 in the concentration range of 1–10 ppm. Therefore, the proposed cost-effective C/Co2P/Pd nanocomposite, which owns advantages such as high activity and good stability, has the potential to be applied as an effective electrocatalyst for amperometric HCHO detection.

  15. Recent Progress in Optical Biosensors Based on Smartphone Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Xiong; Fan, Zhiyuan; Lv, Xiaoqing; Su, Yue; Chen, Hongda

    2017-01-01

    With a rapid improvement of smartphone hardware and software, especially complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras, many optical biosensors based on smartphone platforms have been presented, which have pushed the development of the point-of-care testing (POCT). Imaging-based and spectrometry-based detection techniques have been widely explored via different approaches. Combined with the smartphone, imaging-based and spectrometry-based methods are currently used to investigate a wide range of molecular properties in chemical and biological science for biosensing and diagnostics. Imaging techniques based on smartphone-based microscopes are utilized to capture microscale analysts, while spectrometry-based techniques are used to probe reactions or changes of molecules. Here, we critically review the most recent progress in imaging-based and spectrometry-based smartphone-integrated platforms that have been developed for chemical experiments and biological diagnosis. We focus on the analytical performance and the complexity for implementation of the platforms. PMID:29068375

  16. Recent Progress in Optical Biosensors Based on Smartphone Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxin Geng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With a rapid improvement of smartphone hardware and software, especially complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS cameras, many optical biosensors based on smartphone platforms have been presented, which have pushed the development of the point-of-care testing (POCT. Imaging-based and spectrometry-based detection techniques have been widely explored via different approaches. Combined with the smartphone, imaging-based and spectrometry-based methods are currently used to investigate a wide range of molecular properties in chemical and biological science for biosensing and diagnostics. Imaging techniques based on smartphone-based microscopes are utilized to capture microscale analysts, while spectrometry-based techniques are used to probe reactions or changes of molecules. Here, we critically review the most recent progress in imaging-based and spectrometry-based smartphone-integrated platforms that have been developed for chemical experiments and biological diagnosis. We focus on the analytical performance and the complexity for implementation of the platforms.

  17. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dietler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.

  18. Gallium nitride electrodes for membrane-based electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, T; Steinhoff, G; von Ribbeck, H-G; Stutzmannn, M; Eickhoff, M; Tanaka, M

    2009-10-01

    We report on the deposition of planar lipid bilayers (supported membranes) on gallium nitride (GaN) electrodes for potential applications as membrane-based biosensors. The kinetics of the lipid membrane formation upon vesicle fusion were monitored by simultaneous measurements of resistance and capacitance of the membrane using AC impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range between 50 mHz and 50 kHz. We could identify a two-step process of membrane spreading and self-healing. Despite its relatively low resistance, the membrane can be modeled by a parallel combination of an ideal resistor and capacitor, indicating that the membrane efficiently blocks the diffusion of ions.

  19. Cellular Silica Encapsulation for Development of Robust Cell Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert; Rogelj, Snezna; Harper, Jason; Tartis, Michaelann

    2014-03-01

    In order to detect chemical and biological threats both on the battlefield and in civilian life, development of portable, robust detection systems capable of real-time identification of the chemical and biological agents are needed. Living cell-based sensors have proven effective as sensitive, specific, near real-time detectors; however, living cell-based sensors require frequent cell replenishment due to cell sensitivity to the ex-vivo environment, which limits sensor stability. Incorporation of living cells within a biocompatible matrix that provides mechanical protection and maintains access to the external environment may facilitate the development of long-term stable cell-based biosensors. We are exploring the use of a novel Chemical Vapor into Liquid (CViL) deposition process for whole cell encapsulation in silica. In CViL, the high vapor pressure of common silica alkoxides is utilized to deliver silica into an aqueous medium, creating a silica sol. Mixing of cells with the resulting silica sol facilitates encapsulation of cells in silica while minimizing cell contact with the cytotoxic products of silica generating reactions. Using fluorescence microscopy analysis with multiple silica specific markers, encapsulation of multiple eukaryotic cell types (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Jurkat, HeLa, and U87 cells) with CViL generated silica is shown, providing a foundation for development of long -term stable cell-based biosensors with diverse sensing capabilities.

  20. Nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for ascorbic acid based on hollow gold/ruthenium nanoshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Ara; Kang, Minkyung; Cha, Areum; Jang, Hye Su [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jun Ho [Department of Chemistry, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Nam-Suk [National Center for Nanomaterials Technology (NCNT), Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Hwa [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngmi, E-mail: youngmilee@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chongmok, E-mail: cmlee@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized hollow gold/ruthenium (hAu–Ru) nanoshells for ascorbic acid sensing. • The hAu–Ru nanoshells showed sensitivity of 426 μA mM⁻¹ cm⁻² for ascorbic acid. • Good selectivity against glucose, uric acid, dopamine, 4-acetamidophenol, and NADH. • The linear dynamic range appeared from zero to 2.0 mM (R = 0.9995). • Response time (1.6 s) and low detection limit (2.2 μM) were obtained at pH 7.40. Abstract: We report a new nonenzymatic amperometric detection of ascorbic acid (AA) using a glassy carbon (GC) disk electrode modified with hollow gold/ruthenium (hAu–Ru) nanoshells, which exhibited decent sensing characteristics. The hAu–Ru nanoshells were prepared by the incorporation of Ru on hollow gold (hAu) nanoshells from Co nanoparticle templates, which enabled AA selectivity against glucose without aid of enzyme or membrane. The structure and electrocatalytic activities of the hAu–Ru catalysts were characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The hAu–Ru loaded on GC electrode (hAu–Ru/GC) showed sensitivity of 426 μA mM⁻¹ cm⁻² (normalized to the GC disk area) for the linear dynamic range of <5 μM to 2 mM AA at physiological pH. The response time and detection limit were 1.6 s and 2.2 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the hAu–Ru/GC electrode displayed remarkable selectivity for ascorbic acid over all potential biological interferents, including glucose, uric acid (UA), dopamine (DA), 4-acetamidophenol (AP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which could be especially good for biological sensing.

  1. Electrochemical H2O2biosensor composed of myoglobin on MoS2nanoparticle-graphene oxide hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinho; Lee, Taek; Bapurao G, Bharate; Jo, Jinhee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2017-07-15

    In this research, the electrochemical biosensor composed of myoglobin (Mb) on molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles (MoS 2 NP) encapsulated with graphene oxide (GO) was fabricated for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Hybrid structure composed of MoS 2 NP and GO (GO@MoS 2 ) was fabricated for the first time to enhance the electrochemical signal of the biosensor. As a sensing material, Mb was introduced to fabricate the biosensor for H 2 O 2 detection. Formation and immobilization of GO@MoS 2 was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Immobilization of Mb, and electrochemical property of biosensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric i-t measurements. Fabricated biosensor showed the electrochemical signal enhanced redox current as -1.86μA at an oxidation potential and 1.95μA at a reduction potential that were enhanced relative to those of electrode prepared without GO@MoS 2 . Also, this biosensor showed the reproducibility of electrochemical signal, and retained the property until 9 days from fabrication. Upon addition of H 2 O 2 , the biosensor showed enhanced amperometric response current with selectivity relative to that of the biosensor prepared without GO@MoS 2 . This novel hybrid material-based biosensor can suggest a milestone in the development of a highly sensitive detecting platform for biosensor fabrication with highly sensitive detection of target molecules other than H 2 O 2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone's LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone's camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  3. DNA nanostructure-based ultrasensitive electrochemical microRNA biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yanli; Liu, Gang; Pei, Hao; Li, Lanying; Xu, Qin; Liang, Wen; Li, Yan; Xu, Li; Ren, Suzhen; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-12-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of a wide range of cellular processes, and have been identified as promising cancer biomarkers due to their stable presence in serum. As an surface-based electrochemical biosensors which offer great opportunities for low-cost, point-of-care tests (POCTs) of disease-associated miRNAs. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of miRNA sensors is often limited by mass transport and the surface crowding effect at the water-electrode interface. Here, we present a protocol as well as guidelines for ultrasensitive detection of miRNA with DNA nanostructure-based electrochemical miRNA biosensor. By employing the three-dimensional DNA nanostructure-based interfacial engineering approach, we can directly detect as few as attomolar (electrochemical miRNA sensor (EMRS) is highly reproducible and essentially free of prior target labeling and PCR amplification, it can conveniently and reliably analyze miRNA expression levels in clinical samples from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical Biosensors Based on Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of semiconductor-based nanostructures with novel and unique properties has sparked widespread interest in their use in the field of biosensing. The precise control over the size, shape and composition of these nanostructures leads to the accurate control of their physico-chemical properties and overall behavior. Furthermore, modifications can be made to the nanostructures to better suit their integration with biological systems, leading to such interesting properties as enhanced aqueous solubility, biocompatibility or bio-recognition. In the present work, the most significant applications of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of optical biosensing will be reviewed. In particular, the use of quantum dots as fluorescent bioprobes, which is the most widely used application, will be discussed. In addition, the use of some other nanometric structures in the field of biosensing, including porous semiconductors and photonic crystals, will be presented.

  5. Micro-photonic cylindrical waveguide based protein biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padigi, Sudhaprasanna Kumar; Asante, Kofi; Kovvuri, Vijay Sekhar Reddy; Reddy, Ravi Kiran Kondama; Rosa, Andres La; Prasad, Shalini

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate the fabrication and operation of a rapidly prototyped optical cylindrical micro-waveguide based biosensor. This device works on the principle of variation to the light intensity and path of coupled input light due to the binding of protein bio-molecules onto the micro-waveguide surface as a method of physical transduction. The variation to the coupled light intensity and path is dependent on the nature of the bio-molecule and the density of the bio-molecules. This technique has been used to identify protein biomarkers for inflammation and thrombosis, namely myeloperoxidase (MPO) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The detection limit that has been demonstrated is pg ml -1 . The detection speed is of the order of seconds from the time of injection of the bio-molecule. The optical signature that is obtained to identify a protein bio-molecule is entirely dependent on the nature of adsorption of the bio-molecule on to the cylindrical cavity surfaces. This in turn is dependent on the protein conformation and the surface charge of the bio-molecules. Hence a specific protein bio-molecule generates a unique optical identifier based on the nature of binding/adsorption to the cavity surface. This physical phenomenon is exploited to identify individual proteins. This technique is a demonstration of detection of nano-scale protein bio-molecules using the optical biosensor technique with unprecedented sensitivity

  6. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nile Hartman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical phenomena such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization, interference and non-linearity have been extensively used for biosensing applications. Optical waveguides (both planar and fiber-optic are comprised of a material with high permittivity/high refractive index surrounded on all sides by materials with lower refractive indices, such as a substrate and the media to be sensed. This arrangement allows coupled light to propagate through the high refractive index waveguide by total internal reflection and generates an electromagnetic wave—the evanescent field—whose amplitude decreases exponentially as the distance from the surface increases. Excitation of fluorophores within the evanescent wave allows for sensitive detection while minimizing background fluorescence from complex, “dirty” biological samples. In this review, we will describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of planar optical waveguide-based biodetection technologies. This discussion will include already commercialized technologies (e.g., Corning’s EPIC® Ô, SRU Biosystems’ BIND™, Zeptosense®, etc. and new technologies that are under research and development. We will also review differing assay approaches for the detection of various biomolecules, as well as the thin-film coatings that are often required for waveguide functionalization and effective detection. Finally, we will discuss reverse-symmetry waveguides, resonant waveguide grating sensors and metal-clad leaky waveguides as alternative signal transducers in optical biosensing.

  7. On-line detection of toxic components using a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Straten, van G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Safe drinking water without toxic chemicals is crucial for people's health. A recently developed sensor for the detection of toxic components in water is the microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor. In this biosensor, substrate consumption rate and metabolic activity of bacteria are directly

  8. Gauging and visualizing c-di-GMP levels in pseudomonas aeruginosa using fluorescence-based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten; Chua, Song Lin; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong

    2017-01-01

    developed a collection of fluorescence-based c-di-GMP biosensors capable of gauging the c-di-GMP level in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and closely related bacteria. Here, we describe protocols for the use of these biosensors in gauging and visualizing cellular c-di-GMP levels of P. aeruginosa both in in vitro...

  9. Enhancement of affinity-based biosensors: effect of sensing chamber geometry on sensitivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lynn, Nicholas Scott; Šípová, Hana; Adam, Pavel; Homola, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2013), s. 1413-1421 ISSN 1473-0197 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : SURFACE-BASED BIOSENSORS * DIFFUSION * PLASMON RESONANCE BIOSENSOR Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 5.748, year: 2013

  10. Simultaneous Determination of the Main Peanut Allergens in Foods Using Disposable Amperometric Magnetic Beads-Based Immunosensing Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel magnetic beads (MBs-based immunosensing approach for the rapid and simultaneous determination of the main peanut allergenic proteins (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 is reported. It involves the use of sandwich-type immunoassays using selective capture and detector antibodies and carboxylic acid-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs. Amperometric detection at −0.20 V was performed using dual screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPdCEs and the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ system. This methodology exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for the target proteins providing detection limits of 18.0 and 0.07 ng/mL for Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, respectively, with an assay time of only 2 h. The usefulness of the approach was evaluated by detecting the endogenous content of both allergenic proteins in different food extracts as well as trace amounts of peanut allergen (0.0001% or 1.0 mg/kg in wheat flour spiked samples. The developed platform provides better Low detection limits (LODs in shorter assay times than those claimed for the allergen specific commercial ELISA kits using the same immunoreagents and quantitative information on individual food allergen levels. Moreover, the flexibility of the methodology makes it readily translate to the detection of other food-allergens.

  11. Optical biosensor based on silicon nanowire ridge waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Rania; Ismail, Yehia; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2015-02-01

    Optical biosensors present themselves as an attractive solution for integration with the ever-trending lab-on-a-chip devices. This is due to their small size, CMOS compatibility, and invariance to electromagnetic interference. Despite their many benefits, typical optical biosensors rely on evanescent field detection, where only a small portion of the light interacts with the analyte. We propose to use a silicon nanowire ridge waveguide (SNRW) for optical biosensing. This structure is comprised of an array of silicon nanowires, with the envelope of a ridge, on an insulator substrate. The SNRW maximizes the overlap between the analyte and the incident light wave by introducing voids to the otherwise bulk structure, and strengthens the contribution of the material under test to the overall modal effective index will greatly augment the sensitivity. Additionally, the SNRW provides a fabrication convenience as it covers the entire substrate, ensuring that the etching process would not damage the substrate. FDTD simulations were conducted and showed that the percentage change in the effective index due to a 1% change in the surrounding environment was more than 170 times the amount of change perceived in an evanescent detection based bulk silicon ridge waveguide.

  12. Recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on graphene two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Luo, Yanan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-02-15

    Graphene as a star among two-dimensional nanomaterials has attracted tremendous research interest in the field of electrochemistry due to their intrinsic properties, including the electronic, optical, and mechanical properties associated with their planar structure. The marriage of graphene and electrochemical biosensors has created many ingenious biosensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis and food safety. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the development of graphene based electrochemical biosensors. Special attention is paid to graphene-based enzyme biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Future perspectives on high-performance graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Diffusion Limitations on Multianalyte Determination from Biased Biosensor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Lančinskas, Algirdas; Žilinskas, Antanas

    2014-01-01

    The optimization-based quantitative determination of multianalyte concentrations from biased biosensor responses is investigated under internal and external diffusion-limited conditions. A computational model of a biocatalytic amperometric biosensor utilizing a mono-enzyme-catalyzed (nonspecific) competitive conversion of two substrates was used to generate pseudo-experimental responses to mixtures of compounds. The influence of possible perturbations of the biosensor signal, due to a white noise- and temperature-induced trend, on the precision of the concentration determination has been investigated for different configurations of the biosensor operation. The optimization method was found to be suitable and accurate enough for the quantitative determination of the concentrations of the compounds from a given biosensor transient response. The computational experiments showed a complex dependence of the precision of the concentration estimation on the relative thickness of the outer diffusion layer, as well as on whether the biosensor operates under diffusion- or kinetics-limited conditions. When the biosensor response is affected by the induced exponential trend, the duration of the biosensor action can be optimized for increasing the accuracy of the quantitative analysis. PMID:24608006

  14. A novel conductometric biosensor based on hexokinase for determination of adenosine triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Kucherenko, D Yu; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a simple and inexpensive reusable biosensor for determination of the concentration of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) in aqueous samples. The biosensor is based on a conductometric transducer which contains two pairs of gold interdigitated electrodes. An enzyme hexokinase was immobilized onto one pair of electrodes, and bovine serum albumin-onto another pair (thus, a differential mode of measurement was used). Conditions of hexokinase immobilization on the transducer by cross-linking via glutaraldehyde were optimized. Influence of experimental conditions (concentration of magnesium ions, ionic strength and concentration of the working buffer) on the biosensor work was studied. The reproducibility of biosensor responses and operational stability of the biosensor were checked during one week. Dry storage at -18 °C was shown to be the best conditions to store the biosensor. The biosensor was successfully applied for measurements of ATP concentration in pharmaceutical samples. The proposed biosensor may be used in future for determination of ATP and/or glucose in water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Rebecca L; Papalia, Giuseppe A; Flynn, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by user...

  16. Laccase biosensors based on different enzyme immobilization strategies for phenolic compounds determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casero, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Vázquez, L; Ramírez-Asperilla, I; Parra-Alfambra, A M; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2013-10-15

    Different enzyme immobilization approaches of Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) onto gold surfaces and their influence on the performance of the final bioanalytical platforms are described. The laccase immobilization methods include: (i) direct adsorption onto gold electrodes (TvL/Au), (ii) covalent attachment to a gold surface modified with a bifunctional reagent, 3,3'-Dithiodipropionic acid di (N-succinimidyl ester) (DTSP), and (iii) integration of the enzyme into a sol-gel 3D polymeric network derived from (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) previously formed onto a gold surface (TvL/MPTS/Au). The characterization and applicability of these biosensors are described. Characterization is performed in aqueous acetate buffer solutions using atomic force microscopy (AFM), providing valuable information concerning morphological data at the nanoscale level. The response of the three biosensing platforms developed, TvL/Au, TvL/DTSP/Au and TvL/MPTS/Au, is evaluated in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ), used as a phenolic enzymatic substrate. All systems exhibit a clear electrocatalytic activity and HQ can be amperometrically determined at -0.10 V versus Ag/AgCl. However, the performance of biosensors - evaluated in terms of sensitivity, detection limit, linear response range, reproducibility and stability - depends clearly on the enzyme immobilization strategy, which allows establishing its influence on the enzyme catalytic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Om; Hanim Shueb, Rafidah

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed. PMID:26492265

  18. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Om; Shueb, Rafidah Hanim

    2015-10-19

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed.

  19. Microbial fuel cell-based biosensors for environmental monitoring: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Zhong; Peter Kingori, Gakai; Si, Rong-Wei; Zhai, Dan-Dan; Liao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, De-Zhen; Zheng, Tao; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an innovative technology that was initially designed to harness energy from organic waste using microorganisms. It is striking how many promising applications beyond energy production have been explored in recent decades. In particular, MFC-based biosensors are considered to be the next generation biosensing technology for environmental monitoring. This review describes recent advances in this emerging technology of MFC-based biosensors, with a special emphasis on monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand and toxicity in the environment. The progress confirms that MFC-based biosensors could be used as self-powered portable biosensing devices with great potential in long-term and remote environmental monitoring.

  20. Function-based Biosensor for Hazardous Waste Toxin Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James J Hickman

    2008-07-09

    There is a need for new types of toxicity sensors in the DOE and other agencies that are based on biological function as the toxins encountered during decontamination or waste remediation may be previously unknown or their effects subtle. Many times the contents of the environmental waste, especially the minor components, have not been fully identified and characterized. New sensors of this type could target unknown toxins that cause death as well as intermediate levels of toxicity that impair function or cause long term impairment that may eventually lead to death. The primary question posed in this grant was to create an electronically coupled neuronal cellular circuit to be used as sensor elements for a hybrid non-biological/biological toxin sensor system. A sensor based on the electrical signals transmitted between two mammalian neurons would allow the marriage of advances in solid state electronics with a functioning biological system to develop a new type of biosensor. Sensors of this type would be a unique addition to the field of sensor technology but would also be complementary to existing sensor technology that depends on knowledge of what is to be detected beforehand. We integrated physics, electronics, surface chemistry, biotechnology, and fundamental neuroscience in the development of this biosensor. Methods were developed to create artificial surfaces that enabled the patterning of discrete cells, and networks of cells, in culture; the networks were then aligned with transducers. The transducers were designed to measure electromagnetic fields (EMF) at low field strength. We have achieved all of the primary goals of the project. We can now pattern neurons routinely in our labs as well as align them with transducers. We have also shown the signals between neurons can be modulated by different biochemicals. In addition, we have made another significant advance where we have repeated the patterning results with adult hippocampal cells. Finally, we

  1. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application.

  2. The sensitivity research of multiparameter biosensors based on HEMT by the mathematic modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, V. G.; Gudkov, A. G.; Agasieva, S. V.; Gorlacheva, E. N.; Shashurin, V. D.; Zybin, A. A.; Evseenkov, A. S.; Parnes, Y. M.

    2017-11-01

    The numerical impact modeling of some external effects on the CVC of biosensors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures (HEMT) was carried out. The mathematical model was created that allowed to predict the behavior of the drain current depending on condition changes on the heterostructure surface in the gate region and to start the process of directed construction optimization of the biosensors based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT with the aim of improving their performance. The calculation of the drain current of the biosensor construction was carried out to confirm the reliability of the developed mathematical model and obtained results.

  3. Electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of mycotoxins: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan C; Bonel, Laura; Ezquerra, Alba; Hernández, Susana; Bertolín, Juan R; Cubel, Carlota; Castillo, Juan R

    2013-11-15

    This review discusses the current state of electrochemical biosensors in the determination of mycotoxins in foods. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by molds. The acute toxicity of these results in serious human and animal health problems, although it has been only since early 1960s when the first studied aflatoxins were found to be carcinogenic. Mycotoxins affect a broad range of agricultural products, most important cereals and cereal-based foods. A majority of countries, mentioning especially the European Union, have established preventive programs to control contamination and strict laws of the permitted levels in foods. Official methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally requires sophisticated instrumentation, e.g. liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. For about sixteen years, the use of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has emerged in scientific literature as a very promising alternative, particularly electrochemical (i.e., amperometric, impedance, potentiometric or conductimetric) affinity biosensors due to their simplicity and sensitivity. Typically, electrochemical biosensors for mycotoxins use specific antibodies or aptamers as affinity ligands, although recombinant antibodies, artificial receptors and molecular imprinted polymers show potential utility. This article deals with recent advances in electrochemical affinity biosensors for mycotoxins and covers complete literature from the first reports about sixteen years ago. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluorescent Biosensor for Phosphate Determination Based on Immobilized Polyfluorene-Liposomal Nanoparticles Coupled with Alkaline Phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Zehra; Martínez-Tomé, Maria José; Mallavia, Ricardo; Mateo, C Reyes

    2017-01-11

    This work describes the development of a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The biosensor is composed of the enzyme ALP and the conjugated cationic polyfluorene HTMA-PFP. The working principle of the biosensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of this polyelectrolyte by p-nitrophenol (PNP), a product of the hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) catalyzed by ALP. Because HTMA-PFP forms unstable aggregates in buffer, with low fluorescence efficiency, previous stabilization of the polyelectrolyte was required before the development of the biosensor. HTMA-PFP was stabilized through its interaction with lipid vesicles to obtain stable blue-emitting nanoparticles (NPs). Fluorescent NPs were characterized, and the ability to be quenched by PNP was evaluated. These nanoparticles were coupled to ALP and entrapped in a sol-gel matrix to produce a biosensor that can serve as a screening platform to identify ALP inhibitors. The components of the biosensor were examined before and after sol-gel entrapment, and the biosensor was optimized to allow the determination of phosphate ion in aqueous medium.

  5. Nanomaterials-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors operating through inhibition for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, Sevinc; Ozkan, Sibel A; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-03-15

    In recent years great progress has been made in applying nanomaterials to design novel biosensors. Use of nanomaterials offers to biosensing platforms exceptional optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Nanomaterials can increase the surface of the transducing area of the sensors that in turn bring an increase in catalytic behaviors. They have large surface-to-volume ratio, controlled morphology and structure that also favor miniaturization, an interesting advantage when the sample volume is a critical issue. Biosensors have great potential for achieving detect-to-protect devices: devices that can be used in detections of pollutants and other treating compounds/analytes (drugs) protecting citizens' life. After a long term focused scientific and financial efforts/supports biosensors are expected now to fulfill their promise such as being able to perform sampling and analysis of complex samples with interest for clinical or environment fields. Among all types of biosensors, enzymatic biosensors, the most explored biosensing devices, have an interesting property, the inherent inhibition phenomena given the enzyme-substrate complex formation. The exploration of such phenomena is making remarkably important their application as research and applied tools in diagnostics. Different inhibition biosensor systems based on nanomaterials modification has been proposed and applied. The role of nanomaterials in inhibition-based biosensors for the analyses of different groups of drugs as well as contaminants such as pesticides, phenolic compounds and others, are discussed in this review. This deep analysis of inhibition-based biosensors that employ nanomaterials will serve researchers as a guideline for further improvements and approaching of these devices to real sample applications so as to reach society needs and such biosensor market demands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Paper-based Biosensor for Rapid Colorimetric Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current project proposes to develop a real-time method for identification of targeted microorganisms using a paper-based biosensor system with ease-of-use,...

  7. Hybrid Macro-Micro Fluidics System for a Chip-Based Biosensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamanaha, C. R; Whitman, L. J; Colton, R.J

    2002-01-01

    We describe the engineering of a hybrid fluidics platform for a chip-based biosensor system that combines high-performance microfluidics components with powerful, yet compact, millimeter-scale pump and valve actuators...

  8. Transcription factor-based biosensors in high-throughput screening: advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Tang, Xiao-Ling; Kardashliev, Tsvetan

    2018-02-27

    The molecular mechanisms that cells use to sense changes in the intra- and extracellular environment are increasingly utilized in synthetic biology to build genetic reporter constructs for various applications. Although in nature sensing can be RNA-mediated, most existing genetically-encoded biosensors are based on transcription factors (TF) and cognate DNA sequences. Here, we discuss recent advances in the integration of TF-based biosensors in metabolic and protein engineering screens whereas distinction is made between production-driven and competitive screening systems for enzyme evolution under physiological conditions. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of existing TF-based biosensors are examined with respects to dynamic range, sensitivity and robustness, and compared to other screening approaches. The application examples discussed in this review demonstrate the promising potential TF-based biosensors hold as screening tools in laboratory evolution of proteins and metabolic pathways, alike. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Oligonucleotide-based biosensors for in vitro diagnostics and environmental hazard detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Il Young; Lee, Eun Hee; Suh, Ah Young; Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Hyukjin

    2016-04-01

    Oligonucleotide-based biosensors have drawn much attention because of their broad applications in in vitro diagnostics and environmental hazard detection. They are particularly of interest to many researchers because of their high specificity as well as excellent sensitivity. Recently, oligonucleotide-based biosensors have been used to achieve not only genetic detection of targets but also the detection of small molecules, peptides, and proteins. This has further broadened the applications of these sensors in the medical and health care industry. In this review, we highlight various examples of oligonucleotide-based biosensors for the detection of diseases, drugs, and environmentally hazardous chemicals. Each example is provided with detailed schematics of the detection mechanism in addition to the supporting experimental results. Furthermore, future perspectives and new challenges in oligonucleotide-based biosensors are discussed.

  10. Electrochemical and optical biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Rui; Li, Chang Ming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2011-06-01

    Nanomaterials and nanostructures exhibit unique size-tunable and shape-dependent physicochemical properties that are different from those of bulk materials. Advances of nanomaterials and nanostructures open a new door to develop various novel biosensors. The present work has reviewed the recent progress in electrochemical, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescent biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures. An emphasis is put on the research that demonstrates how the performance of biosensors such as the limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity is improved by the use of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  11. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yuan; Zhou, Yanli; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2012-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC), carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitiv...

  12. The Simulation of the Recharging Method Based on Solar Radiation for an Implantable Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Song, Yong; Kong, Xianyue; Li, Maoyuan; Zhao, Yufei; Hao, Qun; Gao, Tianxin

    2016-09-10

    A method of recharging implantable biosensors based on solar radiation is proposed. Firstly, the models of the proposed method are developed. Secondly, the recharging processes based on solar radiation are simulated using Monte Carlo (MC) method and the energy distributions of sunlight within the different layers of human skin have been achieved and discussed. Finally, the simulation results are verified experimentally, which indicates that the proposed method will contribute to achieve a low-cost, convenient and safe method for recharging implantable biosensors.

  13. Enzyme-linked, aptamer-based, competitive biolayer interferometry biosensor for palytoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shunxiang; Zheng, Xin; Hu, Bo; Sun, Mingjuan; Wu, Jihong; Jiao, Binghua; Wang, Lianghua

    2017-03-15

    In this study, we coupled biolayer interferometry (BLI) with competitive binding assay through an enzyme-linked aptamer and developed a real-time, ultra-sensitive, rapid quantitative method for detection of the marine biotoxin palytoxin. Horseradish peroxidase-labeled aptamers were used as biorecognition receptors to competitively bind with palytoxin, which was immobilized on the biosensor surface. The palytoxin: horseradish peroxidase-aptamer complex was then submerged in a 3,3'-diaminobenzidine solution, which resulted in formation of a precipitated polymeric product directly on the biosensor surface and a large change in the optical thickness of the biosensor layer. This change could obviously shift the interference pattern and generate a response profile on the BLI biosensor. The biosensor showed a broad linear range for palytoxin (200-700pg/mL) with a low detection limit (0.04pg/mL). Moreover, the biosensor was applied to the detection of palytoxin in spiked extracts and showed a high degree of selectivity for palytoxin, good reproducibility, and stability. This enzyme-linked, aptamer-based, competitive BLI biosensor offers a promising method for rapid and sensitive detection of palytoxin and other analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biosensors based on Bloch surface waves in one-dimensional photonic crystal with graphene nanolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbadorani, H Kaviani; Barvestani, J; Entezar, S Roshan

    2017-01-20

    In biosensors research, much effort has been made to achieve high sensitivity to detect lower concentrations of analyte in a solution by testing different kinds of materials. In this paper, we present a biosensor based on Bloch surface waves made of photonic crystal (PhC) including graphene nanolayers under the Kretschmann configuration. The band structures, surface modes, reflectivity, and sensitivity of the PhC biosensor are calculated by the transfer matrix method and results are compared with those of the structure without graphene layers. Our investigations show that the angular sensitivity of the biosensor considerably increases in the presence of the graphene layers. Moreover, we study the effect of the number of the graphene layers placed on the surface of the biosensor on the performance of our proposed biosensor. The results reveal that the sensitivity of the biosensor is enhanced by increasing the number of graphene layers on the surface due to the π-stacking interactions between graphene's honeycomb cells and the carbon rings in biomolecules. Furthermore, our results show that the phase sensitivity is higher than the angular sensitivity, which can promote the accuracy of the calculations.

  15. Nanomolar detection of methylparaben by a cost-effective hemoglobin-based biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajian, A.; Ghodsi, J.; Afraz, A.; Yurchenko, O.; Urban, G.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development of a new biosensor for methylparaben determination using electrocatalytic properties of hemoglobin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric oxidation of methylparaben by the proposed biosensor in phosphate buffer (pH = 7.0), a physiological pH, was studied and it was confirmed that methylparaben undergoes a one electron-one proton reaction in a diffusion-controlled process. The biosensor was fabricated by carbon paste electrode modified with hemoglobin and multiwalled carbon nanotube. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the modified electrode, a sensitive voltammetric method was used for determination of methylparaben within a linear range from 0.1 to 13 μmol L −1 and detection limit of 25 nmol L −1 . The developed biosensor possessed accurate and rapid response to methylparaben and showed good sensitivity, stability, and repeatability. Finally, the applicability of the proposed biosensor was verified by methylparaben evaluation in various real samples. - Highlights: • A new methylparaben biosensor was constructed by modification of carbon paste electrode with hemoglobin and MWCNTs. • The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode and electrochemical behavior of the methylparaben on the electrode surface were studied. • The response of modified GCE was analyzed by voltammetry technique (CV and DPV). • The electrode was used to the determination of methylparaben in real samples • The performance of the fabricated biosensor was satisfactorily compared to the previously reported electrochemical sensors for methylparaben determination.

  16. Enhancement in sensitivity of graphene-based zinc oxide assisted bimetallic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kushwaha, Angad S.; Srivastava, Monika; Mishra, H.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    In the present communication, a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with Kretschmann configuration having alternate layers, prism/zinc oxide/silver/gold/graphene/biomolecules (ss-DNA) is presented. The optimization of the proposed configuration has been accomplished by keeping the constant thickness of zinc oxide (32 nm), silver (32 nm), graphene (0.34 nm) layer and biomolecules (100 nm) for different values of gold layer thickness (1, 3 and 5 nm). The sensitivity of the proposed SPR biosensor has been demonstrated for a number of design parameters such as gold layer thickness, number of graphene layer, refractive index of biomolecules and the thickness of biomolecules layer. SPR biosensor with optimized geometry has greater sensitivity (66 deg/RIU) than the conventional (52 deg/RIU) as well as other graphene-based (53.2 deg/RIU) SPR biosensor. The effect of zinc oxide layer thickness on the sensitivity of SPR biosensor has also been analysed. From the analysis, it is found that the sensitivity increases significantly by increasing the thickness of zinc oxide layer. It means zinc oxide intermediate layer plays an important role to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor. The sensitivity of SPR biosensor also increases by increasing the number of graphene layer (upto nine layer).

  17. Electrochemical biosensors based on nanofibres for cardiac biomarker detection: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Babak; Ghani, Mozhdeh; Shoushtari, Ahmad Mousavi; Rabiee, Mohammad

    2016-04-15

    The vital importance of early and accurate diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) to prevent the irreversible damage or even death of patients has driven the development of biosensor devices for detection and quantification of cardiac biomarkers. Electrochemical biosensors offer rapid sensing, low cost, portability and ease of use. Over the past few years, nanotechnology has contributed to a tremendous improvement in the sensitivity of biosensors. In this review, the authors summarise the state-of-the-art of the application of one particular type of nanostructured material, i.e. nanofibres, for use in electrochemical biosensors for the ultrasensitive detection of cardiac biomarkers. A new way of classifying the nanofibre-based electrochemical biosensors according to the electrical conductance and the type of nanofibres is presented. Some key data from each article reviewed are highlighted, including the mechanism of detection, experimental conditions and the response range of the biosensor. The primary aim of this review is to emphasise the prospects for nanofibres for the future development of biosensors in diagnosis of CVDs as well as considering how to improve their characteristics for application in medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor: A new platform for rapid diagnosis of livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR based biosensors are the most advanced and developed optical label-free biosensor technique used for powerful detection with vast applications in environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security as well in livestock sector. The livestock sector which contributes the largest economy of India, harbors many bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases impacting a great loss to the production and productive potential which is a major concern in both small and large ruminants. Hence, an accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnosis is required for prevention of these above-mentioned diseases. SPR based biosensor assay may fulfill the above characteristics which lead to a greater platform for rapid diagnosis of different livestock diseases. Hence, this review may give a detail idea about the principle, recent development of SPR based biosensor techniques and its application in livestock sector.

  19. Amperometric detection of carbohydrates based on the glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nano-flake layer

    OpenAIRE

    Huy Du Nguyen; T. Thuy Luyen Nguyen; Khac Manh Nguyen; Anh Mai Nguyen; Quoc Hien Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    An electro-deposition approach was established to incorporate the gold nano-flakes onto the glassy carbon electrode in electrochemical cells (nano-Au/GC/ECCs). Using pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) without any gold oxidation for cleaning (non-oxidative PAD), the nano-Au/GC/ECCs were able to maintain their activity for oxidizing of carbohydrates in a normal alkaline medium. The reproducibility of peak area was about 2 relative standard deviation (RSD,%) for 6 consecutive injections. A dyna...

  20. Amperometric Ion-Selective Electrode for Alkali Metal Cations Based on a Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Trojánek, Antonín; Samec, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, 17-18 (2009), s. 1977-1983 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08098; GA AV ČR IAA400400704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : room-temperature ionic liquid * alkali metals * Crown ether * cyclic voltammetry * amperometric ion-selective elkectrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2009

  1. Microbial Fuels Cell-Based Biosensor for Toxicity Detection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuoyu Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the unprecedented deterioration of environmental quality, rapid recognition of toxic compounds is paramount for performing in situ real-time monitoring. Although several analytical techniques based on electrochemistry or biosensors have been developed for the detection of toxic compounds, most of them are time-consuming, inaccurate, or cumbersome for practical applications. More recently, microbial fuel cell (MFC-based biosensors have drawn increasing interest due to their sustainability and cost-effectiveness, with applications ranging from the monitoring of anaerobic digestion process parameters (VFA to water quality detection (e.g., COD, BOD. When a MFC runs under correct conditions, the voltage generated is correlated with the amount of a given substrate. Based on this linear relationship, several studies have demonstrated that MFC-based biosensors could detect heavy metals such as copper, chromium, or zinc, as well as organic compounds, including p-nitrophenol (PNP, formaldehyde and levofloxacin. Both bacterial consortia and single strains can be used to develop MFC-based biosensors. Biosensors with single strains show several advantages over systems integrating bacterial consortia, such as selectivity and stability. One of the limitations of such sensors is that the detection range usually exceeds the actual pollution level. Therefore, improving their sensitivity is the most important for widespread application. Nonetheless, MFC-based biosensors represent a promising approach towards single pollutant detection.

  2. FLOW INJECTION AMPEROMETRIC DETECTION OF OP NERVE AGENTS BASED ON AN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS-HYDROLASE BIOSENSOR DETECTOR. (R828160)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on grafting-to mode of terminal deoxynucleoside transferase-mediated extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyuan; Liu, Zhoujie; Peng, Huaping; Zheng, Yanjie; Lin, Zhen; Liu, Ailin; Chen, Wei; Lin, Xinhua

    2017-12-15

    Previously reported electrochemical DNA biosensors based on in-situ polymerization approach reveal that terminal deoxynucleoside transferase (TdTase) has good amplifying performance and promising application in the design of electrochemical DNA biosensor. However, this method, in which the background is significantly affected by the amount of TdTase, suffers from being easy to produce false positive result and poor stability. Herein, we firstly present a novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on grafting-to mode of TdTase-mediated extension, in which DNA targets are polymerized in homogeneous solution and then hybridized with DNA probes on BSA-based DNA carrier platform. It is surprising to find that the background in the grafting-to mode of TdTase-based electrochemical DNA biosensor have little interference from the employed TdTase. Most importantly, the proposed electrochemical DNA biosensor shows greatly improved detection performance over the in-situ polymerization approach-based electrochemical DNA biosensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 1-D grating based SPR biosensor for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers using Vroman effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Pradeep Kumar; Kaler, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Grating based surface plasmon resonance waveguide biosensor have been reported for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers using Vroman effect. The proposed grating based multilayered biosensor is designed with high detection accuracy for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and also analysed to show high detection accuracy with acceptable sensitivity for both cancer biomarkers. The introduction of periodic grating with multilayer metals generates a good resonance that make it possible for early detection of cancerous cells. Using finite difference time domain method, it is observed wavelength of biosensor get red-shifted on variations of the refractive index due to the presence of both the cancerous bio-markers. The reported detection accuracy and sensitivity of proposed biosensor is quite acceptable for both lung cancer biomarkers i.e. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which further offer us label free early detection of lung cancer using these biomarkers.

  5. Dry Film Photoresist-based Electrochemical Microfluidic Biosensor Platform: Device Fabrication, On-chip Assay Preparation, and System Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Richard; Kling, André; Urban, Gerald A; Dincer, Can

    2017-09-19

    In recent years, biomarker diagnostics became an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of human disease, especially for the point-of-care diagnostics. An easy-to-use and low-cost sensor platform is highly desired to measure various types of analytes (e.g., biomarkers, hormones, and drugs) quantitatively and specifically. For this reason, dry film photoresist technology - enabling cheap, facile, and high-throughput fabrication - was used to manufacture the microfluidic biosensor presented here. Depending on the bioassay used afterwards, the versatile platform is capable of detecting various types of biomolecules. For the fabrication of the device, platinum electrodes are structured on a flexible polyimide (PI) foil in the only clean-room process step. The PI foil serves as a substrate for the electrodes, which are insulated with an epoxy-based photoresist. The microfluidic channel is subsequently generated by the development and lamination of dry film photoresist (DFR) foils onto the PI wafer. By using a hydrophobic stopping barrier in the channel, the channel is separated into two specific areas: an immobilization section for the enzyme-linked assay and an electrochemical measurement cell for the amperometric signal readout. The on-chip bioassay immobilization is performed by the adsorption of the biomolecules to the channel surface. The glucose oxidase enzyme is used as a transducer for electrochemical signal generation. In the presence of the substrate, glucose, hydrogen peroxide is produced, which is detected at the platinum working electrode. The stop-flow technique is applied to obtain signal amplification along with rapid detection. Different biomolecules can quantitatively be measured by means of the introduced microfluidic system, giving an indication of different types of diseases, or, in regard to therapeutic drug monitoring, facilitating a personalized therapy.

  6. Urea biosensor based on an extended-base bipolar junction transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Liu, Chun-Lin; Chen, Chung-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a urea biosensor was prepared by the immobilization of urease onto the sensitive membrane of an extended-base bipolar junction transistor. The pH variation was used to detect the concentration of urea. The SnO2/ITO glass, fabricated by sputtering SnO2 on the conductive ITO glass, was used as a pH-sensitive membrane, which was connected with a commercial bipolar junction transistor device. The gels, fabricated by the poly vinyl alcohol with pendent styrylpyridinium groups, were used to immobilize the urease. This readout circuit, fabricated in a 0.35-um CMOS 2P4M process, operated at 3.3V supply voltage. This circuit occupied an area of 1.0 mm × 0.9 mm. The dynamic range of the urea biosensor was from 1.4 to 64 mg/dl at the 10 mM phosphate buffer solution and the sensitivity of this range was about 65.8 mV/pUrea. The effect of urea biosensors with different pH values was considered, and the characteristics of urea biosensors based on EBBJT were described.

  7. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa; Higa, Olga Zazuco; Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonca de; Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar de

    2013-01-01

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar + ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)

  8. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa; Higa, Olga Zazuco, E-mail: ozahiga@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonca de; Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar de, E-mail: alencar@unifei.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Quimica

    2013-07-01

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar{sup +} ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)

  9. Novel synthetic phytochelatin-based capacitive biosensor for heavy metal ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontidean, Ibolya; Ahlqvist, Josefin; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred; Bae, Weon; Mehra, Rajesh K; Mortari, Alessia; Csöregi, Elisabeth

    2003-05-01

    A novel capacitance biosensor based on synthetic phytochelatins for sensitive detection of heavy metals is described. Synthetic phytochelatin (Glu-Cys)(20)Gly (EC20) fused to the maltose binding domain protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified for construction of the biosensor. The new biosensor was able to detect Hg(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions in concentration range of 100 fM-10 mM, and the order of sensitivity was S(Zn)>S(Cu)>S(Hg)>S(Cd) congruent with S(Pb). The biological sensing element of the sensor could be regenerated using EDTA and the storage stability of the biosensor was 15 days.

  10. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  11. New Trends in the Design of Enzyme-based Biosensors for Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    A biosensor is a self-contained integrated device, which is capable of providing specific quantitative or semiquantitative analytical information using a biological (or biomimetic) recognition element, which is retained in direct spatial contact with an electrochemical transduction element. One of the main features of biosensors is the remarkable selectivity that their biological components confer on them. Enzymes are the most common and well-developed recognition system of the family known as catalytic biosensors. This mini-review is focused on enzyme-based biosensors for medical applications. In particular, the new trends for the technology are described. A special emphasis is devoted to the non-invasive and painless monitoring of body metabolites, such as glucose.

  12. Utilization of Diamine Oxidase Enzyme from Mung Bean Sprouts (Vigna radiata L) for Histamine biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Abdul; Wahab, A. W.; Raya, I.; Natsir, H.; Arif, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to utilize the diamine oxidase enzyme (DAO) which isolated from mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L) to develop histamine biosensors based on electode enzyme with the amperometric method (cyclic voltammetry).The DAO enzyme is trapped inside the membrane of chitin-cellulose acetate 2:1 and glutaraldehyde which super imposed on a Pt electrode. Histamine will be oxidized by DAO enzyme to produce aldehydes and H2O2 that acting as electron transfer mediators.The performance of biosensors will be measured at various concentrations of glutaraldehyde, temperature changes and different range of pH. Recently, it has been found that the optimal conditions obtained from the paramaters as follows; at 25% of glutaraldehyde, temperature of 37°C and pH of 7.4. Eventually, the results provided an expectation for applying histamine biosensors in determining the freshness and safety of fish specifically skombroidae families.

  13. A novel bi-enzyme electrochemical biosensor for selective and sensitive determination of methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Umasankar, Yogeswaran; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P

    2016-07-15

    An amperometric sensor based on a bi-enzyme modified electrode was fabricated to detect methyl salicylate, a volatile organic compound released by pathogen-infected plants via systemic response. The detection is based on cascadic conversion reactions that result in an amperometric electrochemical signal. The bi-enzyme electrode is made of alcohol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase enzymes immobilized on to a carbon nanotube matrix through a molecular tethering method. Methyl salicylate undergoes hydrolysis to form methanol, which is consumed by alcohol oxidase to form formaldehyde while simultaneously reducing oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide will be further reduced to water by horseradish peroxidase, which results in an amperometric signal via direct electron transfer. The bi-enzyme biosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry using hydrolyzed methyl salicylate as the analyte. The sensitivity of the bi-enzyme biosensor as determined by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry were 112.37 and 282.82μAcm(-2)mM(-1) respectively, and the corresponding limits of detection were 22.95 and 0.98μM respectively. Constant potential amperometry was also used to evaluate durability, repeatability and interference from other compounds. Wintergreen oil was used for real sample study to establish the application of the bi-enzyme sensor for selective determination of plant pathogen infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); School of Engineering and Technology, ITM University, Gurgaon-122017 (India); Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Malhotra, Bansi Dhar, E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110042 (India)

    2015-05-11

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic–based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium–tin–oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10{sup −15} M to 10{sup −11} M.

  15. Recent advances in biosensor based diagnosis of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M S; Ghosh, S; Nayak, S; Das, A P

    2016-06-15

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are potentially life threatening infections that are associated with high rates of incidence, recurrence and mortality. UTIs are characterized by several chronic infections which may lead to lethal consequences if left undiagnosed and untreated. The uropathogens are consistent across the globe. The most prevalent uropathogenic gram negative bacteria are Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia. Early detection and precise diagnosis of these infections will play a pivotal role in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. A number of detection methods are available but their performances are not upto the mark. Therefore a more rapid, selective and highly sensitive technique for the detection and quantification of uropathogen levels in extremely minute concentrations need of the time. This review brings all the major concerns of UTI at one's doorstep such as clinical costs and incidence rate, several diagnostic approaches along with their advantages and disadvantages. Paying attention to detection approaches with emphasizing biosensor based recent developments in the quest for new diagnostics for UTI and the need for more sophisticated techniques in terms of selectivity and sensitivity is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma; Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2015-01-01

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic–based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium–tin–oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10 −15 M to 10 −11 M

  17. A Graphene-Based Biosensing Platform Based on Regulated Release of an Aptameric DNA Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Chen, Yongli; Li, Song; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2015-11-09

    A novel biosensing platform was developed by integrating an aptamer-based DNA biosensor with graphene oxide (GO) for rapid and facile detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, as a model target). The DNA biosensor, which is locked by GO, is designed to contain two sensing modules that include recognition site for ATP and self-replication track that yields the nicking domain for Nt.BbvCI. By taking advantage of the different binding affinity of single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA and aptamer-target complex toward GO, the DNA biosensor could be efficiently released from GO in the presence of target with the help of a complementary DNA strand (CPDNA) that partially hybridizes to the DNA biosensor. Then, the polymerization/nicking enzyme synergetic isothermal amplification could be triggered, leading to the synthesis of massive DNA amplicons, thus achieving an enhanced sensitivity with a wide linear dynamic response range of four orders of magnitude and good selectivity. This biosensing strategy expands the applications of GO-DNA nanobiointerfaces in biological sensing, showing great potential in fundamental research and biomedical diagnosis.

  18. Future of biosensors: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Frieder W; Yarman, Aysu; Bachmann, Till; Hirsch, Thomas; Kubick, Stefan; Renneberg, Reinhard; Schumacher, Soeren; Wollenberger, Ulla; Teller, Carsten; Bier, Frank F

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors representing the technological counterpart of living senses have found routine application in amperometric enzyme electrodes for decentralized blood glucose measurement, interaction analysis by surface plasmon resonance in drug development, and to some extent DNA chips for expression analysis and enzyme polymorphisms. These technologies have already reached a highly advanced level and need minor improvement at most. The dream of the "100-dollar" personal genome may come true in the next few years provided that the technological hurdles of nanopore technology or of polymerase-based single molecule sequencing can be overcome. Tailor-made recognition elements for biosensors including membrane-bound enzymes and receptors will be prepared by cell-free protein synthesis. As alternatives for biological recognition elements, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been created. They have the potential to substitute antibodies in biosensors and biochips for the measurement of low-molecular-weight substances, proteins, viruses, and living cells. They are more stable than proteins and can be produced in large amounts by chemical synthesis. Integration of nanomaterials, especially of graphene, could lead to new miniaturized biosensors with high sensitivity and ultrafast response. In the future individual therapy will include genetic profiling of isoenzymes and polymorphic forms of drug-metabolizing enzymes especially of the cytochrome P450 family. For defining the pharmacokinetics including the clearance of a given genotype enzyme electrodes will be a useful tool. For decentralized online patient control or the integration into everyday "consumables" such as drinking water, foods, hygienic articles, clothing, or for control of air conditioners in buildings and cars and swimming pools, a new generation of "autonomous" biosensors will emerge.

  19. REMOTE BIOSENSOR FOR IN SITU MONITORING OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS. (R823663)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A remote electrochemical biosensor for field monitoring of organophosphate nerve agents is described. The new sensor relies on the coupling of the effective biocatalytic action of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) with a submersible amperometric probe design. This combination resu...

  20. A low cost color-based bacterial biosensor for measuring arsenic in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Using arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater for drinking or irrigation has caused major health problems for humans around the world, raising a need to monitor As level efficiently and economically. This study developed a color-based bacterial biosensor which is easy-to-use and inexpensive for measuring As and could be complementary to current As detecting techniques. The arsR-lacZ recombinant gene cassette in nonpathogenic strain Escherichia coli DH5α was used in the color-based biosensor which could be observed by eyes or measured by spectrometer. The developed bacterial biosensor demonstrates a quantitative range from 10 to 500μgL(-1) of As in 3-h reaction time. Furthermore, the biosensor was able to successfully detect and estimate As concentration in groundwater sample by measuring optical density at 595nm (OD595). Among different storage methods used in this study, biosensor in liquid at 4°C showed the longest shelf life about 9d, and liquid storage at RT and cell pellet could also be stored for about 3-5d. In conclusion, this study showed that the As biosensor with reliable color signal and economical preservation methods is useful for rapid screening of As pollutant, providing the potential for large scale screening and better management strategies for environmental quality control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Galactose Biosensor Based on Functionalized ZnO Nanorods with Galactose Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of galactose biosensor based on functionalised ZnO nanorods is described. The galactose biosensor was developed by immobilizing galactose oxidase on ZnO nanorods in conjunction with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker molecule. The IRAS study provided evidence for the interaction of galactose oxidase with the surface of ZnO nanorods. The electromotive force (EMF response of the galactose biosensor was measured by potentiometric method. We observed that the proposed biosensor has a linear detection range over a concentration range from 10 mM to 200 mM with good sensitivity of 89.10±1.23 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor has shown fast time response of less than 10 s and a good selectivity towards galactose in the presence of common interferents such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, glucose, and magnesium ions. The galactose biosensor based on galactose oxidase immobilized ZnO nanorods has a shelf life more than four weeks.

  2. Fabrication of Biosensor Based on Polyaniline/Gold Nanorod Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Tamer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This present paper describes a new approach to fabricate a new amperometric sensor for the determination of glucose. Polyaniline (PANI film doped with colloidal gold nanorod particles has been used to immobilize glucose oxidase by glutaraldehyde. The polyaniline/gold nanorod composite structure gave an excellent matrix for enzyme immobilization due to the large specific surface area and higher electroactivity. The composite has been characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. The SERS spectrum of the surface-immobilized glucose oxidase and the spectrum of the native enzyme indicate that the main feature of the native structure of glucose oxidase was conserved after being immobilized on the polymer matrix. The amperometric response was measured as a function of concentration of glucose at a potential of 0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl in 0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH 6.4. Linear range of the calibration curve was from 17.6 μM to 1 mM with a sensitivity of 13.8 μA⋅mM−1⋅cm−2 and a limit of detection (LOD of 5.8 μM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant KM was calculated as 1.0 mM and the response time was less than 3 seconds.

  3. Fluorescence-based biosensors from concepts to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, May C

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges of modern biology and medicine consists in finding means to visualize biomolecules in their natural environment with the greatest level of accuracy, so as to gain insight into their properties and behaviour in a physiological and pathological setting. This has been achieved thanks to the design of novel imaging agents, in particular to fluorescent biosensors. Fluorescence Biosensors comprise a large set of tools which are useful for fundamental purposes as well as for applications in biomedicine, drug discovery and biotechnology. These tools have been designed a

  4. A Review of Membrane-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Remko; Evoy, Stephane

    2015-06-15

    Biosensors are of increasing interest for the detection of bacterial pathogens in many applications such as human, animal and plant health, as well as food and water safety. Membranes and membrane-like structures have been integral part of several pathogen detection platforms. Such structures may serve as simple mechanical support, function as a part of the transduction mechanism, may be used to filter out or concentrate pathogens, and may be engineered to specifically house active proteins. This review focuses on membrane materials, their associated biosensing applications, chemical linking procedures, and transduction mechanisms. The sensitivity of membrane biosensors is discussed, and the state of the field is evaluated and summarized.

  5. An Amperometric Immunosensor Based on Graphene Composite Film and Protein a for Chlorpyrifos Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyou Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an immunosensor was designed for chlorpyrifos detection, which was based on graphene-multi-walled carbon nanotubes-gold nanoparticle-chitosan (GR-MWCNTs-AuNPs- CHIT nanocomposite film. Protein A (SPA can combine with gold nanoparticles, which made anti- chlorpyrifos antibody immobilized orientedly, eventually the modified immunosensor was developed for the detection of chlorpyrifos residues. Under the optimized conditions, a regression equation: y=9.5676 lgC (ng/mL +18.164 (R2=0.9976 was obtained with a detection limit as low as 0.037 ng/mL. The proposed chlorpyrifos immunosensor exhibited high reproducibility, stability, and good selectivity and regeneration, it has the potential of real sample detection.

  6. Small Microbial Three-Electrode Cell Based Biosensor for Online Detection of Acute Water Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Zhai, Junfeng; Liu, Changyu; Zhang, Xueping; Bai, Lu; Wang, Yizhe; Dong, Shaojun

    2017-11-22

    The monitoring of toxicity of water is very important to estimate the safety of drinking water and the level of water pollution. Herein, a small microbial three-electrode cell (M3C) biosensor filled with polystyrene particles was proposed for online monitoring of the acute water toxicity. The peak current of the biosensor related with the performance of the bioanode was regarded as the toxicity indicator, and thus the acute water toxicity could be determined in terms of inhibition ratio by comparing the peak current obtained with water sample to that obtained with nontoxic standard water. The incorporation of polystyrene particles in the electrochemical cell not only reduced the volume of the samples used, but also improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Experimental conditions including washing time with PBS and the concentration of sodium acetate solution were optimized. The stability of the M3C biosensor under optimal conditions was also investigated. The M3C biosensor was further examined by formaldehyde at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.03%, and 0.05% (v/v), and the corresponding inhibition ratios were 14.6%, 21.6%, and 36.4%, respectively. This work provides a new insight into the development of an online toxicity detector based on M3C biosensor.

  7. Preparation of Oxygen Meter Based Biosensor for Determination of Triglyceride in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BHAMBI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for preparation of a dissolved oxygen meter (make Aqualytic, Germany based triglyceride biosensor employing a polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane bound lipase, glycerol kinase (GK and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase The biosensor measures dissolved O2 utilized in the oxidation of triglyceride (TG by membrane bound lipase, glycerol kinase (GK and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO, which is directly proportional to (TG concentration. The biosensor showed optimum response within 10-15 sec at pH 7.5 and 39.5 ºC. A linear relationship was obtained between the (TG concentration from 5mM to 20mM and oxygen consumed (mg/L. The biosensor was employed for determination of triglyceride in serum. The within and between batch coefficient of variation (CV were < 2.18 % and < 1.7% respectively. The minimum detection limit of the biosensor was 0.35 mM. A study of interference revealed that ascorbic acid, cholesterol and bilirubin caused 13%, 15%, and 12% interference, respectively.The biosensor is portable and can be used outside the laboratory.

  8. A novel amperometric sensor for peracetic acid based on a polybenzimidazole-modified gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Mu-Yi; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Lin, Yu-Chen

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a peracetic acid (PAA) sensor based on a polybenzimidazole-modified gold (PBI/Au) electrode. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that PAA oxidized 69.4% of the imine in PBI to form PBI N-oxide, increasing the electrochemical reduction current during cyclic voltammetry. The chemical oxidation of the PBI/Au electrode by PAA, followed by its electrochemical reduction, allowed PAA to be detected directly and consecutively by assessing its reduction current. The PAA sensor had a broad linear detection range (3.1 μM-1.5 mM) and a rapid response time (3.9 s) at an applied potential of -0.3 V. Potentially interfering substances, such as hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and oxygen, had no effect on the ability of the probe to detect PAA, indicating high selectivity of the probe. Furthermore, the detection range, response time, and sensitivity of the sensor could all be improved by modification of the smooth planar electrode surface to a porous three-dimensional configuration. When compared to the analytical characteristics of other PAA sensors operating under optimal conditions, the three-dimensional PBI/Au electrode offers a rapid detection time, a usable linear range, and a relatively low detection limit.

  9. A novel amperometric sensor for peracetic acid based on a polybenzimidazole-modified gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Mu-Yi, E-mail: huamy@mail.cgu.edu.t [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hsiao-Chien [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Rung-Ywan [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd., Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yu-Chen [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-30

    We have developed a peracetic acid (PAA) sensor based on a polybenzimidazole-modified gold (PBI/Au) electrode. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that PAA oxidized 69.4% of the imine in PBI to form PBI N-oxide, increasing the electrochemical reduction current during cyclic voltammetry. The chemical oxidation of the PBI/Au electrode by PAA, followed by its electrochemical reduction, allowed PAA to be detected directly and consecutively by assessing its reduction current. The PAA sensor had a broad linear detection range (3.1 {mu}M-1.5 mM) and a rapid response time (3.9 s) at an applied potential of -0.3 V. Potentially interfering substances, such as hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and oxygen, had no effect on the ability of the probe to detect PAA, indicating high selectivity of the probe. Furthermore, the detection range, response time, and sensitivity of the sensor could all be improved by modification of the smooth planar electrode surface to a porous three-dimensional configuration. When compared to the analytical characteristics of other PAA sensors operating under optimal conditions, the three-dimensional PBI/Au electrode offers a rapid detection time, a usable linear range, and a relatively low detection limit.

  10. ELP-OPH/BSA/TiO2 nanofibers/c-MWCNTs based biosensor for sensitive and selective determination of p-nitrophenyl substituted organophosphate pesticides in aqueous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jing; Hou, Changjun; Dong, Qiuchen; Ma, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jun; Huo, Danqun; Yang, Mei; Galil, Khaled Hussein Abd El; Chen, Wilfred; Lei, Yu

    2016-11-15

    A novel biosensor for rapid, sensitive and selective monitoring of p-nitrophenyl substituted organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in aqueous system was developed using a functional nanocomposite which consists of elastin-like-polypeptide-organophosphate hydrolase (ELP-OPH), bovine serum albumin (BSA), titanium dioxide nanofibers (TiO2NFs) and carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs). ELP-OPH was simply purified from genetically engineered Escherichia coli based on the unique phase transition of ELP and thus served as biocatalyst for OPs, while BSA was used to stabilize OPH activity in the nanocomposite. TiO2NFs was employed to enrich organophosphates in the nanocomposite due to its strong affinity with phosphoric group in OPs, while c-MWCNTs was used to enhance the electron transfer in the amperometric detection as well as for covalent immobilization of ELP-OPH. ELP-OPH/BSA/TiO2NFs/c-MWCNTs nanocomposite were systematically characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectra, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Under the optimized operating conditions, the ELP-OPH/BSA/TiO2NFs/c-MWCNTs based biosensor for OPs shows a wide linear range, a fast response (less than 5s) and limits of detection (S/N=3) as low as 12nM and 10nM for methyl parathion and parathion, respectively. Such excellent sensing performance can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the individual components in the nanocomposite. Its further application for selectively monitoring OPs compounds spiked in lake water samples was also demonstrated with good accuracy. These features indicate that the developed nanocomposite offers an excellent biosensing platform for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of organophosphates compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Graphene Electronic Device Based Biosensors and Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, are emerging as an exciting material system for a new generation of atomically thin electronic devices. With their ultrahigh surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical properties, 2D-layered materials hold the promise for the construction of a generation of chemical and biological sensors with unprecedented sensitivity. In my PhD thesis, I mainly focus on graphene based electronic biosensors and chemical sensors. In the first part of my thesis, I demonstrated the fabrication of graphene nanomesh (GNM), which is a graphene thin film with a periodic array of holes punctuated in it. The periodic holes introduce long periphery active edges that provide a high density of functional groups (e.g. carboxylic groups) to allow for covalent grafting of specific receptor molecules for chemical and biosensor applications. After covalently functionalizing the GNM with glucose oxidase, I managed to make a novel electronic sensor which can detect glucose as well as pH change. In the following part of my thesis I demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-hemin conjugate for nitric oxide detection. The non-covalent functionalization through pi-pi stacking interaction allows reliable immobilization of hemin molecules on graphene without damaging the graphene lattice to ensure the highly sensitive and specific detection of nitric oxide. The graphene-hemin nitric oxide sensor is capable of real-time monitoring of nitric oxide concentrations, which is of central importance for probing the diverse roles of nitric oxide in neurotransmission, cardiovascular systems, and immune responses. Our studies demonstrate that the graphene-hemin sensors can respond rapidly to nitric oxide in physiological environments with sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that the graphene-hemin sensors can be used for the detection of nitric oxide released from macrophage cells and endothelial cells, demonstrating their

  12. Nuclear track-based biosensors with the enzyme laccase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Arellano, H. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma, Av. de las Garzas No. 10, Col. El Panteón, Lerma de Villada, Municipio de Lerma, Estado de México, C.P. 52005 (Mexico); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@xanum.uam.mx [Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeneria, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Hidalgo, Del. Álvaro Obregón C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico); Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Muñoz Hernández, G. [Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeneria, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Hidalgo, Del. Álvaro Obregón C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico); Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Alfonta, L. [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We construct a biosensor using polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. • We use the biosensor for quantitation of phenolic compounds. • The biosensor can detect picomolar concentrations for some phenolic compounds. - Abstract: A new type of biosensors for detecting phenolic compounds is presented here. These sensors consist of thin polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. The presence of suitable phenolic compounds in the sensors leads to the formation of enzymatic reaction products in the tracks, which differ in their electrical conductivities from their precursor materials. These differences correlate with the concentrations of the phenolic compounds. Corresponding calibration curves have been established for a number of compounds. The sensors thus produced are capable to cover between 5 and 9 orders of magnitude in concentration – in the best case down to some picomoles. The sensor's detection sensitivity strongly depends on the specific compound. It is highest for caffeic acid and acid blue 74, followed by ABTS and ferulic acid.

  13. Nuclear track-based biosensors with the enzyme laccase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia-Arellano, H.; Fink, Dietmar; Hernandez, G. M.; Vacík, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Alfonta, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 310, SI (2014), s. 66-76 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Biosensor * Laaccase * nuclear tracks * Phenolic compounds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  14. The development and application of FET-based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1986-01-01

    After having considered the general definition of biosensors, the specifications of one type are discussed here in more detail, namely the pH-sensitive ISFET, which is at present being clinically investigated for intravascular blood pH recording. Results, advantages and possible improvements will be

  15. A novel urea conductometric biosensor based on zeolite immobilized urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdeciler, Salih Kaan; Soy, Esin; Oztürk, Seçkin; Kucherenko, Ivan; Soldatkin, Oleksandr; Dzyadevych, Sergei; Akata, Burcu

    2011-09-15

    A new approach was developed for urea determination where a thin film of silicalite and zeolite Beta deposited onto gold electrodes of a conductometric biosensor was used to immobilize the enzyme. Biosensor responses, operational and storage stabilities were compared with results obtained from the standard membrane methods for the same measurements. For this purpose, different surface modification techniques, which are simply named as Zeolite Membrane Transducers (ZMTs) and Zeolite Coated Transducers (ZCTs) were compared with Standard Membrane Transducers (SMTs). Silicalite and zeolite Beta with Si/Al ratios 40, 50 and 60 were used to modify the conductometric electrodes and to study the biosensor responses as a function of changing zeolitic parameters. During the measurements using ZCT electrodes, there was no need for any cross-linker to immobilize urease, which allowed the direct evaluation of the effect of changing Si/Al ratio for the same type of zeolite on the biosensor responses for the first time. It was seen that silicalite and zeolite Beta added electrodes in all cases lead to increased responses with respect to SMTs. The responses obtained from ZCTs were always higher than ZMTs as well. The responses obtained from zeolite Beta modified ZMTs and ZCTs increased as a function of increasing Si/Al ratio, which might be due to the increased hydrophobicity and/or the acid strength of the medium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel sensitive cell-based Love Wave biosensor for marine toxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Fang, Jiaru; Zou, Ling; Zou, Yingchang; Lang, Lang; Gao, Fan; Hu, Ning; Wang, Ping

    2016-03-15

    A novel HepG2 cell-based biosensor using Love Wave sensor was developed to implement the real-time and sensitive detection of a diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin, Okadaic acid (OA). Detachable Love Wave sensor unit and miniaturized 8-channel recording instrument were designed for the convenient experimental preparation and sensor response signal measurement. The Love Wave sensor, whose synchronous frequency is around 160 MHz, was fabricated with ST-cut quartz substrate. To establish a cell-based biosensor, HepG2 cells as sensing elements were cultured onto the Love Wave sensor surface, and the cell attachment process was recorded by this biosensor. Results showed this sensor could monitor the cell attachment process in real time and response signals were related to the initial cell seeding densities. Furthermore, cell-based Love Wave sensor was treated with OA toxin. This biosensor presented a good performance to various OA concentrations, with a wide linear detection range (10-100 μg/L). Based on the ultrasensitive acoustic wave platform, this cell-based biosensor will be a promising tool for real-time and convenient OA screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Engineering Rugged Field Assays to Detect Hazardous Chemicals Using Spore-Based Bacterial Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Daniel; Deo, Sapna; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial whole cell-based biosensors have been genetically engineered to achieve selective and reliable detection of a wide range of hazardous chemicals. Although whole-cell biosensors demonstrate many advantages for field-based detection of target analytes, there are still some challenges that need to be addressed. Most notably, their often modest shelf life and need for special handling and storage make them challenging to use in situations where access to reagents, instrumentation, and expertise are limited. These problems can be circumvented by developing biosensors in Bacillus spores, which can be engineered to address all of these concerns. In its sporulated state, a whole cell-based biosensor has a remarkably long life span and is exceptionally resistant to environmental insult. When these spores are germinated for use in analytical techniques, they show no loss in performance, even after long periods of storage under harsh conditions. In this chapter, we will discuss the development and use of whole cell-based sensors, their adaptation to spore-based biosensors, their current applications, and future directions in the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biosensor design based on Marangoni flow in an evaporating drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantum, Joshua R; Baglia, Mark L; Eagleton, Zachary E; Mernaugh, Raymond L; Haselton, Frederick R

    2014-01-21

    Effective point-of-care diagnostics require a biomarker detection strategy that is low-cost and simple-to-use while achieving a clinically relevant limit of detection. Here we report a biosensor that uses secondary flows arising from surface Marangoni stresses in an evaporating drop to concentrate target-mediated particle aggregates in a visually detectable spot. The spot size increases with increasing target concentration within the dynamic range of the assay. The particle deposition patterns are visually detectable and easily measured with simple optical techniques. We use optical coherence tomography to characterize the effect of cross-sectional flow fields on the motion of particles in the presence and absence of target (aggregated and non-aggregated particles, respectively). We show that choice of substrate material and the presence of salts and glycerol in solution promote the Marangoni-induced flows that are necessary to produce signal in the proposed design. These evaporation-driven flows generate signal in the assay on a PDMS substrate but not substrates with greater thermal conductivity like indium tin oxide-coated glass. In this proof-of-concept design we use the M13K07 bacteriophage as a model target and 1 μm-diameter particles surface functionalized with anti-M13 monoclonal antibodies. Using standard microscopy-based techniques to measure the final spot size, the assay has a calculated limit-of-detection of approximately 100 fM. Approximately 80% of the maximum signal is generated within 10 minutes of depositing a 1 μL drop of reacted sample on PDMS enabling a relatively quick time-to-result.

  19. Amperometric Immunosensor for Carbofuran Detection Based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-Antibody Conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyou Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3. The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  20. Glucose Sensing Using Capacitive Biosensor Based on Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambran Hartono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film-based capacitive biosensor was developed for glucose sensing. This device consists of a PVDF film sandwiched between two electrodes. A capacitive biosensor measures the dielectric properties of the dielectric layers at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrode. A glucose oxidase (GOx enzyme was immobilized onto the electrode to oxidize glucose. In practice, the biochemical reaction of glucose with the GOx enzyme generates free electron carriers. Consequently, the potential difference between the electrodes is increased, resulting in a measurable voltage output of the biosensor. The device was tested for various glucose concentrations in the range of 0.013 to 5.85 M, and various GOx enzyme concentrations between 4882.8 and 2.5 million units/L. We found that the sensor output increased with increasing glucose concentration up to 5.85 M. These results indicate that the PVDF film-based capacitive biosensors can be properly applied to glucose sensing and provide opportunities for the low-cost fabrication of glucose-based biosensors based on PVDF materials.

  1. A novel classification of prostate specific antigen (PSA) biosensors based on transducing elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Mansoor Ani; Ahmad, Zubair; Shakoor, R A; Mohamed, A M A; Kahraman, Ramazan

    2017-06-01

    During the last few decades, there has been a tremendous rise in the number of research studies dedicated towards the development of diagnostic tools based on bio-sensing technology for the early detection of various diseases like cardiovascular diseases (CVD), many types of cancer, diabetes mellitus (DM) and many infectious diseases. Many breakthroughs have been developed in the areas of improving specificity, selectivity and repeatability of the biosensor devices. Innovations in the interdisciplinary areas like biotechnology, genetics, organic electronics and nanotechnology also had a great positive impact on the growth of bio-sensing technology. As a product of these improvements, fast and consistent sensing policies have been productively created for precise and ultrasensitive biomarker-based disease diagnostics. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely considered as an important biomarker used for diagnosing prostate cancer. There have been many publications based on various biosensors used for PSA detection, but a limited review was available for the classification of these biosensors used for the detection of PSA. This review highlights the various biosensors used for PSA detection and proposes a novel classification for PSA biosensors based on the transducer type used. We also highlight the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each technique used for PSA biosensing which will make this article a complete reference tool for the future researches in PSA biosensing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Adsorption in Surface-based Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus

    The present Ph.D. dissertation concerns the application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, which is a surface-based biosensor technology, for studies of adsorption dynamics. The thesis contains both experimental and theoretical work. In the theoretical part we develop the theory...... for convection, diffusion, and adsorption in surface-based biosensors in general. In particular, we study the transport dynamics in a model geometry of a Biacore SPR sensor. An approximate quasi-steady theory, which has been widely adopted in the SPR literature to capture convective and diffusive mass transport...... is critical for reliable use of the quasi-steady theory. Our theoretical results provide users of surface-based biosensors with a tool of correcting experimentally obtained adsorption rate constants, based on the quasisteady theory. Finally, the consequence of adsorption on all surfaces present in the flow...

  3. Microfabricated Electrochemical Cell-Based Biosensors for Analysis of Living Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA, the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS. The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

  4. Recent advances in DNA-based electrochemical biosensors for heavy metal ion detection: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidur, M R; Aziz, A R Abdul; Basirun, W J

    2017-04-15

    The presence of heavy metal in food chains due to the rapid industrialization poses a serious threat on the environment. Therefore, detection and monitoring of heavy metals contamination are gaining more attention nowadays. However, the current analytical methods (based on spectroscopy) for the detection of heavy metal contamination are often very expensive, tedious and can only be handled by trained personnel. DNA biosensors, which are based on electrochemical transduction, is a sensitive but inexpensive method of detection. The principles, sensitivity, selectivity and challenges of electrochemical biosensors are discussed in this review. This review also highlights the major advances of DNA-based electrochemical biosensors for the detection of heavy metal ions such as Hg 2+ , Ag + , Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies Regarding the Membranous Support of a Glucose Biosensor Based on Gox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Bizerea-Spiridon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To obtain glucose biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOx, the enzyme can be immobilized on the sensitive surface of a glass electrode by different techniques: deposition on membranous support (cellophane or other macromolecular material or entrapment in a matrix. Deposition on membranous support also involves cross-linking with glutaraldehyde or entrapment in silica gel, following the sol-gel procedure. The aim of this preliminary work was to study the influence of cellophane replacement with a PVA based membranous support on the glucose biosensor performance. The data obtained at pH measurements of buffer solutions with cellophane and PVA membranous supports respectively, show that the PVA based membrane assures superior performances of the biosensor for low glucose concentrations determination (about 10-4 M. These results allow the transition to an improved immobilization technique, namely the enzyme entrapment in membranous material.

  6. Graphitized carbon nanofiber-Pt nanoparticle hybrids as sensitive tool for preparation of screen printing biosensors. Detection of lactate in wines and ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Oscar A; Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro J; Añorga, Larraitz; Jubete, Elena; Ruiz, Virginia; Borghei, Maryam; Cabañero, Germán; Grande, Hans J

    2015-02-01

    This work describes the fabrication of a new lactate biosensor. The strategy is based on the use of a novel hybrid nanomaterial for amperometric biosensors i.e. platinum nanoparticles (PtNps) supported on graphitized carbon nanofibers (PtNps/GCNF) prepared by chemical reduction of the Pt precursor at GCNF surfaces. The biosensors were constructed by covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) onto screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) modified with PtNps (PtNps/GCNF-SPCEs) using polyethyleneimine (PEI) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Experimental variables concerning both the biosensor design and the detection process were investigated for an optimal analytical performance. Lactate biosensors show good reproducibility (RSD 4.9%, n=10) and sensitivity (41,302±546) μA/Mcm(2), with a good limit of detection (6.9μM). Covalent immobilization of the enzyme allows the reuse of the biosensor for several measurements, converting them in a cheap alternative to the solid electrodes. The long-term stability of the biosensors was also evaluated. 90% of the signal was kept after 3months of storage at room temperature (RT), while 95% was retained after 18months at -20°C. These results demonstrate that the method provides sensitive electrochemical lactate biosensors where the stability of the enzymatic activity can be preserved for a long period of time in adequate storage conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A sensitive glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Xingxin; Li, Jianguo; Long, Yumei; Li, Weifeng; Tu, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Nano-Ag particles were coated with colloidal carbon (Ag@C) to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of biosensor. The core–shell structure was evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed that the carbon shell is rich of function groups such as − OH and − COOH. The as-prepared Ag@C core–shell structure can offer favorable microenvironment for immobilizing glucose oxidase and the direct electrochemistry process of glucose oxidase (GOD) at Ag@C modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was realized. The modified electrode exhibited good response to glucose. Under optimum experimental conditions the biosensor linearly responded to glucose concentration in the range of 0.05–2.5 mM, with a detection limit of 0.02 mM (S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (K M app ) of the biosensor is calculated to be 1.7 mM, suggesting high enzymatic activity and affinity toward glucose. In addition, the GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. These results suggested that core–shell structured Ag@C is an ideal matrix for the immobilization of the redox enzymes and further the construction of the sensitive enzyme biosensor. - Highlights: • Enhanced direct electrochemistry of GOD was achieved at Ag@C modified electrode. • A novel glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell structure was developed. • The designed GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE biosensor showed favorable analysis properties. • The biosensor is easy to prepare and can be applied for real sample assay

  8. A sensitive glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Xingxin; Li, Jianguo [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Long, Yumei, E-mail: yumeilong@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou (China); Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liweifeng@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Tu, Yifeng [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou (China)

    2015-04-01

    Nano-Ag particles were coated with colloidal carbon (Ag@C) to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of biosensor. The core–shell structure was evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed that the carbon shell is rich of function groups such as − OH and − COOH. The as-prepared Ag@C core–shell structure can offer favorable microenvironment for immobilizing glucose oxidase and the direct electrochemistry process of glucose oxidase (GOD) at Ag@C modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was realized. The modified electrode exhibited good response to glucose. Under optimum experimental conditions the biosensor linearly responded to glucose concentration in the range of 0.05–2.5 mM, with a detection limit of 0.02 mM (S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (K{sub M}{sup app}) of the biosensor is calculated to be 1.7 mM, suggesting high enzymatic activity and affinity toward glucose. In addition, the GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. These results suggested that core–shell structured Ag@C is an ideal matrix for the immobilization of the redox enzymes and further the construction of the sensitive enzyme biosensor. - Highlights: • Enhanced direct electrochemistry of GOD was achieved at Ag@C modified electrode. • A novel glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell structure was developed. • The designed GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE biosensor showed favorable analysis properties. • The biosensor is easy to prepare and can be applied for real sample assay.

  9. Development of a Protease Biosensor Based on a Dimerization-Dependent Red Fluorescent Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Aaron C; Alford, Spencer C; Hunter, Sean A; Kannan, Deepti; Parra Sperberg, R Andres; Chang, Cheryl H; Cochran, Jennifer R

    2018-01-19

    Dysregulated activity of the protease matriptase is a key contributor to aggressive tumor growth, cancer metastasis, and osteoarthritis. Methods for the detection and quantification of matriptase activity and inhibition would be useful tools. To address this need, we developed a matriptase-sensitive protein biosensor based on a dimerization-dependent red fluorescent protein (ddRFP) reporter system. In this platform, two adjoining protein domains, connected by a protease-labile linker, produce fluorescence when assembled and are nonfluorescent when the linker is cleaved by matriptase. A panel of ddRFP-based matriptase biosensor designs was created that contained different linker lengths between the protein domains. These constructs were characterized for linker-specific cleavage, matriptase activity, and matriptase selectivity; a biosensor containing a RSKLRVGGH linker (termed B4) was expressed at high yields and displayed both high catalytic efficiency and matriptase specificity. This biosensor detects matriptase inhibition by soluble and yeast cell surface expressed inhibitor domains with up to a 5-fold dynamic range and also detects matriptase activity expressed by human cancer cell lines. In addition to matriptase, we highlight a strategy that can be used to create effective biosensors for quantifying activity and inhibition of other proteases of interest.

  10. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Optimized Biocomposite for Organophosphorus and Carbamates Pesticides Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Montes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characterization and optimization of biosensors based on graphite-epoxy which incorporates the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE. By means of advanced electrochemical techniques, such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV, the characterization and optimization of graphite-epoxy-AChE biosensors have been performed. In order to obtain sensitive electrodes, the optimal composition of the transducer material (graphite-epoxy-enzyme ratio was studied. The optimization of the conductive particles distribution inside the biomaterial has allowed an improvement of the electrochemical properties. Optimal composition guarantees improving electrochemical properties required, such as high electron-transfer rate, high signal-to-noise ratio, and suitable sensitivity. The optimal biocomposite composition range was obtained between 16% and 17% of graphite and 0.12% of AChE. The biosensors were applied to the analysis of different pesticides, organophosphorus and carbamates, using indirect measurements based on enzymatic inhibition process. These optimized biosensors present detection limit one order of magnitude lower compared to the standard composition (nonoptimized and allow achieving concentrations lower than the established ones by the pesticides regulation. Finally, spiked tap water samples with pesticides were analyzed with the optimized biosensors.

  11. A Biosensor for Urea from Succinimide-Modified Acrylic Microspheres Based on Reflectance Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available New acrylic microspheres were synthesised by photopolymerisation where the succinimide functional group was incorporated during the microsphere preparation. An optical biosensor for urea based on reflectance transduction with a large linear response range to urea was successfully developed using this material. The biosensor utilized succinimide-modified acrylic microspheres immobilized with a Nile blue chromoionophore (ETH 5294 for optical detection and urease enzyme was immobilized on the surface of the microspheres via the succinimide groups. No leaching of the enzyme or chromoionophore was observed. Hydrolysis of the urea by urease changes the pH and leads to a color change of the immobilized chromoionophore. When the color change was monitored by reflectance spectrophotometry, the linear response range of the biosensor to urea was from 0.01 to 1,000 mM (R2 = 0.97 with a limit of detection of 9.97 mM. The biosensor response showed good reproducibility (relative standard deviation = 1.43%, n = 5 with no interference by major cations such as Na+, K+, NH4+ and Mg2+. The use of reflectance as a transduction method led to a large linear response range that is better than that of many urea biosensors based on other optical transduction methods.

  12. Detection of parathyroid hormone using an electrochemical impedance biosensor based on PAMAM dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hormone-based impedimetric biosensor to determine parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in serum for diagnosis and monitoring treatment of hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism and thyroid cancer. The interaction between PTH and the biosensor was investigated by an electrochemical method. The biosensor was based on the gold electrode modified by 12-mercapto dodecanoic (12MDDA). Antiparathyroid hormone (anti-PTH) was covalently immobilized on to poly amidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) which was bound to a 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) couple, self-assembled monolayer structure from one of the other NH2 sites. The immobilization of anti-PTH was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscope techniques. After the optimization studies of immobilization materials such as 12MDDA, EDC-NHS, PAMAM, and glutaraldehyde, the performance of the biosensor was investigated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility. PTH was detected within a linear range of 10-60 fg/mL. Finally the described biosensor was used to monitor PTH levels in artificial serum samples. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. A novel tyrosinase biosensor based on hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposite for the detection of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Limin; Zhang Li [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Zhang Xiaobing, E-mail: xbzhang@hnu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Huan Shuangyan; Shen Guoli; Yu Ruqin [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-04-30

    A novel tyrosinase biosensor based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HA)-chitosan nanocomposite has been developed for the detection of phenolic compounds. The uniform and size controlled nano-HA was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and its morphological characterization was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Tyrosinase was then immobilized on a nano-HA-chitosan nanocomposite-modified gold electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the sensing film. The prepared biosensor was applied to determine phenolic compounds by monitoring the reduction signal of the biocatalytically produced quinone species at -0.2 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode). The effects of the pH, temperature and applied potential on the biosensor performance were investigated, and experimental conditions were optimized. The biosensor exhibited a linear response to catechol over a wide concentration range from 10 nM to 7 {mu}M, with a high sensitivity of 2.11 x 10{sup 3} {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, and a limit of detection down to 5 nM (based on S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of the enzyme electrode were estimated to be 3.16, 1.31 and 3.52 {mu}M for catechol, phenol and m-cresol, respectively. Moreover, the stability and reproducibility of this biosensor were evaluated with satisfactory results.

  14. Development of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Kyung Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to develop a single-walled carbon nanotube- (SWCNT- based biosensor to detect Staphylococcus aureus. The specificity of 11 bacteria and polyclonal anti-Staphylococcus aureus antibodies (pAbs was determined using an indirect ELISA. The pAbs were immobilized onto sensor platform after the hybridization of 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (PBASE. The resistance difference (ΔR was calculated using a potentiostat. The bacteria detected by the biosensor were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optimum concentration of SWCNTs on the platform was determined to be 0.1 mg/mL. The binding of pAbs with S. aureus resulted in a significant increase in resistance value of the biosensor (P<0.05. The SEM images confirmed the specific binding of S. aureus on the biosensor. The SWCNT-based biosensor was able to detect S. aureus with a limit of detection (LOD of 4 log⁡CFU/mL.

  15. MWCNTs based high sensitive lateral flow strip biosensor for rapid determination of aqueous mercury ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Teng, Jun; Zhu, Mengya; Zheng, Lei; Zhong, Youhao; Liu, Guodong; Xue, Feng; Chen, Wei

    2016-11-15

    Here, we describe a disposable multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) labeled nucleic acid lateral flow strip biosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of aqueous mercury ions (Hg(2+)). Unlike the conventional colloidal gold nanoparticle based strip biosensors, the carboxylated MWCNTs were selected as the labeling substrate because of its high specific surface area for immobilization of recognition probes, improved stability and enhanced detection sensitivity of the strip biosensor. Combining the sandwich-type of T-Hg(2+)-T recognition mechanism with the optical properties of MWCNTs on lateral flow strip, optical black bands were observed on the lateral flow strips. Parameters (such as membrane category, the MWCNTs concentration, the amount of MWCNT-DNA probe, and the volume of the test probe) that govern the sensitivity and reproducibility of the sensor were optimized. The response of the optimized biosensor was highly linear over the range of 0.05-1ppb target Hg(2+), and the detection threshold was estimated at 0.05 ppb within a 15-min assay time. The sensitivity was 10-fold higher than the conventional colloidal gold based strip biosensor. More importantly, the stability of the sensor was also greatly improved with the usage of MWCNTs as the labeling. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Double Biocatalysis Signal Amplification Glucose Biosensor Based on Porous Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Controllable preparation of nanopores to promote the performance of electrochemical biosensing interfaces has become one of the researching frontiers in biosensing. A double biocatalysis signal amplification of glucose biosensor for the study of electrochemical behaviors of glucose oxidase (GOx was proposed by using horseradish peroxidase biosynthesized porous graphene (PGR as the platform for the biocatalytic deposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. The biosensor showed a linear range from 0.25 to 27.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM (S/N = 3 towards glucose. Furthermore, the proposed AuNPs/GOx–PGR modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNPs/GOx–PGR/GCE achieved direct electron transfer of GOx.

  17. Double Biocatalysis Signal Amplification Glucose Biosensor Based on Porous Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianbin; Wang, Bini; Ren, Hongjiang

    2017-01-01

    Controllable preparation of nanopores to promote the performance of electrochemical biosensing interfaces has become one of the researching frontiers in biosensing. A double biocatalysis signal amplification of glucose biosensor for the study of electrochemical behaviors of glucose oxidase (GOx) was proposed by using horseradish peroxidase biosynthesized porous graphene (PGR) as the platform for the biocatalytic deposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The biosensor showed a linear range from 0.25 to 27.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM (S/N = 3) towards glucose. Furthermore, the proposed AuNPs/GOx–PGR modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNPs/GOx–PGR/GCE) achieved direct electron transfer of GOx. PMID:28953240

  18. Strategies towards advanced ion track-based biosensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alfonta, L.; Bukelman, O.; Chandra, A.; Fahrner, W. R.; Fink, D.; Fuks, D.; Golovanov, V.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Hoppe, K.; Kiv, A.; Klinkovich, I.; Landau, M.; Morante, J.R.; Tkachenko, N.V.; Vacík, Jiří; Valden, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 164, 7-8 (2009), s. 431-437 ISSN 1042-0150. [2nd International Meeting on Recent Developments in the Study of Radiation Effects in Matters. Fodele, 07.09.2008-11.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : biosensors * etched tracks * enzymes Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2009

  19. Sulfite oxidase biosensors based on tetrathiafulvalene modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for sulfite determination in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero-Abad, Begoña; Alonso-Lomillo, M Asunción; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia

    2014-02-17

    Screen-printed carbon electrodes have been modified with tetrathiafulvalene and sulfite oxidase enzyme for the sensitive and selective detection of sulfite. Amperometric experimental conditions were optimized taking into account the importance of quantifying sulfite in wine samples and the inherent complexity of these samples, particularly red wine. The biosensor responds to sulfite giving a cathodic current (at +200 mV vs screen-printed Ag/AgCl electrode and pH 6) in a wide concentration range, with a capability of detection of 6 μM (α=β=0.05) at 60°C. The method has been applied to the determination of sulfite in white and red samples, with averages recoveries of 101.5% to 101.8%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA biosensors based on gold nanoparticles-modified graphene oxide for the detection of breast cancer biomarkers for early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ayman Ali; Sánchez, Josep Lluís Acero; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Abbas, Mohammed Nooredeen

    2017-12-01

    Two different DNA (ERBB2c and CD24c) modified gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide loaded on glassy carbon electrodes were prepared for early detection of breast cancer markers by electrochemical detection of HER2. Comparative study of ERBB2c and CD24c for the detection was carried out. A "sandwich-type" detection strategy was employed in this electrochemical DNA biosensor and its response was measured by amperometric detection. The electrochemical signal enhancement achieved via gold nanoparticles and grapheme oxide system allowed for sensitive detection of the breast cancer biomarker ERBB2 and the control marker CD24. The modified graphene oxide was characterised using Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The various steps involved in the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with graphene oxide, gold nanoparticles and DNA probes, target and reporter probe were electrochemically characterised using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Using amperometric detection of a horse radish peroxidase label, detection limits of 0.16nM and 0.23nM were obtained with sensitivity 378nA/nM and 219nA/nM for ERBB2 andCD24 respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Label-free DNA biosensor based on resistance change of platinum nanoparticles assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotadis, Evangelos; Voutyras, Konstantinos; Chatzipetrou, Marianneza; Tsekenis, Georgios; Patsiouras, Lampros; Madianos, Leonidas; Chatzandroulis, Stavros; Zergioti, Ioanna; Tsoukalas, Dimitris

    2016-07-15

    A novel nanoparticle based biosensor for the fast and simple detection of DNA hybridization events is presented. The sensor utilizes hybridized DNA's charge transport properties, combining them with metallic nanoparticle networks that act as nano-gapped electrodes. The DNA hybridization events can be detected by a significant reduction in the sensor's resistance due to the conductive bridging offered by hybridized DNA. By modifying the nanoparticle surface coverage, which can be controlled experimentally being a function of deposition time, and the structural properties of the electrodes, an optimized biosensor for the in situ detection of DNA hybridization events is ultimately fabricated. The fabricated biosensor exhibits a wide response range, covering four orders of magnitude, a limit of detection of 1nM and can detect a single base pair mismatch between probe and complementary DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped diamond (BDD thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC, carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitivity, and fast response. Electrochemical reactions perform at the interface between electrolyte solutions and the electrodes surfaces, so the surface structures and properties of the BDD electrodes are important for electrochemical detection. In this paper, the recent advances of BDD electrodes with different surfaces including nanostructured surface and chemically modified surface, for the construction of various electrochemical biosensors, were described.

  3. Effects of Sr Addition to La-Based Perovskite Sensing-Electrode on YSZ-Based Amperometric-Type NOx Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, T; Okawa, H; Takahashi, S [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, 456-8587 (Japan); UMEDA, M, E-mail: t_ueda@jfcc.or.jp [Daido University, 10-3 Takiharu-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya, 457-8530 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Sensing characteristics of amperometric NOx sensor using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and La-based perovskite-type oxide sensing-electrode (SE) was examined. La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MO{sub 3}(M = Co, Mn, Fe) and LaMnO{sub 3} was synthesized by means of spray pyrolysis method. The sensor attached with La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} as a SE showed the highest occupancy rate of NO{sub 2} response in total current as well as low current response to CO, C{sub 3}H{sub 6}, NH{sub 3} at 600deg. C in O{sub 2} (21%). The response was increased with increasing NO{sub 2} concentration in the examined range between 50 to 800 ppm. The comparison of sensing property between LaMnO{sub 3}-SE and La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3}-SE showed the substitution Sr for La improved the NO{sub 2} response for the sensors.

  4. Protein and cell patterning for cell-based biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseh, Mandana

    Patterned platforms that alternately promote or prevent the attachment of biomolecules promise to advance bio-micro-electro-mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) and cell-based biosensors (CBBs) for medical diagnostic, therapeutic, and prosthetic applications. When integrated with microelectronic or optical technologies, arrays of cells can be fabricated onto "biochips" to simultaneously process numerous analytes. Among the benefits are rapid and sensitive analysis, portability and ability to obtain functional information from analytes. This integration requires cells to be selectively patterned on platforms composed of more than one material, particularly in an electrode-insulator format. Current cell patterning technologies cannot yet provide effective solutions to patterning cells on desired substrates, largely because most of the techniques pattern cells on substrates of single material. In addition, they generally employ a mechanical device to guide selective protein or cell attachment, which may degrade their biological functionality. The other major challenges, especially in development of CBBs, include long-term cell selectivity and creation of uniform "single-cell" patterns. The central component of this research is to develop novel techniques to pattern multiple and/or single cells with high precision, selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term cell selectivity. First, a novel surface engineering approach was developed to covalently immobilize proteins or peptides on the gold substrates and bio-inert poly(ethylene glycol)-silane molecules on silicon substrates. Next, photolithography and surface engineering were combined to pattern microarrays of cell-adhesive proteins on gold electrodes to mediate cell adhesion. The versatility of this approach for immobilization of various proteins on different types of gold patterns was characterized by florescence microscopy, ToF-SIMS, and AFM. Optical-DIC microscopy illustrated selective attachment of various cells on

  5. A Simple Visual Ethanol Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase Immobilized onto Polyaniline Film for Halal Verification of Fermented Beverage Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-01

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%–0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284

  6. Electrochemiluminescent biosensor for hypoxanthine based on the electrically heated carbon paste electrode modified with xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenyu; Sun, Jianjun; Chen, Jinhua; Guo, Liang; Chen, Yiting; Chen, Guonan

    2008-04-15

    A new electrochemiluminescent (ECL) biosensor based on an electrically heated carbon paste electrode (HCPE) that was surface modified by xanthine oxidase (XOD) was designed and constructed in this work. It was found that the ECL intensity of luminol could be enhanced at the surface of XOD/HCPE by adding hypoxanthine (HX) to the solution, and there was a linear relationship between the ECL intensity and the concentration of HX. On the basis of this, an ECL enzyme biosensor can thus be developed to detect HX. However, because the activity of XOD is highly dependent on temperature, the biosensor is very sensitive to the temperature of the electrode. Also, because the temperature of the electrode may also affect the diffusion and convection of the luminescent compounds near the electrode surface, a suitable temperature for XOD/HCPE has to be controlled to achieve the best ECL signal. The key feature of the designed biosensor is that the temperature of the electrode is controllable so the most suitable temperature for the enzyme reaction can be obtained. The obtained results showed that the ECL enzyme biosensor exhibited the best sensitivity at an electrode temperature of 35 degrees C for the detection of HX. The detection limit was 30-fold lower than that at room temperature (25 degrees C).

  7. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takalkar, Sunitha; Baryeh, Kwaku; Liu, Guodong

    2017-12-15

    We report a fluorescent carbon nanoparticle (FCN)-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle with a diameter of around 15nm was used as a tag to label a detection DNA probe, which was complementary with the part of target DNA. A capture DNA probe was immobilized on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor. Sandwich-type hybridization reactions among the FCN-labeled DNA probe, target DNA and capture DNA probe were performed on the lateral flow biosensor. In the presence of target DNA, FCNs were captured on the test zone of the biosensor and the fluorescent intensity of the captured FCNs was measured with a portable fluorescent reader. After systematic optimizations of experimental parameters (the components of running buffers, the concentration of detection DNA probe used in the preparation of FCN-DNA conjugates, the amount of FCN-DNA dispensed on the conjugate pad and the dispensing cycles of the capture DNA probes on the test-zone), the biosensor could detect a minimum concentration of 0.4 fM DNA. This study provides a rapid and low-cost approach for DNA detection with high sensitivity, showing great promise for clinical application and biomedical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Disposable bioluminescence-based biosensor for detection of bacterial count in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinping; Liu, Xiaohong; Tian, Qing; Yue, Weiwei; Zeng, Jing; Chen, Guangquan; Cai, Xinxia

    2009-11-01

    A biosensor for rapid detection of bacterial count based on adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence has been developed. The biosensor is composed of a key sensitive element and a photomultiplier tube used as a detector element. The disposable sensitive element consists of a sampler, a cartridge where intracellular ATP is chemically extracted from bacteria, and a microtube where the extracted ATP reacts with the luciferin-luciferase reagent to produce bioluminescence. The bioluminescence signal is transformed into relevant electrical signal by the detector and further measured with a homemade luminometer. Parameters affecting the amount of the extracted ATP, including the types of ATP extractants, the concentrations of ATP extractant, and the relevant neutralizing reagent, were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the biosensor showed a linear response to standard bacteria in a concentration range from 10(3) to 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter with a correlation coefficient of 0.925 (n=22) within 5min. Moreover, the bacterial count of real food samples obtained by the biosensor correlated well with those by the conventional plate count method. The proposed biosensor, with characteristics of low cost, easy operation, and fast response, provides potential application to rapid evaluation of bacterial contamination in the food industry, environment monitoring, and other fields.

  9. Nanomolar detection of methylparaben by a cost-effective hemoglobin-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, A; Ghodsi, J; Afraz, A; Yurchenko, O; Urban, G

    2016-12-01

    This work describes the development of a new biosensor for methylparaben determination using electrocatalytic properties of hemoglobin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric oxidation of methylparaben by the proposed biosensor in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0), a physiological pH, was studied and it was confirmed that methylparaben undergoes a one electron-one proton reaction in a diffusion-controlled process. The biosensor was fabricated by carbon paste electrode modified with hemoglobin and multiwalled carbon nanotube. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the modified electrode, a sensitive voltammetric method was used for determination of methylparaben within a linear range from 0.1 to 13μmolL(-1) and detection limit of 25nmolL(-1). The developed biosensor possessed accurate and rapid response to methylparaben and showed good sensitivity, stability, and repeatability. Finally, the applicability of the proposed biosensor was verified by methylparaben evaluation in various real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on a hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on horseradish peroxidase/GNPs-thionine/chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Xiaobin; Pang Guangchang; Liang Xinyi; Wang Meng; Liu Jing; Zhu Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Glutaraldehyde was used as the bridge linking agent to covalently bonded thionine in chitosan, which is more stable and could effectively prevalent leakage of the electronic mediator. ► The effect of GNPs adsorbed HRP was first accurately characterized by bio-layer interferometry using the ForteBio Octer system. ► The application of self-assembly technology increases the biosensor stability. - Abstract: A novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on horseradish peroxidase/GNPs-thionine/chitosan has been developed. Gold nanoparticles fixed with horseradish peroxidase were adsorbed on glassy carbon electrode by the chitosan which cross-linked with the electron mediator of horseradish peroxidase as the bridge linking agent. The assembly procedures were monitored by UV–visible spectral scanning, bio-layer interferometry, cyclic voltammetric and alternating current impedance. The chronoamperometry was used to measure hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide biosensor linear range of detection is 1 × 10 −7 –1 × 10 −4 mol/L, detection limit up to 5.0 × 10 −8 mol/L. Moreover the stability, reproducibility and selectivity of the biosensor were also studied and the results confirmed that the biosensor exhibit fast response to hydrogen peroxide and possess high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability.

  11. Construction of Microbial-based Biosensor to Measure BOD of Industrial Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Mahdavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study a cell-based biosensor for measurement of BOD was designed and developed. Activated sludge collected from wastewater treatment plant of Shahinshahr was used as biological receptor and a Clark cell was used as transducer. According to the results obtained from the sensor calibration, a linear relationship between the current changes and glucose-glutamic acid (GAA standard concentrations up to 50 mg/L was observed. The BOD values of different industrial wastewaters, inlet and outlet of treatment plant of Ardineh Company (Isfahan, and also  inlet and outlet of domestic wastewater treatment plant of Shahinshahr, and outlet of treatment plant of Pegah Company (Isfahan were measured using this biosensor. Comparison of the results of this biosensor and the results of the standard BOD test (BOD5 showed that the mean percentage error measured by the sensor was +29.6%. The results concerning the stability of the designed biosensor showed a stability time of 3 days for the response of biosensor.

  12. Current trends in nanomaterial embedded field effect transistor-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Anuj; Pal Singh, Krishna

    2015-12-15

    Recently, as metal-, polymer-, and carbon-based biocompatible nanomaterials have been increasingly incorporated into biosensing applications, with various nanostructures having been used to increase the efficacy and sensitivity of most of the detecting devices, including field effect transistor (FET)-based devices. These nanomaterial-based methods also became the ideal for the amalgamation of biomolecules, especially for the fabrication of ultrasensitive, low-cost, and robust FET-based biosensors; these are categorically very successful at binding the target specified entities in the confined gated micro-region for high functionality. Furthermore, the contemplation of nanomaterial-based FET biosensors to various applications encompasses the desire for detection of many targets with high selectivity, and specificity. We assess how such devices have empowered the achievement of elevated biosensor performance in terms of high sensitivity, selectivity and low detection limits. We review the recent literature here to illustrate the diversity of FET-based biosensors, based on various kinds of nanomaterials in different applications and sum up that graphene or its assisted composite based FET devices are comparatively more efficient and sensitive with highest signal to noise ratio. Lastly, the future prospects and limitations of the field are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A disposable biosensor based on immobilization of laccase with silica spheres on the MWCNTs-doped screen-printed electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanting

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biosensors have attracted increasing attention as reliable analytical instruments in in situ monitoring of public health and environmental pollution. For enzyme-based biosensors, the stabilization of enzymatic activity on the biological recognition element is of great importance. It is generally acknowledged that an effective immobilization technique is a key step to achieve the construction quality of biosensors. Results A novel disposable biosensor was constructed by immobilizing laccase (Lac with silica spheres on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-doped screen-printed electrode (SPE. Then, it was characterized in morphology and electrochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The characterization results indicated that a high loading of Lac and a good electrocatalytic activity could be obtained, attributing to the porous structure, large specific area and good biocompatibility of silica spheres and MWCNTs. Furthermore, the electrochemical sensing properties of the constructed biosensor were investigated by choosing dopamine (DA as the typical model of phenolic compounds. It was shown that the biosensor displays a good linearity in the range from 1.3 to 85.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.42 μM (S/N = 3, and the Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp was calculated to be 3.78 μM. Conclusion The immobilization of Lac was successfully achieved with silica spheres to construct a disposable biosensor on the MWCNTs-doped SPE (MWCNTs/SPE. This biosensor could determine DA based on a non-oxidative mechanism in a rapid, selective and sensitive way. Besides, the developed biosensor could retain high enzymatic activity and possess good stability without cross-linking reagents. The proposed immobilization approach and the constructed biosensor offer a great potential for the fabrication of the enzyme-based biosensors and the analysis of phenolic compounds.

  14. Biosensor Detection of Neuropathy Target Esterase in Whole Blood as a Biomarker of Exposure to Neuropathic Organophosphorus Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makhaeva, Galina F; Sigolaeva, Larisa V; Zhuravleva, Lyudmila Z; Eremenko, Arkady V; Kurochkin, Ilya N; Malygin, Vladimir V; Richardson, Rudy J

    2002-01-01

    .... Lymphocyte NTE has also found use as a biomarker of human exposure to neuropathic OPs. Recently, a sensitive NTE biosensor was developed using a tyrosinase carbon-paste electrode for amperometric (Amp...

  15. Development of miniaturized pH biosensors based on electrosynthesized polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segut, Olivier; Lakard, Boris; Herlem, Guillaume; Rauch, Jean-Yves; Jeannot, Jean-Claude; Robert, Laurent; Fahys, Bernard

    2007-08-06

    A new type of pH biosensor was developed for biological applications. This biosensor was fabricated using silicon microsystem technology and consists in two platinum microelectrodes. The first microelectrode was coated by an electrosynthesized polymer and acted as the pH sensitive electrode when the second one was coated by a silver layer and was used as the reference electrode. Then, this potentiometric pH miniaturized biosensor based on electrosynthesized polypyrrole or electrosynthesized linear polyethylenimine films was tested. The potentiometric responses appeared reversible and linear to pH changes in the range from pH 4 to 9. More, the responses were fast (less than 1 min for all sensors), they were stable in time since PPy/PEI films were stable during more than 30 days, and no interference was observed. The influence of the polymer thickness was also studied.

  16. A yeast co-culture-based biosensor for determination of waste water contamination levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, N Yu; Arlyapov, V A; Chepurnova, M A; Alferov, S V; Reshetilov, A N

    2015-10-01

    Artificial microbial co-cultures were formed to develop the receptor element of a biosensor for assessment of biological oxygen demand (BOD). The co-cultures possessed broad substrate specificities and enabled assays of water and fermentation products within a broad BOD range (2.4-80 mg/dm(3)) with a high correlation to the standard method (R = 0.9988). The use of the co-cultures of the yeasts Pichia angusta, Arxula adeninivorans and Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in N-vinylpyrrolidone-modified poly(vinyl alcohol) enabled developing a BOD biosensor possessing the characteristics not inferior to those in the known biosensors. The results are indicative of a potential of using these co-cultures as the receptor element base in prototype models of instruments for broad application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on avidin-biotin conjugation for influenza virus (type A) detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Da-Jung; Kim, Ki-Chul; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2011-09-01

    An electrochemical DNA biosensor (E-DNA biosensor) was fabricated by avidin-biotin conjugation of a biotinylated probe DNA, 5'-biotin-ATG AGT CTT CTA ACC GAG GTC GAA-3', and an avidin-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to detect the influenza virus (type A). An avidin-modified GCE was prepared by the reaction of avidin and a carboxylic acid-modified GCE, which was synthesized by the electrochemical reduction of 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt. The current value of the E-DNA biosensor was evaluated after hybridization of the probe DNA and target DNA using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The current value decreased after the hybridization of the probe DNA and target DNA. The DNA that was used follows: complementary target DNA, 5'-TTC GAC CTC GGT TAG AAG ACT CAT-3' and two-base mismatched DNA, 5'-TTC GAC AGC GGT TAT AAG ACT CAT-3'.

  18. The detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yating; Li, Suiqiong; Horikawa, Shin; Shen, Wen; Park, Mi-Kyung; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the direct detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor. The ME biosensor consists of a ME resonator as the sensor platform and E2 phage as the biorecognition element that is genetically engineered to specifically bind with Salmonella typhimurium. The ME biosensor, which is a wireless sensor, vibrates with a characteristic resonant frequency under an externally applied magnetic field. Multiple sensors can easily be remotely monitored. Multiple measurement and control sensors were placed on the shell eggs contaminated by Salmonella typhimurium solutions with different known concentrations. The resonant frequency of sensors before and after the exposure to the spiked shell eggs was measured. The frequency shift of the measurement sensors was significantly different than the control sensors indicating Salmonella contamination. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm binding of Salmonella to the sensor surface and the resulting frequency shift results.

  19. Single walled carbon nanotube-based electrical biosensor for the label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, S. M.; Baek, Y. K.; Shin, S.

    2016-01-01

    We herein describe the development of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based electrical biosensor consisting of a two-terminal resistor, and report its use for the specific, label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria via changes in conductance. The ability of this biosensor to recognize...

  20. A Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-based Biosensor for Monitoring Microcystin-LR in Sources of Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxic cyanobacterial toxin, in sources of drinking water supplies. The biosensor electrodes are fabricated using dense, mm-long multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) arrays gro...

  1. From electrochemical biosensors to biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers in environmental determination of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malitesta, Cosimino; Di Masi, Sabrina; Mazzotta, Elisabetta

    2017-07-01

    Recent work relevant to heavy metal determination by inhibition-enzyme electrochemical biosensors and by selected biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers has been reviewed. General features and peculiar aspects have been evidenced. The replace of biological component by artificial receptors promises higher selectivity and stability, while biosensors keep their capability of producing an integrated response directly related to toxicity of the samples.

  2. Nanostructured silicon-based biosensors for the selective identification of analytes of social interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, Sabato; Champdore, Marcella de; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Parracino, Antonietta; Staiano, Maria; Vitale, Annalisa; Rossi, Mose; Rea, Ilaria; Rotiroti, Lucia; Rossi, Andrea M; Borini, Stefano; Rendina, Ivo; Stefano, Luca De

    2006-01-01

    Small analytes such as glucose, L-glutamine (Gln), and ammonium nitrate are detected by means of optical biosensors based on a very common nanostructured material, porous silicon (PSi). Specific recognition elements, such as protein receptors and enzymes, were immobilized on hydrogenated PSi wafers and used as probes in optical sensing systems. The binding events were optically transduced as wavelength shifts of the porous silicon reflectivity spectrum or were monitored via changes of the fluorescence emission. The biosensors described in this article suggest a general approach for the development of new sensing systems for a wide range of analytes of high social interest

  3. Biosensors and their applications – A review

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrotra, Parikha

    2016-01-01

    The various types of biosensors such as enzyme-based, tissue-based, immunosensors, DNA biosensors, thermal and piezoelectric biosensors have been deliberated here to highlight their indispensable applications in multitudinous fields.

  4. Carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of a cancer biomarker in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, Marion; Ahmad, Lama; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa; Salmon, Laurent

    2017-10-15

    Autocrine motility factor (AMF) is a tumor-secreted cytokine that stimulates tumor cell motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo. AMF could be detected in serum or urine of cancer patients with worse prognosis. Reported as a cancer biomarker, AMF secretion into body fluids might be closely related to metastases formation. In this study, a sensitive and specific carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor was designed for the detection and quantification of a protein model of AMF, namely phosphoglucose isomerase from rabbit muscle (RmPGI). Indeed, RmPGI displays high homology with AMF and has been shown to have AMF activity. The biosensor was constructed by covalent binding of the enzyme substrate d-fructose 6-phosphate (F6P). Immobilization was achieved on a gold surface electrode following a bottom-up approach through an aminated surface obtained by electrochemical patterning of ethylene diamine and terminal amine polyethylene glycol chain to prevent non-specific interactions. Carbohydrate-protein interactions were quantified in a range of 10 fM to 100nM. Complex formation was analyzed through monitoring of the redox couple Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and square wave voltammetry. The F6P-biosensor demonstrates a detection limit of 6.6 fM and high selectivity when compared to other non-specific glycolytic proteins such as d-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Detection of protein in spiked plasma was demonstrated and accuracy of 95% is obtained compared to result obtained in PBS (phosphate buffered saline). F6P-biosensor is a very promising proof of concept required for the design of a carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor using the enzyme substrate as bioreceptor. Such biosensor could be generalized to detect other protein biomarkers of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, Jakub; Čtyroký, Jiří; Homola, Jiří; Brynda, Eduard; Skalský, Miroslav; Nekvindová, P.; Špirková, J.; Škvor, J.; Schröfel, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 76, 1/3 (2001), s. 8-12 ISSN 0925-4005. [International Meeting on Chemical Sensors IMCS /8./. Basel, 02.07.2000-05.07.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/M057; GA ČR GA102/99/0549; GA ČR GA102/00/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance * optical sensors * integrated optics * biosensors * optical waveguides Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2001

  6. Fluorescence-based biosensor for monitoring of environmental pollutants: From concept to field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidmanova, Sarka; Kotlanova, Marketa; Rataj, Tomas; Damborsky, Jiri; Trtilek, Martin; Prokop, Zbynek

    2016-10-15

    An advanced optical biosensor was developed based on the enzymatic reaction with halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons that is accompanied by the fluorescence change of pH indicator. The device is applicable for the detection of halogenated contaminants in water samples with pH ranging from 4 to 10 and temperature ranging from 5 to 60°C. Main advantages of the developed biosensor are small size (60×30×190mm(3)) and portability, which together with short measurement time of 1min belong to crucial attributes of analytical technique useful for routine environmental monitoring. The biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of several important halogenated pollutants under laboratory conditions, e.g., 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, with the limits of detection of 2.7, 1.4 and 12.1mgL(-1), respectively. The continuous monitoring was demonstrated by repetitive injection of halogenated compound into measurement solution. Consequently, field trials under environmental settings were performed. The presence of 1,2-dichloroethane (10mgL(-1)) was proved unambiguously on one of three potentially contaminated sites in Czech Republic, and the same contaminant was monitored on contaminated locality in Serbia. Equipped by Global Positioning System, the biosensor was used for creation of a precise map of contamination. Concentrations determined by biosensor and by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer exhibited the correlation coefficient of 0.92, providing a good confidence for the routine use of the biosensor system in both field screening and monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of uranium by an amperometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Mary; Venkataramana, P.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An amperometric method has been standardised for the determination of uranium. Uranium is reduced to its quadrivalent state in concentrated phosphoric acid medium with ferrous iron. The excess iron is destroyed with nitric acid in presence of Mo(VI). The medium is diluted and U(IV) is titrated with standard potassium dichromate to an amperometric end point using a pair of identical plantinum wires as electrodes. The reagent volumes and uranium quantities have been scaled down to 30 ml. and 2-5 mg of uranium in the present work with a view to minimising the problems associated with recovery of plutonium. The results are quantitative with an R.S.D. of 0.2% in the present version of weight based titrations. (author)

  8. Biosensor for laboratory and lander-based analysis of benthicnitrate plus nitrite distribution in marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, N. P.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2009-01-01

    We present a psychotropic bacteria–based biosensor that can be used in low–temperature seawater for the analysis of nitrate + nitrite (NOx –). The sensor can be used to resolve concentrations below 1 µmol L–1 at low temperature (

  9. Performance Improvement by Layout Designs of Conductive Polymer Microelectrode Based Impedimetric Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Giulio; Daprà, Johannes; Cherré, Solène

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a theoretical, computational, and experimental evaluation of the performance of an impedimetric biosensor based on interdigitated conductive polymer (PEDOT:TsO) microelectrodes in a microfluidic system. The influence of the geometry of the electrodes and microchannels on t...

  10. Biosensor for laboratory and lander-based analysis of benthicnitrate plus nitrite distribution in marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, N. P.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2009-01-01

    We present a psychotropic bacteria–based biosensor that can be used in low–temperature seawater for the analysis of nitrate + nitrite (NOx –). The sensor can be used to resolve concentrations below 1 µmol L–1 at low temperature (salinity (35‰), and in situ use in the deep sea...

  11. Kinetic models for detection of toxicity in a microbial fuel cell based biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.; Keesman, K.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Straten, van G.

    2011-01-01

    Currently available models describing microbial fuel cell (MFC) polarization curves, do not describe the effect of the presence of toxic components. A bioelectrochemical model combined with enzyme inhibition kinetics, that describes the polarization curve of an MFC-based biosensor, was modified to

  12. New directions in medical biosensors employing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) derivative-based electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2009-01-01

    production and they are suitable for biosensor applications. Conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors have shown numerous advantages in a number of areas related to human health, such as the diagnosis of infectious diseases, genetic mutations, drug discovery, forensics and food technology, due...

  13. Droplet-based microscale colorimetric biosensor for multiplexed DNA analysis via a graphene nanoprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xia; Luo Ming; Shi Liyang; Ji Xinghu; He Zhike

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: With a microvalve manipulate technique combined with droplet platform, a microscale fluorescence-based colorimetric sensor for multiplexed DNA analysis is developed via a graphene nanoprobe. Highlights: ► A quantitative detection for multiplexed DNA is first realized on droplet platform. ► The DNA detection is relied on a simple fluorescence-based colorimetric method. ► GO is served as a quencher for two different DNA fluorescent probes. ► This present work provides a rapid, sensitive, visual and convenient detection tool for droplet biosensor. - Abstract: The development of simple and inexpensive DNA detection strategy is very significant for droplet-based microfluidic system. Here, a droplet-based biosensor for multiplexed DNA analysis is developed with a common imaging device by using fluorescence-based colorimetric method and a graphene nanoprobe. With the aid of droplet manipulation technique, droplet size adjustment, droplet fusion and droplet trap are realized accurately and precisely. Due to the high quenching efficiency of graphene oxide (GO), in the absence of target DNAs, the droplet containing two single-stranded DNA probes and GO shows dark color, in which the DNA probes are labeled carboxy fluorescein (FAM) and 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), respectively. The droplet changes from dark to bright color when the DNA probes form double helix with the specific target DNAs leading to the dyes far away from GO. This colorimetric droplet biosensor exhibits a quantitative capability for simultaneous detection of two different target DNAs with the detection limits of 9.46 and 9.67 × 10 −8 M, respectively. It is also demonstrated that this biosensor platform can become a promising detection tool in high throughput applications with low consumption of reagents. Moreover, the incorporation of graphene nanoprobe and droplet technique can drive the biosensor field one more step to some extent.

  14. A paper-based nanomodified electrochemical biosensor for ethanol detection in beers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinti, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cinti@uniroma2.it; Basso, Mattia; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana, E-mail: fabiana.arduini@uniroma2.it

    2017-04-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a paper-based screen-printed biosensor for the detection of ethanol in beer samples. Common office paper was adopted to fabricate the analytical device. The properties of this paper-based screen-printed electrode (SPE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and they were compared with the well-established polyester-based SPEs as well. Paper demonstrated similar properties when compared with polyester, highlighting suitability towards its utilization in sensor development, with the advantages of low cost and simple disposal by incineration. A nanocomposite formed by Carbon Black (CB) and Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs), namely CB/PBNPs, was utilized as an electrocatalyst to detect the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzymatic reaction between alcohol oxidase (AOx) and ethanol. After optimizing the analytical parameters, such as pH, enzyme, concentration, and working potential, the developed biosensor allowed a facile quantification of ethanol up to 10 mM (0.058 %{sub vol}), with a sensitivity of 9.13 μA/mM cm{sup 2} (1574 μA/%{sub vol} cm{sup 2}) and a detection limit equal to 0.52 mM (0.003%{sub vol}). These satisfactory performances rendered the realized paper-based biosensor reliable over the analysis of ethanol contained in four different types of beers, including Pilsner, Weiss, Lager, and alcohol-free. The proposed manufacturing approach offers an affordable and sustainable tool for food quality control and for the realization of different electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well. - Highlights: • Novel ethanol biosensor fabricated onto office paper. • Enhanced hydrogen peroxide detection using Carbon black/Prussian blue nanoparticles. • Only 100 μL required to perform measurements. • Paper-based electrochemical device coupled with a portable potentiostat. • Rapid quantification of ethanol in beer samples.

  15. A paper-based nanomodified electrochemical biosensor for ethanol detection in beers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinti, Stefano; Basso, Mattia; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a paper-based screen-printed biosensor for the detection of ethanol in beer samples. Common office paper was adopted to fabricate the analytical device. The properties of this paper-based screen-printed electrode (SPE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and they were compared with the well-established polyester-based SPEs as well. Paper demonstrated similar properties when compared with polyester, highlighting suitability towards its utilization in sensor development, with the advantages of low cost and simple disposal by incineration. A nanocomposite formed by Carbon Black (CB) and Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs), namely CB/PBNPs, was utilized as an electrocatalyst to detect the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzymatic reaction between alcohol oxidase (AOx) and ethanol. After optimizing the analytical parameters, such as pH, enzyme, concentration, and working potential, the developed biosensor allowed a facile quantification of ethanol up to 10 mM (0.058 % vol ), with a sensitivity of 9.13 μA/mM cm 2 (1574 μA/% vol cm 2 ) and a detection limit equal to 0.52 mM (0.003% vol ). These satisfactory performances rendered the realized paper-based biosensor reliable over the analysis of ethanol contained in four different types of beers, including Pilsner, Weiss, Lager, and alcohol-free. The proposed manufacturing approach offers an affordable and sustainable tool for food quality control and for the realization of different electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well. - Highlights: • Novel ethanol biosensor fabricated onto office paper. • Enhanced hydrogen peroxide detection using Carbon black/Prussian blue nanoparticles. • Only 100 μL required to perform measurements. • Paper-based electrochemical device coupled with a portable potentiostat. • Rapid quantification of ethanol in beer samples.

  16. A luminescent hybridoma-based biosensor for rapid detection of V. cholerae upon induction of calcium signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Parichehr; Sajedi, Reza H; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Zeinoddini, Mehdi; Bakhshi, Bita

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a hybridoma based biosensor was developed for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 which converts the antibody-antigen binding to bioluminescence light. After investigation on hybridoma performance, the biosensor was constructed by transfecting specific hybridoma cells with aequorin reporter gene and the bioluminescence activities of stable biosensor were measured. The sensitivity of biosensor was as few as 50 CFU/ml and it showed no responses to other entric bacteria. Moreover, the response time of biosensor was estimated in 7th second which means this method is considerably faster than many available detection assays. In addition, this biosensor was successfully applied to V. cholerae detection in environmental samples with no significant loss in sensitivity, demonstrating our proposed biosensor provides a sensitive and reliable method for detection of V. cholerae in natural samples. The application of whole hybridoma cell directly as a sensing element in biosensor construction which mentioned for the first time in present study suggests that hybridoma cells could provide a valuable tool for future studies in both basic and diagnostic sciences and could be considered as a fast and specific sensing element for detection of other pathogens in different applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. New CNT/poly(brilliant green) and CNT/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based electrochemical enzyme biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Madalina M; Pifferi, Valentina; Falciola, Luigi; Brett, Christopher M A

    2016-07-13

    A combination of the electroactive polymer poly(brilliant green) (PBG) or conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with carbon nanotubes to obtain CNT/PBG and CNT/PEDOT modified carbon film electrodes (CFE) has been investigated as a new biosensor platform, incorporating the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) as test enzyme, alcohol oxidase (AlcOx) or alcohol dehydrogenase (AlcDH). The sensing parameters were optimized for all biosensors based on CNT/PBG/CFE, CNT/PEDOT/CFE platforms. Under optimized conditions, both GOx biosensors exhibited very similar sensitivities, while in the case of AlcOx and AlcDH biosensors, AlcOx/CNT/PBG/CFE was found to give a higher sensitivity and lower detection limit. The influence of dissolved O2 on oxidase-biosensor performance was investigated and was shown to be different for each enzyme. Comparisons were made with similar reported biosensors, showing the advantages of the new biosensors, and excellent selectivity against potential interferents was successfully demonstrated. Finally, alcohol biosensors were successfully used for the determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Amperometric detection of carbohydrates based on the glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nano-flake layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy Du Nguyen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An electro-deposition approach was established to incorporate the gold nano-flakes onto the glassy carbon electrode in electrochemical cells (nano-Au/GC/ECCs. Using pulsed amperometric detection (PAD without any gold oxidation for cleaning (non-oxidative PAD, the nano-Au/GC/ECCs were able to maintain their activity for oxidizing of carbohydrates in a normal alkaline medium. The reproducibility of peak area was about 2 relative standard deviation (RSD,% for 6 consecutive injections. A dynamic range of carbohydrates was obtained over a concentration range of 5–80 mg L−1 and the limits of detection (LOD were of 2 mg L−1 for fructose and lactose and 1 mg L−1 for glucose and galactose. Moreover, the nano-Au/GC/ECC using the non-oxidative PAD was able to combine with the internal standard method for determination of lactose in fresh cow milk sample.

  19. Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on Spinach Using Phage-Based Magnetoelastic Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengen Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phage-based magnetoelastic (ME biosensors have been studied as an in-situ, real-time, wireless, direct detection method of foodborne pathogens in recent years. This paper investigates an ME biosensor method for the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh spinach leaves. A procedure to obtain a concentrated suspension of Salmonella from contaminated spinach leaves is described that is based on methods outlined in the U.S. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual for the detection of Salmonella on leafy green vegetables. The effects of an alternative pre-enrichment broth (LB broth vs. lactose broth, incubation time on the detection performance and negative control were investigated. In addition, different blocking agents (BSA, Casein, and Superblock were evaluated to minimize the effect of nonspecific binding. None of the blocking agents was found to be superior to the others, or even better than none. Unblocked ME biosensors were placed directly in a concentrated suspension and allowed to bind with Salmonella cells for 30 min before measuring the resonant frequency using a surface-scanning coil detector. It was found that 7 h incubation at 37 °C in LB broth was necessary to detect an initial spike of 100 cfu/25 g S. Typhimurium on spinach leaves with a confidence level of difference greater than 95% (p < 0.05. Thus, the ME biosensor method, on both partly and fully detection, was demonstrated to be a robust and competitive method for foodborne pathogens on fresh products.

  20. Investigation of a Photoelectrochemical Passivated ZnO-Based Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Jung Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A vapor cooling condensation system was used to deposit high quality intrinsic ZnO thin films and intrinsic ZnO nanorods as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field-effect-transistor (EGFET glucose biosensors. The sensing sensitivity of the resulting glucose biosensors operated in the linear range was 13.4 μA mM−1 cm−2. To improve the sensing sensitivity of the ZnO-based glucose biosensors, the photoelectrochemical method was utilized to passivate the sidewall surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The sensing sensitivity of the ZnO-based glucose biosensors with passivated ZnO nanorods was significantly improved to 20.33 μA mM−1 cm−2 under the same measurement conditions. The experimental results verified that the sensing sensitivity improvement was the result of the mitigation of the Fermi level pinning effect caused by the dangling bonds and the surface states induced on the sidewall surface of the ZnO nanorods.

  1. A Potentiometric Formaldehyde Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Alcohol Oxidase on Acryloxysuccinimide-modified Acrylic Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yook Heng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new alcohol oxidase (AOX enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide [poly(nBA-NAS] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE. Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor’s analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3–316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R2 = 0.9776, n = 3. The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3. The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor’s performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods.

  2. Nuclear track-based biosensors with the enzyme laccase

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arellano, H.; Fink, D.; Muñoz Hernández, G.; Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Alfonta, L.

    2014-08-01

    A new type of biosensors for detecting phenolic compounds is presented here. These sensors consist of thin polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. The presence of suitable phenolic compounds in the sensors leads to the formation of enzymatic reaction products in the tracks, which differ in their electrical conductivities from their precursor materials. These differences correlate with the concentrations of the phenolic compounds. Corresponding calibration curves have been established for a number of compounds. The sensors thus produced are capable to cover between 5 and 9 orders of magnitude in concentration - in the best case down to some picomoles. The sensor's detection sensitivity strongly depends on the specific compound. It is highest for caffeic acid and acid blue 74, followed by ABTS and ferulic acid.

  3. Plasmon based biosensor for distinguishing different peptides mutation states

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Gobind

    2013-05-08

    Periodic and reproducible gold nanocuboids with various matrix dimensions and with different inter-particle gaps were fabricated by means of top-down technique. Rhodamine 6G was used as a probe molecule to optimize the design and the fabrication of the cuboid nanostructures. The electric field distribution for the nanocuboids with varying matrix dimensions/inter-particle gap was also investigated. These SERS devices were employed as biosensors through the investigation of both myoglobin and wild/mutated peptides. The results demonstrate the probing and the screening of wild/mutated BRCA1 peptides, thus opening a path for the fabrication of simple and cheap SERS device capable of early detection of several diseases.

  4. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana, E-mail: viviana.scognamiglio@mlib.ic.cnr.it [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano [Biosensor S.r.l. - Via degli Olmetti 44 00060 Formello, Rome (Italy); Buonasera, Katia [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche - Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Rome (Italy); Giardi, Maria Teresa [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 {mu}M and 4.5 {mu}M, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 {mu}M and 35 {mu}M respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  5. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana; Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano; Buonasera, Katia; Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. ► The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. ► Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. ► The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 μM and 4.5 μM, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 μM and 35 μM respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  6. Determination of antibiotic residues and their interaction in milk with lactate biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinken, T; Riik, H

    2006-03-31

    Milk and dairy products are among the most important foodstuffs and the quality of raw milk is of significant importance from the point of view of human health. For rapid determination of chloramphenicol and penicillin residues in raw milk, lactate oxidase-based amperometric biosensor was used. The concentration of antibiotic residuals was determined by two characteristic reaction parameters, calculated from the biosensor transient response with the dynamic biosensor model. Both chloramphenicol and penicillin caused the decrease of the value of the kinetic parameter, but they changed the total signal change parameter in different ways. The shift of the combined total signal change parameter at the simultaneous presence of these antibiotics indicated their antagonistic effect. Due to the respiration process of bacteria in raw milk, the dynamics of the biosensor signal was different in warm and cold seasons. The respiration characteristics were added to the biosensor model as a negative linear time-depending factor. The reaction characteristic parameters, obtained with this complemented model, showed excellent alignment in different conditions and allowed to detect antibiotic residues and their interaction in raw milk.

  7. Speciation of chromium using chronoamperometric biosensors based on screen-printed electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Pérez, Ana, E-mail: anacp@ubu.es; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga, E-mail: olgado@ubu.es; Alonso-Lomillo, MAsunción, E-mail: malomillo@ubu.es; Arcos-Martínez, MJulia, E-mail: jarcos@ubu.es

    2014-06-23

    Highlights: • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(III) on tyrosinase based biosensors using SPCEs. • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(VI) on GOx based biosensors using SPCEs. • High degree of sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of both chromium species. • Bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric determination of both chromium species in the same sample. - Abstract: Chronoamperometric assays based on tyrosinase and glucose oxidase (GOx) inactivation have been developed for the monitoring of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Tyrosinase was immobilized by crosslinking on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) containing tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as electron transfer mediator. The tyrosinase/SPC{sub TTF}E response to pyrocatechol is inhibited by Cr(III). This process, that is not affected by Cr(VI), allows the determination of Cr(III) with a capability of detection of 2.0 ± 0.2 μM and a reproducibility of 5.5%. GOx modified screen-printed carbon platinised electrodes (SPC{sub Pt}Es) were developed for the selective determination of Cr(VI) using ferricyanide as redox mediator. The biosensor was able to discriminate two different oxidation states of chromium being able to reject Cr(III) and to detect the toxic species Cr(VI). Chronoamperometric response of the biosensor towards glucose decreases with the presence of Cr(VI), with a capability of detection of 90.5 ± 7.6 nM and a reproducibility of 6.2%. A bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric biosensor was finally developed using a tyrosinase/SPC{sub TTF}E and a GOx/SPC{sub Pt}E connected in array mode for the simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in spiked tap water and in waste water from a tannery factory samples.

  8. Glucose biosensor based on disposable electrochemical paper-based transducers fully fabricated by screen-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas-Ardisana, P J; Martínez-Paredes, G; Añorga, L; Grande, H J

    2018-06-30

    This paper describes a new approach for the massive production of electrochemical paper-based analytical devices (ePADs). These devices are fully fabricated by screen-printing technology and consist of a lineal microfluidic channel delimited by hydrophobic walls (patterned with diluted ultraviolet screen-printing ink in chromatographic paper grade 4) and a three-electrode system (printed with carbon and/or Ag/AgCl conductive inks). The printing process was characterised and optimized for pattern each layer with only one squeeze sweep. These ePADs were used as transducers to develop a glucose biosensor. Ionic strength/pH buffering salts, electrochemical mediator (ferricyanide) and enzyme (glucose dehydrogenase FAD-dependent) were separately stored along the microfluidic channel in order to be successively dissolved and mixed after the sample dropping at the entrance. The analyses required only 10 µl and the biosensors showed good reproducibility (RSD = 6.2%, n = 10) and sensitivity (0.426 C/M cm 2 ), wide linear range (0.5-50 mM; r 2 = 0.999) and low limit of detection (0.33 mM). Furthermore, the new biosensor was applied for glucose determination in five commercial soft-drinks without any sample treatment before the analysis. These samples were also analysed with a commercial enzymatic-kit assay. The results indicated that both methods provide accurate results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spreeta-based biosensor immunoassays to detect fraudulent adulteration in milk and milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, Willem; Marchesini, Gerardo R; Koopal, Kees

    2006-01-01

    Biacore biosensors (Biacore AB, Uppsala, Sweden) have proven to be robust analytical tools for the automated immunochemical detection of different adulterants and contaminants in milk and milk powder. However, the significant cost of the instruments is a disincentive for their wide application in food control laboratories. Therefore, a low-cost alternative optical biosensor (Spreeta, Texas Instruments, Attleboro, MA) was built into an affordable liquid handling system. Using this prototype biosensor, an inhibition immunoassay for bovine K-casein was evaluated for the detection of cow's milk in ewe's and goat's milk and for the detection of bovine rennet whey powder in milk powder. Comparable sensitivities were obtained for both adulterants in the Spreeta-based prototype biosensor and a Biacore 3000 instrument. The limit of detection for cow's milk was 0.17% (v/v) and bovine rennet whey powder could be detected in milk powder above 1% (w/w). The Spreeta sensor was also useful in the control of fraudulent water additions to milk, simply by measuring differences in the bulk response.

  10. Novel Protein-Based Solid-Biosensor for Determining Pro-oxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Esin; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2017-07-19

    To develop a protein-based biosensor measuring the pro-oxidant activities of phenolic compounds, egg white proteins were precipitated with calcium chloride to obtain an insoluble calcium proteinate complex. This biosensor was used for the determination of Cu(II)-induced pro-oxidant activity of antioxidants such as gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and myricetin, and ascorbic acid. This assay involved the reduction of Cu(II) ions to Cu(I) by antioxidant compounds (simultaneously giving rise to reactive oxygen species) and binding of the formed Cu(I) to the solid biosensor. The protein-bound Cu(I), an indicator of pro-oxidant activity of antioxidants on proteins, was colorimetrically determined at 450 nm with neocuproine (Nc). The method was applied to synthetic mixtures and herbal (sage, green tea, mint, and marjoram) infusions, and its findings were compared to those of a modified carbonyl detection assay. This low-cost biosensor can be prepared in large quantities and used for a long time.

  11. High-throughput determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) by a microplate-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hei-Leung; Kwok, Nga-Yan; Chan, Pak-Ho; Yeung, Chi-Hung; Lo, Waihung; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2007-06-01

    The use of the conventional 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) method in BOD determination is greatly hampered by its time-consuming sampling procedure and its technical difficulty in the handling of a large pool of wastewater samples. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop a fast and high-throughput biosensor for BOD measurements. This paper describes the construction of a microplate-based biosensor consisting of an organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) oxygen sensing film for high-throughput determination of BOD in wastewater. The ORMOSIL oxygen sensing film was prepared by reacting tetramethoxysilane with dimethyldimethoxysilane in the presence of the oxygen-sensitive dye tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium-(II) chloride. The silica composite formed a homogeneous, crack-free oxygen sensing film on polystyrene microtiter plates with high stability, and the embedded ruthenium dye interacted with the dissolved oxygen in wastewater according to the Stern-Volmer relation. The bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was loaded into the ORMOSIL/ PVA composite (deposited on the top of the oxygen sensing film) and used to metabolize the organic compounds in wastewater. This BOD biosensor was found to be able to determine the BOD values of wastewater samples within 20 min by monitoring the dissolved oxygen concentrations. Moreover, the BOD values determined by the BOD biosensor were in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional BOD5 method.

  12. Stimuli-Responsive Nanodiamond-Based Biosensor for Enhanced Metastatic Tumor Site Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Gu, Mengjie; Toh, Tan Boon; Abdullah, Nurrul Lissa Binti; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Metastasis is often critical to cancer progression and linked to poor survival and drug resistance. Early detection of metastasis, as well as identification of metastatic tumor sites, can improve cancer patient survival. Thus, developing technology to improve the detection of cancer metastasis biomarkers can improve both diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we investigated the use of nanodiamonds to develop a stimuli-responsive metastasis detection complex that utilizes matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) as a metastasis biomarker, as MMP9 increased expression has been shown to be indicative of metastasis. The nanodiamond-MMP9 biosensor complex consists of nanodiamonds functionalized with MMP9-specific fluorescent-labeled substrate peptides. Using this design, protease activity of MMP9 can be accurately measured and correlated to MMP9 expression. The nanodiamond-MMP9 biosensor also demonstrated an enhanced ability to protect the base sensor peptide from nonspecific serum protease cleavage. This enhanced peptide stability, combined with a quantitative stimuli-responsive output function, provides strong evidence for the further development of a nanodiamond-MMP9 biosensor for metastasis site detection. More importantly, this work provides the foundation for use of nanodiamonds as a platform for stimuli-responsive biosensors and theranostic complexes that can be implemented across a wide range of biomedical applications.

  13. A Novel Cell-Based Hybrid Acoustic Wave Biosensor with Impedimetric Sensing Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Li, Fang; Nordin, Anis Nurashikin; Voiculescu, Ioana

    2013-01-01

    A novel multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells will be presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques on a single device: resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). The multiparametric sensor system is based on the innovative use of the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator as working electrode for the ECIS technique. The QCM acoustic wave sensor consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on opposite sides. For integration of the QCM with the ECIS technique a semicircular counter electrode was fabricated near the upper electrode on the same side of the quartz crystal. Bovine aortic endothelial live cells (BAECs) were successfully cultured on this hybrid biosensor. Finite element modeling of the bulk acoustic wave resonator using COMSOL simulations was performed. Simultaneous gravimetric and impedimetric measurements performed over a period of time on the same cell culture were conducted to validate the device's sensitivity. The time necessary for the BAEC cells to attach and form a compact monolayer on the biosensor was 35∼45 minutes for 1.5 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 60 minutes for 2.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 70 minutes for 3.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; and 100 minutes for 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs. It was demonstrated that this time is the same for both gravimetric and impedimetric measurements. This hybrid biosensor will be employed in the future for water toxicity detection. PMID:23459387

  14. Naringenin-responsive riboswitch-based fluorescent biosensor module for Escherichia coli co-cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Yu; Jang, Sungho; Jones, J Andrew; Zill, Nicholas A; Linhardt, Robert J; Yuan, Qipeng; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2017-10-01

    The ability to design and construct combinatorial synthetic metabolic pathways has far exceeded our capacity for efficient screening and selection of the resulting microbial strains. The need for high-throughput rapid screening techniques is of upmost importance for the future of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Here we describe the development of an RNA riboswitch-based biosensor module with dual fluorescent reporters, and demonstrate a high-throughput flow cytometry-based screening method for identification of naringenin over producing Escherichia coli strains in co-culture. Our efforts helped identify a number of key operating parameters that affect biosensor performance, including the selection of promoter and linker elements within the sensor-actuator domain, and the effect of host strain, fermentation time, and growth medium on sensor dynamic range. The resulting biosensor demonstrates a high correlation between specific fluorescence of the biosensor strain and naringenin titer produced by the second member of the synthetic co-culture system. This technique represents a novel application for synthetic microbial co-cultures and can be expanded from naringenin to any metabolite if a suitable riboswitch is identified. The co-culture technique presented here can be applied to a variety of target metabolites in combination with the SELEX approach for aptamer design. Due to the compartmentalization of the two genetic constructs responsible for production and detection into separate cells and application as independent modules of a synthetic microbial co-culture we have subsequently reduced the need for re-optimization of the producer module when the biosensor is replaced or removed. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2235-2244. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A non-enzymatic amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor based on iron nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanulla, Baishnisha; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Chiu, Te-Wei; Chen, Tse-Wei; Ramaraj, Sayee Kannan

    2017-02-01

    A simple and facile green process was used for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite by using Ipomoea pes-tigridis leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared rGO/FeNPs nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nanocomposite was further modified on the glassy carbon electrode and used for non-enzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Cyclic voltammetry results reveal that rGO/FeNPs nanocomposite has excellent electro-reduction behavior to H 2 O 2 when compared to the response of FeNPs and rGO modified electrodes. Furthermore, the nanocomposite modified electrode shows 9 and 6 folds enhanced reduction current response to H 2 O 2 than that of rGO and FeNPs modified electrodes. Amperometric method was further used to quantify the H 2 O 2 using rGO/FeNPs nanocomposite, and the response was linear over the concentration ranging from 0.1μM to 2.15mM. The detection limit and sensitivity of the sensor were estimated as 0.056μM and 0.2085μAμM -1 cm -2 , respectively. The fabricated sensor also utilized for detection of H 2 O 2 in the presence of potentially active interfering species, and found high selectivity towards H 2 O 2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Nanobalance (EQCN) Based Biosensor for Sensitive Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhand, Sunil; Mishra, Geetesh K

    2017-01-01

    An electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN), which provides real-time analysis of dynamic surface events, is a valuable tool for analyzing biomolecular interactions. EQCN biosensors are based on mass-sensitive measurements that can detect small mass changes caused by chemical binding to small piezoelectric crystals. Among the various biosensors, the piezoelectric biosensor is considered one of the most sensitive analytical techniques, capable of detecting antigens at picogram levels. EQCN is an effective monitoring technique for regulation of the antibiotics below the maximum residual limit (MRL). The analysis of antibiotic residues requires high sensitivity, rapidity, reliability and cost effectiveness. For analytical purposes the general approach is to take advantage of the piezoelectric effect by immobilizing a biosensing layer on top of the piezoelectric crystal. The sensing layer usually comprises a biological material such as an antibody, enzymes, or aptamers having high specificity and selectivity for the target molecule to be detected. The biosensing layer is usually functionalized using surface chemistry modifications. When these bio-functionalized quartz crystals are exposed to a particular substance of interest (e.g., a substrate, inhibitor, antigen or protein), binding interaction occurs. This causes a frequency or mass change that can be used to determine the amount of material interacted or bound. EQCN biosensors can easily be automated by using a flow injection analysis (FIA) setup coupled through automated pumps and injection valves. Such FIA-EQCN biosensors have great potential for the detection of different analytes such as antibiotic residues in various matrices such as water, waste water, and milk.

  17. High-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Fang, Jiaru; Zou, Ling; Wan, Hao; Pan, Yuxiang; Su, Kaiqi; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Cell-based bioassays were effective method to assess the compound toxicity by cell viability, and the traditional label-based methods missed much information of cell growth due to endpoint detection, while the higher throughputs were demanded to obtain dynamic information. Cell-based biosensor methods can dynamically and continuously monitor with cell viability, however, the dynamic information was often ignored or seldom utilized in the toxin and drug assessment. Here, we reported a high-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording method via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology. The dynamic cell viability, inhibition ratio and growth rate were derived from the dynamic response curves from the cell-based impedance biosensor. The results showed that the biosensors has the dose-dependent manners to diarrhetic shellfish toxin, okadiac acid based on the analysis of the dynamic cell viability and cell growth status. Moreover, the throughputs of dynamic cytotoxicity were compared between cell-based biosensor methods and label-based endpoint methods. This cell-based impedance biosensor can provide a flexible, cost and label-efficient platform of cell viability assessment in the shellfish toxin screening fields.

  18. A multifunctional material based on co-electrospinning for developing biosensors with optical oxygen transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon-Marquez, Teresa; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L; Nagiah, Naveen; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Alberto; Fernandez-Sanchez, Jorge F

    2018-07-26

    A multifunctional material based on co-electrospinning has been developed as a basic material for the development of biosensors with optical oxygen transduction. It is based on coaxial nanofibres: inner fibres containing an oxygen sensitive dye and outer fibres containing aldehyde groups to allow the formation of Schiff bases with the amino groups of the enzyme. The resulting material preserves the oxygen sensing properties of the inner optical transducer as well as exhibits a high capacity for immobilizing molecules on its surface. Uricase has been selected as model enzyme and several parameters (temperature, pH, reaction time, buffer, and enzyme concentration) have been optimised to demonstrate the versatility of this novel multifunctional material in the development of biosensors with optical oxygen transduction for determining uric acid in serum samples. It suggests that the proposed multifunctional material can provide a promising multifunctional platform for biosensing applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multivalent interaction based carbohydrate biosensors for signal amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Chalagalla, Srinivas; Li, Tiehai; Sun, Xue-long; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2010-01-01

    Multivalent interaction between boronic acids immobilized on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor surface and the carbohydrates modified Au - nanoparticle (AuNP) has been demonstrated for the development of a sensitive carbohydrate biosensor. Briefly, a boronic acid - containing polymer (boropolymer) as multivalent carbohydrate receptor was oriented immobilized on the cysteamine coated electrode through isourea bond formation. Carbohydrates were conjugated to AuNPs to generate a multivalent carbohydrates moiety to amplify the response signal. Thus, the binding of the carbohydrate conjugated AuNPs to the boropolymer surface are multivalent which could simultaneously increase the binding affinity and specificity. We systematically studied the binding between five carbohydrate conjugated AuNPs and the boropolymer. Our studies show that the associate constant (Ka) was in the order of fucose carbohydrate analytes. Furthermore, the multivalent binding between carbohydrates and boronic acids are reversible and allow the regeneration of boropolymer surface by using 1M acetic acid so as to sequentially capture and release the carbohydrate analytes. PMID:20863680

  20. A Urea Potentiometric Biosensor Based on a Thiophene Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuan (Kevin Lai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A potentiometric enzyme biosensor is a convenient detector for quantification of urea concentrations in industrial processes, or for monitoring patients with diabetes, kidney damage or liver malfunction. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-thiopheneacetic acid (P(3HT-co-3TAA was chemically synthesized, characterized and spin-coated onto conductive indium tin oxide (ITO glass electrodes. Urease (Urs was covalently attached to the smooth surface of this copolymer via carbodiimide coupling. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the modified Urs/P(3HT-co-3TAA/ITO glass electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and the bound enzyme activity was confirmed by spectrophotometry. Potentiometric response studies indicated that this electrode could determine the concentration of urea in aqueous solutions, with a quasi-Nernstian response up to about 5 mM. No attempt was made to optimize the response speed; full equilibration occurred after 10 min, but the half-time for response was typically <1 min.

  1. Transcription factor-based biosensors enlightened by the analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul eFernandez-Lopez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Whole cell biosensors (WCBs have multiple applications for environmental monitoring, detecting a wide range of pollutants. WCBs depend critically on the sensitivity and specificity of the transcription factor (TF used to detect the analyte. We describe the mechanism of regulation and the structural and biochemical properties of TF families that are used, or could be used, for the development of environmental WCBs. Focusing on the chemical nature of the analyte, we review TFs that respond to aromatic compounds (XylS-AraC, XylR-NtrC and LysR, metal ions (MerR, ArsR, DtxR, Fur and NikR or antibiotics (TetR and MarR. Analyzing the structural domains involved in DNA recognition, we highlight the similitudes in the DNA binding domains (DBDs of these TF families. Opposite to DBDs, the wide range of analytes detected by TFs results in a diversity of structures at the effector binding domain (EBD. The modular architecture of TFs opens the possibility of engineering TFs with hybrid DNA and effector specificities. Yet, the lack of a crisp correlation between structural domains and specific functions makes this a challenging task.

  2. Covalent modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with neutral red for the fabrication of an amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeykumari, D R Shobha; Narayanan, S Sriman

    2007-01-01

    The nanoscale dimensions, graphitic surface chemistry and electronic properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) make them an ideal candidate for chemical and biochemical sensing. In this paper we explore a covalent chemical strategy for functionalization of MWNTs with neutral red through carbodiimide coupling between the primary amine of neutral red and carboxyl groups of the carbon nanotubes. The construction of an amperometric sensor was achieved by abrasive immobilization of the functionalized MWNTs on a paraffin impregnated graphite electrode followed by a coating of a thin film of nafion. The neutral red functionalized MWNTs were characterized by spectroscopic and electroanalytical methods. From the voltammetric studies, MWNTs were found to exhibit a higher accessible surface area in electrochemical reactions. The modified electrode exhibited stable electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide reduction in a wide potential range. A significant decrease in overvoltage for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, as well as a dramatic increase in the peak currents in comparison with a bare graphite electrode were observed. Such an ability of neutral red functionalized carbon nanotubes to promote the hydrogen peroxide electron transfer reaction with a short response time (<4 s) and long-term stability, a low detection limit, an extended linear concentration range and a high sensitivity suggest great promise for dehydrogenase and oxidase based amperometric biosensors

  3. Covalent modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with neutral red for the fabrication of an amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeykumari, D R Shobha; Narayanan, S Sriman [Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 (India)

    2007-03-28

    The nanoscale dimensions, graphitic surface chemistry and electronic properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) make them an ideal candidate for chemical and biochemical sensing. In this paper we explore a covalent chemical strategy for functionalization of MWNTs with neutral red through carbodiimide coupling between the primary amine of neutral red and carboxyl groups of the carbon nanotubes. The construction of an amperometric sensor was achieved by abrasive immobilization of the functionalized MWNTs on a paraffin impregnated graphite electrode followed by a coating of a thin film of nafion. The neutral red functionalized MWNTs were characterized by spectroscopic and electroanalytical methods. From the voltammetric studies, MWNTs were found to exhibit a higher accessible surface area in electrochemical reactions. The modified electrode exhibited stable electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide reduction in a wide potential range. A significant decrease in overvoltage for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, as well as a dramatic increase in the peak currents in comparison with a bare graphite electrode were observed. Such an ability of neutral red functionalized carbon nanotubes to promote the hydrogen peroxide electron transfer reaction with a short response time (<4 s) and long-term stability, a low detection limit, an extended linear concentration range and a high sensitivity suggest great promise for dehydrogenase and oxidase based amperometric biosensors.

  4. Biosensors and bioelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Karunakaran, Chandran; Benjamin, Robson

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors and Bioelectronics presents the rapidly evolving methodologies that are relevant to biosensors and bioelectronics fabrication and characterization. The book provides a comprehensive understanding of biosensor functionality, and is an interdisciplinary reference that includes a range of interwoven contributing subjects, including electrochemistry, nanoparticles, and conducting polymers. Authored by a team of bioinstrumentation experts, this book serves as a blueprint for performing advanced fabrication and characterization of sensor systems-arming readers with an application-based re

  5. A sensitive DNA biosensor based on a facile sulfamide coupling reaction for capture probe immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qingxiang; Ding, Yingtao; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Shulian; Zhang, Bin; Ni, Jiancong; Gao, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel DNA biosensor was fabricated through a facile sulfamide coupling reaction between probe DNA and the sulfonic dye of 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid that electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode. -- Highlights: •A versatile sulfonic dye of ANS was electrodeposited on a GCE. •A DNA biosensor was fabricated based on a facile sulfamide coupling reaction. •High probe DNA density of 3.18 × 10 13 strands cm −2 was determined. •A wide linear range and a low detection limit were obtained. -- Abstract: A novel DNA biosensor was fabricated through a facile sulfamide coupling reaction. First, the versatile sulfonic dye molecule of 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonate (AN-SO 3 − ) was electrodeposited on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to form a steady and ordered AN-SO 3 − layer. Then the amino-terminated capture probe was covalently grafted to the surface of SO 3 − -AN deposited GCE through the sulfamide coupling reaction between the amino groups in the probe DNA and the sulfonic groups in the AN-SO 3 − . The step-by-step modification process was characterized by electrochemistry and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Using Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ as probe, the probe density and the hybridization efficiency of the biosensor were determined to be 3.18 × 10 13 strands cm −2 and 86.5%, respectively. The hybridization performance of the biosensor was examined by differential pulse voltammetry using Co(phen) 3 3+/2+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) as the indicator. The selectivity experiments showed that the biosensor presented distinguishable response after hybridization with the three-base mismatched, non-complementary and complementary sequences. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents of Co(phen) 3 3+/2+ increased linearly with the logarithm values of the concentration of the complementary sequences in the range from 1.0 × 10 −13 M to 1.0 × 10 −8 M with

  6. An amperometric immunosensor for diagnosis of celiac disease based on covalent immobilization of open conformation tissue transglutaminase for determination of anti-tTG antibodies in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, Marco; Mattarozzi, Monica; Umiltà, Eleonora; Manfredi, Anita; Quaglia, Sara; Careri, Maria

    2014-12-15

    A new amperometric immunosensor based on the covalent immobilization of tissue transglutaminase enzyme in its open conformation (open-tTG) was developed and optimized for determination of anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG) in human serum. Experimental design allowed us to find the optimal conditions for quantification of both IgA and IgG isotypes of anti-tTG in order to assess suitability of the device for diagnostic purposes. The glassy carbon electrodic substrate was electrochemically functionalized with gold nanoparticles and subsequently derivatized with a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid for the covalent anchoring of the enzyme. This step was performed under carefully controlled conditions in order to keep the open conformation of the tTG. The immunosensor showed good analytical performance with limit of detection levels (1.7 AU mL(-1) for IgA and 2.7 AU mL(-1) for IgG) below the diagnostic threshold value (3.0 AU mL(-1)) and inter-sensor reproducibility giving RSD lower than 10%. The developed sensor was validated in serum samples from pediatric patients for clinical applications, using two ELISA kits specific for the determination of anti-tTG IgA and IgG antibodies as reference methods; good recovery rates ranging from 74% to 117% were calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel amperometric immunosensor based on layer-by-layer assembly of gold nanoparticles-multi-walled carbon nanotubes-thionine multilayer films on polyelectrolyte surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Chaofeng [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)], E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn; Chai Yaqin; Tang Mingyu; Chai Rong; He Xiulan [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2007-11-12

    A highly sensitive and label-free amperometric immunosensor has been developed for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) based on layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes-thionine (MWNTs-THI) and chitosan (CHIT) on 3-mercaptopropanesulfonic, sodium salt (MPS)-modified gold electrode surface by electrostatic adsorption. The stepwise LBL assembly process of electroactive species on electrode surface was characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) in PBS. The factors influencing the performance of the resulting immunosensor were studied in detail. The morphologies of MWNTs, MWNTs-THI and GNPs-MWNTs-THI-CHIT were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immunosensor was highly sensitive to CEA with a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL{sup -1} (signal/noise ratio of 3) and the linear range with two concentration intermittences was from 0.5 to 15.0 ng mL{sup -1} and from 15.0 to 200.0 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively. In addition, the prepared immunosensor could be regenerated 10 times with 5 M urea solution. When the immunosensor was stored at 4 deg. C and measured intermittently (every 4-6 days), no apparent change was found over 3 months. The immunosensor system showed an excellent reproducibility and stability.

  8. Development of innovative competitive amperometric immunosensors as promising tools in clinical diagnosis and food safety applications

    OpenAIRE

    Costantini, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research project was the development of competitive amperometric biosensors for clinical diagnostics and food safety applications, as a part of a research activity focused on innovations in sensing systems investigated in our laboratories of analytical chemistry. In particular, the project purpose was the development of innovative sensors for detection of serum biomarkers for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) and the development of competitive immun...

  9. Design of Microcantilever-Based Biosensor with Digital Feedback Control Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayu P. Kalambe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the design of cantilever-based biosensors with new readout, which hold promises as fast and cheap “point of care” device as well as interesting research tools. The fabrication process and related issues of the cantilever based bio-sensor are discussed. Coventorware simulation is carried out to analyze the device behavior. A fully integrated control circuit has been designed to solve manufacturing challenge which will take care of positioning of the cantilever instead of creating nanometer gap between the electrodes. The control circuit will solve the manufacturing challenge faced by the readout methods where it is essential to maintain precise gap between the electrodes. The circuit can take care of variation obtained due to fabrication process and maintain the precise gap between the electrodes by electrostatic actuation. The control circuit consist of analog and digital modules. The reliability issues of the sensor are also discussed.

  10. Biosensor-based microRNA detection: techniques, design, performance, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake N; Mutharasan, Raj

    2014-04-07

    The current state of biosensor-based techniques for amplification-free microRNA (miRNA) detection is critically reviewed. Comparison with non-sensor and amplification-based molecular techniques (MTs), such as polymerase-based methods, is made in terms of transduction mechanism, associated protocol, and sensitivity. Challenges associated with miRNA hybridization thermodynamics which affect assay selectivity and amplification bias are briefly discussed. Electrochemical, electromechanical, and optical classes of miRNA biosensors are reviewed in terms of transduction mechanism, limit of detection (LOD), time-to-results (TTR), multiplexing potential, and measurement robustness. Current trends suggest that biosensor-based techniques (BTs) for miRNA assay will complement MTs due to the advantages of amplification-free detection, LOD being femtomolar (fM)-attomolar (aM), short TTR, multiplexing capability, and minimal sample preparation requirement. Areas of future importance in miRNA BT development are presented which include focus on achieving high measurement confidence and multiplexing capabilities.

  11. Creatinine and urea biosensors based on a novel ammonium ion-selective copper-polyaniline nano-composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhybak, M; Beni, V; Vagin, M Y; Dempsey, E; Turner, A P F; Korpan, Y

    2016-03-15

    The use of a novel ammonium ion-specific copper-polyaniline nano-composite as transducer for hydrolase-based biosensors is proposed. In this work, a combination of creatinine deaminase and urease has been chosen as a model system to demonstrate the construction of urea and creatinine biosensors to illustrate the principle. Immobilisation of enzymes was shown to be a crucial step in the development of the biosensors; the use of glycerol and lactitol as stabilisers resulted in a significant improvement, especially in the case of the creatinine, of the operational stability of the biosensors (from few hours to at least 3 days). The developed biosensors exhibited high selectivity towards creatinine and urea. The sensitivity was found to be 85 ± 3.4 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the creatinine biosensor and 112 ± 3.36 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the urea biosensor, with apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (KM,app), obtained from the creatinine and urea calibration curves, of 0.163 mM for creatinine deaminase and 0.139 mM for urease, respectively. The biosensors responded linearly over the concentration range 1-125 µM, with a limit of detection of 0.5 µM and a response time of 15s. The performance of the biosensors in a real sample matrix, serum, was evaluated and a good correlation with standard spectrophotometric clinical laboratory techniques was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A paper-based nanomodified electrochemical biosensor for ethanol detection in beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Stefano; Basso, Mattia; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-04-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a paper-based screen-printed biosensor for the detection of ethanol in beer samples. Common office paper was adopted to fabricate the analytical device. The properties of this paper-based screen-printed electrode (SPE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and they were compared with the well-established polyester-based SPEs as well. Paper demonstrated similar properties when compared with polyester, highlighting suitability towards its utilization in sensor development, with the advantages of low cost and simple disposal by incineration. A nanocomposite formed by Carbon Black (CB) and Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs), namely CB/PBNPs, was utilized as an electrocatalyst to detect the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzymatic reaction between alcohol oxidase (AOx) and ethanol. After optimizing the analytical parameters, such as pH, enzyme, concentration, and working potential, the developed biosensor allowed a facile quantification of ethanol up to 10 mM (0.058 % vol ), with a sensitivity of 9.13 μA/mM cm 2 (1574 μA/% vol cm 2 ) and a detection limit equal to 0.52 mM (0.003% vol ). These satisfactory performances rendered the realized paper-based biosensor reliable over the analysis of ethanol contained in four different types of beers, including Pilsner, Weiss, Lager, and alcohol-free. The proposed manufacturing approach offers an affordable and sustainable tool for food quality control and for the realization of different electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanostructured ZnO-based biosensor: DNA immobilization and hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mishaal Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical DNA biosensor was successfully fabricated by using (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES with zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods synthesized using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method on thermally oxidized SiO2 thin films. The structural quality and morphology of the ZnO nanorods were determined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, which show a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation along the (101 direction. The surface of the SiO2 thin films was chemically modified with ZnO. Label-free detection DNA immobilization and hybridization were performed using potassium hexacyanoferrate with cyclic voltammetry (CV measurements. The capacitance, permittivity, and conductivity profiles of the fabricated sensor clearly indicate DNA immobilization and hybridization. Results show that the capacitance values of bare, ZnO- modified surface immobilization, and target DNA hybridization were 46 × 10−12 F, 47 × 10−8 F, 27 μF, and 17 μF, respectively, at 1 Hz. The permittivity measurement increased from 3.94 × 103 to 251 × 103 and 165 × 103 at the frequency range of approximately 200 to 1 Hz for bare and DNA immobilization and hybridization, respectively. The measured conductivity values for the bare, ZnO, immobilized, and hybridization device were 2.4 × 10−9, 10 × 10−8, 1.6 × 10−7, and 1.3 × 10−7 S cm−1, respectively.

  14. The development of a silica nanoparticle-based label-free DNA biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Arnold J.; Pagé, Lilianne; Tan, Sophie; Charlebois, Isabelle; Boissinot, Maurice; Leclerc, Mario; Simard, Benoit

    2011-09-01

    A silica nanoparticle-based DNA biosensor capable of detecting Bacillus anthracis bacteria through the use of unlabelled ss-oligonucleotides has been developed. The biosensor makes use of the optical changes that accompany a nanoparticle-immobilized cationic conjugated polymer (polythiophene) interacting with single-stranded vs. hybridized oligonucleotides, where a fluorescence signal appears only when hybridized DNA is present (i.e. only when the ss-oligonucleotide interacting with the polymer has hybridized with its complement). In order to enhance the sensitivity of the biosensor, two different nanoparticle architectures were developed and used to elucidate how the presence of neighboring fluorophores on the nanoparticle surface affects Förster-resonant energy transfer (FRET) between the polythiophene/oligonucleotide complex (FRET donor) and the fluorophores (FRET acceptors). We demonstrate that the silica nanoparticle-based FRET platform lowers the limit of detection at least 10-fold in comparison to the polythiophene itself, and allows the detection of ~2 × 10-12 moles of ss-oligonucleotide in a 100 μL sample with a standard fluorimeter (i.e. has a limit of detection of ~2 nM ssDNA). Such nanoparticle-based biosensor platforms are beneficial because of the robustness and stability inherent to their covalent assembly and they provide a valuable new tool that may allow for the sensitive, label-free detection (the target DNA that produces the fluorescence signal is unlabelled) without the use of polymerase chain reaction.A silica nanoparticle-based DNA biosensor capable of detecting Bacillus anthracis bacteria through the use of unlabelled ss-oligonucleotides has been developed. The biosensor makes use of the optical changes that accompany a nanoparticle-immobilized cationic conjugated polymer (polythiophene) interacting with single-stranded vs. hybridized oligonucleotides, where a fluorescence signal appears only when hybridized DNA is present (i.e. only when

  15. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  16. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Enzyme Inhibition for Clinical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna El Harrad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of enzyme inhibitors are used as drugs to treat several diseases such as gout, diabetes, AIDS, depression, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Electrochemical biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful devices for an easy, fast and environment friendly monitoring of inhibitors like drugs. In the last decades, electrochemical biosensors have shown great potentials in the detection of different drugs like neostigmine, ketoconazole, donepezil, allopurinol and many others. They attracted increasing attention due to the advantage of being high sensitive and accurate analytical tools, able to reach low detection limits and the possibility to be performed on real samples. This review will spotlight the research conducted in the past 10 years (2007–2017 on inhibition based enzymatic electrochemical biosensors for the analysis of different drugs. New assays based on novel bio-devices will be debated. Moreover, the exploration of the recent graphical approach in diagnosis of reversible and irreversible inhibition mechanism will be discussed. The accurate and the fast diagnosis of inhibition type will help researchers in further drug design improvements and the identification of new molecules that will serve as new enzyme targets.

  17. From Electrochemical Biosensors to Biomimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Environmental Determination of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimino Malitesta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent work relevant to heavy metal determination by inhibition-enzyme electrochemical biosensors and by selected biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers has been reviewed. General features and peculiar aspects have been evidenced. The replace of biological component by artificial receptors promises higher selectivity and stability, while biosensors keep their capability of producing an integrated response directly related to biological toxicity of the samples.

  18. Design and development of a highly stable hydrogen peroxide biosensor on screen printed carbon electrode based on horseradish peroxidase bound with gold nanoparticles in the matrix of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkuaram, Tanin; Ponchio, Chatchai; Kangkasomboon, Thippayawadee; Katikawong, Panadda; Veerasai, Waret

    2007-04-15

    The design and development of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) on a polyvinyl chloride substrate as a disposable sensor is described. Six configurations were designed on silk screen frames. The SPCEs were printed with four inks: silver ink as the conducting track, carbon ink as the working and counter electrodes, silver/silver chloride ink as the reference electrode and insulating ink as the insulator layer. Selection of the best configuration was done by comparing slopes from the calibration plots generated by the cyclic voltammograms at 10, 20 and 30 mM K(3)Fe(CN)(6) for each configuration. The electrodes with similar configurations gave similar slopes. The 5th configuration was the best electrode that gave the highest slope. Modifying the best SPCE configuration for use as a biosensor, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was selected as a biomaterial bound with gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in the matrix of chitosan (HRP/AuNP/CHIT). Biosensors of HRP/SPCE, HRP/CHIT/SPCE and HRP/AuNP/CHIT/SPCE were used in the amperometric detection of H(2)O(2) in a solution of 0.1M citrate buffer, pH 6.5, by applying a potential of -0.4V at the working electrode. All the biosensors showed an immediate response to H(2)O(2). The effect of HRP/AuNP incorporated with CHIT (HRP/AuNP/CHIT/SPCE) yielded the highest performance. The amperometric response of HRP/AuNP/CHIT/SPCE retained over 95% of the initial current of the 1st day up to 30 days of storage at 4 degrees C. The biosensor showed a linear range of 0.01-11.3mM H(2)O(2), with a detection limit of 0.65 microM H(2)O(2) (S/N=3). The low detection limit, long storage life and wide linear range of this biosensor make it advantageous in many applications, including bioreactors and biosensors.

  19. Enzyme-based Colorimetric and Potentiometric Biosensor for Detecting Pb (II Ions in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Kaur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study a simple colorimetric and potentiometric biosensor based on urease inhibition by Pb (II ions for its estimation in milk samples. Urease immobilized on nylon membrane by hydrosol gel method was used as the biocomponent to demonstrate the metal effect on the enzyme activity using phenol red as the pH indicator. A lower limit detection of 38.6µm was achieved in the milk and the enzyme membranes were stable for more than two months at 4ºC. In potentiometric approach, response of an ion selective electrode (ISE to changing ammonium ion concentration as a consequence of urease inhibition by Pb (II ions was explored to achieve a detection limit of 9.66 µm. Lead specificity was attained by means of masking agents 1,10 - phenanthroline and sodium potassium tartarate. Validation of the developed biosensors was carried out with spiked milk samples.

  20. ZnO nanorods array based field-effect transistor biosensor for phosphate detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Ahn, Min-Sang; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2017-07-15

    A promising field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor has been fabricated based on pyruvate oxidase (PyO) functionalized ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array grown on seeded SiO 2 /Si substrate. The direct and vertically grown ZnO NRs on the seeded SiO 2 /Si substrate offers high surface area for enhanced PyO immobilization, which further helps to detect phosphate with higher specificity. Under optimum conditions, the fabricated FET biosensor provided a convenient method for phosphate detection with high sensitivity (80.57μAmM -1 cm -2 ) in a wide-linear range (0.1µM-7.0mM). Additionally, it also showed very low effect of electroactive species, stability and good reproducibility. Encouraging results suggest that this approach presents a promising method to be used for field measurements to detect phosphate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Biosensor-Based Approaches for Detecting Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole in Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Mavrikou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins and haloanisoles are secondary metabolites produced under special conditions of temperature and humidity by fungi colonizing a variety of commodities from preharvest up to consumer use. Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-trichloanisole are produced mainly by species of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium. Ochratoxin A exhibits nephrotic effects and can, potentially, be associated with human carcinogenesis, whereas 2,4,6-trichloanisole is primarily responsible for cork taint in wines. This review provides an overview of recent advances in biosensor technology for the determination of the aforementioned compounds in wine, beer and other beverages, as well as cork stoppers, which help in establishing and carrying out proper product quality-management strategies. Such a detailed investigation of biosensor-based detection methods of these toxic compounds in beverages could lead to the provision of safe-to-consume products, and allow the prioritization of future research efforts.

  2. Lead-Free Piezoelectric Diaphragm Biosensors Based on Micro-Machining Technology and Chemical Solution Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Wu, Xiaoqing; Shi, Peng; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2016-01-12

    In this paper, we present a new approach to the fabrication of integrated silicon-based piezoelectric diaphragm-type biosensors by using sodium potassium niobate-silver niobate (0.82KNN-0.18AN) composite lead-free thin film as the piezoelectric layer. The piezoelectric diaphragms were designed and fabricated by micro-machining technology and chemical solution deposition. The fabricated device was very sensitive to the mass changes caused by various targets attached on the surface of diaphragm. The measured mass sensitivity value was about 931 Hz/μg. Its good performance shows that the piezoelectric diaphragm biosensor can be used as a cost-effective platform for nucleic acid testing.

  3. Lead-Free Piezoelectric Diaphragm Biosensors Based on Micro-Machining Technology and Chemical Solution Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new approach to the fabrication of integrated silicon-based piezoelectric diaphragm-type biosensors by using sodium potassium niobate-silver niobate (0.82KNN-0.18AN composite lead-free thin film as the piezoelectric layer. The piezoelectric diaphragms were designed and fabricated by micro-machining technology and chemical solution deposition. The fabricated device was very sensitive to the mass changes caused by various targets attached on the surface of diaphragm. The measured mass sensitivity value was about 931 Hz/μg. Its good performance shows that the piezoelectric diaphragm biosensor can be used as a cost-effective platform for nucleic acid testing.

  4. Developing trends in aptamer-based biosensor devices and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Scott; Wishart, David; Xing, James Z; Chen, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Aptamers are, in general, easier to produce, easier to store and are able to bind to a wider variety of targets than antibodies. For these reasons, aptamers are gaining increasing popularity in environmental monitoring as well as disease detection and disease management applications. This review article examines the research and design of RNA and DNA aptamer based biosensor systems and applications as well as their potential for integration in effective biosensor devices. As single stranded DNA or RNA molecules that can bind to specific targets, aptamers are well suited for biomolecular recognition and sensing applications. Beyond being able to be designed for a near endless number of specific targets, aptamers can also be made which change their conformation in a predictable and consistent way upon binding. This can lead to many unique and effective detection methods using a variety of optical and electrochemical means.

  5. Flexible electrochemical biosensors based on graphene nanowalls for the real-time measurement of lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianwei; Sun, Tai; Song, Xuefen; Ran, Qincui; Yu, Chongsheng; Yang, Jun; Feng, Hua; Yu, Leyong; Wei, Dapeng

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate a flexible biosensor for lactate detection based on l-lactate oxidase immobilized by chitosan film cross-linked with glutaraldehyde on the surface of a graphene nanowall (GNW) electrode. The oxygen-plasma technique was developed to enhance the wettability of the GNWs, and the strength of the sensor’s oxidation response depended on the concentration of lactate. First, in order to eliminate interference from other substances, biosensors were primarily tested in deionized water and displayed good electrochemical reversibility at different scan rates (20-100 mV s-1), a large index range (1.0 μM to 10.0 mM) and a low detection limit (1.0 μM) for lactate. Next, these sensors were further examined in phosphate buffer solution (to mimick human body fluids), and still exhibited high sensitivity, stability and flexibility. These results show that the GNW-based lactate biosensors possess important potential for application in clinical analysis, sports medicine and the food industry.

  6. Facile screening of potential xenoestrogens by an estrogen receptor-based reusable optical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanhua; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lu, Yun; Shan, Didi; Xu, Bi; He, Miao; Shi, Hanchang; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-15

    The apparent increase in hormone-induced cancers and disorders of the reproductive tract has led to a growing demand for new technologies capable of screening xenoestrogens. We reported an estrogen receptor (ER)-based reusable fiber biosensor for facile screening estrogenic compounds in environment. The bioassay is based on the competition of xenoestrogens with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) for binding to the recombinant receptor of human estrogen receptor α (hERα) protein, leaving E 2 free to bind to fluorophore-labeled anti-E 2 monoclonal antibody. Unbound anti-E 2 antibody then binds to the immobilized E 2 -protein conjugate on the fiber surface, and is detected by fluorescence emission induced by evanescent field. As expected, the stronger estrogenic activity of xenoestrogen would result in the weaker fluorescent signal. Three estrogen-agonist compounds, diethylstilbestrol (DES), 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-n-octylphenol (OP), were chosen as a paradigm for validation of this assay. The rank order of estrogenic potency determined by this biosensor was DES>OP>NP, which were consistent with the published results in numerous studies. Moreover, the E 2 -protein conjugate modified optical fiber was robust enough for over 300 sensing cycles with the signal recoveries ranging from 90% to 100%. In conclusion, the biosensor is reusable, reliable, portable and amenable to on-line operation, providing a facile, efficient and economical alternative to screen potential xenoestrogens in environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of affinity-based biosensors: effect of sensing chamber geometry on sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, N Scott; Šípová, Hana; Adam, Pavel; Homola, Jiří

    2013-04-07

    Affinity-based biosensing systems have become an important analytical tool for the detection and study of numerous biomolecules. The merging of these sensing technologies with microfluidic flow cells allows for faster detection times, increased sensitivities, and lower required sample volumes. In order to obtain a higher degree of performance from the sensor, it is important to know the effects of the flow cell geometry on the sensor sensitivity. In these sensors, the sensor sensitivity is related to the overall diffusive flux of analyte to the sensing surface; therefore increases in the analyte flux will be manifested as an increase in sensitivity, resulting in a lower limit of detection (LOD). Here we present a study pertaining to the effects of the flow cell height H on the analyte flux J, where for a common biosensor design we predict that the analyte flux will scale as J ≈ H(-2/3). We verify this scaling behavior via both numerical simulations as well as an experimental surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. We show the reduction of the flow cell height can have drastic effects on the sensor performance, where the LOD of our experimental system concerning the detection of ssDNA decreases by a factor of 4 when H is reduced from 47 μm to 7 μm. We utilize these results to discuss the applicability of this scaling behavior with respect to a generalized affinity-based biosensor.

  8. Nanomaterials-based biosensors for detection of microorganisms and microbial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarlie, Laura; Ow, Sian Yang; Su, Xiaodi

    2017-04-01

    Detection of microorganisms and microbial toxins is important for health and safety. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, nanomaterials have been extensively used to develop biosensors for rapid detection of microorganisms with microbial cells and toxins as target analytes. In this paper, the design principles of nanomaterials-based biosensors for four selected analyte categories (bacteria cells, toxins, mycotoxins, and protozoa cells), closely associated with the target analytes' properties is reviewed. Five signal transducing methods that are less equipment intensive (colorimetric, fluorimetric, surface enhanced Raman scattering, electrochemical, and magnetic relaxometry methods) is described and compared for their sensory performance (in term oflimit of detection, dynamic range, and response time) for all analyte categories. In the end, the suitability of these five sensing principles for on-site or field applications is discussed. With a comprehensive coverage of nanomaterials, design principles, sensing principles, and assessment on the sensory performance and suitability for on-site application, this review offers valuable insight and perspective for designing suitable nanomaterials-based microorganism biosensors for a given application. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors Based on Disposable Screen-Printed Electrodes for Detection of Food Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, Alina; Nunes, Gilvanda; Hayat, Akhtar; Latif, Usman; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Food allergens are proteins from nuts and tree nuts, fish, shellfish, wheat, soy, eggs or milk which trigger severe adverse reactions in the human body, involving IgE-type antibodies. Sensitive detection of allergens in a large variety of food matrices has become increasingly important considering the emergence of functional foods and new food manufacturing technologies. For example, proteins such as casein from milk or lysozyme and ovalbumin from eggs are sometimes used as fining agents in the wine industry. Nonetheless, allergen detection in processed foods is a challenging endeavor, as allergen proteins are degraded during food processing steps involving heating or fermentation. Detection of food allergens was primarily achieved via Enzyme-Linked Immuno Assay (ELISA) or by chromatographic methods. With the advent of biosensors, electrochemical affinity-based biosensors such as those incorporating antibodies and aptamers as biorecognition elements were also reported in the literature. In this review paper, we highlight the success achieved in the design of electrochemical affinity biosensors based on disposable screen-printed electrodes towards detection of protein allergens. We will discuss the analytical figures of merit for various disposable screen-printed affinity sensors in relation to methodologies employed for immobilization of bioreceptors on transducer surface. PMID:27827963

  10. Electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms based on advanced nanomaterials for biological and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduraiveeran, Govindhan; Sasidharan, Manickam; Ganesan, Vellaichamy

    2018-04-30

    Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface. The advantageous attributes such as low-cost, miniaturization, energy efficient, easy fabrication, online monitoring, and the simultaneous sensing capability are the driving force towards continued growth of electrochemical biosensing platforms, which have fascinated the interdisciplinary research arenas spanning chemistry, material science, biological science, and medical industries. The electrochemical biosensor platforms have potential applications in the early-stage detection and diagnosis of disease as stout and tunable diagnostic and therapeutic systems. The key aim of this review is to emphasize the newest development in the design of sensing and biosensing platforms based on functional nanomaterials for biological and biomedical applications. High sensitivity and selectivity, fast response, and excellent durability in biological media are all critical aspects which will also be wisely addressed. Potential applications of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms based on advanced functional nanomaterials for neuroscience diagnostics, clinical, point-of-care diagnostics and medical industries are also concisely presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impedimetric Dengue Biosensor based on Functionalized Graphene Oxide Wrapped Silica Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Seon-Ah; Poudyal, Shishir; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D graphene oxide based material design. • Fabrication of a label-free dengue DNA and RNA impedimetric biosensor. • Design of a surface-based dengue sensor with good selectivity and detection limit. - Abstract: A composite of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) functionalized graphene oxide (APTES-GO) wrapped on SiO 2 particles (SiO 2 @APTES-GO) was prepared via self-assembly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirmed wrapping of the SiO 2 particles by the APTES-GO sheets. An impedimetric biosensor was constructed and used to sensitively detect dengue DNA and dengue RNA via primer hybridization using different oligonucleotide sequences. The results demonstrated that the SiO 2 @APTES-GO electrode material led to enhanced dengue RNA detection sensitivity with selectivity and detection limit (1 femto-Molar), compared to both APTES-GO and APTES-SiO 2 . The three-dimensional structure, higher contact area, electrical properties and the ability for rapid hybridization offered by the SiO 2 @APTES-GO led to the successful design of a dengue biosensor with the lowest detection limit reported to date.

  12. Chemical surface modifications for the development of silicon-based label-free integrated optical (IO) biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, María-José; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2013-05-13

    Increasing interest has been paid to label-free biosensors in recent years. Among them, refractive index (RI) optical biosensors enable high density and the chip-scale integration of optical components. This makes them more appealing to help develop lab-on-a-chip devices. Today, many RI integrated optical (IO) devices are made using silicon-based materials. A key issue in their development is the biofunctionalization of sensing surfaces because they provide a specific, sensitive response to the analyte of interest. This review critically discusses the biofunctionalization procedures, assay formats and characterization techniques employed in setting up IO biosensors. In addition, it provides the most relevant results obtained from using these devices for real sample biosensing. Finally, an overview of the most promising future developments in the fields of chemical surface modification and capture agent attachment for IO biosensors follows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrochemical paper-based peptide nucleic acid biosensor for detecting human papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teengam, Prinjaporn [Program in Petrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Siangproh, Weena [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, 10110 (Thailand); Tuantranont, Adisorn [Nanoelectronics and MEMS Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand); Henry, Charles S. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523 (United States); Vilaivan, Tirayut [Organic Synthesis Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Chailapakul, Orawon, E-mail: corawon@chula.ac.th [Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Nanotec-CU Center of Excellence on Food and Agriculture, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-02-01

    A novel paper-based electrochemical biosensor was developed using an anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA) probe (AQ-PNA) and graphene-polyaniline (G-PANI) modified electrode to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). An inkjet printing technique was employed to prepare the paper-based G-PANI-modified working electrode. The AQ-PNA probe baring a negatively charged amino acid at the N-terminus was immobilized onto the electrode surface through electrostatic attraction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to verify the AQ-PNA immobilization. The paper-based electrochemical DNA biosensor was used to detect a synthetic 14-base oligonucleotide target with a sequence corresponding to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA by measuring the electrochemical signal response of the AQ label using square-wave voltammetry before and after hybridization. It was determined that the current signal significantly decreased after the addition of target DNA. This phenomenon is explained by the rigidity of PNA-DNA duplexes, which obstructs the accessibility of electron transfer from the AQ label to the electrode surface. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit of HPV type 16 DNA was found to be 2.3 nM with a linear range of 10–200 nM. The performance of this biosensor on real DNA samples was tested with the detection of PCR-amplified DNA samples from the SiHa cell line. The new method employs an inexpensive and disposable device, which easily incinerated after use and is promising for the screening and monitoring of the amount of HPV-DNA type 16 to identify the primary stages of cervical cancer. - Highlights: • A paper-based DNA biosensor using AQ-PNA probe and G-PANI modified electrode was first developed. • This developed DNA biosensor was highly specific over the non-complementary DNA. • This sensor was successfully applied to detect the HPV-DNA type 16 obtained from cancer cell lines. • This sensor is inexpensive and

  14. Fabrication of Ultrasensitive Field-Effect Transistor DNA Biosensors by a Directional Transfer Technique Based on CVD-Grown Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Huang, Le; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Zhongyue; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-08-12

    Most graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET) biosensors are fabricated through a routine process, in which graphene is transferred onto a Si/SiO2 substrate and then devices are subsequently produced by micromanufacture processes. However, such a fabrication approach can introduce contamination onto the graphene surface during the lithographic process, resulting in interference for the subsequent biosensing. In this work, we have developed a novel directional transfer technique to fabricate G-FET biosensors based on chemical-vapor-deposition- (CVD-) grown single-layer graphene (SLG) and applied this biosensor for the sensitive detection of DNA. A FET device with six individual array sensors was first fabricated, and SLG obtained by the CVD-growth method was transferred onto the sensor surface in a directional manner. Afterward, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) was covalently immobilized on the graphene surface, and DNA detection was realized by applying specific target DNA to the PNA-functionalized G-FET biosensor. The developed G-FET biosensor was able to detect target DNA at concentrations as low as 10 fM, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in a previous work. In addition, the biosensor was capable of distinguishing the complementary DNA from one-base-mismatched DNA and noncomplementary DNA. The directional transfer technique for the fabrication of G-FET biosensors is simple, and the as-constructed G-FET DNA biosensor shows ultrasensitivity and high specificity, indicating its potential application in disease diagnostics as a point-of-care tool.

  15. Recent Progress in Ferrocene-Modified Thin Films and Nanoparticles for Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress in the development of ferrocene (Fc-modified thin films and nanoparticles in relation to their biosensor applications. Redox-active materials in enzyme biosensors commonly use Fc derivatives, which mediate electron transfer between the electrode and enzyme active site. Either voltammetric or amperometric signals originating from redox reactions of Fc are detected or modulated by the binding of analytes on the electrode. Fc-modified thin films have been prepared by a variety of protocols, including in situ polymerization, layer-by-layer (LbL deposition, host-guest complexation and molecular recognitions. In situ polymerization provides a facile way to form Fc thin films, because the Fc polymers are directly deposited onto the electrode surface. LbL deposition, which can modulate the film thickness and Fc content, is suitable for preparing well-organized thin films. Other techniques, such as host-guest complexation and protein-based molecular recognition, are useful for preparing Fc thin films. Fc-modified Au nanoparticles have been widely used as redox-active materials to fabricate electrochemical biosensors. Fc derivatives are often attached to Au nanoparticles through a thiol-Au linkage. Nanoparticles consisting of inorganic porous materials, such as zeolites and iron oxide, and nanoparticle-based composite materials have also been used to prepare Fc-modified nanoparticles. To construct biosensors, Fc-modified nanoparticles are immobilized on the electrode surface together with enzymes.

  16. DNA probe functionalized QCM biosensor based on gold nanoparticle amplification for Bacillus anthracis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Rong-Zhang; Song, Hong-Bin; Zuo, Guo-Min; Yang, Rui-Fu; Wei, Hong-Ping; Wang, Dian-Bing; Cui, Zong-Qiang; Zhang, ZhiPing; Cheng, Zhen-Xing; Zhang, Xian-En

    2011-04-15

    The rapid detection of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, has gained much attention since the anthrax spore bioterrorism attacks in the United States in 2001. In this work, a DNA probe functionalized quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor was developed to detect B. anthracis based on the recognition of its specific DNA sequences, i.e., the 168 bp fragment of the Ba813 gene in chromosomes and the 340 bp fragment of the pag gene in plasmid pXO1. A thiol DNA probe was immobilized onto the QCM gold surface through self-assembly via Au-S bond formation to hybridize with the target ss-DNA sequence obtained by asymmetric PCR. Hybridization between the target DNA and the DNA probe resulted in an increase in mass and a decrease in the resonance frequency of the QCM biosensor. Moreover, to amplify the signal, a thiol-DNA fragment complementary to the other end of the target DNA was functionalized with gold nanoparticles. The results indicate that the DNA probe functionalized QCM biosensor could specifically recognize the target DNA fragment of B. anthracis from that of its closest species, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, and that the limit of detection (LOD) reached 3.5 × 10(2)CFU/ml of B. anthracis vegetative cells just after asymmetric PCR amplification, but without culture enrichment. The DNA probe functionalized QCM biosensor demonstrated stable, pollution-free, real-time sensing, and could find application in the rapid detection of B. anthracis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conducting polymer based DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus group species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Arshak, Khalil; Korostynska, Olga; Oliwa, Kamila; Adley, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Biosensor designs are emerging at a significant rate and play an increasingly important role in foodborne pathogen detection. Conducting polymers are excellent tools for the fabrication of biosensors and polypyrrole has been used in the detection of biomolecules due to its unique properties. The prime intention of this paper was to pioneer the design and fabrication of a single-strand (ss) DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus (B.cereus) group species. Growth of B. cereus, results in production of several highly active toxins. Therefore, consumption of food containing >106 bacteria/gm may results in emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is found in liquid food products, milk powder, mixed food products and is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. The electrochemical deposition technique, such as cyclic voltammetry, was used to develop and test a model DNA-based biosensor on a gold electrode electropolymerized with polypyrrole. The electrically conducting polymer, polypyrrole is used as a platform for immobilizing DNA (1μg) on the gold electrode surface, since it can be more easily deposited from neutral pH aqueous solutions of pyrrolemonomers. The average current peak during the electrodeposition event is 288μA. There is a clear change in the current after hybridization of the complementary oligonucleotide (6.35μA) and for the noncomplementary oligonucleotide (5.77μA). The drop in current after each event was clearly noticeable and it proved to be effective.

  18. Development and surface characterization of a glucose biosensor based on a nanocolumnar ZnO film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A., E-mail: adriana.rodrigues@partner.kit.edu [Instituto de Física − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Castegnaro, M.V. [Instituto de Física − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Arguello, J.; Alves, M.C.M. [Instituto de Química − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Morais, J., E-mail: jonder@if.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Glucose biosensor based on self-assembled nanocolumnar ZnO deposited on stainless steel. • XPS applied to investigate the GOx immobilization on the ZnO nanocolumns surface. • Observable chemical shifts on O1s and Zn2p corroborates enzime immobilization. - Abstract: Highly oriented nanostructured ZnO films were grown on the surface of stainless steel plates (ZnO/SS) by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The films consisted of vertically aligned ZnO nanocolumns, ∼1 μm long and ∼80 nm wide, as observed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FIB (focused ion beam). XRD (X-ray diffraction) confirmed the c-axis preferred orientation of the ZnO columns, which were functionalized with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme into a biosensor of glucose. The electrochemical response studied by CV (cyclic voltammetry) proved that the biosensor was capable of detecting glucose from 1.5 up to 16 mM concentration range. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis, excited with synchrotron radiation, probed the atom specific chemical environment at the electrode’s surface and shed some light on the nature of the ZnO-GOx interaction.

  19. Nano-Calorimetry based point of care biosensor for metabolic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazura, Evan; Lubbers, Brad R; Dawson, Elliott; Phillips, John A; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2017-09-01

    Point of care (POC) diagnostics represents one of the fastest growing health care technology segments. Developments in microfabrication have led to the development of highly-sensitive nanocalorimeters ideal for directly measuring heat generated in POC biosensors. Here we present a novel nano-calorimeter-based biosensor design with differential sensing to eliminate common mode noise and capillary microfluidic channels for sample delivery to the thermoelectric sensor. The calorimeter has a resolution of 1.4 ± 0.2 nJ/(Hz) 1/2 utilizing a 27 junction bismuth/titanium thermopile, with a total Seebeck coefficient of 2160 μV/K. Sample is wicked to the calorimeter through a capillary channel making it suitable for monitoring blood obtained through a finger prick (performance in a model assay using catalase, achieving a threshold for hydrogen peroxide quantification of 50 μM. The potential for our device as a POC blood test for metabolic diseases is shown through the quantification of phenylalanine (Phe) in serum, an unmet necessary service in the management of Phenylketonuria (PKU). Pegylated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PEG-PAL) was utilized to react with Phe, but reliable detection was limited to <5 mM due to low enzymatic activity. The POC biosensor concept can be multiplexed and adapted to a large number of metabolic diseases utilizing different immobilized enzymes.

  20. Self-Assembled Films of Dendrimers and Metallophthalocyanines as FET-Based Glucose Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Figueiredo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Separative extended gate field effect transistor (SEGFET type devices have been used as an ion sensor or biosensor as an alternative to traditional ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs due to their robustness, ease of fabrication, low cost and possibility of FET isolation from the chemical environment. The layer-by-layer technique allows the combination of different materials with suitable properties for enzyme immobilization on simple platforms such as the extended gate of SEGFET devices enabling the fabrication of biosensors. Here, glucose biosensors based on dendrimers and metallophthalocyanines (MPcs in the form of layer-by-layer (LbL films, assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO as separative extended gate material, has been produced. NH3+ groups in the dendrimer allow electrostatic interactions or covalent bonds with the enzyme (glucose oxidase. Relevant parameters such as optimum pH, buffer concentration and presence of serum bovine albumin (BSA in the immobilization process were analyzed. The relationship between the output voltage and glucose concentration shows that upon detection of a specific analyte, the sub-products of the enzymatic reaction change the pH locally, affecting the output signal of the FET transducer. In addition, dendritic layers offer a nanoporous environment, which may be permeable to H+ ions, improving the sensibility as modified electrodes for glucose biosensing.

  1. An ultrasensitive supersandwich electrochemical DNA biosensor based on gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Shi, Anqi; Fang, Xian; Han, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2015-01-15

    In this article, a supersandwich-type electrochemical biosensor for sequence-specific DNA detection is described. In design, single-strand DNA labeled with methylene blue (MB) was used as signal probe, and auxiliary probe was designed to hybridize with two different regions of signal probe. The biosensor construction contained three steps: (i) capture DNA labeled with thiol was immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (Au NPs/rGO); (ii) the sandwich structure formation contained "capture-target-signal probe"; and (iii) auxiliary probe was introduced to produce long concatamers containing signal molecule MB. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to monitor the DNA hybridization event using peak current changes of MB in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 1.0M NaClO4. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of MB were linear with the logarithm of the concentration of target DNA in the range of 0.1μM to 0.1fM with a detection limit of 35aM (signal/noise=3). In addition, this biosensor exhibited good selectivity even for single-base mismatched target DNA detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A heparin-functionalized carbon nanotube-based affinity biosensor for dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Daniel; Mulchandani, Ashok; Yates, Marylynn V

    2017-05-15

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitos and is major cause of disease in tropical and subtropical regions. Colloquially known as Dengue Fever, infection can cause hemorrhagic disorders and death in humans and non-human primates. We report a novel electronic biosensor based on a single-walled carbon nanotube network chemiresistive transducer that is functionalized with heparin for low-cost, label-free, ultra-sensitive, and rapid detection of whole dengue virus (DENV). Heparin, an analog of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans that are receptors for dengue virus during infection of Vero cells and hepatocytes, was used for the first time in a biosensor as a biorecognition element instead of traditional antibody. Detection of DENV in viral culture supernatant has similar sensitivity as the corresponding viral titer in phosphate buffer despite the presence of growth media and Vero cell lysate. The biosensor demonstrated sensitivity within the clinically relevant range for humans and infected Aedes aegypti. It has potential application in clinical diagnosis and can improve point-of-care diagnostics of dengue infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interdigitated microelectrode based impedance biosensor for detection of salmonella enteritidis in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G [National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 249 Seodun-dong, Suwon, Republic of Korea, 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Morgan, M; Hahm, B K; Bhunia, A [Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Mun, J H; Om, A S [Department of Food and Nutrient, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: giyoungkim@rda.go.kr

    2008-03-15

    Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks continue to occur, and S. enteritidis-related outbreaks from various food sources have increased public awareness of this pathogen. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Some immunological rapid assays are developed, but these assays still require prolonged enrichment steps. Recently developed biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. To develop the biosensor, an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) was fabricated by using semiconductor fabrication process. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized based on avidin-biotin binding on the surface of the IME to form an active sensing layer. To increase the sensitivity of the sensor, three types of sensors that have different electrode gap sizes (2 {mu}m, 5 {mu}m, 10 {mu}m) were fabricated and tested. The impedimetric biosensor could detect 10{sup 3} CFU/mL of Salmonella in pork meat extract with an incubation time of 5 minutes. This method may provide a simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect foodborne pathogens.

  4. Giant Magnetoresistance-based Biosensor for Detection of Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Venkatramana D; Wu, Kai; Perez, Andres M; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a simple and sensitive method for the detection of influenza A virus based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR) biosensor. This assay employs monoclonal antibodies to viral nucleoprotein (NP) in combination with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Presence of influenza virus allows the binding of MNPs to the GMR sensor and the binding is proportional to the concentration of virus. Binding of MNPs onto the GMR sensor causes change in the resistance of sensor, which is measured in a real time electrical readout. GMR biosensor detected as low as 1.5 × 10(2) TCID50/mL virus and the signal intensity increased with increasing concentration of virus up to 1.0 × 10(5) TCID50/mL. This study showed that the GMR biosensor assay is relevant for diagnostic application since the virus concentration in nasal samples of influenza virus infected swine was reported to be in the range of 10(3) to 10(5) TCID50/mL.

  5. Lateral flow biosensor for multiplex detection of nitrofuran metabolites based on functionalized magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuewen; Liang, Xiaoling; Dong, Jianghong; Fang, Zhiyuan; Zeng, Lingwen

    2016-09-01

    The use of potential mutagenic nitrofuran antibiotic in food animal production has been banned world-wide. Common methods for nitrofuran detection involve complex extraction procedures. In the present study, magnetic beads functionalized with antibody against nitrofuran derivative were used as both the extraction and color developing media in lateral flow biosensor. Derivatization reagent carboxybenzaldehyde is firstly modified with ractopamine. After reaction with nitrofuran metabolites, the resultant molecule has two functional groups: the metabolite moiety and the ractopamine moiety. Metabolite moiety is captured by the antibody that is coated on magnetic beads. This duplex is then loaded onto biosensor and ractopamine moiety is further captured by the antibody immobilized on the test zone of nitrocellulose membrane. Without tedious organic reagent-based extraction procedure, this biosensor was capable of visually detecting four metabolites simultaneously with a detection limit of 0.1 μg/L. No cross-reactivity was observed in the presence of 50 μg/L interferential components. Graphical abstract Derivatization of nitrofuran metabolites (AHD, AOZ, SEM, or AMOZ) and LFA detection of the derivative products.

  6. A novel nonenzymatic amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor based on CuO@Cu2O nanowires embedded into poly(vinyl alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirizzi, Daniela; Guascito, Maria Rachele; Filippo, Emanuela; Tepore, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    A new, very simple, rapid and inexpensive nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection is proposed. It is based on the immobilization of cupric/cuprous oxide core shell nanowires (CuO@Cu2O-NWs) in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix directly drop casted on a glassy carbon electrode surface to make a CuO@Cu2O core shell like NWs PVA embedded (CuO@Cu2O-NWs/PVA) sensor. CuO nanowires with mean diameters of 120-170nm and length in the range 2-5μm were grown by a simple catalyst-free thermal oxidation process based on resistive heating of pure copper wires at ambient conditions. The oxidation process of the copper wire surface led to the formation of a three layered structure: a thick Cu2O bottom layer, a CuO thin intermediate layer and CuO nanowires. CuO nanowires were carefully scratched from Cu2O layer with a sharp knife, dispersed into ethanol and sonicated. Then, the NWs were embedded in PVA matrix. The morphological and spectroscopic characterization of synthesized CuO-NWs and CuO@Cu2O-NWs/PVA were performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction pattern (SAD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Moreover a complete electrochemical characterization of these new CuO@Cu2O-NWs/PVA modified glassy carbon electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Cronoamperometry (CA) in phosphate buffer (pH=7; I=0.2) to investigate the sensing properties of this material against H2O2. The electrochemical performances of proposed sensors as high sensitivity, fast response, reproducibility and selectivity make them suitable for the quantitative determination of hydrogen peroxide substrate in batch analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Porous Silicon-Based Biosensors: Towards Real-Time Optical Detection of Target Bacteria in the Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad-Ivanir, Naama; Shtenberg, Giorgi; Raz, Nitzan; Gazenbeek, Christel; Budding, Dries; Bos, Martine P.; Segal, Ester

    2016-11-01

    Rapid detection of target bacteria is crucial to provide a safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. Herein, we present an optical biosensor for identification and quantification of Escherichia coli (E. coli, used as a model indicator bacteria species) in complex food industry process water. The biosensor is based on a nanostructured, oxidized porous silicon (PSi) thin film which is functionalized with specific antibodies against E. coli. The biosensors were exposed to water samples collected directly from process lines of fresh-cut produce and their reflectivity spectra were collected in real time. Process water were characterized by complex natural micro-flora (microbial load of >107 cell/mL), in addition to soil particles and plant cell debris. We show that process water spiked with culture-grown E. coli, induces robust and predictable changes in the thin-film optical interference spectrum of the biosensor. The latter is ascribed to highly specific capture of the target cells onto the biosensor surface, as confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The biosensors were capable of selectively identifying and quantifying the target cells, while the target cell concentration is orders of magnitude lower than that of other bacterial species, without any pre-enrichment or prior processing steps.

  8. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad, E-mail: mozaffari@irost.ir; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO–PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO{sub 2} conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO–PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO–PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV–Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0–110.0 mg dL{sup −1} with the limit of detection as 5.0 mg dL{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Novel disposable impedimetric urea biosensor fabrication based on ZnO–nanoporous transducer • Exploiting omissible PVA polymer as a simple strategy for ZnO–nanoporous film preparation • ZnO–nanoporous film as a good pore framework with large surface area/volume for enzyme immobilization • Application of impedimetric measurement for urea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and

  9. Real-Time Amperometric Recording of Extracellular H2O2 in the Brain of Immunocompromised Mice: An In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Characterisation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Caroline H.; Finnerty, Niall J.

    2017-01-01

    We detail an extensive characterisation study on a previously described dual amperometric H2O2 biosensor consisting of H2O2 detection (blank) and degradation (catalase) electrodes. In vitro investigations demonstrated excellent H2O2 sensitivity and selectivity against the interferent, ascorbic acid. Ex vivo studies were performed to mimic physiological conditions prior to in vivo deployment. Exposure to brain tissue homogenate identified reliable sensitivity and selectivity recordings up to seven days for both blank and catalase electrodes. Furthermore, there was no compromise in pre- and post-implanted catalase electrode sensitivity in ex vivo mouse brain. In vivo investigations performed in anaesthetised mice confirmed the ability of the H2O2 biosensor to detect increases in amperometric current following locally perfused/infused H2O2 and antioxidant inhibitors mercaptosuccinic acid and sodium azide. Subsequent recordings in freely moving mice identified negligible effects of control saline and sodium ascorbate interference injections on amperometric H2O2 current. Furthermore, the stability of the amperometric current was confirmed over a five-day period and analysis of 24-h signal recordings identified the absence of diurnal variations in amperometric current. Collectively, these findings confirm the biosensor current responds in vivo to increasing exogenous and endogenous H2O2 and tentatively supports measurement of H2O2 dynamics in freely moving NOD SCID mice. PMID:28698470

  10. Real-Time Amperometric Recording of Extracellular H₂O₂ in the Brain of Immunocompromised Mice: An In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Characterisation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Caroline H; Finnerty, Niall J

    2017-07-08

    We detail an extensive characterisation study on a previously described dual amperometric H₂O₂ biosensor consisting of H₂O₂ detection (blank) and degradation (catalase) electrodes. In vitro investigations demonstrated excellent H₂O₂ sensitivity and selectivity against the interferent, ascorbic acid. Ex vivo studies were performed to mimic physiological conditions prior to in vivo deployment. Exposure to brain tissue homogenate identified reliable sensitivity and selectivity recordings up to seven days for both blank and catalase electrodes. Furthermore, there was no compromise in pre- and post-implanted catalase electrode sensitivity in ex vivo mouse brain. In vivo investigations performed in anaesthetised mice confirmed the ability of the H₂O₂ biosensor to detect increases in amperometric current following locally perfused/infused H₂O₂ and antioxidant inhibitors mercaptosuccinic acid and sodium azide. Subsequent recordings in freely moving mice identified negligible effects of control saline and sodium ascorbate interference injections on amperometric H₂O₂ current. Furthermore, the stability of the amperometric current was confirmed over a five-day period and analysis of 24-h signal recordings identified the absence of diurnal variations in amperometric current. Collectively, these findings confirm the biosensor current responds in vivo to increasing exogenous and endogenous H₂O₂ and tentatively supports measurement of H₂O₂ dynamics in freely moving NOD SCID mice.

  11. A flow-through amperometric sensor micro-analytical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijanowska, D.; Pijanowska, D.G.; Sprenkels, A.J.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of the flow-through amperometric sensor based on semi-permeable dialysis tubing implemented in silicon is presented. The sensor is designed in the form to be an integral component of a lab-on-a-chip systems and it has been successfully incorporated into an integrated

  12. An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a copper oxide nanowires/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mei; Hou, Changjun; Huo, Danqun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) was first developed for the detection of the specific-sequence target DNA. This schematic represents the fabrication procedure of our DNA biosensor. - Highlights: • An ultrasensitive DNA electrochemical biosensor was developed. • CuO NWs entangled with the SWCNTs formed a mesh structure with good conductivity. • It is the first time use of CuONWs-SWCNTs hybrid nanocomposite for DNA detection. • The biosensor is simple, selective, stable, and sensitive. • The biosensor has great potential for use in analysis of real samples. - Abstract: Here, we developed a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect specific-sequence target DNA. The biosensor was based on a hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH). The resulting CuO NWs/SWCNTs layers exhibited a good differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current response for the target DNA sequences, which we attributed to the properties of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. CuO NWs and SWCNTs hybrid composites with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Immobilization of the probe DNA on the electrode surface was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. DPV was applied to monitor the DNA hybridization event, using adriamycin as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of adriamycin were linear with the logarithm of target DNA concentrations (ranging from 1.0 × 10 −14 to 1.0 × 10 −8 M), with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10 −15 M (signal/noise ratio of 3). The biosensor also showed high selectivity to

  13. An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a copper oxide nanowires/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mei [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hou, Changjun, E-mail: houcj@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huo, Danqun [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Mei [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Fa, Huanbao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: A novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) was first developed for the detection of the specific-sequence target DNA. This schematic represents the fabrication procedure of our DNA biosensor. - Highlights: • An ultrasensitive DNA electrochemical biosensor was developed. • CuO NWs entangled with the SWCNTs formed a mesh structure with good conductivity. • It is the first time use of CuONWs-SWCNTs hybrid nanocomposite for DNA detection. • The biosensor is simple, selective, stable, and sensitive. • The biosensor has great potential for use in analysis of real samples. - Abstract: Here, we developed a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect specific-sequence target DNA. The biosensor was based on a hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH). The resulting CuO NWs/SWCNTs layers exhibited a good differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current response for the target DNA sequences, which we attributed to the properties of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. CuO NWs and SWCNTs hybrid composites with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Immobilization of the probe DNA on the electrode surface was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. DPV was applied to monitor the DNA hybridization event, using adriamycin as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of adriamycin were linear with the logarithm of target DNA concentrations (ranging from 1.0 × 10{sup −14} to 1.0 × 10{sup −8} M), with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10{sup −15} M (signal/noise ratio of 3). The biosensor also showed high

  14. Assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in contaminated sediments and soils using green fluorescent protein-based bacterial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, V.H.-C.; Chien, M.-T.; Tseng, Y.-Y.; Ou, K.-L.

    2006-01-01

    A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based bacterial biosensor Escherichia coli DH5α (pVLCD1) was developed based on the expression of gfp under the control of the cad promoter and the cadC gene of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. DH5α (pVLCD1) mainly responded to Cd(II), Pb(II), and Sb(III), the lowest detectable concentrations being 0.1 nmol L -1 , 10 nmol L -1 , and 0.1 nmol L -1 , respectively, with 2 h exposure. The biosensor was field-tested to measure the relative bioavailability of the heavy metals in contaminated sediments and soil samples. The results showed that the majority of heavy metals remained adsorbed to soil particles: Cd(II)/Pb(II) was only partially available to the biosensor in soil-water extracts. Our results demonstrate that the GFP-based bacterial biosensor is useful and applicable in determining the bioavailability of heavy metals with high sensitivity in contaminated sediment and soil samples and suggests a potential for its inexpensive application in environmentally relevant sample tests. - Nonpathogenic GFP-based bacterial biosensor is applicable in determining the bioavailability of heavy metals in environmental samples

  15. Post hoc support vector machine learning for impedimetric biosensors based on weak protein-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Y; Padron, A V; Hagerty, K J; Nelson, N; Chi, S; Keyhani, N O; Katz, J; Datta, S P A; Gomes, C; McLamore, E S

    2018-04-09

    Impedimetric biosensors for measuring small molecules based on weak/transient interactions between bioreceptors and target analytes are a challenge for detection electronics, particularly in field studies or in the analysis of complex matrices. Protein-ligand binding sensors have enormous potential for biosensing, but achieving accuracy in complex solutions is a major challenge. There is a need for simple post hoc analytical tools that are not computationally expensive, yet provide near real time feedback on data derived from impedance spectra. Here, we show the use of a simple, open source support vector machine learning algorithm for analyzing impedimetric data in lieu of using equivalent circuit analysis. We demonstrate two different protein-based biosensors to show that the tool can be used for various applications. We conclude with a mobile phone-based demonstration focused on the measurement of acetone, an important biomarker related to the onset of diabetic ketoacidosis. In all conditions tested, the open source classifier was capable of performing as well as, or better, than the equivalent circuit analysis for characterizing weak/transient interactions between a model ligand (acetone) and a small chemosensory protein derived from the tsetse fly. In addition, the tool has a low computational requirement, facilitating use for mobile acquisition systems such as mobile phones. The protocol is deployed through Jupyter notebook (an open source computing environment available for mobile phone, tablet or computer use) and the code was written in Python. For each of the applications, we provide step-by-step instructions in English, Spanish, Mandarin and Portuguese to facilitate widespread use. All codes were based on scikit-learn, an open source software machine learning library in the Python language, and were processed in Jupyter notebook, an open-source web application for Python. The tool can easily be integrated with the mobile biosensor equipment for rapid

  16. High-Performance Gas Sensing of CO:  Comparative Tests for Semiconducting (SnO(2)-Based) and for Amperometric Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bârsan, N; Stetter, J R; Findlay, M; Göpel, W

    1999-07-01

    A comparison of the stability and sensitivity for two different sensor types (semiconductor SnO(2) devices, amperometric electrochemical sensors) has been performed. Sensitivities and drifts in the signal and in the background for various concentrations of CO have been studied for thick-film SnO(2) sensors (Pt and Pd doped) for a period in excess of 8 months. Similar performance data have been recorded for commercial amperometric sensors for a period in excess of 4 years. The two different sensor types investigated here were also compared to the well-known commercial Figaro TGS 822 sensor at similar concentrations. An objective approach for comparing different types of sensors has been developed using the "analytical sensitivity".

  17. [Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species’ effect on lux-biosensors based on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, D N; Manukhov, I V; Gnuchikh, E Yu; Farimov, I F; Deryabin, D G

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species on lux-biosensors based on the Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 and Salmonella typhimurium LT2 host strains was investigated. The bioactivity of exogenous free radicals to the constitutively luminescent E. coli strain with plasmid pXen7 decreased in the order H2O2 > OCl– > NO• > RОO• > ONOO–> O 2 •- while the bioluminescence of S. typhimurium strain transformed with this plasmid decreased in the order NO• > H2O2 > ONOO– > RОO• > OCl– > O 2 •- The cross-reactivity of induced lux-biosensors to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, the threshold sensitivity and the luminescence amplitude dependences from the plasmid specificity and the host strain were indicated. The biosensors with plasmid pSoxS′::lux possessed a wider range of sensitivity, including H2O2 and OCl–, along with O 2 •- and NO•. Among the used reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, H2O2 showed the highest induction activity concerning to the plasmids pKatG′::lux, pSoxS′::lux and pRecA′::lux. The inducible lux-biosensors based on S. typhimurium host strain possessed a higher sensitivity to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in comparison than the biosensors based on E. coli. .

  18. Real-time determination of intracellular oxygen in bacteria using a genetically encoded FRET-based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potzkei Janko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular oxygen (O2 is one of the key metabolites of all obligate and facultative aerobic pro- and eukaryotes. It plays a fundamental role in energy homeostasis whereas oxygen deprivation, in turn, broadly affects various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Therefore, real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen levels is basically a prerequisite for the analysis of hypoxia-induced processes in living cells and tissues. Results We developed a genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based biosensor allowing the observation of changing molecular oxygen concentrations inside living cells. This biosensor named FluBO (fluorescent protein-based biosensor for oxygen consists of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP that is sensitive towards oxygen depletion and the hypoxia-tolerant flavin-binding fluorescent protein (FbFP. Since O2 is essential for the formation of the YFP chromophore, efficient FRET from the FbFP donor domain to the YFP acceptor domain only occurs in the presence but not in the absence of oxygen. The oxygen biosensor was used for continuous real-time monitoring of temporal changes of O2 levels in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli cells during batch cultivation. Conclusions FluBO represents a unique FRET-based oxygen biosensor which allows the non-invasive ratiometric readout of cellular oxygen. Thus, FluBO can serve as a novel and powerful probe for investigating the occurrence of hypoxia and its effects on a variety of (pathophysiological processes in living cells.

  19. SPR-based plastic optical fibre biosensor for the detection of C-reactive protein in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aray, Ayda; Chiavaioli, Francesco; Arjmand, Mojtaba; Trono, Cosimo; Tombelli, Sara; Giannetti, Ambra; Cennamo, Nunzio; Soltanolkotabi, Mahmood; Zeni, Luigi; Baldini, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    A plastic optical fibre biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum is proposed. The biosensor was integrated into a home-made thermo-stabilized microfluidic system that allows avoiding any thermal and/or mechanical fluctuation and maintaining the best stable conditions during the measurements. A working range of 0.006-70 mg L -1 and a limit of detection of 0.009 mg L -1 were achieved. These results are among the best compared to other SPR-based biosensors for CRP detection, especially considering that they were achieved in a real and complex medium, i.e. serum. In addition, since the sensor performances satisfy those requested in physiologically-relevant clinical applications, the whole biosensing platform could well address high sensitive, easy to realize, real-time, label-free, portable and low cost diagnosis of CRP for future lab-on-a-chip applications. 3D sketch (left) of the thermo-stabilized home-made flow cell developed to house the SPR-based plastic optical fibre biosensor. Exemplary response curve (shift of the SPR wavelength versus time) of the proposed biosensor (right) for the detection of C-reactive protein in serum. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Tuning the Sensitivity of the PDR5 Promoter-Based Detection of Diclofenac in Yeast Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Schuller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used drug diclofenac is an important environmental anthropogenic pollutant. Currently, detection of diclofenac is mainly based on chemical and physical methods. Here we describe a yeast biosensor that drives the diclofenac-dependent expression of a recombinant fluorescent protein from the authentic promoter of the PDR5 gene. This key component of the pleiotropic drug response encodes a multidrug transporter that is involved in cellular detoxification. We analyse the effects on diclofenac sensitivity of artificial PDR5 promoter derivatives in wild-type and various yeast mutant strains. This approach enabled us to generate sensor strains with elevated drug sensitivity.

  1. A multifunctional molecularly imprinted polymer-based biosensor for direct detection of doxycycline in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Feng, Xiaotong; Sun, Yi

    2018-01-01

    doxycycline-dependent fluorescence quenching in an aqueous environment. Good linearity ranging from 0.2 to 6 μM was achieved, and the limit of detection was determined to be 117 nM. The biosensor also showed good selectivity towards doxycycline when compared to other common antibiotic residues....... The multifunctional MIP composites were used to directly extract doxycycline from spiked pig plasma samples and quantify the antibiotics based on the quenched fluorescence signals. Recoveries of doxycycline were found in the range of 88–107%....

  2. Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Guider, Romain; Pasquardini, Laura; Zanetti, Manuela; Falke, Floris; Schreuder, Erik; Heideman, Rene G; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-06

    In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si₃N₄ Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab'). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 10⁴ rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10(-7) RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab', we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated.

  3. A theoretical study on tunneling based biosensor having a redox-active monolayer using physics based simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Yeon; Lee, Won Cheol; Yun, Jun Yeon; Lee, Youngeun; Choi, Seoungwook; Jin, Seonghoon; Park, Young June

    2018-01-01

    We developed a numerical simulator to model the operation of a tunneling based biosensor which has a redox-active monolayer. The simulator takes a realistic device structure as a simulation domain, and it employs the drift-diffusion equation for ion transport, the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for electron tunneling, and the Ramo-Shockley theorem for accurate calculation of non-faradaic current. We also accounted for the buffer reaction and the immobilized peptide layer. For efficient transient simulation, the implicit time integration scheme is employed where the solution at each time step is obtained from the coupled Newton-Raphson method. As an application, we studied the operation of a recently fabricated reference-electrode free biosensor in various bias conditions and confirmed the effect of buffer reaction and the current flowing mechanism. Using the simulator, we also found a strategy to maximize the sensitivity of the tunneling based sensor.

  4. A single quantum dot-based biosensor for DNA point mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Zhu, Guichi; Liang, Li; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2015-09-07

    Sensitive and selective detection of point mutation is essential to molecular biology research and early clinical diagnosis. Here, we demonstrate a single quantum dot (QD)-based biosensor for DNA point mutation assay. In this assay, a mutant target (G/C) remains unchanged after the endonuclease treatment, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be initiated with the assistance of primers and polymerase, generating a large number of mutant targets. The amplified mutant targets can be captured by biotinylated probes during the process of denaturation and annealing, and Cy5-dGTP may be assembled into the biotinylated probe with the catalysis of polymerase, leading to the formation of Cy5-labeled biotinylated probes. The Cy5-labeled biotinylated probes can be further assembled onto the QD surface to obtain a Cy5-DNA-QD complex, resulting in the generation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the QD donor and the Cy5 receptor. The mutant targets can be quantitatively evaluated by the measurement of Cy5 counts by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. While in the presence of wild-type targets (T/A), no Cy5-dGTP can be assembled into the biotinylated probe due to the presence of a mismatch and consequently no FRET is observed. This single QD-based biosensor exhibits high sensitivity with a detection limit of 5.3 aM (or 32 copies) and can even discriminate as low as 0.01% variant frequency from the mixture of mutant targets and wild-type ones. Importantly, this biosensor can be used for genomic analysis in human lung cancer cells, and may be further applied for an early clinical diagnosis and personalized medicine.

  5. Sol-Gel-Based Titania-Silica Thin Film Overlay for Long Period Fiber Grating-Based Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaioli, Francesco; Biswas, Palas; Trono, Cosimo; Jana, Sunirmal; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Basumallick, Nandini; Giannetti, Ambra; Tombelli, Sara; Bera, Susanta; Mallick, Aparajita; Baldini, Francesco

    2015-12-15

    An evanescent wave optical fiber biosensor based on titania-silica-coated long period grating (LPG) is presented. The chemical overlay, which increases the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of the sensor, consists of a sol-gel-based titania-silica thin film, deposited along the sensing portion of the fiber by means of the dip-coating technique. Changing both the sol viscosity and the withdrawal speed during the dip-coating made it possible to adjust the thickness of the film overlay, which is a crucial parameter for the sensor performance. After the functionalization of the fiber surface using a methacrylic acid/methacrylate copolymer, an antibody/antigen (IgG/anti-IgG) assay was carried out to assess the performance of sol-gel based titania-silica-coated LPGs as biosensors. The analyte concentration was determined from the wavelength shift at the end of the binding process and from the initial binding rate. This is the first time that a sol-gel based titania-silica-coated LPG is proposed as an effective and feasible label-free biosensor. The specificity of the sensor was validated by performing the same model assay after spiking anti-IgG into human serum. With this structured LPG, detection limits of the order of tens of micrograms per liter (10(-11) M) are attained.

  6. A label-free and high sensitive aptamer biosensor based on hyperbranched polyester microspheres for thrombin detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chong; Han, Qiaorong; Wang, Daoying; Xu, Weimin; Wang, Weijuan; Zhao, Wenbo; Zhou, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A label-free thrombin aptamer biosensor applied in whole blood has been developed. • The aptamer biosensor showed a wide detection range and a low detection limit. • The antibiofouling idea utilized for biosensor is significant for diagnostics. - Abstract: In this paper, we have synthesized hyperbranched polyester microspheres with carboxylic acid functional groups (HBPE-CA) and developed a label-free electrochemical aptamer biosensor using thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) as receptor for the measurement of thrombin in whole blood. The indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface modified with HBPE-CA microspheres was grafted with TBA, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the modified ITO electrode surface greatly restrained access of electrons for a redox probe of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− . Moreover, the aptamer biosensor could be used for detection of thrombin in whole blood, a wide detection range (10 fM–100 nM) and a detection limit on the order of 0.90 fM were demonstrated. Control experiments were also carried out by using bull serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme in the absence of thrombin. The good stability and repeatability of this aptamer biosensor were also proved. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development of highly sensitive label-free sensors based on aptamer with lower cost than current technology. The integration of the technologies, which include anticoagulant, sensor and nanoscience, will bring significant input to high-performance biosensors relevant to diagnostics and therapy of interest for human health

  7. A label-free and high sensitive aptamer biosensor based on hyperbranched polyester microspheres for thrombin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Han, Qiaorong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wang, Daoying; Xu, Weimin [Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Wang, Weijuan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhao, Wenbo, E-mail: zhaowenbo@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Min, E-mail: zhouminnju@126.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-11-19

    Highlights: • A label-free thrombin aptamer biosensor applied in whole blood has been developed. • The aptamer biosensor showed a wide detection range and a low detection limit. • The antibiofouling idea utilized for biosensor is significant for diagnostics. - Abstract: In this paper, we have synthesized hyperbranched polyester microspheres with carboxylic acid functional groups (HBPE-CA) and developed a label-free electrochemical aptamer biosensor using thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) as receptor for the measurement of thrombin in whole blood. The indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface modified with HBPE-CA microspheres was grafted with TBA, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the modified ITO electrode surface greatly restrained access of electrons for a redox probe of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−}. Moreover, the aptamer biosensor could be used for detection of thrombin in whole blood, a wide detection range (10 fM–100 nM) and a detection limit on the order of 0.90 fM were demonstrated. Control experiments were also carried out by using bull serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme in the absence of thrombin. The good stability and repeatability of this aptamer biosensor were also proved. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development of highly sensitive label-free sensors based on aptamer with lower cost than current technology. The integration of the technologies, which include anticoagulant, sensor and nanoscience, will bring significant input to high-performance biosensors relevant to diagnostics and therapy of interest for human health.

  8. Glutamate monitoring in vitro and in vivo: recent progress in the field of glutamate biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieben, Nathalie Ines; Rose, Nadia Cherouati; Martinez, Karen Laurence

    2009-01-01

    such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, as well as ischemic stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Accurate measurement of glutamate levels in vitro and in vivo for a better understanding of the physiological and pathological role of glutamate in neurotransmission has remained challenging...... is currently the most common method for in vivo glutamate sampling. However, the recent development and improvement of enzyme-based amperometric glutamate biosensors makes them a promising alternative to microdialysis for in vivo applications, as well as valuable devices for in vitro applications in basic...

  9. Nanomembrane-Based, Thermal-Transport Biosensor for Living Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2016-11-23

    Knowledge of materials\\' thermal-transport properties, conductivity and diffusivity, is crucial for several applications within areas of biology, material science and engineering. Specifically, a microsized, flexible, biologically integrated thermal transport sensor is beneficial to a plethora of applications, ranging across plants physiological ecology and thermal imaging and treatment of cancerous cells, to thermal dissipation in flexible semiconductors and thermoelectrics. Living cells pose extra challenges, due to their small volumes and irregular curvilinear shapes. Here a novel approach of simultaneously measuring thermal conductivity and diffusivity of different materials and its applicability to single cells is demonstrated. This technique is based on increasing phonon-boundary-scattering rate in nanomembranes, having extremely low flexural rigidities, to induce a considerable spectral dependence of the bandgap-emission over excitation-laser intensity. It is demonstrated that once in contact with organic or inorganic materials, the nanomembranes\\' emission spectrally shift based on the material\\'s thermal diffusivity and conductivity. This NM-based technique is further applied to differentiate between different types and subtypes of cancer cells, based on their thermal-transport properties. It is anticipated that this novel technique to enable an efficient single-cell thermal targeting, allow better modeling of cellular thermal distribution and enable novel diagnostic techniques based on variations of single-cell thermal-transport properties.

  10. Amperometric immunosensor for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Morgan; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Inoue, Shinnosuke; Becker, Annie L.; Weigel, Kris M.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major public health problem, which can be better controlled by using accurate and rapid diagnosis in low-resource settings. A simple, portable, and sensitive detection method is required for point-of-care (POC) settings. This paper studies an amperometric biosensor using a microtip immunoassay for a rapid and low-cost detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum. MTB in sputum is specifically captured on the functionalized microtip surface and detected by electric current. According to the numerical study, the current signal on the microtip surface is linearly changed with increasing immersion depth. Using a reference microtip, the immersion depth is compensated for a sensing microtip. On the microtip surface, target bacteria are concentrated and organized by a coffee-ring effect, which amplifies the electric current. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, both the sample processing and rinsing steps are presented with the use of deionized water as a medium for the amperometric measurement. When applied to cultured MTB cells spiked into human sputum, the detection limit was 100 CFU mL-1, comparable to a more labor-intensive fluorescence detection method reported previously.

  11. A Miniature Graphene-based Biosensor for Intracellular Glucose Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Kamran ul; Asif, Muhammad H.; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Sandberg, Mats O.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Fagerholm, Siri; Strålfors, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We report on a small and simple graphene-based potentiometric sensor for the measurement of intracellular glucose concentration. A fine borosilicate glass capillary coated with graphene and subsequently immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme is inserted into the intracellular environment of a single human cell. The functional groups on the edge plane of graphene assist the attachment with the free amine terminals of GOD enzyme, resulting in a better immobilization. The sensor exhibits a glucose-dependent electrochemical potential against an Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode which is linear across the whole concentration range of interest (10 – 1000 μM). Glucose concentration in human fat cell measured by our graphene-based sensor is in good agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

  12. Immobilised activated sludge based biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Björnsson, L; Mattiasson, B

    2000-02-01

    A biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor, based on an immobilised mixed culture of microorganisms in combination with a dissolved oxygen electrode, has been developed for the purpose of on-line monitoring of the biological treatment process for waste and wastewater. The sensor was designed for easy replacement of the biomembrane, thereby making it suitable for short-term use. The drawbacks of activated sludge based sensor, such as short sensor lifetime, were thereby circumvented. The sensor BOD measurements were carried out in the kinetic mode using a flow injection system, resulting in 25 s for one measurement followed by 4-8 min recovery time. Based on the results of normalised sensor responses, the OECD synthetic wastewater was considered to be a more suitable calibration solution in comparison with the GGA solution. Good agreement was achieved between the results of the sensor BOD measurement and those obtained from BOD5 analysis of a wastewater sample from a food-processing factory. Reproducibility of responses using one sensor was below +/- 5.6%, standard deviation. Reproducibility of responses using different sensors was within acceptable bias limits, viz. +/- 15% standard deviation.

  13. SWCNT-Based Biosensor Modelling for pH Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Kiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different forms of CNT delivery have been discovered with several biomedical functions during past decades. The mechanisms of the cellular uptake of CNTs are mainly maintained due to the chemical nature, the cell type, and the features of the molecules, which are used to functionalize the nanotube exterior. Since single-wall carbon Nanotube (SWCNT has unique chemical and physical properties, it is a great applicant for pH sensing. In addition, ion sensitive FET (ISFET base on nanostructured SWCNT have covered a new method to help genetic investigators restructure metabolic pathways in cells, recognize the progression of disease, and expand diagnostics and therapeutics. Particularly, because PH sensing is very crucial for the constancy of enzymes, it is essential to extend the cost efficient types of this sensing. In this research, the conductance changes of the CNT-based ISFET device with different pH values can be modelled by ion concentration of the solution. In addition, the electrical current of channel is imagined as a function of pH levels, which can be controlled by a control factor (α. Thus, ISFET based nanostructured SWCNT is proposed focusing on the area of electrical detection of hydrogen ions of the electrolyte membrane. Besides, electrical detection of hydrogen ion applications is suggested to be used by modelling the delivery of SWCNT sheets. In the end, after comparing the proposed model and experimental data, it has been reported that there is a good compatibility between them.

  14. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on redox polymer/carbon nanotube modified electrodes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Madalina M; Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this review is to present the contributions to the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on polyphenazine or polytriphenylmethane redox polymers together with carbon nanotubes (CNT) during recent years. Phenazine polymers have been widely used in analytical applications due to their inherent charge transport properties and electrocatalytic effects. At the same time, since the first report on a CNT-based sensor, their application in the electroanalytical chemistry field has demonstrated that the unique structure and properties of CNT are ideal for the design of electrochemical (bio)sensors. We describe here that the specific combination of phenazine/triphenylmethane polymers with CNT leads to an improved performance of the resulting sensing devices, because of their complementary electrical, electrochemical and mechanical properties, and also due to synergistic effects. The preparation of polymer/CNT modified electrodes will be presented together with their electrochemical and surface characterization, with emphasis on the contribution of each component on the overall properties of the modified electrodes. Their importance in analytical chemistry is demonstrated by the numerous applications based on polymer/CNT-driven electrocatalytic effects, and their analytical performance as (bio) sensors is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly selective DNA biosensor based on the long-range electron transfer of indigo carmine through DNA duplex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Ding, Y.; Wang, L.; Gao, C.; Gao, F.; Gao, F.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a highly selective DNA biosensor. It was based on the long-range electron transfer (LRET) from the electroactive dye indigo carmine (IC) through the DNA duplex on a glassy carbon electrode. Voltammetric experiments showed that IC interacts with dsDNA through a typical intercalative mode with a relatively strong affinity of 2.3(±0.6) x 10 6 M -1 . If incubated with DNA in IC solution, no response was observed with the ssDNA-modified probe electrode. However, a pair of well-defined redox peak was observed with a DNA-hybridized electrode, proving the presence of LRET on the biosensor. The biosensor also can differentiate complementary sequences, non-complementary sequences, and even the mutated sequences with single-base mismatches at different sites. (author)

  16. Novel charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET as a biosensor for label-free detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Manash; Dey, Prithu; De, Swapnadip; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET (CP-DIMOSFET) has been proposed for the first time to ease the label free detection of biomolecules. The concept of CP-DIMOSFET is proposed and analyzed on basis of simulated data using SILVACO ATLAS. Low thermal budgeting and thin silicon layer without any dopant implantations make the proposed structure advantageous compared to the existing MOSFET based biosensors. The results show that the proposed device is capable to detect the presence of biomolecules. Simple fabrication schemes, miniaturization, high sensitivity, dominance of dielectric modulation make the proposed biosensor a promising one that could one day revolutionize the healthcare industry.

  17. Direct electron transfer: an approach for electrochemical biosensors with higher selectivity and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Renato S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The most promising approach for the development of electrochemical biosensors is to establish a direct electrical communication between the biomolecules and the electrode surface. This review focuses on advances, directions and strategies in the development of third generation electrochemical biosensors. Subjects covered include a brief description of the fundamentals of the electron transfer phenomenon and amperometric biosensor development (different types and new oriented enzyme immobilization techniques. Special attention is given to different redox enzymes and proteins capable of electrocatalyzing reactions via direct electron transfer. The analytical applications and future trends for third generation biosensors are also presented and discussed.

  18. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  19. A New Genetically Encoded Single-Chain Biosensor for Cdc42 Based on FRET, Useful for Live-Cell Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dianne; Hodgson, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Cdc42 is critical in a myriad of cellular morphogenic processes, requiring precisely regulated activation dynamics to affect specific cellular events. To facilitate direct observations of Cdc42 activation in live cells, we developed and validated a new biosensor of Cdc42 activation. The biosensor is genetically encoded, of single-chain design and capable of correctly localizing to membrane compartments as well as interacting with its upstream regulators including the guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor. We characterized this new biosensor in motile mouse embryonic fibroblasts and observed robust activation dynamics at leading edge protrusions, similar to those previously observed for endogenous Cdc42 using the organic dye-based biosensor system. We then extended our validations and observations of Cdc42 activity to macrophages, and show that this new biosensor is able to detect differential activation patterns during phagocytosis and cytokine stimulation. Furthermore, we observe for the first time, a highly transient and localized activation of Cdc42 during podosome formation in macrophages, which was previously hypothesized but never directly visualized. PMID:24798463

  20. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A [Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Ramirez Silva, M T [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Palomar Pardave, M E, E-mail: arben.merkoci.icn@uab.es [Departamento de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2010-06-18

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10{sup -6} M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  1. ZnS nanoparticles electrodeposited onto ITO electrode as a platform for fabrication of enzyme-based biosensors of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jian; Yu, Xiuping; Wu, Ying; Di, Junwei

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOD) and ZnS nanoparticles modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode were investigated. The ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on the surface of ITO electrode. The enzyme was immobilized on ZnS/ITO electrode surface by sol–gel method to fabricate glucose biosensor. GOD could electrocatalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen, which resulted in a great increase of the reduction peak current. The reduction peak current decreased linearly with the addition of glucose, which could be used for glucose detection. Moreover, ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO electrode surface showed good photocurrent response under illumination. A photoelectrochemical biosensor for the detection of glucose was also developed by monitoring the decreases in the cathodic peak photocurrent. The results indicated that ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO substrate were a good candidate material for the immobilization of enzyme in glucose biosensor construction. - Highlights: ► ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on ITO surface. ► The direct electron transfer of GOD immobilized on ZnS surface was obtained. ► The enzyme electrode was used to the determination of glucose in the presence of oxygen. ► The response of photoelectrochemical biosensor towards glucose was more sensitive

  2. Label-free detection of bovine serum albumin based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengyong; Liao, Changrui; Chen, Danni; Song, Jun; Jin, Wei; Peng, Gang-Ding; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Ying; He, Jun; Wang, Yiping

    2017-07-24

    We propose and experimentally verify an innovative label-free optical fiber biosensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer for bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentration detection. The proposed fiber biosensor utilized a micro-cavity within a single-mode fiber to induce Mach-Zehnder interference. A remarkable feature of this biosensor is that external media can directly interact with the fiber core signal through microfluidic channels connected to the micro-cavity and sensor surface. The device was fabricated by means of femtosecond laser micromachining and chemical etching. A fiber interferometer of this type exhibits an ultrahigh refractive index sensitivity of -10,055 nm/RIU and a detection limit of 3.5 × 10 -5 RIU. Different concentrations of BSA with an infinitesimally small refractive index difference can be clearly differentiated in situ by the interferential spectra of the structure. Experiments demonstrated the biosensor exhibited a BSA solution concentration sensitivity of -38.9 nm/(mg/mL) and a detection limit of 2.57 × 10 -4 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, this biosensor is a sub-microliter dose and ultrasensitive at the low concentrations detected in BSA, which make it a promising for biochemical applications such as DNA hybridization, cancer screenings, medicine examination and environmental engineering, etc.

  3. Influences of Mg Doping on the Electrochemical Performance of TiO2 Nanodots Based Biosensor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. H. Al-Furjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical biosensors are essential for health monitors to help in diagnosis and detection of diseases. Enzyme adsorptions on biosensor electrodes and direct electron transfer between them have been recognized as key factors to affect biosensor performance. TiO2 has a good protein adsorption ability and facilitates having more enzyme adsorption and better electron transfer. In this work, Mg ions are introduced into TiO2 nanodots in order to further improve electrode performance because Mg ions are considered to have good affinity with proteins or enzymes. Mg doped TiO2 nanodots on Ti substrates were prepared by spin-coating and calcining. The effects of Mg doping on the nanodots morphology and performance of the electrodes were investigated. The density and size of TiO2 nanodots were obviously changed with Mg doping. The sensitivity of 2% Mg doped TiO2 nanodots based biosensor electrode increased to 1377.64 from 897.8 µA mM−1 cm−2 and its KMapp decreases to 0.83 from 1.27 mM, implying that the enzyme achieves higher catalytic efficiency due to better affinity of the enzyme with the Mg doped TiO2. The present work could provide an alternative to improve biosensor performances.

  4. A high-throughput surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on differential interferometric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Daqian; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Enyao; Yu, Xinglong; Luo, Zhaofeng; Ou, Huichao

    2012-01-01

    A new high-throughput surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on differential interferometric imaging is reported. The two SPR interferograms of the sensing surface are imaged on two CCD cameras. The phase difference between the two interferograms is 180°. The refractive index related factor (RIRF) of the sensing surface is calculated from the two simultaneously acquired interferograms. The simulation results indicate that the RIRF exhibits a linear relationship with the refractive index of the sensing surface and is unaffected by the noise, drift and intensity distribution of the light source. The affinity and kinetic information can be extracted in real time from continuously acquired RIRF distributions. The results of refractometry experiments show that the dynamic detection range of SPR differential interferometric imaging system can be over 0.015 refractive index unit (RIU). High refractive index resolution is down to 0.45 RU (1 RU = 1 × 10 −6 RIU). Imaging and protein microarray experiments demonstrate the ability of high-throughput detection. The aptamer experiments demonstrate that the SPR sensor based on differential interferometric imaging has a great capability to be implemented for high-throughput aptamer kinetic evaluation. These results suggest that this biosensor has the potential to be utilized in proteomics and drug discovery after further improvement. (paper)

  5. ZnO nano-array-based EGFET biosensor for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Huihui; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Minxuan; Zhang, Yue

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are normally based on enzymatic catalysis of a reaction that produces or consumes electrons and the sensing membranes dominate the performance. In this work, ZnO nano-array-based EGFETs were fabricated for pH and glucose detection. The ZnO nano-arrays prepared via low-temperature hydrothermal method were well-aligned, with an average length of 2 μm and diameter of 100-150 nm, and have a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure. The sensor performed with a sensitivity of 45 mV/pH and response time of about 6-7 s from pH = 4-12. UV irradiation can improve the Vref response as a result of the formation of a depletion region at the surface of ZnO nanomaterials. Due to its high specific surface area, the ZnO nano-array EGFET sensor showed a sensitivity of -0.395 mV/μM to the glucose detection in a concentration range between 20 and 100 μM. These EGFET glucose biosensors demonstrate a low detectable concentration (20 μM) with good linearity, therefore may be used to detect glucose in saliva and tears at much lower concentrations than that in blood.

  6. Detoxification of organophosphate residues using phosphotriesterase and their evaluation using flow based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rupesh K; Istamboulie, George; Bhand, Sunil; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2012-10-01

    Among known pesticide groups, organophosphates (OPs) have grasped attention due to their hazardous nature and their applications as pesticides and chemical weapons. This work presents the development of cost-effective column based biosensor for detoxification of OPs in water and milk. Enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) was immobilized on an activated Sepharose 4B via covalent coupling using an Omnifit glass column. Three different OPs, ethyl paraoxon (EPOx), malaoxon (MAO) and chlorpyriphos-oxon (CPO) were spiked in water and milk to test the detoxification of OPs. Mixtures of these pesticides were also tested to check the cumulative detoxification in the real samples. The efficiency of detoxification was evaluated using a highly sensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) B394 biosensor based flow system. The column conditions were optimized for the detoxification studied. The method was shown to be promising when we tested real milk samples spiked with OPs. Detoxification obtained in milk was up to 86% whereas in water, 100% detoxification was obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluorogenic Cell-Based Biosensors for Monitoring Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Theresa; Salazar, Noe; Tabb, Joel; Chase, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Fluorogenic cell-based sensor systems for detecting microbes (especially pathogenic ones) and some toxins and allergens are undergoing development. These systems harness the natural signaltransduction and amplification cascades that occur in mast cells upon activation with antigens. These systems include (1) fluidic biochips for automated containment of samples, reagents, and wastes and (2) sensitive, compact fluorometers for monitoring the fluorescent responses of mast cells engineered to contain fluorescent dyes. It should be possible to observe responses within minutes of adding immune complexes. The systems have been shown to work when utilizing either immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies or traditionally generated rat antibodies - a promising result in that it indicates that the systems could be developed to detect many target microbes. Chimeric IgE antibodies and rat immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies could be genetically engineered for recognizing biological and chemical warfare agents and airborne and food-borne allergens. Genetic engineering efforts thus far have yielded (1) CD14 chimeric antibodies that recognize both Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and bind to the surfaces of mast cells, eliciting a degranulation response and (2) rat IgG2a antibodies that act similarly in response to low levels of canine parvovirus.

  8. Nanopore-based instruments as biosensors for future planetary missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Data from automated orbiters and landers have dashed humankind's hopes of finding complex life-forms elsewhere in the Solar System. The focus of exobiological research was thus forced to shift from the detection of life through simple visual imaging to complex biochemical experiments aimed at the detection of microbial activity. Searching for biosignatures over interplanetary distances is a formidable task and poses the dilemma of what are the proper experiments that can be performed on-site to maximize the chances of success if extraterrestrial life is present but not evident. Despite their astonishing morphological diversity, all known organisms on Earth share the same basic molecular architecture; thus the vast majority of our detection and identification techniques are b(i)ased on Terran biochemistry. There is, however, a distinct possibility that life may have emerged elsewhere by using other molecular building blocks, a fact that is likely to make the outcome of most of the current molecular biological and biochemical life-detection protocols difficult to interpret if not completely ineffective. Nanopore-based sensing devices allow the analysis of single molecules, including the sequence of informational biopolymers such as DNA or RNA, by measuring current changes across an electrically resistant membrane when the analyte flows through an embedded transmembrane protein or a solid-state nanopore. Under certain basic assumptions about their physical properties, this technology has the potential to discriminate and possibly analyze biopolymers, in particular genetic information carriers, without prior detailed knowledge of their fundamental chemistry and is sufficiently portable to be used for automated analysis in planetary exploration, all of which makes it the ideal candidate for the search for life signatures in remote watery environments such as Mars, Europa, or Enceladus.

  9. Horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization of L-DOPA for mono-/bi-enzyme immobilization and amperometric biosensing of H2O2 and uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mengzhen; Huang, Ting; Chao, Long; Xie, Qingji; Tan, Yueming; Chen, Chao; Meng, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed polymerization of L-DOPA (vs. dopamine) in the presence of H2O2 (and uricase (UOx)) was exploited to immobilize mono-/bi-enzymes for hydroquinone-mediated amperometric biosensing of H2O2 and uric acid (UA). The relevant polymeric biocomposites (PBCs) were prepared in phosphate buffer solution containing HRP and L-DOPA (or plus UOx) after adding H2O2. The mono-/bi-enzyme amperometric biosensors were prepared simply by casting some of the PBCs on Au-plated Au (Au(plate)/Au) electrodes, followed by coating with an outer-layer chitosan (CS) film for each. UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for film characterization and/or process monitoring. The HRP immobilized by enzyme catalysis well pres