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Sample records for amperometric biosensor based

  1. Amperometric biosensors based on conducting nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Kros, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary study towards the development of a glucose biosensor that in the future can be used for in vivo implantations. The research focuses on three major topics, viz. the construction of the glucose sensor, the development of a biocompatible coating and a study of the factors influencing the in vivo behaviour of implanted biosensors. The first part of this thesis describes the construction of an amperometric glucose sensor based on the enzyme glucose oxidase...

  2. Amperometric biosensors based on carbon composite transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang

    1998-12-01

    Much current work in analytical chemistry is devoted to design of biosensors. One particular area in this field is the development of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors for the quantitative determination of a series of substrates in clinical, environmental, industrial and agricultural significance. This dissertation focuses on the design of improved amperometric biosensors based on carbon composite transducers. The use of metallized carbons as transducer materials results in remarkably selective amperometric biosensors. Such enzyme-based transducers eliminate major electroactive interferences, and hence circumvent the need for mediators or membrane barriers. The remarkable selectivity of metal-dispersed carbons is attributed to their strong, preferential, electrocatalytic capacity towards the reductive detection of biologically-generated hydrogen peroxide. Such electrocatalytic activity allows metal-dispersed biosensors to be operated at the optimal potential region between +0.1 and -0.2 V, where the unwanted reactions are neglected resulting in the lowest noise level. Several new materials (e.g., ruthenium on carbon, rhodium on carbon, etc.) and constructions (e.g., carbon fiber, electrochemical co-deposition transducer, etc.) were applied in the development of novel enzyme-based transducers in order to improve the selectivity and applicability of amperometric biosensors. The susceptibility of first-generation oxidase amperometric biosensing to oxygen fluctuations can be improved by using oxygen-rich fluorocarbons as the pasting binders in carbon paste enzyme transducers. Such binders provide an internal supply of oxygen resulting in efficient detection in oxygen-deficit conditions. In particular, the use of poly-chlorotrifluorethylene (Kel-F) oil as carbon paste binder results in a well-defined response and an identical signal up to 40 mM glucose in both the presence and absence of oxygen. Comparing with mediated or wired enzyme-based transducers, such internal

  3. Current Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Amperometric Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hayat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed an intensive research effort in the field of electrochemical sensors, with a particular focus on the design of amperometric biosensors for diverse analytical applications. In this context, nanomaterial integration in the construction of amperometric biosensors may constitute one of the most exciting approaches. The attractive properties of nanomaterials have paved the way for the design of a wide variety of biosensors based on various electrochemical detection methods to enhance the analytical characteristics. However, most of these nanostructured materials are not explored in the design of amperometric biosensors. This review aims to provide insight into the diverse properties of nanomaterials that can be possibly explored in the construction of amperometric biosensors.

  4. ZnO-Based Amperometric Enzyme Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helong Jiang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnO with its unique properties could provide a suitable microenvironment for immobilization of enzymes while retaining their biological activity, and thus lead to an expanded use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance. ZnO-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors are summarized in several tables for an easy overview according to the target biosensing analyte (glucose, hydrogen peroxide, phenol and cholesterol, respectively. Moreover, recent developments in enzyme electrochemical biosensors based on ZnO nanomaterials are reviewed with an emphasis on the fabrications and features of ZnO, approaches for biosensor construction (e.g., modified electrodes and enzyme immobilization and biosensor performances.

  5. Modelling Amperometric Biosensors Based on Chemically Modified Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas

    2008-01-01

    The response of an amperometric biosensor based on a chemically modified electrode was modelled numerically. A mathematical model of the biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments: an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. In order to define the main governing parameters the corresponding dimensionless mathematical model was derived. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The adequacy of the model was evaluated using analytical solutions known for very specific cases of the model parameters. By changing model parameters the output results were numerically analyzed at transition and steady state conditions. The influence of the substrate and mediator concentrations as well as of the thicknesses of the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor response was investigated. Calculations showed complex kinetics of the biosensor response, especially when the biosensor acts under a mixed limitation of the diffusion and the enzyme interaction with the substrate.

  6. ZnO-Based Amperometric Enzyme Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Helong Jiang; Baoping Wang; Xiaobing Zhang; Zhiwei Zhao; Wei Lei

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO with its unique properties could provide a suitable microenvironment for immobilization of enzymes while retaining their biological activity, and thus lead to an expanded use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance. ZnO-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors are summarized in several tables for an easy overview according to the target biosensing analyte (glucose, hydrogen peroxide, phenol and cholesterol)...

  7. Modeling amperometric biosensors based on allosteric enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liutauras Ričkus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational modeling of a biosensor with allosteric enzyme layer was investigated in this study. The operation of the biosensor is modeled using non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves three regions: the allosteric enzyme layer where the allosteric enzyme reactions as well as then mass transport by diffusion take place, the diffusion region where the mass transport by diffusion and non-enzymatic reactions take place and the convective region in which the analyte concentration is maintained constant. The biosensor response on dependency substrate concentration, cooperativity coefficient and the diffusion layer thickness on the same parameters have been studied.

  8. Modelling Amperometric Biosensors Based on Chemically Modified Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Kulys

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of an amperometric biosensor based on a chemically modified electrode was modelled numerically. A mathematical model of the biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments: an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. In order to define the main governing parameters the corresponding dimensionless mathematical model was derived. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The adequacy of the model was evaluated using analytical solutions known for very specific cases of the model parameters. By changing model parameters the output results were numerically analyzed at transition and steady state conditions. The influence of the substrate and mediator concentrations as well as of the thicknesses of the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor response was investigated. Calculations showed complex kinetics of the biosensor response, especially when the biosensor acts under a mixed limitation of the diffusion and the enzyme interaction with the substrate.

  9. Amperometric biosensors based on conducting nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary study towards the development of a glucose biosensor that in the future can be used for in vivo implantations. The research focuses on three major topics, viz. the construction of the glucose sensor, the development of a biocompatible coating and a study of

  10. An Effective Amperometric Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoelectrode Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Yingchun; Zeng Yi; Xu Fangfang; Liu Yanyan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A sensitive amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoelectrode array (NEA) was investigated. The gold nanoelectrode array was fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition on general electrodes, which shows an ordered well-defined 3D structure of nanowires. The sensitivity of the gold NEA to hydrogen peroxide is 37 times higher than that of the conventional electrode. The linear range of the platinum NEA toward H2O2is from 1 × 10−6to 1 × 10−2 M, covering fou...

  11. An Effective Amperometric Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Zhu, Yingchun; Zeng, Yi; Xu, Fangfang

    2009-03-01

    A sensitive amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoelectrode array (NEA) was investigated. The gold nanoelectrode array was fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition on general electrodes, which shows an ordered well-defined 3D structure of nanowires. The sensitivity of the gold NEA to hydrogen peroxide is 37 times higher than that of the conventional electrode. The linear range of the platinum NEA toward H2O2 is from 1 × 10-6 to 1 × 10-2 M, covering four orders of magnitudes with detection limit of 1 × 10-7 M and a single noise ratio (S/N) of four. The enzyme electrode exhibits an excellent response performance to glucose with linear range from 1 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-2 M and a fast response time within 8 s. The Michaelis-Menten constant km and the maximum current density i max of the enzyme electrode were 4.97 mM and 84.60 μA cm-2, respectively. This special nanoelectrode may find potential application in other biosensors based on amperometric signals.

  12. An Effective Amperometric Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yingchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sensitive amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoelectrode array (NEA was investigated. The gold nanoelectrode array was fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition on general electrodes, which shows an ordered well-defined 3D structure of nanowires. The sensitivity of the gold NEA to hydrogen peroxide is 37 times higher than that of the conventional electrode. The linear range of the platinum NEA toward H2O2is from 1 × 10−6to 1 × 10−2 M, covering four orders of magnitudes with detection limit of 1 × 10−7 M and a single noise ratio (S/N of four. The enzyme electrode exhibits an excellent response performance to glucose with linear range from 1 × 10−5to 1 × 10−2 M and a fast response time within 8 s. The Michaelis–Menten constantkm and the maximum current densityi maxof the enzyme electrode were 4.97 mM and 84.60 μA cm−2, respectively. This special nanoelectrode may find potential application in other biosensors based on amperometric signals.

  13. Flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors based on graphene/Nafion hybrid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Amperometric biosensors based on graphene hybrids showed the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses in the flow injection system for automatically monitoring glucose. Display Omitted Highlights: → Flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors were fabricated using reduced graphene oxide/Nafion hybrids. → The electrochemical kinetics of biosensors were comprehensively investigated by analysing electron transfer rate, charge transfer resistance, and ion diffusion coefficient, respectively. → The biosensors exhibited the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses in the flow injection system for detecting glucose. - Abstract: In this research, we demonstrated the fabrication of flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors based on RGO/Nafion hybrids. The nanohybridization of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by Nafion provided the fast electron transfer (ET) for the sensitive amperometric biosensor platforms. The ET rate (ks) and the charge transfer resistance (RCT) of GOx-RGO/Nafion hybrids were evaluated to verify the accelerated ET. Moreover, hybrid biosensors revealed a quasi-reversible and surface controlled process, as confirmed by the low peak-to-peak (ΔEp) and linear relations between Ip and scan rate (ν). Hybrid biosensors showed the fast response time of ∼3 s, the sensitivity of 3.8 μA mM-1 cm-2, the limit of detection of 170 μM, and the linear detection range of 2-20 mM for the flow-injection amperometric detection of glucose. Furthermore, interference effect of oxidizable species such as ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) on the performance of hybrid biosensors was prevented at the operating potential of -0.20 V even under the flow injection mode. Therefore, the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses of hybrid biosensors in the flow injection system make it highly suitable for automatically monitoring glucose.

  14. Flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors based on graphene/Nafion hybrid electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bong Gill, E-mail: k1811@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 Program), KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jinkyu, E-mail: JINQ@paran.com [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegidong, Dongdamoongu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoon Sik, E-mail: khs2004@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegidong, Dongdamoongu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, HoSeok, E-mail: phs0727@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seochon-dong, Giheung-gu, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Amperometric biosensors based on graphene hybrids showed the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses in the flow injection system for automatically monitoring glucose. Display Omitted Highlights: > Flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors were fabricated using reduced graphene oxide/Nafion hybrids. > The electrochemical kinetics of biosensors were comprehensively investigated by analysing electron transfer rate, charge transfer resistance, and ion diffusion coefficient, respectively. > The biosensors exhibited the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses in the flow injection system for detecting glucose. - Abstract: In this research, we demonstrated the fabrication of flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors based on RGO/Nafion hybrids. The nanohybridization of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by Nafion provided the fast electron transfer (ET) for the sensitive amperometric biosensor platforms. The ET rate (k{sub s}) and the charge transfer resistance (R{sub CT}) of GOx-RGO/Nafion hybrids were evaluated to verify the accelerated ET. Moreover, hybrid biosensors revealed a quasi-reversible and surface controlled process, as confirmed by the low peak-to-peak ({Delta}E{sub p}) and linear relations between I{sub p} and scan rate ({nu}). Hybrid biosensors showed the fast response time of {approx}3 s, the sensitivity of 3.8 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, the limit of detection of 170 {mu}M, and the linear detection range of 2-20 mM for the flow-injection amperometric detection of glucose. Furthermore, interference effect of oxidizable species such as ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) on the performance of hybrid biosensors was prevented at the operating potential of -0.20 V even under the flow injection mode. Therefore, the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses of hybrid biosensors in the flow injection system make it highly suitable for automatically monitoring glucose.

  15. Preparation of Amperometric Glucose Biosensor Based on 4-Mercaptobenzoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Endo, Hideaki; Izumi, Mitsuru

    A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated by a combination of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid and the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Because of the catalysis of Prussian Blue contained in the LB film layers, the prepared amperometric biosensor worked at a very low potential range around 0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The optimum operating conditions for glucose biosensor were investigated by varying the glucose oxidase immobilization time, the applied potential and the pH of buffer solution. The steady-state current responses of the glucose biosensor showed a good linear relationship to glucose concentrations from 0.1 mM to 154 mM.

  16. Microfabricated, amperometric, enzyme-based biosensors for in vivo applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltin, Andreas; Kieninger, Jochen; Urban, Gerald A

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturized electrochemical in vivo biosensors allow the measurement of fast extracellular dynamics of neurotransmitter and energy metabolism directly in the tissue. Enzyme-based amperometric biosensing is characterized by high specificity and precision as well as high spatial and temporal resolution. Aside from glucose monitoring, many systems have been introduced mainly for application in the central nervous system in animal models. We compare the microsensor principle with other methods applied in biomedical research to show advantages and drawbacks. Electrochemical sensor systems are easily miniaturized and fabricated by microtechnology processes. We review different microfabrication approaches for in vivo sensor platforms, ranging from simple modified wires and fibres to fully microfabricated systems on silicon, ceramic or polymer substrates. The various immobilization methods for the enzyme such as chemical cross-linking and entrapment in polymer membranes are discussed. The resulting sensor performance is compared in detail. We also examine different concepts to reject interfering substances by additional membranes, aspects of instrumentation and biocompatibility. Practical considerations are elaborated, and conclusions for future developments are presented. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26935934

  17. Development of Amperometric Glucose Biosensor Based on Prussian Blue Functionlized TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhi-Da; Qu, Yongfang; Li, Tongtong; Shrestha, Nabeen K.; Song, Yan-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors consisting of oxidase and peroxidase have attracted great attention because of their wide application. The current work demonstrates a novel approach to construct an enzymatic biosensor based on TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiNTs) as a supporting electrode on which Prussian Blue (PB)-an “artificial enzyme peroxidase” and enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) have been immobilized. For this, PB nanocrystals are deposited onto the nanotube wall photocatalytically using the intrinsic pho...

  18. Thermoresponsive amperometric glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Barwe, Stefan; Nebel, Michaela; Alburquerque, Natalia Guerrero; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, André; Schmaderer, Sebastian; Szeponik, Jan; Plumeré, Nicolas; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of a thermoresponsive biosensor for the amperometric detection of glucose. Screen printed electrodes with heatable gold working electrodes were modified by a thermoresponsive statistical copolymer [polymer I: poly(ω-ethoxytriethylenglycol methacrylate-co-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl ammonio) propanesulfonate-co-ω-butoxydiethylenglycol methacrylate-co-2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)ethyl methacrylate)] with a lower critical solution temperature of around 28 °C in aqueous solution via electrochemically induced codeposition with a pH-responsive redox-polymer [polymer II: poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-[Os(bpy)2(4-(((2-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)amino)methyl)-N,N-dimethylpicolinamide)](2+)] and pyrroloquinoline quinone-soluble glucose dehydrogenase acting as biological recognition element. Polymer II bears covalently bound Os-complexes that act as redox mediators for shuttling electrons between the enzyme and the electrode surface. Polymer I acts as a temperature triggered immobilization matrix. Probing the catalytic current as a function of the working electrode temperature shows that the activity of the biosensor is dramatically reduced above the phase transition temperature of polymer I. Thus, the local modulation of the temperature at the interphase between the electrode and the bioactive layer allows switching the biosensor from an on- to an off-state without heating of the surrounding analyte solution. PMID:26702635

  19. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  20. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 (μA · cm−2·mM−1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM) with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity) after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. PMID:26346240

  1. Amperometric biosensor based on glassy carbon electrode modified with long-length carbon nanotube and enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutaka, Hajime; Nemoto, Kentaro; Inoue, Yuki; Hidaka, Hiroki; Muguruma, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Ohsawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with long-length multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and enzyme nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is presented. We demonstrate the effect of the MWCNT length on the amperometric response of the enzyme biosensor. The long length of MWCNT is 200 µm (average), whereas the normal length of MWCNT is 1 µm (average). The response of the long MWCNT–GDH electrode is 2 times more sensitive than that of the normal-length MWCNT–GDH electrode in the concentration range from 0.25–35 mM. The result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that the long-length MWCNT–GDH electrode formed a better electron transfer network than the normal-length one.

  2. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44-1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N=3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n=7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 μg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. PMID:23177766

  3. In vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of brain energy substrates with a multiplex amperometric enzyme-based biosensor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lima Braga Lopes Cordeiro, Carlos; de Vries, M.G.; Ngabi, W; Oomen, P.E.; Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will pr

  4. Disposable amperometric biosensor based on nanostructured bacteriophages for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Ri; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Ju Hwan; Nam, Chang Hoon; Kim, Soo Won

    2010-10-01

    The selection of electrode material profoundly influences biosensor science and engineering, as it heavily influences biosensor sensitivity. Here we propose a novel electrochemical detection method using a working electrode consisting of bio-nanowires from genetically modified filamentous phages and nanoparticles. fd-tet p8MMM filamentous phages displaying a three-methionine (MMM) peptide on the major coat protein pVIII (designated p8MMM phages) were immobilized on the active area of an electrochemical sensor through physical adsorption and chemical bonding. Bio-nanowires composed of p8MMM phages and silver nanoparticles facilitated sensitive, rapid and selective detection of particular molecules. We explored whether the composite electrode with bio-nanowires was an effective platform to detect the glucose oxidase. The current response of the bio-nanowire sensor was high at various glucose concentrations (0.1 µm-0.1 mM). This method provides a considerable advantage to demonstrate analyte detection over low concentration ranges. Especially, phage-enabled bio-nanowires can serve as receptors with high affinity and specificity for the detection of particular biomolecules and provide a convenient platform for designing site-directed multifunctional scaffolds based on bacteriophages and may serve as a simple method for label-free detection.

  5. Amperometric Glucose Biosensor Based on Self-Assembling Glucose Oxidase on Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-01-01

    A flow injection amperometric glucose biosensor based on electrostatic self-assembling glucose oxidase (GOx) on a carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified glassy carbon transducer is described. GOx is immobilized on the negatively charged CNT surface by alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and a GOx layer. The unique sandwich-like layer structure (PDDA/GOx/PDDA/CNT) formed by self-assembling provides a favorable microenvironment to keep the bioactivity of GOx and to prevent enzyme molecule leakage. The direct electrochemistry behavior of GOx and electrocatalysis of H2O2 on the fabricated PDDA/GOx/PDDA/CNT electrode demonstrated that such a biosensor fabrication method preserves the activity of enzyme molecules and the mechanical and electrocatalytic properties of carbon nanotubes, enabling sensitive determination of glucose. Flow injection amperometric detection of glucose is carried out at -100 mV (vs Ag/AgCl) in 0.05 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) with wide linear response range of 15 uM- 6 mM and a detection limit of 7 uM. The PDDA/GOx/PDDA/CNT/GC biosensor showed excellent properties for the sensitive determination of glucose with good reproducibility, remarkable stability, and free of interference from other co-existing electroactive species. The present methods can be applied to assemble other enzyme molecules and biological molecules, such as antibody, antigen, and DNA, to the CNT surface for wide biosensor and bioassay applications.

  6. Amperometric Enzyme-Based Biosensors for Application in Food and Beverage Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöoregi, Elisabeth; Gáspñr, Szilveszter; Niculescu, Mihaela; Mattiasson, Bo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    Continuous, sensitive, selective, and reliable monitoring of a large variety of different compounds in various food and beverage samples is of increasing importance to assure a high-quality and tracing of any possible source of contamination of food and beverages. Most of the presently used classical analytical methods are often requiring expensive instrumentation, long analysis times and well-trained staff. Amperometric enzyme-based biosensors on the other hand have emerged in the last decade from basic science to useful tools with very promising application possibilities in food and beverage industry. Amperometric biosensors are in general highly selective, sensitive, relatively cheap, and easy to integrate into continuous analysis systems. A successful application of such sensors for industrial purposes, however, requires a sensor design, which satisfies the specific needs of monitoring the targeted analyte in the particular application, Since each individual application needs different operational conditions and sensor characteristics, it is obvious that biosensors have to be tailored for the particular case. The characteristics of the biosensors are depending on the used biorecognition element (enzyme), nature of signal transducer (electrode material) and the communication between these two elements (electron-transfer pathway).

  7. Critical Evaluation of Acetylthiocholine Iodide and Acetylthiocholine Chloride as Substrates for Amperometric Biosensors Based on Acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Lucian Radu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous amperometric biosensors have been developed for the fast analysis of neurotoxic insecticides based on inhibition of cholinesterase (AChE. The analytical signal is quantified by the oxidation of the thiocholine that is produced enzymatically by the hydrolysis of the acetylthiocholine pseudosubstrate. The pseudosubstrate is a cation and it is associated with chloride or iodide as corresponding anion to form a salt. The iodide salt is cheaper, but it is electrochemically active and consequently more difficult to use in electrochemical analytical devices. We investigate the possibility of using acetylthiocholine iodide as pseudosubstrate for amperometric detection. Our investigation demonstrates that operational conditions for any amperometric biosensor that use acetylthiocholine iodide must be thoroughly optimized to avoid false analytical signals or a reduced sensitivity. The working overpotential determined for different screen-printed electrodes was: carbon-nanotubes (360 mV, platinum (560 mV, gold (370 mV, based on a catalytic effect of iodide or cobalt phthalocyanine (110 mV, but with a significant reduced sensitivity in the presence of iodide anions.

  8. Amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on cobalt ferrite–chitosan nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel H2O2 biosensor based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized into CoFe2O4–chitosan nanocomposite has been developed for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. The nanocomposite films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). HRP has been entrapped into CoFe2O4–chitosan nanocomposite film and the immobilized enzyme could retain its bioactivity. This biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response to hydrogen peroxide. The linear range for H2O2 determination was from 3 × 10−2 to 8 mM, with a detection limit of 2 × 10−3 mM based on S/N = 3. The response time of the biosensor was 4 s. The effects of the pH and the temperature of the immobilized HRP electrode were also studied. - Highlights: ► HRP biosensor based on CoFe2O4–chitosan nanocomposite has been developed for H2O2 detection. ► The biosensor seems to be simple to prepare, fast to respond, inexpensive and sensitive. ► The biosensor had high sensitivity, good repeatability, reusability and long term stability.

  9. Amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on cobalt ferrite-chitosan nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yard Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I mc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Feyza S.; Senel, Mehmet, E-mail: msenel@fatih.edu.tr; Baykal, Abduelhadi

    2012-02-01

    A novel H{sub 2}O{sub 2} biosensor based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized into CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-chitosan nanocomposite has been developed for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. The nanocomposite films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). HRP has been entrapped into CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-chitosan nanocomposite film and the immobilized enzyme could retain its bioactivity. This biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response to hydrogen peroxide. The linear range for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} determination was from 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} to 8 mM, with a detection limit of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mM based on S/N = 3. The response time of the biosensor was 4 s. The effects of the pH and the temperature of the immobilized HRP electrode were also studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HRP biosensor based on CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-chitosan nanocomposite has been developed for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensor seems to be simple to prepare, fast to respond, inexpensive and sensitive. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensor had high sensitivity, good repeatability, reusability and long term stability.

  10. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif, E-mail: e.erhan@gyte.edu.tr

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44-1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 {mu}g/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  11. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44–1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 μg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: ► K3Fe(CN)6 has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. ► Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. ► Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  12. Amperometric ATP biosensor based on polymer entrapped enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueng, Angelika; Kranz, Christine; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2004-05-15

    A dual enzyme electrode for the detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) at physiologically relevant pH levels was developed by co-immobilization of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOD) and hexokinase (HEX) using pH-shift induced deposition of enzyme containing polymer films. Application of a simple electrochemical procedure for the co-immobilization of the enzymes at electrode surfaces exhibits a major improvement of sensitivity, response time, reproducibility, and ease of fabrication of ATP biosensors. Competition between glucose oxidase and hexokinase for the substrate glucose involving ATP as a co-substrate allows the determination of ATP concentrations. Notable control on the immobilization process enables fabrication of micro biosensors with a diameter of 25 microm. The presented concept provides the technological basis for a new generation of fast responding, sensitive, and robust biosensors for the detection of ATP at physiological pH values with a detection limit of 10 nmol l(-1). PMID:15046763

  13. Amperometric hydrogen peroxide and glucose biosensor based on NiFe2/ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dong; Yin, Longwei; Ma, Jingyun; Guo, Enyan; Li, Qun; Li, Zhaoqiang; Liu, Kegao

    2015-01-21

    Nanocomposites of NiFex embedded in ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) (x = 0, 1, 2) were prepared by a wet impregnation and hydrogen reduction process and were used to construct electrochemical biosensors for the amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or glucose. The NiFe2/OMC nanocomposites were demonstrated to have a large surface area, suitable mesoporous channels, many edge-plane-like defective sites, and a good distribution of alloyed nanoparticles. The NiFe2/OMC and Nafion modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of H2O2 as well. By utilizing it as a bioplatform, GOx (glucose oxidase) cross-linked with Nafion was immobilized on the surface of the electrode for the construction of an amperometric glucose biosensor. Our results indicated that the amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor (NiFe2/OMC + Nafion + GCE) showed good analytical performances in term of a high sensitivity of 4.29 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), wide linearity from 6.2 to 42,710 μM and a low detection limit of 0.24 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3). This biosensor exhibited excellent selectivity, high stability and negligible interference for the detection of H2O2. In addition, the immobilized enzyme on NiFe2/OMC + Nafion + GCE, retaining its bioactivity, exhibited a reversible two-proton and two-electron transfer reaction, a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate and an effective Michaelis-Menten constant (K) (3.18 mM). The GOx + NiFe2/OMC + Nafion + GCE could be used to detect glucose based on the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by GOx and exhibited a wide detection range of 48.6-12,500 μM with a high sensitivity of 6.9 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 2.7 μM (S/N = 3). The enzymic biosensor maintained a high selectivity and stability features, and shows great promise for application in the detection of glucose. PMID:25429370

  14. Amperometric biosensors for glucose, lactate, and glycolate based on oxidases and redox-modified siloxane polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Paul D.; Inagaki, Toru; Lee, Hung Sui; Skotheim, Terje A.; Karan, Hiroko I.; Okamoto, Yoshi

    1989-06-01

    Amperometric biosensors based on flavin-containing oxidases undergo several steps which produce a measurable current that is related to the concentration of substrate. In the initial step, the substrate converts the oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN) into the reduced form FADH sub 2 or FMNH sub 2. Because these cofactors are located well within the enzyme molecule, direct electron transfer to the surface of a conventional electrode does not occur to a measurable degree. A common method of facilitating this electron transfer is to introduce oxygen into the system because it is the natural acceptor for the oxidases; the oxygen is reduced by the FADH sub 2 or FMNH sub 2 to hydrogen peroxide, which can then be detected electrochemically. The major drawback to this approach is the fact that oxidation of hydrogen peroxide requires a large overpotential, thus making these sensors susceptible to interference from electroactive species. To lower the necessary applied potential, several non-physiological redox couples have been employed to shuttle electrons between the flavin moieties and the electrode. The present paper describes the development of amperometric biosensors based on flavin-containing enzymes and a family of polymeric mediators.

  15. Fabrication of amperometric xanthine biosensors based on direct chemistry of xanthine oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yansheng; Shen Chunping [Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Di Junwei, E-mail: djw@suda.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Tu Yifeng [Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2009-08-31

    The construction of amperometric xanthine biosensor by immobilization of xanthine oxidase (XOD) on the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode surface was investigated. The direct chemistry of XOD was accomplished and the formal potential was about - 0.465 V (vs SCE). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was evaluated to be 2.0 {+-} 0.3 s{sup -1}. The xanthine biosensor based on XOD entrapped in silica sol-gel (SG) thin film on CNTs-modified GC electrode surface was also investigated. The XOD still maintains its activity to xanthine. The amperometric response to xanthine showed a linear relation in the range from 0.2 {mu}M to 10 {mu}M and a detection limit of 0.1 {mu}M (S/N = 3). The enzyme electrode retained 95% of its initial activity after 90 days of storage. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity, rapid response and good long-term stability.

  16. Amperometric Biosensor for Hydrogen Peroxide Based on Electrodeposited Sub-micrometer Gold Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Shu-Qing(王树青); CHEN,Jun(陈峻); LIN,Xiang-Qin(林祥钦)

    2004-01-01

    A new type of hydrogen peroxide amperometric biosensor was fabricated based on electrochemically deposited sub-micrometer Au particles(sm-Au)on a glassy carbon electrode(GCE).Electrochemical deposition condition was optimized for obtaining uniformly distributed sub-micrometer sized Au array on the electrode surface.The hydrogen peroxide sensor was fabricated by adsorbing phenothiazine methylene blue(MB)molecules on the surface of sm-Au and covering a cross-linked horseradish peroxidase(HRP)layer,labeled as HRP/MB/sm-Au/GCE.The characteristics of this biosensor were evaluated with respect to applied potential and pH.The amperometric response of the sensor was linear to the H2O2 concentration over a wide range of 9.9×10-6-1.11×10-2 mol/L.A detection limit(s/n=3)of 3.0×10-6 mol/L H2O2 was estimated for a sampled chronoamperometric detection at 1.5 min after potential step of 200 to-400 mV vs.SCE.The immobilized MB molecules shuttled electrons at(=0.77 and an apparent electron transfer rate constant of =0.053 s-1.Interference of ascorbic acid,dopamine and uric acid was investigated.This sensor has very good stability and reproducibility for long-term use.

  17. Development of Amperometric Glucose Biosensor Based on Prussian Blue Functionlized TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-Da; Qu, Yongfang; Li, Tongtong; Shrestha, Nabeen K.; Song, Yan-Yan

    2014-11-01

    Amperometric biosensors consisting of oxidase and peroxidase have attracted great attention because of their wide application. The current work demonstrates a novel approach to construct an enzymatic biosensor based on TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiNTs) as a supporting electrode on which Prussian Blue (PB)-an ``artificial enzyme peroxidase'' and enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) have been immobilized. For this, PB nanocrystals are deposited onto the nanotube wall photocatalytically using the intrinsic photocatalytical property of TiO2, and the GOx/AuNPs nanobiocomposites are subsequently immobilized into the nanotubes via the electrodeposition of polymer. The resulting electrode exhibits a fast response, wide linear range, and good stability for glucose sensing. The sensitivity of the sensor is as high as 248 mA M-1 cm-2, and the detection limit is about 3.2 μM. These findings demonstrate a promising strategy to integrate enzymes and TiNTs, which could provide an analytical access to a large group of enzymes for bioelectrochemical applications including biosensors and biofuel cells.

  18. An amperometric uric acid biosensor based on chitosan-carbon nanotubes electrospun nanofiber on silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numnuam, Apon; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-06-01

    A novel amperometric uric acid biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing uricase on an electrospun nanocomposite of chitosan-carbon nanotubes nanofiber (Chi-CNTsNF) covering an electrodeposited layer of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on a gold electrode (uricase/Chi-CNTsNF/AgNPs/Au). The uric acid response was determined at an optimum applied potential of -0.35 V vs Ag/AgCl in a flow-injection system based on the change of the reduction current for dissolved oxygen during oxidation of uric acid by the immobilized uricase. The response was directly proportional to the uric acid concentration. Under the optimum conditions, the fabricated uric acid biosensor had a very wide linear range, 1.0-400 μmol L(-1), with a very low limit of detection of 1.0 μmol L(-1) (s/n = 3). The operational stability of the uricase/Chi-CNTsNF/AgNPs/Au biosensor (up to 205 injections) was excellent and the storage life was more than six weeks. A low Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.21 mmol L(-1) indicated that the immobilized uricase had high affinity for uric acid. The presence of potential common interfering substances, for example ascorbic acid, glucose, and lactic acid, had negligible effects on the performance of the biosensor. When used for analysis of uric acid in serum samples, the results agreed well with those obtained by use of the standard enzymatic colorimetric method (P > 0.05). PMID:24718436

  19. Amperometric inhibitive biosensor based on horseradish peroxidase-nanoporous gold for sulfide determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huihui; Liu, Zhuang; Wu, Chao; Xu, Ping; Wang, Xia

    2016-08-01

    As a well-known toxic pollutant, sulfide is harmful to human health. In this study, a simple and sensitive amperometric inhibitive biosensor was developed for the determination of sulfide in the environment. By immobilizing nanoporous gold (NPG) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and encapsulating horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto NPG, a HRP/NPG/GCE bioelectrode for sulfide detection was successfully constructed based on the inhibition of sulfide on HRP activity with o-Phenylenediamine (OPD) as a substrate. The resulted HRP/NPG/GCE bioelectrode achieved a wide linear range of 0.1–40 μM in sulfide detection with a high sensitivity of 1720 μA mM‑1 cm‑2 and a low detection limit of 0.027 μM. Additionally, the inhibition of sulfide on HRP is competitive inhibition with OPD as a substrate by Michaelis-Menten analysis. Notably, the recovery of HRP activity was quickly achieved by washing the HRP/NPG/GCE bioelectrode using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique in deaerated PBS (50 mM, pH 7.0) for only 60 s. Furthermore, the real sample analysis of sulfide by the HRP/NPG/GCE bioelectrode was achieved. Based on above results, the HRP/NPG/GCE bioelectrode could be a better choice for the real determination of sulfide compared to inhibitive biosensors previously reported.

  20. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Carbon Nanotube Functionalized by Redox Plasma-Polymerized Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tatsuya; Muguruma, Hitoshi

    2011-08-01

    A novel fabrication approach for the amperometric biosensor based on multilayer films containing carbon nanotubes (CNT), a plasma-polymerized film (PPF), and enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) is reported. The configuration of the electrochemical electrode is sequentially composed of sputtered gold, lower acetonitrile PPF, CNT, redox PPF, GOD, and upper acetonitrile PPF (denoted as PPF/GOD/Redox-PPF/CNT/PPF/Au). The lower acetonitrile PPF deposited on Au acts as a permselective membrane, and as a scaffold for CNT layer formation. The upper acetonirile PPF directly deposited on GOD acts as a matrix for enzyme immobilization. The redox PPF polymerized by a monomer of dimethlyaminomethlyferrocene (DAF) is directly deposited onto CNTs. The surface of the functionalized CNT has redox sites of ferrocene groups that shuttle electrons from CNTs to the sensing surface of the Au electrode. The synergy between the redox PPF and CNT provides benefits in terms of lowering the operational potential and enhancing the sensitivity (current). The optimized glucose biosensor revealed a sensitivity of 2.0 µA mM-1 cm-2 at +0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl, a linear dynamic range of 4.9-27 mM, and a response time of 5 s.

  1. Methylamine-Sensitive Amperometric Biosensor Based on (His6-Tagged Hansenula polymorpha Methylamine Oxidase Immobilized on the Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Ye. Stasyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel methylamine-selective amperometric bienzyme biosensor based on recombinant primary amine oxidase isolated from the recombinant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and commercial horseradish peroxidase is described. Two amine oxidase preparations were used: free enzyme (AMO and covalently immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AMO-nAu. Some bioanalytical parameters (sensitivity, selectivity, and storage stability of the developed biosensors were investigated. The sensitivity for both sensors is high: 1450 ± 113 and 700 ± 30 A−1·M−1·m−2 for AMO-nAu biosensor, respectively. The biosensors exhibit the linear range from 15 μM to 150 μM (AMO-nAu and from 15 μM to 60 μM (AMO. The developed biosensor demonstrated a good selectivity toward methylamine (MA (signal for dimethylamine and trimethylamine is less than 5% and for ethylamine 15% compared to MA output and reveals a satisfactory storage stability. The constructed amperometric biosensor was used for MA assay in real samples of fish products in comparison with chemical method. The values obtained with both approaches different methods demonstrated a high correlation.

  2. Rapid amperometric detection of trace metals by inhibition of an ultrathin polypyrrole-based glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayenimo, Joseph G; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive and reliable inhibitive amperometric glucose biosensor is described for rapid trace metal determination. The biosensor utilises a conductive ultrathin (55 nm thick) polypyrrole (PPy) film for entrapment of glucose oxidase (GOx) to permit rapid inhibition of GOx activity in the ultrathin film upon exposure to trace metals, resulting in reduced glucose amperometric response. The biosensor demonstrates a relatively fast response time of 20s and does not require incubation. Furthermore, a complete recovery of GOx activity in the ultrathin PPy-GOx biosensor is quickly achieved by washing in 2mM EDTA for only 10s. The minimum detectable concentrations achieved with the biosensor for Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) by inhibitive amperometric detection are 0.48, 1.5, 1.6 and 4.0 µM, respectively. Also, suitable linear concentration ranges were achieved from 0.48-3.3 µM for Hg(2+), 1.5-10 µM for Cu(2+), 1.6-7.7 µM for Pb(2+) and 4-26 µM for Cd(2+). The use of Dixon and Cornish-Bowden plots revealed that the suppressive effects observed with Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) were via non-competitive inhibition, while those of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) were due to mixed and competitive inhibition. The stronger inhibition exhibited by the trace metals on GOx activity in the ultrathin PPy-GOx film was also confirmed by the low inhibition constant obtained from this analysis. The biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of trace metals in tap water samples. PMID:26653478

  3. Development of an Amperometric-Based Glucose Biosensor to Measure the Glucose Content of Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Fung Ang; Lip Yee Por; Mun Fei Yam

    2015-01-01

    An amperometric enzyme-electrode was introduced where glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on chitosan membrane via crosslinking, and then fastened on a platinum working electrode. The immobilized enzyme showed relatively high retention activity. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was influenced by its loading, being suppressed when more than 0.6 mg enzyme was used in the immobilization. The biosensor showing the highest response to glucose utilized 0.21 ml/cm2 thick chitosan membrane. T...

  4. Development of an amperometric-based glucose biosensor to measure the glucose content of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Lee Fung; Por, Lip Yee; Yam, Mun Fei

    2015-01-01

    An amperometric enzyme-electrode was introduced where glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on chitosan membrane via crosslinking, and then fastened on a platinum working electrode. The immobilized enzyme showed relatively high retention activity. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was influenced by its loading, being suppressed when more than 0.6 mg enzyme was used in the immobilization. The biosensor showing the highest response to glucose utilized 0.21 ml/cm2 thick chitosan membrane. The optimum experimental conditions for the biosensors in analysing glucose dissolved in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) were found to be 35°C and 0.6 V applied potential. The introduced biosensor reached a steady-state current at 60 s. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text]) of the biosensor was 14.2350 mM, and its detection limit was 0.05 mM at s/n > 3, determined experimentally. The RSD of repeatability and reproducibility of the biosensor were 2.30% and 3.70%, respectively. The biosensor was showed good stability; it retained ~36% of initial activity after two months of investigation. The performance of the biosensors was evaluated by determining the glucose content in fruit homogenates. Their accuracy was compared to that of a commercial glucose assay kit. There was no significance different between two methods, indicating the introduced biosensor is reliable. PMID:25789757

  5. Development of an amperometric-based glucose biosensor to measure the glucose content of fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Fung Ang

    Full Text Available An amperometric enzyme-electrode was introduced where glucose oxidase (GOD was immobilized on chitosan membrane via crosslinking, and then fastened on a platinum working electrode. The immobilized enzyme showed relatively high retention activity. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was influenced by its loading, being suppressed when more than 0.6 mg enzyme was used in the immobilization. The biosensor showing the highest response to glucose utilized 0.21 ml/cm2 thick chitosan membrane. The optimum experimental conditions for the biosensors in analysing glucose dissolved in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0 were found to be 35°C and 0.6 V applied potential. The introduced biosensor reached a steady-state current at 60 s. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text] of the biosensor was 14.2350 mM, and its detection limit was 0.05 mM at s/n > 3, determined experimentally. The RSD of repeatability and reproducibility of the biosensor were 2.30% and 3.70%, respectively. The biosensor was showed good stability; it retained ~36% of initial activity after two months of investigation. The performance of the biosensors was evaluated by determining the glucose content in fruit homogenates. Their accuracy was compared to that of a commercial glucose assay kit. There was no significance different between two methods, indicating the introduced biosensor is reliable.

  6. Analytical Problems in Exposing Amperometric Enzyme Biosensors to Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Rocchitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme-based chemical biosensors are based on biological recognition. In order to operate, the enzymes must be available to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction and be stable under the normal operating conditions of the biosensor. Design of biosensors is based on knowledge about the target analyte, as well as the complexity of the matrix in which the analyte has to be quantified. This article reviews the problems resulting from the interaction of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors with complex biological matrices containing the target analyte(s. One of the most challenging disadvantages of amperometric enzyme-based biosensor detection is signal reduction from fouling agents and interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix. This article, therefore, investigates the principles of functioning of enzymatic biosensors, their analytical performance over time and the strategies used to optimize their performance. Moreover, the composition of biological fluids as a function of their interaction with biosensing will be presented.

  7. Development of Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Tyrosinase-Conducting Polymer Composite Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier del Campo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-composite coatings consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT and tyrosinase (Ty were successfully electrodeposited on conventional size gold (Au disk electrodes and microelectrode arrays using sinusoidal voltages. Electrochemical polymerization of the corresponding monomer was carried out in the presence of various Ty amounts in aqueous buffered solutions. The bio-composite coatings prepared using sinusoidal voltages and potentiostatic electrodeposition methods were compared in terms of morphology, electrochemical properties, and biocatalytic activity towards various analytes. The amperometric biosensors were tested in dopamine (DA and catechol (CT electroanalysis in aqueous buffered solutions. The analytical performance of the developed biosensors was investigated in terms of linear response range, detection limit, sensitivity, and repeatability. A semi-quantitative multi-analyte procedure for simultaneous determination of DA and CT was developed. The amperometric biosensor prepared using sinusoidal voltages showed much better analytical performance. The Au disk biosensor obtained by 50 mV alternating voltage amplitude displayed a linear response for DA concentrations ranging from 10 to 300 μM, with a detection limit of 4.18 μM.

  8. Assembling Amperometric Biosensors for Clinical Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marina Lagier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnosis and disease prevention routinely require the assessment ofspecies determined by chemical analysis. Biosensor technology offers several benefits overconventional diagnostic analysis. They include simplicity of use, specificity for the targetanalyte, speed to arise to a result, capability for continuous monitoring and multiplexing,together with the potentiality of coupling to low-cost, portable instrumentation. This workfocuses on the basic lines of decisions when designing electron-transfer-based biosensorsfor clinical analysis, with emphasis on the strategies currently used to improve the deviceperformance, the present status of amperometric electrodes for biomedicine, and the trendsand challenges envisaged for the near future.

  9. Functional layer-by-layer design of xerogel-based first-generation amperometric glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Nicholas G; Hall, Jackson R; Leopold, Michael C

    2015-02-01

    Xerogel-based first-generation amperometric glucose biosensors, constructed through specific layer-by-layer assembly of films featuring glucose oxidase doped xerogel, a diffusion-limiting xerogel layer, and capped with both electropolymerized polyphenol and blended polyurethane semipermeable membranes, are presented. The specific combination of xerogels formed from specific silane precursors, including propyl-trimethoxysilane, isobutyl-trimethoxysilane, octyl-trimethoxysilane, and hydroxymethyl-triethoxysilane, exhibit impressive dynamic and linear ranges of detection (e.g., ≥24-28 mM glucose) and low response times, as well as significant discrimination against common interferent species such as acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, sodium nitrite, oxalic acid, and uric acid as determined by selectivity coefficients. Additionally, systematic electrochemical and contact angle studies of different xerogel silane precursors, varying in structure, chain length, and/or functional group, reveal that sensor performance is more dependent on the tunable porosity/permeability of the layered interfaces rather than the hydrophobic character or functional groups within the films. While the sensing performance largely exceeds that of existing electrochemical glucose sensing schemes in the literature, the presented layered approach establishes the specific functionality of each layer working in concert with each other and suggests that the strategy may be readily adaptable to other clinically relevant targets and is amenable to miniaturization for eventual in situ or in vivo sensing. PMID:25562760

  10. A novel, disposable, screen-printed amperometric biosensor for glucose in serum fabricated using a water-based carbon ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-11-15

    Screen-printed amperometric glucose biosensors have been fabricated using a water-based carbon ink. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) and the electro-catalyst cobalt phthalocyanine were mixed with the carbon ink prior to the screen-printing process; therefore, biosensors are prepared in a one-step fabrication procedure. Optimisation of the biosensor performance was achieved by studying the effects of pH, buffer strength, and applied potential on the analytical response. Calibration studies were performed under optimum conditions, using amperometry in stirred solution, with an operating potential of +500 mV versus SCE. The sensitivity was found to be 1170 nA mM(-1), with a linear range of 0.025-2 mM; the former represents the detection limit. The disposable amperometric biosensor was evaluated by carrying out replicate determinations on a sample of bovine serum. This was achieved by the method of multiple standard additions and included a correction for background currents arising from oxidizable serum components. The mean serum concentration was calculated to be 8.63 mM and compared well with the supplier's value of 8.3 mM; the coefficient of variation was calculated to be 3.3% (n=6). PMID:16242609

  11. An Amperometric Biosensor Based on Alanine Dehydrogenase for the Determination of Low Level of Ammonium Ion in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ling Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric electrochemical biosensor has been developed for ammonium (NH4+ ion detection by immobilising alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH enzyme in a photocurable methacrylic membrane made up of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPE. The current detected was based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH that is proportional to the consumption of NH4+ ion whilst enzymatic amination of AlaDH and pyruvate is taking place. The biosensor was operated amperometrically at a potential of +0.6 V and optimum pH 7. The NH4+ biosensor demonstrated linear response to NH4+ ion concentration in the range of 0.03–1.02 mg/L with a limit of detection (LOD of 8.52 μg/L. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of NH4+ ion in river water samples without any pretreatment. The levels of possible interferents in the waters were negligible to cause any interference on the proposed method. The analytical performance of the biosensor was comparable to the colorimetric method using Nesslerisation but with much lower detection limit and linear response range at ppb level.

  12. Amperometric Biosensors Based on Carbon Paste Electrodes Modified with Nanostructured Mixed-valence Manganese Oxides and Glucose Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaoli; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-06-01

    Nanostructured multivalent manganese oxides octahedral molecular sieve (OMS), including cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides, were synthesized and evaluated for chemical sensing and biosensing at low operating potential. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides are nanofibrous crystals with sub-nanometer open tunnels that provide a unique property for sensing applications. The electrochemical and electrocatalytic performance of OMS for the oxidation of H2O2 have been compared. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides can be used to fabricate sensitive H2O2 sensors. Amperometric glucose biosensors are constructed by bulk modification of carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) with glucose oxidase as a biocomponent and nanostructured OMS as a mediator. A Nafion thin film was applied as an immobilization/encapsulation and protective layer. The biosensors were evaluated as an amperometric glucose detector at phosphate buffer solution with a pH 7.4 at an operating potential of 0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor is characterized by a well-reproducible amperometric response, linear signal-to-glucose concentration range up to 3.5 mM and 1.75 mM, and detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.1 mM and 0.05 mM for todorokite-type manganese oxide and cryptomelane-type manganese oxide modified electrodes, respectively. The biosensors based on OMS exhibit considerable good reproducibility and stability, and the construction and renewal are simple and inexpensive.

  13. Amperometric biosensors based on carbon paste electrodes modified with nanostructured mixed-valence manganese oxides and glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoli; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-06-01

    Nanostructured, multivalent, manganese-oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS), including cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides, were synthesized and evaluated for chemical sensing and biosensing at low operating potential. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides are nanofibrous crystals with subnanometer open tunnels that provide a unique property for sensing applications. The electrochemical and electrocatalytic performance of OMS for the oxidation of H2O2 have been compared. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides can be used to fabricate sensitive H2O2 sensors. With glucose oxidase (GOx) as an enzyme model, amperometric glucose biosensors are constructed by bulk modification of carbon paste electrodes with GOx as a biocomponent and nanostructured OMS as a mediator. A Nafion thin film was applied as an immobilization/encapsulation and protective layer. The biosensors were evaluated as an amperometric glucose detector at phosphate buffer solution with a pH 7.4 at an operating potential of 0.3 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The biosensor is characterized by a well-reproducible amperometric response, linear signal-to-glucose concentration range up to 3.5 mmol/L and 1.75 mmol/L, and detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.1 mmol/L and 0.05 mmol/L for todorokite-type manganese oxide and cryptomelane-type manganese oxide-modified electrodes, respectively. The biosensors based on OMS exhibit considerable good reproducibility and stability, and the construction and renewal are simple and inexpensive.

  14. Impedimetric and amperometric bifunctional glucose biosensor based on hybrid organic-inorganic thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Endo, Hideaki; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2015-02-01

    A novel glucose biosensor with an immobilized mediator was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperometry measurements. The biosensor has a characteristic ultrathin form and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer anchoring glucose oxidase (GOx) covered with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of Prussian blue (PB). The immobilized PB in the LB films acts as a mediator and enables the biosensor to work under a low potential (0.0V vs. Ag/AgCl). In the EIS measurements, a dramatic decrease in charge transfer resistance (Rct) was observed with sequential addition of glucose, which can be attributed to enzymatic activity. The linearity of the biosensor response was observed by the variation of the sensor response (1/Rct) as a function of glucose concentration in the range 0 to 25mM. The sensor also showed linear amperometric response below 130mM glucose. The organic-inorganic system of GOx and PB nanoclusters demonstrated bifunctional sensing action, both amperometry and EIS modes, as well as long sensing stability for 4 days. PMID:25014167

  15. Sensitive determination of L-lysine with a new amperometric microbial biosensor based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, Erol; Erdoğan, Ali; Oztürk, Ramazan; Yaşa, Ihsan

    2007-01-15

    A new amperometric microbial biosensor based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL-12632 cells, which had been induced for lysine oxidase enzyme and immobilized in gelatin by a cross-linking agent was developed for the sensitive determination of L-lysine amino acid. To construct the microbial biosensor S. cerevisiae cells were activated and cultured in a suitable culture medium. By using gelatine (8.43 mg cm(-2)) and glutaraldehyde (0.25%), cells obtained in the logarithmic phase of the growth curve at the end of a 14 h period were immobilized and fixed on a pretreated oxygen sensitive Teflon membrane of a dissolved oxygen probe. The assay procedure of the microbial biosensor is based on the determination of the differences of the respiration activity of the cells on the oxygenmeter in the absence and the presence of L-lysine. According to the end point measurement technique used in the experiments it was determined that the microbial biosensor response depended linearly on L-lysine concentrations between 1.0 and 10.0 microM with a 1 min response time. In optimization studies of the microbial biosensor, the most suitable microorganism quantities were found to be 0.97x10(5)CFU cm(-2). In addition phosphate buffer (pH 7.5; 50 mM) and 30 degrees C were obtained as the optimum working conditions. In characterization studies of the microbial biosensor some parameters such as substrate specificity, interference effects of some substances on the microbial biosensor responses, reproducibility of the biosensor and operational and storage stability were investigated. PMID:16759846

  16. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on Hemoglobin/DNA/Poly-2,6-pyridinediamine modified gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Zhongqiang [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)], E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn; Chai Yaqin; Chen Shihong; Xie Yi [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2007-07-31

    An amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was fabricated based on immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) on DNA/Poly-2,6-pyridinediamine (PPD) modified Au electrode. PPD thin films were firstly electro-deposited on Au electrode surface which provide a template to attach negatively charged DNA molecules by electrostatic attraction. The adsorbed DNA network provides a good microenvironment for the immobilization of biomolecules and promotes electron transfer between the immobilized Hb and the electrode surface. The fabrication process of the biosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental conditions influencing the biosensor performance such as pH, potential and temperature were assessed and optimized. The proposed biosensor displayed a good electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, its linear range is 1.7 {mu}M to 3 mM with a detection limit of 1.0 {mu}M based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3) under the optimized conditions. The Michaelis-Menten constant K{sub m}{sup app} of Hb immobilized on the electrode surface was found to be 0.8 mM. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and stability. Importantly, this deposition methodology could be further developed for the immobilization of other proteins and biocompounds.

  17. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. PMID:26452867

  18. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bo [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Shu [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Lang, Qiaolin [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liu, Aihua, E-mail: liuah@qibebt.ac.cn [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • E. coli surface-dispalyed Gldh exhibiting excellent enzyme activity and stability. • Sensitive amperometric biosensor for glutamate using Gldh-bacteria and MWNTs. • The glutamate biosensor exhibited high specificity and stability. - Abstract: A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP{sup +}-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP{sup +} involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current–time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM–1 mM and 2–10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N = 3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection.

  19. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • E. coli surface-dispalyed Gldh exhibiting excellent enzyme activity and stability. • Sensitive amperometric biosensor for glutamate using Gldh-bacteria and MWNTs. • The glutamate biosensor exhibited high specificity and stability. - Abstract: A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP+-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP+ involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current–time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM–1 mM and 2–10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N = 3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection

  20. Amperometric Biosensors for Real Time Assays of Organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kuca

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE immobilized in gelatin was used to develop an assay for the organophosphate paraoxon. The more traditional manner employing preincubation was used for comparison between measurement procedures, although the aim of the study was to examine the performance of the biosensor for real time monitoring of organophosphates. The biosensor was immersed in a reaction chamber and paraoxon was injected inside. We were able to detect 200 pg of paraoxon within one minute or 2.5 ppb when the biosensor was preincubed in the sample solution for 15 minutes. The practical impact and expectations are discussed.

  1. Detection of Waterborne and Airborne Formaldehyde: From Amperometric Chemosensing to a Visual Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Sigawi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory prototype of a microcomputer-based analyzer was developed for quantitative determination of formaldehyde in liquid samples, based on catalytic chemosensing elements. It was shown that selectivity for the target analyte could be increased by modulating the working electrode potential. Analytical parameters of three variants of the amperometric analyzer that differed in the chemical structure/configuration of the working electrode were studied. The constructed analyzer was tested on wastewater solutions that contained formaldehyde. A simple low-cost biosensor was developed for semi-quantitative detection of airborne formaldehyde in concentrations exceeding the threshold level. This biosensor is based on a change in the color of a solution that contains a mixture of alcohol oxidase from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, horseradish peroxidase and a chromogen, following exposure to airborne formaldehyde. The solution is enclosed within a membrane device, which is permeable to formaldehyde vapors. The most efficient and sensitive biosensor for detecting formaldehyde was the one that contained alcohol oxidase with an activity of 1.2 U·mL−1. The biosensor requires no special instrumentation and enables rapid visual detection of airborne formaldehyde at concentrations, which are hazardous to human health.

  2. In vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of brain energy substrates with a multiplex amperometric enzyme-based biosensor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, C A; de Vries, M G; Ngabi, W; Oomen, P E; Cremers, T I F H; Westerink, B H C

    2015-05-15

    Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will provide better understanding of brain energy metabolism and its role in neuropathologies such as diabetes, ischemia, and epilepsy. We have developed and characterized an implantable multiplex microbiosensor device (MBD) for simultaneous and continuous in vivo monitoring of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate. First, we developed and characterized amperometric microbiosensors for monitoring lactate and pyruvate. In vitro evaluation allowed us to choose the most suitable biosensors for incorporation into the MBD, along with glucose and background biosensors. Fully assembled MBDs were characterized in vitro. The calculated performance parameters (LOD, LR, LRS, IMAX and appKM) showed that the multiplex MBD was highly selective and sensitive (LRS≥100 nA/mM) for each analyte and within an adequate range for in vivo application. Finally, MBDs were implanted in the mPFC of anesthetized adult male Wistar rats for in vivo evaluation. Following an equilibration period, baseline brain levels of glucose (1.3±0.2 mM), lactate (1.5±0.4 mM) and pyruvate (0.3±0.1 mM) were established. Subsequently, the MBDs recorded the responses of the animals when submitted to hyperglycemic (40% glucose i.v.) and hypoglycemic (5 U/kg insulin i.v.) challenges. Afterwards, MBDs were recalibrated to convert electrochemical readings into accurate substrate concentrations and to assess biofouling. The presented MBD can monitor simultaneously multiple biomarkers in vivo. PMID:25459054

  3. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV–visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (Ks) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22 s−1. The higher Ks value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05–23.2 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28 μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. - Highlights: • An amperometric glucose biosensor has been developed at MWCNT/GO hybrid biocomposite. • Enhanced and fast direct electron transfer kinetics of glucose oxidase has been achieved at hybrid biocomposite. • Hybrid biocomposite has been characterized by TEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy. • Highly sensitive and selective for glucose determination

  4. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV–visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (K{sub s}) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22 s{sup −1}. The higher K{sub s} value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05–23.2 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28 μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. - Highlights: • An amperometric glucose biosensor has been developed at MWCNT/GO hybrid biocomposite. • Enhanced and fast direct electron transfer kinetics of glucose oxidase has been achieved at hybrid biocomposite. • Hybrid biocomposite has been characterized by TEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy. • Highly sensitive and selective for glucose determination.

  5. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M−1 with a detection limit of 0.31 μM and a linear detection range from 0.39 μM to 8.98 μM for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis–Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis–Menten (KMapp) was 6.28 μM. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor. (papers)

  6. An amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Co3O4 nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was constructed by combining the advantageous properties of MWCNTs and Co3O4. • Incorporating Co3O4 nanoparticles into MWCNTs/gelatin film increased the electron transfer. • Co3O4/MWCNTs/gelatin/HRP/Nafion/GCE showed strong anti-interference ability. • Hydrogen peroxide was successfully determined in disinfector with an average recovery of 100.78 ± 0.89. - Abstract: In this work a new type of hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by cross-linking on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Co3O4 nanoparticles, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gelatin. The introduction of MWCNTs and Co3O4 nanoparticles not only enhanced the surface area of the modified electrode for enzyme immobilization but also facilitated the electron transfer rate, resulting in a high sensitivity of the biosensor. The fabrication process of the sensing surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by holding the modified electrode at −0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor showed optimum response within 5 s at pH 7.0. The optimized biosensor showed linear response range of 7.4 × 10−7–1.9 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10−7. The applicability of the purposed biosensor was tested by detecting hydrogen peroxide in disinfector samples. The average recovery was calculated as 100.78 ± 0.89

  7. Non-invasive determination of glucose directly in raw fruits using a continuous flow system based on microdialysis sampling and amperometric detection at an integrated enzymatic biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E; Ruiz, M A; Campuzano, S; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2016-03-31

    A non-destructive, rapid and simple to use sensing method for direct determination of glucose in non-processed fruits is described. The strategy involved on-line microdialysis sampling coupled with a continuous flow system with amperometric detection at an enzymatic biosensor. Apart from direct determination of glucose in fruit juices and blended fruits, this work describes for the first time the successful application of an enzymatic biosensor-based electrochemical approach to the non-invasive determination of glucose in raw fruits. The methodology correlates, through previous calibration set-up, the amperometric signal generated from glucose in non-processed fruits with its content in % (w/w). The comparison of the obtained results using the proposed approach in different fruits with those provided by other method involving the same commercial biosensor as amperometric detector in stirred solutions pointed out that there were no significant differences. Moreover, in comparison with other available methodologies, this microdialysis-coupled continuous flow system amperometric biosensor-based procedure features straightforward sample preparation, low cost, reduced assay time (sampling rate of 7 h(-1)) and ease of automation. PMID:26965327

  8. A novel amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoparticles-mesoporous silica composite for biosensing glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We report a novel bienzyme biosensor based on the assembly of the glucose oxidase (GOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto the gold nanoparticles encapsulated mesoporous silica SBA-15 composite (AuNPs-SBA-15). Electrochemical behavior of the bienzyme bioconjugates biosensor is studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate that the presence of mesoporous AuNPs-SBA-15 greatly enhanced the protein loadings, accelerated interfacial electron transfer of HRP and the electroconducting surface, resulting in the realization of direct electrochemistry of HRP. Owing to the electrocatalytic effect of AuNPs-SBA-15 composite, the biosensor exhibits a sensitive response to H2O2 generated from enzymatic reactions. Thus the bienzyme biosensor could be used for the detection of glucose without the addition of any mediator. The detection limit of glucose was 0.5 μM with a linear range from 1 to 48 μM.

  9. A new amperometric glucose biosensor based on one-step electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaofang; Wei, Jianfei; Ren, Xiangling; Li, Linlin; Meng, Xianwei; Ren, Jun; Tang, Fangqiong

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a new glucose amperometric biosensor was developed by directly electrospinning poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitostan nanofibers on the surface of the platinum electrode, in which glucose oxidase (GOD) was effectively immobilized in nanofibers by encapsulation. After been cross-linked in glutaraldehyde vapor and modified with a thin nafion film, the nanofibers (PVA/chitosan/GOD)/nafion electrode was used for glucose amperometric measurements. The electrospun nanofibrous enzyme membrane served as a better sensing element than the casing one due to the unique properties of nanofibers such as the special three-dimensional network structure, large pores, high porosity, and large surface to volume ratios. The as-prepared biosensor showed a wide linear calibration range, low detection limit, and low apparent Michaelis-Menten constant in the glucose determination. The stability, reproducibility and anti-interference capability of biosensor were also presented. Furthermore, the new biosensor was successfully applied to detect glucose in human serum samples. PMID:24015507

  10. Amperometric urea biosensor based on urease and electropolymerized toluidine blue dye as a pH-sensitive redox probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostiar, Igor; Tkac, Jan; Sturdik, Ernest; Gemeiner, Peter

    2002-05-15

    The electropolymerized toluidine blue film deposited on the glassy carbon electrode show amperometrically detectable pH sensitivity. This feature of polytoluidine blue (PTOB) film was used for a construction of an amperometric urea biosensor. We have observed a linear shift of the formal redox potential with increasing pH value between 4 and 8 giving the slope of 81 mV(Delta) pH(-1). Polytoluidine blue film has had a significantly increased stability and higher electrochemical activity compared to the adsorbed monomeric dye. The polytoluidine blue urea biosensor has been operating at a working potential of -200 mV vs. SCE. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 980 nA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor showed linearity in concentration range up to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 0.02 mM (S/N=3).

  11. Amperometric biosensor based on carbon nanotubes coated with polyaniline/dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles for glucose detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Lihuan [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhu Yihua, E-mail: yhzhu@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2009-05-05

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on the nanocomposites of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) coated with polyaniline (PANI) and dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles (Pt-DENs) is prepared. CNT coated with protonated PANI is in situ synthesized and Pt-DENs is absorbed on PANI/CNT composite surface by self-assembly method. Then Glucose oxidase (GOx) is crosslink-immobilizated onto Pt-DENs/PANI/CNT composite film. The results show that the fabricated GOx/Pt-DENs/PANI/CNT electrode exhibits excellent response performance to glucose, such as low detection limit (0.5 {mu}M), wide linear range (1 {mu}M-12 mM), short response time (about 5 s), high sensitivity (42.0 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}) and stability (83% remains after 3 weeks).

  12. A novel amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoparticles-mesoporous silica composite for biosensing glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JingJing; ZHU JunJie

    2009-01-01

    We report a novel bienzyme bioseneor based on the assembly of the glucose oxidase (GOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto the gold nanoparticles encapsulated mesoporous silica SBA-15 composite (AuNPs-SBA-15). Electrochemical behavior of the bienzyme bioconjugatse biosensor is studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate that the presence of mesoporous AuNPs-SBA-15 greatly enhanced the protein Ioadings, accelerated inter-facial electron transfer of HRP and the electroconducting surface, resulting in the realization of direct electrochemistry of HRP. Owing to the electrocatalytic effect of AuNPs-SBA-15 composite, the biosen-sor exhibits a sensitive response to H2O2 generated from enzymatic reactions. Thus the bienzyme biosensor could be used for the detection of glucose without the addition of any mediator. The detec-tion limit of glucose was 0.5 μM with a linear range from 1 to 48 μM.

  13. Amperometric biosensor based on 3D ordered freestanding porous Pt nanowire array electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunli; Zhu, Yingchun; Chen, Jingjing; Zeng, Yi

    2012-09-28

    A three-dimensionally (3D) ordered freestanding porous platinum (Pt) nanowire array electrode (PPNWAE) with pores of several nanometers in size and a Pt nanowire array electrode (PNWAE) without pores were facilely fabricated by metal electrodeposition and direct integration with a Pt disk electrode. The unusual PPNWAE with high active area showed excellent sensitivity (0.36 mA cm(-2) mM(-1)) and a wide detection range (4.5 μM-27.1 mM) to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). A glucose oxidase (GOD)-based biosensor (PPNWAE/GOD) with a considerably wide detection range (4.5 μM-189.5 mM) to glucose was demonstrated. Furthermore, a lower detection limit, higher sensitivity and smaller value of Michaelis-Menten constant k(m) were recorded for PPNWAE-based biosensors compared with PNWAE-based biosensors. Particularly, the response current to glucose of PPNWAE/GOD was ca. 100% higher than that of PNWAE/GOD and the response current to H(2)O(2) of PPNWAE was ca. 50% higher than that of PNWAE, owing to the granular and rougher porous nanowire surface enabling greater bioactivity for GOD. The selectivity of PPNWAE/GOD glucose biosensor was also estimated. PMID:22898987

  14. The use of different glucose oxidases for the development of an amperometric reagentless glucose biosensor based on gold nanoparticles covered by polypyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- ABSTRACT: The amperometric glucose biosensors based on adsorbed electron transfer mediator (ETM) tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) or 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (PD) and glucose oxidase (GOx) from Aspergillus niger (GOxA.niger), Penicillium adametzii (GOxP.adametzii) or Penicillium funiculosum (GOxP.funiculosum) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde were investigated. ETM and enzyme were immobilized layer by layer on bare graphite rod electrode (GR) premodified with gold nanoparticles (AuNP) of (i) 3.5 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP3.5/GR), (ii) 6.0 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP6.0/GR) and (iii) 13.0 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP13.0/GR) size. The amperometric signals for all the developed biosensors were higher using PD in comparison with TTF. The biosensor based on GOxP.funiculosum showed higher analytical signal to glucose in a comparison to biosensors based on GOxA.niger and GOxP.adametzii. The registered current to glucose using GOxP.funiculosum/PD/AuNP3.5/GR electrode was linear in the glucose range from 0.1 to 10.0 mmol L−1 and the limit of detection was 0.024 mmol L−1. Enzymatical synthesis of polypyrrole (Ppy) layer on the electrode was applied in order to expand the linear glucose detection range. After 22 h of polymerization the amperometric signal was linear in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 25.0 mmol L−1, while after 69 h this rage was increased up to 50.0 mmol L−1. Additionally Ppy layer on the electrode surface reduced the influence of interfering species on the amperometric signal. The performance of developed biosensor was investigated in human serum samples

  15. Modelling of Amperometric Biosensor Used for Synergistic Substrates Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Simelevicius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the operation of an amperometric biosensor producing a chemically amplified signal is modelled numerically. The chemical amplification is achieved by using synergistic substrates. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves three layers (compartments: a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on the electrode surface, a dialysis membrane covering the enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer which is modelled by the Nernst approach. The equation system is solved numerically by using the finite difference technique. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by altering the model parameters influencing the enzyme kinetics as well as the mass transport by diffusion. The biosensor action was analyzed with a special emphasis to the effect of the chemical amplification. The simulation results qualitatively explain and confirm the experimentally observed effect of the synergistic substrates conversion on the biosensor response.

  16. Modelling of amperometric biosensor used for synergistic substrates determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelevicius, Dainius; Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the operation of an amperometric biosensor producing a chemically amplified signal is modelled numerically. The chemical amplification is achieved by using synergistic substrates. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves three layers (compartments): a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on the electrode surface, a dialysis membrane covering the enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer which is modelled by the Nernst approach. The equation system is solved numerically by using the finite difference technique. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by altering the model parameters influencing the enzyme kinetics as well as the mass transport by diffusion. The biosensor action was analyzed with a special emphasis to the effect of the chemical amplification. The simulation results qualitatively explain and confirm the experimentally observed effect of the synergistic substrates conversion on the biosensor response. PMID:22666066

  17. A disposable amperometric ethanol biosensor based on screen-printed carbon electrodes mediated with ferricyanide-magnetic nanoparticle mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, M.-H. [Department of Cosmetology Styling, Applied Science Technology Research Center, Transworld Institute of Technology, Douliou, Yunlin 64063, Taiwan (China); Guo, J.-C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123, University Rd., Sec 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.-C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123, University Rd., Sec 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chenwc@yuntech.edu.tw

    2006-09-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and used to develop a reagentless disposable amperometric ethanol (EtOH) biosensor. The electrochemical characteristics of modified processes were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). Results showed that the presence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles could enhance the peak currents of redox species. Moreover, the alcohol biosensor exhibited an excellent sensitivity and fast response time for EtOH with a wide linear response range from 1.0 to 9.0 mM.

  18. Development of an amperometric glucose biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase in an ormosil-PVA matrix onto a Prussian Blue modified electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN HaiLing; ZHAO Li; CHEN Xi; ZHUANG ZhiXia; WANG XiaoRu

    2009-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor was developed based on the Immobilization of glucose oxidase in the organically modified silicate(ormosil)-polyvinyl acetate(PVA)matrix onto a Prussian Blue(PB)-modified glassy carbon electrode.A higher stability PB-modified electrode was prepared by the electrochemical deposition of FeCl3,K3[Fe(CN)6]and ethylenediamine tetrsacetic acid(EDTA)under cyclic voltammetric(CV)conditions.The effects of the potential range of CV conditions,electrolyte cations,applied potential,pH,temperature and co-existing substances were investigated.The detection limit of the glucose biosensor was 8.1 μmol·L-1(S/N=3)with a linear range from 20 μmol·L-1 to 2 mmol·L-1(R=0.9965).The biosensor presented a fast response and good selectivity.Additionally,excellent reproducibility and stability of the biosensor were observed.

  19. Amperometric sulfide detection using Coprinus cinereus peroxidase immobilized on screen printed electrode in an enzyme inhibition based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour; Kariminia, Hamid-Reza; Ghadiri, Mohammad; Roosta-Azad, Reza

    2012-05-15

    In the present work, an amperometric inhibition biosensor for the determination of sulfide has been fabricated by immobilizing Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) on the surface of screen printed electrode (SPE). Chitosan/acrylamide was applied for immobilization of peroxidase on the working electrode. The amperometric measurement was performed at an applied potential of -150 mV versus Ag/AgCl with a scan rate of 100 mV in the presence of hydroquinone as electron mediator and 0.1M phosphate buffer solution of pH 6.5. The variables influencing the performance of sensor including the amount of substrate, mediator concentration and electrolyte pH were optimized. The determination of sulfide can be achieved in a linear range of 1.09-16.3 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 μM. Developed sensor showed quicker response to sulfide compared to the previous developed sulfide biosensors. Common anions and cations in environmental water did not interfere with sulfide detection by the developed biosensor. Cyanide interference on the enzyme inhibition caused 43.25% error in the calibration assay which is less than the amounts reported by previous studies. Because of high sensitivity and the low-cost of SPE, this inhibition biosensor can be successfully used for analysis of environmental water samples.

  20. Urea biosensor based on amperometric pH-sensing with hematein as a pH-sensitive redox mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzariello, A; Stredanský, M; Stredanská, S; Miertus, S

    2001-05-30

    The natural dye hematein in water solution was used as a pH-sensitive redox-active mediator for amperometric pH-sensing. The electrochemical characteristics were studied using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Several types of urea biosensors were constructed with urease on the surface of platinum and graphite composite electrodes or in the bulk of the graphite composite. They were used for the amperometric urea determination at a working potential of 0 mV (versus SCE) using 0.5 mM hematein. Detection limits and response linearity was in the micromolar range depending on the biosensor type, concentration and pH of buffers used. An interference study of various cations, anions, and substances, which may be present in real samples demonstrated good selectivity for the determination of urea. The biosensors showed good operational (>3 h) and storage (>3 months) stability. The results of urea determination in blood and urine obtained by biosensor correlated well with those obtained by a spectrophotometric reference method.

  1. A new amperometric method for rapid detection of Escherichia coli density using a self-assembled monolayer-based bienzyme biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Hui [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang Wen [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)]. E-mail: wenzhang26@163.com; Geng Ping [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang Qingjiang [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Jin Litong [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)]. E-mail: ltjin@chem.ecnu.edu.cn; Wu Zirong [School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Lou Min [School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2006-03-15

    A new amperometric method was developed for rapid detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) density using a bienzyme biosensor. The bienzyme biosensor was fabricated based on the covalent immobilization of laccase and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) monolayer. The bienzyme biosensor showed a high sensitivity in determination of the polyphenolic compounds, which was microbially generated from the salicylic acid (SA) added into the culture medium during the course of E. coli metabolism. Since the amount of polyphenolic compounds depends on E. coli density, the bienzyme biosensor was applied for the rapid and high sensitive detection of E. coli density after the E. coli solution was incubated in culture medium with salicylic acid for 2.5 h at 37 deg. C. By chronoamperometry, the amplified response current was obtained at the bienzyme biosensor, due to the substrate recycling of the polyphenolic compounds driven by bienzyme-catalyzed oxidation and electrochemical reduction. The amplified response current at the biosensor was linear with the E. coli density ranging from 1.6 x 10{sup 3} to 1.0 x 10{sup 7} cells/mL. The bienzyme biosensor could detect the E. coli density with a detection limit of 9.7 x 10{sup 2} cells/mL within 3 h.

  2. A new amperometric glucose biosensor based on screen printed carbon electrodes with rhenium(IV) - oxide as a mediator

    OpenAIRE

    ALBANA VESELI; AHMET HAJRIZI; TAHIR ARBNESHI; KURT KALCHER

    2012-01-01

    Rhenium(IV)-oxide, ReO2, was used as a mediator for carbon paste (CPE) and screen printed carbon (SPCE) electrodes for the catalytic amperometric determination of hydro-gen peroxide, whose overpotential for the reduction could be lowered to -0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl in flow injection analysis (FIA) using phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH=7.5) as a carrier. For hydrogen peroxide a detection limit (3σ) of 0.8 mg L-1 could be obtained. ReO2-modified SPCEs were used to design biosensors with a template enzyme...

  3. AN AMPEROMETRIC BIOSENSOR BASED ON COVALENT IMMOBILIZATION OF ASCORBATE OXIDASE ON BIOCOMPATIABLE AND LOW-TOXIC POLY(THIOPHENE-3-ACETIC ACID) MATRIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Li; Yang-ping Wen; Jing-kun Xu; Hao-hua He; Ming Liu

    2012-01-01

    The biocompatiable and low-toxic poly(thiophene-3-acetic acid) (PTAA) matrix was successfully electrosynthesized in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmimPF6) in comparison with the electrosynthesis of PTAA matrix in acetonitrile (ACN).Ascorbate oxidase (AO) was used as a model for the development and application of biosensor.Vitamin C (VC) biosensors were facilely fabricated by the covalent immobilization of AO molecules on PTAA matrices electrosynthesized in ACN containing tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate and BmimPF6,respectively.Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,scanning electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy indicated that AO molecules were covalently immobilized on PTAA matrices.Parameters of the as-obtained biosensors such as working potential,pH and temperature have been optimized.The amperometric biosensor based on PTAA matrix electrosynthesized in BmimPF6 exhibited wider linear range,lower detection limit,higher sensitivity and bioaffinity,and better operational and storage stability than that electrosynthesized in ACN under optimal conditions.The as-obtained biosensor based on PTAA matrix electrosynthesized in BmimPF6 was employed for the detection of VC content in commercial juices,and the result was close to the data given by manufacturers.Excellent results indicate that the PTAA matrix electrosynthesized in ionic liquid is a promising platform for the covalent immobilization of biologically-active species and the development of biosensors.

  4. Amperometric Glucose Biosensor Based on Effective Self-Assembly Technology for Preparation of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/Au Nanoparticles Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuhang; Xie, Hangqing; Shao, Xiaobao; Wei, Yuan; Liu, Yuhong; Zhao, Wenbo; Xia, Xinyi

    2016-03-01

    Novel nanomaterials and nanotechnology for use in bioassay applications represent a rapidly advancing field. This study developed a novel method to fabricate the glucose biosensor with good gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) fixed efficiency based on effective self-assembly technology for preparation of multilayers composed of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and AuNPs. The electrochemical properties of the biosensor based on (AuNPs/PAH)n/AuNPs/glucose oxide (GOD) with different multilayers were systematically investigated. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, electrochemical properties of the biosensor with three times self-assembly processes ((AuNPs/PAH)3/AuNPs/GOD) is best. The GOD biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response (5 s) to glucose, a good linear current-time relation over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 0.05 to 162 mM, and a low detection limit of 0.029 mM. The GOD biosensor modified with (AuNPs/PAH)n layers will have essential significance and practical application in future owing to the simple method of fabrication and good performance. PMID:27455628

  5. Elaboration of new method of enzyme adsorption on silicalite and nano beta zeolite for amperometric biosensor creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatkin O. O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Optimization of a new method of enzyme immobilization for amperometric biosensor creation. Methods. The amperometric biosensor with glucose oxidase immobilized on zeolites as bioselective elements and platinum disk electrode as transducers of biochemical signal into the electric one was used in the work. Results. The biosensors based on glucose oxidase adsorbed on zeolites were characterized by a higher sensitivity to glucose and a better inter-reproducibility. The best analytical characteristics were obtained for the biosensors based on nano beta zeolite. It has been found that an increase in the amount of zeolite on the surface of amperometric transducer may change such biosensor parameters as sensitivity to the substrate and duration of the analysis. Conclusions. The proposed method of enzyme immobilization by adsorption on zeolites is shown to be quite promising in the development of amperometric biosensors and therefore should be further investigated.

  6. Amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor based on carbon nanotube modified electrode with electropolymerized poly(toluidine blue O) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wenju [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wang Fang [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yao Yanli [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Hu Shengshui [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shiu, Kwok-Keung, E-mail: kkshiu@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-09-30

    The amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor utilizing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized in poly(toluidine blue O) (PTBO) film was constructed on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode. The HRP layer could be used to analyze hydrogen peroxide with toluidine blue O (TBO) mediators, while the bienzyme system (HRP + GOx) could be utilized for glucose determination. Glucose underwent biocatalytic oxidation by GOx in the presence of oxygen to yield H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which was further reduced by HRP at the MWNT-modified electrode with TBO mediators. In the absence of oxygen, glucose oxidation proceeded with electron transfer between GOx and the electrode mediated by TBO moieties without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. The bienzyme electrode offered high sensitivity for amperometric determination of glucose at low potential, displaying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The bienzyme glucose biosensor displayed linear response from 0.1 to 1.2 mM with a sensitivity of 113 mA M{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at an applied potential of -0.10 V in air-saturated electrolytes.

  7. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on layer-by-layer films of microperoxidase-11 and liposome-encapsulated glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, J S; de Oliveira, R F; de Moraes, M L; Ferreira, M

    2014-04-01

    An important step in several bioanalytical applications is the immobilization of biomolecules. Accordingly, this procedure must be carefully chosen to preserve their biological structure and fully explore their properties. For this purpose, we combined the versatility of the layer-by-layer (LbL) method for the immobilization of biomolecules with the protective behavior of liposome-encapsulated systems to fabricate a novel amperometric glucose biosensor. To obtain the biosensing unit, an LbL film of the H2O2 catalyst polypeptide microperoxidase-11 (MP-11) was assembled onto an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode followed by the deposition of a liposome-encapsulated glucose oxidase (GOx) layer. The biosensor response toward glucose detection showed a sensitivity of 0.91±0.09 (μA/cm2)/mM and a limit of detection (LOD) of 8.6±1.1 μM, demonstrating an improved performance compared to similar biosensors with a single phospholipid-liposome or even containing a non-encapsulated GOx layer. Finally, glucose detection was also performed in a zero-lactose milk sample to demonstrate the potential of the biosensor for food analysis. PMID:24491835

  8. An amperometric uric acid biosensor based on Bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate crosslinker/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane surface modified ITO glass electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, Tarushee [Department of Applied Chemistry, Delhi College of Engineering, University of Delhi, Bawana Road, Delhi-110042 (India); National Physical Laboratory (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh_csir@yahoo.co [National Physical Laboratory (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Kumar, Devendra [Department of Applied Chemistry, Delhi College of Engineering, University of Delhi, Bawana Road, Delhi-110042 (India); Tanwar, Vinod Kumar; Sharma, Vikash; Singh, Nahar; Biradar, Ashok M. [National Physical Laboratory (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2010-11-30

    A label free, amperometric uric acid biosensor is described by immobilizing enzyme uricase through a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using a crosslinker, Bis[sulfosuccinimidyl]suberate (BS{sup 3}) on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plate. The biosensor (uricase/BS{sup 3}/APTES/ITO) was characterized by, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical techniques. Chronoamperometric response was measured as a function of uric acid concentration in aqueous solution (pH 7.4). The biosensor shows a linear response over a concentration range of 0.05 to 0.58 mM with a sensitivity of 39.35 {mu}A mM{sup -1}. The response time is 50 s reaching to a 95% steady state current value and about 90% of enzyme activity is retained for about 7 weeks. These results indicate an efficient binding of enzyme with the crosslinker over the surface of APTES modified ITO glass plates, which leads to an improved sensitivity and shelf life of the biosensor.

  9. An amperometric uric acid biosensor based on Bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate crosslinker/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane surface modified ITO glass electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A label free, amperometric uric acid biosensor is described by immobilizing enzyme uricase through a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using a crosslinker, Bis[sulfosuccinimidyl]suberate (BS3) on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plate. The biosensor (uricase/BS3/APTES/ITO) was characterized by, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical techniques. Chronoamperometric response was measured as a function of uric acid concentration in aqueous solution (pH 7.4). The biosensor shows a linear response over a concentration range of 0.05 to 0.58 mM with a sensitivity of 39.35 μA mM-1. The response time is 50 s reaching to a 95% steady state current value and about 90% of enzyme activity is retained for about 7 weeks. These results indicate an efficient binding of enzyme with the crosslinker over the surface of APTES modified ITO glass plates, which leads to an improved sensitivity and shelf life of the biosensor.

  10. Elaboration of new method of enzyme adsorption on silicalite and nano beta zeolite for amperometric biosensor creation

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatkin O. O.; Ozansoy Kasap B.; Akata Kurc B.; Soldatkin A. P.; Dzyadevych S. V.; El’skaya A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Optimization of a new method of enzyme immobilization for amperometric biosensor creation. Methods. The amperometric biosensor with glucose oxidase immobilized on zeolites as bioselective elements and platinum disk electrode as transducers of biochemical signal into the electric one was used in the work. Results. The biosensors based on glucose oxidase adsorbed on zeolites were characterized by a higher sensitivity to glucose and a better inter-reproducibility. The best analytical charac...

  11. An amperometric penicillin biosensor with enhanced sensitivity based on co-immobilization of carbon nanotubes, hematein, and {beta}-lactamase on glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Bi; Ma Ming [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Su Xiaoli, E-mail: xsu@hunnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2010-07-26

    An amperometric penicillin biosensor with enhanced sensitivity was successfully developed by co-immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), hematein, and {beta}-lactamase on glassy carbon electrode using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Under catalysis of the immobilized enzyme, penicillin was hydrolyzed, decreasing the local pH. The pH change was monitored amperometrically with hematein as a pH-sensitive redox probe. MWCNTs were used as an electron transfer enhancer as well as an efficient immobilization matrix for the sensitivity enhancement. The effects of immobilization procedure, working potential, enzyme quantity, buffer concentration, and sample matrix were investigated. The biosensor offered a minimum detection limit of 50 nM (19 {mu}g L{sup -1}) for penicillin V, lower than those of the conventional pH change-based biosensors by more than two orders of magnitude. The electrode-to-electrode variation of the response sensitivity was 7.0% RSD.

  12. Spinach Root-Tissue Based Amperometric Biosensor for the Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.G. [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea); Yoon, K.J. [Chongju University, Chongju (Korea); Kwon, H.S. [Chungbuk National University, Chongju (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The response characteristics of the bioelectrode developed by the co-immobilization of spinach root tissue and ferrocene in a carbon paste matrix for the amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide were evaluated. In the range of electrode potential examined (-0.3{approx}0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl), the response time was relatively short (t{sub 95%}=11.8 sec) and it responded in the wide range of pH. Also, its detection limit was 2.25*10{sup -6}M (S/N=3) and a relative standard deviation of the measurements which were repeated 15 times using 1.0*10{sup -3}M hydrogen peroxide was 1.87%. The bioelectrode sensitivity decreased to 40% of the original value in 19 days of continuous use. (author). 35 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Homemade Bienzymatic-Amperometric Biosensor for Beverages Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Lopez, M. C.; Lobo-Castanon, M. J.; Miranda-Ordieres, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    The construction of an amperometric biosensor for glucose analysis is described demonstrating that the analysis is easy to perform and the biosensor gives good analytical performance. This experiment helped the students to acquire problem-solving and teamwork skills, allowing them to reach a high level of independent and critical thought.

  14. Comparison of biosensors based on entrapment of cholesterol oxidase and cholesterol esterase in electropolymerized films of polypyrrole and diaminonaphthalene derivatives for amperometric determination of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, J C; Garcia-Ruiz, E; Espuelas, J; Aramendia, T; Castillo, J R

    2003-09-01

    Cholesterol amperometric biosensors constructed with enzymes entrapped in electropolymerized layers of polypyrrole and poly-naphthalene derivative polymers are compared. The biosensors are based on entrapment of cholesterol oxidase and/or cholesterol esterase in monolayer or multilayer films electrochemically synthesised from pyrrole, 1,8-diaminonaphthalene (1,8-DAN), and 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (1,5-DAN) monomers. Seven configurations were assayed and compared, and different analytical properties were obtained depending on the kind of polymer and the arrangement of the layers. The selectivity properties were evaluated for the different monolayer and bilayer configurations proposed as a function of the film permeation factor. All the steps involved in the preparation of the biosensors and determination of cholesterol were carried out in a flow system. Sensitivity and selectivity depend greatly on hydrophobicity, permeability, compactness, thickness, and the kind of the polymer used. In some cases a protective outer layer of non-conducting poly( o-phenylenediamine) polymer improves the analytical characteristics of the biosensor. A comparative study was made of the analytical performance of each of the configurations developed. The biosensors were also applied to the flow-injection determination of cholesterol in a synthetic serum. PMID:12923606

  15. A novel amperometric biosensor for superoxide anion based on superoxide dismutase immobilized on gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid biocomposite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the assembly process of SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE. Highlights: ► SOD was immobilized in gold nanoparticles-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) film. ► The biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNPs-CS-IL onto GCE. ► The biosensor showed excellent analytical performance for O2·− real-time analysis. - Abstract: A novel superoxide anion (O2·−) biosensor is proposed based on the immobilization of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) biocomposite film. The SOD-based biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNP-CS-IL composite onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE), followed by immobilization of SOD on the modified electrode. Surface morphologies of a set of representative films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the biosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. A pair of quasi-reversible redox peaks of SOD with a formal potential of 0.257 V was observed at SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, 0.1 M, pH 7.0). The effects of varying test conditions on the electrochemical behavior of the biosensor were investigated. Furthermore, several electrochemical parameters were calculated in detail. Based on the biomolecule recognition of the specific reactivity of SOD toward O2·−, the developed biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response (3 nM), low detection limit (1.7 nM), and excellent selectivity for the real-time measurement of O2·−. The proposed method is promising for estimating quantitatively the dynamic changes of O2·− in biological systems.

  16. Disposable amperometric biosensors based on xanthine oxidase immobilized in the Prussian blue modified screen-printed three-electrode system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The screen-printed three-electrode system was applied to fabricate a new type of disposable amperometric xanthine oxidase biosensor.Carbon-working,carbon-counter and Ag/AgCl reference electrodes were all manually printed on the polyethylene terephthalate substrate forming the screen-printed three-electrode system by the conventional screen-printing process.As a mediator,Prussian blue could not only catalyze the electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide produced from the enzyme reaction,but also keep the favorable potential around 0 V.The optimum operational conditions,including pH,potential and temperature,were investigated.The sensitivities of xanthine and hypoxanthine detections were 13.83 mA/M and 25.56 mA/M,respectively.A linear relationship was obtained in the concentration range between 0.10μM and 4.98μM for xanthine and between 0.50μM and 3.98μM for hypoxanthine.The small Michaelis-menten constant value of the xanthine oxidase biosensor was calculated to be 3.90 μM.The results indicate that the fabricated xanthine oxidase biosensor is effective and sensitive for the detection of xanthine and hypoxanthine.

  17. An Amperometric Biosensor of Determination H/sub 2/ O/sub 2/ Based on horseradish peroxidase in carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of H/sub 2/ O/sub 2/ based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in nanocomposite material of muti-walled carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid was explored. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to characterize the performance of the biosensor. Under the optimized experimental conditions, H/sub 2/ O/sub 2/ could be detected in a linear calibration range of 0.5 x 10/sup -6/ M Approximately 6.0 x 10/sup -6/ M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9902 (n = 7), a detection limit of 1.5 x 10/sup -7/ M at 3 sigma and the recovery ratio was of 96.2% ∼ 110.8%, which indicated that the accuracy of this method is also satisfied. The modified electrodes display more excellent electrochemical performance, high sensitivity, good reproducibility, and long-term stability. (author)

  18. Amperometric biosensor based on direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin in poly-allylamine (PAA) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafi, A.K.M. [Department of Electrical Engineering and CIIPMS, Dong-A University 840, Hadan-2dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Yun [Department of Electrical Engineering and CIIPMS, Dong-A University 840, Hadan-2dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Hyun [Department of Electrical Engineering and CIIPMS, Dong-A University 840, Hadan-2dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Soo [Department of Electrical Engineering and CIIPMS, Dong-A University 840, Hadan-2dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yskwon@dau.ac.kr

    2007-04-23

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized in poly-allylamine (PAA) film onto the gold electrode by layer by layer (LBL) method. The modified electrode exhibited a pair of well-defined peaks during cyclic voltammetry, which was attributed from the direct electron transfer of heme proteins. The immobilized Hb showed an excellent electrocatalytical response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The sensor exhibited a fast response and high sensitivity. Through the use of optimized conditions, the linear range for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection was from 2.5 x 10{sup -6} M to 5 x 10{sup -4} M with detection limit of 0.2 {mu}M. The proposed biosensor showed long-lasting stability and excellent reproducibility.

  19. Development of an amperometric glucose biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase in an ormosil-PVA matrix onto a Prussian Blue modified electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor was developed based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase in the organically modified silicate(ormosil)-polyvinyl acetate(PVA) matrix onto a Prussian Blue(PB)-modified glassy carbon electrode.A higher stability PB-modified electrode was prepared by the electrochemical deposition of FeCl3,K3[Fe(CN)6] and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid(EDTA) under cyclic voltammetric(CV) conditions.The effects of the potential range of CV conditions,electrolyte cations,applied potential,pH,temperature and co-existing substances were investigated.The detection limit of the glucose biosensor was 8.1 μmol·L-1(S/N = 3) with a linear range from 20 μmol·L-1 to 2 mmol·L-1(R = 0.9965).The biosensor presented a fast response and good selectivity.Additionally,excellent reproducibility and stability of the biosensor were observed.

  20. CHARACTERISTICS AND OPTIMAL WORKING CONDITIONS OF AMPEROMETRIC BIOSENSOR FOR ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucherenko I. S.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characteristics of a biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase and intended for ATP determination were studied. Platinum disc electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Range of working potentials for biosensor functioning was shown. An optimal time of enzymes immobilization was determined. Optimal conditions for biosensor functioning during work with biological fluids were selected. Biosensor work in three buffer solutions (PBS, tris and HEPES was investigated and it was shown that it was possible to obtain various operational characteristics of the biosensor depending on tasks that are assigned to it by varying the composition of sample. Reproducibility of biosensor responses to ATP and glucose during a day and of biosensor preparation was shown. The proposed biosensor can be further used for analysis of glucose and ATP content in water solutions.

  1. Carbon Nanotube-Plasma Polymer-Based Amperometric Biosensors: Enzyme-Friendly Platform for Ultrasensitive Glucose Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Hitoshi; Matsui, Yasunori; Shibayama, Yu

    2007-09-01

    An amperometric enzyme biosensor fabricated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and plasma-polymerized thin films (PPFs) is reported. A mixture of the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) and a CNT film is sandwiched with 10-nm-thick acetonitrile PPFs. Under PPF layer was deposited onto a sputtered gold electrode. To facilitate the electrochemical communication between the CNT layer and GOD, CNT was treated with oxygen plasma. The device with single-walled CNTs showed a sensitivity higher than that of multiwalled CNTs. The glucose biosensor showed ultrasensitivity (a sensitivity of 40 μA mM-1 cm-2, a correlation coefficient of 0.992, a linear response range of 0.025-1.9 mM, a detection limit of 6.2 μM at S/N = 3, +0.8 V vs Ag/AgCl), and a rapid response (< 4 s in reaching 95% of maximum response). This high performance is attributed to the fact that CNTs have excellent electrocatalytic activity and enhance electron transfer, and that PPFs and/or the plasma process for CNTs are the enzyme-friendly platform, i.e., a suitable design of the interface between GOD and CNTs.

  2. An amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaçar, Ceren; Dalkiran, Berna; Erden, Pınar Esra, E-mail: erdenpe@gmail.com; Kiliç, Esma

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was constructed by combining the advantageous properties of MWCNTs and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Incorporating Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles into MWCNTs/gelatin film increased the electron transfer. • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNTs/gelatin/HRP/Nafion/GCE showed strong anti-interference ability. • Hydrogen peroxide was successfully determined in disinfector with an average recovery of 100.78 ± 0.89. - Abstract: In this work a new type of hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by cross-linking on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gelatin. The introduction of MWCNTs and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles not only enhanced the surface area of the modified electrode for enzyme immobilization but also facilitated the electron transfer rate, resulting in a high sensitivity of the biosensor. The fabrication process of the sensing surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by holding the modified electrode at −0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor showed optimum response within 5 s at pH 7.0. The optimized biosensor showed linear response range of 7.4 × 10{sup −7}–1.9 × 10{sup −5} M with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10{sup −7}. The applicability of the purposed biosensor was tested by detecting hydrogen peroxide in disinfector samples. The average recovery was calculated as 100.78 ± 0.89.

  3. Flow-injection amperometric determination of glucose using a biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase onto Au seeds decorated on core Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samphao, Anchalee; Butmee, Preeyanut; Jitcharoen, Juthamas; Švorc, Ľubomír; Raber, Georg; Kalcher, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on chemisorption of glucose oxidase (GOx) on Au seeds decorated on magnetic core Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@Au) and their immobilization on screen-printed carbon electrode bulk-modified with manganese oxide (SPCE{MnO2}) was designed for the determination of glucose. The Fe3O4@Au/GOx modified SPCE{MnO2} was used in a flow-injection analysis (FIA) arrangement. The experimental conditions were investigated in amperometric mode with the following optimized parameters: flow rate 1.7 mL min(-1), applied potential +0.38 V, phosphate buffer solution (PBS; 0.1 mol L(-1), pH 7.0) as carrier and 3.89 unit mm(-2) enzyme glucose oxidase loading on the active surface of the SPCE. The designed biosensor in FIA arrangement yielded a linear dynamic range for glucose from 0.2 to 9.0 mmol L(-1) with a sensitivity of 2.52 µA mM(-1) cm(-2), a detection limit of 0.1 mmol L(-1) and a quantification limit of 0.3 mmol L(-1). Moreover, a good repeatability of 2.8% (number of measurements n=10) and a sufficient reproducibility of 4.0% (number of sensors n=3) were achieved. It was found that the studied system Fe3O4@Au facilitated not only a simpler enzyme immobilization but also provided wider linear range. The practical application of the proposed biosensor for FIA quantification of glucose was tested in glucose sirup samples, honeys and energy drinks with the results in good accordance with those obtained by an optical glucose meter and with the contents declared by the producers. PMID:26003689

  4. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherenko, Ivan S; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Lagarde, Florence; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Dzyadevych, S.V.; Soldatkin, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor de...

  5. A Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase in Chitosan Matrix Cross-linked with Glyoxal for Amperometric Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Xiang Wang

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 was developed viaan easy and effective enzyme immobilization method with the “sandwich” configuration:ferrocene-chitosan: HRP: chitosan-glyoxal using a glassy carbon electrode as the basicelectrode. In order to prevent the loss of immobilized HRP under optimized conditions,the biosensor surface was cross-linked with glyoxal. Ferrocene was selected andimmobilized on the glassy carbon electrode surface as a mediator. The fabricationprocedure was systematically optimized to improve the biosensor performance. Thebiosensor had a fast response of less than 10 s to H2O2, with a linear range of 3.5×10-5 to1.1×10-3 M, and a detection limit of 8.0×10-6 M based on S/N = 3.

  6. A novel biosensor based on photoelectro-synergistic catalysis for flow-injection analysis system/amperometric detection of organophosphorous pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Yinyin; Li Ying; Qu Yunhe; Xiao Fei; Shi Guoyue [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhong Shan Road North, Shanghai 200062 (China); Jin Litong, E-mail: ltjin@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhong Shan Road North, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2009-06-08

    In this study, a highly sensitive amperometric biosensor based on photoelectro-synergistic catalysis for detecting organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in flow-injection analysis (FIA) system has been developed. The acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) was immobilized by adsorption into the nanostructured PbO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}/Ti, which also acted as the working electrode. This strategy was found to catalyze the oxidative reaction of thiocholine effectively, make the AChE/PbO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}/Ti biosensor detect the substrate at 0.30 V (vs. SCE), hundreds milli-volts lower than others reported. PbO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}/Ti and TiO{sub 2}/Ti electrodes were prepared and investigated with atomic force microscope (AFM). Factors influencing the performance were optimized. The resulting flow system offered a fast, sensitive, and stable response. A value of 1.34 mM for the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub M}{sup app}) was obtained. A wide linear inhibition response for trichlorfon was observed in the range of 0.01-20 {mu}M with the detection limit of 0.1 nM. The results using this biosensor agreed very well with chromatographic method and we also examined the real samples successfully in this work.

  7. A new amperometric glucose biosensor based on screen printed carbon electrodes with rhenium(IV - oxide as a mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBANA VESELI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhenium(IV-oxide, ReO2, was used as a mediator for carbon paste (CPE and screen printed carbon (SPCE electrodes for the catalytic amperometric determination of hydro-gen peroxide, whose overpotential for the reduction could be lowered to -0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl in flow injection analysis (FIA using phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH=7.5 as a carrier. For hydrogen peroxide a detection limit (3σ of 0.8 mg L-1 could be obtained.ReO2-modified SPCEs were used to design biosensors with a template enzyme, i.e. glucose oxidase, entrapped in a Nafion membrane. The resulting glucose sensor showed a linear dynamic range up to 200 mg L-1 glucose with a detection limit (3σ of 0.6 mg L-1. The repeatability was 2.1 % RSD (n = 5 measurements, the reproducibility 5.4 % (n = 5 sensors. The sensor could be applied for the determination of glucose in blood serum in good agreement with a reference method.

  8. A novel amperometric biosensor for superoxide anion based on superoxide dismutase immobilized on gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid biocomposite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lu; Wen Wei; Xiong Huayu; Zhang Xiuhua; Gu Haoshuang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wang Shengfu, E-mail: wangsf@hubu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2013-01-03

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the assembly process of SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SOD was immobilized in gold nanoparticles-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNPs-CS-IL onto GCE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensor showed excellent analytical performance for O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} real-time analysis. - Abstract: A novel superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) biosensor is proposed based on the immobilization of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) biocomposite film. The SOD-based biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNP-CS-IL composite onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE), followed by immobilization of SOD on the modified electrode. Surface morphologies of a set of representative films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the biosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. A pair of quasi-reversible redox peaks of SOD with a formal potential of 0.257 V was observed at SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, 0.1 M, pH 7.0). The effects of varying test conditions on the electrochemical behavior of the biosensor were investigated. Furthermore, several electrochemical parameters were calculated in detail. Based on the biomolecule recognition of the specific reactivity of SOD toward O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, the developed biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response (<5 s), wide linear range (5.6-2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} nM), low detection limit (1.7 nM), and excellent selectivity for the real-time measurement of O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}. The proposed method is promising for estimating quantitatively the dynamic changes of O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} in biological systems.

  9. Modelling of Amperometric Biosensors in the Case of Substrate Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulys, Juozas; Baronas, Romas

    2006-01-01

    The response of an amperometric biosensor at mixed enzyme kinetics and diffusion limitations was modelled digitally in the case of substrate inhibition. Digital simulations were carried out using a finite difference technique. Calculations showed complex kinetics of biosensor response. At low enzyme activity and substrate concentration (S0), the response of the sensor looks like it is limited by a simple substrate diffusion. At substrate concentration comparable to the Michaelis-Menten constant (KM), the response change shows a maximal value. A sharp response change was indicated at high enzyme activity and high (4.9 > S0/KM > 4.5) substrate concentration. This was explained by multi-concentration of substrate generation inside the enzyme layer. This conclusion was confirmed by the analytical solution of the simplified biosensor model with external diffusion limitation at steady-state conditions. The complex kinetics of response change produces different calibration graphs for biosensor response at transition and steady state.

  10. Modelling of Amperometric Biosensors in the Case of Substrate Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romas Baronas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The response of an amperometric biosensor at mixed enzyme kinetics anddiffusion limitations was modelled digitally in the case of substrate inhibition. Digitalsimulations were carried out using a finite difference technique. Calculations showedcomplex kinetics of biosensor response. At low enzyme activity and substrate concentration(S0, the response of the sensor looks like it is limited by a simple substrate diffusion. Atsubstrate concentration comparable to the Michaelis-Menten constant (KM, the responsechange shows a maximal value. A sharp response change was indicated at high enzymeactivity and high (4.9 > S0/KM > 4.5 substrate concentration. This was explained by multiconcentrationof substrate generation inside the enzyme layer. This conclusion wasconfirmed by the analytical solution of the simplified biosensor model with externaldiffusion limitation at steady-state conditions. The complex kinetics of response changeproduces different calibration graphs for biosensor response at transition and steady state.

  11. Fabrication of an Amperometric Flow-Injection Microfluidic Biosensor Based on Laccase for In Situ Determination of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Gonzalez-Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to develop an in situ microfluidic biosensor based on laccase from Trametes pubescens with flow-injection and amperometry as the transducer method. The enzyme was directly immobilized by potential step chronoamperometry, and the immobilization was studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode response by amperometry was probed using ABTS and syringaldazine. A shift of interfacial electron transfer resistance and the electron transfer rate constant from 18.1 kΩ to 3.9 MΩ and 4.6 × 10−2 cm s−1 to 2.1 × 10−4 cm s−1, respectively, evidenced that laccase was immobilized on the electrode by the proposed method. We established the optimum operating conditions of temperature (55°C, pH (4.5, injection flow rate (200 µL min−1, and applied potential (0.4 V. Finally, the microfluidic biosensor showed better lower limit of detection (0.149 µM and sensitivity (0.2341 nA µM−1 for ABTS than previous laccase-based biosensors and the in situ operation capacity.

  12. Amperometric, screen-printed, glucose biosensor for analysis of human plasma samples using a biocomposite water-based carbon ink incorporating glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the optimisation of a screen-printing water-based carbon ink containing cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) and glucose oxidase (GOD) for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. To optimise the performance of the biosensor, the loadings of the electrocatalyst (CoPC) and enzyme (GOD) were varied. It was found that the maximum linear range was achieved with a CoPC loading of 20% (m/m, relative to the mass of carbon) and a GOD loading of 628 U per gram of carbon. In our studies we chose to employ chronoamperometry, as this technique is commonly used for commercial devices. The optimum operating applied potential was found to be +0.5 V, following an incubation period of 60 s. The optimum supporting electrolyte was found to be 0.05 M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, which resulted in a linear range of 0.2-5 mM, the former represents the detection limit. The sensitivity was 1.12 microA mM(-1). The effect of temperature was also investigated, and it was found that 40 degrees C gave optimal performance. The resulting amperometric biosensors were evaluated by measuring the glucose concentrations for 10 different human plasma samples containing endogenous glucose and also added glucose. The same samples were analysed by a standard spectrophotometric method, and the results obtained by the two different methods were compared. A good correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.95) and slope (0.98) were calculated from the experimental data, indicating that the new devices hold promise for biomedical studies. PMID:16266677

  13. Amperometric biosensor based on Laccase immobilized onto a screen-printed electrode by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrastro, Maria; Cicco, Nunzia; Crispo, Fabiana; Morone, Antonio; Dinescu, Maria; Dumitru, Marius; Favati, Fabio; Centonze, Diego

    2016-07-01

    A Laccase-based biosensor for the determination of phenolic compounds was developed by using Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation as an innovative enzyme immobilization technique. and the deriving biosensor was characterized and applied for the first time. Laccase was immobilized onto different substrates including screen printed carbon electrodes and spectroscopic, morphologic and electrochemical characterizations were carried out. A linear range from 1 to 60μM was achieved working at 5.5pH and -0.2V detection potential vs Ag pseudoreference. The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 1 and 5μM, respectively. A good fabrication reproducibility, stability of response and selectivity toward interferents were also found The potential of the developed biosensor was tested in the determination of total polyphenol content in real matrices (tea infusion, ethanolic extract from Muscari comosum bulbs and aqueous solution of a food supplement from black radish root and artichoke leaves) and the results were compared with those obtained by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  14. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Monica Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE. Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, and Cyclic voltamogram (CV. The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  15. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue-multiwall carbon nanotubes composite and hollow PtCo nanochains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che Xin [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.c [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chai Yaqin; Li Jingjing; Song Zhongju; Li Wenjuan [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2010-07-30

    In this paper, a novel glucose biosensor was developed based on immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on Prussian blue-multiwall carbon nanotubes (PB-MWNTs) composite and hollow PtCo (H-PtCo) nanochains modified electrode. The PB-MWNTs/H-PtCo membrane showed good biocompatibility, large surface-to-volume ratio and excellent electron-conductive ability. The successful fabrication of the PB-MWNTs composite synthesized with MWNTs as a template and Fe(III)-reducer were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hollow PtCo nanochains were also characterized by TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The response of the biosensor towards glucose under the optimized conditions, as investigated by chronoamperometry, is linear from 3.0 {mu}M to 3.6 mM, with a low detection limit of 0.85 {mu}M (S/N = 3) and a high sensitivity 21 mA M{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. Moreover, the biosensor exhibits strong anti-interferent ability, good reproducibility and excellent stability.

  16. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nor Monica; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yusof, Nor Azah; Ab Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Hasan, Md. Rakibul

    2016-01-01

    A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days. PMID:27367738

  17. Amperometric biosensor based on prussian blue and nafion modified screen-printed electrode for screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harrad, Loubna; Amine, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    A simple and sensitive amperometric biosensor was developed for the screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants. This biosensor was prepared by immobilization of xanthine oxidase on the surface of prussian blue modified screen-printed electrodes using nafion and glutaraldehyde. The developed biosensor showed a linear amperometric response at an applied potential of +0.05 V toward the detection of hypoxanthine from 5 μM to 45 μM with a detection limit of 0.4 μM (S/N=3) and its sensitivity was found to be 600 mA M(-1) cm(-2). In addition, the biosensor exhibited a good storage stability. The inhibition of xanthine oxidase by allopurinol was studied under the optimized conditions. The linear range of allopurinol concentration is obtained up to 2.5 μM with an estimated 50% of inhibitionI50=1.8 μM. The developed biosensor was successfully applied to the screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitors from 13 medicinal plants belonging to different families. Indeed, Moroccan people traditionally use these plants as infusion for the treatment of gout and its related symptoms. For this purpose, water extracts obtained from the infusion of these plants were used for the experiments. In this work, 13 extracts were assayed and several of them demonstrated xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, with an inhibition greater than 50% compared to spectrophotometry measurements that only few extracts showed an inhibition greater than 50%. PMID:26920482

  18. An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The stepwise amperometric biosensor fabrication process and immobilized acetylcholinesterase inhibition in pesticide solution. Highlights: · Constructed a novel composite material using Fe3O4NP and c-MWCNT at Au electrode for electrocatalysis. · The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by SEM, FTIR, CVs and EIS. · The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA μM-1) · The half life of electrode was 2 months. · The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water. - Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe3O4/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe3O4NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 deg. C, 600 μM substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA μM-1), reusability (more than 50 times) and stability (2

  19. An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Nidhi [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Pundir, Chandra Shekhar, E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2011-09-02

    Graphical abstract: The stepwise amperometric biosensor fabrication process and immobilized acetylcholinesterase inhibition in pesticide solution. Highlights: {center_dot} Constructed a novel composite material using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT at Au electrode for electrocatalysis. {center_dot} The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by SEM, FTIR, CVs and EIS. {center_dot} The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA {mu}M{sup -1}) {center_dot} The half life of electrode was 2 months. {center_dot} The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water. - Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 deg. C, 600 {mu}M substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The

  20. Computational Modeling of Mediator Oxidation by Oxygen in an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Šimelevičius

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric glucose biosensor is modeled numerically. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion type equations. The model consists of four layers. An enzyme layer lies directly on a working electrode surface. The enzyme layer is attached to an electrode by a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA coated terylene membrane. This membrane is modeled as a PVA layer and a terylene layer, which have different diffusivities. The fourth layer of the model is the diffusion layer, which is modeled using the Nernst approach. The system of partial differential equations is solved numerically using the finite difference technique. The operation of the biosensor was analyzed computationally with special emphasis on the biosensor response sensitivity to oxygen when the experiment was carried out in aerobic conditions. Particularly, numerical experiments show that the overall biosensor response sensitivity to oxygen is insignificant. The simulation results qualitatively explain and confirm the experimentally observed biosensor behavior.

  1. Computational modeling of mediator oxidation by oxygen in an amperometric glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelevičius, Dainius; Petrauskas, Karolis; Baronas, Romas; Razumienė, Julija

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an amperometric glucose biosensor is modeled numerically. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion type equations. The model consists of four layers. An enzyme layer lies directly on a working electrode surface. The enzyme layer is attached to an electrode by a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated terylene membrane. This membrane is modeled as a PVA layer and a terylene layer, which have different diffusivities. The fourth layer of the model is the diffusion layer, which is modeled using the Nernst approach. The system of partial differential equations is solved numerically using the finite difference technique. The operation of the biosensor was analyzed computationally with special emphasis on the biosensor response sensitivity to oxygen when the experiment was carried out in aerobic conditions. Particularly, numerical experiments show that the overall biosensor response sensitivity to oxygen is insignificant. The simulation results qualitatively explain and confirm the experimentally observed biosensor behavior. PMID:24514882

  2. The Influence of the Enzyme Membrane Thickness on the Response of Amperometric Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Kulys

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of amperometric biosensors has been developed. The model is based on non-stationary diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. Using digital simulation, the influence of the thickness of enzyme membrane on the biosensor response was investigated. The digital simulation of the biosensor operation showed the non-monotonous change of the maximal biosensor current versus the membrane thickness at the various maximal enzymatic rates. Digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. Results of the numerical simulation was compared with known analytical solutions. This paper presents a framework for selection of the membrane thickness, ensuring the sufficiently stable sensitivity of a biosensor in a required range of the maximal enzymatic rate.

  3. The procedure of ethanol determination in wine by enzyme amperometric biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyadevych S. V.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of the procedure of ethanol determination in wine by an enzyme amperometric biosensor. Methods. The amperometric biosensor method of ethanol analysis has been used in this work. Results. The paper presents comparative analysis of two methods of alcohol oxidase (AO immobilization for development of amperometric biosensor for ethanol determination in wine. The method of AO immobilization in glutaraldehyde vapour was chosen as optimal for this purpose. The selectivity, operational and storage stability, and pH-optimum for operation of the created biosensor were determined. The procedure of ethanol determination in wine by amperometric biosensor on the basis of platinum printed electrode SensLab and AO was optimized. The analysis of ethanol concentration in wine and must samples was carried out using the developed high-stable biosensor. A good correlation between the data obtained by the biosensor and densitometry methods was shown. Conclusion. The proposed method of ethanol analysis could be used in wine production

  4. Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes/polypyrrole composites for amperometric glucose biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Raicopol, Matei; Prună, Alina; Damian, Celina; Pilan, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This article reports an amperometric glucose biosensor based on a new type of nanocomposite of polypyrrole (PPY) with p-phenyl sulfonate-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-PhSO3 −). An environmentally friendly functionalization procedure of the SWCNTs in the presence of substituted aniline and an oxidative species was adopted. The nanocomposite-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities towards the reduction or oxidation of H2O2. This feature allowed...

  5. Computational Modeling of Mediator Oxidation by Oxygen in an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dainius Šimelevičius; Karolis Petrauskas; Romas Baronas; Julija Razumienė

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an amperometric glucose biosensor is modeled numerically. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion type equations. The model consists of four layers. An enzyme layer lies directly on a working electrode surface. The enzyme layer is attached to an electrode by a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated terylene membrane. This membrane is modeled as a PVA layer and a terylene layer, which have different diffusivities. The fourth layer of the model is the diffusion layer, whi...

  6. Direct laser immobilization of photosynthetic material on screen printed electrodes for amperometric biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter demonstrates the direct laser printing of photosynthetic material onto low cost nonfunctionalized screen printed electrodes for the fabrication of photosynthesis-based amperometric biosensors. The high kinetic energy of the transferred material induces direct immobilization of the thylakoids onto the electrodes without the use of linkers. This type of immobilization is able to establish efficient electrochemical contact between proteins and electrode, stabilizing the photosynthetic biomolecule and transporting electrons to the solid state device with high efficiency. The functionality of the laser printed biosensors was evaluated by the detection of a common herbicide such as Linuron.

  7. Comparison of glucose oxidases from Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium Funiculosum and Aspergillus Niger in the design of amperometric glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanavicius, Arunas; Voronovic, Jaroslav; Semashko, Tatiana; Mikhailova, Raisa; Kausaite-Minkstimiene, Asta; Ramanaviciene, Almira

    2014-01-01

    The properties of amperometric glucose biosensors based on three different glucose oxidases and various redox mediators were evaluated. Glucose oxidases (GOx) from Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus niger and artificial redox mediators, such as ferrocene, ferrocenecarboxaldehyde, α-methylferrocene methanol and ferrocenecarboxylic acid, were used for modifying the graphite rod electrode and amperometrical reagent-less glucose detection. The obtained results were compared using N-methylphenazonium methyl sulphate in the solution. Taking into account the experimental kinetic parameters and the stability of the tested enzymatic electrodes, GOx from Penicillium funiculosum proved to be more suitable for glucose biosensor design in comparison with other evaluated enzymes. PMID:25492463

  8. Application of L-lactate-cytochrome c-oxidoreductase for development of amperometric biosensor for L-lactate determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyadevych S. V.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of amperometric biosensor based on L-lactate-cytochrome c-oxidoreductase (flavocytochrome b2, FC b2 for lactate determination. Methods. All experiments were performed using the amperometric method of detection. The methods of electrochemical polymerization and immobilization in glutaraldehyde vapors were used for FC b2 immobilization on the surface of electrodes. Results. The FC b2 preparation, which demonstrated the best operational characteristics after immobilization in poly (3,4-ethylen dioxythiophene, was selected. The selectivity, operational and storage stability, and pH-optimum for operation of the created biosensor were determined. The analysis of L-lactate in the model solutions and wine samples was carried outusing the developed biosensor. Conclusion. The FC b2-based biosensor due to its high stability can be effectively used for lactate determination in blood and other liquids containing no ethanol. After the selectivity optimization, the devise can be also applied for wine analysis.

  9. A Novel Biomolecular Immobilization Matrix Based on Nanoporous ZnO/Chitosan Composite Film for Amperometric Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Hui YANG; Ming Hui YANG; Jian Hui JIANG; Guo Li SHEN; Ru Qin YU

    2005-01-01

    A novel ZnO/Chitosan composite matrix was developed to fabricate the H2O2 biosensor.This material combined the advantages of inorganic species, ZnO, and organic polymer, chitosan.Horseradish peroxidase immobilized in the material maintained its activity well as the usage of glutaraldehyde was avoided. The activity of enzyme was 7.9 times greater than the cross-linked enzyme. The parameters affecting the fabrication and experimental conditions of biosensors were optimized. With the aid of hydroquinone mediator, the biosensor had a fast response of less than 10s. The linear range was 5.0×10-6 to 2. 0 × 10-3 mol/L with a sensitivity of 43.8μA L/mmol.This matrix can also be used to immobilize other biomolecule.

  10. Automatic bionalyzer using an integrated amperometric biosensor for the determination of L-malic acid in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E; Ruiz, M A; Ferrero, F J; Campuzano, S; Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel, V; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2016-09-01

    A new automatic bioanalyzer for L-malic acid using an integrated amperometric biosensor as detector is reported for the first time in this work. The biosensor is constructed by gold film sputtering deposition on a stainless steel disk electrode and co-immobilization of the enzymes malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and diaphorase (DP) together with the redox mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) by means of dialysis membrane. The analytical performance of the biosensor was evaluated when it was used as amperometric detector in three different analytical methodologies: stirred solutions, semiautomatic FIA system and automatic bioanalyzer. The bienzyme biosensor exhibited great analytical performance in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility of the measurements and its usefulness was demonstrated by analyzing wine reference materials with certified content of L-malic acid. The attractive analytical and operational characteristics demonstrated by the automatic bioanalyzer make it a promising simple, rapid and field-based tool for routine wine and fruit control. PMID:27343571

  11. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on a surface treated nanoporous ZrO{sub 2}/Chitosan composite film as immobilization matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yunhui [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, 650092 (China); Yang Haifeng [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Yang Minghui [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Iiu Yanli [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Shen Guoli [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)]. E-mail: glshen@hnu.net.cn; Yu Ruqin [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)

    2004-11-08

    A surface treated nanoporous ZrO{sub 2}/Chitosan composite matrix was developed to fabricate the glucose biosensor. This material combined the advantages of inorganic nanoparticles, ZrO{sub 2}, and organic polymer, Chitosan. Glucose oxidase immobilized in the material maintained its activity well as the usage of glutaraldehyde was avoided. The activity of enzyme was 5.02 times greater than the cross-linked enzyme. The interaction between ZrO{sub 2}/Chitosan and enzyme was characterized with FT-IR spectroscopy. The results of transmission electron microscopy of surface-treated ZrO{sub 2}/Chitosan film showed that the matrix was porous and highly homogeneous. The parameters affecting the fabrication and experimental conditions of biosensors were optimized. The biosensor had a fast response of less than 10 s. The linear range was 1.25 x 10{sup -5} to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} M with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10{sup -5} M at 3{sigma} and a sensitivity of 0.028 {mu}A mM{sup -1}. The biosensor retained about 75.2% of its original response after one-month storage in a phosphate buffer.

  12. Amperometric biosensor system for simultaneous determination of adenosine-5'-triphosphate and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Ivan S; Didukh, Daria Yu; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Soldatkin, Alexei P

    2014-06-01

    The majority of biosensors for adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) determination are based on cascades of enzymatic reactions; therefore, they are sensitive to glucose or glycerol (depending on the enzymatic system) as well as to ATP. The presence of unknown concentrations of these substances in the sample greatly complicates the determination of ATP. To overcome this disadvantage of known biosensors, we developed a biosensor system consisting of two biosensors: the first one is based on glucose oxidase and is intended for measuring glucose concentration, and the second one is based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase and is sensitive toward both glucose and ATP. Using glucose concentration measured by the first biosensor, we can analyze the total response to glucose and ATP obtained by the second biosensor. Platinum disc electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. The polyphenilenediamine membrane was deposited onto the surface of platinum electrodes to avoid the response to electroactive substances. The effect of glucose concentration on biosensor determination of ATP was studied. The reproducibility of biosensor responses to glucose and ATP during a day was tested (relative standard deviation, RSD, of responses to glucose was 3-6% and to ATP was 8-12%) as well as storage stability of the biosensors (no decrease of glucose responses and 43% drop of ATP responses during 50 days). The measurements of ATP and glucose in pharmaceutical vials (including mixtures of ATP and glucose) were carried out. It was shown that the developed biosensor system can be used for simultaneous analysis of glucose and ATP concentrations in water solutions. PMID:24810180

  13. Flow-amperometric biosensor for respiratory toxins using myoglobin-adsorbed carbon-felt, based on an inhibitory effect on bioelectrocatalytic reduction of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel, simple and highly sensitive reagentless amperometric flow-biosensor for respiratory toxins (i.e. azide and cyanide) has been developed by using myoglobin (Mb)-adsorbed carbon-felt (CF), based on the inhibitory event of azide and cyanide on the Mb-catalyzed O2 reduction. The Mb-adsorbed CF (Mb–CF) showed a sufficient bioelectrocatalytic activity for O2 reduction in the potential region from 0 to −0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl at pH 5.0, due to the direct electron transfer (DET) between Mb-heme and the CF electrode. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) of the electrochemical redox reaction of Mb-heme–Fe(II)/(III) was estimated to be 15.5 s−1. This Mb–CF-catalyzed O2 reduction was reversibly inhibited by azide and cyanide, which bind to sixth coordination position of heme-iron center of Mb. When air-saturated 0.1 M phosphate/citrate buffer (pH 5.0) was used as a carrier under the applied potential of −0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the steady-state current due to the Mb-catalyzed O2 reduction was reversibly inhibited by the injection (200 μl) of azide and cyanide, resulting in peak-shape current responses. The magnitude of the inhibition peak currents linearly increased with increasing concentrations of azide (up to 3 μM) and cyanide (up to 5 μM), and the detection limit of azide and cyanide were found to be 0.12 and 0.23 μM, respectively (S/N = 2). The apparent inhibition constant, K′i, of azide and cyanide were estimated to be 5.71 and 8.95 μM, respectively.

  14. Platinum nanoparticle modified polyaniline-functionalized boron nitride nanotubes for amperometric glucose enzyme biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianmin; Yin, Longwei

    2011-11-01

    A novel amperometric biosensor based on the BNNTs-Pani-Pt hybrids with Pt nanoparticle homogeneously decorated on polyaniline (Pani)-wrapped boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), was developed. It is shown that π interactions take place between BNNTs and polyaniline (Pani) located at N atoms from BNNTs and C atoms from Pani, resulting in the water solubility for the Pani wrapped BNNTs hybrids. The developed glucose biosensor displayed high sensitivity and stability, good reproducibility, anti-interference ability, especially excellent acid stability and heat resistance. The resulted BNNTs-Pani-Pt hybrid amperometric glucose biosensor exhibited a fast response time (within 3 s) and a linear calibration range from 0.01 to 5.5 mM with a high sensitivity and low detection limit of 19.02 mA M(-1) cm(-2) and 0.18 μM glucose (S/N = 3). Surprisedly, the relative activity of the GC/BNNTs-Pani-Pt-GOD electrode keeps almost no change in a range from pH 3 to 7. Futhermore, the BNNTs-Pani-Pt hybrid biosensor maintains a high GOD enzymatic activity even at a relatively high temperature of 60 °C. This might be attributed to the effect of electrostatic field and hydrophobia of BNNTs. The unique acid stability and heat resistance of this sensor indicate great promising application in numerous industrial and biotechnological operations involving harsh conditions. PMID:22013877

  15. An amperometric hemoglobin A1c biosensor based on immobilization of fructosyl amino acid oxidase onto zinc oxide nanoparticles-polypyrrole film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sheetal; Pundir, Chandra Shekhar

    2012-11-15

    Measurement of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin) level in blood provides the long-term glucose level in diabetic patients without the influence of short-term fluctuations. The existing methods for HbA1c determination, including biosensors, suffer from insufficient sensitivity, detection limit, response time, and storage stability. These problems were overcome in the current biosensor. A method is described for construction of an amperometric HbA1c biosensor by immobilizing a fructosyl amino acid oxidase (FAO) onto zinc oxide nanoparticles/polypyrrole (ZnONPs/PPy) hybrid film deposited onto gold (Au) electrode and using it as working electrode, Ag/AgCl as reference electrode, and platinum (Pt) as auxiliary electrode. The whole blood samples were hemolyzed and digested by protease before measuring their HbA1c level by the biosensor. The enzyme electrode detected fructosyl valine (FV) as low as 50μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 within 2s at +0.27V versus Ag/AgCl, pH7.0, and 35°C with a linear working range of 0.1 to 3.0mM for FV and sensitivity of 38.42μAmM(-1). The electrode showed only a 30% loss of its initial response over a period of 160days when stored at 4°C. The biosensor measured HbA1c in whole blood of apparently healthy individuals and diabetic patients and found it to be in the ranges of 4.0% to 5.6% and 5.7% to 12.0%, respectively. PMID:22906687

  16. d-lactate-selective amperometric biosensor based on the cell debris of the recombinant yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutok, Oleh V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Karkovska, Maria I; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gonchar, Mykhailo V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2014-07-01

    A d-lactate-selective biosensor has been developed using cells' debris of recombinant thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha, overproducing d-lactate: cytochrome c-oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.2.4, d-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome), DlDH). The H. polymorpha DlDH-producer was constructed in two steps. First, the gene CYB2 was deleted on the background of the С-105 (gcr1 catX) strain of H. polymorpha impaired in glucose repression and devoid of catalase activity to avoid specific l-lactate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity. Second, the homologous gene DLD1 coding for DlDH was overexpressed under the control of the strong H. polymorpha alcohol oxidase promoter in the frame of a plasmid for multicopy integration in the Δcyb2 strain. The selected recombinant strain possesses 6-fold increased DlDH activity as compared to the initial strain. The cells debris was used as a biorecognition element of a biosensor, since DlDH is strongly bound to mitochondrial membranes. The cells' debris, prepared by mechanic disintegration of recombinant cells, was immobilized on a graphite working electrode in an electrochemically generated layer using an Os-complex modified cathodic electrodeposition polymer. Cytochrome c was used as additional native electron mediator to improve electron transfer from reduced DlDH to the working electrode. The constructed d-lactate-selective biosensors are characterized by a high sensitivity (46.3-61.6 A M(-1)m(-2)), high selectivity and sufficient storage stability. PMID:24840438

  17. Amperometric Choline Biosensor Fabricated through Electrostatic Assembly of Bienzyme/Polyelectrolyte Hybrid Layers on Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-03-01

    We report a flow injection amperometric choline biosensors based on the electrostatic assembly of an enzyme of choline oxidase (ChO) and a bi-enzyme of ChO and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. These choline biosensors were fabricated by immobilization of enzymes on the negatively charged MWCNT surface through alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallydiimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and an enzyme layer. Using this layer-by-layer assembling approach, bioactive nanocomposite film of a PDDA/ChO/PDDA/HRP/PDDA/CNT (ChO/HRP/CNT) and a PDDA/ChO/PDDA/ CNT (ChO/ CNT) were fabricated on GC surface, respectively. Owning to the electrocatalytic effect of carbon nanotubes, the measurement of faradic responses resulting from enzymatic reactions has been realized at low potential with acceptable sensitivity. It is found the ChO/HRP/CNT biosensor is more sensitive than the ChO/CNT one. Experimental parameters affecting the sensitivity of biosensors, e.g. applied potential, flow rate, etc. were optimized and potential interference was examined. The response time for this choline biosensor is fast (less than a few seconds). The linear range of detection for the choline biosensor is from 5 x 10-5 to 5 x 10-3 M and the detection limit is determined to be about 1.0 x 10-5 M.

  18. Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes/polypyrrole composites for amperometric glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raicopol, Matei; Prună, Alina; Damian, Celina; Pilan, Luisa

    2013-07-01

    This article reports an amperometric glucose biosensor based on a new type of nanocomposite of polypyrrole (PPY) with p-phenyl sulfonate-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-PhSO3 -). An environmentally friendly functionalization procedure of the SWCNTs in the presence of substituted aniline and an oxidative species was adopted. The nanocomposite-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities towards the reduction or oxidation of H2O2. This feature allowed us to use it as bioplatform on which glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized by entrapment in an electropolymerized PPY/SWCNTs-PhSO3 - film for the construction of the glucose biosensor. The amperometric detection of glucose was assayed by applying a constant electrode potential value necessary to oxidize or reduce the enzymatically produced H2O2 with minimal interference from the possible coexisting electroactive compounds. With the introduction of a thin film of Prussian blue (PB) at the substrate electrode surface, the PPY/GOx/SWCNTs-PhSO3 -/PB system shows synergy between the PB and functionalized SWCNTs which amplifies greatly the electrode sensitivity when operated at low potentials. The biosensor showed good analytical performances in terms of low detection (0.01 mM), high sensitivity (approximately 6 μA mM-1 cm-2), and wide linear range (0.02 to 6 mM). In addition, the effects of applied potential, the electroactive interference, and the stability of the biosensor were discussed. The facile procedure of immobilizing GOx used in the present work can promote the development of other oxidase-based biosensors which could have a practical application in clinical, food, and environmental analysis.

  19. Amperometric biosensor based on tyrosinase immobilized onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes-cobalt phthalocyanine-silk fibroin film and its application to determine bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Huanshun [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Zhou Yunlei; Xu Jing [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Ai Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Cui Lin [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Zhu Lusheng, E-mail: lushzhu@sdau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China)

    2010-02-05

    An amperometric bisphenol A (BPA) biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing tyrosinase on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)-cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc)-silk fibroin (SF) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In MWNTs-CoPc-SF composite film, SF provided a biocompatible microenvironment for the tyrosinase to retain its bioactivity, MWNTs possessed excellent inherent conductivity to enhance the electron transfer rate and CoPc showed good electrocatalytic activity to electrooxidation of BPA. The cyclic voltammogram of BPA at this biosensor exhibited a well defined anodic peak at 0.625 V. Compared with bare GCE, the oxidation signal of BPA significantly increased; therefore, this oxidation signal was used to determine BPA. The effect factors were optimized and the electrochemical parameters were calculated. The possible oxidation mechanism was also discussed. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current was proportional to BPA concentration in the range from 5.0 x 10{sup -8} to 3.0 x 10{sup -6} M with correlation coefficient of 0.9979 and detection limit of 3.0 x 10{sup -8} M (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine BPA in plastic products and the recovery was in the range from 95.36% to 104.39%.

  20. A screen-printed, amperometric biosensor for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfeng Dou; Fuqiang Fan; Aizhong Ding; Lirong Cheng; Raju Sekar; Hongting Wang; Shuairan Li

    2012-01-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) was developed for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples.The extent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) deactivation was determined and quantified for pesticideconcentrations in water samples.An enzyme immobilization adsorption procedure and polyacrylamide gel matrix polymerization were used for fabrication of the biosensor,with minimal losses in enzyme activity.The optimal conditions for enzyme catalytic reaction on the SPEs surfaces were acetylthiocholine chloride (ATChC(1)) concentration of 5 mmol/L,pH 7 and reaction time of 4 min.The detectionlimits for three organophosphorus pesticides (dichlorvos,monocrotophs and parathion) were in the range of 4 to 7 μg/L when an AChE amount of 0.1 U was used for immobilization.

  1. Detection of hydrogen peroxide in Photosystem II (PSII using catalytic amperometric biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush ePrasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is known to be generated in Photosystem II (PSII via enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is known to be generated in Photosystem II (PSII via enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways. Detection of H2O2 by different spectroscopic techniques has been explored, however its sensitive detection has always been a challenge in photosynthetic research. During the recent past, fluorescence probes such as Amplex Red has been used but is known to either lack specificity or limitation with respect to the minimum detection limit of H2O2. We have employed an electrochemical biosensor for real time monitoring of H2O2 generation at the level of sub-cellular organelles. The electrochemical biosensor comprises of counter electrode and working electrodes. The counter electrode is a platinum plate, while the working electrode is a mediator based catalytic amperometric biosensor device developed by the coating of a carbon electrode with osmium-horseradish peroxidase which acts as H2O2 detection sensor. In the current study, generation and kinetic behaviour of H2O2 in PSII membranes have been studied under light illumination. Electrochemical detection of H2O2 using the catalytic amperometric biosensor device is claimed to serve as a promising technique for detection of H2O2 in photosynthetic cells and subcellular structures including PSII or thylakoid membranes. It can also provide a precise information on qualitative determination of H2O2 and thus can be widely used in photosynthetic research.

  2. Amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on core-shell organosilica-chitosan nanospheres and multiwall carbon nanotubes composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shihong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)], E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn; Chai Yaqin; Yin Bin; Li Wenjun; Min Ligen [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2009-04-15

    The application of the composites of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and core-shell organosilica-chitosan crosslinked nanospheres as an immobilization matrix for the construction of an amperometric hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) biosensor was described. MWNTs and positively charged organosilica-chitosan nanospheres were dispersed in acetic acid solution (0.6 wt%) to achieve organosilica-chitosan/MWNTs composites, which were cast onto a glass carbon electrode (GCE) surface directly. And then, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), as a model enzyme, was immobilized onto it through electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged organosilica-chitosan nanospheres and HRP. The direct electron transfer of HRP was achieved at HRP/organosilica-chitosan/MWNTs/GCE, which exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The catalysis currents increased linearly to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration in a wide range of 7.0 x 10{sup -7} to 2.8 x 10{sup -3} M, with a sensitivity of 49.8 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and with a detection limit of 2.5 x 10{sup -7} M at 3{sigma}. A Michaelies-Menten constant K{sub M}{sup app} value was estimated to be 0.32 mM, indicating a high-catalytic activity of HRP. Moreover, the proposed biosensor displayed a rapid response to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and possessed good stability and reproducibility. When used to detect H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration in disinfector samples and sterilized milks, respectively, it showed satisfactory results.

  3. Development of highly sensitive amperometric biosensor for glucose using carbon nanosphere/sodium alginate composite matrix for enzyme immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, En; Li, Xia; Cai, Jian-Rong; Cui, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Xing-Ai

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a highly sensitive amperometric biosensor for glucose detection based on glucose oxidase immobilized in a novel carbon nanosphere (CNS)/sodium alginate (SA) composite matrix. This hybrid material combined the advantages of CNS and natural biopolymer SA. This composite film was characterized by scanning electron microscope, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and UV-vis, which indicated that the hybrid material was suitable for immobilization of glucose oxidase. Various experimental conditions were investigated that influenced the performance of the biosensor, such as pH, applied potential and temperature. Under the optimum conditions, the biosensor showed excellent performance for glucose over a wide linear concentration range from 1.0 × 10(-6) to 4.6 × 10(-3) M with a detection limit of 0.5 μM based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent long-term stability and satisfactory reproducibility. PMID:25213818

  4. Development of Anodic Titania Nanotubes for Application in High Sensitivity Amperometric Glucose and Uric Acid Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Ping Sun; Jyh-Ling Lin; Li-Fan Zhang; Hsiang-Ching Lee; Yuan-Lung Chin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel nanoscale biosensors using titania nanotubes (TNTs) made by anodization. Titania nanotubes were produced on pure titanium sheets by anodization at room temperature. In this research, the electrolyte composition ethylene glycol 250 mL/NH4F 1.5 g/DI water 20 mL was found to produce the best titania nanotubes array films for application in amperometric biosensors. The amperometric results exhibit an excellent linearity for uric acid (UA) concentrati...

  5. Carbon Nanotubes Based Glucose Needle-type Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Li; Yongquan Li; Minghao Sim; Wenjun Guan; Jinyan Jia

    2008-01-01

    A novel needle-type biosensor based on carbon nanotubes is reported. The biosensor was prepared by packing a mixture of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite powder and glucose oxidase (Gox) freeze-dried powder into a glass capillary of 0.5 mm inner diameter. The resulting amperometric biosensor was characterized electrochemically using amperometry in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and in the presence of glucose. The glucose biosensor sensitivity was influenced by the glucose oxid...

  6. A New Amperometric Glucose Biosensor with Naphthol Green B as Mediator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin ZHAO; Ruo YUAN; Chang Li MO; Ya Qin CHAI; Xia ZHONG

    2004-01-01

    Naphthol green B was used, for the first time, as a new mediator in an amperometric glucose biosensor. It is a good mediator, promoting electron transfer from glucose oxidase to graphite electrode. The biosensor shows high sensitivity to glucose at low potential with response time of 30 seconds. The linear range is from 1.5 to 18 μmol/L glucose with detection limit of 0.5 μmol/L glucose.

  7. Ceramic Carbon/Polypyrrole Materials for the Construction of Bienzymatic Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was constructed by electrochemical formation of a polypyrrole (PPy) membrane in the presence of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the surface of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA) mediated sol-gel derived ceramic carbon electrode. The amperometric detection of glucose was carried out at +0.16 V (vs. SCE) in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.9) with a linear response range between 8.0×10-5 and 1.3×10-3 mol/L of glucose. The biosensor showed a good suppression of inter- ference and a negligible deviation in the amperometric detection.

  8. Increasing amperometric biosensor sensitivity by length fractionated single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tasca, Federico; Gorton, Lo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;

    2008-01-01

    In this work the sensitivity-increasing effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in amperometric biosensors, depending on their average length distribution, was studied. For this purpose the SWCNTs were oxidatively shortened and subsequently length separated by size exclusion...

  9. A reagentless enzymatic amperometric biosensor using vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, Martha L [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rahman, Touhidur [ORNL; Frymier, Paul Dexter [ORNL; Islam, Syed K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    A reagentless amperometric enzymatic biosensor is constructed on a carbon substrate for detection of ethanol. Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH), an oxidoreductase, and its cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are immobilized by adsorption and covalent attachment to the carbon substrate. Carbon nanofibers grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are chosen as the electrode material due to their excellent structural and electrical properties. Electrochemical techniques are employed to test the functionality and performance of the biosensor using reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) which also determines the oxidation peak potential of NADH. Subsequently, amperometric measurements are conducted for detection of ethanol to determine the electrical current response due to the increase in analyte concentration. The detection range, storage stability, reusability, and response time of the biosensor are also examined.

  10. Polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor has been developed for measuring hydrogen in argon. Polyvinyl alcohol-phosphoric acid serves as the solid electrolyte for proton conduction. The electrolyte is sandwiched between two palladium films. Short circuit current between the film at room temperature is measured and is found to be linearly dependant on hydrogen concentration in argon to which one side of the film is exposed. The other side is exposed to air. The response time of the sensor is found to be improved on application of a D.C. potential of 200 mV in series. The sensitivity of the sensor is in ppm range. This may be sufficient for monitoring cover gas hydrogen in FBTR. Work is underway to improve the long-term stability of the sensor. (author)

  11. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kros, A.; Nolte, R.J.M. [Nijmegen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Organic Chemistry; Hoevell, S.W.F.M. van [TNO Nutrition and Food Research Inst., Zeist (Netherlands); Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M. [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry

    2001-10-16

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have for the first time been fabricated and are presented in this communication. This biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements, e.g., in the treatment of diabetes. (orig.)

  12. Layer-by-layer assemblies of chitosan/multi-wall carbon nanotubes and glucose oxidase for amperometric glucose biosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Baoyan [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, Guangdong (China); Hou Shihua [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China); Yu Min; Qin Xia; Li, Sha [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Chen Qiang [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)], E-mail: qiangchen@nankai.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on multilayer films containing chitosan, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) was developed. MWCNTs were solubilized in chitosan (Chit-MWCNTs) used to interact with GOD. Poly (allylamine) (PAA) and polyvinylsulfuric acid potassium salt (PVS) were alternately deposited on the cleaned Pt electrode surface ((PVS/PAA){sub 3}/Pt). The (PVS/PAA){sub 3}/Pt electrode was alternately immersed in Chit-MWCNTs and GOD to assemble different layers of multilayer films. PBS washing was applied at the end of each assembly deposition for dissociating the weak adsorption. Micrographs of MWCNTs were obtained by scanning electron microscope, and properties of the resulting biosensors were measured by electrochemical measurements. Among the resulting biosensors, the biosensor based on eight layers of multilayer films was best. The resulting biosensor was able to efficiently monitor glucose, with the response time within 8 s, a detection limit of 21 {mu}M estimated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, a linear range of 1-10 mM, the sensitivity of 0.45 {mu}A/mM, and well stability. The study can provide a feasible simple approach on developing a new immobilization matrix for biosensors and surface functionalization.

  13. Influence of selected factors on the performance of amperometric glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legawiec-Jarzyna, Marta; Zawicki, Ignacy

    1997-02-01

    Effects of different ways of sample feed to the sensor, types of used membranes, extent of stretching the membrane pack by working electrode and timing of excitation voltage on performance of amperometric glucose biosensor with oxygen indicating electrode were investigated. In the sensors, enzymatic membranes containing immobilized glucose oxidase and some auxiliary membranes constituted an easily detachable laminated pack. In one of the tested sensors position of the membrane pack with respect to working electrode was adjustable. It was found that the above factors, except the timing of excitation voltage, have not essential influence on performance of O2-type glucose biosensor.

  14. An Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose Determination Prepared from Glucose Oxidase Immobilized in Polyaniline-Polyvinylsulfonate Film

    OpenAIRE

    Halit Arslan; Selvin Ustabaş; Fatma Arslan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a novel amperometric glucose biosensor with immobilization of glucose oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polyaniline-polyvinylsulphonate (Pani-Pvs) films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique. Electropolymerization of aniline on the Pt surface of the Pt electrode was carried out at constant potential (0.75 V, vs. Ag/AgCl) using an electrochemical cell containing aniline and polyvinylsulphonate. Firstly, the optimum working conditions for preparing polyaniline...

  15. Analytical Expressions of Concentrations of Substrate and Hydroquinone in an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Maheswari, M.; Rajendran, L.

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical model for an amperometric glucose biosensor is discussed. In this model glucose oxidase enzyme is immobilized in conducting polypyrrole. This model contains a nonlinear term related to enzyme reaction kinetics. He’s homotopy perturbation method is used to find the approximate analytical solutions of coupled non-linear reaction diffusion equations. A closed-form expression of substrate and mediator concentration under non-steady-state conditions is obtained. A comparison of the...

  16. Amperometric biosensor for bisphenol A based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanocomposite made from polylysine, single walled carbon nanotubes and tyrosinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared a nanocomposite consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes and polylysine. It was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and by UV/vis and FTIR spectroscopy. Tyrosinase was covalently immobilized on the nanocomposite, and the resulting bioconjugate deposited on a glassy carbon electrode to form a biosensor for bisphenol A. The biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under optimized experimental conditions, the biosensor gives a linear response to bisphenol A in the 4.00 nM to 11.5 μM concentration range. Its sensitivity is 788 mA M−1 cm−2, and the lower detection limit is 0.97 nM (at an S/N of 3). The biosensor shows good repeatability, reproducibility and long-term stability. In a preliminary practical application, it was successfully applied to the determination of bisphenol A in leachates of plastic spoons. (author)

  17. Mechanism of amperometric biosensor with electronic-type-controlled carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Hiroki; Nowaki, Kohei; Muguruma, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    An amperometric enzyme biosensor with electronic-type-controlled (metallic and semiconducting) single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is presented. In this research, we investigate how the electronic types of CNTs influence the amperometric response of enzyme biosensors and what their working mechanisms are. The biosensor of interest is for glucose detection using enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD). In the presence of oxygen, the response of a metallic CNT-GOD electrode was 2.5 times more sensitive than that of a semiconducting CNT-GOD electrode. In contrast, in the absence of oxygen, the response of the semiconducting CNT-GOD electrode was retained, whereas that of the metallic CNT-GOD electrode was significantly reduced. This indicates that direct electron transfer occurred with the semiconducting CNT-GOD electrode, whereas the metallic CNT-GOD electrode was dominated by a hydrogen peroxide pathway caused by an enzymatic reaction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to show that the semiconducting CNT network has less resistance for electron transfer than the metallic CNT network. The optimized glucose biosensor revealed a sensitivity of 5.6 µA mM-1 cm-2 at +0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl, a linear dynamic range of 0.025-1.4 mM, and a response time of 8 s.

  18. Self-interconnecting Pt nanowire network electrode for electrochemical amperometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuqi; Xu, Li-Ping; Liang, Hai-Wei; Yu, Shu-Hong; Wen, Yongqiang; Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-07-14

    One-dimensional Pt nanostructures are of considerable interest for the development of highly stable and sensitive electrochemical sensors. This paper describes a self-interconnecting Pt nanowire network electrode (PtNNE) for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose with ultrahigh sensitivity and stability. The as-prepared PtNNE consists of polycrystalline nanowires with high-index facets along the side surface which provides more active surface atoms on kinks and steps, those ultralong nanowires being interconnected with each other to form a free-standing network membrane. The excellent structural features of the PtNNE promoted its performance as a Pt-based electrochemical sensor both in terms of electrocatalytic activity and stability. Amperometric measurements towards hydrogen peroxide were performed; the PtNNE sensor showed an extremely high sensitivity of 1360 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). This excellent sensitivity is mainly attributed to the high-index facets of the nanowires resulting in their superior electrocatalytic activity towards H2O2, and the interconnected nanowire network forming an "electron freeway" transport model, which could provide multiple electron pathways and fast electron transport on the electrode, leading to rapid reaction and sensitive signal detection. The as-prepared PtNNE also holds promise as an oxidase-based biosensor. As a proof of concept, a PtNNE-based glucose biosensor also showed an outstanding sensitivity as high as 114 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), a low detection limit of 1.5 μM, and an impressive detection range from 5 μM to 30 mM. PMID:26083932

  19. A Doped Polyaniline Modified Electrode Amperometric Biosensor for Gluconic Acid Determination in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Albanese

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In winemaking gluconic acid is an important marker for quantitative evaluation of grape infection by Botrytis cinerea. A screen-printed amperometric bienzymatic sensor for the determination of gluconic acid based on gluconate kinase (GK and 6-phospho-D-gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH coimmobilized onto polyaniline/poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid; PANI-PAAMPSA is reported in this study. The conductive polymer electrodeposed on the working electrode surface allowed the detection of NADH at low potential (0.1 V with a linear range from 4 × 10−3 to 1 mM (R2 = 0.99 and a sensitivity of 419.44 nA∙mM−1. The bienzymatic sensor has been optimized with regard to GK/6PGDH enzymatic unit ratio and ATP/NADP+ molar ratio which resulted equal to 0.33 and 1.2, respectively. Under these conditions a sensitivity of 255.2 nA∙mM−1, a limit of detection of 5 μM and a Relative Standard Deviation (RSD of 4.2% (n = 5 have been observed. Finally, the biosensor has been applied for gluconic acid measurements in must grape samples and the matrix effect has been taken into consideration. The results have been compared with those obtained on the same samples with a commercial kit based on a spectrophotometric enzyme assay and were in good agreement, showing the capability of the bienzymatic PANI-PAAMPSA biosensor for gluconic acid measurements and thus for the evaluation of Botrytis cinerea infection in grapes.

  20. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembling Gold Nanorods and Glucose Oxidase onto Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized Sol-Gel Matrix for an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs and glucose oxidase (GOD onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au electrode, and then the alternate self-assembly of AuNRs and GOD were repeated to assemble multilayer films of AuNRs-GOD onto SWCNTs-functionalized silica gel for optimizing the biosensor. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, the four layers of AuNRs-GOD-modified electrode showed the best performance. The sol-SWCNTs-(AuNRs- GOD4/Au biosensor exhibited a good linear range of 0.01–8 mM glucose, high sensitivity of 1.08 μA/mM, and fast amperometric response within 4 s. The good performance of the proposed glucose biosensor could be mainly attributed to the advantages of the three-dimensional sol-gel matrix and stereo self-assembly films, and the natural features of one-dimensional nanostructure SWCNTs and AuNRs. This study may provide a new facile way to fabricate the enzyme-based biosensor with high performance.

  1. Development of oxidoreductase based electrochemical biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Patrícia Raquel dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Biotecnologia This thesis is divided in 2 sections, each describing the development of an oxidoreductase based biosensor. In the first part human Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) electrochemistry was studied, while the second is focused on the optimization of immobilization platforms and operation methods for amperometric biosensors, using cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR), (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774) as a model enzyme. The...

  2. Protein and polysaccharide-composite sol-gel silicate film for an interference-free amperometric glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Hironori; Tsuchiya, Munenori; Hasebe, Yasushi

    2013-11-01

    A novel permselective, organic-inorganic-hybrid, sol-gel silicate-film was chemically modified on an anodized platinum (Pt) electrode surface to form a selective, sensitive and interference-free amperometric glucose biosensor. This permselective hybrid sol-gel film consists of three organo-silanes [i.e., 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES); tetraethoxysilane (TEOS); triethoxy-1H,1H,2H,2H-tridecafluoro-n-octylsilane (FAS)] and two biomacromolecules [i.e., bovine serum albumin (BSA) and a chitosan (CHIT)]. After the addition of the film to the Pt electrode, glucose oxidase (GOx) was covalently immobilized within the film with glutaraldehyde. The incorporation of the BSA and CHIT not only enhanced the permselectivity of H2O2 but also improved the activity of the immobilized GOx. The CHIT effectively suppressed any swelling of the film. Moreover, the conjugation of the FAS was especially effective in reducing the interference currents of AA and UA to levels less than 1/400 and 1/300 of the current of H2O2. The resulting organic-inorganic-hybrid sol-gel-film-based amperometric glucose biosensor exhibited rapid and sensitive responses to glucose (100% response in detection limit: 0.032 mM), and the highly selective determination of glucose was possible, even in the presence of 0.1mM AA and UA. PMID:23886787

  3. Development of Amperometric Laccase Biosensor through Immobilizing Enzyme in Magnesium-Containing Mesoporous Silica Sieve (Mg-MCM-41)/Polyvinyl Alcohol Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium-containing mesoporous silica sieve (Mg-MCM-41) provided a suitable immobilization of biomolecule matrix due to its uniform pore structure, high surface areas, fast electron-transfer rate, and good biocompatibility. Based on this, an amperometric biosensor was developed by entrapping laccase into the Mg-MCM-41/PVA composite matrix. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of Mg-MCM-41/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrode was investigated by cyclic vol...

  4. Development of Anodic Titania Nanotubes for Application in High Sensitivity Amperometric Glucose and Uric Acid Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ping Sun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop novel nanoscale biosensors using titania nanotubes (TNTs made by anodization. Titania nanotubes were produced on pure titanium sheets by anodization at room temperature. In this research, the electrolyte composition ethylene glycol 250 mL/NH4F 1.5 g/DI water 20 mL was found to produce the best titania nanotubes array films for application in amperometric biosensors. The amperometric results exhibit an excellent linearity for uric acid (UA concentrations in the range between 2 and 14 mg/dL, with 23.3 (µA·cm−2·(mg/dL−1 UA sensitivity, and a correlation coefficient of 0.993. The glucose biosensor presented a good linear relationship in the lower glucose concentration range between 50 and 125 mg/dL, and the corresponding sensitivity was approximately 249.6 (µA·cm−2·(100 mg/dL−1 glucose, with a correlation coefficient of 0.973.

  5. A rapid response time and highly sensitive amperometric glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanorod via citric acid-assisted annealing route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zao; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhao, Binghui; Zong, Xiaolin; Wang, Ping

    2010-04-01

    ZnO nanorods were synthesized by citric acid-assisted annealing route. In a phosphate buffer solution with a pH value of 7.4, glucose oxidase was immobilized on the surface of ZnO nanorod through chitosan-assisted cross-linking technique. The one-dimensional ZnO nanorods provide a large effective surface area with high surface-to-volume ratio and provide a favorable environment for the immobilization of GO x. The response time of this biosensor is less than 2 s. This biosensor has a very high sensitivity of 25.7 μA cm -2 mM -1. The low detection limit was estimated to be 0.01 mM. Two linear response ranges are 0.01-0.25 mM and 0.3-0.7 mM. The Michaelis-Menten constant is found to be 1.95 mM. These results demonstrate that zinc oxide nanorods have potential applications in biosensors.

  6. Amperometric Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Hemoglobin on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Fe3O4/Chitosan Core-Shell Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zai-Yin Huang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel magnetic Fe3O4/chitosan (CS microspheres were prepared using magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the natural macromolecule chitosan. Then, using an easy and effective hemoglobin (Hb immobilization method, an innovative biosensor with a Fe3O4/CS-Hb-Fe3O4/CS “sandwich” configuration was constructed. This biosensor had a fast (less than 10 s response to H2O2 and excellent linear relationships were obtained in the concentration range of 5.0 × 10-5 to 1.8 × 10-3 M and 1.8 × 10-3 to 6.8 × 10-3 M with a detection limit of 4.0 × 10-6 M (s/n = 3 under the optimum conditions. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant Km was 0.29 mM and it showed the excellent biological activity of the fixed Hb. Moreover, the biosensor had long-time stability and good reproducibility. The method was used to determine H2O2 concentration in real samples.

  7. Amperometric biosensors for determination of glucose, maltose, and sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawicki, Ignacy; Filipiak, Marian; Jarzyna, Marta; Laskowska, Janina

    1995-06-01

    In the presented paper there are reported some results of the author's research on membranes containing glucose oxidase (GOx), enzymes hydrolyzing maltose and sucrose and on biosensors equipped with these membranes. The results relate to ways of extending the linear range of glucose sensors, influence of composition of the membranes on levels of the output signals of maltose and sucrose (saccharose) sensors, temperature dependence of the sensor's response and on disturbing effects of glucose in the sample on accuracy of determination of the disaccharides.

  8. Construction of Amperometric Glucose Biosensor based onIn-situ Fabricated Hierarchical Meso-macroporous SiO2 Modiifed AuFilm Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Min; LIN Xinhua; LI Maoguo; LI Jie; NI Lin; YIN Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) modified hierarchical meso-macroporous (HMMP) SiO2 layer on the surface of Au iflm electrode was developed as a novel enzyme immobilization matrix for biosensors construction. HMMP SiO2-Au bilayer film electrodes were in-situ fabricated with magnetron sputtering process and templating method. The as-prepared HMMP SiO2 films were characterized by SEM, TEM, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The modiifed layer of HMMP SiO2 has interconnected pore channels, and the sizes of macropores and mesopores are about 330 nm and 9 nm, respectively. The HMMP SiO2 modiifed gold iflm electrodes not only have no diffusion barrier for electrochemical probes, but also exhibit good electrochemical properties. In addition, the activity and stability of the immobilized enzyme can be commendably retained in HMMP SiO2. The biosensor exhibits an excellent bioelectrocatalytic response to glucose with a linear range of 1.0×10-4 M-1.0×10-2 M, high sensitivity of 18.0 μA·mM-1·cm-2, as well as good reproducibility and stability.

  9. An Amperometric Biosensor for Uric Acid Determination Prepared From Uricase Immobilized in Polyaniline-Polypyrrole Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new amperometric uric acid biosensor was developed by immobilizing uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on polyaniline-polypyrrole (pani-ppy composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode. Determination of uric acid was performed by the oxidation of enzymatically generated H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The linear working range of the biosensor was 2.5×10-6 – 8.5×10-5 M and the response time was about 70 s. The effects of pH, temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 9.0, 55 oC, respectively. The stability and reproducibility of the enzyme electrode have been also studied.

  10. Microfabricated biosensor for the simultaneous amperometric and luminescence detection and monitoring of Ochratoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tria, Scherrine A; Lopez-Ferber, David; Gonzalez, Catherine; Bazin, Ingrid; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2016-05-15

    The low molecular weight hapten, Ochratoxin A (OTA), is a natural carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi and so it commonly appears in wines, other foods, and in the environment. An amperometric biosensor has been developed that uses the immobilized synthetic peptide, NFO4; which possesses a high binding affinity and thus provides for molecular recognition of OTA; simulating the mycotoxin-specific antibody. Biotransducers were produced from a microlithographically fabricated electrochemical cell-on-a-chip that uses the microdisc electrode array working electrode format augmented with microporous graphitized carbon (MGC) that was electrodeposited within a poly(aniline-co-meta-aminoaniline) electroconductive polymer layer. A redox mediator, iron-nickel hexacyanoferrate (Fe|NiHCF) was amperometrically deposited onto the MGC. The device was then dip-coated with monomer cocktail that yielded poly(HEMA-co-AEMA) foam that was prepared in-situ by UV crosslinking and by sequentially freezing followed by freeze drying of the chip to yield a 3-D support for the chelation of Zn(2+) ions (ZnCl2) and the subsequent immobilization of N-terminus his-tagged peptide, NFO4. To conduct the biosensors assay, HRP conjugated OTA was added to the free OTA solutions and together competitively incubated on the biospecific MDEA ECC 5037-Pt|MGC|HCF|Hydrogel-NFO4 biotransducer. The amperometric response to peroxide was determined after 5 min of enzymatic reaction following addition of standard substrate H2O2/luminol. Simultaneous analysis of light emission signals (λmax=425 nm) allowed direct comparison of amperometric and luminescence performance. Using chitosan foam and a luminescence bioassay we obtained maximum inhibition at 10 μg L(-1) and half inhibition occurred at 2.1 μg L(-1). Using poly(HEMA-co-AEMA) hydrogel and an amperometric bioassay (50s) we obtained maximum inhibition at 10 μg L(-1) and half inhibition occurred at 2.8 μg L(-1). PMID:26774998

  11. 基于共面薄膜金电极的三磷酸腺苷适体传感器%An Aptamer-based Amperometric Biosensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Detection Based on Coplanar Thin-film Gold Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜利英; 王芬芬; 胡杰; 岳保磊; 闫艳霞; 陈青华

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film gold electrodes were fabricated based on MEMS technology. Adenosine triphosphate with mercapto-group was immobilized on a surface of gold electrode via self-assembly. An aptamer-based amperometric biosensor was constructed to measure the concentration of the ATP that using aptamer as the recognition element based on coplanar thin-film gold electrode. Adenosine triphosphate was detected by the characteristic impedance changes based on phosphate backbone of nucleic with negatively charge that electrostatic reject [ Fe( CN) 6 ] 3-/4-. Firstly, under the conditions of bare gold electrode and before and after ATP was added and whether 6-mercapto-1-hexanol was closed on electrode and the different self-assembly time (3, 8, 15, 24 and 30 h),the electrode of impedance changes in electrochemical impedance solution was researched with electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The experiments show that the measurable linearity range of adenosine triphosphate is 1-500 nmol/L, the detection limit is 1 nmol/L and the correlation coefficient was 0 . 9842 when the time of the self-assembly was 24 h and closed gold electrode with 6-mercapto-hexanol. This electrochemical aptasensor was simplicity and has low detection limit and good repeatability.%为了检测三磷酸腺苷( ATP)的浓度,利用微系统( MEMS)技术小批量加工薄膜金电极,采用自组装法将巯基修饰的三磷酸腺苷适体固定到金电极表面,以三磷酸腺苷适体作为识别元件,构建了一种基于共面薄膜金电极的三磷酸腺苷适体传感器。依据核酸磷酸骨架荷负电特性静电排斥[Fe(CN)6]3-/4-所引起的阻抗变化实现对ATP浓度的检测。首先采用电化学阻抗谱法研究了裸金电极及ATP加入前后、6-巯基己醇封闭电极前后以及不同自组装时间(3,8,15,24和30 h)条件下,电极在电化学阻抗溶液中阻抗值变化。然后研究了不同浓度ATP适体传感器的电化学阻抗谱以及适体传感器的线性度和

  12. Enzyme-Free Amperometric Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor Based on Electro-Polymerization of Bromophenol Blue%聚溴酚蓝过氧化氢传感器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅小红; 袁若; 柴雅琴; 张凌燕; 陈时洪; 唐明宇

    2006-01-01

    通过电聚合溴酚蓝于铂丝电极上,利用该聚合膜对H2O2直接催化制得无酶过氧化氢传感器. 实验结果表明该聚合膜对H2O2呈现出良好的催化特性,并对该传感器性能及影响该传感器性能的因素作了详细的研究. 在优化的条件下,该传感器的线性响应范围为5.6×10-8~1.4×10-5 mol/L,检测线为3.1×10-8 mol/L. 并且,该传感器灵敏度较高、重现性好、稳定性较长.%A novel enzyme-free amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor was developed by means of electro-polymerization bromophenol blue(PBPB) onto a platinum wire electrode. Experimental results showed that the PBPB-modified biosensor exhibited directly electrocatalytic behavior to the reduction of H2O2 without enzyme. The performance and factors influencing the proposed biosensor were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the resulted electrode showed a linear response to hydrogen peroxide concentration ranging from 5.6×10-8 mol/L to 1.4×10-5 mol/L with a limit of detection of 3.1×10-8 mol/L and a sensitivity of 512 μA·mmol·L-1·cm-2. In addition, the resulted biosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability.

  13. Amperometric biosensor for the determination of phenols using a crude extract of sweet potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Vieira, I. da; Fatibello-Filho, O. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (Brazil)

    1997-03-01

    An amperometric biosensor for the determination of phenols is proposed using a crude extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) as an enzymatic source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO; tyrosinase; catechol oxidase; EC 1.14.18.1). The biosensor is constructed by the immobilization of sweet potato crude extract with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin onto an oxygen membrane. This biosensor provides a linear response for catechol, pyrogallol, phenol and p-cresol in the concentration ranges of 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.3 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.3 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.5 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} and 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.5 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, respectively. The response time was about 3-5 min for the useful response range, and the lifetime of this electrode was excellent for fifteen days (over 220 determinations for each enzymatic membrane). Application of this biosensor for the determination of phenols in industrial wastewaters is presented.

  14. Cross-linked redox gels containing glucose oxidase for amperometric biosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, B.A.; Heller, A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Oxidoreductases, such as glucose oxidase, can be electrically wired to electrodes by electrostatic complexing or by covalent binding of redox polymers so that the electrons flow from the enzyme, through the polymer, to the electrode. We describe two materials for amperometric biosensors based on a cross-linkable poly(vinylpyridine) complex of (Os-(bpy){sub 2}Cl){sup +/2+} that communicates electrically with flavin adenine dinucleiotide redox centers of enzymes such as glucose oxidase. The uncomplexed pyridines of the poly(vinylpyridine) are quaternized with two types of groups, one promoting hydrophilicity (2-bromoethanol or 3-bromopropionic acid), the other containing an active ester (N-hydroxysuccinimide) that forms amide bonds with both lysines on the enzyme surface and with an added polyamine cross-linking agent (tri-ethylenetetraamine, trien). In the presence of glucose oxidase and trien this polymer forms rugged, cross-linked, electroactive films on the surface of electrodes, thereby eliminating the requirement for a membrane for containing the enzyme and redox couple. The glucose response time of the resulting electrodes is less than 10 s. The glucose response under N{sub 2} shows an apparent Michaelis constant, K{sub m}{prime} = 7.3 mM, and limiting current densities, j{sub max}, between 100 and 800 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Currents are decreased by 30-50% in air-saturated solutions because of competition between O{sub 2} and the Os(III) complex for electrons from the reduced enzyme. Rotating ring disk experiments in air-saturated solutions containing 10 mM glucose show that about 20% of the active enzyme is electrooxidized via the Os(III) complex, while the rest is oxidized by O{sub 2}. These results suggest that only part of the active enzyme is in electrical contact with the electrode.

  15. Amperometric determination of cadmium, lead, and mercury metal ions using a novel polymer immobilised horseradish peroxidase biosensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silwana, Bongiwe; Van Der Horst, Charlton; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    This work was undertaken to develop a novel Pt/PANI-co-PDTDA/HRP biosensor system for environmental applications to investigate the inhibition studies by specific heavy metals, to provide data suitable for kinetic studies and further application of the biosensor to environmental samples. The newly constructed biosensor was compared to the data of the well-researched Pt/PANI/HRP biosensor. Optimised experimental conditions, such as the working pH for the biosensor was evaluated. The functionality of the amperometric enzyme sensor system was demonstrated by measuring the oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide followed by the development of an assay for determination of metal concentration in the presence of selected metal ions of Cd(2+), Pb(2+) and Hg(2+). The detection limits were found to be 8 × 10(-4) μg L(-1) for cadmium, 9.38 × 10(-4) μg L(-1) for lead and 7.89 × 10(-4) μg L(-1) for mercury. The World Health Organisation recommended that the maximum safety level of these metals should not exceed 0.005 mg L(-1) of Cd(2+), 0.01 mg L(-1) of Pb(2+) and 0.001 mg L(-1) of Hg(2+.), respectively. The analytical and detection data for the metals investigated were observed to be lower than concentrations recommended by several bodies including World Health Organisation and Environmental Protection Agencies. Therefore the biosensors developed in this study can be used to screen the presence of these metals in water samples because of its low detection limit. The modes of inhibition of horseradish peroxidase by Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+) as analysed using the double reciprocal plots of the Michaelis-Menten equation was found to be reversible and uncompetitive inhibition. Based on the Km(app) and Imax values for both biosensors the results have shown smaller values. These results also proved that the enzyme modified electrode is valuable and can be deployed for the determination or screening of heavy metals. PMID:25137538

  16. Amperometric Biosensor for Oxalate Determination in Urine Using Sequential Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Barrado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric flow biosensor for oxalate determination in urine samples after enzymatic reaction with oxalate oxidase immobilized on a modified magnetic solid is described. The solid was magnetically retained on the electrode surface of an electrode modified with Fe (III-tris-(2-thiopyridone borate placed into a sequential injection system preceding the amperometric detector. The variables involved in the system such as flow rate, aspired volumes (modified magnetic suspension and sample and reaction coil length were evaluated using a Taguchi parameter design. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of oxalate was linear between 3.0–50.0 mg·L−1, with a limit of detection of 1.0 mg·L−1. The repeatability for a 30.0 mg·L−1 oxalate solution was 0.7%. The method was validated by comparing the obtained results to those provided by the spectrophotometric method; no significant differences were observed.

  17. Self-assembled dipeptide-gold nanoparticle hybrid spheres for highly sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yufei; Chen, Xu; Lu, Yanluo; Yang, Wensheng

    2015-04-15

    Novel self-assembled dipeptide-gold nanoparticle (DP-AuNP) hybrid microspheres with a hollow structure have been prepared in aqueous solution by a simple one-step method. Diphenylalanine (FF) dipeptide was used as a precursor to form simultaneously peptide spheres and a reducing agent to reduce gold ions to gold nanoparticles in water at 60°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that formed AuNPs were localized both inside and on the surface of the dipeptide spheres. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a model enzyme was further immobilized on the dipeptide-AuNP hybrid spheres to construct a mediate H2O2 amperometric biosensor. UV-vis spectroscopy showed that the immobilized HRP retained its original structure. Cyclic voltammetry characterization demonstrated that the HRP/dipeptide-AuNP hybrid spheres modified glassy carbon electrode showed high electrocatalytic activity to H2O2. The proposed biosensor exhibited a wide linear response in the range from 5.0×10(-7) to 9.7×10(-4)M with a high sensitivity of 28.3µAmM(-1). A low detection limit of 1.0×10(-7)M was estimated at S/N=3. In addition, the biosensor possessed satisfactory reproducibility and long-term stability. These results indicated that the dipeptide-AuNP hybrid sphere is a promising matrix for application in the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors due to its excellent biocompatibility and good charge-transfer ability. PMID:25483915

  18. An Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose Determination Prepared from Glucose Oxidase Immobilized in Polyaniline-Polyvinylsulfonate Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Arslan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel amperometric glucose biosensor with immobilization of glucose oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polyaniline-polyvinylsulphonate (Pani-Pvs films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique. Electropolymerization of aniline on the Pt surface of the Pt electrode was carried out at constant potential (0.75 V, vs. Ag/AgCl using an electrochemical cell containing aniline and polyvinylsulphonate. Firstly, the optimum working conditions for preparing polyaniline-polyvinylsulfonate films were investigated. Determination of glucose was carried out by the oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated and the optimum pH value was found to be 7.5. The storage stability and operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied. The results show that 75% of the response current was retained after 16 activity assays. The prepared glucose biosensor retained 80.6% of initial activity after 40 days when stored in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at 4 °C.

  19. Biosensor for Pesticides Based on Valerolacton Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A construction of amperometric biosensor based on immobilized acetycholinesterase and cholin oxidase is described and its application in the detection of organophosphate pesticides through enzyme inhibition measurements is discussed. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of acetycholinesterase or cholin oxidase covalently immobilized on two types new polymeric synthetic membranes. Two types of the copolymers were used for the synthesis of membranes - the copolymer of polyacrylamide and acrylonitrile and the new copolymer of poly- (hexanlactam-co-block-poly-(delta-valerolactone with aliphatic polyester. It is investigated the technical characteristics of biosensor like, response time, linear range and operating stability. The factors affecting the inhibition and reactivation processes were investigated too.

  20. In situ chemo-synthesized multi-wall carbon nanotube-conductive polyaniline nanocomposites: characterization and application for a glucose amperometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huaan; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Li, Wenjuan; Zhong, Xia; Zhang, Yu

    2011-07-15

    A new glucose amperometric biosensor, based on electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT)-polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites, and then immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) with covalent interaction and adsorption effect, was constructed in this paper. Firstly, the MWNT-PANI nanocomposites had been synthesized by in situ polymerization and were characterized through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra. The assembled process of the modified electrode was probed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Chronoamperometry was used to study the electrochemical performance of the resulting biosensor. The glucose biosensor exhibited a linear calibration curve over the range from 3.0 μM to 8.2mM, with a detection limit of 1.0 μM and a high sensitivity of 16.1 μA mM(-1). The biosensor also showed a short response time (within 5s). Furthermore, the reproducibility, stability and interferences of the biosensor were also investigated. PMID:21645677

  1. Amperometric Low-Potential Detection of Malic Acid Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Based Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Bala

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytical property of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNTmodified electrode toward NADH detection was explored by cyclic voltammetry andamperometry techniques. The experimental results show that SWNT decrease theovervoltage required for oxidation of NADH (to 300 mV vs. Ag/AgCl and this propertymake them suitable for dehydrogenases based biosensors. The behavior of the SWNTmodified biosensor for L-malic acid was studied as an example for dehydrogenasesbiosensor. The amperometric measurements indicate that malate dehydrogenase (MDHcan be strongly adsorbed on the surface of the SWNT-modified electrode to form anapproximate monolayer film. Enzyme immobilization in Nafion membrane can increasethe biosensor stability. A linear calibration curve was obtained for L-malic acidconcentrations between 0.2 and 1mM.

  2. Carbon Nanotubes Based Glucose Needle-type Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel needle-type biosensor based on carbon nanotubes is reported. Thebiosensor was prepared by packing a mixture of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs,graphite powder and glucose oxidase (Gox freeze-dried powder into a glass capillary of 0.5mm inner diameter. The resulting amperometric biosensor was characterizedelectrochemically using amperometry in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and in thepresence of glucose. The glucose biosensor sensitivity was influenced by the glucoseoxidase concentration within the MWCNTs mixture. The optimized glucose needle-typebiosensor displayed better sensitivity and stability, and a detected range of up to 20 mM.Based on its favorable stability, the needle biosensor was first time used in real-timemonitoring system as a kind of online glucose detector. The decay of current response isless than 10% after 24-hour continuous observation.

  3. Structure-function relationships affecting the sensing mechanism of monolayer-protected cluster doped xerogel amperometric glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPasquale, Luke T; Poulos, Nicholas G; Hall, Jackson R; Minocha, Aastha; Bui, Tram Anh; Leopold, Michael C

    2015-07-15

    A systematic study of the structure-function relationships critical to understanding the sensing mechanism of 1st generation amperometric glucose biosensors with an embedded nanoparticle (NP) network is presented. Xerogel-based films featuring embedded glucose oxidase enzyme and doped with alkanethiolate-protected gold NPs, known as monolayer protected clusters (MPCs), exhibit significantly enhanced performance compared to analogous systems without NPs including higher sensitivity, faster response time, and extended linear/dynamic ranges. The proposed mechanism involves diffusion of the glucose to glucose oxidase within the xerogel, enzymatic reaction production of H2O2 with subsequent diffusion to the embedded network of MPCs where it is oxidized, an event immediately reported via fast electron transfer (ET) through the MPC system to the working electrode. Various aspects of the film construct and strategy are systematically probed using amperometry, voltammetry, and solid-state electronic conductivity measurements, including the effects of MPC peripheral chain length, MPC functionalization via place-exchange reaction, MPC core size, and the MPC density or concentration within the xerogel composite films. The collective results of these experiments support the proposed mechanism and identify interparticle spacing and the electronic communication through the MPC network is the most significant factor in the sensing scheme with the diffusional aspects of the mechanism that may be affected by film/MPC hydrophobicity and functionality (i.e., glucose and H2O2 diffusion) shown to be less substantial contributors to the overall enhanced performance. Understanding the structure-function relationships of effective sensing schemes allows for the employment of the strategy for future biosensor design toward clinically relevant targets. PMID:25819004

  4. Imunossensor amperométrico Amperometric immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla dos Santos Riccardi

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The reaction between antigen and antibody has been widely used in many strategies for the development of analytical methodology, due to its high specificity. The immuno-reaction has been successfully employed for the biosensor development. A focus on biosensor based on immunoassay coupled to amperometric transducer is presented.

  5. Development of amperometric L-tyrosine sensor based on Fe-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanchana, P.; Lavanya, N.; Sekar, C., E-mail: Sekar2025@gmail.com

    2014-02-01

    A novel biosensor based on Fe-doped hydroxyapatite (Fe-HA) nanoparticles and tyrosinase has been developed for the detection of L-tyrosine. Nanostructured Fe-HA was synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method, and its phase formation, morphology and magnetic property were examined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Electrochemical performance of the nano Fe-HA/tyrosinase modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for detection of L-tyrosine was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric methods. The fabricated biosensor exhibited a linear response to L-tyrosine over a wide concentration range of 1.0 × 10{sup −7} to 1.0 × 10{sup −5} M with a detection limit of 245 nM at pH 7.0. In addition, the fabricated sensor showed an excellent selectivity, good reproducibility, long-term stability and anti-interference towards the determination of L-tyrosine. - Highlights: • A novel amperometric L-tyrosine biosensor has been fabricated using nanostructured Fe-HA. • The fabricated sensor exhibits a wide linear range, good stability and high reproducibility. • Fe-HA assists microenvironment and direct electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface. • The nano Fe-HA and electrode fabrication procedure are simple and less expensive.

  6. Design of nanostructured-based glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komirisetty, Archana; Williams, Frances; Pradhan, Aswini; Konda, Rajini B.; Dondapati, Hareesh; Samantaray, Diptirani

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the design of glucose sensors that will be integrated with advanced nano-materials, bio-coatings and electronics to create novel devices that are highly sensitive, inexpensive, accurate, and reliable. In the work presented, a glucose biosensor and its fabrication process flow have been designed. The device is based on electrochemical sensing using a working electrode with bio-functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods. Among all metal oxide nanostructures, ZnO nano-materials play a significant role as a sensing element in biosensors due to their properties such as high isoelectric point (IEP), fast electron transfer, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and chemical stability which are very crucial parameters to achieve high sensitivity. Amperometric enzyme electrodes based on glucose oxidase (GOx) are used due to their stability and high selectivity to glucose. The device also consists of silicon dioxide and titanium layers as well as platinum working and counter electrodes and a silver/silver chloride reference electrode. Currently, the biosensors are being fabricated using the process flow developed. Once completed, the sensors will be bio-functionalized and tested to characterize their performance, including their sensitivity and stability.

  7. Graphene-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Novikov, S. N.; Litvin, D. P.; Makarov, Yu. N.; Klimovich, V. B.; Samoilovich, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    Results of developing and testing graphene-based sensors capable of detecting protein molecules are presented. The biosensor operation was checked using an immunochemical system comprising fluorescein dye and monoclonal antifluorescein antibodies. The sensor detects fluorescein concentration on a level of 1-10 ng/mL and bovine serum albumin-fluorescein conjugate on a level of 1-5 ng/mL. The proposed device has good prospects for use for early diagnostics of various diseases.

  8. Nanostructured progesterone immunosensor using a tyrosinase-colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon biosensor as amperometric transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carralero, Veronica [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: yseo@quim.ucm.es; Pingarron, Jose M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-16

    A novel progesterone immunosensor using a colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon-tyrosinase composite biosensor as amperometric transducer is reported. A sequential competitive configuration between the analyte and progesterone labelled with alkaline phosphatase (AP) was used. Phenyl phosphate was employed as the AP-substrate and the enzyme reaction product, phenol, was oxidized by tyrosinase to o-quinone, which is subsequently reduced at -0.1 V at the biocomposite electrode. Variables such as the concentration of phenyl phosphate, the amount of antibody attached to the electrode surface, immersion time in a 2% BSA solution, working pH and incubation times in progesterone and AP conjugate were optimized. A linear calibration graph for progesterone was obtained between 0 and 40 ng mL{sup -1} with a slope value of -82.3 nA ng{sup -1} mL, and a detection limit of 0.43 ng mL{sup -1}. The time needed to reach the steady-state current from the addition of phenyl phosphate was 30-40 s. These analytical characteristics improve substantially those reported for other progesterone immunosensors. A lifetime of 14 days with no need to apply any regeneration procedure was also achieved. The usefulness of the immunosensor was evaluated by determining progesterone in milk samples spiked with the analyte at 5.0 and 1.5 ng mL{sup -1} concentration levels. Following a very simple procedure, involving only sample dilution, mean recoveries (n = 7) of 98 {+-} 3% and 99 {+-} 3%, respectively, were obtained.

  9. Fiber based optofluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lismont, M.; Vandewalle, N.; Joris, B.; Dreesen, L.

    2014-09-01

    Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on fluorescence phenomenon are really promising. Here, we show a prototype of the basic unit of a multi-sensing biosensor combining optics and microfluidics benefits. This unit makes use of two crossed optical fibers: the first fiber is used to carry small probe molecules droplets and excite fluorescence, while the second one is devoted to target molecules droplets transport and fluorescence detection. Within this scheme, the interaction takes place in each fiber node. The main benefits of this detection setup are the absence of fibers functionalization, the use of microliter volumes of target and probe species, their separation before interaction, and a better detection limit compared to cuvettes setups.

  10. Non-enzymatic amperometric glucose biosensor from zinc oxide nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Tessy Theres; Ramaprabhu, S

    2011-06-01

    The present work describes the development of novel ZnO dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) based non-enzymatic glucose biosensor with 1 M NaOH solution as the supporting electrolyte. For a comparison, the same material has been used for the fabrication of enzymatic biosensor and studied its electrochemical activity with phosphate buffer solution as the electrolyte. MWNT have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor decomposition (CCVD) and a simple sol-gel method was used for decorating crystalline ZnO nanoparticles on MWNT. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to study and optimize the electrochemical performance of the resulting enzymatic and non-enzymatic ZnO/MWNT biosensors. The non enzymatic Nafion/ZnO/MWNT/GC electrode shows linearity in the range 700 nM to 31 mM with the detection limit of 500 nM. Similarly enzymatic biosensor fabricated using Nafion/GOD/ZnO/MWNT on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) shows a linearity from 1 microM to 22 mM. This excellent performance of non enzymatic Nafion/ZnO/MWNT/GC is due to high surface area, good electron transfer rate of ZnO/MWNT and the high electrochemical catalytic activity of ZnO in NaOH solution. PMID:21770093

  11. Isolation and characterization of mutated alcohol oxidases from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha with decreased affinity toward substrates and their use as selective elements of an amperometric biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuhmann Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate, rapid, and economic on-line analysis of ethanol is very desirable. However, available biosensors achieve saturation at very low ethanol concentrations and thus demand the time and labour consuming procedure of sample dilution. Results Hansenula polymorpha (Pichia angusta mutant strains resistant to allyl alcohol in methanol medium were selected. Such strains possessed decreased affinity of alcohol oxidase (AOX towards methanol: the KM values for AOX of wild type and mutant strains CA2 and CA4 are shown to be 0.62, 2.48 and 1.10 mM, respectively, whereas Vmax values are increased or remain unaffected. The mutant AOX alleles from H. polymorpha mutants CA2 and CA4 were isolated and sequenced. Several point mutations in the AOX gene, mostly different between the two mutant alleles, have been identified. Mutant AOX forms were isolated and purified, and some of their biochemical properties were studied. An amperometric biosensor based on the mutated form of AOX from the strain CA2 was constructed and revealed an extended linear response to the target analytes, ethanol and formaldehyde, as compared to the sensor based on the native AOX. Conclusion The described selection methodology opens up the possibility of isolating modified forms of AOX with further decreased affinity toward substrates without reduction of the maximal velocity of reaction. It can help in creation of improved ethanol biosensors with a prolonged linear response towards ethanol in real samples of wines, beers or fermentation liquids.

  12. Electrochemical study of ferrocenemethanol-modified layered double hydroxides composite matrix: application to glucose amperometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Dan; Yao, Wenjuan; Xue, Huaiguo

    2007-10-31

    A novel amperometric glucose sensor based on co-immobilization of ferrocenemethanol (MeOHFc) and glucose oxidase (GOD) in the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) was described. MeOHFc immobilized in LDHs played effectively the role of an electron shuttle and allowed the detection of glucose at 0.25 V (versus SCE), with dramatically reduced interference from easily oxidizable constituents. The sensor (LDHs/MeOHFc/GOD) exhibited a relatively fast response (response time was about 5s), low detection limit (3 microM), and high sensitivity (ca. 60 mA M(-1)cm(-2)) with a linear range of 6.7 x 10(-6) to 3.86 x 10(-4)M of glucose. Apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was calculated to be 2.25 mM. PMID:17720475

  13. Thin-film microelectric arrays for amperometric enzyme biosensors with electrochemically synthesized glucose oxidase-polyaniline membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadevich, Sergei V.; Rossokhaty, Victor K.; Shram, Nataly; Shul'ga, Alexander A.; Soldatkin, Alexey P.; Strikha, Vitaly I.

    1994-10-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by the electrochemical polymerization of aniline onto a gold electrodes in presence of glucose oxidase in phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.0. Aniline is easily polymerized forming a thin film, which adheres tightly on the electrodes surface. During the electropolymerization process the enzyme was entrapped into the polyaniline film being able to catalyze the hydrolysis of glucose. The experiments were performed to determine the optimal condition for polyaniline-glucose oxidase film preparation. Glucose can be determined by the biosensor in the concentration range 10-4 M to 2 X 10-2 M. The linearity of the biosensor response was observed from 2 X 10-4 M to 6 X 10-3 M glucose, which demonstrated that the internal diffusion of substrates and products of reaction through the polyaniline layer to the electrodes surface was the main limiting factor controlling the response value. The method of electropolymerization was found to have several advantage in comparison with other approaches especially for further mass manufacturing of the biosensors.

  14. Amperometric Biosensor for estimation of Glucose-6-phosphate Using Prussian Blue Nanoparticles.

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, S.; Sarkar, Priya; Turner, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphateplays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism of all living organisms.Compared to the conventional analytical methods available for estimation of glucose-6-phosphate,the biosensors having relative simplicity, specificity, low-cost and fastresponse time are a promising alternative. We have reported a glucose-6-phosphatesensor based on screen-printed electrode utilizing Prussian blue nanoparticlesand enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase. T...

  15. Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles Composite Film for the Construction of a Novel Amperometric Choline Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a facile method to fabricate a novel choline biosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Chitosan, a natural biocompatible polymer, was used to solubilize MWCNTs for constructing the aqueous Chit-MWCNTs solution. Then Chit-MWCNTs were first dropped on the surface of a cleaned platinum electrode. Finally, a thiolated silica sol containing AuNPs and choline oxidase (ChOx was immobilized on the surface of the Chit-MWCNTs-modified electrode. The MWCNTs/AuNPs/Pt electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for choline. The resulting choline biosensor showed high sensitivity of choline (3.56 μA/mM, and wide linear range from 0.05 to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 15 μM. In addition, good reproducibility and stability were obtained.

  16. Xanthine Biosensor Based on Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Modified Pyrolytic Graphite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); HAN,Xiao-Jun(韩晓军); HUANG,Wei-Min(黄卫民); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)

    2002-01-01

    The vesicle of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)which contained tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was mixed with xanthine oxidase, and the mixture was cast on the pyrolytic graphite electrode. The lipid films were used to supply a biological environment resembling biomembrane on the surface of the electrode. TTF was used as a mediator because of its high electron-transfer efficiency. A novel xanthine biosensor based on cast DDAB film was developed. The effects of pH and operating potential were explored for optimum analytical performance by using the amperometric method. The response time of the biosensor was less than 10 s. The detection limit of the biosensor was 3.2 × 10-7 mol/L and the liner range was from 4 × 10-7 mol/L to 2.4 × 10-6 mol/L.

  17. Lipase Based Biosensors for Triglyceride Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli Nurul Huwaida; Mohd Zain Zainiharyati; Ahmad Nor Monica

    2016-01-01

    A review of methods development in lipase based biosensor for triglyceride determination was briefly discussed. This review focuses on the basic principle of triglyceride biosensor that includes performances of triglyceride biosensor such as limit of detection, response time, and optimization.

  18. Measurement of tear glucose levels with amperometric glucose biosensor/capillary tube configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qinyi; Peng, Bo; Su, Gang; Cohan, Bruce E; Major, Terry C; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    An amperometric needle-type electrochemical glucose sensor intended for tear glucose measurements is described and employed in conjunction with a 0.84 mm i.d. capillary tube to collect microliter volumes of tear fluid. The sensor is based on immobilizing glucose oxidase on a 0.25 mm o.d. platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir) wire and anodically detecting the liberated hydrogen peroxide from the enzymatic reaction. Inner layers of Nafion and an electropolymerized film of 1,3-diaminobenzene/resorcinol greatly enhance the selectivity for glucose over potential interferences in tear fluid, including ascorbic acid and uric acid. Further, the new sensor is optimized to achieve very low detection limits of 1.5 ± 0.4 μM of glucose (S/N = 3) that is required to monitor glucose levels in tear fluid with a glucose sensitivity of 0.032 ± 0.02 nA/μM (n = 6). Only 4-5 μL of tear fluid in the capillary tube is required when the needle sensor is inserted into the capillary. The glucose sensor was employed to measure tear glucose levels in anesthetized rabbits over an 8 h period while also measuring the blood glucose values. A strong correlation between tear and blood glucose levels was found, suggesting that measurement of tear glucose is a potential noninvasive substitute for blood glucose measurements, and the new sensor configuration could aid in conducting further research in this direction. PMID:21961809

  19. Analytical Expressions for Steady-State Concentrations of Substrate and Oxidized and Reduced Mediator in an Amperometric Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loghambal Shunmugham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of modified enzyme-membrane electrode for steady-state condition is discussed. This model contains a nonlinear term related to enzyme kinetics reaction mechanism. The thickness dependence of an amperometric biosensor is presented both analytically and numerically where the biological layer is immobilized between a solid substrate and permeable electrode. The analytical expressions pertaining to the concentration of species and normalized current are obtained using the Adomian decomposition method (ADM. Simple and approximate polynomial expressions of concentrations of an oxidized mediator, substrate, and reduced mediator are derived for all possible values of parameters ϕO2 (Thiele modulus, BO (normalized surface concentration of oxidized mediator, and BS (normalized surface concentration of substrate. A comparison of the analytical approximation and numerical simulation is also presented. A good agreement between theoretical predictions and numerical results is observed.

  20. Fabrication of an Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose Based on Nafion,Azure Ⅰ and Gold Nanoparticles%以天青Ⅰ为介体的纳米金颗粒增强的葡萄糖传感器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇

    2009-01-01

    采用层层自组装的方法和异种电荷互相吸引的原理,将Nafion修饰在金电极上固载带正电荷的天青Ⅰ,并利用天青Ⅰ中的氨基固载纳米金,再通过纳米金将酶固定在金电极表面,制成了葡萄糖传感器.采用循环伏安法和交流阻抗法,研究了金电极表面组装各层之后的电化学特征,以及电极对葡萄糖的电化学催化作用. 结果表明,天青Ⅰ不仅可以固定酶和纳米金,而且还可以在酶和电极之间有效地传递电子.在优化的实验条件下,该传感器对葡萄糖响应的线性范围为5.1×10-6 ~4.0×10-3 mol/L,检出限(S/N=3)为1.0 μmol/L.该生物传感器显示出较好的稳定性和抗干扰能力,将其用于人体血清中葡萄糖的测定,结果令人满意.%A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing Nafion(Naf),azure Ⅰ(Azu),gold nanoparticles(nano-Au) and glucose oxidase(GOD) on the gold electrode based on the self-assembled technique and the opposite-charged adsorption mechanism.The electrochemical characteristics of modified electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry(CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS).The results indicated that the Azu could not only use to immobilize enzyme and nano-Au,but also improve the electron transfer capability between enzyme and electrode.Under optimal conditions,the biosensor could detect the glucose in the range of 5.1×10-6-4.0×10-3 mol/L with a low detection limit of 1.0 μmol/L (S/N=3).This sensor showed a good stability and strong anti-disturbance capability,and was applied in the determination of glucose in human serum with satisfactory results.

  1. Biossensores amperométricos para determinação de compostos fenólicos em amostras de interesse ambiental Amperometric biosensors for phenolic compounds determination in the environmental interess samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Soares Rosatto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are widely used in many areas and commonly found as industrial by-products. A great number of agricultural and industrial activities realise phenolic compounds in the environmental. Waste phenols are produced mainly by the wood-pulp industry and during production of synthetic polymers, drugs, plastics, dyes, pesticides and others. Phenols are also released into the environmental by the degradation of pesticides with phenolic skeleton. The phenols level control is very important for the environmental protection. Amperometric biosensor has shown the feasibility to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for the determination of phenolic compounds, providing alternatives to conventional methods which have many disadvantages. This brief review considers the evolution of an approach to amperometric measurement using the catalytic properties of some enzymes for phenolic compounds monitoring.

  2. A glucose biosensor based on partially unzipped carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huifang; Feng, Miao; Zhan, Hongbing

    2015-08-15

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOD) self-assembled on the surface of partially unzipped carbon nanotubes (PUCNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been successfully fabricated. PUCNTs were synthesized via a facile chemical oxidative etching CNTs and used as a novel immobilization matrix for GOD. The cyclic voltammetric result of the PUCNT/GOD/GCE showed a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential of -0.470V and a peak to peak separation of 37mV, revealing that the fast direct electron transfer between GOD and the electrode has been achieved. It is notable that the glucose determination has been achieved in mediator-free condition. The developed biosensor displayed satisfactory analytical performance toward glucose including high sensitivity (19.50μA mM(-1)cm(-2)), low apparent Michaelis-Menten (5.09mM), a wide linear range of 0-17mM, and also preventing the interference from ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine usually coexisting with glucose in human blood. In addition, the biosensor acquired excellent storage stabilities. This facile, fast, environment-friendly and economical preparation strategy of PUCNT-GOD may provide a new platform for the fabrication of biocompatible glucose biosensors and other types of biosensors. PMID:25966382

  3. Spontaneous Deposition of Prussian Blue on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and the Application in an Amperometric Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Keung Shiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple method has been developed for the spontaneous deposition of Prussian blue (PB particles from a solution containing only ferricyanide ions onto conducting substrates such as indium tin oxide glass, glassy carbon disk and carbon nanotube (CNT materials. Formation of PB deposits was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry and electrochemical techniques. The surface morphology of the PB particles deposited on the substrates was examined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. CNT/PB composite modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibited an electrocatalytic property for hydrogen peroxide reduction. These modified electrodes exhibited a high sensitivity for electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide at −0.05 V (vs. Ag|AgCl, probably due to the synergistic effect of CNT with PB. Then, CNT/PB modified electrodes were further developed as amperometric glucose biosensors. These biosensors offered a linear response to glucose concentration from 0.1 to 0.9 mM with good selectivity, high sensitivity of 0.102 A M−1 cm−2 and short response time (within 2 s at a negative operation potential of −0.05 V (vs. Ag|AgCl. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.01 mM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  4. Artificial electron donors for nitrate and nitrite reductases usable as mediators in amperometric biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlitz, B. (Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)); Gruendig, B. (Institut fuer Chemo- und Biosensorik, Muenster-Roxel (Germany)); Vorlop, K.D. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie); Bartholmes, P. (Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie); Kotte, H. (Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)); Stottmeister, U. (Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany))

    1994-07-01

    Various nitrate and nitrite reductases are capable of accepting electrons from artificial donors. Combining these redox active donors with an amperometric redox electrode which is covered with an immobilized layer of such a nitrate or nitrite reductase, new enzyme sensors can be created for the detection of nitrate or nitrite, respectively. A range of suitable electron donors for nitrate reductases and nitrite reductase from different sources have been selected and characterized by electrochemical methods. (orig.)

  5. Microbial corrosion monitoring by an amperometric microbial biosensor developed using whole cell of Pseudomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, R S; Upadhyay, S N

    2001-12-01

    A microbial biosensor was developed for monitoring microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic materials in industrial systems. The Pseudomonas sp. isolated from corroded metal surface was immobilized on acetylcellulose membrane and its respiratory activity was estimated by measuring oxygen consumption. The microbial biosensor was used for the measurement of sulfuric acid in a batch culture medium contaminated by microorganisms. A linear relationship between the microbial sensor response and the concentration of sulfuric acid was observed. The response time of biosensor was 5 min and was dependent on the immobilized cell loading of Pseudomonas sp., pH, temperature and corrosive environments. The microbial biosensor response was stable, reproducible and specific for sensing of sulfur oxidizing bacterial activity. PMID:11679280

  6. Flow electrochemical biosensors based on enzymatic porous reactor and tubular detector of silver solid amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor was constructed. •The biosensor is based on a reactor of a novel material – porous silver solid amalgam. •Tubular amalgam detector was used for determination of decrease of O2 concentration. •Covalent bonds amalgam−thiol−enzyme contributed to the sensor long-term stability. •LOD of glucose was 0.01 mmol L−1 with RSD = 1.3% (n = 11). -- Abstract: A flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor for the determination of glucose was constructed. The biosensor consists of a flow reactor based on porous silver solid amalgam (AgSA) and a flow tubular detector based on compact AgSA. The preparation of the sensor and the determination of glucose occurred in three steps. First, a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) was formed at the porous surface of the reactor. Second, enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was covalently immobilized at MUA-layer using N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. Finally, a decrease of oxygen concentration (directly proportional to the concentration of glucose) during enzymatic reaction was amperometrically measured on the tubular detector under flow injection conditions. The following parameters of glucose determination were optimized with respect to amperometric response: composition of the mobile phase, its concentration, the potential of detection and the flow rate. The calibration curve of glucose was linear in the concentration range of 0.02–0.80 mmol L−1 with detection limit of 0.01 mmol L−1. The content of glucose in the sample of honey was determined as 35.5 ± 1.0 mass % (number of the repeated measurements n = 7; standard deviation SD = 1.2%; relative standard deviation RSD = 3.2%) which corresponds well with the declared values. The tested biosensor proved good long-term stability (77% of the current response of glucose was retained after 35 days)

  7. Highly sensitive voltammetric biosensor for nitric oxide based on its high affinity with hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although heme protein-based, amperometric nitric oxide (NO) biosensors have been well documented in previous studies, most have been conducted in anaerobic conditions. Herein we report a novel hemoglobin-based NO biosensor that is not only very sensitive but also usable in air. The heme protein was entrapped in a sodium montmorillonite film, which was immobilized at a pyrolytic graphite electrode surface. Film-entrapped hemoglobin can directly exchange electrons with the electrode, and this process has proven to favor the catalytic reduction of oxygen. In addition, NO induced a cathodic potential shift of the catalytic reduction peak of oxygen. This potential shift was proportional to the logarithm of NO concentration ranging from 4.0 x 10-11 to 5.0 x 10-6 mol/L. The detection limit has been estimated to be 20 pM, approximately four orders lower than previously reported amperometric detectors

  8. Modelling a Peroxidase-based Optical Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Juozas Kulys; Evelina Gaidamauskait˙e; Romas Baronas

    2007-01-01

    The response of a peroxidase-based optical biosensor was modelled digitally. A mathematical model of the optical biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments, an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. The digital simulation was carried out using finite difference technique. The influence of the substrate concentration as well as of the thickness of both the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor respons...

  9. Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor Based on Poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-multi-walled Carb on Nanotub es-graphene Hybrid Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Sun; Zhili Gong; Yaoyao Cao; Xiangyou Wang∗

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor for quantitative determi-nation of carbaryl was developed. Firstly, the poly (diallyldimethy-lammonium chloride)-multi-walled carbon nanotubes-graphene hybrid film was modified onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface, then AChE was immobilized onto the modified GCE to fabricate the AChE biosensor. The morphologies and electrochemistry properties of the prepared AChE biosensor were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. All variables involved in the preparation process and analytical performance of the biosensor were optimized. Based on the inhibition of pesticides on the AChE activity, using carbaryl as model compounds, the biosensor exhibited low detection limit, good reproducibility and high stability in a wide range. Moreover, the biosensor can also be used for direct analysis of practical samples, which would provide a new promising tool for pesticide residues analysis.

  10. Multiplexed Microneedle-based Biosensor Array for Characterization of Metabolic Acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Philip R; Skoog, Shelby A.; Edwards, Thayne L.; Lopez, DeAnna M.; David R. Wheeler; Dulce C Arango; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Brozik, Susan M.; Wang, Joseph; Polsky, Ronen; Roger J. Narayan

    2011-01-01

    The development of a microneedle-based biosensor array for multiplexed in situ detection of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis, tumor microenvironment, and other variations in tissue chemistry is described. Simultaneous and selective amperometric detection of pH, glucose, and lactate over a range of physiologically-relevant concentrations in complex media is demonstrated. Furthermore, materials modified with a cell-resistant (Lipidure®) coating were shown to inhibit macrophage adhesion; no s...

  11. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on electrodeposition of zinc oxide nanoflowers onto carbon nanotubes film electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Ping Bai; Xu Xiao Lu; Guang Ming Yang; Yun Hui Yang

    2008-01-01

    A new amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide was developed based on adsorption of horseradish peroxidase at the glassy carbon electrode modified with zinc oxide nanoflowers produced by electrodeposition onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) firm. The morphology of the MWNTs/nano-ZnO electrode has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the electrochemical performance of the electrode has also been studied by amperometric method. The resulting electrode offered an excellent detection for hydrogen peroxide at -0.11 V with a linear response range of 9.9 × 10(-7) to 2.9 × 10(-3) mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.991, and response time <5 s. The biosensor displays rapid response and expanded linear response range, and excellent stability.

  12. Cell-Based Biosensors Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ping

    2009-01-01

    Written by recognized experts the field, this leading-edge resource is the first book to systematically introduce the concept, technology, and development of cell-based biosensors. You find details on the latest cell-based biosensor models and novel micro-structure biosensor techniques. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this unique volume presents the latest innovative applications of cell-based biosensors in a variety of biomedical fields. The book also explores future trends of cell-based biosensors, including integrated chips, nanotechnology and microfluidics. Over 140 illustrations hel

  13. Multianalyte Biosensor for Simultaneous Determination of Glucose and Galactose Based on Micromachined Chamber-type Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JlA Neng-Qin贾能勤; ZHANG Zong-Rang章宗穰; ZHU Jiang-Zhong朱建中; ZHANG Guo-Xiong张国雄

    2004-01-01

    An amperometric multianalyte biosensor for the simultaneous determination of glucose and galactose was developed based on chamber-type electrodes, which were fabricated by micromachining technology. The dual chamber-type enzyme electrode with glucose and galactose sensor elements was integrated onto one microchip. The experimental parameters of this biosensor were optimized. The biosensor exhibited a linearity of up to 4.0 mol/L for glucose and 4.5 mol/L for galactose, and the response time was about 30 s for glucose and 40 s for galactose. No cross-talking behavior was investigated in the course of simultaneous measurement of the two analytes. Interference from electroactive species, such as ascorbic acid and uric acid, was minimized due to the permselectivity of Nation film. In addition, the biosensor displayed a storage stability of longer than one month.

  14. Modelling a Peroxidase-based Optical Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Gaidamauskaite, Evelina; Kulys, Juozas

    2007-01-01

    The response of a peroxidase-based optical biosensor was modelled digitally. A mathematical model of the optical biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments, an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. The digital simulation was carried out using finite difference technique. The influence of the substrate concentration as well as of the thickness of both the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor response was investigated. Calculations showed complex kinetics of the biosensor response, especially at low concentrations of the peroxidase and of the hydrogen peroxide.

  15. A sensitive and selective on-line amperometric sulfite biosensor using sulfite oxidase immobilized on a magnetite-gold-folate nanocomposite modified carbon-paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroysee, Wongduan; Ponlakhet, Kitayanan; Chairam, Sanoe; Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan

    2016-08-15

    We describe a novel amperometric sulfite biosensor, comprising a carbon-paste electrode (Fe3O4@Au-Cys-FA/CPE) modified with immobilized sulfite oxidase (SOx) on a gold-coated magnetite nanoparticle core, encased within a conjugated folic acid (FA) cysteine (Cys) shell. The biosensor electrode was fabricated using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and mineral oil mixture as binder, which also enhances the physical stability and sensitivity of the electrode. The developed biosensor displays good electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of H2O2, which occurs by an enzymatic reaction between SOx and sulfite. The Fe3O4@Au-Cys-FA electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity, and has good retention of chemisorbed SOx on the electrode because of its large surface area. Sulfite was quantified using amperometric measurements from the Fe3O4@Au-Cys-FA/CPE biosensor, and using an in-house assembled flow cell at +0.35V (vs. Ag/AgCl), with a phosphate buffer carrier (0.10M, pH 7.0) at a flow rate of 0.8mLmin(-1). The system detects sulfite over the range 0.1-200mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.998), with a detection limit of 10µgL(-1) (3σ of blank). The system exhibits acceptable precision (%R.S.D.=3.1%), rapid sample throughput (109samplesh(-1)), and good stability (2w). The developed biosensor shows satisfactory tolerance to potential interferences, such as sugars, anions, ascorbic acid, and ethanol. We applied the developed method to the determination of sulfite content in wines and pickled food extracts, and our results are in good agreement with those obtained by the standard iodometric method. PMID:27260448

  16. Chip-based amperometric enzyme sensor system for monitoring of bioprocesses by flow-injection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baecker, M.; Rakowski, D.; Poghossian, A.; Biselli, M; Wagner, P.; Schoening, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic chip integrating amperometric enzyme sensors for the detection of glucose, glutamate and glutamine in cell-culture fermentation processes has been developed. The enzymes glucose oxidase, glutamate oxidase and glutaminase were immobilized by means of cross-linking with glutaraldehyde on platinum thin-film electrodes integrated within a microfluidic channel. The biosensor chip was coupled to a flow-injection analysis system for electrochemical characterization of the sensors. The...

  17. Desarrollo de un Biosensor Amperométrico en Configuración plana para la Cuantificación de Colesterol Development of an Amperometric Biosensor in Planar Configuration for the Quantification of Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el desarrollo de un biosensor amperométrico de colesterol en configuración plana, el cual es fabricado mediante procesos serigráficos compatibles con metodologías de producción automatizadas. El dispositivo incorpora tetracianoquinodimetano, TCNQ, como mediador a fin de reducir el potencial de trabajo y minimizar las interferencias. Presenta un intervalo de respuesta lineal de 2- 12 mM con un límite de detección de 1.56 mM , requiriendo un volumen de muestra de solo 7.2 μ L. Sus características lo hacen adecuado para el análisis descentralizado de colesterol en suero sanguíneo y alimentos. La propuesta muestra que sin grandes recursos técnicos ni económicos es posible desarrollar biosensores con características de respuesta competitivas y compatibles con la producción en masa.The development of a cholesterol amperometric biosensor in planar configuration is presented. The device is constructed by screen printing processes that are compatible with automated production methods. The electrochemical transducer incorporates tetracyanoquinodimethane, TCNQ, as mediator in order to reduce the work potential and minimize interferences. The biosensor presents an interval of lineal answer of 2- 12 mM with a limit of detection of 1.56 mM , requiring a volume of sample of only 7.2 µL. Its characteristics make it adequate for the analysis of cholesterol in blood serum and foods. The designed cholesterol amperometric biosensor demonstrates that without major technical or economic resources it is possible to develop biosensors with response characteristics competitive and compatible with mass production.

  18. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembling Gold Nanorods and Glucose Oxidase onto Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized Sol-Gel Matrix for an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyan Wu; Shihua Hou; Zhiying Miao; Cong Zhang; Yanhong Ji

    2015-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au electrode, and then the alternate self-assembly of AuNRs and GOD were repeated to assemble multilayer films of AuNRs-GOD onto SWCNTs-functionalized silica gel for op...

  19. Amperometric detection of gold by differential pulse voltammetry using a DNA biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Ning; WANG Zhiying; XU Weiming; PAN Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    A DNA biosensor with [Ru(DA-bpy)3]Cl2(DA-bpy:4,4'-diamino-2,2'-bipyridine) (RuL) as the electrochemical probe was prepared on pyrolytic graphite electrode (PGE) through the supramolecular interaction between RuL complex and DNA template. Cyclic voltammetry of RuL-DNA film showed a pair of stable and reversible peaks corresponding to the Ru(Ⅲ)/Ru(Ⅱ) redox potential of-0.165 V versus Ag|AgCl in pH 7.4 0.1 mol· L-1 Tris-HCl. The electron transfer was expected across the double-strand DNA by an "electron tunneling" mechanism. When the DNA biosensor was immerged in gold (Ⅲ) buffer solution, the current peak signal (Ⅰ) of the RuL-DNA supramolecular depressed and △Ⅰ was linear in the concentration range of Au ion from 1 × 10-7 to 2 × 10-5 mol·L-1 with a regression coefficient of 0.9879. The detection limit was 5 × 10-8 mol·L-1. The developed procedures were applied to the analysis of synthetic samples of real materials with good sensitivity and selectivity.

  20. pulSED: pulsed sonoelectrodeposition of fractal nanoplatinum for enhancing amperometric biosensor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, M; Schwalb, N; Rong, Y; Vanegas, D C; Garland, N; Tan, M; Yamaguchi, H; Claussen, J C; McLamore, E S

    2016-06-01

    For the first time, we combine pulsed electrodeposition with out-of-phase pulsed sonication for controlled synthesis of fractal nanoplatinum structures as the transducer layer in electrochemical sensing. We develop and test this technique, called bimodal pulsed sonoelectrodeposition (pulSED), as a simple approach for creating highly conductive transducer nanometals for use in sensing and biosensing. We first compared the efficiency of pulSED nanoplatinum to other pulsed electrodeposition techniques, and then explored the effect of duty cycle and plating time on electroactive surface area and nanoparticle size/morphology. The developed pulSED nanoplatinum displayed fractal features with a relatively homogenous size distribution (26.31 ± 1.3 nm) and extremely high electroactive surface (0.28 ± 0.04 cm(2)) relative to other electroplating techniques (up to one order of magnitude higher). A high duty cycle (900 mHz) promotes formation of stable nanostructures (including fractal nanostructures) and reduces amorphous structure formation due to bubble cavitation and enhanced mass transport of metal ions to the electrode surface. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulSED technique, non-enzymatic and enzymatic sensors were developed for measuring hydrogen peroxide and glucose. The sensitivity for non-enzymatic peroxide sensing (3335 ± 305 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)), non-enzymatic glucose sensing (73 ± 14 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)) and enzymatic glucose biosensing (155 ± 25 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)) was higher than, or similar to, other nanomaterial-mediated amperometric sensors reported in the literature. The pulSED technique is a one pot method for tunable synthesis of nanometal structures as a transducer layer in electrochemical sensing and biosensing that requires no precursors or capping agents, and can be carried out at room temperature with inexpensive hardware. PMID:27121177

  1. Alginate cryogel based glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoni, Amin; Windy Dwiasi, Dian; Hermawan, Dadan

    2016-02-01

    Cryogel is macroporous structure provides a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. In this work, an alginate cryogel based biosensor was developed to detect glucose. The cryogel was prepared using alginate cross-linked by calcium chloride under sub-zero temperature. This porous structure was growth in a 100 μL micropipette tip with a glucose oxidase enzyme entrapped inside the cryogel. The glucose detection was based on the colour change of redox indicator, potassium permanganate, by the hydrogen peroxide resulted from the conversion of glucose. The result showed a porous structure of alginate cryogel with pores diameter of 20-50 μm. The developed glucose biosensor was showed a linear response in the glucose detection from 1.0 to 5.0 mM with a regression of y = 0.01x+0.02 and R2 of 0.994. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor was showed a high operational stability up to 10 times of uninterrupted glucose detections.

  2. Biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanodevices links interdisciplinary research from leading experts to provide graduate students, academics, researchers, and industry professionals alike with a comprehensive source for key advancements and future trends in nanostructured biosensor development. It describes the concepts, principles, materials, device fabrications, functions, system integrations, and applications of various types of biosensors based on signal transduction mechanisms, including fluorescence, photonic crystal, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrochemistry, electro-lumine

  3. A sensitive acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on gold nanorods modified electrode for detection of organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qiaolin; Han, Lei; Hou, Chuantao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Aihua

    2016-08-15

    A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor, based on gold nanorods (AuNRs), was developed for the detection of organophosphate pesticide. Compared with Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, AuNRs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic properties, which can electrocatalytically oxidize thiocholine, the hydrolysate of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) by AChE at +0.55V (vs. SCE). The AChE/AuNRs/GCE biosensor was fabricated on basis of the inhibition of AChE activity by organophosphate pesticide. The biosensor could detect paraoxon in the linear range from 1nM to 5μM and dimethoate in the linear range from 5nM to 1μM, respectively. The detection limits of paraoxon and dimethoate were 0.7nM and 3.9nM, which were lower than the reported AChE biosensor. The proposed biosensor could restore to over 95% of its original current, which demonstrated the good reactivation. Moreover, the biosensor can be applicable to real water sample measurement. Thus, the biosensor exhibited low applied potential, high sensitivity and good stability, providing a promising tool for analysis of pesticides. PMID:27260432

  4. Preparation and modification of carbon nanotubes electrodes by cold plasmas processes toward the preparation of amperometric biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luais, E. [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); IMN, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); PCI, Universite du Maine, CNRS, rue Aristote, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Thobie-Gautier, C. [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Tailleur, A.; Djouadi, M.-A.; Granier, A.; Tessier, P.Y. [IMN, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Debarnot, D.; Poncin-Epaillard, F. [PCI, Universite du Maine, CNRS, rue Aristote, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Boujtita, M., E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.f [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2010-11-30

    An electrochemical transducer based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) was prepared as a platform for biosensor development. Prior to enzyme immobilization, the CNT were treated using a microwave plasma system (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) in order to functionalize the CNT surface with oxygenated and aminated groups. The morphological aspect of the electrode surface was examined by SEM and its chemical structure was also elucidated by XPS analysis. It was found out that microwave plasma system (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) not only functionalizes the CNT but also permits to avoid the collapse phenomena retaining thus the alignment structure of the electrode surface. The electrochemical properties of the resulting new material based on CNT were carried out by cyclic voltammetry and were found suitable to develop high sensitive enzyme (HRP) biosensors operating on direct electron transfer process.

  5. Tiny Medicine: Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Watts

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tiny medicine refers to the development of small easy to use devices that can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of disease. Early diagnosis is the key to successfully treating many diseases. Nanomaterial-based biosensors utilize the unique properties of biological and physical nanomaterials to recognize a target molecule and effect transduction of an electronic signal. In general, the advantages of nanomaterial-based biosensors are fast response, small size, high sensitivity, and portability compared to existing large electrodes and sensors. Systems integration is the core technology that enables tiny medicine. Integration of nanomaterials, microfluidics, automatic samplers, and transduction devices on a single chip provides many advantages for point of care devices such as biosensors. Biosensors are also being used as new analytical tools to study medicine. Thus this paper reviews how nanomaterials can be used to build biosensors and how these biosensors can help now and in the future to detect disease and monitor therapies.

  6. A pyrrole quinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase biosensor based on screen-printed carbon paste electrodes modified by carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) modified biosensor based on oxygen-independent, pyrrole quinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) for monitoring glucose was studied. The disposable amperometric biosensors based on screen-printed carbon paste electrodes are low cost and suitable for mass production. Potassium ferricyanide was immobilized on the surface of the electrodes as an electron mediator, which decreased the work potential. The biosensor showed a linear amperometric response to glucose from 1 to 35 mM, with a sensitivity of 31.0 µA mM−1 cm−2. Experimentally, the compositions of PQQ-GDH, potassium ferricyanide, CNTs and other components were evaluated and optimized. Only 2 µl of sample are needed for one test, and the response time of the sensor is 20 s. The characteristics of the biosensor were studied through cyclic voltammetry, and experimental results showed that the CNTs could facilitate the electron transfer between the enzyme and electrode surface significantly. Compared with the biosensor without carbon nanotube modification, the CNTs improved the sensitivity of the biosensor up to five times

  7. Amperometric Enzyme-based Biosensors for Lowering the Interferences

    OpenAIRE

    Nien, Po-Chin; Chen, Po-Yen; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    In system A, the PEDOT-modified electrode was used as a matrix to entrap glucose oxidase and was integrated in a flow system of sensing chip successfully. The optimal injecting volume and flow rate were 30 μl and 10 ml/hr, respectively. The performances of sensitivity, linear range, response time, recovery time and limit of detection were 157 μC cm-2 mM-1, 1-10 mM, 15 s, 35-75 s and 0.15 mM at a flow rate of 10 ml/hr, respectively. With an applied potential of 0.7 V on WE2, it can reduce th...

  8. A Glucose Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase in Chitosan Network Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚慧; 李楠; 徐锦忠; 朱俊杰

    2005-01-01

    A simple and promising glucose biosensor was constructed by successful entrapment of glucose oxidase (GOD) into chitosan matrix, which was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA). This material provided good biocompatibility and the stabilizing microenvironment around the enzyme. The morphologies and properties of chitosan and chitosan/GOD were characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis and SEM techniques. This biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response to glucose. The linear range for glucose determination was from 1×10-5 to 3.4×10-3 mol·L-1, with a detection limit of 5×10-6 mol·L-1 based on S/N=3. The biosensor could retain ca. 90% of its original activity after two weeks of storage under dry conditions at 4℃.

  9. Mediator-free electrochemical biosensor based on buckypaper with enhanced stability and sensitivity for glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalinezhad, Asieh; Wu, Guosheng; Chen, Aicheng

    2011-12-15

    Here we report on a novel platform based on buckypaper for the design of high-performance electrochemical biosensors. Using glucose oxidase as a model enzyme, we constructed a biocompatible mediator-free biosensor and studied the potential effect of the buckypaper on the stability of the biosensor with both amperometry and FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed that the biosensor responses sensitively and selectively to glucose with a considerable functional lifetime of over 80 days. The fabricated enzymatic sensor detects glucose with a dynamic linear range of over 9 mM and a detection limit of 0.01 mM. To examine the efficiency of enzyme immobilization, the Michaelis-Menten constant (K(M)(app)) was calculated to be 4.67 mM. In addition, the fabricated electrochemical biosensor shows high selectivity; no amperometric response to the common interference species such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and acetamidophenol was observed. The facile and robust buckypaper-based platform proposed in this study opens the door for the design of high-performance electrochemical biosensors for medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring. PMID:22014621

  10. Flow electrochemical biosensors based on enzymatic porous reactor and tubular detector of silver solid amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josypčuk, Bohdan, E-mail: josypcuk@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Barek, Jiří [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Josypčuk, Oksana [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2013-05-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor was constructed. •The biosensor is based on a reactor of a novel material – porous silver solid amalgam. •Tubular amalgam detector was used for determination of decrease of O{sub 2} concentration. •Covalent bonds amalgam−thiol−enzyme contributed to the sensor long-term stability. •LOD of glucose was 0.01 mmol L{sup −1} with RSD = 1.3% (n = 11). -- Abstract: A flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor for the determination of glucose was constructed. The biosensor consists of a flow reactor based on porous silver solid amalgam (AgSA) and a flow tubular detector based on compact AgSA. The preparation of the sensor and the determination of glucose occurred in three steps. First, a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) was formed at the porous surface of the reactor. Second, enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was covalently immobilized at MUA-layer using N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. Finally, a decrease of oxygen concentration (directly proportional to the concentration of glucose) during enzymatic reaction was amperometrically measured on the tubular detector under flow injection conditions. The following parameters of glucose determination were optimized with respect to amperometric response: composition of the mobile phase, its concentration, the potential of detection and the flow rate. The calibration curve of glucose was linear in the concentration range of 0.02–0.80 mmol L{sup −1} with detection limit of 0.01 mmol L{sup −1}. The content of glucose in the sample of honey was determined as 35.5 ± 1.0 mass % (number of the repeated measurements n = 7; standard deviation SD = 1.2%; relative standard deviation RSD = 3.2%) which corresponds well with the declared values. The tested biosensor proved good long-term stability (77% of the current response of glucose was retained after 35 days)

  11. Carbon Nanotube Amperometric Chips with Pneumatic Micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Yuichi; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Chikae, Miyuki; Torai, Soichiro; Takamura, Yuzuru; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2008-04-01

    We fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT) amperometric chips with pneumatic micropumps by the combination of amperometric biosensors based on CNT-arrayed electrodes and microchannels with pneumatic micropumps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane). On the chip, phosphate buffer solution and potassium ferricyanide, K3[Fe(CN)6], were introduced into the CNT electrodes using each pneumatic micropump and electrochemically measured by differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicate that our chip can automatically exchange reagents on the CNT electrodes and clearly detect molecules. Moreover, by modifying the CNT electrodes with enzyme glucose oxidase, glucose molecules could be detected using our chips by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. We conclude that microfluidic chips with CNT-arrayed electrodes are a promising candidate for the development of hand-held electrochemical biosensors.

  12. Polystyrene Based SPR Biosensor Chip for Use in Immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Biosensors are widely used in immunoassay.The biosensor chip carries a receptor which is used in immunoassay and the chip properties have an important influence on the detecting sensitivity of the biosensor.This paper describes a polystyrene-based biosensor chip developed and used as part of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor.The SPR biosensor has a much higher detecting sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunoserbent assay (ELISA).

  13. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition-Based Biosensor for Aluminum(III Chronoamperometric Determination in Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Barquero-Quirós

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of Al(III based on the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase has been developed. The immobilization of the enzyme was performed on screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles. The oxidation signal of acetylthiocholine iodide enzyme substrate was affected by the presence of Al(III ions leading to a decrease in the amperometric current. The developed system has a detection limit of 2.1 ± 0.1 μM for Al(III. The reproducibility of the method is 8.1% (n = 4. Main interferences include Mo(VI, W(VI and Hg(II ions. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Al(III in spiked tap water . The analysis of a certified standard reference material was also carried out. Both results agree with the certified values considering the respective associated uncertainties.

  14. Catalytic activity of iron hexacyanoosmate(II) towards hydrogen peroxide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and its use in amperometric biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotzian, Petr; Janku, Tereza [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Nam. Cs. Legii 565, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Kalcher, Kurt [Institute of Chemistry - Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens University, Universitaetsplatz 1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vytras, Karel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Nam. Cs. Legii 565, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)], E-mail: karel.vytras@upce.cz

    2007-09-19

    Hydrogen peroxide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) may be determined amperometrically using screen-printed electrodes chemically modified with iron(III) hexacyanoosmate(II) (Osmium purple) in flow injection analysis (FIA). The determination is based on the exploitation of catalytic currents resulting from the oxidation/reduction of the modifier. The performance of the sensor was characterized and optimized by controlling several operational parameters (applied potential, pH and flow rate of the phosphate buffer). Comparison has been made with analogous complexes of ruthenium (Ruthenium purple) and iron (Prussian blue). Taking into account the sensitivity and stability of corresponding sensors, the best results were obtained with the use of Osmium purple. The sensor exhibited a linear increase of the amperometric signal with the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the range of 0.1-100 mg L{sup -1} with a detection limit (evaluated as 3{sigma}) of 0.024 mg L{sup -1} with a R.S.D. 1.5% for 10 mg L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under optimized flow rate of 0.4 mL min{sup -1} in 0.1 M phosphate buffer carrier (pH 6) and a working potential of +0.15 V versus Ag/AgCl. Afterwards, a biological recognition element - either glucose oxidase or ethanol dehydrogenase - was incorporated to achieve a sensor facilitating the determination of glucose or ethanol, respectively. The glucose sensor gave linearity between current and concentration in the range from 1 to 250 mg L{sup -1} with a R.S.D. 2.4% for 100 mg L{sup -1} glucose, detection limit 0.02 mg L{sup -1} (3{sigma}) and retained its original activity after 3 weeks when stored at 6 deg. C. Optimal parameters in the determination of ethanol were selected as: applied potential +0.45 V versus Ag/AgCl, flow rate 0.2 mL min{sup -1} in 0.1 M phosphate buffer carrier (pH 7). Different structural designs of the ethanol sensor were tested and linearity obtained was up to 1000 mg L{sup -1} with a maximum R.S.D. of 5

  15. Nanomaterials based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bansi D.; Kumar, Saurabh; Mouli Pandey, Chandra

    2016-04-01

    Biosensors have enormous potential to contribute to the evolution of new molecular diagnostic techniques for patients suffering with cancerous diseases. A major obstacle preventing faster development of biosensors pertains to the fact that cancer is a highly complex set of diseases. The oncologists currently rely on a few biomarkers and histological characterization of tumors. Some of the signatures include epigenetic and genetic markers, protein profiles, changes in gene expression, and post-translational modifications of proteins. These molecular signatures offer new opportunities for development of biosensors for cancer detection. In this context, conducting paper has recently been found to play an important role towards the fabrication of a biosensor for cancer biomarker detection. In this paper we will focus on results of some of the recent studies obtained in our laboratories relating to fabrication and application of nanomaterial modified paper based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection.

  16. Prussian blue modified amperometric FIA biosensor: one-step immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian-Guo; Miao, Yu-Qing; Chen, Jian-Rong

    2004-03-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a rapid method to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in human serum by use of one-step sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based immunobiosensor with disposable screen-printed carbon electrode technology. Prussian blue (PB) was deposited using cyclic voltammetry (CV) on the surface of electrode to catalyze H202 from the reaction of glucose oxidase. It took only about 30 min to complete the whole experimental procedure through flow injection analysis (FIA). A detection range obtained is in the range from 5 to 500 ng/ml AFP. This detection seems to be quick, reliable and practical. PMID:15128097

  17. Improved biosensor-based detection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Described is a new biosensor-based detection system for effector compounds, useful for in vivo applications in e.g. screening and selecting of cells which produce a small molecule effector compound or which take up a small molecule effector compound from its environment. The detection system...... comprises a protein or RNA-based biosensor for the effector compound which indirectly regulates the expression of a reporter gene via two hybrid proteins, providing for fewer false signals or less 'noise', tuning of sensitivity or other advantages over conventional systems where the biosensor directly...

  18. Modelling amperometric enzyme electrode with substrate cyclic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Ivanauskas, Feliksas C

    2004-03-15

    A mathematical model of amperometric enzyme electrodes in which chemical amplification by cyclic substrate conversion takes place in a single enzyme membrane has been developed. The model is based on non-stationary diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetic of the enzymatic reaction. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The influence of the substrate concentration, the maximal enzymatic rate as well as the membrane thickness on the biosensor response was investigated. The numerical experiments demonstrate significant (up to dozens of times) gain in biosensor sensitivity at low concentrations of substrate when the biosensor response is under diffusion control. PMID:15128111

  19. Amperometric Sensor Based on Neutral Red-Doped Silica Nanoparticles Coupled with Microdialysis for the Measurement of Glutamate in the Rat Striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Xiao-Hua; XIAN, Yue-Zhong; XIE, Zong-Hong; MIN, Hong; LI, Chen-Xin; JIN, Li-Tong

    2007-01-01

    Amperometric sensor based on neutral red-doped silica (NRSiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) was fabricated and coupled with a microdialysis sampling system for the detection of glutamate (Glu) in the rat striatum. The NRSiO2 NPs [about (45±3) nm] were prepared with water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion method, and characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) technique. The neutral red (NR) doped in silica network could maintain its high electroactivity and behave as an excellent electron mediator for electrocatalysis of hydrogen dioxide. Furthermore,the silica surface could prevent the leakage of NR, hence, the stability of biosensor was improved. The novel Glu biosensor showed a linear range from 5.0×10-7 to 1.5×10-4 mol/L, with a detection limit of 2.0×10-7 mol/L(S/N=3).

  20. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Han

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications.

  1. BIOSENSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has recently been proposed under the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Commission that biosensors be regarded as a subgroup of chemical sensors in which a biologically based mechanism is used for detection of the analyte. hemical sensors are defined und...

  2. A highly sensitive flow-through amperometric immunosensor based on the Peroxidase chip and enzyme-channeling principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeravik, J; Ruzgas, T; Fránek, M

    2003-10-01

    A concept based on the Peroxidase-chip (P-chip), antibody co-immobilization, competitive and enzyme-channeling principle was exploited to develop an integrated flow-through amperometric biosensor for detection of environmental pollutants such as s-triazine herbicides. In this concept, recombinant peroxidase is immobilized on the gold electrode (P-chip) in such a way that direct electron transfer is achieved. The recognition and quantitation the target analyte is realized through the competition between the simazine-glucose oxidase (GOD) conjugate and free simazine for the binding sites of the monoclonal antibody co-immobilized with peroxidase on the gold electrode. The arrangement allows to generate a specific signal in the presence of glucose through the channeling of H2O2 produced by GOD conjugate bound to the antibody. The immunosensor exhibited 50% signal decrease (IC50 value) at approximately 0.02 microg l(-1). A concentration of 0.1 ng l(-1) gave a signal clearly distinguishable from the blank whereas the ELISA using the same antibody had a typical detection limit of about 1 microg l(-1), which is four orders of magnitude higher compared to the presented biosensor system. The results demonstrated that gene engineering biomolecules, in this case recombinant peroxidase, might be attractive reagents for the development of electrochemical immunosensors. PMID:12896832

  3. Development of glucose biosensors based on nanostructured graphene-conducting polyaniline composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Cheng, Huijun; Pan, Yiwen; Zheng, Hao

    2015-08-15

    A biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) into nanostructured graphene (GRA)-conducting polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposite, which was based on electrochemical polymerization of aniline in GRA synthesized by using electrochemical expansion of graphite in propylene carbonate electrolyte. Scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the morphology and performance of the as-prepared biosensor, respectively. Amperometric measurements were carried out to optimize test conditions (pH and applied potential) of the biosensor. Under the optimal conditions, the biosensor showed a linear range from 10.0 μM to 1.48 mM (R(2)=0.9988) with a sensitivity of 22.1 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), and a detection limit of 2.769 μM (S/N=3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KM(a)) was estimated to be 3.26 mM. The interference from glycine (Gly), D-galactose (D-Gal), urea (Urea), L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), ascorbic acid (AA), and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr) was also investigated. The results indicated that the biosensor exhibit high sensitivity and superior selectivity, providing a hopeful candidate for glucose biosensing. PMID:25845333

  4. Trends in Protein-Based Biosensor Assemblies for Drug Screening and Pharmaceutical Kinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of natural and chemical compounds for potential applications in new pharmaceutical formulations constitutes a time-consuming procedure in drug screening. To overcome this issue, new devices called biosensors, have already demonstrated their versatility and capacity for routine clinical diagnosis. Designed to perform analytical analysis for the detection of a particular analyte, biosensors based on the coupling of proteins to amperometric and optical devices have shown the appropriate selectivity, sensibility and accuracy. During the last years, the exponential demand for pharmacokinetic studies in the early phases of drug development, along with the need of lower molecular weight detection, have led to new biosensor structure materials with innovative immobilization strategies. The result has been the development of smaller, more reproducible biosensors with lower detection limits, and with a drastic reduction in the required sample volumes. Therefore in order to describe the main achievements in biosensor fields, the present review has the main aim of summarizing the essential strategies used to generate these specific devices, that can provide, under physiological conditions, a credible molecule profile and assess specific pharmacokinetic parameters.

  5. Comparison of amperometric biosensors fabricated by palladium sputtering, palladium electrodeposition and Nafion/carbon nanotube casting on screen-printed carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hun; Wang, Shih-Chang; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Wen, Meng-Fang; Chang, Ku-Shang

    2007-01-15

    Different strategies, including palladium electrodeposition (Pd(CV)), Pd sputtering (Pd(S)) and Nafion-solubilized carbon nanotube casting (Nafion/CNT), were used to modify screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) for the fabrication of amperometric enzyme biosensors. The electrochemical properties of the bare and modified SPCEs and the optimal conditions for surface modification were determined. The electrochemical response of the bare SPCE to H(2)O(2) under the potential of 0.3 V could be improved about 100-fold by Pd modification by electrodeposition or sputtering. By contrast, the electrochemical response of the bare SPCE was enhanced by only about 11-fold by Nafion/CNT casting. Moreover, the Pd(CV)-SPCEs exhibited better reproducibility of electrochemical response (a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.)10%). The glucose biosensor fabricated from Pd-modified electrodes could be stored for up to 108 days without loosing significant activity. The Pd(CV)-SPCE also showed very reliable signal characteristics upon 50 consecutively repeated measurements of ascorbic acid. The electrocatalytic detection of the Pd-SPCE was combined with additional advantages of resistance to surface fouling and hence good stability. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that deposition of Pd thin film on SPCEs by electrodeposition or sputtering provided superior enhancement of electrochemical properties compared to Nafion/CNT-SPCEs. Despite their high electrochemical response, Pd(S)-SPCEs required an activation process to improve stability and Pd(CV)-SPCEs suffered from poor between electrode reproducibility. PMID:16644200

  6. A Comprehensive Review of Glucose Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Metal-Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has opened new and exhilarating opportunities for exploring glucose biosensing applications of the newly prepared nanostructured materials. Nanostructured metal-oxides have been extensively explored to develop biosensors with high sensitivity, fast response times, and stability for the determination of glucose by electrochemical oxidation. This article concentrates mainly on the development of different nanostructured metal-oxide [such as ZnO, Cu(I/(II oxides, MnO2, TiO2, CeO2, SiO2, ZrO2, and other metal-oxides] based glucose biosensors. Additionally, we devote our attention to the operating principles (i.e., potentiometric, amperometric, impedimetric and conductometric of these nanostructured metal-oxide based glucose sensors. Finally, this review concludes with a personal prospective and some challenges of these nanoscaled sensors.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Biosensors Based on an Array of Enzyme Microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Ivanauskas, Feliksas; Kulys, Juozas

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional-in-space mathematical model of biosensors based on an array of enzyme microreactors immobilised on a single electrode. The modeling system acts under amperometric conditions. The microreactors were modeled by particles and by strips. The model is based on the diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. The model involves three regions: an array of enzyme microreactors where enzyme reaction as well as mass transport by diffusion takes place, a diffusion limiting region where only the diffusion takes place, and a convective region, where the analyte concentration is maintained constant. Using computer simulation, the influence of the geometry of the microreactors and of the diffusion region on the biosensor response was investigated. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique.

  8. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid-containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA A. KRATASYUK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reshetilov AN, Kitova AE, Arkhipova AV, Kratasyuk VA, Rai MK. 2012. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 97-100. A biosensor based on Gluconobacter oxydans VKM B-1280 bacteria was used for detection of ethanol in the presence of acetic acid. It was assumed that this assay could be useful for controlling acetic acid production from ethanol and determining the final stage of the fermentation process. Measurements were made using a Clark electrode-based amperometric biosensor. The effect of pH of the medium on the sensor signal and the analytical parameters of the sensor (detection range, sensitivity were investigated. The residual content of ethanol in acetic acid samples was analyzed. The results of the study are important for monitoring the acetic acid production process, as they represent a method of tracking its stages

  9. Enzymatic glucose biosensor based on flower-shaped copper oxide nanostructures composed of thin nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umar, Ahmad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia)]|[School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, BK21 Centre for Future Energy Materials and Devices, Nanomaterials Research Processing Centre, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 6 Duckjin Dong, 1 Ga Jeonju, Choella-Bukto, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea); Rahman, M.M.; Hahn, Y.-B. [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, BK21 Centre for Future Energy Materials and Devices, Nanomaterials Research Processing Centre, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 6 Duckjin Dong, 1 Ga Jeonju, Choella-Bukto, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea); Al-Hajry, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-02-15

    Well-crystallized flower-shaped copper oxide nanostructures composed of thin nanosheets has been synthesized by simple low-temperature hydrothermal process and used to fabricate highly sensitive amperometric glucose biosensor which exhibited a high and reproducible sensitivity of 47.19 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, response time less than 5 s, linear dynamic range from 0.01 to 10.0 mM, correlation coefficient of R = 0.9986, and limit of detection (LOD), based on S/N ratio (S/N = 3) of 1.37 {mu}M. This work opens a way to utilize simply-grown CuO nanostructures as an efficient electron mediator to fabricate efficient glucose biosensors. (author)

  10. Biosensors. Biosensoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, R.D. (TU Braunschweig (Germany) Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung (GBF), Braunschweig (Germany). Bereich Enzymtechnologie/Naturstoffchemie); Bilitewski, U. (Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung (GBF), Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. Enzymtechnologie)

    1992-08-01

    A biosensor is an analysis device in which a biological component (e.g. enzyme or antibody) is connected with a signal transducer. The signal transducer converts a biochemical primary reaction - or its chemical secondary reaction - into an optical or electrical signal. The most important measuring methods are described: Amperometric, potentiometric and optical biosensors; monomolecular films, flow injection systems and so on. Different applications for biosensors are introduced; e.g. in medicine, bioprocess control, food analysis and environmental protection. (orig.).

  11. Recent Progress in Lectin-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress in the development of lectin-based biosensors used for the determination of glucose, pathogenic bacteria and toxins, cancer cells, and lectins. Lectin proteins have been widely used for the construction of optical and electrochemical biosensors by exploiting the specific binding affinity to carbohydrates. Among lectin proteins, concanavalin A (Con A is most frequently used for this purpose as glucose- and mannose-selective lectin. Con A is useful for immobilizing enzymes including glucose oxidase (GOx and horseradish peroxidase (HRP on the surface of a solid support to construct glucose and hydrogen peroxide sensors, because these enzymes are covered with intrinsic hydrocarbon chains. Con A-modified electrodes can be used as biosensors sensitive to glucose, cancer cells, and pathogenic bacteria covered with hydrocarbon chains. The target substrates are selectively adsorbed to the surface of Con A-modified electrodes through strong affinity of Con A to hydrocarbon chains. A recent topic in the development of lectin-based biosensors is a successful use of nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, for amplifying output signals of the sensors. In addition, lectin-based biosensors are useful for studying glycan expression on living cells.

  12. Effects of Electric Potential Treatment of a Chromium Hexacyanoferrate Modified Biosensor Based on PQQ-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Feng Tseng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel potential treatment technique applied to a glucose biosensor that is based on pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH and chromium hexacyanoferrate (CrHCF incorporated into a platinum (Pt electrode was demonstrated. CrHCF, serving as a mediator, was electrochemically deposited on the Pt electrode as ascertained by CV, SEM, FTIR and XPS measurements. The potential treatment of CrHCF, which converts Fe(II to Fe(III, enables the glucose detection. The amperometric measurement linearity of the biosensor was up to 20 mM (R = 0.9923, and the detection sensitivity was 199.94 nA/mM per cm2. More importantly, this biosensor remained stable for >270 days.

  13. a High-Performance Glucose Biosensor Based on Zno Nanorod Arrays Modified with AU Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gong; Lei, Yang; Yan, Xiaoqin

    2012-08-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on vertically aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays modified with Au nanoparticles (NPs) was constructed in a channel-limited way. Au NPs with diameters in the range of 8-10 nm have been successfully synthesized by photoreduction method and were uniformly loaded onto the surface of ZnO NRs that was hydrothermally deposited on the Fluorine doped SnO2 conductive glass (FTO) via electrostatic self-assembly technique. The morphology and structure of Au/ZnO NR arrays were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum analyzer (XPS). The electrocatalytic properties of glucose oxidase (GOD)- immobilized Au/ZnO NR arrays were evaluated by amperometry. Compared with the biosensor based on ZnO NR arrays, the resulting Au/ZnO NR arrays modified biosensor exhibited an expanded linear range from 3 μM to 3 mM with the detection limit of 30 nM and a smaller Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.7836 mM. All these results suggest that the Au NPs can greatly improve the biosensing properties of ZnO NR arrays and therefore Au/ZnO NR arrays provide a promising material for the biosensor designs and other biological applications.

  14. Biosensors in clinical chemistry: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sathish Babu Murugaiyan; Ramesh Ramasamy; Niranjan Gopal; Kuzhandaivelu, V.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic device...

  15. Selenium containing conducting polymer based pyranose oxidase biosensor for glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglan, Tugba Ceren; Soylemez, Saniye; Kesik, Melis; Toksabay, Sinem; Toppare, Levent

    2015-04-01

    A novel amperometric pyranose oxidase (PyOx) biosensor based on a selenium containing conducting polymer has been developed for the glucose detection. For this purpose, a conducting polymer; poly(4,7-bis(thieno[3,2-b]thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5] selenadiazole) (poly(BSeTT)) was synthesized via electropolymerisation on gold electrode to examine its matrix property for glucose detection. For this purpose, PyOx was used as the model enzyme and immobilised via physical adsorption technique. Amperometric detection of consumed oxygen was monitored at -0.7 V vs Ag reference electrode in a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.0). K(M)(app), Imax, LOD and sensitivity were calculated as 0.229 mM, 42.37 nA, 3.3 × 10(-4)nM and 6.4 nA/mM cm(2), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques were used to monitor changes in surface morphologies and to run electrochemical characterisations. Finally, the constructed biosensor was applied for the determination of glucose in beverages successfully. PMID:25442546

  16. Superior long-term stability of a glucose biosensor based on inserted barrel plating gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Hsiao, Hung-Chan; Fang, Mei-Yen; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2009-10-15

    Disposable one shot usage blood glucose strips are routinely used in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus and their performance can vary greatly. In this paper we critically evaluated the long-term stability of glucose strips made of barrel plating gold electrodes. Compared to other glucose biosensing platforms of vapor deposited palladium and screen printed carbon electrodes, the proposed glucose biosensor was found to show the best stability among the three biosensing platforms in thermal acceleration experiments at 40 degrees C for 6 months with an average bias of 3.4% at glucose concentrations of 5-20 mM. The precision test of this barrel plating gold glucose biosensor also showed the best performance (coefficients of variation in the range of 1.4-2.4%) in thermal acceleration experiments at 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C for 27 days. Error grid analysis revealed that all measurements fell in zone A and zone B. Regression analysis showed no significant difference between the proposed biosensor and the reference method at 99% confidence level. The amperometric glucose biosensor fabricated by inserting two barrel plating gold electrodes onto an injection-molding plastic base followed by immobilizing with a bio-reagent layer and membrane was very impressive with a long-term stability up to 2.5 years at 25 degrees C. Overall, these results indicated that the glucose oxidase/barrel plating gold biosensing platform is ideal for long-term accurate glycemic control.

  17. SIRE-technology-based biosensors: will they do the job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Dario

    1997-06-01

    A new biosensor technology (SIRE--sensors based on injectable recognition elements) is described. Its application in laboratory equipment, medical survey equipment and process monitoring is reviewed. Furthermore, the promising practical and commercial relevance of SIRE- Biosensors is discussed.

  18. Enzyme Biosensors for Biomedical Applications: Strategies for Safeguarding Analytical Performances in Biological Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchitta, Gaia; Spanu, Angela; Babudieri, Sergio; Latte, Gavinella; Madeddu, Giordano; Galleri, Grazia; Nuvoli, Susanna; Bagella, Paola; Demartis, Maria Ilaria; Fiore, Vito; Manetti, Roberto; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme-based chemical biosensors are based on biological recognition. In order to operate, the enzymes must be available to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction and be stable under the normal operating conditions of the biosensor. Design of biosensors is based on knowledge about the target analyte, as well as the complexity of the matrix in which the analyte has to be quantified. This article reviews the problems resulting from the interaction of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors with complex biological matrices containing the target analyte(s). One of the most challenging disadvantages of amperometric enzyme-based biosensor detection is signal reduction from fouling agents and interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix. This article, therefore, investigates the principles of functioning of enzymatic biosensors, their analytical performance over time and the strategies used to optimize their performance. Moreover, the composition of biological fluids as a function of their interaction with biosensing will be presented. PMID:27249001

  19. Electronically type-sorted carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensors with glucose oxidase and dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Hitoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Nowaki, Kohei

    2015-01-14

    An electrochemical enzyme biosensor with electronically type-sorted (metallic and semiconducting) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for use in aqueous media is presented. This research investigates how the electronic types of SWNTs influence the amperometric response of enzyme biosensors. To conduct a clear evaluation, a simple layer-by-layer process based on a plasma-polymerized nano thin film (PPF) was adopted because a PPF is an inactive matrix that can form a well-defined nanostructure composed of SWNTs and enzyme. For a biosensor with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme in the presence of oxygen, the response of a metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was 2 times larger than that of a semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode. In contrast, in the absence of oxygen, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode was retained, whereas that of the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was significantly reduced. This indicates that direct electron transfer occurred with the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode, whereas the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was dominated by a hydrogen peroxide pathway caused by an enzymatic reaction. For a biosensor with the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; oxygen-independent catalysis) enzyme, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GDH electrode was 4 times larger than that of the metallic SWNT-GDH electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to show that the semiconducting SWNT network has less resistance for electron transfer than the metallic SWNT network. Therefore, it was concluded that semiconducting SWNTs are more suitable than metallic SWNTs for electrochemical enzyme biosensors in terms of direct electron transfer as a detection mechanism. This study makes a valuable contribution toward the development of electrochemical biosensors that employ sorted SWNTs and various enzymes. PMID:25522366

  20. Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes theory and principles behind biosensors that incorporate biological components as part of a sensor or probe. Projects major applications in medicine and veterinary medicine, biotechnology, food and agriculture, environmental studies, and the military. Surveys current use of biosensors. (ML)

  1. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Barchiesi; Sameh Kessentini

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric...

  2. Ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate-induced nanofibrillarity of polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate electropolymer and application in an amperometric enzyme biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndangili, Peter M. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Waryo, Tesfaye T., E-mail: twaryo@uwc.ac.z [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Muchindu, Munkombwe; Baker, Priscilla G.L. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Ngila, Catherine J. [School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X541001 Westville, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Iwuoha, Emmanuel I. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2010-05-30

    The formation of nanofibrillar polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate (Pani-PVS) composite by electropolymerization of aniline in the presence of ferrocenium hexafluorophophate (FcPF{sub 6}) and its application in mediated-enzyme biosensor using the horseradish peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide (HRP/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) enzyme-substrate system is reported. The electropolymerization was carried out at glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) and screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) in a strongly acidic medium (HCl). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that 100 nm diameter nanofibrils were formed on the SPCE in contrast to the 800-1000 nm cauliflower-shaped clusters which were formed in the absence of FcPF{sub 6}. A model biosensor (GCE//Pani-PVS/BSA/HRP/Glu), consisting of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized by drop coating atop the GCE//Pani-PVS in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutaraldehyde (glu) in the enzyme layer casting solution, exhibited voltammetric responses characteristic of a mediated-enzyme system. The biosensor response to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was very fast (5 s) and it exhibited a detection limit of 30 muM (3sigma) and a linearity of up to 2 mM (R{sup 2} = 0.998). The relatively high apparent Michaelis-Menten constant value (K{sub M}{sup app}=1.7mM) of the sensor indicated that the immobilized enzyme was in a biocompatible microenvironment. The freshly prepared biosensor was successfully applied in the determination of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content of a commercial tooth whitening gel with a very good recovery rate (97%).

  3. Amperometric screen-printed algal biosensor with flow injection analysis system for detection of environmental toxic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shitanda, Isao [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: shitanda@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Masayuki [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2009-08-30

    A screen-printed algal biosensor was fabricated for evaluation of toxicity of chemicals. An algal ink was prepared by mixing unicellular microalga Chlorella vulgaris cells, carbon nanotubes and sodium alginate solution. The algal ink was immobilized directly on a screen-printed carbon electrode surface using screen-printing technique. Photosynthetically generated oxygen of the immobilized algae was monitored amperometically. Responses of the algal biosensor to four toxic compounds, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (atrazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-diethylurea (DCMU) were evaluated as inhibition ratios of the reduction current. The concentrations that gave 50% inhibition of the oxygen reduction current (IC{sup '}{sub 50}) for atrazine and DCMU were 12 and 1 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}, respectively. In comparison with the conventional algal biosensors, in which the algal cells were entrapped in an alginate gel and immobilized on the surface of a transparent indium tin oxide electrode, the present sensor is much smaller and less expensive, with the shorter assay time.

  4. Non-enzymatic amperometric sensor for hydrogen peroxide based on a biocomposite made from chitosan, hemoglobin, and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a novel non-enzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (HP) that is based on a biocomposite made up from chitosan (CS), hemoglobin (Hb), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were prepared in the presence of CS and glucose in an ultrasonic bath, and CS is found to act as a stabilizing agent. They were then combined with Hb and CS to construct a carbon paste biosensor. The resulting electrode gave a well-defined redox couple for Hb, with a formal potential of about -0.17 V (vs. SCE) at pH 6. 86 and exhibited a remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of HP. The sensor was used to detect HP by flow injection analysis, and a linear response is obtained in the 0. 08 to 250 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 0.05 μM (at S/N = 3). These characteristics, along with its long-term stability make the sensor highly promising for the amperometric determination of HP. (author)

  5. Amperometric quantification based on serial dilution microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Khaled; Pittet, Patrick; Sigaud, Monique; Renaud, Louis; Vittori, Olivier; Morin, Pierre; Ouaini, Naim; Ferrigno, Rosaria

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a microfluidic device fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) that was employed to perform amperometric quantifications using on-chip calibration curves and on-chip standard addition methods. This device integrated a network of Au electrodes within a microfluidic structure designed for automatic preparation of a series of solutions containing an electroactive molecule at a concentration linearly decreasing. This device was first characterized by fluorescence microscopy and then evaluated with a model electroactive molecule such as Fe(CN(6))(4-). Operating a quantification in this microfluidic parallel approach rather than in batch mode allows a reduced analysis time to be achieved. Moreover, the microfluidic approach is compatible with the on-chip calibration of sensors simultaneously to the analysis, therefore preventing problems due to sensor response deviation with time. When using the on-chip calibration and on-chip standard addition method, we reached concentration estimation better than 5%. We also demonstrated that compared to the calibration curve approach, the standard addition mode is less complex to operate. Indeed, in this case, it is not necessary to take into account flow rate discrepancies as in the calibration approach. PMID:19238282

  6. Disposable L-lactate biosensor based on a screen-printed carbon electrode enhanced by graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on a graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was constructed. First, the electrocatalytic performance of the SPCE modified with graphene by a one-step electrodeposition process (OerGO/SPCE) was investigated. The cyclic voltammogram of OerGO/SPCE, which showed a well-defined redox peak, had a smaller peak potential separation than that of SPCE, revealing the improvement in electron transfer speed brought about by modifying with graphene. Next, lactate oxidase and potassium ferricyanide were dropped on the OerGO/SPCE to construct a graphene-modified L-lactate biosensor (LOD/K3[Fe(CN)6]/OerGO/SPCE). The proposed biosensor, with a detection limit of 60 μM, had a high sensitivity (42.42 μA mM−1 cm−2) when working at a low working potential (0.15 V). The linear range was 0.5 mM–15 mM, covering the detecting range of L-lactate in clinical applications. The L-lactate biosensor had a short response time (10 s) and required only 10 μl of the sample. This L-lactate sensor modified with electrodeposited graphene had a larger sensitivity than that based on the bare SPCE. Thus, our low-cost and disposable L-lactate biosensor enhanced by graphene can perform as an attractive electrochemical device that can be manufactured for point-of-care testing (POCT) devices and be employed in POCT applications. (paper)

  7. Characterization of Biosensors Based on Recombinant Glutamate Oxidase: Comparison of Crosslinking Agents in Terms of Enzyme Loading and Efficiency Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Rochelle; Quinn, Susan J; O'Neill, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Amperometric l-glutamate (Glu) biosensors, based on both wild-type and a recombinant form of l-glutamate oxidase (GluOx), were designed and characterized in terms of enzyme-kinetic, sensitivity and stability parameters in attempts to fabricate a real-time Glu monitoring device suitable for future long-term detection of this amino acid in biological and other complex media. A comparison of the enzyme from these two sources showed that they were similar in terms of biosensor performance. Optimization of the loading of the polycationic stabilization agent, polyethyleneimine (PEI), was established before investigating a range of crosslinking agents under different conditions: glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDE). Whereas PEI-free biosensor designs lost most of their meager Glu sensitivity after one or two days, configurations with a 2:5 ratio of dip-evaporation applications of PEI(1%):GluOx(400 U/mL) displayed a 20-fold increase in their initial sensitivity, and a decay half-life extended to 10 days. All the crosslinkers studied had no effect on initial Glu sensitivity, but enhanced biosensor stability, provided the crosslinking procedure was carried out under well-defined conditions. The resulting biosensor design based on the recombinant enzyme deposited on a permselective layer of poly-(ortho-phenylenediamine), PoPD/PEI₂/GluOx₅/PEGDE, displayed good sensitivity (LOD term monitoring of Glu concentration dynamics in complex media.

  8. Effect of Diffusion Limitations on Multianalyte Determination from Biased Biosensor Response

    OpenAIRE

    Romas Baronas; Juozas Kulys; Algirdas Lančinskas; Antanas Žilinskas

    2014-01-01

    The optimization-based quantitative determination of multianalyte concentrations from biased biosensor responses is investigated under internal and external diffusion-limited conditions. A computational model of a biocatalytic amperometric biosensor utilizing a mono-enzyme-catalyzed (nonspecific) competitive conversion of two substrates was used to generate pseudo-experimental responses to mixtures of compounds. The influence of possible perturbations of the biosensor signal, due to a white n...

  9. New Approaches for Carbon Nanotubes-Based Biosensors and Their Application to Cell Culture Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Boero, Cristina; Olivo, Jacopo; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors are complex systems and they require a combination of technologies for their development. The aim of the present work is to propose a new approach in order to develop nanostructured biosensors for the real-time detection of multiple metabolites in cell culture flasks. The fabrication of five Au working electrodes onto silicon substrate is achieved with CMOS compatible microtechnology. Each working electrode presents an area of 0.25 mm2 , so structuration with carbon na...

  10. Recent advances in graphene-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuila, Tapas; Bose, Saswata; Khanra, Partha; Mishra, Ananta Kumar; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2011-08-15

    A detailed overview towards the advancement of graphene based biosensors has been reviewed. The large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of graphene allow it to act as an "electron wire" between the redox centers of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface. Rapid electron transfer facilitates accurate and selective detection of biomolecules. This review discusses the application of graphene for the detection of glucose, Cyt-c, NADH, Hb, cholesterol, AA, UA, DA, and H(2)O(2). GO and RGO have been used for the fabrication of heavy metal ion sensors, gas sensors, and DNA sensors. Graphene based FETs have also been discussed in details. In all these cases, the biosensors performed well with low working potentials, high sensitivities, low detection limits, and long-term stabilities. PMID:21683572

  11. Modelling Carbon Nanotubes-Based Mediatorless Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Razumiene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments: a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate.

  12. Modelling carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Petrauskas, Karolis; Razumiene, Julija

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments): a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate. PMID:23012537

  13. Optimization of bioselective membrane of amperometric enzyme sensor on basis of glucose oxidase using NH2-modified multi-wall carbone nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Korpan Ya. I.; Rogaleva N. S.; Biloivan O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To investigate a possibility of application of multi-wall carbone nanotubes modified with NH2-groups (MWCNT-NH2) for creation of sensitive elements of the amperometric biosensor based on immobilized oxidoreductases, in particular, glucose oxidase (GOD). To study electrochemical properties of the membranes obtained. Methods. Experiments were carried out with amperometric methods using the ìStat 200 device («DropSens», Spain). The enzymes were immobilised in glutaraldehyde vapour. Results....

  14. Single bead-based electrochemical biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, CHANGCHUN; Schrlau, Michael G.; Bau, Haim H.

    2009-01-01

    A simple, robust, single bead-based electrochemical biosensor was fabricated and characterized. The sensor’s working electrode consists of an electrochemically-etched platinum wire, with a nominal diameter of 25 μm, hermetically heat-fusion sealed in a pulled glass capillary (micropipette). The sealing process does not require any epoxy or glue. A commercially available, densely functionalized agarose bead was mounted on the tip of the etched platinum wire. The use of a pre-functionalized bea...

  15. Cantilever-Based Biosensors in CMOS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kirstein, K -U; Zimmermann, M; Vancura, C; Volden, T; Song, W H; Lichtenberg, J; Hierlemannn, A

    2011-01-01

    Single-chip CMOS-based biosensors that feature microcantilevers as transducer elements are presented. The cantilevers are functionalized for the capturing of specific analytes, e.g., proteins or DNA. The binding of the analyte changes the mechanical properties of the cantilevers such as surface stress and resonant frequency, which can be detected by an integrated Wheatstone bridge. The monolithic integrated readout allows for a high signal-to-noise ratio, lowers the sensitivity to external interference and enables autonomous device operation.

  16. Feasibility Studies on Si-Based Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Renis; Fulvia Sinatra; Antonino Scandurra; Venera Aiello; Sebania Libertino; Salvatore Lombardo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paperis to summarize the efforts carried out so far in the fabrication of Si-based biosensors by a team of researchers in Catania, Italy. This work was born as a collaboration between the Catania section of the Microelectronic and Microsystem Institute (IMM) of the CNR, the Surfaces and Interfaces laboratory (SUPERLAB) of the Consorzio Catania Ricerche and two departments at the University of Catania: the Biomedical Science and the Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology De...

  17. Biosensor de Glucosa basado en un Biocompósito disperso de Grafito-Epoxi-Platino-Glucosa Oxidasa Glucose Biosensor based on a Graphite-Epoxy-Platimum- Glucose Oxidase dispersed Biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Montañez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo consistió en desarrollar un biosensor de glucosa basado en las propiedades electroquímicas de un compósito grafito-epoxi-platino-glucosa oxidasa. La industria de alimentos y bebidas demanda métodos analíticos rápidos, precisos y confiables para evaluar y asegurar la calidad de sus productos y optimizar sus procesos. El desarrollo de biosensores enzimáticos amperométricos representa una opción viable que satisface estos requerimientos. El potencial de trabajo y la caracterización de la respuesta del biosensor desarrollado se determinaron por voltamperometría de barrido lineal y amperometría, respectivamente. La respuesta del biosensor fue máxima a 600 mV, su tiempo de respuesta fue de 20 segundos en un intervalo de concentración de respuesta lineal de 0.1 a 5 mM de glucosa y sensibilidad de 1.4 μA/mM. La estabilidad y vida útil del biosensor desarrollado dependen de la frecuencia de uso y el biocompósito actúa como reservorio de enzimas y de mediador electroquímico.The aim of this work was to develop a glucose biosensor based on electrochemical properties of a graphite-epoxy-platinum- glucose oxidase composite. The food and beverage industry demand fast, precise and reliable analytical methods to evaluate and to assure the quality of its products and to optimize its processes. The development of amperometric enzyme biosensors represents a viable option that satisfies these requirements. The working potential and the characterization of the response of the biosensor were determined by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, respectively. The biosensor response was máximum at 600 mV, with a response time of 20 seconds within the concentration range of linear response from 0.1 to 5 mM glucose and sensitivity of 1.4 μA/mM. The stability and lifetime of the proposed biosensor depend on the frequency of use, where the biocomposite acts as a reservoir of enzymes and electrochemical mediator.

  18. A DNA biosensor based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of amine by a threading intercalator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Zhiqiang [Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, Singapore 138669 (Singapore)], E-mail: zqgao@ibn.a-star.edu.sg; Tansil, Natalia [Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, Singapore 138669 (Singapore)

    2009-03-16

    An electrochemical biosensor for the detection of DNA based a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) capture probe (CP) modified indium tin oxide electrode (ITO) is described in this report. After hybridization, a threading intercalator, N,N'-bis[(3-propyl)-imidazole]-1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide (PIND) imidazole complexed with Ru(bpy){sub 2}Cl (PIND-Ru, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), was introduced to the biosensor. PIND-Ru selectively intercalated to double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) and became immobilized on the biosensor surface. Voltammetric tests showed highly stable and reversible electrochemical oxidation/reduction processes and the peak currents can directly be utilized for DNA quantification. When the tests were conducted in an amine-containing medium, Tris-HCl buffer for example, a remarkable improvement in the voltammetric response and noticeable enhancements of voltammetric and amperometric sensitivities were observed due to the electrocatalytic activity of the [Ru(bpy){sub 2}Cl] redox moieties. Electrocatalytic current was observed when as little as 3.0 attomoles of DNA was present in the sample solution.

  19. Sensitive-cell-based fish chromatophore biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Thomas K.; Chaplen, Frank W.; Jovanovic, Goran; Kolodziej, Wojtek; Trempy, Janine E.; Willard, Corwin; Liburdy, James A.; Pence, Deborah V.; Paul, Brian K.

    2004-07-01

    A sensitive biosensor (cytosensor) has been developed based on color changes in the toxin-sensitive colored living cells of fish. These chromatophores are highly sensitive to the presence of many known and unknown toxins produced by microbial pathogens and undergo visible color changes in a dose-dependent manner. The chromatophores are immobilized and maintained in a viable state while potential pathogens multiply and fish cell-microbe interactions are monitored. Low power LED lighting is used to illuminate the chromatophores which are magnified using standard optical lenses and imaged onto a CCD array. Reaction to toxins is detected by observing changes is the total area of color in the cells. These fish chromatophores are quite sensitive to cholera toxin, Staphococcus alpha toxin, and Bordatella pertussis toxin. Numerous other toxic chemical and biological agents besides bacterial toxins also cause readily detectable color effects in chromatophores. The ability of the chromatophore cell-based biosensor to distinguish between different bacterial pathogens was examined. Toxin producing strains of Salmonella enteritis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus induced movement of pigmented organelles in the chromatophore cells and this movement was measured by changes in the optical density over time. Each bacterial pathogen elicited this measurable response in a distinctive and signature fashion. These results suggest a chromatophore cell-based biosensor assay may be applicable for the detection and identification of virulence activities associated with certain air-, food-, and water-borne bacterial pathogens.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Biosensors Based on an Array of Enzyme Microreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Kulys

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional-in-space mathematical model ofbiosensors based on an array of enzyme microreactors immobilised on a single electrode.The modeling system acts under amperometric conditions. The microreactors were modeledby particles and by strips. The model is based on the diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. The modelinvolves three regions: an array of enzyme microreactors where enzyme reaction as well asmass transport by diffusion takes place, a diffusion limiting region where only the diffusiontakes place, and a convective region, where the analyte concentration is maintained constant.Using computer simulation, the influence of the geometry of the microreactors and of thediffusion region on the biosensor response was investigated. The digital simulation wascarried out using the finite difference technique.

  1. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection. PMID:23934306

  2. Optimization of bioselective membrane of amperometric enzyme sensor on basis of glucose oxidase using NH2-modified multi-wall carbone nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpan Ya. I.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate a possibility of application of multi-wall carbone nanotubes modified with NH2-groups (MWCNT-NH2 for creation of sensitive elements of the amperometric biosensor based on immobilized oxidoreductases, in particular, glucose oxidase (GOD. To study electrochemical properties of the membranes obtained. Methods. Experiments were carried out with amperometric methods using the ìStat 200 device («DropSens», Spain. The enzymes were immobilised in glutaraldehyde vapour. Results. The method of formation of bioselective matrix based on immobilised GOD with MNP-NH2 on the surface of gold amperometric electrodes was optimised. Optimal working conditions of the biosensor developed were determined. Conclusion. MWCNT integration into a bioselective matrix improves the biosensor analytical characteristics which means: higher signal value, wider linear range of glucose analysis, and possibility of substrate determination in wide range of working potential.

  3. Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirste, Ronny; Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    We review recent advances of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT)-based electronic biosensors. We discuss properties and fabrication of III-nitride-based biosensors. Because of their superior biocompatibility and aqueous stability, GaN-based devices are ready to be implemented as next-generation biosensors. We review surface properties, cleaning, and passivation as well as different pathways toward functionalization, and critically analyze III-nitride-based biosensors demonstrated in the literature, including those detecting DNA, bacteria, cancer antibodies, and toxins. We also discuss the high potential of these biosensors for monitoring living cardiac, fibroblast, and nerve cells. Finally, we report on current developments of covalent chemical functionalization of III-nitride devices. Our review concludes with a short outlook on future challenges and projected implementation directions of GaN-based HEMT biosensors.

  4. Scalable Production of Molybdenum Disulfide Based Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Carl H; Kybert, Nicholas J; Schneier, Camilla; Xi, Jin; Romero, Gabriela; Saven, Jeffery G; Liu, Renyu; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2016-06-28

    We demonstrate arrays of opioid biosensors based on chemical vapor deposition grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field effect transistors (FETs) coupled to a computationally redesigned, water-soluble variant of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). By transferring dense films of monolayer MoS2 crystals onto prefabricated electrode arrays, we obtain high-quality FETs with clean surfaces that allow for reproducible protein attachment. The fabrication yield of MoS2 FETs and biosensors exceeds 95%, with an average mobility of 2.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (36 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) at room temperature under ambient (in vacuo). An atomic length nickel-mediated linker chemistry enables target binding events that occur very close to the MoS2 surface to maximize sensitivity. The biosensor response calibration curve for a synthetic opioid peptide known to bind to the wild-type MOR indicates binding affinity that matches values determined using traditional techniques and a limit of detection ∼3 nM (1.5 ng/mL). The combination of scalable array fabrication and rapid, precise binding readout enabled by the MoS2 transistor offers the prospect of a solid-state drug testing platform for rapid readout of the interactions between novel drugs and their intended protein targets. PMID:27227361

  5. A H2O2 Biosensor Based on Immobilization of HorseradishPeroxidase in a Gelatine Network Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Zhu

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple and promising H2O2 biosensor has been developed by successfulentrapment of horseradish peroxidase (HRP in a gelatine matrix which was cross-linkedwith formaldehyde. The large microscopic surface area and porous morphology of thegelatine matrix lead to high enzyme loading and the enzyme entrapped in this matrix canretain its bioactivity. This biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response to hydrogenperoxide (H2O2. The linear range for H2O2 determination was from 2.5×10-5 to2.5×10-3 M, with a detection limit of 2.0×10-6 M based on S / N = 3. This biosensorpossessed very good reproducibility.

  6. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Bonifas Arredondo, Imelda; Femat, Ricardo; Garcia, Martin E

    2015-01-01

    Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles' arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We also show that

  7. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daungruthai Jarukanont

    Full Text Available Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles' arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We

  8. Thin-film amperometric multibiosensor for simultaneous determination of lactate and glucose in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkotova, Lyudmyla V; Piechniakova, Nataliia Y; Kukla, Oleksandr L; Dzyadevych, Sergei V

    2016-04-15

    An amperometric multi-biosensor based on lactate and glucose oxidases has been developed for determination of lactate and glucose in wine. Gold thin-film amperometric electrodes were used as multi-transducers. Analytical characteristics of the multi-biosensor developed were studied. The minimum detectable concentration was 5×10(-6) mol/l for both glucose and lactate. High reproducibility and storage stability of the multi-biosensor are demonstrated in this paper. Lactate and glucose were determined in wine, and a good correlation was obtained with concentrations determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (correlation coefficient for glucose R(2)=0.998, for lactate R(2)=0.718). PMID:26617042

  9. Thin-film amperometric multibiosensor for simultaneous determination of lactate and glucose in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkotova, Lyudmyla V; Piechniakova, Nataliia Y; Kukla, Oleksandr L; Dzyadevych, Sergei V

    2016-04-15

    An amperometric multi-biosensor based on lactate and glucose oxidases has been developed for determination of lactate and glucose in wine. Gold thin-film amperometric electrodes were used as multi-transducers. Analytical characteristics of the multi-biosensor developed were studied. The minimum detectable concentration was 5×10(-6) mol/l for both glucose and lactate. High reproducibility and storage stability of the multi-biosensor are demonstrated in this paper. Lactate and glucose were determined in wine, and a good correlation was obtained with concentrations determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (correlation coefficient for glucose R(2)=0.998, for lactate R(2)=0.718).

  10. Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c immobilized on titanium nitride/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite for amperometric nitrite biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Hwang, Seung-Kyu; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Huh, Yun Suk; Han, Young-Kyu; Voit, Walter; Sai-Anand, Gopalan; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2016-05-15

    In this report, titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) nanocomposite is fabricated via a two-step process. These two steps involve the decoration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles onto the MWCNTs surface and a subsequent thermal nitridation. Transmission electron microscopy shows that TiN nanoparticles with a mean diameter of ≤ 20 nm are homogeneously dispersed onto the MWCNTs surface. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of cytochrome c immobilized on the MWCNTs-TiN composite modified on a glassy carbon electrode for nitrite sensing are investigated. Under optimum conditions, the current response is linear to its concentration from 1 µM to 2000 µM with a sensitivity of 121.5 µA µM(-1)cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.0014 µM. The proposed electrode shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. The applicability of the as-prepared biosensor is validated by the successful detection of nitrite in tap and sea water samples. PMID:26748372

  11. Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c immobilized on titanium nitride/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite for amperometric nitrite biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Hwang, Seung-Kyu; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Huh, Yun Suk; Han, Young-Kyu; Voit, Walter; Sai-Anand, Gopalan; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2016-05-15

    In this report, titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) nanocomposite is fabricated via a two-step process. These two steps involve the decoration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles onto the MWCNTs surface and a subsequent thermal nitridation. Transmission electron microscopy shows that TiN nanoparticles with a mean diameter of ≤ 20 nm are homogeneously dispersed onto the MWCNTs surface. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of cytochrome c immobilized on the MWCNTs-TiN composite modified on a glassy carbon electrode for nitrite sensing are investigated. Under optimum conditions, the current response is linear to its concentration from 1 µM to 2000 µM with a sensitivity of 121.5 µA µM(-1)cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.0014 µM. The proposed electrode shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. The applicability of the as-prepared biosensor is validated by the successful detection of nitrite in tap and sea water samples.

  12. Biosensor-based analyser. Measurement of glucose, sucrose, lactose, L-lactate and alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F.T. Jr. (YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes an instrument, the YSI 2700, for the measurement of glucose, sucrose, lactose, L-lactate, and alcohol by means of biosensors. Each biosensor consists of an amperometric, hydrogen peroxide sensitive electrode combined with an immobilized oxidase enzyme trapped between two membranes. Each biosensor differs from the others only in its enzyme layer. The instrument can be used to measure these analytes in complex sample matrices; often directly, e.g. in whole blood and fermentations, after dilution with water, e.g. in molasses and corn syrup, or after extraction into water, e.g. in cheese and cereal products. (orig.).

  13. A Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor Combined HRP Doped Polypyrrole with Ferrocene Modified Sol-gel Derived Composite Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel amperometric biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide is described.The biosensor was constructed by electrodepositing HRP/PPy membrane on the surface of ferrocenecarboxylic acid mediated sol-gel derived composite carbon electrode. The biosensor gives response to hydrogen peroxide in a few seconds with detection limit of 5×l0-7 mol · L-1(based on signal: noise=3). Linear range is up to 0.2 mmol · L-1.

  14. High-resolution biosensor based on localized surface plasmons

    OpenAIRE

    Piliarik, M.; Šípová, H. (Hana); Kvasnička, P.; Galler, N.; Krenn, J. R.; Homola, J. (Jiří)

    2012-01-01

    We report on a new biosensor with localized surface plasmons (LSP) based on an array of gold nanorods and TIR imaging in polarization contrast. The sensitivity of the new biosensor is characterized and a model detection of DNA hybridization is carried out and results compared with a conventional SPR biosensor, showing the same performance while involving significantly lower surface densities of interacting molecules. Limit of detection was 100 pM and a surface density resolution only 35 fg×mm2.

  15. Enzyme biosensor based on plasma-polymerized film-covered carbon nanotube layer grown directly on a flat substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Hitoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Matsui, Yasunori

    2011-07-01

    We report a novel approach to fabrication of an amperometric biosensor with an enzyme, a plasma-polymerized film (PPF), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs were grown directly on an island-patterned Co/Ti/Cr layer on a glass substrate by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The as-grown CNTs were subsequently treated by nitrogen plasma, which changed the surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic in order to obtain an electrochemical contact between the CNTs and enzymes. A glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was then adsorbed onto the CNT surface and directly treated with acetonitrile plasma to overcoat the GOx layer with a PPF. This fabrication process provides a robust design of CNT-based enzyme biosensor, because of all processes are dry except the procedure for enzyme immobilization. The main novelty of the present methodology lies in the PPF and/or plasma processes. The optimized glucose biosensor revealed a high sensitivity of 38 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), a broad linear dynamic range of 0.25-19 mM (correlation coefficient of 0.994), selectivity toward an interferent (ascorbic acid), and a fast response time of 7 s. The background current was much smaller in magnitude than the current due to 10 mM glucose response. The low limit of detection was 34 μM (S/N = 3). All results strongly suggest that a plasma-polymerized process can provide a new platform for CNT-based biosensor design. PMID:21678995

  16. Characteristics of third-generation glucose biosensors based on Corynascus thermophilus cellobiose dehydrogenase immobilized on commercially available screen-printed electrodes working under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Safina, Gulnara; Ludwig, Roland; Gorton, Lo

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we describe a third-generation amperometric glucose biosensor working under physiological conditions. This glucose biosensor consists of a recently discovered cellobiose dehydrogenase from the ascomycete Corynascus thermophilus (CtCDH) immobilized on different commercially available screen-printed electrodes made of carbon (SPCEs), carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SPCE-SWCNTs), or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SPCE-MWCNTs) by simple physical adsorption or a combination of adsorption followed by cross-linking using poly(ethyleneglycol) (400) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) or glutaraldehyde (GA). The CtCDH-based third-generation glucose biosensor has a linear range between 0.025 and 30 mM and a detection limit of 10 μM glucose. Biosensors based on SWCNTs showed a higher sensitivity and catalytic response than the ones functionalized with MWCNTs and the SPCEs. A drastic increase in response was observed for all three electrodes when the adsorbed enzyme was cross-linked with PEGDGE or GA. The operational stability of the biosensor was tested for 7 h by repeated injections of 50 mM glucose, and only a slight decrease in the electrochemical response was found. The selectivity of the CtCDH-based biosensor was tested on other potentially interfering carbohydrates such as mannose, galactose, sucrose, and fucose that might be present in blood. No significant analytical response from any of these compounds was observed. PMID:22381371

  17. Preparation of a Polypyrrole-Polyvinylsulphonate Composite Film Biosensor for Determination of Cholesterol Based on Entrapment of Cholesterol Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yaşar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel amperometric cholesterol biosensor with immobilization of cholesterol oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polypyrrole–polyvinylsulphonate (PPy–PVS films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique on the surface of a platinum electrode. Electropolymerization of pyrrole and polyvinylsulphonate on the Pt surface was carried out by cyclic voltammetry between -1.0 and +2.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl at a scan rate of 100 mV upon the Pt electrode with an electrochemical cell containing pyrrole and polyvinylsulphonate. The amperometric determination is based on the electrochemical detection of H2O2 generated in the enzymatic reaction of cholesterol. Determination of cholesterol was carried out by the oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 7.25 and 35 °C, respectively. The storage stability and operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied. The results show that 32% of the response current was retained after 19 activity assays. The prepared cholesterol biosensor retained 43% of initial activity after 45 days when stored in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at 4 °C.

  18. An electrochemical biosensor for fructosyl valine for glycosylated hemoglobin detection based on core-shell magnetic bionanoparticles modified gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sheetal; Pundir, Chandra Shekhar

    2011-04-15

    A high-performance amperometric fructosyl valine (FV) biosensor was developed, based on immobilization of fructosyl amino-acid oxidase (FAO) on core-shell magnetic bionanoparticles modified gold electrode. Chitosan was used to introduce amino groups onto the surface of core-shell magnetic bionanoparticles (MNPs). With FAO as an enzyme model, a new fructosyl valine biosensor was fabricated. The biosensor showed optimum response, when operated at 50 mVs(-1) in 0.1M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 and 35°C. The biosensor exhibited excellent sensitivity [the detection limit is down to 0.1mM for FV], fast response time (less than 4s), wide linear range (from 0 to 2mM). Analytical recovery of added FV was 95.00-98.50%. Within batch and between batch coefficients of variation were <2.58% and <5.63%, respectively. The enzyme electrode was used 250 times over 3 months, when stored at 4°C.

  19. Glucose biosensor based on multisegment nanowires exhibiting reversible magnetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerola, Gislaine P; Takahashi, Giovanna S; Perez, Geraldo G; Recco, Lucas C; Pedrosa, Valber A

    2014-11-01

    We describe the amperometric detection of glucose using oriented nanowires with magnetic switching of the bioelectrochemical process. The fabrication process of the nanowires was prepared through controlled nucleation and growth during a stepwise electrochemical deposition, and it was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to study the magnetoswitchable property; this control was accomplished by changing the surface orientation of nanowires. Under the optimal condition, the amperometric response was also linear up to a glucose concentration of 0.1-16.0 mmol L(-1) with a sensitivity of 81 μA mM(-1). The detection limit was estimated for 4.8×10(-8) mol L(-1), defined from a signal/noise ratio of 3. It also exhibits good reproducibility and high selectivity with insignificant interference from ascorbic acid, acetoaminophen, and uric acid. The resulting biosensor was applied to detect the blood sugar in human serum samples without any pretreatment, and the results were comparatively in agreement with the clinical assay. PMID:25127595

  20. 基于聚氨基吡啶膜固定纳米金/硫堇/纳米金的过氧化氢生物传感器%An Amperometric Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor Based on Poly 2-Aminopyridine/ Nano-Au and Thionine Modified Pt Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淑瑞; 袁若; 柴雅琴; 张凌燕; 黎雪莲; 王福昌

    2006-01-01

    研究了在铂丝电极上电聚合一层带正电的2-氨基吡啶膜,然后再利用层层自组装技术固定纳米金、电子媒介体硫堇及辣根过氧化氢酶,从而制备了由辣根过氧化氢酶/纳米金/硫堇/纳米金/聚2-氨基吡啶膜修饰的酶生物传感器.实验中探讨了聚合层数、温度、pH值等对电极响应的影响.结果表明该传感器在H2O2浓度6.0×10-7~1.3×10-3mol/L范围内呈线性响应,检出限为2.1×10-7mol/1.此外,该传感器具有好的稳定性和选择性,能有效排除抗坏血酸、柠檬酸、葡萄糖等常见物质的干扰.%A novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor has been prepared. HRP/nano-Au/thionine/nano-Au were constructed by the self-assembly technique on the electrode modified by poly 2-aminopyridine, which was electropolymerized onto a platinum(Pt) electrode to form a positively charged surface. The negatively charged nano-Au absorbed on poly 2-aminopyridine was employed as matrix to immobilize thionine as an electron mediator and horseradish peroxidase. The H2O2 biosensor prepared displayed a quick and sensitive response to hydrogen peroxide. The linear response of detection of the biosensor to hydrogen peroxide is in the concentration range of 6. 0 × 10-7 - 1.3 × 10-a mol/L with a detection limit of 2. 1 × 10-7 mol/L. Moreover, the studied biosensor exhibited good repeatability and high selectivity and it can effectively remove the interference of such common matter as the ascorbic acid citric acid glucose, etc.

  1. Microwave-Based Biosensor for Glucose Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, N. S. M.; Khalid, K.; Yusof, N. A.

    2010-07-01

    In this project, microwave-based biosensor for glucose detection has been studied. The study is based on the dielectric properties changes at microwave frequency for glucose-enzyme reaction. Glucose interaction with glucose oxidase (GOD) produced gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The reaction of the glucose solutions with an enzyme was carried out in 1:3 of glucose and enzyme respectively. The measurements were done using the Open Ended Coaxial Probe (OECP) coupled with computer controlled software automated network analyzer (ANA) with frequency range from 200MHz to 20GHz at room temperature (25 °C). The differences of enzyme and glucose-enzyme reaction were calculated and plotted. In the microwave interaction with the glucose-enzyme reaction, ionic conduction and dipole molecules was detected at 0.99GHz and 16.44GHz respectively based on changes of dielectric loss factor.

  2. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong; Wang, Xiaoling

    2012-04-17

    A method of biosensor-based detection of toxins comprises the steps of providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  3. Design Strategies of Fluorescent Biosensors Based on Biological Macromolecular Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Morii

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent biosensors to detect the bona fide events of biologically important molecules in living cells are increasingly demanded in the field of molecular cell biology. Recent advances in the development of fluorescent biosensors have made an outstanding contribution to elucidating not only the roles of individual biomolecules, but also the dynamic intracellular relationships between these molecules. However, rational design strategies of fluorescent biosensors are not as mature as they look. An insatiable request for the establishment of a more universal and versatile strategy continues to provide an attractive alternative, so-called modular strategy, which permits facile preparation of biosensors with tailored characteristics by a simple combination of a receptor and a signal transducer. This review describes an overview of the progress in design strategies of fluorescent biosensors, such as auto-fluorescent protein-based biosensors, protein-based biosensors covalently modified with synthetic fluorophores, and signaling aptamers, and highlights the insight into how a given receptor is converted to a fluorescent biosensor. Furthermore, we will demonstrate a significance of the modular strategy for the sensor design.

  4. A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on graphene and polyaniline nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo Yang; Yang Huiyan; Hu Ying; Yao Tianming [Life and Environmental Science College, Shanghai Normal University, Guilin Road 100, Shanghai 200234 (China); Huang Shasheng, E-mail: sshuang@shnu.edu.c [Life and Environmental Science College, Shanghai Normal University, Guilin Road 100, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A novel DNA biosensor based on oxidized graphene and polyaniline nanowires (PANIws) modified glassy carbon electrode was developed. The resulting graphene/PANIw layers exhibited good DPV current response for the complementary DNA sequences. The good electron transfer activity might be attributed to the effect of graphene and PANIw. Graphene and PANIw nanolayers film with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The immobilization of the probe DNA on the surface of electrode was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of graphene and PANIw. Under optimum conditions, the biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response, high sensitivity and good storage stability for monitoring DNA. The current response of the sensor increases linearly with the concentration of target from 2.12 x 10{sup -6} to 2.12 x 10{sup -12} mol l{sup -1} with a relative coefficient of 0.9938. The detection limit (3{sigma}) is 3.25 x 10{sup -13} mol l{sup -1}. The results indicate that this modified electrode has potential application in sensitive and selective DNA detection.

  5. 手性膦酸锆/血红蛋白/金电极的安培型过氧化氢传感器的研究%Amperometric Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor Based on Electro-Codeposition of Chiral Zirconium Phosphonate/Hemoglobin on Gold Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宗方; 刘昌华; 藤瑛丽; 徐静

    2011-01-01

    共电沉积手性膦酸锆Zr (PO4)( H2PO4)0.50(HO3PCH2NCH2SC2H3COOH)0.50·1.6 H2O(ZrPMT)、血红蛋白(Hb)于金电极,制备了安培型过氧化氢生物传感器.制得的生物传感器对于过氧化氢(H2O2)有着良好的响应,检出限为1.6×10-7 mol/L,线性范围为5×10-7~2.2×10-4 mol/L,相关系数0.99(S/N=3),且该传感器有良好的稳定性和较强的抗干扰能力.%A new kind of material-chiral zirconium phosphonate ( Zr ( PO4 ) ( H2PO4 )0.50 (HO3PCH2NCH2SC2H3COOH)0.50·1. 6 H2O), abbreviated as ZrPMT, was employed for the construction of a hydrogen peroxide biosensor. UV-Vis absorption spectra displayed that hemoglobin (Hb) retained its native structure after interaction with ZrPMT, showing that ZrPMT provided good compatibility. Cyclic voltammetry showed that ZrPMT could greatly improve the electron transformation between the modified electrode and the electrolyte. The biosensor was prepared by electro-codepositing of ZrPMT and Hb onto the gold electrode (Au). This method was simple and easy, and the biosensor exhibited good .response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide with a linear range from 5 X 10-7 mol/L to 2. 2 X10-4 mol/L and a detection limit of 1. 6X 10-7 mol/L, the correlation coefficient being 0. 99 (S/N=3). Its stability and selectivity were also good.

  6. Immobilization of Enzymes by Electrochemical and Chemical Oxidative Polymerization of L-DOPA to Fabricate Amperometric Biosensors and Biofuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mengzhen; Sun, Lingen; Chao, Long; Tan, Yueming; Fu, Yingchun; Chen, Chao; Xie, Qingji

    2015-05-27

    Electrochemical/chemical oxidative synthesis and biosensing/biofuel cell applications of poly(L-DOPA) (PD) are studied versus polydopamine (PDA) as a recent hotspot biomaterial. The enzyme electrode developed by coelectrodeposition of PD and glucose oxidase (GOx), uricase, or tyrosinase shows biosensing performance superior to that of the corresponding PDA-based enzyme electrode. The chemical oxidative polymerization of L-DOPA (PDC) by NaAuCl4 in GOx-containing neutral aqueous solution is used to immobilize GOx and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The thus-prepared chitosan (CS)/GOx-PDC-AuNPs/Au(plate)/Au electrode working in the first-generation biosensing mode responds linearly to glucose concentration with a sensitivity of 152 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), which is larger than those of the CS/GOx-PDAC-AuNPs/Au(plate)/Au electrode, the CS/GOx-poly(3-anilineboronic acid) (PABA)-AuNPs/Au(plate)/Au electrode, and the most reported GOx-based enzyme electrodes. This PDC-based enzyme electrode also works well in the second-generation biosensing mode and as an excellent bioanode in biofuel cell construction, probably because PD as an amino acid polymer has the higher biocompatibility and the more favorable affinity to the enzyme than PDA. The PD material of great convenience in synthesis, outstanding biocompatibility for preparing high-performance bionanocomposites, and strong capability of multifunctional coatings on many surfaces may find wide applications in diversified fields including biotechnology and surface-coating. PMID:25938891

  7. Polymer Based Biosensors for Medical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherré, Solène; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to give an overview about the newest developments in biosensors made of polymers for medical applications. Biosensors are devices that can recognize and detect a target with high selectivity. They are widely used in many fields such as medical diagnostic...

  8. Fabricating an Amperometric Cholesterol Biosensor by a Covalent Linkage between Poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid and Cholesterol Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chuan Ho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, use of the covalent enzyme immobilization method was proposed to attach cholesterol oxidase (ChO on a conducting polymer, poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid, [poly(3-TPAA]. Three red-orange poly(3-TPAA films, named electrodes A, B and C, were electropolymerized on a platinum electrode by applying a constant current of 1.5 mA, for 5, 20 and 100 s, respectively. Further, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamiopropylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC‧HCl and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS were used to activate the free carboxylic groups of the conducting polymer. Afterwards, the amino groups of the cholesterol oxidase were linked on the activated groups to form peptide bonds. The best sensitivity obtained for electrode B is 4.49 mA M-1 cm-2,with a linear concentration ranging from 0 to 8 mM, which is suitable for the analysis of cholesterol in humans. The response time (t95 is between 70 and 90 s and the limit of detection is 0.42 mM, based on the signal to noise ratio equal to 3. The interference of species such as ascorbic acid and uric acid increased to 5.2 and 10.3% of the original current response, respectively, based on the current response of cholesterol (100%. With respect to the long-term stability, the sensing response retains 88% of the original current after 13 days.

  9. Highly stable and sensitive glucose biosensor based on covalently assembled high density Au nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Peng; Kannan, Palanisamy; Guo, Longhua; Son, Hungsun; Kim, Dong-Hwan

    2011-05-15

    We describe the development of a highly stable and sensitive glucose biosensor based on the nanohybrid materials derived from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The biosensing platform was developed by using layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly of the nanohybrid materials and the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx). A high density of AuNPs and MWCNT nanocomposite materials were constructed by alternate self assembly of thiol functionalized MWCNTs and AuNPs, followed by chemisoption of GOx. The surface morphology of multilayered AuNPs/MWCNT structure was characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and the surface coverage of AuNPs was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), showing that 5 layers of assembly achieves the maximum particle density on electrode. The immobilization of GOx was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). CV and amperometry methods were used to study the electrochemical oxidation of glucose at physiological pH 7.4. The Au electrode modified with five layers of AuNPs/MWCNT composites and GOx exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of glucose, which presents a wide liner range from 20 μM to 10 mM, with a sensitivity of 19.27 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The detection limit of present modified electrode was found to be 2.3 μM (S/N=3). In addition, the resulting biosensor showed a faster amperometric current response (within 3 s) and low apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)(app)). Our present study shows that the high density of AuNPs decorated MWCNT is a promising nanohybrid material for the construction of enzyme based electrochemical biosensors. PMID:21454070

  10. Cell-based biosensors: Towards the development of cellular monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cell-based biosensors (CBBs), a research hotspot of biosensors, which treat living cells as sensing elements, can detect the functional information of biologically active analytes. They characterize with high sensitivity, excellent selectivity and rapid response, and have been applied in many fields, such as biomedicine, environmental monitoring and pharmaceutical screening. Recently cell-cultured technology, silicon microfabrication technology and genetic technology have promoted exploration of CBBs dramatically. To elucidate the novel research findings and applications of cell- based biosensors, this paper summarizes various research approaches, presents some challenges and proposes the research trends.

  11. Highly sensitive biosensors based on water-soluble conjugated polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; WU Haiping; FAN Chunhai; LI Wenxin; ZHANG Zhizhou; HE Lin

    2004-01-01

    Conjugated, conductive polymers are a kind of important organic macromolecules, which has found applications in a variety of areas. The application of conjugated polymers in developing fluorescent biosensors represents the merge of polymer sciences and biological sciences. Conjugated polymers are very good light harvesters as well as fluorescent polymers, and they are also "molecular wires". Through elaborate designs, these important features, i.e. efficient light harvesting and electron/energy transfer, can be used as signal amplification in fluorescent biosensors. This might significantly improve the sensitivity of conjugated polymer-based biosensors. In this article, we reviewed the application of conjugated polymers, via either electron transfer or energy transfer, to detections of gene targets, antibodies or enzymes. We also reviewed recent efforts in conjugated polymer-based solid-state sensor designs as well as chip-based multiple target detection. Possible directions in this conjugated polymer-based biosensor area are also discussed.

  12. Determination of uric acid level by polyaniline and poly (allylamine): Based biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrul Wathoni; Aliya Nur Hasanah; Dolih Gozali; Yeni Wahyuni; Lia Layusa Fauziah

    2014-01-01

    The uric acid biosensor has been much developed by immobilizing uricase enzyme into the membrane of conductive polymer and the membrane of polyelectrolyte such as polyaniline (PANI) and poly (allylamine) (PAA) respectively. The purpose of this research was to create a new amperometric uric acid biosensor by immobilization of uricase in combination between PANI and PAA membranes. The working electrode was Pt plate (0.5 mm). The auxiliary and the reference electrode were Pt wire 0.4 mm and Ag/A...

  13. Microfabricated glucose biosensor for culture well operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, R M; Cox, T; Tuffin, R; Sage, I; Drago, G A; Biddle, N; Griffiths, J; Pittson, R; Johnson, G; Xu, J; Jackson, S K; Kenna, G; Luxton, R; Hart, J P

    2013-04-15

    A water-based carbon screen-printing ink formulation, containing the redox mediator cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) and the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx), was investigated for its suitability to fabricate glucose microbiosensors in a 96-well microplate format: (1) the biosensor ink was dip-coated onto a platinum (Pt) wire electrode, leading to satisfactory amperometric performance; (2) the ink was deposited onto the surface of a series of Pt microelectrodes (10-500 μm diameter) fabricated on a silicon substrate using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) microfabrication techniques: capillary deposition proved to be successful; a Pt microdisc electrode of ≥100 μm was required for optimum biosensor performance; (3) MEMS processing was used to fabricate suitably sized metal (Pt) tracks and pads onto a silicon 96 well format base chip, and the glucose biosensor ink was screen-printed onto these pads to create glucose microbiosensors. When formed into microwells, using a 340 μl volume of buffer, the microbiosensors produced steady-state amperometric responses which showed linearity up to 5 mM glucose (CV=6% for n=5 biosensors). When coated, using an optimised protocol, with collagen in order to aid cell adhesion, the biosensors continued to show satisfactory performance in culture medium (linear range to 2 mM, dynamic range to 7 mM, CV=5.7% for n=4 biosensors). Finally, the operation of these collagen-coated microbiosensors, in 5-well 96-well format microwells, was tested using a 5-channel multipotentiostat. A relationship between amperometric response due to glucose, and cell number in the microwells, was observed. These results indicate that microphotolithography and screen-printing techniques can be combined successfully to produce microbiosensors capable of monitoring glucose metabolism in 96 well format cell cultures. The potential application areas for these microbiosensors are discussed. PMID:23265827

  14. Enzymatic biosensors based on the use of metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decades, various techniques have been developed to obtain materials at a nanoscale level to design biosensors with high sensitivity, selectivity and efficiency. Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are of particular interests and have received much attention because of their unique physical, chemical and catalytic properties. This review summarizes the progress made in enzymatic biosensors based on the use of MONPs. Synthetic methods, strategies for immobilization, and the functions of MONPs in enzymatic biosensing systems are reviewed and discussed. The article is subdivided into sections on enzymatic biosensors based on (a) zinc oxide nanoparticles, (b) titanium oxide nanoparticles, (c) iron oxide nanoparticles, and (d) other metal oxide nanoparticles. While substantial advances have been made in MONPs-based enzymatic biosensors, their applications to real samples still lie ahead because issues such as reproducibility and sensor stability have to be solved. (author)

  15. 电流型酶传感器用高分子媒介体的研究进展%Development of polymer mediators in amperometric mediated enzyme biosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱军民; 李旭祥

    2000-01-01

    综合论述了介体型电流式生物传感器用高分子媒介体的研究进展,阐释了高分子媒介体提高酶传感器稳定性和加速电子传递速率的机理,展望了高分子媒介体和介体型电流式生物传感器的发展,阐述了防止低分子媒介体流失的高分子阻挡膜的发展状况。%The progress of polymer mediators in amperometric mediated biosensor at home and abroad was reviewed.The mechanisms of polymer mediators promoting electron transfer rate and enzyme stability of electrodes were explained. Some suggestions for the development direction of polymer mediators in enzyme biosensor were put forward.The development of polymer separating membrane preventing organic molecular mediators leaking from enzyme membrane was introduced.

  16. New amperometric glucose biosensor by entrapping glucose oxidase into chitosan/nanoporous ZrO2/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wan-zhi; ZHAI Xiu-rong; ZENG Jin-xiang; GAO Yan-ping; GONG Shu-guo

    2007-01-01

    A new nanocomposite material for construction of glucose biosensor was prepared. The biosensor was formed by entrapping glucose oxidase(Gox) into chitosan/nanoporous ZrO2/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite film.In this biosensing thin film.the multiwalled carbon nanotubes can effectively catalyze hydrogen peroxide and nanoporous ZrO2, can enhance the stability of the immobilized enzyme. The resulting biosensor provides a very effective matrix for the immobilization of glucose oxidase and exhibits a wide linear response range from 8 μmol/L to 3 mmol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.994 for the detection of glucose.And the response time and detection limit of the biosensor are determined to be 6 S and 3.5 μmaol/L.respectively. Another attractive characteristic is that the biosensor is inexpensive. stable and reliable.

  17. Carbon nanotube composites for glucose biosensor incorporated with reverse iontophoresis function for noninvasive glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tai-ping; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Yao, Yan-Dong; Huang, Su-Hua; Liu, Chia-Ming; Liu, Wei-Hao; Chen, Chung-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to develop an amperometric glucose biosensor, based on carbon nanotubes material for reverse iontophoresis, fabricated by immobilizing a mixture of glucose oxidase (GOD) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) epoxy-composite, on a planar screen-printed carbon electrode. MWCNT was employed to ensure proper incorporation into the epoxy mixture and faster electron transfer between the GOD and the transducer. Results showed this biosensor possesses a low detection potential (+50...

  18. Highly selective and stable microdisc biosensors for l-glutamate monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, Sridhar; McNeil, Calum J.; Lowry, John P.; McMahon, Colm P.; O'Neill, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate mediates most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain, and its abnormal regulation is considered a key factor underlying the appearance and progression of many neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In this work, a microdisc-based amperometric biosensor for glutamate detection with highly enhanced selectivity and good stability is proposed. The biosensor utilizes the enzyme glutamate oxidase which was dip-coated onto 125 um diameter platinum discs. To i...

  19. A novel nonenzymatic biosensor for evaluation of oxidative stress based on nanocomposites of graphene blended with CuI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhui; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Yun; Du, Tianyu; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-08-24

    A high-sensitive nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) biosensor based on cuprous iodide and graphene (CuI/Gr) composites has been explored for the detection of H2O2 released by living cells and monitoring the oxidative stress of cells under excellular stimulation. The biosensor properties were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), amperometric i-t curve, and the redox-competition mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Our observations demonstrate that the CuI/Gr nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibits excellent catalytic activity for H2O2 with relatively low detection limit and a wide linear range from 0.5 μM to 3 mM. Moreover, the redox-competition mode of SECM imaging study further illustrates the improved electrochemical catalytic capability for H2O2 reduction with CuI/Gr nanocomposites deposited on graphite electrode. Hence, the as-prepared nonenzymatic H2O2 biosensor could be used to detect H2O2 release from different kinds of living cells under stimulation while eliminating the interference of ascorbic acid.

  20. An interference-free glucose biosensor based on an anionic redox polymer-mediated enzymatic oxidation of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huimin; Shen, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2013-07-22

    Herein a novel strategy for the construction of an amperometric biosensor for highly sensitive and selective determination of glucose is described. The biosensor is made of a biocomposite membrane of glucose oxidase (GOx) and an Os(bpy)2 (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine)-based anionic redox polymer (Os-RP) mediator. The biosensor is fabricated through the co-immobilization of GOx and the Os-RP on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode by a simple one-step chemical crosslinking process. The crosslinked Os-RP/GOx composite membrane shows excellent catalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose. Under optimal experimental conditions, a linear correlation between the oxidation current of glucose in amperometry at 0.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and glucose concentration up to 10 mM with a sensitivity of 16.5 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a response time glucose in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid. The low hydrophobicity of the composite membrane also effectively retards the transport of molecular oxygen within the membrane. PMID:23325705

  1. Preparation and optimization of a bienzymic biosensor based on self-assembled monolayer modified gold electrode for alcohol and glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asav, Engin; Akyilmaz, Erol

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this project was to develop a bienzymic biosensor, which was based on co-immobilization of alcohol oxidase and glucose oxidase on the same electrode by formation of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) for selective determination of ethanol and glucose. In the biosensor construction the enzymes and the mediator, tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), were immobilized with cross-linking agents glutaraldehyde and cysteamine by forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a gold disc electrode. Amounts of ethanol and glucose were amperometrically detected by monitoring current values at reduction potential of TTF(+), 0.1V. Decreases in biosensor responses were linearly related to glucose concentrations between 0.1 and 1.0 mM and ethanol concentrations between 1.0 and 10 mM. Limits of detection of the biosensor for ethanol and glucose were calculated to be 0.75 and 0.03 mM, respectively. In the optimization studies of the biosensor some parameters such as optimum pH, optimum temperature, enzyme amount, effect of TTF concentration and duration of SAM formation were investigated. PMID:19819124

  2. Feasibility Studies on Si-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Renis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paperis to summarize the efforts carried out so far in the fabrication of Si-based biosensors by a team of researchers in Catania, Italy. This work was born as a collaboration between the Catania section of the Microelectronic and Microsystem Institute (IMM of the CNR, the Surfaces and Interfaces laboratory (SUPERLAB of the Consorzio Catania Ricerche and two departments at the University of Catania: the Biomedical Science and the Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology Departments. The first goal of our study was the definition and optimization of an immobilization protocol capable of bonding the biological sensing element on a Si-based surface via covalent chemical bonds. We chose SiO2 as the anchoring surface due to its biocompatibility and extensive presence in microelectronic devices. The immobilization protocol was tested and optimized, introducing a new step, oxide activation, using techniques compatible with microelectronic processing. The importance of the added step is described by the experimental results. We also tested different biological molecule concentrations in the immobilization solutions and the effects on the immobilized layer. Finally a MOS-like structure was designed and fabricated to test an electrical transduction mechanism. The results obtained so far and the possible evolution of the research field are described in this review paper.

  3. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Z.; Song, W.; Burugapalli, K; Moussy, F; Li, Y-L; Zhong, X-H

    2010-01-01

    This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final published article is available from the link below. Copyright @ 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon...

  4. Enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors for food safety: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Harish Kumar, Rani Neelam Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana, India Abstract: In recent years, food storage environment safety has been a major concern for food and health scientists. There is growing interest in electrochemical biosensors due to their high sensitivity and rapid response. The aim of this review article is to provide details regarding the development of enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors, and their use in t...

  5. Amperometric glucose sensor based on enhanced catalytic reduction of oxygen using glucose oxidase adsorbed onto core-shell Fe3O4-silica-Au magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monodisperse Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared under facile solvothermal conditions and successively functionalized with silica and Au to form core/shell Fe3O4-silica-Au NPs. Furthermore, the samples were used as matrix to construct a glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase (GOD). The immobilized GOD retained its bioactivity with high protein load of 3.92 × 10−9 mol·cm−2, and exhibited a surface-controlled quasi-reversible redox reaction, with a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate of 7.98 ± 0.6 s−1. The glucose biosensor showed a broad linear range up to 3.97 mM with high sensitivity of 62.45 μA·mM−1 cm−2 and fast response (less than 5 s). - Graphical abstract: Core-shell structured Fe3O4-silica-Au nanoparticles were prepared and used as matrix to construct an amperometric glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase, which showed broad linear range, high sensitivity, and fast response. Highlights: ► Synthesis of monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles. ► Fabrication of core/shell Fe3O4-silica-Au nanoparticles. ► Construction of a novel glucose sensor with wide linear range, high sensitivity and fast response.

  6. Impedimetric biosensor based on magnetic nanoparticles for electrochemical detection of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Sudeshna; Arora, Kunal [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay), Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bahadur, D., E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay), Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of dopamine biosensor based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elimination of interference from ascorbic acid using the negatively charged MNPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amperometric detection of dopamine (DA) with a detection limit of 7.25 {mu}M. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impedance spectroscopy revealed the interfacial properties of modified electrodes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biosensor suitably designed for screening and determination of DA. - Abstract: One of the difficulties which limit the use of electrochemical sensors for detection of dopamine is the interference from ascorbic acid. We have sought to address this problem through the synthesis and characterization of a suitable electrode material based on magnetic nanoparticles. The interference from the ascorbic acid was overcome by fabricating a negatively charged electrode surface using PEGylated arginine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PA-MNPs). The nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction, FT-Infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The electrochemical behavior of the proposed sensor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and the sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity for dopamine. The response mechanism of the modified electrode is based on the interaction between the negatively charged electrode and the positively charged dopamine. Under optimized conditions, linear calibration plots were obtained for amperometric detection of dopamine (DA) over the concentration range of 1-9 mM dopamine, with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.9836, sensitivity of 121 {mu}A/mM and a detection limit of 7.25 {mu}M. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to study the interface properties of modified electrodes. The value of the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) increases linearly with dopamine

  7. Biosensors. A quarter of a century of R&D experience

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatkin A. P.; Dzyadevych S. V.; Korpan Y. I.; Sergeyeva T. A.; Arkhypova V. N.; Biloivan O. A.; Soldatkin O. O.; Shkotova L. V.; Zinchenko O. A.; Peshkova V. M.; Saiapina O. Y.; Marchenko S. V.; El’skaya A. V.

    2013-01-01

    The paper is a review of the researches of Biomolecular Electronics Laboratory concerning the development of biosensors based on electrochemical transducers (amperometric and conductometric electrodes, potentiometric pH-sensitive field effect transistors) and different biorecognition molecules (enzymes, cells, antibodies), biomimics (molecularly imprinted polymers), as sensitive elements for direct analysis of substrates or inhibitory analysis of toxicants. Highly specific, sensitive, simple,...

  8. Construction of an amperometric pyruvate oxidase enzyme electrode for determination of pyruvate and phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyilmaz, Erol; Yorganci, Emine [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ege University, 35100 Bornova-izmir (Turkey)

    2007-11-01

    In this study an amperometric biosensor based on pyruvate oxidase was developed for the determination of pyruvate and phosphate. For construction of the biosensor pyruvate oxidase was immobilized with gelatin and insolubilized in film by forming cross-linked bonds with glutaraldehyde. The film was fixed on a YSI type dissolved oxygen (DO) probe, covered with a teflon membrane which is high-sensitive for oxygen. The working principle of the biosensor depends on detection of consumed DO concentration related to pyruvate concentration which is used in enzymatic reaction catalyzed by pyruvate oxidase. The biosensor response shows a linearity with pyruvate concentration between 0.0025 and 0.05 {mu}M and also response time of the biosensor is 3 min. In the optimization studies of the biosensor the most suitable enzyme activity was found as 2.5 U/cm{sup 2} for pyruvate oxidase, and also phosphate buffer (pH 7.0; 50 mM) and 35 C were established as providing the optimum working conditions. In the characterization studies of the biosensor some parameters such as reproducibility, substrate specificity, operational stability, determination of phosphate, and interference effects of some compounds on the pyruvate determination were investigated. Finally, the concentration of pyruvate was determined by using spectrophotometric method and the results obtained were compared to results obtained by the biosensor. (author)

  9. A glucose biosensor based on direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase immobilized onto platinum nanoparticles modified graphene electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, AiRong; Huang, ShiMing

    2012-07-01

    The platinum nanoparticles were adsorbed on graphene oxide sheets and played an important role in catalytic reduction of graphene oxide with hydrazine, leading to the formation of graphene-Pt nanoparticles. Because of their good electronic properties, biocompatibility and high surface area, graphene-Pt based composites achieved the direct electron transfer of redox enzyme and maintained their bioactivity well. The graphene-Pt nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The amperometric biosensor fabricated by depositing glucose oxidase over Nafion-solubilized graphene-Pt electrode retained its biocatalytic activity and has offered fast and sensitive glucose quantification.

  10. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Barchiesi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.

  11. Third Generation Horseradish Peroxidase Biosensor Based on Self-assembling Carbon Nanotubes to Gold Electrode Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Juan XU; Gang WANG; Qing ZHANG; Xing Hua XIA; Hong Yuan CHEN

    2005-01-01

    A third-generation horseradish peroxidase (HRP) biosensor has been developed by adsorbing HRP on multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNTs) monolayer modified gold electrode surface. The assembly process was investigated by electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques.Results showed that the immobilized HRP exhibited direct electrochemical behavior toward the reduction of H2O2. The resulting biosensor shows a fast amperometric response (<2 s) to H2O2.The linear response range was from 5.0×10-7~1.0×10-5 mol/L with a detection limit of1.0×10-7mol/L. Moreover, the biosensor has a good reproducibility, and long-term stability.

  12. Printable Ultrathin Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Conformal Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, You Seung; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Chen, Huajun; Yang, Jonathan L; Kim, Jaemyung; Andrews, Anne M; Weiss, Paul S; Yang, Yang; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2015-12-22

    Conformal bioelectronics enable wearable, noninvasive, and health-monitoring platforms. We demonstrate a simple and straightforward method for producing thin, sensitive In2O3-based conformal biosensors based on field-effect transistors using facile solution-based processing. One-step coating via aqueous In2O3 solution resulted in ultrathin (3.5 nm), high-density, uniform films over large areas. Conformal In2O3-based biosensors on ultrathin polyimide films displayed good device performance, low mechanical stress, and highly conformal contact determined using polydimethylsiloxane artificial skin having complex curvilinear surfaces or an artificial eye. Immobilized In2O3 field-effect transistors with self-assembled monolayers of NH2-terminated silanes functioned as pH sensors. Functionalization with glucose oxidase enabled d-glucose detection at physiologically relevant levels. The conformal ultrathin field-effect transistor biosensors developed here offer new opportunities for future wearable human technologies. PMID:26498319

  13. Printable Ultrathin Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Conformal Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, You Seung; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Chen, Huajun; Yang, Jonathan L; Kim, Jaemyung; Andrews, Anne M; Weiss, Paul S; Yang, Yang; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2015-12-22

    Conformal bioelectronics enable wearable, noninvasive, and health-monitoring platforms. We demonstrate a simple and straightforward method for producing thin, sensitive In2O3-based conformal biosensors based on field-effect transistors using facile solution-based processing. One-step coating via aqueous In2O3 solution resulted in ultrathin (3.5 nm), high-density, uniform films over large areas. Conformal In2O3-based biosensors on ultrathin polyimide films displayed good device performance, low mechanical stress, and highly conformal contact determined using polydimethylsiloxane artificial skin having complex curvilinear surfaces or an artificial eye. Immobilized In2O3 field-effect transistors with self-assembled monolayers of NH2-terminated silanes functioned as pH sensors. Functionalization with glucose oxidase enabled d-glucose detection at physiologically relevant levels. The conformal ultrathin field-effect transistor biosensors developed here offer new opportunities for future wearable human technologies.

  14. Response of amperometric biosensor to glucose in aqueous-organic mixed media%水-有机混合介质中电流型生物传感器对葡萄糖的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任聚杰; 籍雪平; 李献锐; 王贝贝; 王娜

    2012-01-01

    A biosensor was fabricated with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)/Prussian blue (PB)/chitosan (Chit). The electrochemical characteristics of the biosensor were studied in the presence of dipolar aprotic organic solvents such as acetonitrile (AN), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF). The effect of volume percentage of organic solvents on biosensor response was investigated It is observed that the response current of the biosensdr in 50% AN reaches 73% of that in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The amperometric signals are fast, reproducible and exhibiting high sensitivity (57. 3 mA · M · Cm-2). The biosensor was used to determine glucose in serum specimens , and the results are consistent with those obtained with the commercially available glucose enzyme photometric kit.%利用自组装单分子层(SAMs)/普鲁士蓝(PB)/壳聚糖(Chit)界面固定葡萄糖氧化酶(GOD),构建酶生物传感器,对传感器在极性非质子有机溶剂如乙腈(AN)、二甲基亚砜(DMSO)和N,N-二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)存在条件下的电化学特性进行了研究,考察了有机溶剂体积分数对传感器响应的影响.结果表明,传感器在50%(体积分数)AN中的电流响应可达到磷酸缓冲溶液(PBS)中的73%.传感器响应速度快、重现性好、抗干扰能力强,展现了高的灵敏度(57.3 mA·M·cm-2).该传感器用于血清标本中葡萄糖的检测,测定结果与市售葡萄糖酶光度测定试剂盒测定结果相吻合.

  15. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process. PMID:27438863

  16. Graphene Based Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-01

    Graphene, emerging as a true 2-dimensional material, has received increasing attention due to its unique physicochemical properties (high surface area, excellent conductivity, high mechanical strength, and ease of functionalization and mass production). This article selectively reviews recent advances in graphene-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. In particular, graphene for direct electrochemistry of enzyme, its electrocatalytic activity toward small biomolecules (hydrogen peroxide, NADH, dopamine, etc.), and graphene-based enzyme biosensors have been summarized in more detail; Graphene-based DNA sensing and environmental analysis have been discussed. Future perspectives in this rapidly developing field are also discussed.

  17. Immobilization method for the preparation of biosensors based on pH shift-induced deposition of biomolecule-containing polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawa, Christian; Hengstenberg, Andreas; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2002-01-15

    Miniaturization of amperometric biosensors is crucially dependent on the availability of methods for the nonmanual immobilization of biological recognition elements on the transducer surface. From an aqueous polymer suspension, the precipitation of a polymer film with entrapped biological recognition elements is initiated by electrochemically induced oxidation of H20 at the electrode surface. Using the locally generated H+ gradient, acidic side chains of the polymer are titrated, leading to a change in the polymer solubility and hence to the controlled deposition of a polymer film. To investigate the properties and limitations of this immobilization technology, the specific features of a glucose biosensor based on polymer-entrapped glucose oxidase and amperometric detection of enzymatically generated H202 were investigated. Besides the reproducibility of the immobilization procedure, the sensitivity (14.59 mA cm(-2) M(-1) at pH 7), long-term stability (up to 5000 measurements in a sequential-injection analyzer), dependence on enzyme concentration, polymer thickness, and possibilities to fabricate multilayer sensor architectures were exploited. In addition, the miniaturization potential of this nonmanual immobilization technology was evaluated by investigating the modification of microband electrode arrays and cross talk between the neighboring microsensors. PMID:11811408

  18. Aptamer Based Microsphere Biosensor for Thrombin Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Xudong Fan; White, Ian M.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Hongying Zhu

    2006-01-01

    We have developed an optical microsphere resonator biosensor using aptamer as receptor for the measurement of the important biomolecule thrombin. The sphere surface is modified with anti-thrombin aptamer, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the sphere surface is monitored by the spectral position of the microsphere's whispering gallery mode resonances. A detection limit on the order of 1 NIH Unit/mL is demonstrated. Control experiments...

  19. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A.; Tulip, Fahmida S.; MacArthur, Kimberly; McFarlane, Nicole; Islam, Syed K.; Hensley, Dale

    2014-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  20. Amperometric Enzyme-based Gas Sensor for Formaldehyde: Impact of Possible Interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, cross-sensitivities and environmental influences on the sensitivityand the functionality of an enzyme-based amperometric sensor system for the directdetection of formaldehyde from the gas phase are studied. The sensor shows a linearresponse curve for formaldehyde in the tested range (0 - 15 vppm with a sensitivity of1.9 μA/ppm and a detection limit of about 130 ppb. Cross-sensitivities by environmentalgases like CO2, CO, NO, H2, and vapors of organic solvents like methanol and ethanol areevaluated as well as temperature and humidity influences on the sensor system. The sensorshowed neither significant signal to CO, H2, methanol or ethanol nor to variations in thehumidity of the test gas. As expected, temperature variations had the biggest influence onthe sensor sensitivity with variations in the sensor signal of up to 10 % of the signal for 5vppm CH2O in the range of 25 - 30 °C.

  1. An amperometric chloramphenicol immunosensor based on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles modified-dendrimer bonded conducting polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Min; Rahman, Md Aminur; Do, Minh Hien; Ban, Changill; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2010-03-15

    An amperometric chloramphenicol (CAP) immunosensor was fabricated by covalently immobilizing anti-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (anti-CAT) antibody on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS) modified-dendrimer that was bonded to the conducting polymer (poly 5, 2': 5', 2''-terthiophene-3'-carboxyl acid (poly-TTCA)) layer. The AuNPs, dendrimers, and CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the polymer layer in order to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor probes. The particle sizes were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immobilization of dendrimers, CdS, and anti-CAT were confirmed using energy disruptive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques. The detection of CAP was based on the competitive immuno-interaction between the free- and labeled-CAP for active sites of the anti-CAT. Hydrazine was used as the label for CAP, and it electrochemically catalyzed the reduction of H(2)O(2) at -0.35 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Under optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor exhibited a linear range of CAP detection between 50 pg/mL and 950 pg/mL, and the detection limit was 45 pg/mL. The immunosensor was examined in real meat samples for the analysis of CAP.

  2. Laccase Biosensor Based on Electrospun Copper/Carbon Composite Nanofibers for Catechol Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiapeng Fu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study compared the biosensing properties of laccase biosensors based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs and copper/carbon composite nanofibers (Cu/CNFs. The two kinds of nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and carbonization under the same conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate the morphologies and structures of CNFs and Cu/CNFs. The amperometric results indicated that the Cu/CNFs/laccase(Lac/Nafion/glass carbon electrode (GCE possessed reliable analytical performance for the detection of catechol. The sensitivity of the Cu/CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE reached 33.1 μA/mM, larger than that of CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE. Meanwhile, Cu/CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE had a wider linear range from 9.95 × 10−6 to 9.76 × 10−3 M and a lower detection limit of 1.18 μM than CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE. Moreover, it exhibited a good repeatability, reproducibility, selectivity and long-term stability, revealing that electrospun Cu/CNFs have great potential in biosensing.

  3. Modeling of Amperometric Immunosensor for CMOS Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ce Li; Haigang Yang; Shanhong Xia; Chao Bian

    2006-01-01

    A circuit model of the Amperometric immunosensor for use in the biosensor system-on-chip simulation is proposed in this paper. The model parameters are extracted with several methods and verified by MATLAB and SPICE simulation. A CMOS potentiostat circuit required for conditioning the Amperometric immunosensor is also included in the circuit model. The mean square error norm of the simulated curve against the measured one is 8.65 × 10-17. The whole circuit has been fabricated in a 0.35am CMOS process.

  4. Visual optical biosensors based on DNA-functionalized polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimji, Imran; Kelly, Erin Y; Helwa, Youssef; Hoang, Michael; Liu, Juewen

    2013-12-15

    Biosensors are devices that can provide quantitative or semi-quantitative analytical information about target molecules, where molecular recognition is based on biomolecular interactions. In recent years, DNA has emerged as a useful molecule for biosensor development since DNA can not only recognize its complementary strand, but also metal ions, small molecules, proteins and cells utilizing DNA aptamer technology. Converting DNA binding events into useful biosensors often require sensor immobilization. Among the various materials for sensor immobilization, hydrogels are particularly attractive. Hydrogels are crosslinked hydrophilic polymer networks that undergo swelling in water. In a gel, DNA immobilization can take place in 3D, allowing for high DNA loading capacity. Hydrogels are transparent, offering low optical background. The gel volume is affected by many environmental parameters such as temperature, pH, ionic strength, and solvent composition. In this paper, we present a concise summary of recent developments in DNA-functionalized hydrogel biosensors for visual detection. Detailed methods for immobilizing DNA biosensors in monolithic polyacrylamide gels and gel microparticles are supplied. PMID:23978515

  5. Bioethanol in Biofuels Checked by an Amperometric Organic Phase Enzyme Electrode (OPEE Working in “Substrate Antagonism” Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tomassetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol content of two samples of biofuels was determined directly, after simple dilution in decane, by means of an amperometric catalase enzyme biosensor working in the organic phase, based on substrate antagonisms format. The results were good from the point of view of accuracy, and satisfactory for what concerns the recovery test by the standard addition method. Limit of detection (LOD was on the order of 2.5 × 10−5 M.

  6. Bioethanol in Biofuels Checked by an Amperometric Organic Phase Enzyme Electrode (OPEE) Working in "Substrate Antagonism" Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Spuri Capesciotti, Gabriele; Angeloni, Riccardo; Martini, Elisabetta; Campanella, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The bioethanol content of two samples of biofuels was determined directly, after simple dilution in decane, by means of an amperometric catalase enzyme biosensor working in the organic phase, based on substrate antagonisms format. The results were good from the point of view of accuracy, and satisfactory for what concerns the recovery test by the standard addition method. Limit of detection (LOD) was on the order of 2.5 × 10(-5) M. PMID:27571076

  7. Tin Oxide Nanorod Array-Based Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SnO2 nanorod array grown directly on alloy substrate has been employed as the working electrode of H2O2 biosensor. Single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods provide not only low isoelectric point and enough void spaces for facile horseradish peroxidase (HRP immobilization but also numerous conductive channels for electron transport to and from current collector; thus, leading to direct electrochemistry of HRP. The nanorod array-based biosensor demonstrates high H2O2 sensing performance in terms of excellent sensitivity (379 μA mM−1 cm−2, low detection limit (0.2 μM and high selectivity with the apparent Michaelis–Menten constant estimated to be as small as 33.9 μM. Our work further demonstrates the advantages of ordered array architecture in electrochemical device application and sheds light on the construction of other high-performance enzymatic biosensors.

  8. Development of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry and biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, G., E-mail: gajin@imech.ac.c [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Meng, Y.H.; Liu, L.; Niu, Y.; Chen, S. [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Cai, Q.; Jiang, T.J. [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-02-28

    So far, combined with a microfluidic reactor array system, an engineering system of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry is installed for biomedical applications, such as antibody screen, hepatitis B markers detection, cancer markers spectrum and virus recognition, etc. Furthermore, the biosensor in total internal reflection (TIR) mode has be improved by a spectroscopic light, optimization settings of polarization and low noise CCD which brings an obvious improvement of 10 time increase in the sensitivity and SNR, and 50 times lower concentration in the detection limit with a throughput of 48 independent channels and the time resolution of 0.04 S.

  9. Mass Transfer in Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanocomposite Thin Films of Redox Polymers and Oxidoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr L. Simonian

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass transfer in nanocomposite hydrogel thin films consisting of alternating layers of an organometallic redox polymer (RP and oxidoreductase enzymes was investigated. Multilayer nanostructures were fabricated on gold surfaces by the deposition of an anionic self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, followed by the electrostatic binding of a cationic redox polymer, poly[vinylpyridine Os(bis-bipyridine2Clco-allylamine], and an anionic oxidoreductase. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared external reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS, ellipsometry and electrochemistry were employed to characterize the assembly of these nanocomposite films. Simultaneous SPR/electrochemistry enabled real time observation of the assembly of sensing components, changes in film structure with electrode potential, and the immediate, in situ electrochemical verification of substrate-dependent current upon the addition of enzyme to the multilayer structure. SPR and FTIR-ERS studies also showed no desorption of polymer or enzyme from the nanocomposite structure when stored in aqueous environment occurred over the period of three weeks, suggesting that decreasing in substrate sensitivity were due to loss of enzymatic activity rather than loss of film compounds from the nanostructure.

  10. Cantilever-Based Microwave Biosensors: Analysis, Designs and Optimizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Jónasson, Sævar Þór;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel microwave readout scheme for measuring deflection of cantilevers in nanometer range. The cantilever deflection can be sensed by the variation of transmission levels or resonant frequencies of microwave signals. The sensitivity of the cantilever biosensor based on LC...

  11. Biosensors in clinical chemistry: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Babu Murugaiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a the nature of the recognition event or (b the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria.

  12. Biosensors in clinical chemistry: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu; Ramasamy, Ramesh; Gopal, Niranjan; Kuzhandaivelu, V

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria. PMID:24627875

  13. Electrodeposition of chitosan-glucose oxidase biocomposite onto Pt-Pb nanoparticles modified stainless steel needle electrode for amperometric glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meiqing; Fang, Haidong; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Xinhua

    2011-08-01

    A glucose biosensor was fabricated by electrodepositing chitosan (CS)-glucose oxidase(GOD) biocomposite onto the stainless steel needle electrode (SSN electrode) modified by Pt-Pb nanoparticles (Pt-Pb/SSN electrode). Firstly, Pt-Pb nanoparticles were deposited onto the SSN electrode and then CS-GOD biocomposite was co-electrodeposited onto the Pt-Pb/SSN electrode in a mixed solution containing p-benzoquinone (p-BQ), CS and GOD. The electrochemical results showed that the Pt-Pb nanoparticles can accelerate the electron transfer and improve the effective surface area of the SSN electrode. As a result, the detection range of the proposed biosensor was from 0.03 to 9 mM with a current sensitivity of 0.4485 μA/mM and a response time of 15 s. The Michaelis constant value was calculated to be 4.9837 mM. The cell test results indicated that the electrodes have a low cytotoxicity. This work provided a suitable technology for the fabrication of the needle-type glucose biosensor. PMID:21671000

  14. Development of Galactose Biosensor Based on Functionalized ZnO Nanorods with Galactose Oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    K. Khun; Z. H. Ibupoto; Nur, O; Willander, M

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication of galactose biosensor based on functionalised ZnO nanorods is described. The galactose biosensor was developed by immobilizing galactose oxidase on ZnO nanorods in conjunction with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker molecule. The IRAS study provided evidence for the interaction of galactose oxidase with the surface of ZnO nanorods. The electromotive force (EMF) response of the galactose biosensor was measured by potentiometric method. We observed that the proposed biosensor has...

  15. Development of a new biosensor for determination of catalase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teke, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is one of the major antioxidant enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of H2O2. The aim of this study was to suggest a new method for the assay of catalase activity. For this purpose, an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase for determination of catalase activity was developed. Immobilization of glucose oxidase was made by a cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde on a Clark-type electrode (dissolved oxygen probe). Optimization and characterization properties of the biosensor were studied and determination of catalase activity in defined conditions was investigated in artificial serum solution. The results were compared with a reference method. PMID:24499365

  16. Amperometric Metronidazole Sensor Based on the Supermolecular Recognition by Metalloporphyrin Incorporated In Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Qin Yu

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric metronidazole (MTZ sensor using a glycosylated metalloporphyrin as a recognition element, which was incorporated in a carbon paste electrode, is reported. For the preparation of a MTZ-sensitive active material, 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis [2-(2, 3, 4, 6-tetraacetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1-O-phenyl]porphyrin (T(oglu PPH2 and its Mn(III complex MnT(o-gluPPCl were synthesized from the reaction of pyrrole with ortho-acetylglycosylated benzaldehyde by Lindsay’s method. The MnT(oglu PPCl-modified electrode showed excellent selectivity toward MTZ with respect to a number of interferents and exhibited stable response. The calibration graph obtained with the proposed sensor was linear over the range of 2.9×10-3-5.8×10-8 M/L, with a detection limit of 5.8×10-8 M/L for MTZ. Cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated that MnT(oglu PPCl included in graphite-epoxy resin matrices could efficiently mediate electron transfer from the base electrode to MTZ causing a decrease of reduction potential for MTZ detection. The sensor could be regenerated by simply polishing with an alumina paper, with an excellent reproducibility (RSD=1.6%. The experimental conditions such as pH and applied working potential were optimized. The prepared sensor is applied for the determination of MTZ in pharmaceutical preparations and the results agreed with the values obtained by the pharmacopoeia method.

  17. A new enzymatic immobilization carrier based on graphene capsule for hydrogen peroxide biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzymatic loss and inactivation are two main problems which can affect the performance of the biosensor. In order to resolve these two problems, a new kind of enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was developed using biomimetic graphene capsules (GRCAPS). Horseradish peroxidase was initially encapsulated in GRCAPS using porous CaCO3 as sacrificial templates to mimic the existence form of bio-enzymes in the organisms, and then GRCAPS and graphene-poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) were alternatively assembled onto the substrate of indium tin oxide for constructing multilayer films of the biosensor. Transmittance electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy analyses proved that the GRCAPS and multilayer films were prepared. Electrochemical experiment results indicated that easy, direct electrochemistry and good catalytic activity toward H2O2 oxidation can be achieved with this biosensor. The resulting biosensor presented a wide linear range of 0.01–12 mmol l−1, a low detection limit of 3.3 μmol l−1 (S/N = 3), excellent anti-interference ability, and long-term stability as well

  18. Nanoelectronic biosensors based on CVD grown graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinxi; Dong, Xiaochen; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Chang Ming; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Peng

    2010-08-01

    Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors.Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM images of graphene film before and after functionalization, transfer curves of graphene after every step, SEM image of CNT-net, and detection results using CNT-net devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00142b

  19. A novel glucose biosensor based on phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles for sensitive detection of glucose in real samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective strategy for preparation amperometric biosensor by using the phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (PFSi NPs) as special modified materials is proposed. In such a strategy, glucose oxidase (GOD) was selected as model protein to fabricate glucose biosensor in the presence of phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (PFSi NPs). The PFSi NPs were first modified on the surface of glassy carbon (GC) electrode, then, GOD was adsorbed onto the PFSi NPs film by drop-coating. The PFSi NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The interaction of PFSi NPs with GOD was investigated by the circular dicroism spectroscopy (CD). The results showed PFSi NPs could essentially maintain the native conformation of GOD. The direct electron transfer of GOD on (PFSi NPs)/GCE electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose. The proposed biosensor modified with PFSi NPs displayed a fast amperometric response (5 s) to glucose, a good linear current–time relation over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 5.00 × 10−4 to 1.87 × 10−1 M, and a low detection limit of 2.44 × 10−5 M (S/N = 3). Moreover, the biosensor can be used for assessment of the concentration of glucose in many real samples (relative error < 3%). The GOD biosensor modified with PFSi NPs will have essential meaning and practical application in future that attributed to the simple method of fabrication and good performance

  20. Encapsulation of FRET-based glucose and maltose biosensors to develop functionalized silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccio, G; Bannwarth, M B; Schulenburg, C; Steffen, V; Jankowska, D; Pohl, M; Rossi, R M; Maniura-Weber, K; Boesel, L F; Richter, M

    2016-06-20

    Silicate nanoparticles with immobilized FRET-based biosensors were developed for the detection of glucose and maltose. Immobilization of the protein biosensor in the nanoparticle was achieved through specific interaction between the hexa-histidine tag of the protein and a calcium-silicate complex of the silica matrix. Encapsulation of the biosensors preserved the affinity for the respective sugar. Compared to the free biosensors, encapsulation had a stabilizing effect on the biosensor towards chemical and thermal denaturation. The demonstrated immobilization strategy for specific sensing proteins paves the way towards the development of protein-inorganic nanostructures for application in metabolite analyses. PMID:26811852

  1. MEMS-based biosensors for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tatsuro; Morita, Yasutaka; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2004-03-01

    Biosensors in connection with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can be applied in many fields of research. In this paper, the reduction in the size of ELISA utilizing micro-chemical reaction is described in a microchamber array chip, and also a micro-flow antibody chip. The chips were fabricated by micro electromechanical system (MEMS) technology. The quantitative determination of dioxins was performed by using the chips. Glass or polystyrene beads were used for immobilization of an antibody at these chips. The antibody-immobilized beads were introduced into micro-flow channel or microchamber. As a competitive ELISA, sample solution mixed with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antigen, and non-HRP conjugated antigen was allowed to react in the microchamber or flow channel. As a sandwich assay, sample solution and HRP-conjugated antibody were sequentially added to the chamber. After the antigen-antibody reaction, addition of PBS buffer, hydrogen peroxide, and fluorogenic substrate produced the fluorescent dye. The resulting change in the fluorescence intensity was monitored by a fluorescence microscope.

  2. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. ► Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. ► Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis–Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 μA cm−2 mM−1) and the lowest Michaelis–Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  3. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Juneui [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangwoo, E-mail: swlim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis-Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and the lowest Michaelis-Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  4. Development of Novel Glucose and Pyruvate Biosensors at Poly(Neutral Red) Modified Carbon Film Electrodes. Application to Natural Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ghica, Mariana Emilia; Brett, Christopher M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors based on the corresponding oxidase enzyme with poly(neutral red) redox mediator have been developed for the determination of glucose and pyruvate. The enzymes have been immobilized on top of poly(neutral red) modified carbon film electrodes with glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent. The biosensors were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The glucose biosensor exhibited a linear response in the range 90 muM to 1.8 mM w...

  5. Development of A Reagentless Amperometric Glucose Biosensor%无试剂型葡萄糖生物传感器的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军华; 郑龙珍; 孙娟; 李欣佳

    2009-01-01

    利用制备的羧基-β-环糊精衍生物包络二茂铁得到了羧基-β-环糊精二茂铁包络物作为新型媒介体.采用廉价易得的蛋清代替价格较高的牛血清白蛋白,用蛋清戊二醛交联媒介体、酶,成功制得了电流型葡萄糖传感器.由于羧基-β-环糊精提供的疏水空腔将二茂铁包络,减少了二茂铁的流失,另外亲水性的外壁为酶提供的良好的外环境保证了酶的活性,故该传感器具有良好的稳定性,对葡萄糖表现出良好的响应,重现性也较好,且响应时间短.检测线性范围为:1×10~(-5)~2.68×10~(-3)mol·L~(-1),相关系数为0.9994,检测限为1.2×10~(-6)mol·L~(-1)(S/N=3).%A cyclodextrin derivative (carboxyl-β-CD) was prepared and ferrocene was included into the cavity of carboxyl- β-cyclodextrin to form Fe-carboxyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (Fe-carboxyl-β-CD) as a novel mediator. A glucose biosensor which using glutaric dialdehyde and egg white which be more faciler and cheaper than BSA cross-linked with glucose oxidase and Fe-carboxyl-β-CD was successfully constructed. Because of ferrocene was included into the hydrophobic cavity of carboxyl-β-cyclodextrin, it was not easily washed out. Due to the hydrophile ektexine of carboxyl-β-cyclodextrin supply an excellent environment to the enzyme, the biosensor had a good response property and its stability and life time were both improved obviously. Under the optimal conditions the response of the biosensor to glucose was linear in the concentration rang of 1×10~(-5)~2.68×l0~(-3) mol/L, and the detection limit was 1.2×10~(-6)mol/L (S/N=3).

  6. Versatile matrix for constructing enzyme-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohao; Luo, Xi; Wan, Qijin; Wu, Kangbing; Yang, Nianjun

    2014-10-01

    A versatile matrix was fabricated and utilized as a universal interface for the construction of enzyme-based biosensors. This matrix was formed on the gold electrode via combining self-assembled monolayer of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid with gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited. Electrochemistry of three redox enzymes (catalase, glucose oxidase, and horseradish peroxidase) was investigated on such a matrix. The electrocatalytic monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and glucose was conducted on this matrix after being coated with those enzymes. On them the monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and glucose shows rapid response times, wide linear working ranges, low detection limits, and high enzymatic affinities. This matrix is thus a versatile and suitable platform to develop highly sensitive enzyme-based biosensors. PMID:25208242

  7. Graphene Electronic Device Based Biosensors and Chemical Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, are emerging as an exciting material system for a new generation of atomically thin electronic devices. With their ultrahigh surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical properties, 2D-layered materials hold the promise for the construction of a generation of chemical and biological sensors with unprecedented sensitivity. In my PhD thesis, I mainly focus on graphene based electronic biosensors and chemical sensors. In the first...

  8. 一种新型无酶电流型葡萄糖生物传感器%Novel Non-enzyme Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose Deternimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丞; 熊兆贤; 薛昊; 陈淑娴; 邱虹

    2011-01-01

    A non-erzyme ampcrometric biosensor,hased on clectropolymcrization of overoxidized polypyrrole onto pencil Sraphite electrode ( PCE) and modified with Cobalt( Ⅱ ) phthalocyanine was fabricated.'The result result showed that under optimal condiiions , the scnsitivity of the biosensor was 6. 42 μA//( mmoL/L) , with a wide linear range from 0 to 10 mmol/l. ( a correUuion coefficient of 0. 992 9). The response time was ahout 7 s and calculated deicction limit was 70. 1 μmol/L. The resulting biosenaor showed high sensiiivity,good long-tcrm stability and a certain anti-interferencee ability.%采用电聚合过氧化聚吡咯(Ox-PPy)于铅笔芯电极(PGE),并将酞菁钴(CoPc)对其修饰,制作了一种新型无酶电流型葡萄糖生物传感器.实验结果表明:在优化条件下,传感器的灵敏度为6.42 μA/(mmol/L),线性范围0~10 mmol/L,线性相关度R=0.9929,响应时间小于10 s,最低检测限为70.1μmol/L.该传感器具有较高的灵敏度,较好的稳定性和一定的抗干扰能力.

  9. A high-sensitive and fast-fabricated glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue/topological insulator Bi2Se3 hybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shouguo; Liu, Gang; Li, Ping; Liu, Hao; Xu, Haihong

    2012-01-01

    A novel and fast-fabricated Prussian blue (PB)/topological insulator Bi(2)Se(3) hybrid film has been prepared by coelectrodeposition technique. Taking advantages of topological insulator in possessing exotic metallic surface states with bulk insulating gap, Prussian blue nanoparticles in the hybrid film have smaller size as well as more compact structure, showing excellent pH stability even in the alkalescent solution of pH 8.0. Based on the Laviron theory, the electron transfer rate constant of PB/Bi(2)Se(3) hybrid film modified electrode was calculated to be 4.05 ± 0.49 s(-1), a relatively big value which may be in favor of establishing a high-sensitive biosensor. An amperometric glucose biosensor was then fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on the hybrid film. Under the optimal conditions, a wide linear range extending over 3 orders of magnitude of glucose concentrations (1.0 × 10(-5)-1.1 × 10(-2)M) was obtained with a high sensitivity of 24.55 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The detection limit was estimated for 3.8 μM defined from a signal/noise of 3. Furthermore, the resulting biosensor was applied to detect the blood sugar in human serum samples without any pretreatment, and the results were comparatively in agreement with the clinical assay. PMID:22770830

  10. One-step fabrication of integrated disposable biosensor based on ADH/NAD+/meldola's blue/graphitized mesoporous carbons/chitosan nanobiocomposite for ethanol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Erhui; Wang, Li; Jing, Xiaoying; Chen, Changtao; Xie, Guoming

    2013-07-15

    A novel strategy to simplify the dehydrogenase-based electrochemical biosensor fabrication through one-step drop-coating nanobiocomposite on a screen printed electrode (SPE) was developed. The nanobiocomposite was prepared by successively adding graphitized mesoporous carbons (GMCs), meldola's blue (MDB), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) in chitosan (CS) solution. MDB/GMCs/CS film was prepared. Cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrated that MDB was strongly adsorbed on GMCs. After optimizing the concentration of MDB and the working potential, the MDB/GMCs/CS film presented a fast amperometric response (5s), excellent sensitivity (10.36 nA μM(-1)), wide linear range (10-410 μM) toward NADH and without any other interference signals (such as AA, UA, DA, H2O2 and metal ions). Furthermore, concentrations of ADH and NAD(+) in nanobiocomposite and the detection conditions (temperature and pH) were also optimized. The constructed disposable ethanol biosensor showed an excellent linear response ranged from 0.5 to 15 mM with high sensitivity (67.28 nA mM(-1)) and a low limit of detection (80 μM) and a remarkable long-term stability (40 days). The intra-batch and inter-batch variation coefficients were both less than 5% (n=5). The ethanol recovery test demonstrated that the proposed biosensor offered a remarkable and accurate method for ethanol detection in the real blood samples.

  11. Ultrasensitive detection of influenza viruses with a glycan-based impedimetric biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Hushegyi, András; Pihíková, Dominika; Bertók, Tomáš; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, René; Tkac, Jan

    2015-01-01

    An ultrasensitive impedimetric glycan-based biosensor for reliable and selective detection of inactivated, but intact influenza viruses H3N2 was developed. Such glycan-based approach has a distinct advantage over antibody-based detection of influenza viruses since glycans are natural viral receptors with a possibility to selectively distinguish between potentially pathogenic influenza subtypes by the glycan-based biosensors. Build-up of the biosensor was carefully optimized with atomic force ...

  12. A Nanofluidic Biosensor Based on Nanoreplica Molding Photonic Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wang; Chen, Youping; Ai, Wu; Zhang, Dailin

    2016-09-01

    A nanofluidic biosensor based on nanoreplica molding photonic crystal (PC) was proposed. UV epoxy PC was fabricated by nanoreplica molding on a master PC wafer. The nanochannels were sealed between the gratings on the PC surface and a taped layer. The resonance wavelength of PC-based nanofluidic biosensor was used for testing the sealing effect. According to the peak wavelength value of the sensor, an initial label-free experiment was realized with R6g as the analyte. When the PC-based biosensor was illuminated by a monochromatic light source with a specific angle, the resonance wavelength of the sensor will match with the light source and amplified the electromagnetic field. The amplified electromagnetic field was used to enhance the fluorescence excitation result. The enhancement effect was used for enhancing fluorescence excitation and emission when matched with the resonance condition. Alexa Fluor 635 was used as the target dye excited by 637-nm laser source on a configured photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) setup, and an initial PCEF enhancement factor was obtained.

  13. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized at gold nanoparticles decorated graphene-carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Tung; Huang, Tsung-Tao; Lin, Chun-Mao; Hwa, Kuo-Yuan; Chen, Ting-Yo; Chen, Bo-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Biopolymer pectin stabilized gold nanoparticles were prepared at graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (GR-MWNTs/AuNPs) and employed for the determination of glucose. The formation of GR-MWNTs/AuNPs was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy methods. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was successfully immobilized on GR-MWNTs/AuNPs film and direct electron transfer of GOx was investigated. GOx exhibits highly enhanced redox peaks with formal potential of -0.40 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The amount of electroactive GOx and electron transfer rate constant were found to be 10.5 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2) and 3.36 s(-1), respectively, which were significantly larger than the previous reports. The fabricated amperometric glucose biosensor sensitively detects glucose and showed two linear ranges: (1) 10 μM - 2 mM with LOD of 4.1 μM, (2) 2 mM - 5.2 mM with LOD of 0.95 mM. The comparison of the biosensor performance with reported sensors reveals the significant improvement in overall sensor performance. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited appreciable stability, repeatability, reproducibility and practicality. The other advantages of the fabricated biosensor are simple and green fabrication approach, roughed and stable electrode surface, fast in sensing and highly reproducible. PMID:26215343

  14. Design and characterization of a lactate biosensor based on immobilized lactate oxidase onto gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Casero, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, No 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pariente, F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lorenzo, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: encarnacion.lorenzo@uam.es

    2006-01-12

    The design and characterization of a lactate biosensor and its application to the determination of this analyte in wine and beer are described. The biosensor is developed through the immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) using two different strategies including direct adsorption and covalent binding. The characterization of the resulting lactate oxidase monolayers was performed in aqueous phosphate buffer solutions using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques. In presence of lactate and using hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator, biosensors obtained by either direct adsorption or by covalent binding exhibit a clear electrocatalytic activity, and lactate could be determined amperometrically at 300 mV versus SSCE. Results obtained under these conditions give a linear current response versus lactate concentration up to 0.3 mM, with a detection limit of 10 {mu}M of lactate and a sensitivity of 0.77 {+-} 0.08 {mu}A mM{sup -1}. Finally, biosensors were applied to the determination of lactate in wine and beer. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by a well-established enzymatic-spectrophotometric assay kit.

  15. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized at gold nanoparticles decorated graphene-carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Tung; Huang, Tsung-Tao; Lin, Chun-Mao; Hwa, Kuo-Yuan; Chen, Ting-Yo; Chen, Bo-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Biopolymer pectin stabilized gold nanoparticles were prepared at graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (GR-MWNTs/AuNPs) and employed for the determination of glucose. The formation of GR-MWNTs/AuNPs was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy methods. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was successfully immobilized on GR-MWNTs/AuNPs film and direct electron transfer of GOx was investigated. GOx exhibits highly enhanced redox peaks with formal potential of -0.40 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The amount of electroactive GOx and electron transfer rate constant were found to be 10.5 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2) and 3.36 s(-1), respectively, which were significantly larger than the previous reports. The fabricated amperometric glucose biosensor sensitively detects glucose and showed two linear ranges: (1) 10 μM - 2 mM with LOD of 4.1 μM, (2) 2 mM - 5.2 mM with LOD of 0.95 mM. The comparison of the biosensor performance with reported sensors reveals the significant improvement in overall sensor performance. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited appreciable stability, repeatability, reproducibility and practicality. The other advantages of the fabricated biosensor are simple and green fabrication approach, roughed and stable electrode surface, fast in sensing and highly reproducible.

  16. A separation-free amperometric immunosensor for vitellogenin based on screen-printed carbon arrays modified with a conductive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darain, Farzana; Park, Doeg Su; Park, Jang-Su; Chang, Seung-Cheol; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2005-03-15

    A disposable amperometric immunosensor was studied for the rapid detection of carp (Carassius auratus) Vitellogenin (Vtg). The sensor was fabricated based on screen-printed carbon arrays (SPCAs) containing eight carbon working and an integrated carbon counter electrodes. To construct the sensor, a conducting polymer (poly-terthiophene carboxylic acid) was electropolymerized on the surface of working electrodes and the polymer-coated SPCAs was characterized by SEM. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a monoclonal antibody (anti-Vtg) specific to carp Vtg were covalently attached onto the polymer modified SPCAs. The immobilization of HRP and anti-Vtg onto the polymer-coated SPCAs was examined using cyclic voltammetry and quartz crystal microbalance studies. In order to detect the amount of Vtg, glucose oxidase (GOx)-labelled Vtg bound to the sensor surface under competition with the Vtg analyte was quantified amperometrically using glucose as a substrate. The performance of the eight sensors in arrays was evaluated by obtaining the calibration plots for Vtg. The sensor arrays exhibit a linear range of the Vtg concentration from 0.25 to 7.8 ng/ml and the detection limit was determined to be 0.09 ng/ml. Furthermore, the performance of the immunosensor for the determination of Vtg was evaluated by a standard addition method performed in fish serum samples. PMID:15681194

  17. Biosensors based on GaN nanoring optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Takeshima, Hoshi; Kishino, Katsumi; Sakai, Masaru; Hara, Kazuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Biosensors based on GaN nanoring optical cavities were demonstrated using room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The outer diameter, height, and thickness of the GaN nanorings were approximately 750–800, 900, and 130–180 nm, respectively. The nanorings functioned as whispering-gallery-mode (WGM)-type optical cavities and exhibited sharp resonant peaks like lasing actions. The evanescent component of the WGM was strongly affected by the refractive index of the ambient environment, the type of liquid, and the sucrose concentration of the analyzed solution, resulting in shifts of the resonant wavelengths. The results indicate that the GaN nanorings can potentially be used in sugar sensors of the biosensors.

  18. Effects of food surface topography on phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Shin; Chai, Yating; Zhao, Ruiting; Wikle, Howard C.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2014-05-01

    Phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors have proven useful in rapidly and inexpensively detecting food surface con- tamination. These biosensors are wireless, mass-sensitive biosensors and can be placed directly on food surfaces to detect the presence of target pathogens. Previously, millimeter-scale strip-shaped ME biosensors have been used to demonstrate direct detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on various fresh produce surfaces, including tomatoes, shell eggs, watermel- ons, and spinach leaves. Since the topography of these produce surfaces are different, and the biosensor must come into direct contact with Salmonella bacteria, food surfaces with large roughness and curvatures (e.g., spinach leaf surfaces) may allow the bacteria to avoid direct contact, thereby avoiding detection. The primary objective of this paper is, hence, to investigate the effects of food surface topography on the detection capabilities of the biosensors. Spinach leaf surfaces were selected as model surfaces, and detection experiments were conducted with differently sized biosensors (2 mm, 0.5 mm, and 150 μm in length). Spinach leaf roughness and curvatures of both adaxial (top) and abaxial (underside) surfaces were measured using a confocal laser scanning microscope. The experimental results showed that in spinach as the sen- sor was made smaller, the physical contact between the biosensors and bacteria were improved. Smaller sensors thereby enhance detection capabilities. When proper numbers of biosensors are used, micron-scale biosensors are anticipated to yield improved limits of detection over previously investigated millimeter-scale biosensors.

  19. DNA nanostructures based biosensor for the determination of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, S Baby; Kamaraj, P; Arthanareeswari, M; Devikala, S

    2015-10-15

    Graphite electrode was modified using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), chitosan (CS), glutaraldehyde (GTA) and DNA nanostructures (nsDNA). DNA nanostructures of 50 nm in size were produced from single DNA template sequence using a simple two step procedure and were confirmed using TEM and AFM analysis. The modified electrode was applied to the electrochemical detection of aromatic compounds using EIS. The modified electrode was characterized using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). For comparison, electrochemical results derived from single stranded (50 bp length) and double stranded (50 bp length) DNA based biosensors were used. The results indicate that the modified electrode prior to nsDNA immobilization provides a viable platform that effectively promotes electron transfer between nsDNA and the electrode. The mode of binding between the nsDNA and aromatic compounds was investigated using EIS, indicating that the dominant interaction is non-covalent. nsDNA based biosensor was observed to act as an efficient biosensor in selective and sensitive identification of aromatic compounds.

  20. Electrochemical biosensors and logic devices based on aptamers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Xiaolei; Lin Meihua; Fan Chunhai

    2013-01-01

    Aptamers are molecular recognition elements with high specificity that are selected from deoxyribonucleic acid/ribonucleic acid (DNA/RNA) library.Compared with the traditional protein recognition elements,aptamers have excellent properties such as cost-effective,stable,easy for synthesis and modification.In recent years,electrochemistry plays an important role in biosensor field because of its high sensitivity,high stability,fast response and easy miniaturization.Through the combination of these two technologies and our rational design,we constructed a series of biosensors and biochips that are simple,fast,cheap and miniaturized.Firstly,we designed an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) electrochemical biosensor based on the strand displacement strategy.We can detect as low as 10 nmol/L of ATP both in pure solution and complicated cell lysates.Secondly,we creatively split the aptamers into two fragments and constructed the sandwich assay platform only based on single aptamer sequence.We successfully transferred this design on biochips with multiple micro electrodes (6×6) and accomplished multiplex detection.In the fields of biochips and biocomputers,we designed several DNA logic gates with electric (electrochemical) signal as output which paves a new way for the development of DNA computer.

  1. Determination of uric acid level by polyaniline and poly (allylamine): Based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathoni, Nasrul; Hasanah, Aliya Nur; Gozali, Dolih; Wahyuni, Yeni; Fauziah, Lia Layusa

    2014-01-01

    The uric acid biosensor has been much developed by immobilizing uricase enzyme into the membrane of conductive polymer and the membrane of polyelectrolyte such as polyaniline (PANI) and poly (allylamine) (PAA) respectively. The purpose of this research was to create a new amperometric uric acid biosensor by immobilization of uricase in combination between PANI and PAA membranes. The working electrode was Pt plate (0.5 mm). The auxiliary and the reference electrode were Pt wire 0.4 mm and Ag/AgCl respectively. Uricase, uric acid, PAA, pyrrole and glutaraldehyde were supplied from Sigma. All other chemical was obtained from Merck. The biosensor was created by immobilizing of uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on PANI composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode while the polyelectrolyte layer of PAA were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly on the electrode, functioning as H2O2-selective film. Standard of deviation, coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of correlation (r) analysis were used in this study. The biosensor had a good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and it could be used up to 27 times with the CV value of 3.97%. The presence of other compounds such as glucose and ascorbic acid gave 1.3 ± 1.13% and 3.27 ± 2.29% respectively on the interference effect toward the current response of uric acid biosensor. The polymer combination of PANI and PAA can be used as a selective matrix of uric acid biosensor. PMID:24696812

  2. Determination of uric acid level by polyaniline and poly (allylamine: Based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Wathoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The uric acid biosensor has been much developed by immobilizing uricase enzyme into the membrane of conductive polymer and the membrane of polyelectrolyte such as polyaniline (PANI and poly (allylamine (PAA respectively. The purpose of this research was to create a new amperometric uric acid biosensor by immobilization of uricase in combination between PANI and PAA membranes. The working electrode was Pt plate (0.5 mm. The auxiliary and the reference electrode were Pt wire 0.4 mm and Ag/AgCl respectively. Uricase, uric acid, PAA, pyrrole and glutaraldehyde were supplied from Sigma. All other chemical was obtained from Merck. The biosensor was created by immobilizing of uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on PANI composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode while the polyelectrolyte layer of PAA were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly on the electrode, functioning as H 2 O 2 -selective film. Standard of deviation, coefficient of variation (CV and coefficient of correlation (r analysis were used in this study. The biosensor had a good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and it could be used up to 27 times with the CV value of 3.97%. The presence of other compounds such as glucose and ascorbic acid gave 1.3 ± 1.13% and 3.27 ± 2.29% respectively on the interference effect toward the current response of uric acid biosensor. The polymer combination of PANI and PAA can be used as a selective matrix of uric acid biosensor.

  3. Study on Rhizoma Chuanxiong based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection(CE-AD) method has been developed for the analysis of seven bioactive ingredients,namely ferulic acid(FA),vanillin,vanillic acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid,caffeic acid,gallic acid and protocatechuic acid,in Rhizoma Chuanxiong.The effects of several factors such as the acidity and concentration of running buffer,the separation voltage,the applied potential to working electrode and the injection time were investigated.Under the optimum con...

  4. A Novel Amperometric Nitric Oxide Sensor Based on Polythionine /Nation Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel amperometric sensor for the determination of nitric oxide was developed by coating polythionine / nafion on a glassy carbon electrode. This sensor exhibited a great enhancement to the oxidation of nitric oxide. The oxidation peak currents were linear to the concentration of nitric oxide over the wide range from 3.6×10-7 to 6.8×10-5 mol. L-1, and the detection limit was 7.2×10-8 mol. L-1. Experimental results showed that this nitric oxide sensor possessed excellent selectivity and longer stability. NO releasing from rat kidney was monitored by this sensor.

  5. Papers Based Electrochemical Biosensors: From Test Strips to Paper-Based Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bingwen; Du, Dan; Hua, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-08

    Papers based biosensors such as lateral flow test strips and paper-based microfluidic devices (or paperfluidics) are inexpensive, rapid, flexible, and easy-to-use analytical tools. An apparent trend in their detection is to interpret sensing results from qualitative assessment to quantitative determination. Electrochemical detection plays an important role in quantification. This review focuses on electrochemical (EC) detection enabled biosensors. The first part provides detailed examples in paper test strips. The second part gives an overview of paperfluidics engaging EC detections. The outlook and recommendation of future directions of EC enabled biosensors are discussed in the end.

  6. Giant Magnetoresistance Based Biosensor for Detection of Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatramana D Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a simple and sensitive method for the detection of influenza A virus (IAV based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR biosensor. This assay employs monoclonal antibodies to viral nucleoprotein (NP in combination with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs. Presence of influenza virus allows the binding of MNPs to the GMR sensor and the binding is proportional to the concentration of virus. Binding of MNPs onto the GMR sensor causes change in the resistance of sensor, which is measured in a real time electrical readout. GMR biosensor detected as low as 1.5 × 102 TCID50/mL virus and the signal intensity increased with increasing concentration of virus up to 1.0 × 105 TCID50/mL. This study showed that the GMR biosensor assay is relevant for diagnostic application since the virus concentration in nasal samples of influenza virus infected swine was reported to be in the range of 103 to 105 TCID50/mL.

  7. A liquid-crystal-based DNA biosensor for pathogen detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mashooq; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Shin, Jae-Ho; Park, Soo-Young

    2016-03-01

    A liquid-crystal (LC)-filled transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid cell coated with the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), to which a single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid probe (ssDNAprobe) was adsorbed at the LC/aqueous interface (TEMDTAB/DNA), was applied for the highly specific detection of target DNA molecules. The DTAB-coated E7 (used LC mixture) in the TEM grid (TEMDTAB) exhibited a homeotropic orientation, and changed to a planar orientation upon adsorption of the ssDNAprobe. The TEMDTAB/DNA was then exposed to complementary (target) ssDNA, which resulted in a planar-to-homeotropic configurational change of E7 that could be observed through a polarized optical microscope under crossed polarizers. The optimum adsorption density (2 μM) of ssDNAprobe enabled the detection of ≥0.05 nM complementary ssDNA. This TEMDTAB/DNA biosensor could differentiate complementary ssDNA from mismatched ssDNA as well as double-stranded DNA. It also successfully detected the genomic DNAs of the bacterium Erwinia carotovora and the fungi Rhazictonia solani. Owe to the high specificity, sensitivity, and label-free detection, this biosensor may broaden the applications of LC-based biosensors to pathogen detection.

  8. A New Application of Carbon Nanotubes Constructing Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes used for constructing biosensor was described for the first time. Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized with carboxylic acid groups were used to immobilize glucose oxidase forming a glucose biosensor. The biosensor response can be determined by amperometric method at a low applied potential (0.40 V).

  9. A sensitive amperometric bromate sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes/phosphomolybdic acid composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amperometric sensor for bromate was developed based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) composite film coated on a pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrode. MWNTs are dispersed in PMo12 aqueous solution through spontaneous and strong chemisorption between carbon and polyoxometalate, which results in a homogeneous MWNTs/PMo12 composite. Due to the unique electronic and electrocatalytic properties of MWNTs and PMo12, the combination of MWNTs and PMo12 results in a remarkable synergistic augmentation on the response current. The bromate sensor based on the PG/MWNTs/PMo12 electrode has excellent characteristics, such as a detection limit of 0.5 μM, a sensitivity of 760.9 μA mM-1 cm-2, a response time less than 2 s and a linear range from 5 μM to 15 mM

  10. Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} nanostructures produced by convenient microwave-hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongying, E-mail: liuhongying@hdu.edu.cn [College of Life Information Science & Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Gu, Chunchuan [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310002 (China); Li, Dujuan; Zhang, Mingzhen [College of Life Information Science & Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: A non-enzymatic H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor with high selectivity and sensitivity based on rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} synthesized by the convenient microwave-assisted hydrothermal method, was fabricated. - Highlights: • Rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} is synthesized within 10 min via microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach. • Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on FeMoO{sub 4} nanomaterials is fabricated. • The biosensor exhibits good performance. - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrated a simple, rapid and reliable microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach to synthesize the uniform rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} within 10 min. The morphologies of the synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, a non-enzymatic amperometric sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was fabricated on the basis of the FeMoO{sub 4} as electrocatalysis. The resulting FeMoO{sub 4} exhibited high sensitivity and good stability for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which may be attributed to the rose-shaped structure of the material and the catalytic property of FeMoO{sub 4}. Amperometric response showed that the modified electrode had a good response for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with a linear range from 1 μM to 1.6 mM, a detection limit of 0.5 μM (S/N = 3), high selectivity and short response time. Additionally, good recoveries of analytes in real milk samples confirm the reliability of the prepared sensor in practical applications.

  11. Light-addressable amperometric electrodes for enzyme sensors based on direct quantum dot-electrode contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Göbel, G.; Parak, W. J.; Lisdat, F.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum dots allow the generation of charge carriers upon illumination. When these particles are attached to an electrode a photocurrent can be generated. This allows their use as a light-switchable layer on the surface. The QDs can not only exchange electronics with the electrode, but can also interact with donor or acceptor compounds in solution providing access to the construction of signal chains starting from an analytic molecule. The magnitude and the direction of the photocurrent depend on several factors such as electrode polarization, solution pH and composition. These defined dependencies have been evaluated with respect to the combination of QD-electrodes with enzyme reactions for sensorial purpose. CdSe/ZnS-QD-modified electrodes can be used to follow enzymatic reactions in solution based on the oxygen sensitivity. In order to develop a photoelectrochemical biosensor, e.g. glucose oxidase is immobilized on the CdSe/ZnS-electrode. One immobilization strategy applies the layer-by-layer-technique of GOD and a polyelectrolyte. Photocurrent measurements of such a sensor show a clear concentration dependent behavior. The principle of combing QD oxidase. The sensitivity of quantum dot electrodes can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be demonstrated that direct electron transfer from excited quantum dots can be achieved with the redox protein cytochrome c. This allows the detection of the protein, but also interaction partners such as a enzymes or superoxide.

  12. Development of mercury (II) ion biosensors based on mercury-specific oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanying; Wen, Yanli; Xu, Li; Xu, Qin; Song, Shiping; Zuo, Xiaolei; Yan, Juan; Zhang, Weijia; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (II) ion (Hg(2+)) contamination can be accumulated along the food chain and cause serious threat to the public health. Plenty of research effort thus has been devoted to the development of fast, sensitive and selective biosensors for monitoring Hg(2+). Thymine was demonstrated to specifically combine with Hg(2+) and form a thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) structure, with binding constant even higher than T-A Watson-Crick pair in DNA duplex. Recently, various novel Hg(2+) biosensors have been developed based on T-rich Mercury-Specific Oligonucleotide (MSO) probes, and exhibited advanced selectivity and excellent sensitivity for Hg(2+) detection. In this review, we explained recent development of MSO-based Hg(2+) biosensors mainly in 3 groups: fluorescent biosensors, colorimetric biosensors and electrochemical biosensors.

  13. A novel biosensor method for surfactant determination based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel enzyme biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition for the determination of surfactants in aqueous solutions is described. Acetylcholinesterase-based bioselective element was deposited via glutaraldehyde on the surface of conductometric transducers. Different variants of inhibitory analysis of surfactants were tested, and finally surfactant's concentration was evaluated by measuring initial rate of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Besides, we studied the effect of solution characteristics on working parameters of the biosensor for direct measurement of acetylcholine and for inhibitory determination of surfactants. The biosensor's sensitivity to anionic and cationic surfactants (0.35 mg l−1) was tested. The high operational stability of the biosensor during determination of acetylcholine (RSD 2%) and surfactants (RSD 11%) was shown. Finally, we discussed the selectivity of the biosensor toward surfactants and other AChE inhibitors. The proposed biosensor can be used as a component of the multibiosensor for ecological monitoring of toxicants. (paper)

  14. Novel biosensors based on flavonoid-responsive transcriptional regulators introduced into Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siedler, Solvej; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Malla, Sailesh;

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the construction of two flavonoid biosensors, which can be applied for metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli strains. The biosensors are based on transcriptional regulators combined with autofluorescent proteins. The transcriptional activator FdeR from Herbaspirillum sero....... coli cells containing a flavonol synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (fls1). We expect the designed biosensors to be applied for isolation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. © 2013 The Authors.......This study describes the construction of two flavonoid biosensors, which can be applied for metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli strains. The biosensors are based on transcriptional regulators combined with autofluorescent proteins. The transcriptional activator FdeR from Herbaspirillum...... seropedicae SmR1 responds to naringenin, while the repressor QdoR from Bacillus subtilis is inactivated by quercetin and kaempferol. Both biosensors showed over a 7-fold increase of the fluorescent signal after addition of their specific effectors, and a linear correlation between the fluorescence intensity...

  15. A novel PDMS micro membrane biosensor based on the analysis of surface stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Witte, Hartmut

    2010-07-15

    The biological and medical application of biosensors is more and more important with the development of technology and society. Detection of cells and biological molecules utilizing biosensors based on the analysis of surface stress would facilitate inexpensive and high-throughput test and diagnosis. This paper presents a biocompatible surface stress-based polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro membrane biosensor. Each biosensor chip consists of two available PDMS micro membranes, one acts as active membrane and the other as reference. Biosensors were functionalized using different functional materials respectively: MUA (11 Mercapto 1 undecanoicacid), MUO (11 Mercapto 1 undecanol) and DOT (Dodecane thiol). Two biosensor test systems were built based on a white light interferometer and a fiber optic interferometer respectively. Finally, testing experiments using Escherichia coli (E. coli) were performed based on the biosensor test systems we built. The results of the experiments showed that the MUA is a better functional material to functionalize the biosensor membranes than MUO and DOT for E. coli detection, some properties of E. coli, such as healthily living and dead status, can be analyzed based on the PDMS micro membrane biosensors.

  16. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the development of electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Wang, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a very attractive material for the development of biosensors because of its capability to provide strong electrocatalytic activity and minimize surface fouling of the sensors. This article reviews our recent developments of oxidase- and dehydrogenase-amperometric biosensors based on the immobilization of CNTs, the co-immobilization of enzymes on the CNTs/Nafion or the CNT/Teflon composite materials, or the attachment of enzymes on the controlled-density aligned CNT-nanoelectrode arrays. The excellent electrocatalytic activities of the CNTs on the redox reactions of hydrogen peroxide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and homocysteine have been demonstrated. Successful applications of the CNT-based biosensors reviewed herein include the low-potential detections of glucose, organophosphorus compounds, and alcohol. PMID:15574386

  17. Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) for the Development of Electrochemical Biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Wang, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a very attractive material for the development of biosensors because of its capability to provide strong electrocatalytic activity and minimize surface fouling of the sensors. This article reviews our recent developments of oxidase- and dehydrogenase-amperometric biosensors based on the immobilization of CNTs, the co-immobilization of enzymes on the CNTs/Nafion or the CNT/Teflon composite materials, or the attachment of enzymes on the controlled-density aligned CNT-nanoelectrode arrays. The excellent electrocatalytic activities of the CNTs on the redox reactions of hydrogen peroxide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and homocysteine have been demonstrated. Successful applications of the CNT-based biosensors reviewed herein include the low-potential detections of glucose, organophosphorus compounds, and alcohol.

  18. Development of glucose biosensor based on reconstitution of glucose oxidase onto polymeric redox mediator coated pencil graphite electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Cevik, Emre; Senel, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel glucose biosensor was fabricated by reconstitutional immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-vinylferrocene) (poly(GMA-co-VFc)) film coated pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The amperometric current response of poly(GMA-co-VFc)-GOx to glucose is linear in the concentration range between 1 and 16mM (correlation coefficient of 0.9998) with a detection limit of 2.7μM (S/N=3). Experimental parameters were studied in detail and optimized, including the pH and temperature governing the analytical performance of the biosensor. The stability and reusability of the biosensor as well as its kinetic parameters have also been studied. PMID:25435508

  19. Lab-on-a-chip based biosensor for the real-time detection of aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Yıldız; Esen, Elif; Kokturk, Guzin; Ozer, Hayrettin; Muhammad, Turghun; Olcer, Zehra; Basegmez, H Imge Oktay; Simsek, Senay; Barut, Serkan; Gok, M Yagmur; Akgun, Mete; Altintas, Zeynep

    2016-11-01

    Polymers were synthesized and utilized for aflatoxin detection coupled with a novel lab-on-a-chip biosensor: MiSens and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were preferred to be designed and used due to the toxic nature of aflatoxin template and also to avoid difficult clean-up protocols. Towards an innovative miniaturized automated system, a novel biochip has been designed that consists of 6 working electrodes (1mm diameter) with shared reference and counter electrodes. The aflatoxin detection has been achieved by a competition immunoassay that has been performed using the new biochips and the automated MiSens electrochemical biosensor device. For the assay, aflatoxin antibody has been captured on the Protein A immobilized electrode. Subsequently the sample and the enzyme-aflatoxin conjugate mixture has been injected to the electrode surfaces. The final injection of the enzyme substrate results in an amperometric signal. The sensor assays for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in different matrices were also performed using enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and HPLC for confirmation. High recovery was successfully achieved in spiked wheat samples using NIP coupled HPLC and NIP coupled MiSens biosensor [2ppb of aflatoxin was determined as 1.86ppb (93% recovery), 1.73ppb (86.5% recovery), 1.96ppb (98% recovery) and 1.88ppb (94.0% recovery) for immunoaffinity column (IAC)-HPLC, NIP-HPLC, Supel™ Tox SPE Cartridges (SUP)-HPLC and NIP-MiSens, respectively]. Aflatoxin detection in fig samples were also investigated with MiSens biosensor and the results were compared with HPLC method. The new biosensor allows real-time and on-site detection of AFB1 in foods with a rapid, sensitive, fully automated and miniaturized system and expected to have an immense economic impact for food industry. PMID:27591628

  20. Amperometric Detection of Aqueous Silver Ions by Inhibition of Glucose Oxidase Immobilized on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Ian M; Goran, Jacob M; Stevenson, Keith J

    2015-07-21

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) was successfully developed for the determination of silver ions. Upon exposure to glucose, a steady-state enzymatic turnover rate was detected through amperometric oxidation of the H2O2 byproduct, directly related to the concentration of glucose in solution. Inhibition of the steady-state enzymatic glucose oxidase reaction by heavy metals ions such as Ag(+), produced a quantitative decrease in the steady-state rate, subsequently creating an ultrasensitive metal ion biosensor through enzymatic inhibition. The Ag(+) biosensor displayed a sensitivity of 2.00 × 10(8) ± 0.06 M(-1), a limit of detection (σ = 3) of 0.19 ± 0.04 ppb, a linear range of 20-200 nM, and sample recovery at 101 ± 2%, all acquired at a low-operating potential of 0.05 V (vs Hg/Hg2SO4). Interestingly, the biosensor does not display a loss in sensitivity with continued use due to the % inhibition based detection scheme: loss of enzyme (from continued use) does not influence the % inhibition, only the overall current associated with the activity loss. The heavy metals Cu(2+) and Co(2+) were also detected using the enzyme biosensor but found to be much less inhibitory, with sensitivities of 1.45 × 10(6) ± 0.05 M(-1) and 2.69 × 10(3) ± 0.07 M(-1), respectively. The mode of GOx inhibition was examined for both Ag(+) and Cu(2+) using Dixon and Cornish-Bowden plots, where a strong correlation was observed between the inhibition constants and the biosensor sensitivity. PMID:26079664

  1. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dietler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.

  2. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Liu; Qiang Liu; Shimeng Chen; Fang Cheng; Hanqi Wang; Wei Peng

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone’s LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the ph...

  3. Cholesterol Biosensor Based on Entrapment of Monoenzyme and Multienzymes in Clay/Chitosan Hybrid Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Shan; YanNa Wang; HuaiGuo Xue; En Han

    2009-01-01

    @@ This work aimed at showing the interest of the composite material based on layered double hydroxides(LDHs) and chitosan (CHT) as suitable host matrix likely to immobilize enzyme onto electrode surface for amperometric biosensing application.This hybrid material combined the advantages of inorganic LDHs and organic biopolymer,CHT.

  4. New approaches for carbon nanotubes-based biosensors and their application to cell culture monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Cristina; Olivo, Jacopo; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro

    2012-10-01

    Amperometric biosensors are complex systems and they require a combination of technologies for their development. The aim of the present work is to propose a new approach in order to develop nanostructured biosensors for the real-time detection of multiple metabolites in cell culture flasks. The fabrication of five Au working electrodes onto silicon substrate is achieved with CMOS compatible microtechnology. Each working electrode presents an area of 0.25 mm², so structuration with carbon nanotubes and specific functionalization are carried out by using spotting technology, originally developed for microarrays and DNA printing. The electrodes are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and compared with commercially available screen-printed electrodes. Measurements are carried out under flow conditions, so a simple fluidic system is developed to guarantee a continuous flow next to the electrodes. The working electrodes are functionalized with different enzymes and calibrated for the real-time detection of glucose, lactate, and glutamate. Finally, some tests are performed on surnatant conditioned medium sampled from neuroblastoma cells (NG-108 cell line) to detect glucose and lactate concentration after 72 hours of cultivation. The developed biosensor for real-time and online detection of multiple metabolites shows very promising results towards circuits and systems for cell culture monitoring. PMID:23853234

  5. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhigang; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis [Brunel Institute for Bioengineering, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Song, Wenhui [Wolfson Centre for Materials Processing, Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Li Yali; Zhong Xiaohua, E-mail: wenhui.song@brunel.ac.uk [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Nankai District, Tianjin 300073 (China)

    2010-04-23

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 {mu}m in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 deg. C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 {mu}M. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  6. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Song, Wenhui; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Li, Ya-Li; Zhong, Xiao-Hua

    2010-04-23

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 microm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 degrees C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 microM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor. PMID:20348597

  7. Novel concepts for silicon-based biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoening, M.J. [Inst. of Thin Films and Interfaces, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Univ. of Applied Sciences Aachen, Div. Juelich (Germany); Lueth, H. [Inst. of Thin Films and Interfaces, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2001-05-16

    Microfabricated semiconductor devices are becoming increasingly relevant also for (bio)-chemical sensors. The techniques will have a crucial impact in application fields such as medicine, food technology, environment, chemistry and biotechnology as well as information processing. Therefore, scientists and engineers are interested in the analytical benefits of miniaturised and microfabricated sensors. In this paper, novel concepts for silicon-based sensors are discussed: Fabrication of thin films by means of pulsed laser deposition technique; enzyme immobilisation by means of heterobifunctional cross-linking; three-dimensionally structured silicon-based chemical sensors coupled with biomolecules; and the realisation of biohybrid sensors by immobilising living cells or intact chemoreceptors to silicon transducers. (orig.)

  8. Numerical simulation on development of a SAW based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, S. T.; Hashim, U.; Sudin, A.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Liu, W. W.; Foo, K. L.; Voon, C. H.; Wee, F. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Salleh, N. H. M.; Nazwa, T.

    2016-07-01

    Surface acoustic waves can be generated at the free surface of an elastic solid. For this property, surface acoustic based devices were initially developed for the telecommunication purpose such as signal filters and resonators. The acoustic energy is strongly confined on the surface of the surface acoustic waves (SAW) based devices and consequent their ultra-sensitivity to the surface perturbation. This has made SAW permits the highly sensitive detection of utterly diminutive charges on the surface. Hence, SAW based devices have been modified to be sensors for the mass loading effect on its surface and this is perfectly for biosensor development. There have been a lot of complicated theoretical models for the SAW devices development since 1960 as signal filters and resonators such as from delta function model, equivalent circuit model, to the current SAW models such as coupling-of-modes (COM) model, P-matrix model and Computer Simulation Technology Studio Suite (CST). However, these models are more tailored for the telecommunication application purposes and very complex. Thus, this paper presents the finite element analysis (FEA) modeling, COMSOL Multiphysics which is used to study the mass loading effect on SAW which will be used as biosensor. This study managed to simulate the mass loading sensitivity of 8.71×107 kHz/g mm-2.

  9. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone’s LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone’s camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  10. Optical Biosensors Based on Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of semiconductor-based nanostructures with novel and unique properties has sparked widespread interest in their use in the field of biosensing. The precise control over the size, shape and composition of these nanostructures leads to the accurate control of their physico-chemical properties and overall behavior. Furthermore, modifications can be made to the nanostructures to better suit their integration with biological systems, leading to such interesting properties as enhanced aqueous solubility, biocompatibility or bio-recognition. In the present work, the most significant applications of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of optical biosensing will be reviewed. In particular, the use of quantum dots as fluorescent bioprobes, which is the most widely used application, will be discussed. In addition, the use of some other nanometric structures in the field of biosensing, including porous semiconductors and photonic crystals, will be presented.

  11. A flow injection system, comprising a biosensor based on a screen-printed carbon electrode containing Meldola's Blue-Reinecke salt coated with glucose dehydrogenase, for the measurement of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, M; Serban, S; Biddle, N; Pittson, R; Drago, G A; Hart, J P

    2010-01-15

    A biosensor for the measurement of glucose in serum has been developed, based on a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with Meldola's Blue-Reinecke salt, coated with the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase (from Bacillus sp.), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme (NAD+). A cellulose acetate layer was deposited on top of the device to act as a permselective membrane. The biosensor was incorporated into a commercially available, thin-layer, amperometric flow cell operated at a potential of only +0.05 V versus Ag/AgCl. The mobile phase consisted of 0.2 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.1 M potassium chloride solution, and a flow rate of 0.8 ml min(-1) was used throughout the investigation. The biosensor response was linear over the range of 0.075-30 mM glucose, with the former representing the detection limit. The precision of the system was determined by carrying out 20 repeat injections of a 5-mM glucose standard, and the calculated coefficient of variation was 3.9%. It was demonstrated that this biosensor system could be applied to the direct measurement of glucose in serum without pretreatment. Therefore, this would allow high-throughput analysis, at low cost, for this clinically important analyte. PMID:19766585

  12. Polypyrrole microtubules and their use in the construction of a third generation biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopal, C.G.J.; Feiters, M.C.; Nolte, R.J.M. (Nijmegen SON Research Center, Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands)); Ruiter, B. de (TNO Industrial Research, Plastics and Rubber Research Inst., Delft (Netherlands)); Schasfoort, R.B.M. (TNO Food Research, Inst. of Biotechnology and Chemistry, Zeist (Netherlands)); Czajka, R.; Kempen, H. van (Univ. of Nijmegen, Research Inst. for Materials (Netherlands))

    1992-09-01

    Conducting polypyrrole microtubules have been prepared by template synthesis inside track-etch membranes. The interiors of these microtubules can adsorb the redox enzyme, glucose oxidase. The enzyme-coated tubules have been employed in the construction of a third generation amperometric biosensor for the determination of glucose. With this biosensor, glucose concentrations in the range 0.1 - 250 mM can be measured easily. The polypyrrole microtubules have been characterized by different microscopic techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy. Based on the microscopy data, a model is presented for the interaction between the conducting polymer and the glucose oxidase molecules. (orig.).

  13. Graphene- and aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Meshik, Xenia; Nichols, Barbara M; Zakar, Eugene; Dutta, Mitra; Stroscio, Michael A

    2014-05-23

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a graphene- and aptamer-based field-effect-transistor-like (FET-like) sensor in detecting lead and potassium ions. The sensor consists of a graphene-covered Si/SiO2 wafer with thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) attached to the graphene layer and terminated by a methylene blue (MB) molecule. K(+) and Pb(2+) both bind to TBA and cause a conformational change, which results in MB moving closer to the graphene surface and donating an electron. Thus, the abundance of K(+) and Pb(2+) can be determined by monitoring the current across the source and drain channel. Device transfer curves were obtained with ambipolar field effect observed. Current readings were taken for K(+) concentrations of 100 μM to 50 mM and Pb(2+) concentrations of 10 μM to 10 mM. As expected, I d decreased as ion concentration increased. In addition, there was a negative shift in V Dirac in response to increased ion concentration.

  14. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nile Hartman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical phenomena such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization, interference and non-linearity have been extensively used for biosensing applications. Optical waveguides (both planar and fiber-optic are comprised of a material with high permittivity/high refractive index surrounded on all sides by materials with lower refractive indices, such as a substrate and the media to be sensed. This arrangement allows coupled light to propagate through the high refractive index waveguide by total internal reflection and generates an electromagnetic wave—the evanescent field—whose amplitude decreases exponentially as the distance from the surface increases. Excitation of fluorophores within the evanescent wave allows for sensitive detection while minimizing background fluorescence from complex, “dirty” biological samples. In this review, we will describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of planar optical waveguide-based biodetection technologies. This discussion will include already commercialized technologies (e.g., Corning’s EPIC® Ô, SRU Biosystems’ BIND™, Zeptosense®, etc. and new technologies that are under research and development. We will also review differing assay approaches for the detection of various biomolecules, as well as the thin-film coatings that are often required for waveguide functionalization and effective detection. Finally, we will discuss reverse-symmetry waveguides, resonant waveguide grating sensors and metal-clad leaky waveguides as alternative signal transducers in optical biosensing.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on gold nanoparticles/thionine/gold nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosans composite film-modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shenfeng; Zhu Xiaoying; Zhang Wei; Xie Guoming [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, Ministry of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Feng Wenli, E-mail: fengwlcqmu@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, Ministry of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2012-01-15

    In this paper, an amperometric electrochemical biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs)/thionine (Thi)/GNPs/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-chitosans (Chits) composite film was developed. MWCNTs-Chits homogeneous composite was first dispersed in acetic acid solution and then the GNPs were in situ synthesized at the composite. The mixture was dripped on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and then the Thi was deposited by electropolymerization by Au-S or Au-N covalent bond effect and electrostatic adsorption effect as an electron transfer mediator. Finally, the mixture of GNPs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was assembled onto the modified electrode by covalent bond. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscope, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. This study introduces the in situ-synthesized GNPs on the other surface of the modified materials in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection. The linear response range of the biosensor to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration was from 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} to 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mol L{sup -1} with a detection limit of 3.75 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} (based on S/N = 3).

  16. GMR-based PhC biosensor: FOM analysis and experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamprasad, Jagadeesh; Narayanan, Roshni; Joseph, Joby [Photonics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, 110016 (India); Takahashi, Hiroki; Sandhu, Adarsh [EIIRIS, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan); Jindal, Rajeev [Corporate R and D, Moser Baer India Ltd, Greater Noida, 201306 (India)

    2014-02-20

    Guided Mode Resonance based Photonic crystal biosensor has a lot of potential applications. In our work, we are trying to improve their figure of merit values in order to achieve an optimum level through design and fabrication techniques. A robust and low-cost alternative for current biosensors is also explored through this research.

  17. Electroanalytical biosensors and their potential for food pathogen and toxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, Ilaria; Mascini, Marco

    2008-05-01

    The detection and identification of foodborne pathogens continue to rely on conventional culturing techniques. These are very elaborate, time-consuming, and have to be completed in a microbiology laboratory and are therefore not suitable for on-site monitoring. The need for a more rapid, reliable, specific, and sensitive method of detecting a target analyte, at low cost, is the focus of a great deal of research. Biosensor technology has the potential to speed up the detection, increase specificity and sensitivity, enable high-throughput analysis, and to be used for monitoring of critical control points in food production. This article reviews food pathogen detection methods based on electrochemical biosensors, specifically amperometric, potentiometric, and impedimetric biosensors. The underlying principles and application of these biosensors are discussed with special emphasis on new biorecognition elements, nanomaterials, and lab on a chip technology.

  18. Escherichia coli bacteria detection by using graphene-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Elnaz; Buntat, Zolkafle; Afroozeh, Abdolkarim; Zeinalinezhad, Alireza; Nikoukar, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Graphene is an allotrope of carbon with two-dimensional (2D) monolayer honeycombs. A larger detection area and higher sensitivity can be provided by graphene-based nanosenor because of its 2D structure. In addition, owing to its special characteristics, including electrical, optical and physical properties, graphene is known as a more suitable candidate compared to other materials used in the sensor application. A novel model employing a field-effect transistor structure using graphene is proposed and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of graphene are employed to model the sensing mechanism. This biosensor can detect Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, providing high levels of sensitivity. It is observed that the graphene device experiences a drastic increase in conductance when exposed to E. coli bacteria at 0-10(5) cfu/ml concentration. The simple, fast response and high sensitivity of this nanoelectronic biosensor make it a suitable device in screening and functional studies of antibacterial drugs and an ideal high-throughput platform which can detect any pathogenic bacteria. Artificial neural network and support vector regression algorithms have also been used to provide other models for the I-V characteristic. A satisfactory agreement has been presented by comparison between the proposed models with the experimental data. PMID:26435280

  19. Optical biosensor based on silicon nanowire ridge waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Rania; Ismail, Yehia; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2015-02-01

    Optical biosensors present themselves as an attractive solution for integration with the ever-trending lab-on-a-chip devices. This is due to their small size, CMOS compatibility, and invariance to electromagnetic interference. Despite their many benefits, typical optical biosensors rely on evanescent field detection, where only a small portion of the light interacts with the analyte. We propose to use a silicon nanowire ridge waveguide (SNRW) for optical biosensing. This structure is comprised of an array of silicon nanowires, with the envelope of a ridge, on an insulator substrate. The SNRW maximizes the overlap between the analyte and the incident light wave by introducing voids to the otherwise bulk structure, and strengthens the contribution of the material under test to the overall modal effective index will greatly augment the sensitivity. Additionally, the SNRW provides a fabrication convenience as it covers the entire substrate, ensuring that the etching process would not damage the substrate. FDTD simulations were conducted and showed that the percentage change in the effective index due to a 1% change in the surrounding environment was more than 170 times the amount of change perceived in an evanescent detection based bulk silicon ridge waveguide.

  20. Graphene patterned polyaniline-based biosensor for glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a glucose electrochemical biosensor, layer-by-layer fabricated from graphene and polyaniline films. Graphene sheets (0.5×0.5 cm2) with the thickness of 5 nm (15 layers) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure on copper tapes. Then they were transferred into integrated Fe3O4-doped polyaniline (PANi) based microelectrodes. The properties of the nanocomposite films were thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical methods, such as square wave voltametry (SWV) and chronoamperometry. The above graphene patterned sensor (denoted as Graphene/Fe3O4/PANi/GOx) shows much improved glucose sensitivity (as high as 47 μA mM−1 cm−2) compared to a non-graphene one (10–30 μA mM−1 cm−2, as previously reported in the literature). It can be expected that this proof-of-concept biosensor could be extended for other highly sensitive biodetection

  1. Graphene patterned polyaniline-based biosensor for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh Nguyen, Hai; Chuc Nguyen, Van; Nguyen, Van Tu; Thanh Tam Ngo, Thi; Thinh Nguyen, Ngoc; Thu Huyen Dang, Thi; Tran, Dai Lam; Do, Phuc Quan; Nghia Nguyen, Xuan; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan; Khoi Phan, Hong; Phan, Ngoc Minh

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a glucose electrochemical biosensor, layer-by-layer fabricated from graphene and polyaniline films. Graphene sheets (0.5×0.5 cm2) with the thickness of 5 nm (15 layers) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure on copper tapes. Then they were transferred into integrated Fe3O4-doped polyaniline (PANi) based microelectrodes. The properties of the nanocomposite films were thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical methods, such as square wave voltametry (SWV) and chronoamperometry. The above graphene patterned sensor (denoted as Graphene/Fe3O4/PANi/GOx) shows much improved glucose sensitivity (as high as 47 μA mM‑1 cm‑2) compared to a non-graphene one (10–30 μA mM‑1 cm‑2, as previously reported in the literature). It can be expected that this proof-of-concept biosensor could be extended for other highly sensitive biodetection.

  2. A simple enzyme based biosensor on flexible plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakamedala, Senaka K.; Alshakhouri, Haidar T.; Agarwal, Mangilal; Fang, Ji; DeCoster, Mark A.

    2010-08-01

    An enzyme based biosensor was fabricated by employing a simple, inexpensive and rapid xurography fabrication process. The electrodes and channel were made from the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiphene) poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). PEDOT:PSS was selectively deposited using a polyimide tape mask. The tape mask was peeled off from the substrate after annealing the polymer in vacuum. Polymer wells of defined dimensions were made and were attached to the device to accommodate the solutions. This sensor utilizes the change in current as a parameter to measure different analyte concentrations. Initial experiments were done by using the sensor for glucose detection. The sensor is able to detect the glucose concentrations approximately from 1 μM to 10 mM range covering glucose in human saliva (8-210 μM). The glucose oxidase activity was independently measured using colorimetric method and the results indicate that the sensor retains the enzyme activity and can be used as a biosensor to detect various analytes. The analyte of interest can be measured by preloading the corresponding enzyme into the wells.

  3. The interference of HEPES buffer during amperometric detection of ATP in clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Francois; Gauda, Estelle; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine

    2008-04-01

    HEPES-based biological buffer is subject to photooxidation upon exposure to fluorescent illumination. Thereby hydrogen peroxide is generated, which interferes with amperometric oxidoreductase-based biosensors for glucose or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). These biosensors operate at an oxidation potential above 500 mV vs. the standard calomel electrode (SCE) and involve hydrogen peroxide as the electroactive molecule detected at the electrode surface. False-positive detection of ATP was observed in HEPES buffer utilizing an amperometric microbiosensor based on the co-immobilization of glucose oxidase and hexokinase for detection of ATP in biological specimens. Electrochemical, mass spectrometric, (31)P NMR, and (1)H NMR studies indicate that complexation of ATP and HEPES induced by the presence of Ca(2+) in HEPES buffer decreases the photooxidation of HEPES. Consequently, the hydrogen peroxide background concentration is reduced, thereby leading to erroneous ATP detection at the dual-enzyme microbiosensor, which determines an increase in ATP via a reduced hydrogen peroxide signal. PMID:18368390

  4. Characterization of different DLC and DLN electrodes for biosensor design

    OpenAIRE

    Maalouf, R.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.; Vittori, O.; Sigaud, M; Saikali, Y.; Chebib, H.; Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, Florence; Donnet, C.; Takeno, T.; Takagi, T

    2006-01-01

    International audience Diamond-Like Carbon and Carbon-Like Nanocomposite electrodes, novel materials in the field of biosensors, made with different ratio of sp3/sp2 carbon hybridization or doped with elements such as Ni, Si and W, were characterized electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry and by amperometric measurements towards hydrogen peroxide. SiCAr1 and SiCNi5% were chosen as sensitive transducers for elaboration of amperometric glucose biosensors. Immobilization of glucose oxidase w...

  5. Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Protein A/Deposited Gold Nanocrystals Modified Electrode for Carbofuran Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV, respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA’s oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  6. Amperometric immunosensor based on a protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals modified electrode for carbofuran detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xiangyou

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu) was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA) and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA's oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  7. Amperometric oxygen sensor based on a platinum nanoparticle-modified polycrystalline boron doped diamond disk electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Laura; Newton, Mark E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2009-02-01

    Pt nanoparticle (NP)-modified polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (pBDD) disk electrodes have been fabricated and employed as amperometric sensors for the determination of dissolved oxygen concentration in aqueous solution. pBDD columns were cut using laser micromachining techniques and sealed in glass, in order to make disk electrodes which were then characterized electrochemically. Electrodeposition of Pt onto the diamond electrodes was optimized so as to give the maximum oxygen reduction peak current with the lowest background signal. Pt NPs, >0-10 nm diameter, were found to deposit randomly across the pBDD electrode, with no preference for grain boundaries. The more conductive grains were found to promote the formation of smaller nanoparticles at higher density. With the use of potential step chronoamperometry, in which the potential was stepped to a diffusion-limited value, a four electron oxygen reduction process was found to occur at the Pt NP-modified pBDD electrode. Furthermore the chronoamperometric response scaled linearly with dissolved oxygen concentration, varied by changing the oxygen/nitrogen ratio of gas flowed into solution. The sensor was used to detect dissolved oxygen concentrations with high precision over the pH range 4-10. PMID:19117391

  8. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-01

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed. PMID:27119268

  9. Highly Sensitive Nanoparticle-based Multifunctional Biosensor for Antigen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavoshi, Salome

    electrophoresis technique to assemble the cancer specific anti-PSA, mAb-2C5 and CEA coated nanoparticles to show that the nanoparticle-based biochip can successfully measure low concentrations of various antigen. The principle of operation of these biosensors is the fluorescence based ELISA. Testing results of the nanoparticle-based biochips indicate very high specificity and the detection limit 200 times smaller than the commercially available devices for antigen detection, laying the foundation for early detection of various diseases. The optimized assembly of antibody coated particles and selective assembly techniques introduced in this work provide the necessary tools for fabricating a miniaturized nanoparticle-based in-vivo multiplex biosensor. The antigen detection results show the great potential for early detection of various diseases using the fabricated in-vivo device.

  10. An enhanced biosensor for glutamate based on self-assembled carbon nanotubes and dendrimer-encapsulated platinum nanobiocomposites-doped polypyrrole film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Longhua [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhu Yihua [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)]. E-mail: yhzhu@ecust.edu.cn; Yang Xiaoling [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li Chunzhong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2007-07-30

    An enhanced amperometric biosensor based on incorporating one kind of unique nanobiocomposite as dopant within an electropolymerized polypyrrole film has been investigated. The nanobiocomposite was synthesized by self-assembling glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-encapsulated platinum nanoparticles (Pt-DENs) onto multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs). {zeta}-Potentials and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the uniform growth of the layer-by-layer nanostructures onto the carboxyl-functionalized CNTs. The size of Pt nanoparticles is approximately 3 nm. The (GLDH/Pt-DENs) {sub n}/CNTs/Ppy hybrid film was obtained by electropolymerization of pyrrole onto glassy carbon electrodes and characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and other electrochemical measurements. All methods indicated that the (GLDH/Pt-DENs) {sub n}/CNTs nanobiocomposites were entrapped within the porous polypyrrole film and resulted in a hybrid film that showed a high electrocatalytic ability toward the oxidation of glutamate at a potential 0.2 V versus Ag/AgCl. The biosensor shows performance characteristics with high sensitivity (51.48 {mu}A mM{sup -1}), rapid response (within 3 s), low detection limit (about 10 nM), low level of interference and excellent reproducibility and stability.

  11. Application of hydrophobic palladium nanoparticles for the development of electrochemical glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongping; Wang, Xu; Wen, Guangming; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Paau, Man Chin; Choi, Martin M F

    2011-07-15

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on an n-alkylamine-stabilized palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs)-glucose oxidase (GOx) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode has been successfully fabricated. PdNPs were initially synthesized by a biphase mixture of water and toluene method using n-alkylamines (dodecylamine, C₁₂-NH₂ and octadecylamine, C₁₈-NH₂) as stabilizing ligands. The performance of the PdNPs-GOx/GC biosensor was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The optimum working potential for amperometric measurement of glucose in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution is -0.02 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The analytical performance of the biosensor prepared from C₁₈-PdNPs-GOx is better than that of C₁₂-PdNPs-GOx. The C₁₈-PdNPs-GOx/GC biosensor exhibits a fast response time of ca. 3s, a detection limit of 3.0 μM (S/N=3) and a linear range of 3.0 μM-8.0 mM. The linear dependence of current density with glucose concentration is 70.8 μA cm⁻² mM⁻¹. The biosensor shows good stability, repeatability and reproducibility. It has been successfully applied to determine the glucose content in human blood serum samples. PMID:21612909

  12. A lipase-based electrochemical biosensor for target DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lipase-based electrochemical biosensor has been fabricated for the quantitative determination of target DNA. It is based on a stem-loop nucleic acid probe labeled with ferrocene containing a butanoate ester that is hydrolyzed by lipase. The other end of the probe DNA is linked, via carboxy groups, to magnetic nanoparticles. The binding of target DNA transforms the hairpin structure of the probe DNA and causes the exposure of ester bonds. This results in the release of electro-active ferrocene after hydrolysis of the ester bonds, and in an observable electrochemical response. The quantity of target DNA in the concentration range between 1 × 10−12 mol·L−1 and 1 × 10−8 mol·L−1 can be determined by measuring the electrochemical current. The method can detect target DNA with rapid response (30 min) and low interference. (author)

  13. A biosensor based on the self-entrapment of glucose oxidase within biomimetic silica nanoparticles induced by a fusion enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Byung-Chun; An, Ji-Hye; Min, Kyoungseon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Um, Youngsoon; Oh, Min-Kyu; Sang, Byoung-In

    2011-10-10

    We constructed a fusion protein (GOx-R5) consisting of R5 (a polypeptide component of silaffin) and glucose oxidase (GOx) that was expressed in Pichia pastoris. Silaffin proteins are responsible for the formation of a silica-based cell matrix of diatoms, and synthetic variants of the R5 protein can perform silicification in vitro[1]. GOx secreted by P. pastoris was self-immobilized (biosilicification) in a pH 5 citric buffer using 0.1M tetramethoxysilane as a silica source. This self-entrapment property of GOx-R5 was used to immobilize GOx on a graphite rod electrode. An electric cell designed as a biosensor was prepared to monitor the glucose concentrations. The electric cell consisted of an Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a platinum counter electrode, and a working electrode modified with poly(neutral red) (PNR)/GOx/Nafion. Glucose oxidase was immobilized by fused protein on poly(neutral red) and covered by Nafion to protect diffusion to the solution. The morphology of the resulting composite PNR/GOx/Nafion material was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This amperometric transducer was characterized electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry in the presence of glucose. An image produced by scanning electron microscopy supported the formation of a PNR/GOx complex and the current was increased to 1.58 μA cm(-1) by adding 1mM glucose at an applied potential of -0.5 V. The current was detected by way of PNR-reduced hydrogen peroxide, a product of the glucose oxidation by GOx. The detection limit was 0.67mM (S/N=3). The biosensor containing the graphite rod/PNR/GOx/Nafion detected glucose at various concentrations in mixed samples, which contained interfering molecules. In this study, we report the first expression of R5 fused to glucose oxidase in eukaryotic cells and demonstrate an application of self-entrapped GOx to a glucose biosensor. PMID:22112615

  14. Effect of Diffusion Limitations on Multianalyte Determination from Biased Biosensor Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romas Baronas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The optimization-based quantitative determination of multianalyte concentrations from biased biosensor responses is investigated under internal and external diffusion-limited conditions. A computational model of a biocatalytic amperometric biosensor utilizing a mono-enzyme-catalyzed (nonspecific competitive conversion of two substrates was used to generate pseudo-experimental responses to mixtures of compounds. The influence of possible perturbations of the biosensor signal, due to a white noise- and temperature-induced trend, on the precision of the concentration determination has been investigated for different configurations of the biosensor operation. The optimization method was found to be suitable and accurate enough for the quantitative determination of the concentrations of the compounds from a given biosensor transient response. The computational experiments showed a complex dependence of the precision of the concentration estimation on the relative thickness of the outer diffusion layer, as well as on whether the biosensor operates under diffusion- or kinetics-limited conditions. When the biosensor response is affected by the induced exponential trend, the duration of the biosensor action can be optimized for increasing the accuracy of the quantitative analysis.

  15. Nanomaterial-based biosensors for food toxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bansi D; Srivastava, Saurabh; Ali, Md Azahar; Singh, Chandan

    2014-10-01

    There is an increased interest toward the development of bioelectronic devices for food toxin (mycotoxins) detection. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi like Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium that are frequently found in crops or during storage of food including cereals, nuts, fruits, etc. The contamination of food by mycotoxins has become a matter of increasing concern. High levels of mycotoxins in the diet can cause adverse, acute, and chronic effects on human health and a variety of animal species. Side effects may particularly affect the liver, kidney, nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system. Among 300 mycotoxins known till date, there are a few that are considered to play an important part in food safety, and for these, a range of analytical methods have been developed. Some of the important mycotoxins include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, citreoviridin, patulin, citrinin, and zearalenon. The conventional methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally require sophisticated instrumentation, e.g., liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. Hence, new analysis tools are necessary to attain more sensitive, specific, rapid, and reliable information about the desired toxin. For the last about two decades, the research and development of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has aroused much interest due to their simplicity and sensitivity. The nanomaterials have recently had a great impact on the development of biosensors. The functionalized nanomaterials are used as catalytic tools, immobilization platforms, or as optical or electroactive labels to improve the biosensing performance to obtain higher sensitivity, stability, and selectivity. Nanomaterials, such as carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes and graphene), metal nanoparticles, nanowires, nanocomposites, and nanostructured metal oxide nanoparticles

  16. Variation of Cholinesterase-Based Biosensor Sensitivity to Inhibition by Organophosphate Due To Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Pohanka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A cholinesterase based biosensor was constructed in order to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on exposed AChE. Although the primary objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of the biosensor, no changes in cholinesterase activity were observed. Current provided by oxidation of thiocholine previously created from acetylthiocholine by enzyme catalyzed reaction was in a range 395–455 nA. No significant influence of radiation on AChE activity was found, despite the current variation. However, a surprising phenomenon was observed when a model organophosphate paraoxon was assayed. Irradiated biosensors seem to be more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of paraoxon. Control biosensors provided a 94 ± 5 nA current after exposure to 1 ppm paraoxon. The biosensors irradiated by a 5 kGy radiation dose and exposed to paraoxon provided a current of 49 ± 6 nA. Irradiation by doses ranging from 5 mGy to 100 kGy were investigated and the mentioned effect was confirmed at doses above 50 Gy. After the first promising experiments, biosensors irradiated by 5 kGy were used for calibration on paraoxon and compared with the control biosensors. Limits of detection 2.5 and 3.8 ppb were achieved for irradiated and non-irradiated biosensors respectively. The overall impact of this effect is discussed.

  17. Nanomolar detection of methylparaben by a cost-effective hemoglobin-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, A; Ghodsi, J; Afraz, A; Yurchenko, O; Urban, G

    2016-12-01

    This work describes the development of a new biosensor for methylparaben determination using electrocatalytic properties of hemoglobin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric oxidation of methylparaben by the proposed biosensor in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0), a physiological pH, was studied and it was confirmed that methylparaben undergoes a one electron-one proton reaction in a diffusion-controlled process. The biosensor was fabricated by carbon paste electrode modified with hemoglobin and multiwalled carbon nanotube. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the modified electrode, a sensitive voltammetric method was used for determination of methylparaben within a linear range from 0.1 to 13μmolL(-1) and detection limit of 25nmolL(-1). The developed biosensor possessed accurate and rapid response to methylparaben and showed good sensitivity, stability, and repeatability. Finally, the applicability of the proposed biosensor was verified by methylparaben evaluation in various real samples. PMID:27612696

  18. Nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for ascorbic acid based on hollow gold/ruthenium nanoshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Ara; Kang, Minkyung; Cha, Areum; Jang, Hye Su [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jun Ho [Department of Chemistry, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Nam-Suk [National Center for Nanomaterials Technology (NCNT), Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Hwa [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngmi, E-mail: youngmilee@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chongmok, E-mail: cmlee@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized hollow gold/ruthenium (hAu–Ru) nanoshells for ascorbic acid sensing. • The hAu–Ru nanoshells showed sensitivity of 426 μA mM⁻¹ cm⁻² for ascorbic acid. • Good selectivity against glucose, uric acid, dopamine, 4-acetamidophenol, and NADH. • The linear dynamic range appeared from zero to 2.0 mM (R = 0.9995). • Response time (1.6 s) and low detection limit (2.2 μM) were obtained at pH 7.40. Abstract: We report a new nonenzymatic amperometric detection of ascorbic acid (AA) using a glassy carbon (GC) disk electrode modified with hollow gold/ruthenium (hAu–Ru) nanoshells, which exhibited decent sensing characteristics. The hAu–Ru nanoshells were prepared by the incorporation of Ru on hollow gold (hAu) nanoshells from Co nanoparticle templates, which enabled AA selectivity against glucose without aid of enzyme or membrane. The structure and electrocatalytic activities of the hAu–Ru catalysts were characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The hAu–Ru loaded on GC electrode (hAu–Ru/GC) showed sensitivity of 426 μA mM⁻¹ cm⁻² (normalized to the GC disk area) for the linear dynamic range of <5 μM to 2 mM AA at physiological pH. The response time and detection limit were 1.6 s and 2.2 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the hAu–Ru/GC electrode displayed remarkable selectivity for ascorbic acid over all potential biological interferents, including glucose, uric acid (UA), dopamine (DA), 4-acetamidophenol (AP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which could be especially good for biological sensing.

  19. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rich, Rebecca L.; Papalia, Giusseppe A.; Krishnamoorthy, Ganeshram; Beusink, Bianca; Pak, Brian J.; Myszka, David G.; more, more

    2009-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by users o

  20. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Rebecca L; Papalia, Giuseppe A; Flynn, Peter J;

    2009-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by user...

  1. A permalloy zigzag structure based magnetic bio-sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, Tzong-Rong; Xu, You-Ren; Huang, Hao-Ting; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2012-04-01

    A magnetic fluid consisting of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles is embedded inside cells by intracellular uptake. A micro-fabricated magnetic zigzag-shaped surface structure is studied for use as a biosensor. We have developed a MOKE magnetometer based methodology to measure the different hysteresis loop signals between cells with and without being placed on zigzag sensors. Adding the magnetic cells on the structure decreases the coercivity from the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) signal of zigzag magnetic thin films because of the magnetic properties of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The magnetoresistance measurement observed is that the switching fields of the zigzag structure with magnetic cells are significantly increased compared to the case without cells in the hard axis of the external field applied.

  2. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Parkash

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed.

  3. Transient Convection, Diffusion, and Adsorption in Surface-Based Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus; Bruus, Henrik; Callisen, Thomas H.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and computational investigation of convection, diffusion, and adsorption in surface-based biosensors. In particular, we study the transport dynamics in a model geometry of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The work, however, is equally relevant for other...... adsorption coefficient (Biot number), the nondimensional flow rate (Péclet number), and the model geometry. Transient dynamics is investigated, and we quantify the error of using the quasi-steady-state assumption for experimental data fitting in both kinetically limited and convection......-diffusion-limited regimes for irreversible adsorption, in specific. The results clarify the conditions under which the quasi-steady theory is reliable or not. In extension to the well-known fact that the range of validity is altered under convection-diffusion-limited conditions, we show how also the ratio of the inlet...

  4. Toxin detection using a fiber-optic-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogert, Robert A.; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Ligler, Frances S.

    1993-05-01

    Using an evanescent wave fiber optic-based biosensor developed at Naval Research Laboratory, ricin toxin can be detected in the low ng/ml range. Sensitivity was established at 1 - 5 ng/ml using a two-step assay. The two-step assay showed enhanced signal levels in comparison to a one-step assay. A two-step assay utilizes a 10 minute incubation of an immobilized affinity purified anti-ricin antibody fiber optic probe in the ricin sample before placement in a solution of fluorophore-labeled goat anti-ricin antibodies. The specific fluorescent signal is obtained by the binding of the fluorophore-labeled antibodies to ricin which is bound by the immobilized antibodies on the fiber optic probe. The toxin can be detected directly from urine and river water using this fiber optic assay.

  5. Function-based Biosensor for Hazardous Waste Toxin Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James J Hickman

    2008-07-09

    There is a need for new types of toxicity sensors in the DOE and other agencies that are based on biological function as the toxins encountered during decontamination or waste remediation may be previously unknown or their effects subtle. Many times the contents of the environmental waste, especially the minor components, have not been fully identified and characterized. New sensors of this type could target unknown toxins that cause death as well as intermediate levels of toxicity that impair function or cause long term impairment that may eventually lead to death. The primary question posed in this grant was to create an electronically coupled neuronal cellular circuit to be used as sensor elements for a hybrid non-biological/biological toxin sensor system. A sensor based on the electrical signals transmitted between two mammalian neurons would allow the marriage of advances in solid state electronics with a functioning biological system to develop a new type of biosensor. Sensors of this type would be a unique addition to the field of sensor technology but would also be complementary to existing sensor technology that depends on knowledge of what is to be detected beforehand. We integrated physics, electronics, surface chemistry, biotechnology, and fundamental neuroscience in the development of this biosensor. Methods were developed to create artificial surfaces that enabled the patterning of discrete cells, and networks of cells, in culture; the networks were then aligned with transducers. The transducers were designed to measure electromagnetic fields (EMF) at low field strength. We have achieved all of the primary goals of the project. We can now pattern neurons routinely in our labs as well as align them with transducers. We have also shown the signals between neurons can be modulated by different biochemicals. In addition, we have made another significant advance where we have repeated the patterning results with adult hippocampal cells. Finally, we

  6. Nanoelectrode and nanoparticle based biosensors for environmental and health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Lateef Uddin

    Reduction in electrode size down to nanometers dramatically enhances the detection sensitivity and temporal resolution. Here we explore nanoelectrode arrays (NEAs) and nanoparticles in building high performance biosensors. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) of diameter ˜100 nm were grown on a Si substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. SiO2 embedded CNF NEAs were then fabricated using techniques like chemical vapor deposition, mechanical polishing, and reactive ion etching, with CNF tips exposed at the final step. The effect of the interior structure of CNFs on electron transfer rate (ETR) was investigated by covalently attaching ferrocene molecules to the exposed end of CNFs. Anomalous differences in the ETR were observed between DC voltammetry (DCV) and AC voltammetry (ACV). The findings from this study are currently being extended to develop an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of cancerous protease (legumain). Preliminary results with standard macro glassy carbon electrodes show a significant decrease in ACV signal, which is encouraging. In another study, NEA was employed to capture and detect pathogenic bacteria using AC dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A nano-DEP device was fabricated using photolithography processes to define a micro patterned exposed active region on NEA and a microfluidic channel on macro-indium tin oxide electrode. Enhanced electric field gradient at the exposed CNF tips was achieved due to the nanometer size of the electrodes, because of which each individual exposed tip can act as a potential DEP trap to capture the pathogen. Significant decrease in the absolute impedance at the NEA was also observed by EIS experiments. In a final study, we modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with luminol to develop chemiluminescence (CL) based blood biosensor. Modified GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy and TEM. We have applied this CL method for the

  7. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application.

  8. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application. PMID:12904953

  9. Hydrogen peroxide and glucose biosensor based on silver nanowires synthesized by polyol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejuan; Bai, Jing; Wang, Yinhu; Jiang, Xiue; He, Xiaoying

    2012-09-21

    Silver nanowires synthesized through a polyol process using polyvinylpyrrolidone as protection (PVP-AgNWs) were used as a new electrode material for constructing a sensor. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and glucose were used as analytes to demonstrate the sensor performance of the PVP-AgNWs. It is found that the PVP-AgNWs-modified glassy carbon electrode (PVP-AgNWs/GCE) exhibits remarkable catalytic performance toward H(2)O(2) reduction. This sensor has a fast amperometric response time of less than 2 s and the catalytic current is linear over the concentration of H(2)O(2) ranging from 20 μM to 3.62 mM (R = 0.998) with a detection limit of 2.3 μM estimated on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. A glucose biosensor was constructed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) onto the surface of the PVP-AgNWs/GCE. The resultant glucose biosensor can be used for glucose detection in human blood serum with a sensitivity of 15.86 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and good selectivity and stability. PMID:22858619

  10. Biosensor Based on Xanthine Oxidase for Monitoring Hypoxanthine in Fish Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena S. Nakatani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric enzyme electrode for the detection of hypoxanthine in fish meat is described. The hypoxanthine sensor was prepared from xanthine oxidase immobilized by covalent binding with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin on a nafion-coated platinum disc electrode. The responses for hypoxanthine were obtained in 0.1 mol L-1 phosphate buffer (pH 7.0, at potential of 600mV vs Ag/AgCl. This biosensor provides a linear response for hypoxanthine in the concentration range of 2.00x10-6-1.85x10-4mol L-1 (r=0.9989. The response time is less than 30 s for the useful response range and the lifetime of this electrode was excellent for at least ten days without loss of the response. The sensor can be applied to the determination of hypoxanthine in fish meat and it is effective for eliminating interferants from coexisting substances in the samples. Application of the biosensor technique in the field of quality control is promising due to their inherent specificity, simplicity and quick response.

  11. Poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as an entrapment support for amperometric enzyme sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano, Silvia; Tran-Minh, Canh; Piro, Benoît; Anh Dang, Lan; Chau Pham, Minh; Vittori, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    International audience A conducting polymer of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT) was used as a matrix for entrapment of enzymes onto a platinum electrode surface in order to construct amperometric biosensors. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was used as an example, and it was entrapped in the polymer during the electrochemical polymerization. Glucose in oxygenated solutions was tested by amperometric measurements at +650 mV (vs. SCE) in a batch system. The influence of several experimental param...

  12. Optical detection of sepsis markers using liquid crystal based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamley, Maureen K.; Artenstein, Andrew W.; Opal, Steven M.; Crawford, Gregory P.

    2007-02-01

    A liquid crystal based biosensor for the detection and diagnosis of sepsis is currently in development. Sepsis, a major clinical syndrome with a significant public health burden in the US due to a large elderly population, is the systemic response of the body to a localized infection and is defined as the combination of pathologic infection and physiological changes. Bacterial infections are responsible for 90% of cases of sepsis in the US. Currently there is no bedside diagnostic available to positively identify sepsis. The basic detection scheme employed in a liquid crystal biosensor contains attributes that would find value in a clinical setting, especially for the early detection of sepsis. Utilizing the unique properties of liquid crystals, such as birefringence, a bedside diagnostic is in development which will optically report the presence of biomolecules. In a septic patient, an endotoxin known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is released from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can be found in the blood stream. It is hypothesized that this long chained molecule will cause local disruptions to the open surface of a sensor containing aligned liquid crystal. The bulk liquid crystal ampli.es these local changes at the surface due to the presence of the sepsis marker, providing an optical readout through polarizing microscopy images. Liquid crystal sensors consisting of both square and circular grids, 100-200 μm in size, have been fabricated and filled with a common liquid crystal material, 5CB. Homeotropic alignment was confirmed using polarizing microscopy. The grids were then contacted with either saline only (control), or saline with varying concentrations of LPS. Changes in the con.guration of the nematic director of the liquid crystal were observed through the range of concentrations tested (5mg/mL - 1pg/mL) which have been confirmed by a consulting physician as clinically relevant levels.

  13. Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor for the detection of salivary cortisol using the Thomson effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Hyun Lee, Jung; Kim, MinGin; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Jung, Hyo-Il; Lee, Wooyoung

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of a thermal biosensor based on bismuth nanowire that is fabricated for the detection of the human stress hormone cortisol using the Thomson effect. The Bi nanowire was grown using the On-Film Formation of Nanowires (OFF-ON) method. The thermal device was fabricated using photolithography, and the sensing area was modified with immobilized anti-cortisol antibodies conjugated with protein G for the detection of cortisol. The voltages were measured with two probe tips during surface modification to investigate the biochemical reactions in the fabricated thermal biosensor. The Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor exhibited low detection limit and good selectivity for the detection of cortisol.

  14. Development of an Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Based Urea Biosensor with Solid State Reference Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kow-Ming Chang; Chih-Tien Chang; Kun-Mou Chan

    2010-01-01

    Ion sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) based urease biosensors with solid state reference systems for single-ended and two-ended differential readout electronics were investigated. The sensing membranes of the biosensors were fabricated with urease immobilized in a conducting polymer-based matrix. The responses of 12.9~198.1 mV for the urea concentrations of 8~240 mg/dL reveal that the activity of the enzyme was not significantly decreased. Biosensors combined with solid state referenc...

  15. Simultaneous Determination of the Main Peanut Allergens in Foods Using Disposable Amperometric Magnetic Beads-Based Immunosensing Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel magnetic beads (MBs-based immunosensing approach for the rapid and simultaneous determination of the main peanut allergenic proteins (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 is reported. It involves the use of sandwich-type immunoassays using selective capture and detector antibodies and carboxylic acid-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs. Amperometric detection at −0.20 V was performed using dual screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPdCEs and the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ system. This methodology exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for the target proteins providing detection limits of 18.0 and 0.07 ng/mL for Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, respectively, with an assay time of only 2 h. The usefulness of the approach was evaluated by detecting the endogenous content of both allergenic proteins in different food extracts as well as trace amounts of peanut allergen (0.0001% or 1.0 mg/kg in wheat flour spiked samples. The developed platform provides better Low detection limits (LODs in shorter assay times than those claimed for the allergen specific commercial ELISA kits using the same immunoreagents and quantitative information on individual food allergen levels. Moreover, the flexibility of the methodology makes it readily translate to the detection of other food-allergens.

  16. Bienzymatic glucose biosensor based on co-immobilization of peroxidase and glucose oxidase on a carbon nanotubes electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liande; Yang, Ruilan; Zhai, Jiangli; Tian, Chunyuan

    2007-11-30

    A bienzymatic glucose biosensor was proposed for selective and sensitive detection of glucose. This mediatorless biosensor was made by simultaneous immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in an electropolymerized pyrrole (PPy) film on a single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) coated electrode. The amperometric detection of glucose was assayed by potentiostating the bienzymatic electrode at -0.1 versus Ag/AgCl to reduce the enzymatically produced H(2)O(2) with minimal interference from the coexisting electroactive compounds. The single-wall carbon nanotubes, sandwiched between the enzyme loading polypyrrole (PPy) layer and the conducting substrate (gold electrode), could efficiently promote the direct electron transfer of HRP. Operational characteristics of the bienzymatic sensor, in terms of linear range, detection limit, sensitivity, selectivity and stability, were presented in detail. PMID:17764922

  17. BOD biosensor based on the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in poly(vinyl alcohol) modified by N-vinylpyrrolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlyapov, V A; Yudina, N Yu; Asulyan, L D; Alferov, S V; Alferov, V A; Reshetilov, A N

    2013-09-10

    An amperometric biosensor for assessing the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was formed by immobilizing Debaryomyces hansenii VKM Y-2482 yeast cells in poly(vinyl alcohol) modified by N-vinylpyrrolidone. Modification provided for a high sensitivity and stability of the bioreceptor. A high oxidative activity of the receptor element and the absence of any toxic effect of assayed compounds were shown for 34 substrates (alcohols, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amino acids, nitrophenols and surfactants) that may occur in wastewaters. Estimates of the measurement range and region of the linear dependence of signals on the BOD level, pH and temperature sensitivities, dependences of signals on concentrations of salts, stability, Michaelis kinetic constants and assay rates were obtained. The BOD values determined by the biosensor in assayed wastewater samples were shown to have a high correlation with those obtained by the standard dilution method.

  18. Polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate film based disposable nucleic acid biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Arora, Kavita [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Surinder P. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Pandey, Manoj K. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Harpal [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Malhotra, Bansi D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)]. E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com

    2007-04-18

    Double stranded calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid entrapped polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate (dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS) films fabricated onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates have been used to detect organophosphates such as chlorpyrifos and malathion. These disposable dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been characterized using cyclic voltammetry, Fourier-transform-infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. These biosensing electrodes have a response time of 30 s, are stable for about 5 months when stored in desiccated conditions at 25 deg. C and can be used to amperometrically detect chlorpyrifos (0.0016-0.025 ppm) and malathion (0.17-5.0), respectively. The additive effect of these pesticides on the amperometric response of the disposable dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes has also been investigated.

  19. Determination of Parathion and Carbaryl Pesticides in Water and Food Samples Using a Self Assembled Monolayer /Acetylcholinesterase Electrochemical Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bertotti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An acetylcholinesterase (AchE based amperometric biosensor was developed by immobilisation of the enzyme onto a self assembled modified gold electrode. Cyclic voltammetric experiments performed with the SAM-AchE biosensor in phosphate buffer solutions (pH = 7.2 containing acetylthiocholine confirmed the formation of thiocholine and its electrochemical oxidation at Ep = 0.28 V vs Ag/AgCl. An indirect methodology involving the inhibition effect of parathion and carbaryl on the enzymatic reaction was developed and employed to measure both pesticides in spiked natural water and food samples without pre-treatment or pre-concentration steps. Values higher than 91-98.0% in recovery experiments indicated the feasibility of the proposed electroanalytical methodology to quantify both pesticides in water or food samples. HPLC measurements were also performed for comparison and confirmed the values measured amperometrically.

  20. Functionalization and Characterization of Nanomaterial Gated Field-Effect Transistor-Based Biosensors and the Design of a Multi-Analyte Implantable Biosensing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Robert A., Jr.

    Advances in semiconductor research and complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor fabrication allow for the design and implementation of miniaturized metabolic monitoring systems, as well as advanced biosensor design. The first part of this dissertation will focus on the design and fabrication of nanomaterial (single-walled carbon nanotube and quantum dot) gated field-effect transistors configured as protein sensors. These novel device structures have been functionalized with single-stranded DNA aptamers, and have shown sensor operation towards the protein Thrombin. Such advanced transistor-based sensing schemes present considerable advantages over traditional sensing methodologies in view of its miniaturization, low cost, and facile fabrication, paving the way for the ultimate realization of a multi-analyte lab-on-chip. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the design and fabrication of a needle-implantable glucose sensing platform which is based solely on photovoltaic powering and optical communication. By employing these powering and communication schemes, this design negates the need for bulky on-chip RF-based transmitters and batteries in an effort to attain extreme miniaturization required for needle-implantable/extractable applications. A complete single-sensor system coupled with a miniaturized amperometric glucose sensor has been demonstrated to exhibit reality of this technology. Furthermore, an optical selection scheme of multiple potentiostats for four different analytes (glucose, lactate, O 2 and CO2) as well as the optical transmission of sensor data has been designed for multi-analyte applications. The last part of this dissertation will focus on the development of a computational model for the amperometric glucose sensors employed in the aforementioned implantable platform. This model has been applied to single-layer single-enzyme systems, as well as multi-layer (single enzyme) systems utilizing glucose flux limiting layer-by-layer assembled

  1. A Bioanalytical Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students: Biosensors Based on Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niagi, John; Warner, John; Andreesco, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The study describes the development of new biosensors based on metal nanoparticles because of its high surface area and large binding ability. The adopted procedure is extremely simple and versatile and can be used in various applications of electrochemistry.

  2. The progress of olfactory transduction and biomimetic olfactory-based biosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ChunSheng; WANG LiJiang; ZHOU Jun; ZHAO LuHang; WANG Ping

    2007-01-01

    Olfaction is a very important sensation for all animals. Recently great progress has been made in the research of olfactory transduction. Especially the novel finding of the gene superfamily encoding olfactory receptors has led to rapid advances in olfactory transduction. These advances also promoted the research of biomimetic olfactory-based biosensors and some obvious achievements have been obtained due to their potential commercial prospects and promising industrial applications. This paper briefly introduces the biological basis of olfaction, summarizes the progress of olfactory signal transduction in the olfactory neuron, the olfactory bulb and the olfactory cortex, outlines the latest developments and applications of biomimetic olfactory-based biosensors. Finally, the olfactory biosensor based on light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is addressed in detail based on our recent work and the research trends of olfactory biosensors in future are discussed.

  3. Fabrication of Biosensor Based on Polyaniline/Gold Nanorod Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Uğur Tamer; Ali İhsan Seçkin; Erhan Temur; Hilal Torul

    2011-01-01

    This present paper describes a new approach to fabricate a new amperometric sensor for the determination of glucose. Polyaniline (PANI) film doped with colloidal gold nanorod particles has been used to immobilize glucose oxidase by glutaraldehyde. The polyaniline/gold nanorod composite structure gave an excellent matrix for enzyme immobilization due to the large specific surface area and higher electroactivity. The composite has been characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron...

  4. Highly efficient potentiometric glucose biosensor based on functionalized InN quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Alvi, Naveed ul Hassan; Soto Rodríguez, Paul; Gómez Hernández, Víctor Jesús; Kumar, Praveen; Amin, G.; Nur, O; Willander, Magnus; Nötzel, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast, highly sensitive, and efficient potentiometric glucose biosensor based on functionalized InN quantum-dots (QDs). The InN QDs are grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The InN QDs are bio-chemically functionalized through physical adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOD). GOD enzyme-coated InN QDs based biosensor exhibits excellent linear glucose concentration dependent electrochemical response against an Ag/AgCl reference electrode over a wide logarithmic glucose concentration range ...

  5. A Novel Cell-Based Hybrid Acoustic Wave Biosensor with Impedimetric Sensing Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Voiculescu; Anis Nurashikin Nordin; Fang Li; Fei Liu

    2013-01-01

    A novel multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells will be presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques on a single device: resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). The multiparametric sensor system is based on the innovative use of the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator as working electrode for the ECIS technique. The QCM acoustic wave sensor consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate...

  6. A Novel Fluorescent Protein-Based Biosensor for Gram-Negative Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Yan Y.; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak L.

    2002-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) based on rational computational design was performed to create a fluorescence-based biosensor for endotoxin and gram-negative bacteria. EGFP mutants (EGFPi) bearing one (G10) or two (G12) strands of endotoxin binding motifs were constructed and expressed in an Escherichia coli host. The EGFPi proteins were purified and tested for their efficacy as a novel fluorescent biosensor. After efficient removal of lipopolysaccharide...

  7. Immune biosensors based on the SPR and TIRE: efficiency of their application for bacteria determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, N. F.; Ogorodniichuk, J.; Lebedeva, T.; Shpylovyy, P.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have designed high-specific biosensors for Salmonella typhimurium detection based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). It has been demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity of analysis. As a registering part for our experiments the Spreeta (USA) and "Plasmonotest" (Ukraine) with flowing cell have been applied among of SPR device. Previous researches confirmed an efficiency of SPR biosensors using for detecting of specific antigen-antibody interactions therefore this type of reactions with some previous preparations of surface binding layer was used as reactive part. It has been defined that in case with Spreeta sensitivity was on the level 103 - 107 cells/ml. Another biosensor based on the SPR has shown the sensitivity within 101 - 106 cells/ml. Maximal sensitivity was on the level of several cells in 10 ml (up to the fact that less than 5 cells) which has been obtained using the biosensor based on TIRE.

  8. Electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of mycotoxins: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan C; Bonel, Laura; Ezquerra, Alba; Hernández, Susana; Bertolín, Juan R; Cubel, Carlota; Castillo, Juan R

    2013-11-15

    This review discusses the current state of electrochemical biosensors in the determination of mycotoxins in foods. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by molds. The acute toxicity of these results in serious human and animal health problems, although it has been only since early 1960s when the first studied aflatoxins were found to be carcinogenic. Mycotoxins affect a broad range of agricultural products, most important cereals and cereal-based foods. A majority of countries, mentioning especially the European Union, have established preventive programs to control contamination and strict laws of the permitted levels in foods. Official methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally requires sophisticated instrumentation, e.g. liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. For about sixteen years, the use of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has emerged in scientific literature as a very promising alternative, particularly electrochemical (i.e., amperometric, impedance, potentiometric or conductimetric) affinity biosensors due to their simplicity and sensitivity. Typically, electrochemical biosensors for mycotoxins use specific antibodies or aptamers as affinity ligands, although recombinant antibodies, artificial receptors and molecular imprinted polymers show potential utility. This article deals with recent advances in electrochemical affinity biosensors for mycotoxins and covers complete literature from the first reports about sixteen years ago.

  9. Versatile Flow-Injection Amperometric Ion Detector Based on an Interface between Two Immiscible Electrolyte Solutions: Numerical and Experimental Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deryabina, Maria; Hansen, Steen H.; Jensen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes a flexible thin layer electrochemical flow cell for ultrasensitive amperometric detection at a supported interface between immiscible electrolyte solutions. Nanomolar detection limits were demonstrated using the cell design, and 3D finite element simulations allowed a ...... electrochemical flow cell detector with a large surface to volume ratio....

  10. Strategies towards advanced ion track-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonta, L.; Bukelman, O.; Chandra, A.; Fahrner, W. R.; Fink, D.; Fuks, D.; Golovanov, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Hoppe, K.; Kiv, A.; Klinkovich, I.; Landau, M.; Morante, J. R.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Vacík, J.; Valden, M.

    Three approaches towards ion track-based biosensors appear to be feasible. The development of the first one began a decade ago [Siwy, Z.; Trofin, L.; Kohl, P.; Baker, L.A.; Martin, C.R.; Trautmann, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 5000-5001; Siwy, Z.S.; Harrell, C.C.; Heins, E.; Martin, C.R.; Schiedt, B.; Trautmann, C.; Trofin, L.; Polman, A. Presented at the 6th International Conference on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter, Aschaffenburg, Germany, May 28-31, 2005] and makes use of the concept that the presence of certain biomolecules within liquids can block the passage through narrow pores if being captured there, thus switching off the pore's electrical conductivity. The second, having been successfully tested half a year ago [Fink, D.; Klinkovich, I.; Bukelman, O.; Marks, R.S.; Fahrner, W.; Kiv, A.; Fuks, D.; Alfonta, L. Biosens. Bioelectron. 2009, 24, 2702-2706], is based on the accumulation of enzymatic reaction products within the confined volume of narrow etched ion tracks which modifies the pore's electrical conductivity. The third and most elegant, at present under development, will exploit the charge transfer from enzymes to semiconductors embedded within etched tracks, enabling the enzymes undergoing specific reactions with the biomolecules to be detected. These strategies can be realized either within carrier-free nanoporous polymeric membranes embedded in the corresponding bioliquids, or within contacted nanoporous insulating layers on semiconducting substrates, the so-called TEMPOS structures [Fink, D.; Petrov, A.; Hoppe, H.; Fahrner, W.R.; Papaleo, R.M.; Berdinsky, A.; Chandra, A.; Biswas, A.; Chadderton, L.T. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 2004, 218, 355-361]. The latter have the advantage of exhibiting a number of peculiar electronic properties, such as the ability for logic and/or combination of input signals, tunable polarity, negative differential resistances, tunability by external parameters such as light, magnetic fields, etc. and self-pulsations, which

  11. Glucose biosensor based on titanium dioxide-multiwall carbon nanotubes-chitosan composite and functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meihe; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Li, Wenjuan; Zhong, Huaan; Wang, Cun

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a new glucose biosensor was prepared. At first, Prussian blue (PB) was electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified by titanium dioxide-multiwall carbon nanotubes-chitosan (TiO(2)-MWNTs-CS) composite, and then gold nanoparticles functionalized by poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA-Au) were adsorbed on the PB film. Finally, the negatively charged glucose oxidase (GOD) was self-assembled on to the positively charged PDDA-Au. The electrochemical performances of the modified electrodes had been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric methods, respectively. In addition, the stepwise fabrication process of the as-prepared biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. PDDA-Au nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Under the optimal conditions, the as-prepared biosensor exhibited a good response performance to glucose with a linear range from 6 μM to 1.2 mM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM glucose (S/N = 3). In addition, this work indicated that TiO(2)-MWNTs-CS composite and PDDA-Au nanoparticles held great potential for constructing biosensors. PMID:21720965

  12. Reducing the temperature sensitivity of SOI waveguide-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Mola Romero, Albert; Sohlström, Hans

    2012-06-01

    Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) can provide compact size, high evanescent field strength at the silicon waveguide surface, and volume fabrication potential. However, due to the large thermo optic coefficient of water-based biosamples, the sensors are temperature-sensitive. Consequently, active temperature control is usually used. However, for low cost applications, active temperature control is often not feasible. Here, we use the opposite polarity of the thermo-optic coefficients of silicon and water to demonstrate a photonic slot waveguide with a distribution of power between sample and silicon that aims to give athermal operation in water. Based on simulations, we made three waveguide designs close to the athermal point, and asymmetric integrated Mach- Zehnder interferometers for their characterization. The devices were fabricated on SOI with a 220 nm device layer and 2 μm buried oxide, by electron beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist, and etching in a Cl2/HBr/O2/He plasma. With Cargile 50350 fused silica matching oil as top cladding, the group index of the three guides varies from 1.9 to 2.8 at 1550 nm. The temperature sensitivity of the devices varied from -70 to -160 pm/K under the same conditions. A temperature sensitivity of -2 pm/K is projected with water as top cladding.

  13. Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sachin K.; Verma, Roli; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2012-02-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based fiber optic biosensor has been fabricated and characterized for the detection of blood glucose. Optical fiber sensor was fabricated by first coating a 50 nm thick gold film on the bare core of optical fiber and then immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) over it. Aqueous glucose solutions of different concentrations were prepared. To mimic the blood glucose levels, the concentration of glucose solutions were kept equal to that in human blood. The refractive indices of these sample solutions were equal to that of water up to third decimal place. SPR spectra for the sensor were recorded for these glucose solutions. When the glucose comes in contact to glucose oxidase, chemical reactions take place and as a result, the refractive index of the immobilized GOx film changes, giving rise to a shift in the resonance wavelength. Unlike electrochemical sensors, the present sensor is based on optics and can be miniaturized because of optical fiber. The present study provides a different approach for blood glucose sensing and may be commercialized after optimization of certain parameters.

  14. Analytical investigation of bilayer lipid biosensor based on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Elnaz; Buntat, Zolkafle; Shahraki, Elmira; Parvaz, Ramtin; Kiani, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is another allotrope of carbon with two-dimensional monolayer honeycomb. Owing to its special characteristics including electrical, physical and optical properties, graphene is known as a more suitable candidate compared to other materials to be used in the sensor application. It is possible, moreover, to use biosensor by using electrolyte-gated field effect transistor based on graphene (GFET) to identify the alterations in charged lipid membrane properties. The current article aims to show how thickness and charges of a membrane electric can result in a monolayer graphene-based GFET while the emphasis is on the conductance variation. It is proposed that the thickness and electric charge of the lipid bilayer (LLP and QLP) are functions of carrier density, and to find the equation relating these suitable control parameters are introduced. Artificial neural network algorithm as well as support vector regression has also been incorporated to obtain other models for conductance characteristic. The results comparison between analytical models, artificial neural network and support vector regression with the experimental data extracted from previous work show an acceptable agreement.

  15. Amperometric immunosensor for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraiwa, Morgan; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Inoue, Shinnosuke; Annie L Becker; Weigel, Kris M.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major public health problem, which can be better controlled by using accurate and rapid diagnosis in low-resource settings. A simple, portable, and sensitive detection method is required for point-of-care (POC) settings. This paper studies an amperometric biosensor using a microtip immunoassay for a rapid and low cost detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum. MTB in sputum is specifically captured on the functionalized microtip surface and detected ...

  16. Electrochemical biosensor based on microfabricated electrode arrays for life sciences applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Said, Nur Azura

    2014-01-01

    In developing a biosensor, the utmost important aspects that need to be emphasized are the specificity and selectivity of the transducer. These two vital prerequisites are of paramount in ensuring a robust and reliable biosensor. Improvements in electrochemical sensors can be achieved by using microelectrodes and to modify the electrode surface (using chemical or biological recognition layers to improve the sensitivity and selectivity). The fabrication and characterisations of silicon-based a...

  17. Graphene oxide- thionine and gold nanoparticles- functionalized amperometric biosensor for determination of glucose%氧化石墨烯-硫堇及纳米金修饰玻碳电极电流型葡萄糖生物传感器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 唐点平

    2011-01-01

    以玻碳电极为基底,在电极表面修饰一层氧化石墨烯-硫堇(GO -Th)薄膜,通过层层自组装方式,将纳米金和葡萄糖氧化酶(GOD)固定在玻碳电极表面,制得一种新型电流型葡萄糖生物传感器.在优化的实验条件下,该生物传感器对葡萄糖的线性响应范围为1.0×10-9 ~5.7×10-5 mol·L-1,检测下限为5.0×10-10mol·L-1.该传感器具有制备方法简单、灵敏度高、稳定性好等特点.%A new amperometric biosensor for the determination of glucose was proposed by using gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide - thionine conjugates as matrices. Thionine molecules were initially adsorbed onto the surface of graphene oxide via π -π binding reaction, then the thionine - graphene conjugations were immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode, which were used for the adsorption of gold nanoparticles, and then glucose oxidase was conjugated onto the gold nanoparticles. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor exhibited a wide linear range of 1.0×10-9 ~5.7×10-5 mol ? L-1 with a low detection limit of 5.2 ×10-10 mol ? L-1 glucose (at S/N = 3). In addition, the stability, repro ducibility and stability of the biosensor was acceptable.

  18. Amperometric immunosensor for {alpha}-fetoprotein antigen in human serum based on co-immobilizing dinuclear copper complex and gold nanoparticle doped chitosan film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Ning; Meng Linghua; Wang Feng [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ninbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China)], E-mail: ganning@nbu.edu.cn

    2009-09-01

    A sensitive amperometric immunosensor for {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was constructed, The immunosensor is prepared by co-immobilizing [Cu{sub 2}(phen){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}] ({mu}-Cl){sub 2} (CuL), nano-Au/Chitosan(Chit) composite, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and AFP antibody(anti-AFP) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Firstly, CuL was irreversibly absorb on GCE electrode through {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction; then nano-Au/Chit composite was immobilized onto the electrode because of its excellent membrane-forming ability, finally HRP and anti-AFP was adsorbed onto the surface of the gold nanoparticles to construct GCE | CuL/nanoAu-chit/HRP/anti-AFP immunosensor. The preparation procedure of the electrode was characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopy method. The results showed that this immunosensor exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) without the aid of an electron mediator, offers a high-sensitivity (1710 nA {center_dot} ng{sup -1} {center_dot} ml{sup -1}) for the detection of AFP and has good correlation for detection of AFP in the range of 0.2 to 120.0 ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.05 ng/ml. The biosensor showed high selectivity as well as good stability and reproductivity.

  19. Bioelectrochemical response of a choline biosensor fabricated by using polyaniline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the isoelectric point of an enzyme and the doping principle of conducting polymers,choline oxidase was doped in a polyaniline film to form a biosensor. The amperometric detection of choline is based on the oxidation of the H2O2 enzymatically produced on the choline biosensor. The response current of the biosensor as a function of temperature was determined from 3 to 40℃. An apparent activation energy of 22.8 kJ·mol-1 was obtained. The biosensor had a wide linear response range from 5 × 10-7 to 1 × 10-4 M choline with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and a detection limit of 0.2 μM,and had a high sensitivity of 61.9 mA·M-1·cm-2 at 0.50 V and at pH 8.0. The apparent Michaelis constant and the optimum pH for the immobilized enzyme are 1.4 mM choline and 8.4,respectively,which are very close to those of choline oxidase in solution. The effect of selected organic compounds on the response of the choline biosensor was studied.

  20. Response enhancement of olfactory sensory neurons-based biosensors for odorant detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-sheng WU; Pei-hua CHEN; Qing YUAN; Ping WANG

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel strategy for the response enhancement of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs)-based bio-sensors by monitoring the enhancive responses of OSNs to odorants. An OSNs-based biosensor was developed on the basis of the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), in which rat OSNs were cultured on the surface of LAPS chip and served as sensing elements. LY294002, the specific inhibitor ofphosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), was used to enhance the responses of OSNs to odorants. The responses of OSNs to odorants with and without the treatment of LY294002 were recorded by LAPS. The results show that the enhancive effect of LY294002 was recorded efficiently by LAPS and the responses of this OSNs-LAPS hybrid biosensor were enhanced by LY294002 by about 1.5-fold. We conclude that this method can enhance the responses of OSNs-LAPS hybrid biosensors, which may provide a novel strategy for the bioelectrical signal monitor of OSNs in biosensors. It is also suggested that this strategy may be applicable to other kinds of OSNs-based biosensors for cellular activity detection, such as microelectrode array (MEA) and field effect transistor (FET).

  1. New biosensor for detection of copper ions in water based on immobilized genetically modified yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopálenská, Irena; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena

    2015-10-15

    Contamination of water by heavy metals represents a potential risk for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, including humans. Heavy metals in water resources can come from various industrial activities, and drinking water can be ex-post contaminated by heavy metals such as Cu(2+) from house fittings (e.g., water reservoirs) and pipes. Here, we present a new copper biosensor capable of detecting copper ions at concentrations of 1-100 μM. This biosensor is based on cells of a specifically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain immobilized in alginate beads. Depending on the concentration of copper, the biosensor beads change color from white, when copper is present in concentrations below the detection limit, to pink or red based on the increase in copper concentration. The biosensor was successfully tested in the determination of copper concentrations in real samples of water contaminated with copper ions. In contrast to analytical methods or other biosensors based on fluorescent proteins, the newly designed biosensor does not require specific equipment and allows the quick detection of copper in many parallel samples.

  2. New biosensor for detection of copper ions in water based on immobilized genetically modified yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopálenská, Irena; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena

    2015-10-15

    Contamination of water by heavy metals represents a potential risk for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, including humans. Heavy metals in water resources can come from various industrial activities, and drinking water can be ex-post contaminated by heavy metals such as Cu(2+) from house fittings (e.g., water reservoirs) and pipes. Here, we present a new copper biosensor capable of detecting copper ions at concentrations of 1-100 μM. This biosensor is based on cells of a specifically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain immobilized in alginate beads. Depending on the concentration of copper, the biosensor beads change color from white, when copper is present in concentrations below the detection limit, to pink or red based on the increase in copper concentration. The biosensor was successfully tested in the determination of copper concentrations in real samples of water contaminated with copper ions. In contrast to analytical methods or other biosensors based on fluorescent proteins, the newly designed biosensor does not require specific equipment and allows the quick detection of copper in many parallel samples. PMID:25982723

  3. Oxygen sensing glucose biosensors based on alginate nano-micro systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Rashmi; Joshi, Abhijeet; Srivastava, Rohit

    2014-04-01

    Clinically glucose monitoring in diabetes management is done by point-measurement. However, an accurate, continuous glucose monitoring, and minimally invasive method is desirable. The research aims at developing fluorescence-mediated glucose detecting biosensors based on near-infrared radiation (NIR) oxygen sensitive dyes. Biosensors based on Glucose oxidase (GOx)-Rudpp loaded alginate microspheres (GRAM) and GOx-Platinum-octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-PLAalginate microsphere system (GPAM) were developed using air-driven atomization and characterized using optical microscopy, CLSM, fluorescence spectro-photometry etc. Biosensing studies were performed by exposing standard solutions of glucose. Uniform sized GRAM and GPAM with size 50+/-10μm were formed using atomization. CLSM imaging of biosensors suggests that Rudpp and PtOEP nanoparticles are uniformly distributed in alginate microspheres. The GRAM and GPAM showed a good regression constant of 0.974 and of 0.9648 over a range of 0-10 mM of glucose with a high sensitivity of 3.349%/mM (625 nm) and 2.38%/mM (645 nm) at 10 mM of glucose for GRAM and GPAM biosensor. GRAM and GPAM biosensors show great potential in development of an accurate and minimally invasive glucose biosensor. NIR dye based assays can aid sensitive, minimally-invasive and interference-free detection of glucose in diabetic patients.

  4. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  5. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); School of Engineering and Technology, ITM University, Gurgaon-122017 (India); Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Malhotra, Bansi Dhar, E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110042 (India)

    2015-05-11

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic–based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium–tin–oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10{sup −15} M to 10{sup −11} M.

  6. Liquid crystal based biosensors for bile acid detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sihui; Liang, Wenlang; Tanner, Colleen; Fang, Jiyu; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2013-03-01

    The concentration level of bile acids is a useful indicator for early diagnosis of liver diseases. The prevalent measurement method in detecting bile acids is the chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, which is precise yet expensive. Here we present a biosensor platform based on liquid crystal (LC) films for the detection of cholic acid (CA). This platform has the advantage of low cost, label-free, solution phase detection and simple analysis. In this platform, LC film of 4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) was hosted by a copper grid supported with a polyimide-coated glass substrate. By immersing into sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution, the LC film was coated with SDS which induced a homeotropic anchoring of 5CB. Addition of CA introduced competitive adsorption between CA and SDS at the interface, triggering a transition from homeotropic to homogeneous anchoring. The detection limit can be tuned by changing the pH value of the solution from 12uM to 170uM.

  7. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma; Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2015-05-01

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic-based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10-15 M to 10-11 M.

  8. Amperometric glucose sensor based on enhanced catalytic reduction of oxygen using glucose oxidase adsorbed onto core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Aijun [College of Geography and Environmental Science, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Li Yongfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Li Zhonghua [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Feng Jiuju, E-mail: jjfengnju@gmail.com [College of Geography and Environmental Science, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Sun Yanli [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Chen Jianrong [College of Geography and Environmental Science, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Monodisperse Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared under facile solvothermal conditions and successively functionalized with silica and Au to form core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au NPs. Furthermore, the samples were used as matrix to construct a glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase (GOD). The immobilized GOD retained its bioactivity with high protein load of 3.92 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol{center_dot}cm{sup -2}, and exhibited a surface-controlled quasi-reversible redox reaction, with a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate of 7.98 {+-} 0.6 s{sup -1}. The glucose biosensor showed a broad linear range up to 3.97 mM with high sensitivity of 62.45 {mu}A{center_dot}mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and fast response (less than 5 s). - Graphical abstract: Core-shell structured Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au nanoparticles were prepared and used as matrix to construct an amperometric glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase, which showed broad linear range, high sensitivity, and fast response. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of monodispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Construction of a novel glucose sensor with wide linear range, high sensitivity and fast response.

  9. Fundamental Aspects of Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sowjanya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is an analytical device which converts a biological response into an electrical signal. The term 'biosensor' is often used to cover sensor devices used in order to determine the concentration of substances and other parameters of biological interest even where they do not utilize a biological system directly. This very broad definition is used by some scientific journals (e.g. Biosensors, Elsevier Applied Science but will not be applied to the coverage here. The emphasis of this Chapter concerns enzymes as the biologically responsive material, but it should be recognized that other biological systems may be utilized by biosensors, for example, whole cell metabolism, ligand binding and the antibody-antigen reaction. Biosensors represent a rapidly expanding field, at the present time, with an estimated 60% annual growth rate; the major impetus coming from the health-care industry (e.g. 6% of the western world are diabetic and would benefit from the availability of a rapid, accurate and simple biosensor for glucose but with some pressure from other areas, such as food quality appraisal and environmental monitoring. The estimated world analytical market is about 12,000,000,000 year- 1 of which 30% is in the health care area. There is clearly a vast market expansion potential as less than 0.1% of this market is currently using biosensors. Research and development in this field is wide and multidisciplinary, spanning biochemistry, bioreactor science, physical chemistry, electrochemistry, electronics and software engineering. Most of this current endeavour concerns potentiometric and amperometric biosensors and colorimetric paper enzyme strips. However, all the main transducer types are likely to be thoroughly examined, for use in biosensors, over the next few years.

  10. Design and characterization of auxotrophy-based amino acid biosensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bertels

    Full Text Available Efficient and inexpensive methods are required for the high-throughput quantification of amino acids in physiological fluids or microbial cell cultures. Here we develop an array of Escherichia coli biosensors to sensitively quantify eleven different amino acids. By using online databases, genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis were identified that - upon deletion - should render the corresponding mutant auxotrophic for one particular amino acid. This rational design strategy suggested genes involved in the biosynthesis of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine as potential genetic targets. A detailed phenotypic characterization of the corresponding single-gene deletion mutants indeed confirmed that these strains could neither grow on a minimal medium lacking amino acids nor transform any other proteinogenic amino acid into the focal one. Site-specific integration of the egfp gene into the chromosome of each biosensor decreased the detection limit of the GFP-labeled cells by 30% relative to turbidometric measurements. Finally, using the biosensors to determine the amino acid concentration in the supernatants of two amino acid overproducing E. coli strains (i.e. ΔhisL and ΔtdcC both turbidometrically and via GFP fluorescence emission and comparing the results to conventional HPLC measurements confirmed the utility of the developed biosensor system. Taken together, our study provides not only a genotypically and phenotypically well-characterized set of publicly available amino acid biosensors, but also demonstrates the feasibility of the rational design strategy used.

  11. A Hydrogen Peroxide Sensor Prepared by Electropolymerization of Pyrrole Based on Screen-Printed Carbon Paste Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A disposable amperometric biosensor for commercial use to detect hydrogenperoxide has been developed. The sensor is based on screen-printed carbon paste electrodesmodified by electropolymerization of pyrrole with horseradish peroxidase (HRP entrapped.The facture techniques of fabricating the enzyme electrodes are suitable for mass productionand quality control. The biosensor shows a linear amperometric response to H2O2 from 0.1to 2.0 mM, with a sensitivity of 33.24 μA mM-1 cm-2. Different operational parameters ofelectropolymerization are evaluated and optimized.

  12. Development of Galactose Biosensor Based on Functionalized ZnO Nanorods with Galactose Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of galactose biosensor based on functionalised ZnO nanorods is described. The galactose biosensor was developed by immobilizing galactose oxidase on ZnO nanorods in conjunction with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker molecule. The IRAS study provided evidence for the interaction of galactose oxidase with the surface of ZnO nanorods. The electromotive force (EMF response of the galactose biosensor was measured by potentiometric method. We observed that the proposed biosensor has a linear detection range over a concentration range from 10 mM to 200 mM with good sensitivity of 89.10±1.23 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor has shown fast time response of less than 10 s and a good selectivity towards galactose in the presence of common interferents such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, glucose, and magnesium ions. The galactose biosensor based on galactose oxidase immobilized ZnO nanorods has a shelf life more than four weeks.

  13. An amperometric acetylcholinesterase sensor based on Fe3O4 nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube-modified ITO-coated glass plate for the detection of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Constructed AChE biosensor based on AChE/Fe3O4NPs/c-MWCNT/ITO electrode. ► Enzyme electrode was characterized by AFM, FTIR, CV and EIS. ► Detection limit and working range of biosensor were 0.1 nM and 0.1–100 nM. ► Half life of enzyme electrode was 3 months. ► Biosensor measured pesticides in environmental and food samples. - Abstract: A method is described for the construction of a highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for the detection of malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan based on covalent immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs)-decorated carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs) electrodeposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) and UV analysis of nanocomposite materials demonstrated that Fe3O4NPs were well deposited on the outer walls of c-MWCNTs. The modified electrode was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The resulting biosensor exhibited a linear response for acetylthiocholine in a concentration range of 0.1–700 μmol L−1 with a remarkable sensitivity of 0.402 mA/μmol L−1. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1–70 nmol L−1, 0.1–50 nmol L−1, 0.1–70 nmol L−1 and 0.1–100 nmol L−1 for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan, respectively. The detection limit of the biosensor for all pesticides was 0.1 nmol L−1 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The biosensor showed good reproducibility, no interference by metal ions and long-term stability. The measurement results obtained by the present biosensor were in good agreement with those obtained by the standard gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method. The biosensor was employed for the determination

  14. Biosensor based on Butyrylcholinesterase for Detection of Carbofuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Mousumi; Bhuvanagayathri, R.; Daniel, David K.

    2015-04-01

    Esterase enzymes play an important role in biology because they are responsible for the hydrolysis of choline esters. In their absence, the original state of the post synaptic membranes cannot be reestablished. Therefore, the aim of the work is to study the inhibiting action exerted by the group of compounds on these enzymes. Among these class of inhibiting compounds, pesticides are important because of the potential danger as a result of their large scale use in agriculture. Pesticides are generally determined using liquid or gas chromatography methods with various detection techniques. These methods are very sensitive and discriminating, however they require sample pretreatment such as extraction, preconcentration and clean up, which are skilled techniques and high cost treatment and also time consuming. In this study, acetyl cholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase based biosensors have emerged as a promising tool for the detection and characterization of pesticides which are inhibitors of these enzymes. Although the physiological function of butyrylcholinesterase in comparison with acetyl cholinesterase is ambiguous, it has larger substrate specificity towards choline esters. Therefore, the development of a more selective electrode against choline, can lead to more sensitive determination of the inhibitor being investigated. Hence in the present work, a method based on inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase was attempted for quantification of carbofuran on the basis of cholinesterase inhibition. Butyrylcholinesterase with an activity of 10.2 units/mg was immobilized on a solid surface by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. The immobilized system was calibrated by correlating the inhibition of the butyrylcholinesterase activity with varying concentrations of the butyryl choline chloride and carbofuran. The sensing mechanism was investigated for its response to carbofuran concentrations ranging from 125 to 1,000 ppm. The effects of butyryl choline chloride

  15. Developing a high performance superoxide dismutase based electrochemical biosensor for radiation dosimetry of thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a new biosensor for measurement of superoxide free radical generated in radiolysis reaction, three combinations of SOD-based biosensors including Au/Cys/SOD, Au/GNP/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit were fabricated. In these biosensors Au, GNP, Cys, SOD and Chit represent gold electrode, gold nano-particles, cysteine, superoxide dismutase and chitosan, respectively. For biosensors fabrication, SOD, GNP, Cys and Chit were immobilized at the surface of gold electrode. Cyclic voltametry and chronoamperometry were utilized for evaluation of biosensors performances. The results showed that Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit has significantly better responses compared to Au/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD. As a result, this biosensor was selected for dosimetry of ionizing radiation. For this purpose, thallium 201 at different volumes was added to buffer phosphate solution in electrochemical cell. To obtain analytical parameters of Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit, calibration curve was sketched. The results showed that this biosensor has a linear response in the range from 0.5 to 4 Gy, detection limit 0.03 μM. It also has a proper sensitivity (0.6038 nA/Gy), suitable long term stability and cost effective as well as high function for radiation dosimetry. - highlights: • Our biosensor is able to measure produced superoxide radical during water radiolysis. • It has suitable linearity range, good detection limit and long term stability. • It also has proper sensitivity and high performance for low LET ionizing radiation. • The electrochemical method is as good as traditional methods for radiation dosimetry

  16. Direct evidence of advantage of using nanosized zeolite Beta for ISFET-based biosensor construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical characteristics of urease- and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)- based ion sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) biosensors were investigated by the incorporation of zeolite Beta nanoparticles with varying Si/Al ratios. The results obtained by the zeolite-modified ISFET transducers suggested that the Si/Al ratio strongly influenced the biosensor performances due to the electrostatic interactions among enzyme, substrate, and zeolite surface as well as the nature of the enzymatic reaction. Using relatively small nanoparticles (62.7 ± 10, 76.2 ± 10, and 77.1 ± 10 nm) rather than larger particles, that are widely used in the literature, allow us to produce more homogenous products which will give more control over the quantity of materials used on the electrode surface and ability to change solely Si/Al ratio without changing other parameters such as particle size, pore volume, and surface area. This should enable the investigation of the individual effect of changing acidic and electronic nature of this material on the biosensor characteristics. According to our results, high biosensor sensitivity is evident on nanosize and submicron size particles, with the former resulting in higher performance. The sensitivity of biosensors modified by zeolite particles is higher than that to the protein for both types of biosensors. Most significantly, our results show that the performance of constructed ISFET-type biosensors strongly depends on Si/Al ratio of employed zeolite Beta nanoparticles as well as the type of enzymatic reaction employed. All fabricated biosensors demonstrated high signal reproducibility and stability for both BuChE and urease.

  17. FLOW INJECTION AMPEROMETRIC DETECTION OF OP NERVE AGENTS BASED ON AN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS-HYDROLASE BIOSENSOR DETECTOR. (R828160)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Amperometric Biosensors Sensitive to Organic Peroxides Based on Immobilization of Redox Organic Dyes and Horseradish Peroxidase in Polyester Ionomer Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Peroxides Based on Immobilization of Redox Organic Dyes and Horseradish Peroxidase in Polyester Ionomer FilmTX1IntroductionOrg...

  19. An amperometric bienzymatic cholesterol biosensor based on functionalized graphene modified electrode and its electrocatalytic activity towards total cholesterol determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa; Shivappa Suresh, Gurukar; Melo, Jose Savio; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Venkatesha, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2012-09-15

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) have been covalently immobilized onto functionalized graphene (FG) modified graphite electrode. Enzymes modified electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FG accelerates the electron transfer from electrode surface to the immobilized ChOx, achieving the direct electrochemistry of ChOx. A well defined redox peak was observed, corresponding to the direct electron transfer of the FAD/FADH(2) of ChOx. The electron transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer rate constant (K(s)) were calculated and their values are found to be 0.31 and 0.78 s(-1), respectively. For the free cholesterol determination, ChOx-FG/Gr electrode exhibits a sensitive response from 50 to 350 μM (R=-0.9972) with a detection limit of 5 μM. For total cholesterol determination, co-immobilization of ChEt and ChOx on modified electrode, i.e. (ChEt/ChOx)-FG/Gr electrode showed linear range from 50 to 300 μM (R=-0.9982) with a detection limit of 15 μM. Some common interferents like glucose, ascorbic acid and uric acid did not cause any interference, due to the use of a low operating potential. The FG/Gr electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). A wide linear response to H(2)O(2) ranging from 0.5 to 7 mM (R=-0.9967) with a sensitivity of 443.25 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) has been obtained. PMID:22967556

  20. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar+ ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)