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Sample records for amp-induced hyperglycaemic response

  1. Comparison of the hyperglycaemic and glycogenolytic responses to catecholamines with those to stimulation of the hepatic sympathetic innervation in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A V; Silver, M

    1972-06-01

    1. The effects of stimulation of the splanchnic innervation to the adrenal medullae, in dogs with cut hepatic nerves, were compared with those obtained previously in response to splanchnic and hepatic nerve stimulation in adrenalectomized dogs.2. Maximal stimulation of both adrenal medullae via the splanchnic innervation (20 c/s for 9 min), in dogs with cut hepatic nerves, produced closely similar hyperglycaemic and glycogenolytic responses to those obtained previously in adrenalectomized dogs with intact hepatic nerves.3. The rise in plasma glucose concentration in response to maximal stimulation of the adrenal medullae in dogs with intact hepatic nerves was found to be comparable to that which occurs in response to maximal stimulation of the hepatic sympathetic innervation alone. In contrast, the rise in haematocrit during maximal stimulation of the entire splanchnic innervation was substantially greater than that observed after removal of both adrenal glands.4. The output of adrenaline and noradrenaline from the left adrenal gland was determined during maximal stimulation of the left splanchnic nerve (20 c/s for 9 min). These results were then used to compute doses of the two amines which would reproduce the output of catecholamines from both glands under such conditions. The extent of the rise in mean plasma glucose concentration in response to these infusions was similar to that produced by maximal stimulation of both adrenal glands, but the duration of hyperglycaemia and depletion of liver glycogen were significantly less.5. Stimulation of the splanchnic innervation was found to produce an initial ;surge' in the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medullae, followed by a rapid decline in output when stimulation was continued for longer than 30 sec. Evidence was obtained which showed that this pattern of release is well suited to produce rapid mobilization of liver glycogen.6. Comparable changes in plasma glucose concentration occurred in response to

  2. Immunization with Tc52 or its amino terminal domain adjuvanted with c-di-AMP induces Th17+Th1 specific immune responses and confers protection against Trypanosoma cruzi.

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    Marina N Matos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new adjuvants enables fine modulation of the elicited immune responses. Ideally, the use of one or more adjuvants should result in the induction of a protective immune response against the specific pathogen. We have evaluated the immune response and protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice vaccinated with recombinant Tc52 or its N- and C-terminal domains (NTc52 and CTc52 adjuvanted either with the STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes agonist cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP, a pegylated derivative of α-galactosylceramide (αGC-PEG, or oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (ODN-CpG. All groups immunized with the recombinant proteins plus adjuvant: Tc52+c-di-AMP, NTc52+c-di-AMP, CTc52+c-di-AMP, NTc52+c-di-AMP+αGC-PEG, NTc52+CpG, developed significantly higher anti-Tc52 IgG titers than controls. Groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52 showed the highest Tc52-specific IgA titers in nasal lavages. All groups immunized with the recombinant proteins plus adjuvant developed a strong specific cellular immune response in splenocytes and lymph node cells with significant differences for groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52. These groups also showed high levels of Tc52-specific IL-17 and IFN-γ producing cells, while NTc52+CpG group only showed significant difference with control in IFN-γ producing cells. Groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52 developed predominantly a Th17 and Th1immune response, whereas for NTc52+CpG it was a dominant Th1 response. It was previously described that αGC-PEG inhibits Th17 differentiation by activating NKT cells. Thus, in this work we have also included a group immunized with both adjuvants (NTc52+c-di-AMP+αGC-PEG with the aim to modulate the Th17 response induced by c-di-AMP. This group showed a significant reduction in the number of Tc52-specific IL-17 producing splenocytes, as compared to the group NTc52+c-di-AMP, which has

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy can detect differences in vascular responsiveness to a hyperglycaemic challenge in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogério Nogueira; Reimer, Raylene A; Alenezi, Zaid; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Murias, Juan Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To examine whether the near-infrared spectroscopy combined with vascular occlusion test technique could detect differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity. A total of 16 normal-weight individuals (body mass index, 21.3 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 13 individuals with obesity (body mass index, 34.4 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 ) were submitted to five vascular occlusion tests (Pre, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose challenge). Vascular responsiveness was determined by the Slope 2 (Slope 2 StO 2 ) and the area under the curve (StO 2AUC ) of oxygen saturation derived from near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test. The Slope 2 StO 2 increased from 1.07 ± 0.16%/s (Pre) to 1.53 ± 0.21%/s at 90 min ( p obese it increased from 0.71 ± 0.09%/s (Pre) to 0.92 ± 0.14%/s at 60 min ( p obesity. Near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test technique was capable of detecting differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity.

  4. Probenecid potentiates the hyperglycaemic effect but reduces the diuretic effect of frusemide in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of probenecid on frusemide-induced diuresis and hyperglycaemia was studied in mice. Probenecid, a known inhibitor of tubular secretion of organic anions in the kidney, strongly reduced the diuretic response to frusemide (25 or 200 mg kg-1 body weight). This effect of probenecid appeared to be dose-dependent up to 240 mg kg-1 body weight, at least at the lower concentration of frusemide. Pretreatment with probenecid (240 mg kg-1 body weight) potentiated the hyperglycaemic effect of ...

  5. Timing is critical for effective glucocorticoid receptor mediated repression of the cAMP-induced CRH gene.

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    Siem van der Laan

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid negative feedback of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is mediated in part by direct repression of gene transcription in glucocorticoid receptor (GR expressing cells. We have investigated the cross talk between the two main signaling pathways involved in activation and repression of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH mRNA expression: cyclic AMP (cAMP and GR. We report that in the At-T20 cell-line the glucocorticoid-mediated repression of the cAMP-induced human CRH proximal promoter activity depends on the relative timing of activation of both signaling pathways. Activation of the GR prior to or in conjunction with cAMP signaling results in an effective repression of the cAMP-induced transcription of the CRH gene. In contrast, activation of the GR 10 minutes after onset of cAMP treatment, results in a significant loss of GR-mediated repression. In addition, translocation of ligand-activated GR to the nucleus was found as early as 10 minutes after glucocorticoid treatment. Interestingly, while both signaling cascades counteract each other on the CRH proximal promoter, they synergize on a synthetic promoter containing 'positive' response elements. Since the order of activation of both signaling pathways may vary considerably in vivo, we conclude that a critical time-window exists for effective repression of the CRH gene by glucocorticoids.

  6. IP{sub 3}-dependent intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons

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    Zhang, Wenting; Tingare, Asmita; Ng, David Chi-Heng [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Johnson, Hong W.; Schell, Michael J. [Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda (United States); Lord, Rebecca L. [Department of Biology, University of York (United Kingdom); Chawla, Sangeeta, E-mail: sangeeta.chawla@york.ac.uk [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Biology, University of York (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons requires a submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool derives from intracellular ER stores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes inhibits cAMP-induced c-fos expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRE-mediated and CRE-mediated gene expression is sensitive to IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of TORC1. -- Abstract: Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP are widely used in concert by neurons to relay signals from the synapse to the nucleus, where synaptic activity modulates gene expression required for synaptic plasticity. Neurons utilize different transcriptional regulators to integrate information encoded in the spatiotemporal dynamics and magnitude of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals, including some that are Ca{sup 2+}-responsive, some that are cAMP-responsive and some that detect coincident Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals. Because Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP can influence each other's amplitude and spatiotemporal characteristics, we investigated how cAMP acts to regulate gene expression when increases in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} are buffered. We show here that cAMP-mobilizing stimuli are unable to induce expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in hippocampal neurons in the presence of the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} buffer BAPTA-AM. Expression of enzymes that attenuate intracellular IP{sub 3} levels also inhibited cAMP-dependent c-fos induction. Synaptic activity induces c-fos transcription through two cis regulatory DNA elements - the CRE and the SRE. We show here that in response to cAMP both CRE-mediated and SRE-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter gene is attenuated by IP{sub 3} metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 was inhibited

  7. Anti-hyperglycaemic Activity of Tribulus terrestris L Aerial Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    62.8 and 59.16 %), and 3 h (64.6 and 57.1 %) with ... from this plant are required. Keywords: Tribulus terrestris L., Zygophyllaceae, Anti-hyperglycaemic activity, Fasting blood glucose, ... Extraction and fractionation. The air dried and powdered ...

  8. Anti-hyperglycaemic Activity of Tribulus terrestris L Aerial Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Tribulus terrestris L. Zygophyllaceae in glucose-loaded normal rabbits. Methods: The animals were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 5) and treated with a single oral dose. Group 1 served as normal control group and received distilled water; ...

  9. Actions of neuropeptide Y on basal, cyclic AMP-induced and neurally evoked ion transport in porcine distal jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D R; Boster, S L; Overend, M F; Parsons, A M; Treder, B G

    1990-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its homolog, peptide YY, are present respectively in neurons and endocrine cells within the mammalian small intestine. In this study, we examined the actions of NPY on ion transport in the porcine distal jejunum mucosa-submucosa in vitro. Peptide YY and NPY were equieffective in producing rapid and sustained decreases in basal short-circuit current (Isc), a bioelectrical measure of active ion transport, eliciting half-maximal decreases at respective serosal concentrations of 0.8 and 30 nmol/l. NPY-induced changes in Isc were due to increased mucosa-to-serosa and net Cl fluxes and were not affected by the absence of extracellular HCO3 ions. NPY activity was correlated with the magnitude of the basal Isc and appeared to depend on the spontaneous production of eicosanoids. The peptide also decreased Isc stimulated by forskolin and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, but the ionic bases for this effect were complex and differed from those determined under basal conditions. NPY attenuated increases in Isc produced by electrical stimulation of enteric neurons with an IC50 = 5 nmol/l. The actions of the peptide on basal and cyclic AMP-induced ion transport were abolished by the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin, but not by the opiate antagonist naloxone. The alpha-adrenoceptor blocker phentolamine diminished the effects of NPY on basal, but not cyclic AMP-induced Isc. These results indicate that NPY is capable of modulating NaCl transport in the porcine jejunal mucosa under several different conditions. Furthermore, the effects of the peptide are mediated in part through noradrenergic nerves as well as enteric neurons of unknown chemical identity.

  10. Clinical features, predictive factors and outcome of hyperglycaemic emergencies in a developing country

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    Unachukwu Chioma

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycaemic emergencies are common acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM but unfortunately, there is a dearth of published data on this entity from Nigeria. This study attempts to describe the clinical and laboratory scenario associated with this complication of DM. Methods This study was carried out in DM patients who presented to an urban hospital in Nigeria with hyperglycaemic emergencies (HEs. The information extracted included biodata, laboratory data and hospitalization outcome. Outcome measures included mortality rates, case fatality rates and predictive factors for HEs mortality. Statistical tests used are χ2, Student's t test and logistic regression. Results A total of 111 subjects with HEs were recruited for the study. Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA and hyperosomolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS accounted for 94 (85% and 17 (15% respectively of the HEs. The mean age (SD of the subjects was 53.9 (14.4 years and their ages ranged from 22 to 86 years. DKA occurred in all subjects with type 1 DM and 73 (81% of subjects with type 2 DM. The presence of HSS was noted in 17 (19% of the subjects with type 2 DM. Hypokalaemia (HK was documented in 41 (37% of the study subjects. Elevated urea levels and hyponatraemia were noted more in subjects with DKA than in those subjects with HHS (57.5%,19% vs 53%,18%. The mortality rate for HEs in this report is 20% and the case fatality rates for DKA and HHS are 18% and 35% respectively. The predictive factors for HEs mortality include, sepsis, foot ulceration, previously undetected DM, hypokalaemia and being elderly. Conclusion HHS carry a higher case fatality rate than DKA and the predictive factors for hyperglycaemic emergencies' mortality in the Nigerian with DM include foot ulcers, hypokalaemia and being elderly.

  11. Mechanism of intracellular cAMP sensor Epac2 activation: cAMP-induced conformational changes identified by amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS).

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    Li, Sheng; Tsalkova, Tamara; White, Mark A; Mei, Fang C; Liu, Tong; Wang, Daphne; Woods, Virgil L; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2011-05-20

    Epac2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, regulates a wide variety of intracellular processes in response to second messenger cAMP. In this study, we have used peptide amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to probe the solution structural and conformational dynamics of full-length Epac2 in the presence and absence of cAMP. The results support a mechanism in which cAMP-induced Epac2 activation is mediated by a major hinge motion centered on the C terminus of the second cAMP binding domain. This conformational change realigns the regulatory components of Epac2 away from the catalytic core, making the later available for effector binding. Furthermore, the interface between the first and second cAMP binding domains is highly dynamic, providing an explanation of how cAMP gains access to the ligand binding sites that, in the crystal structure, are seen to be mutually occluded by the other cAMP binding domain. Moreover, cAMP also induces conformational changes at the ionic latch/hairpin structure, which is directly involved in RAP1 binding. These results suggest that in addition to relieving the steric hindrance imposed upon the catalytic lobe by the regulatory lobe, cAMP may also be an allosteric modulator directly affecting the interaction between Epac2 and RAP1. Finally, cAMP binding also induces significant conformational changes in the dishevelled/Egl/pleckstrin (DEP) domain, a conserved structural motif that, although missing from the active Epac2 crystal structure, is important for Epac subcellular targeting and in vivo functions. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Increased expression and secretion of r-Gsp protein, rat counterpart of complement C1s precursor, during cyclic AMP-induced differentiation in rat C6 glioma cells.

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    Nakagawa, Masanori; Nakashima, Shigeru; Banno, Yoshiko; Yamada, Jun; Sawada, Motoshi; Yoshimura, Shin ichi; Kaku, Yasuhiko; Iwama, Toru; Shinoda, Jun; Sakai, Noboru

    2002-10-15

    The gene, termed r-gsp, was originally isolated during identification of differentiation-associated molecules in rat C6 glial cells. Its mRNA expression was markedly increased during cAMP-induced glial cell differentiation. The deduced amino acid sequence of r-gsp was homologous to those of complement C1s precursors of hamsters and humans. In the present study, we raised anti-peptide antibody against r-Gsp protein and analyzed its change during cAMP-induced differentiation. The 90-kDa r-Gsp protein increased time-dependently and reached the maximal level ( approximately 7.6-fold increase) at 24 h in response to dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) and theophylline. Moreover, it was secreted into the medium and then was cleaved to form disulfide-linked fragments, one of which was 30 kDa, similar to C1s, suggesting its processing in the extracellular space. In fact, the partially purified r-Gsp from culture medium was cleaved by active human C1r to form a 30-kDa polypeptide. Moreover, secreted r-Gsp protein cleaved human C4alpha to yield C4alpha' and associated with human serum C1-esterase inhibitor, strongly suggesting that r-Gsp protein is rat C1s. However, in C6 cells overexpressing r-Gsp, their morphology and proliferation rate were similar to those in parent C6 cells. These results suggest that r-Gsp protein could not induce glial differentiation alone, and suggest that r-Gsp protein was secreted as a proenzyme and processed in culture medium. Its possible role in glial cell differentiation will be discussed.

  13. YC-1 potentiates cAMP-induced CREB activation and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages

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    Hwang, Tsong-Long, E-mail: htl@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chinese Herbal Medicine Research Team, Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tang, Ming-Chi [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Liang-Mou [Department of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-De; Chung, Pei-Jen; Chang, Ya-Wen; Fang, Yao-Ching [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-04-15

    Alveolar macrophages play significant roles in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory lung diseases. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are well documented to reflect disease severity in the airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), a known activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, on prostaglandin (PG)E{sub 1} (a stable PGE{sub 2} analogue) and forskolin (a adenylate cyclase activator) induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383). YC-1 did not directly cause NO production or iNOS expression, but drastically potentiated PGE{sub 1}- or forskolin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in NR8383 alveolar macrophages. Combination treatment with YC-1 and PGE{sub 1} significantly increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The combined effect on NO production, iNOS expression, and CREB phosphorylation was reversed by a protein kinase (PK)A inhibitor (H89), suggesting that the potentiating functions were mediated through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Consistent with this, cAMP analogues, but not the cGMP analogue, caused NO release, iNOS expression, and CREB activation. YC-1 treatment induced an increase in PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP formation, which occurred through the inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Furthermore, the combination of rolipram (an inhibitor of PDE4), but not milronone (an inhibitor of PDE3), and PGE{sub 1} also triggered NO production and iNOS expression. In summary, YC-1 potentiates PGE{sub 1}-induced NO production and iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages through inhibition of cAMP PDE activity and activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Highlights: ► YC-1 potentiated PGE1-induced iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages. ► The combination of YC-1 and PGE1 increased CREB but not NFκB activation.

  14. One too many diabetes: the combination of hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state and central diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmazovic, Snezana; Henzen, Christoph; Brander, Lukas; Cioccari, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The combination of hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state and central diabetes insipidus is unusual and poses unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for clinicians. In a patient with diabetes mellitus presenting with polyuria and polydipsia, poor glycaemic control is usually the first aetiology that is considered, and achieving glycaemic control remains the first course of action. However, severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia and discordance between urine-specific gravity and urine osmolality suggest concurrent symptomatic diabetes insipidus. We report a rare case of concurrent manifestation of hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state and central diabetes insipidus in a patient with a history of craniopharyngioma. In patients with diabetes mellitus presenting with polyuria and polydipsia, poor glycaemic control is usually the first aetiology to be considered.However, a history of craniopharyngioma, severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia and discordance between urine-specific gravity and osmolality provide evidence of concurrent diabetes insipidus.Therefore, if a patient with diabetes mellitus presents with severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia, a low or low normal urinary-specific gravity and worsening polyuria despite correction of hyperglycaemia, concurrent diabetes insipidus should be sought.

  15. Regional variation in medication-taking behaviour of new users of oral anti-hyperglycaemic therapy in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Shea, M. P.

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have investigated regional variation in medication-taking behaviour. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are regional differences in non-persistence and non-adherence to oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents in patients initiating therapy and examine if any association exists between different types of comorbidity in terms of medication-taking behaviour.\\r\

  16. Ketosis-prone atypical diabetes in Cameroonian people with hyperglycaemic crisis: frequency, clinical and metabolic phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontchi-Yimagou, E; Nguewa, J L; Assah, F; Noubiap, J J; Boudou, P; Djahmeni, E; Balti, E V; Atogho-Tiedeu, B; Gautier, J F; Mbanya, J C; Sobngwi, E

    2017-03-01

    It is unclear whether ketosis-prone diabetes is a specific type or a subtype of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to describe the clinical and metabolic features of ketosis-prone diabetes in a sub-Saharan population. We consecutively enrolled and characterized 173 people with non-autoimmune diabetes admitted for hyperglycaemic crisis at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. Blood samples were collected for fasting glucose, HbA 1c , lipid profile and C-peptide assays with insulin resistance and secretion estimation by homeostasis model assessment. People were classified as having Type 2 diabetes (n = 124) or ketosis-prone diabetes (n = 49). Ketosis-prone diabetes was sub-classified as new-onset ketotic phase (n = 34) or non-ketotic phase (n = 15). Ketosis-prone diabetes was found in 28.3% of the hyperglycaemic crises. Age at diabetes diagnosis was comparable in Type 2 and ketosis-prone diabetes [48 ± 14 vs 47 ± 11 years; P = 0.13] with a similar sex distribution. Overall BMI was 27.7 ± 13.4 kg/m 2 and was ≥ 25 kg/m 2 in 55.8% of those taking part, however, 73.5% of those with ketosis-prone diabetes reported weight loss of > 5% at diagnosis. Blood pressure and lipid profile were comparable in both types. Ketosis-prone diabetes in the ketotic phase was characterized by lower insulin secretion and higher serum triglycerides compared with non-ketotic ketosis prone and Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 and ketosis prone diabetes in the non-ketotic phase were comparable in terms of lipid profile, blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, BMI and fat mass, insulin secretion and insulin resistance indices. Ketosis-prone diabetes is likely to be a subtype of Type 2 diabetes with the potential to develop acute insulinopenic episodes. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  17. Functional analysis of a mutated analogue of the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone from the crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosco, Alessandro; Zlatev, Ventsislav; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Giulianini, Piero G

    2015-02-01

    The crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH), a pleiotropic neuropeptide, belongs to a family of structurally related peptides, having six cysteine residues in conserved positions forming three disulphide bridges, and regulating several physiological processes in crustaceans and insects. Structure-activity studies have shown that amidation of the C-terminus is important to confer biological activity to CHH. In this study we investigated the function of the d-Phe(3) of the N-terminal motif of Pontastacus leptodactylus CHH by a mutational analysis. The d-Phe in position 3 was substituted by a d-Ala and the functionality of the mutated analogue (Glp-d-A-CHH) was tested by in vivo biological assays. The mutated analogue resulted far less active than its wild-type counterparts, either in d- (Glp-d-CHH) or l- (Glp-l-CHH) configuration. These results suggest that Phe(3) is essential for the biological activity of P. leptodactylus CHH, demonstrating that also the N-terminus is involved in the binding with the receptor, and identifying in the Phe(3) a hot spot for the peptide-receptor binding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. New insights into evolution of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone in decapods--first characterization in Anomura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagné, Nicolas; Soyez, Daniel; Gallois, Dominique; Ollivaux, Céline; Toullec, Jean-Yves

    2008-03-01

    The neuropeptides of the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) family are encoded by a multigene family and are involved in a wide spectrum of essential functions. In order to characterize CHH family peptides in one of the last groups of decapods not yet investigated, CHH was studied in two anomurans: the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus and the squat lobster Galathea strigosa. Using RT-PCR and 3' and 5' RACE methods, a preproCHH cDNA was cloned from the major neuroendocrine organs (X-organs) of these two species. Hormone precursors deduced from these cDNAs in P. bernhardus and G. strigosa are composed of signal peptides of 29 and 31 amino acids, respectively, and CHH precursor-related peptides (CPRPs) of 50 and 40 amino acids, respectively, followed by a mature hormone of 72 amino acids. The presence of these predicted CHHs and their related CPRPs was confirmed by performing MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry on sinus glands, the main neurohaemal organs of decapods. These analyses also suggest the presence, in sinus glands of both species, of a peptide related to the moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH), another member of the CHH family. Accordingly, immunostaining of the X-organ/sinus gland complex of P. bernhardus with heterologous anti-CHH and anti-MIH sera showed the presence of distinct cells producing CHH and MIH-like proteins. A phylogenetic analysis of CHHs, including anomuran sequences, based on maximum-likelihood methods, was performed. The phylogenetic position of this taxon, as a sister group to Brachyura, is in agreement with previously reported results, and confirms the utility of CHH as a molecular model for understanding inter-taxa relationships. Finally, the paraphyly of penaeid CHHs and the structural diversity of CPRPs are discussed.

  19. Correlation between urine ketones (acetoacetate) and capillary blood ketones (3-beta-hydroxybutyrate) in hyperglycaemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboulet, P; Deconinck, N; Thurel, A; Haas, L; Manamani, J; Porcher, R; Schmit, C; Fontaine, J-P; Gautier, J-F

    2007-04-01

    To facilitate the transition from urine ketones (acetoacetate) to capillary blood ketones (3-beta-hydroxybutyrate), we studied the correlation between these two tests. Retrospective study of all patients with blood glucose greater than or equal to 2.5 g/l on arrival in the Emergency Department. We studied the correlation between urine ketones (Clinitek 50, Bayer) and capillary blood ketones (Optium, Abbott). We then compared the relative risks (RR) of ketoacidosis and hospitalization associated with each of these tests. In 33 months, 529 adult patients with both urine and blood testing for ketones were enrolled (ketoacidosis 8%, admission rate 49%). Urine ketones scored as +, ++ and +++ corresponded to median capillary blood ketone levels of 0.5 mmol/l (IQR: 0.1-0.9), 0.7 mmol/l (IQR: 0.2-1.8) and 3 mmol/l (IQR: 1.4-5.2), respectively. RRs of ketoacidosis or hospitalization associated with blood ketones greater than or equal to 3 mmol/l were higher than those associated with +++ urine ketones: 74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 48-88) and 2.9 (95% CI: 2.5-3) versus 31 (95% CI: 18-45) and 2 (95% CI: 1.7-2.1), respectively. In hyperglycaemic patients in the Emergency Department, a good correlation was observed between urine ketones and capillary blood ketones for low values, but a poor correlation was observed for high values. Either test can therefore be used to exclude ketosis, but the capillary blood ketones test is more accurate to confirm ketoacidosis.

  20. Hyperglycaemic effect of Artocarpus communis Forst (Moraceae) root bark aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, S O; Ojewole, J O

    2007-01-01

    Decoctions and infusions of Artocarpus communis (Forst) (family: Moraceae) root bark are traditionally used among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria as folk remedies for the management, control and treatment of an array of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although numerous bioactive prenylflavonoids have been isolated from the roots, stem bark and leaves of A communis, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of the plant's root bark extract on animal models of diabetes mellitus have hitherto not been reported in the biomedical literature. In our pilot study, we observed that A communis root bark aqueous extract (ACE) raised blood glucose concentrations in rats. In view of this finding, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glycaemic effect of ACE in comparison with that of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. Four groups (A, B, C and D) of Wistar rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used in this study. Group A rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of ACE administered. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the animals in groups B and C by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats in group C were additionally treated with ACE (50 mg/kg body weight ip) from the third to the tenth day following STZ treatment. Group D rats received ACE (12.5-100 mg/kg body weight ip) only. The effects of ACE were compared with those of STZ on blood glucose concentrations, serum and pancreatic insulin levels, hepatic hexokinase (HXK) and glucokinase (GCK) activities, and hepatic glycogen contents in the experimental animal paradigm used. The rats in treated groups B, C and D exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypo-insulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Group D rats developed significant hyperglycaemia (p < 0.05) immediately after ACE administration, whereas groups B and C rats became hyperglycaemic 24 to 72 hours post STZ and STZ + ACE treatments, when compared with the control group A

  1. Bronchoprotection by salmeterol: cell stabilization or functional antagonism? Comparative effects on histamine- and AMP-induced bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solèr, M; Joos, L; Bolliger, C T; Elsasser, S; Perruchoud, A P

    1994-11-01

    Salmeterol provides bronchoprotection against a number of constrictor stimuli for more than 12 h after a single dose. This effect could be due either to functional antagonism at the level of airway smooth muscle or to cell-stabilizing effects of the compound. In this study, we attempted to clarify this mechanism by comparing the effects of salmeterol (50 micrograms), salbutamol (200 micrograms) and placebo on the airway responsiveness to histamine (to assess functional antagonism), and to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) (to assess additional cell-stabilizing effects), 14 h after drug treatment. Thirteen patients with mild allergic asthma were studied in a double-blind, randomized protocol on 6 days, at least 48 h apart. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured before and 15 min after inhalation of the study medication. Then, 14 h later (8 a.m. the following morning), a bronchoprovocation test with histamine or AMP was performed. We found that 14 h after inhalation, salmeterol still had a significant effect on FEV1 in comparison to placebo and salbutamol. The provocative dose producing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20histamine) was significantly increased after salmeterol, whilst the increase in PD20AMP did not reach significance. The shift in PD20 (in doubling dose steps) induced by salmeterol pretreatment was not different between histamine and AMP. We conclude that the prolonged protective effect of salmeterol occurs via an extended bronchodilating and functional antagonistic action and not via a cell-stabilizing effect.

  2. An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeted against the type IIβ regulatory subunit mRNA of protein kinase inhibits cAMP-induced differentiation in HL-60 leukemia cells without affecting phorbol ester effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, G.; Clair, T.; Cho-Chung, Y.S.

    1990-01-01

    The type II β regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RII β ) has been hypothesized to play an important role in the growth inhibition and differentiation induced by site-selective cAMP analogs in human cancer cells, but direct proof of this function has been lacking. To address this tissue, HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells were exposed to RII β antisense synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide, and the effects on cAMP-induced growth regulation were examined. Exposure of these cells to RII β antisense oligodeoxynucleotide resulted in a decrease in cAMP analog-induced growth inhibition and differentiation without apparent effect on differentiation induced by phorbol esters. This loss in cAMP growth regulatory function correlated with a decrease in basal and induced levels of RII β protein. Exposure to RII β sense, RI α and RII α antisense, or irrelevant oligodeoxynucleotides had no such effect. These results show that the RII β regulatory subunit of protein kinase plays a critical role in the cAMP-induced growth regulation of HL-60 leukemia cells

  3. Relationships between the taqI polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor and blood pressure in hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G N; Critchley, J A; Tomlinson, B; Cockram, C S; Chan, J C

    2001-11-01

    We have previously reported an association of the A2 allele of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) TaqI polymorphism with increased blood pressure in normoglycaemic Chinese subjects, but conversely possibly with decreased indices of obesity. Hypertension is also a common feature of patients with type 2 diabetes, with up to 50% being hypertensive. To compare the relationship between the DRD2 TaqI polymorphism, blood pressure and obesity in Chinese patients with and without fasting hyperglycaemia. The DRD2 TaqI polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP in 519 normoglycaemic and 471 hyperglycaemic Chinese subjects, of whom 53.2 and 48.8% were hypertensive, respectively. In the normoglycaemic subjects there was a significant increase in mean arterial pressure (P= 0.041) with increasing proportions of the A2 allele, 95 +/- 16, 96 +/- 17 and 100 +/- 17 mmHg for the A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 genotypes, respectively. However, the relationship was not observed in the subjects with fasting hyperglycaemia either in the total group or in the subgroup who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering medication (n = 383, 97 +/- 15, 98 +/- 14 and 97 +/- 15 mmHg, respectively). When the whole group was divided into those subjects obese by either body mass index or waist-to-hip ratio (n = 484) and those subjects not obese by both these criteria (n= 506), the A1 allele (49.2 vs. 43.8%, P = 0.02) and A1 allele containing genotypes (P = 0.03) were more frequent in the obese subjects. Similar relationships were seen in the normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic groups separately, although these did not reach significance. In the normoglycaemic subjects, the A2 allele was associated with increased blood pressure and possibly lower indices of obesity, but in the hyperglycaemic subjects only the possible association with obesity was noted.

  4. Berberine Reduces cAMP-Induced Chloride Secretion in T84 Human Colonic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of Basolateral KCNQ1 Channels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl(-) secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl(-) secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) 80 ± 8 μM). In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K(+) current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K(+) channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl(-) conductance or basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKCα and PKA, but had no effect on p42\\/p44 MAPK and PKCδ. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42\\/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl(-) secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE (∼65%), an inhibitor of PKCα and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 (∼15%). Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKCα and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl(-) secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K(+) recycling via a PKCα-dependent pathway.

  5. Berberine Reduces cAMP-Induced Chloride Secretion in T84 Human Colonic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of Basolateral KCNQ1 Channels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl(-) secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl(-) secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) 80 +\\/- 8 muM). In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K(+) current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K(+) channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl(-) conductance or basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKCalpha and PKA, but had no effect on p42\\/p44 MAPK and PKCdelta. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42\\/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl(-) secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE ( approximately 65%), an inhibitor of PKCalpha and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 ( approximately 15%). Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKCalpha and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl(-) secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K(+) recycling via a PKCalpha-dependent pathway.

  6. Berberine reduces cAMP-induced chloride secretion in T84 human colonic carcinoma cells through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eAlzamora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl- secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signalling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl- secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 80  8 M. In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K+ current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K+ channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl- conductance or basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKC and PKA, but had no effect on p42/p44 MAPK and PKC. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl- secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE (65 %, an inhibitor of PKC and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 (15 %. Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKC and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl- secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K+ recycling via a PKC-dependent pathway.

  7. Spinal Glia Division Contributes to Conditioning Lesion-Induced Axon Regeneration Into the Injured Spinal Cord: Potential Role of Cyclic AMP-Induced Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaqing; Angert, Mila; Nishihara, Tasuku; Shubayev, Igor; Dolkas, Jennifer; Shubayev, Veronica I

    2015-06-01

    Regeneration of sensory neurons after spinal cord injury depends on the function of dividing neuronal-glial antigen 2 (NG2)-expressing cells. We have shown that increases in the number of dividing NG2-positive cells through short-term pharmacologic inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases contributes to recovery after spinal cord injury. A conditioning sciatic nerve crush (SNC) preceding spinal cord injury stimulates central sensory axon regeneration via the intraganglionic action of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Here, using bromodeoxyuridine, mitomycin (mitosis inhibitor), and cholera toxin B tracer, we demonstrate that SNC-induced division of spinal glia is related to the spinal induction of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and contributes to central sensory axon growth into the damaged spinal cord. Dividing cells were mainly NG2-positive and Iba1-positive and included myeloid NG2-positive populations. The cells dividing in response to SNC mainly matured into oligodendrocytes and microglia within the injured spinal cord. Some postmitotic cells remained NG2-reactive and were associated with regenerating fibers. Moreover, intraganglionic tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression was induced after administration of SNC or cyclic adenosine monophosphate analog (dbcAMP) to dorsal root ganglia in vivo and in primary adult dorsal root ganglia cultures. Collectively, these findings support a novel model whereby a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated regeneration program induced in sensory neurons by a conditioning peripheral nerve lesion uses tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 to protect against short-term proteolysis, enabling glial cell division and promoting axon growth into the damaged CNS.

  8. Low doses of cholera toxin and its mediator cAMP induce CTLA-2 secretion by dendritic cells to enhance regulatory T cell conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Silva-Vilches

    Full Text Available Immature or semi-mature dendritic cells (DCs represent tolerogenic maturation stages that can convert naive T cells into Foxp3+ induced regulatory T cells (iTreg. Here we found that murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs treated with cholera toxin (CT matured by up-regulating MHC-II and costimulatory molecules using either high or low doses of CT (CThi, CTlo or with cAMP, a known mediator CT signals. However, all three conditions also induced mRNA of both isoforms of the tolerogenic molecule cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 2 (CTLA-2α and CTLA-2β. Only DCs matured under CThi conditions secreted IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 leading to the instruction of Th17 cell polarization. In contrast, CTlo- or cAMP-DCs resembled semi-mature DCs and enhanced TGF-β-dependent Foxp3+ iTreg conversion. iTreg conversion could be reduced using siRNA blocking of CTLA-2 and reversely, addition of recombinant CTLA-2α increased iTreg conversion in vitro. Injection of CTlo- or cAMP-DCs exerted MOG peptide-specific protective effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE by inducing Foxp3+ Tregs and reducing Th17 responses. Together, we identified CTLA-2 production by DCs as a novel tolerogenic mediator of TGF-β-mediated iTreg induction in vitro and in vivo. The CT-induced and cAMP-mediated up-regulation of CTLA-2 also may point to a novel immune evasion mechanism of Vibrio cholerae.

  9. The adaptive significance of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) in daily and seasonal migratory activities of the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen; Postel, Ute; Mrinalini; Turner, Lucy M; Palmer, Jessica; Webster, Simon G

    2010-09-01

    The Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis undergoes extreme changes in metabolic status, ranging from inactivity during the dry season, to a spectacular annual breeding migration at the start of the wet season. The dramatic change in metabolic physiology that this polarisation entails should be reflected in changes in endocrine physiology, particularly that of the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH), of which we know relatively little. CHH levels were measured using a novel ultrasensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA), together with metabolites (glucose, lactate), in the field at several scales of temporal resolution, during migratory activities (wet season) and during the inactive fossorial phase (dry season). Release patterns of CHH were measured during extreme (forced) exercise, showing for the first time an unexpectedly rapid pulsatile release of this hormone. A seasonally dependent glucose-sensitive negative-feedback loop was identified that might be important in energy mobilisation during migration. Haemolymph lactate levels were strongly correlated with CHH levels in both field and experimental animals. During migration, CHH levels were lower than during the dry season and, during migration, daytime CHH levels (when most locomotor activity occurred) increased. However, the intense dawn activity in both dry and wet seasons was not always associated with repeatable hyperglycaemia or CHH release. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the life history and behaviour of G. natalis.

  10. Common variants in the type 2 diabetes KCNQ1 gene are associated with impairments in insulin secretion during hyperglycaemic glucose clamp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies in Japanese populations recently identified common variants in the KCNQ1 gene to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We examined the association of these variants within KCNQ1 with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, investigated their effects on insulin secretion and metabolic traits and on the risk of developing complications in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODOLOGY: The KCNQ1 variants rs151290, rs2237892, and rs2237895 were genotyped in a total of 4620 type 2 diabetes patients and 5285 healthy controls from the Netherlands. Data on macrovascular complications, nephropathy and retinopathy were available in a subset of diabetic patients. Association between genotype and insulin secretion/action was assessed in the additional sample of 335 individuals who underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that all the genotyped KCNQ1 variants were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in our Dutch population, and the association of rs151290 was the strongest (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.35, p = 0.002. The risk C-allele of rs151290 was nominally associated with reduced first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while the non-risk T-allele of rs2237892 was significantly correlated with increased second-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (p = 0.025 and 0.0016, respectively. In addition, the risk C-allele of rs2237892 was associated with higher LDL and total cholesterol levels (p = 0.015 and 0.003, respectively. We found no evidence for an association of KCNQ1 with diabetic complications. CONCLUSIONS: Common variants in the KCNQ1 gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, which can be explained at least in part by an effect on insulin secretion. Furthermore, our data suggest that KCNQ1 is also associated with lipid metabolism.

  11. Crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH)-like peptides and CHH-precursor-related peptides from pericardial organ neurosecretory cells in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, are putatively spliced and modified products of multiple genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Dircksen, Heinrich; Böcking, D; Heyn, U; Mandel, C; Chung, J S; Baggerman, G; Verhaert, P; Daufeldt, S; Plösch, T; Jaros, P P; Waelkens, E; Keller, R; Webster, S G

    2001-01-01

    About 24 intrinsic neurosecretory neurons within the pericardial organs (POs) of the crab Carcinus maenas produce a novel crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH)-like peptide (PO-CHH) and two CHH-precursor-related peptides (PO-CPRP I and II) as identified immunochemically and by peptide chemistry. Edman sequencing and MS revealed PO-CHH as a 73 amino acid peptide (8630 Da) with a free C-terminus. PO-CHH and sinus gland CHH (SG-CHH) share an identical N-terminal sequence, positions 1-40, but t...

  12. Consensus statement on the care of the hyperglycaemic/diabetic patient during and in the immediate follow-up of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergès, B; Avignon, A; Bonnet, F; Catargi, B; Cattan, S; Cosson, E; Ducrocq, G; Elbaz, M; Fredenrich, A; Gourdy, P; Henry, P; Lairez, O; Leguerrier, A M; Monpère, C; Moulin, P; Vergès-Patois, B; Roussel, R; Steg, G; Valensi, P

    2012-04-01

    The Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease study group of the Société francophone du diabète (SFD, French Society of Diabetes) in collaboration with the Société française de cardiologie (SFC, French Society of Cardiology) have devised a consensus statement on the care of the hyperglycaemic/diabetic patient during and in the immediate follow-up of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); in particular, it includes the different phases of ACS [the intensive care unit (ICU) period, the post-ICU period and the short-term follow-up period after discharge, including cardiac rehabilitation] and also embraces all of the various diagnostic and therapeutic issues with a view to optimizing the collaboration between cardiologists and diabetologists. As regards diagnosis, subjects with HbA(1c) greater or equal to 6.5% on admission may be considered diabetic while, in those with no known diabetes and HbA(1c) less than 6.5%, it is recommended that an OGTT be performed 7 to 28 days after ACS. During hospitalization in the ICU, continuous insulin treatment should be initiated in all patients when admission blood glucose levels are greater or equal to 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L) and, in those with previously known diabetes, when preprandial glucose levels are greater or equal to 140 mg/dL (7.77 mmol/L) during follow-up. The recommended blood glucose target is 140-180 mg/dL (7.7-10 mmol/L) for most patients. Following the ICU period, insulin treatment is not mandatory for every patient, and other antidiabetic treatments may be considered, with the choice of optimal treatment depending on the metabolic profile of the patient. Patients should be referred to a diabetologist before discharge from hospital in cases of unknown diabetes diagnosed during ACS hospitalization, of HbA(1c) greater or equal to 8% at the time of admission, or newly introduced insulin therapy or severe/repeated hypoglycaemia. Referral to a diabetologist after hospital discharge is recommended if diabetes is diagnosed by the

  13. Investigation of salicylate hepatic responses in comparison with chemical analogues of the drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Amy R; Logie, Lisa; Patel, Kashyap; Bacon, Sandra; Forteath, Calum; Harthill, Jean; Roberts, Adam; Sutherland, Calum; Stewart, Derek; Viollet, Benoit; Sakamoto, Kei; McDougall, Gordon; Foretz, Marc; Rena, Graham

    2016-08-01

    Anti-hyperglycaemic effects of the hydroxybenzoic acid salicylate might stem from effects of the drug on mitochondrial uncoupling, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, and inhibition of NF-κB signalling. Here, we have gauged the contribution of these effects to control of hepatocyte glucose production, comparing salicylate with inactive hydroxybenzoic acid analogues of the drug. In rat H4IIE hepatoma cells, salicylate was the only drug tested that activated AMPK. Salicylate also reduced mTOR signalling, but this property was observed widely among the analogues. In a sub-panel of analogues, salicylate alone reduced promoter activity of the key gluconeogenic enzyme glucose 6-phosphatase and suppressed basal glucose production in mouse primary hepatocytes. Both salicylate and 2,6 dihydroxybenzoic acid suppressed TNFα-induced IκB degradation, and in genetic knockout experiments, we found that the effect of salicylate on IκB degradation was AMPK-independent. Previous data also identified AMPK-independent regulation of glucose but we found that direct inhibition of neither NF-κB nor mTOR signalling suppressed glucose production, suggesting that other factors besides these cell signalling pathways may need to be considered to account for this response to salicylate. We found, for example, that H4IIE cells were exquisitely sensitive to uncoupling with modest doses of salicylate, which occurred on a similar time course to another anti-hyperglycaemic uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol, while there was no discernible effect at all of two salicylate analogues which are not anti-hyperglycaemic. This finding supports much earlier literature suggesting that salicylates exert anti-hyperglycaemic effects at least in part through uncoupling. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH)-like peptides and CHH-precursor-related peptides from pericardial organ neurosecretory cells in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, are putatively spliced and modified products of multiple genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dircksen, H; Böcking, D; Heyn, U; Mandel, C; Chung, J S; Baggerman, G; Verhaert, P; Daufeldt, S; Plösch, T; Jaros, P P; Waelkens, E; Keller, R; Webster, S G

    2001-05-15

    About 24 intrinsic neurosecretory neurons within the pericardial organs (POs) of the crab Carcinus maenas produce a novel crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH)-like peptide (PO-CHH) and two CHH-precursor-related peptides (PO-CPRP I and II) as identified immunochemically and by peptide chemistry. Edman sequencing and MS revealed PO-CHH as a 73 amino acid peptide (8630 Da) with a free C-terminus. PO-CHH and sinus gland CHH (SG-CHH) share an identical N-terminal sequence, positions 1-40, but the remaining sequence, positions 41-73 or 41-72, differs considerably. PO-CHH may have different precursors, as cDNA cloning of PO-derived mRNAs has revealed several similar forms, one exactly encoding the peptide. All PO-CHH cDNAs contain a nucleotide stretch coding for the SG-CHH(41-76) sequence in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Cloning of crab testis genomic DNA revealed at least four CHH genes, the structure of which suggest that PO-CHH and SG-CHH arise by alternative splicing of precursors and possibly post-transcriptional modification of PO-CHH. The genes encode four exons, separated by three variable introns, encoding part of a signal peptide (exon I), the remaining signal peptide residues, a CPRP, the PO-CHH(1-40)/SG-CHH(1-40) sequences (exon II), the remaining PO-CHH residues (exon III) and the remaining SG-CHH residues and a 3'-UTR (exon IV). Precursor and gene structures are more closely related to those encoding related insect ion-transport peptides than to penaeid shrimp CHH genes. PO-CHH neither exhibits hyperglycaemic activity in vivo, nor does it inhibit Y-organ ecdysteroid synthesis in vitro. From the morphology of the neurons it seems likely that novel functions remain to be discovered.

  15. Glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia with insulin glargine 300 U/mL compared with glargine 100 U/mL in Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin plus oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs (EDITION JP 2 randomised 12-month trial including 6-month extension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Y; Koyama, M; Cheng, X; Sumi, M; Riddle, M C; Bolli, G B; Hirose, T

    2017-10-01

    To compare insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) with glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100) in Japanese adults with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes on basal insulin and oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs over 12 months. EDITION JP 2 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Following a 6-month treatment period, participants continued receiving previously assigned once daily Gla-300 or Gla-100, plus oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs, in a 6-month extension period. Glycaemic control, hypoglycaemia and adverse events were assessed. The 12-month completion rate was 88% for Gla-300 and 96% for Gla-100, with comparable reasons for discontinuation. Mean HbA 1c decrease from baseline to month 12 was 0.3% in both groups. Annualised rates of confirmed (≤3.9mmol/L [≤70mg/dL]) or severe hypoglycaemia were lower with Gla-300 than Gla-100 (nocturnal [00:00-05:59h]: rate ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.18 to 0.92; anytime [24h]: rate ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.44 to 0.94). Cumulative number of hypoglycaemic events was lower with Gla-300 than Gla-100. Adverse event profiles were comparable between treatments. Over 12 months, Gla-300-treated participants achieved sustained glycaemic control and experienced less hypoglycaemia, particularly at night, versus Gla-100, supporting 6-month results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O; Meyer, Samantha; Aboua, Yapo G; Goboza, Mediline

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg) aqueous solution was administered (daily) orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  17. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  18. Hyperglycaemic emergencies are a common problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to presence of ketosis, standard bicarbonate level and serum osmolality: (I) mild diabetic keto-acidosis (OKA);. (h) severe DKA; (UI) hyperosmolar state; and. (iv) hyperglycaemia. Results. There were 131 admissions in 122 patients. Sixty-five occurred in non-insulin-dependent diabetics,. 45 in insulin-dependent diabetics ...

  19. Hyperglycaemic emergencies are a common problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-specialist medical and nursing staff are employed at the first two but the tertiary institutions are staffed by physicians, registrars in training and accredited nurse diabetes educators. This study was undertaken to determine the .... strokes (13%); and (iv) unknown factors (13%). The mean hospital stay was 7 days, with a ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Hyperglycaemic emergency admissions to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-18

    % of expenditure. ... (i.e. capital costs and overhead costs) were obtained from a costing audit of HIV/. AIDS admissions to GFJH in .... cost-effective strategies that improve the quality of inpatient care and outcome of admissions.

  1. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  2. Mechanism of cAMP-induced H-efflux of Dictyostelium cells: a role ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 25; Issue 3. Mechanism of ... Proton efflux in intact cells was inhibited by preincubation with the V-type H+ ATPase inhibitor concanamycin A and with the plasma membrane H+ ATPase blocker miconazole. Surprisingly, miconazole ...

  3. Plasma concentrations of osteoprotegerin during normo- and hyperglycaemic clamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, S T; Jeppesen, Peter; Poulsen, P L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) are elevated in subjects with diabetes as well as in non-diabetic subjects with cardiovascular disease. In previous studies a positive correlation was found between plasma levels of OPG and markers of glycaemic control in diabetic subjects. The aim...

  4. Effects of Taraxacum mongolicum on in vitro response of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Effects of Portulaca oleracae. (kulfa) and Taraxacum officinale (dhudhal) in normoglycaemic and alloxan treated hyperglycaemic rabbits. J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 35:207-. 210. Bannerman DD, Paape MJ Hare WR, Sohn EJ (2003). Increased levels of LPS-binding protein in bovine blood and milk following ...

  5. Gender discrimination in the influence of hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity on rat aortic tissue responses to insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nikki L; Achike, Francis I

    2010-08-09

    Hyperglycaemia initiates endothelial dysfunction causing diabetic macro- and micro-vasculopathy, the main causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus. The vasculopathy exhibits gender peculiarities. We therefore explored gender differences in comparing the effects of hyperglycaemia (50 mM) per se with its hyperosmolar (50 mM) effects on vascular tissue responses to insulin. Endothelium-intact or denuded thoracic aortic rings from age-matched male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated for 10 min or 6 h (acute versus chronic exposure) in normal, hyperglycaemic or hyperosmolar Krebs solution. Relaxant responses to insulin (6.9x10(-7)-6.9x10(-5) M) of the phenylephrine-contracted tissues were recorded. Endothelium denudation in both genders inhibited relaxation to insulin in all conditions, more significantly in female than in male tissues, suggesting the female response to insulin is more endothelium-dependent than the male. Acutely and chronically exposed normoglycemic endothelium-intact or -denuded tissues responded similarly to insulin. Chronic hyperglycemic or hyperosmolar exposure did not alter the endothelium-denuded tissue responses to insulin, whereas the responses of the endothelium-intact male and female hyperosmolar, and male hyperglycemic tissues were enhanced. The results show that insulin exerts an endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation with the female tissue responses more endothelium-dependent than the male. The data also suggest that hyperosmolarity per se enhances aortic tissue relaxant responses to insulin whereas hyperglycemia per se inhibits the same and more so in female than male tissues. These effects are endothelium-dependent. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Involvement of BKCa and KV potassium channels in cAMP-induced vasodilation: their insufficient function in genetic hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pintérová, Mária; Behuliak, Michal; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 3 (2014), s. 275-285 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0336; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : isoprenaline * cAMP * potassium channels * calcium channels Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  7. Cyclic AMP induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells and inhibits tumor development in a mouse myeloma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin-Arbelet, Virginie; Hofgaard, Peter O; Hauglin, Harald; Naderi, Soheil; Sundan, Anders; Blomhoff, Rune; Bogen, Bjarne; Blomhoff, Heidi K

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable disease requiring the development of effective therapies which can be used clinically. We have elucidated the potential for manipulating the cAMP signaling pathway as a target for inhibiting the growth of multiple myeloma cells. As a model system, we primarily used the murine multiple myeloma cell line MOPC315 which can be grown both in vivo and in vitro. Human multiple myeloma cell lines U266, INA-6 and the B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Reh were used only for in vitro studies. Cell death was assessed by flow cytometry and western blot analysis after treatment with cAMP elevating agents (forskolin, prostaglandin E2 and rolipram) and cAMP analogs. We followed tumor growth in vivo after forskolin treatment by imaging DsRed-labelled MOPC315 cells transplanted subcutaneously in BALB/c nude mice. In contrast to the effect on Reh cells, 50 μM forskolin more than tripled the death of MOPC315 cells after 24 h in vitro. Forskolin induced cell death to a similar extent in the human myeloma cell lines U266 and INA-6. cAMP-mediated cell death had all the typical hallmarks of apoptosis, including changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and cleavage of caspase 3, caspase 9 and PARP. Forskolin also inhibited the growth of multiple myeloma cells in a mouse model in vivo. Elevation of intracellular levels of cAMP kills multiple myeloma cells in vitro and inhibits development of multiple myeloma in vivo. This strongly suggests that compounds activating the cAMP signaling pathway may be useful in the field of multiple myeloma

  8. Accumulation mode particles and LPS exposure induce TLR-4 dependent and independent inflammatory responses in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonceca, Angela M; Zosky, Graeme R; Bozanich, Elizabeth M; Sutanto, Erika N; Kicic, Anthony; McNamara, Paul S; Knight, Darryl A; Sly, Peter D; Turner, Debra J; Stick, Stephen M

    2018-01-22

    Accumulation mode particles (AMP) are formed from engine combustion and make up the inhalable vapour cloud of ambient particulate matter pollution. Their small size facilitates dispersal and subsequent exposure far from their original source, as well as the ability to penetrate alveolar spaces and capillary walls of the lung when inhaled. A significant immuno-stimulatory component of AMP is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a product of Gram negative bacteria breakdown. As LPS is implicated in the onset and exacerbation of asthma, the presence or absence of LPS in ambient particulate matter (PM) may explain the onset of asthmatic exacerbations to PM exposure. This study aimed to delineate the effects of LPS and AMP on airway inflammation, and potential contribution to airways disease by measuring airway inflammatory responses induced via activation of the LPS cellular receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). The effects of nebulized AMP, LPS and AMP administered with LPS on lung function, cellular inflammatory infiltrate and cytokine responses were compared between wildtype mice and mice not expressing TLR-4. The presence of LPS administered with AMP appeared to drive elevated airway resistance and sensitivity via TLR-4. Augmented TLR4 driven eosinophilia and greater TNF-α responses observed in AMP-LPS treated mice independent of TLR-4 expression, suggests activation of allergic responses by TLR4 and non-TLR4 pathways larger than those induced by LPS administered alone. Treatment with AMP induced macrophage recruitment independent of TLR-4 expression. These findings suggest AMP-LPS as a stronger stimulus for allergic inflammation in the airways then LPS alone.

  9. Delayed ß-cell response and glucose intolerance in young women with Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerrild, Britta Eilersen; Holst, Jens Juul; Juhl, Claus

    2011-01-01

    similar. In addition we found low IGF-I, higher levels of cortisol and norepinephrine and an increased waist-hip ratio in TS. CONCLUSIONS: Young normal weight TS women show significant glucose intolerance in spite of normal insulin secretion during hyperglycaemic clamping and normal insulin sensitivity...

  10. Responsibility and Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2011-01-01

    contemporary positions of communicative ethics, H. Richard Niebuhr’s understanding of responsibility as responsiveness, and Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s Christological concept of responsibility in a constructive dialogue with each other, the article has attempted to outline main tenets of a responsive concept...... in a differentiated unity with each other. This idea can be substantiated by a figurative appropriation of a Chalcedonian Christology, particularly the communicatio idiomatum. The communicative dimension of this concept has been found to be useful for a reinterpretation of the idea of responsibility. By engaging......The debate on the role and identity of Christian social ethics in liberal democracy touches upon the question about the relationship between universality and speci-ficity. Rather than argue for the difference between these approaches, it can be argued that they are to be understood...

  11. Regulation of cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 3-Like 1 (Creb3l1 Expression by Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nr4a1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Greenwood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP (cAMP inducible transcription factor cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 (Creb3l1 is strongly activated in the hypothalamus in response to hyperosmotic cues such as dehydration (DH. We have recently shown that Creb3l1 expression is upregulated by cAMP pathways in vitro, however the exact mechanisms are not known. Here we show that increasing Creb3l1 transcription by raising cAMP levels in mouse pituitary AtT20 cells automatically initiates cleavage of Creb3l1, leading to a greater abundance of the transcriptionally active N-terminal portion. Inhibiting protein synthesis indicated that de novo protein synthesis of an intermediary transcription factor was required for Creb3l1 induction. Strategic mining of our microarray data from dehydrated rodent hypothalamus revealed four candidates, reduced to two by analysis of acute hyperosmotic-induced transcriptional activation profiles in the hypothalamus, and one, orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a1, by direct shRNA mediated silencing in AtT20 cells. We show that activation of Creb3l1 transcription by Nr4a1 involves interaction with a single NBRE site in the promoter region. The ability to activate Creb3l1 transcription by this pathway in vitro is dictated by the level of methylation of a CpG island within the proximal promoter/5′UTR of this gene. We thus identify a novel cAMP-Nr4a1-Creb3l1 transcriptional pathway in AtT20 cells and also, our evidence would suggest, in the hypothalamus.

  12. In vitro anti-hyperglycaemic effect of glucocapparin isolated from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-20

    Mar 20, 2012 ... It showed a single spot on TLC precoated silica gel 60 F254 with the solvent system 15:85 ethyl acetate/hexane. ... oxidation by the measurement of the optical density at λ = 500 nm using a spectrophotometer DREL 2400 HACH. ... It showed on thin layer chroma- tography (TLC) a spot with Rf = 0.52.

  13. Corporate Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddock, Sandra; Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We define and discuss the concept of corporate responsibility. We suggest that corporate responsibility has some unique characteristics, which makes it different from earlier conceptions of corporate social responsibility. Our discussion further shows commonalities and differences between corporate...... responsibility and related concepts, such as corporate citizenship and business ethics. We also outline some ways in which corporations have implemented corporate responsibility in practice....

  14. Responsible drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  15. The V-ATPase is expressed in the choroid plexus and mediates cAMP-induced intracellular pH alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henriette L; Păunescu, Teodor G; Matchkov, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pH influences brain interstitial pH and, therefore, brain function. We hypothesized that the choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) expresses the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) as an acid extrusion mechanism in the luminal membrane to counteract detrimental elevations in CSF...... fraction in the luminal microvillus area. The vesicles did not translocate to the luminal membrane in two in vivo models of hypocapnia-induced alkalosis. The Na(+)-independent intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from acidification was studied in freshly isolated clusters of CPECs. At extracellular pH (pHo) 7.......4, the cells failed to display significant concanamycin A-sensitive pHi recovery (i.e., V-ATPase activity). The recovery rate in the absence of Na(+) amounted to Hi recovery rate observed in the presence of Na(+) Recovery of pHi was faster at pHo 7.8 and was abolished at pHo 7.0. The concanamycin...

  16. Immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000821.htm Immune response To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The immune response is how your body recognizes and defends itself ...

  17. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  18. Regulation of mouse hepatic genes in response to diet induced obesity, insulin resistance and fasting induced weight reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantzoros Christos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with insulin resistance that can often be improved by caloric restriction and weight reduction. Although many physiological changes accompanying insulin resistance and its treatment have been characterized, the genetic mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance are largely unknown. We used DNA microarrys and RT-PCR to investigate significant changes in hepatic gene transcription in insulin resistant, diet-induced obese (DIO-C57/BL/6J mice and DIO-C57/BL/6J mice fasted for 48 hours, whose weights returned to baseline levels during these conditions. Results Transcriptional profiling of hepatic mRNA revealed over 1900 genes that were significantly perturbed between control, DIO, and fasting/weight reduced DIO mice. From this set, our bioinformatics analysis identified 41 genes that rigorously discriminate these groups of mice. These genes are associated with molecular pathways involved in signal transduction, and protein metabolism and secretion. Of particular interest are genes that participate in pathways responsible for modulating insulin sensitivity. DIO altered expression of genes in directions that would be anticipated to antagonize insulin sensitivity, while fasting/ weight reduction partially or completely normalized their levels. Among these discriminatory genes, Sh3kbp1 and RGS3, may have special significance. Sh3kbp1, an endogenous inhibitor of PI-3-kinase, was upregulated by high-fat feeding, but normalized to control levels by fasting/weight reduction. Because insulin signaling occurs partially through PI-3-kinase, increased expression of Sh3kbp1 by DIO mice may contribute to hepatic insulin resistance via inhibition of PI-3-kinase. RGS3, a suppressor of G-protein coupled receptor generation of cAMP, was repressed by high-fat feeding, but partially normalized by fasting/weight reduction. Decreased expression of RGS3 may augment levels of cAMP and thereby contribute to increased, cAMP-induced

  19. Responsible nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    In National Responsibility and Global Justice, David Miller defends the view that a member of a nation can be collectively responsible for an outcome despite the fact that: (i) she did not control it; (ii) she actively opposed those of her nation's policies that produced the outcome; and (iii......) actively opposing the relevant policy was costly for her. I argue that Miller's arguments in favor of this strong externalist view about responsibility and control are insufficient. Specifically, I show that Miller's two models of synchronic collective responsibility*the like-minded group model...

  20. Glycaemic response after intake of a high energy, high protein, diabetes-specific formula in older malnourished or at risk of malnutrition type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksir, Hamid; Lansink, Mirian; Regueme, Sophie C; de Vogel-van den Bosch, Johan; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle

    2017-10-06

    Several studies with diabetes-specific formulas (DSFs) for hyperglycaemic patients in need of nutritional support have been conducted in non-malnourished patients, mainly comparing products with varying macronutrient compositions. Here, the effect of a high energy, high protein DSF on postprandial responses was compared to a product with a similar macronutrient composition in malnourished or at risk of malnutrition patients with type 2 diabetes. In this randomised, double-blind cross-over study, 20 patients were included. After overnight fasting, patients consumed 200 mL of a DSF or standard supplement (control) (19.6 g protein, 31.2 g carbohydrates and 10.6 g fat), while continuing their anti-diabetic medication. The formulas differed in type of carbohydrates and presence of fibre. The postprandial glucose, insulin and glucagon responses were monitored over 4 h. Data were analysed with a Linear Mixed Model, and results of the modified ITT population (n = 19) are shown. Postprandial glucose response as incremental area under the curve (iAUC), was lower after consumption of DSF compared with control (489.7 ± 268.5 (mean ± SD) vs 581.3 ± 273.9 mmol/L min, respectively; p = 0.008). Also, the incremental maximum concentration of glucose (iCmax) was lower for DSF vs control (3.5 ± 1.4 vs 4.0 ± 1.4 mmol/L; p = 0.007). Postprandial insulin and glucagon levels, expressed as iAUC or iCmax, were not significantly different between groups. Consumption of a high energy, high protein DSF by older malnourished or at risk of malnutrition type 2 diabetes patients resulted in a significantly lower glucose response compared to control. These data suggest that the use of a DSF is preferred for patients with diabetes in need of nutritional support. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Competing responsibly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Ven, van de B.W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effects of different competitive conditions on the determination and evaluation of strategies of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Although the mainstream of current thinking in business ethics recognizes that a firm should invest in social responsibility, the

  2. Query responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Łupkowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider the phenomenon of answering a query with a query. Although such answers are common, no large scale, corpus-based characterization exists, with the exception of clarification requests. After briefly reviewing different theoretical approaches on this subject, we present a corpus study of query responses in the British National Corpus and develop a taxonomy for query responses. We point at a variety of response categories that have not been formalized in previous dialogue work, particularly those relevant to adversarial interaction. We show that different response categories have significantly different rates of subsequent answer provision. We provide a formal analysis of the response categories in the framework of KoS.

  3. Renegotiating Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Jakob

    is an increasing awareness of the unintended negative side-effects associated with economic globalization. The title of the dissertation, Renegotiating Responsibility: British Anti-Apartheid Consumer Boycott Campaigns, Late 1960s to Early 1990s, accentuates the effort by the AAM to transform perceptions of what...... analysis of the campaigns is to unpack their implications for the companies’ understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The drive towards a more distinct conception of CSR in the latter half of the twentieth century forms the subtext of this dissertation; implicit in this observation...... constitutes the responsibility of transnational corporations. While the targeted companies already had responsibilities towards their shareholders, the state etc., the activists sought to reinterpret and renegotiate corporate responsibilities in a socially oriented direction through interaction...

  4. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    , which have pervaded all areas of daily life, including the world of business. At local, national, international and global levels, policies have been formulated to encourage corporations to take responsibility for their social and environmental performance (Laszlo, 2007). In the European Union, the EU...... Commission has promoted corporate social responsibilities since 2001, first in a Green Paper (EU, 2001) and later in policies, e.g. European Alliance for CSR (EU, 2006), and strategies, e.g. Strategy 2011-2014 for Corporate Social Responsibility (EU, 2011). Drawing on Derrida´s idea of “deconstruction”, i...

  5. High-fat diet feeding alters metabolic response to fasting/non fasting conditions. Effect on caveolin expression and insulin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ruiz, Ana; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; de Miguel, Carlos

    2011-04-13

    The effect of food intake on caveolin expression in relation to insulin signalling was studied in skeletal muscle and adipocytes from retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue, comparing fasted (F) to not fasted (NF) rats that had been fed a control or high-fat (HF) diet for 72 days. Serum glucose was analysed enzymatically and insulin and leptin by ELISA. Caveolins and insulin signalling intermediaries (IR, IRS-1 and 2 and GLUT4) were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. Caveolin and IR phosphorylation was measured by immunoprecipitation. Data were analysed with Mann-Whitney U test. High-fat fed animals showed metabolic alterations and developed obesity and insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle, food intake (NF) induced activation of IR and increased expression of IRS-2 in control animals with normal metabolic response. HF animals became overweight, hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinemic, hyperleptinemic and showed insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle of these animals, food intake (NF) also induced IRS-2 expression together with IR, although this was not active. Caveolin 3 expression in this tissue was increased by food intake (NF) in animals fed either diet. In RP adipocytes of control animals, food intake (NF) decreased IR and IRS-2 expression but increased that of GLUT4. A similar but less intense response was found in SC adipocytes. Food intake (NF) did not change caveolin expression in RP adipocytes with either diet, but in SC adipocytes of HF animals a reduction was observed. Food intake (NF) decreased caveolin-1 phosphorylation in RP but increased it in SC adipocytes of control animals, whereas it increased caveolin-2 phosphorylation in both types of adipocytes independently of the diet. Animals fed a control-diet show a normal response to food intake (NF), with activation of the insulin signalling pathway but without appreciable changes in caveolin expression, except a small increase of caveolin-3 in muscle. Animals fed a high-fat diet

  6. Response Cries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    1978-01-01

    Considers utterances that appear to violate the interdependence assumed by the interactionist view, entering the stream of behavior at peculiar and unnatural places, producing communicative effects but no dialogue. Self-talk, imprecations, and response cries are discussed. (EJS)

  7. Corporate responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    of a private business; but then again, a private business would appear to be exempted from ethical responsibility. This is what Kenneth Goodpaster has called the stakeholder paradox: either we have ethics without business or we have business without ethics. Through a different route, I reach the same solution...... to this paradox as Goodpaster, namely that a corporation is the instrument of the shareholders only, but that shareholders still have an obligation to act ethically responsibly. To this, I add discussion of Friedman's claim that this responsibility consists in increasing profits. I show that most of his arguments...... fail. Only pragmatic considerations allow to a certain extent that some of the ethical responsibility is left over to democratic regulation....

  8. In Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Janice A.; Shaw, Jon A.; Endicott, Jean; Allen, Cleona R.; Hostetter, Abram M.

    2005-01-01

    This article features the response to the important commentary by Dr. Carlson. The Amish Study represents, as she notes, a special research population for investigation of "classic" bipolar disorder viewed against a homogeneous cultural landscape where emerging biological and behavioral prodromal features can be identified. Dr. Carlson questions…

  9. Emotional Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Christensen, Sverre Riis; Lundsteen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    Recent neurological research has pointed to the importance of fundamental emotional processes for most kinds of human behaviour. Measures of emotional response tendencies towards brands seem to reveal intangible aspects of brand equity, particularly in a marketing context. In this paper a procedure...

  10. Responsible tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkaš E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Realising tourism in the context of responsibility is a problem of historical-social and economic time-space continuum; the problem of possibility of temporal unification of these parts. The study aims to emphasize that the essence of problem can only be understood in the depth of a general problematic of tourism, as a question of temporalisation of historical-social space, which, however, leads to a grand question of today: does the human activity which creates temporalised spaces have its own gravitational direction? Ad deliberandum. The study proposes the viewpoint that the context of responsibility requires overcoming the dimension of interpretation where the subject is understood as an ultimate human-singularity and a perfect match of responsibility with a dominant and current form of temporalisation of time suggests a paradigm of participating consciousness, the consciousness of unity, which, in Berdyaev's words, is never logical, but existential. The study, on the basis of a meticulous studying of a new narrative of tourism, primarily due to volume restrictions does not go beyond presenting the key attributes of this ever-expanding understanding of tourism - with a demonstration of a concrete practice - but all this with an emphasis that qualification of the actors' activities is possible only along the lines of a previous consideration of comprehension of structure of space and time - along the revalorisation of a motivational horison (Anzenbacher, A 1987, 264.p. and also the very term of responsibility and freedom. Responsibility can only then become an orientation of tourist activities, if the primary focus is set on re-comprehension (revalorisation of civilisational legacies in a timeless perspective.

  11. Responsive Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten

    In dynamic environments, competitive advantage lies in developing useful knowledge from continuous streams of unstructured and ambiguous data. Frontline employees and certain groups of customers are often the first to sense emerging issues of strate-gic importance due to their experiential insights...... of the firm’s daily operations. Yet, they are rarely asked to provide updated information about critical issues. The present paper seeks to conceptually develop the notion of responsive innovation, by drawing on literary streams concerning collective sensing, strategic issue diagnosis and integra......-tive strategy within a micro foundations perspective. It is posited that companies should root their innovation processes in the collective sensing of frontline-employees and customers that operate around the organizational periphery. This frames the con-cept of responsive innovation, where individuals engaged...

  12. Responsive Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten

    Although the importance of stakeholder networks has been recognized in recent years, a non-teleological model that incorporates their collective sensing into innovation processes has so far not been developed. Hence, this paper argues that traditional linear and sequential innovation models...... are insufficient in hypercompetitive environments. Instead, it is proposed that companies should ground their innovation processes in the collective sensing of frontline-employees and customers that operate around the organizational periphery. This frames the concept of responsive innovation, where key...

  13. Photoparoxysmal responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Muszkat

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-five outpatients with photoparoxysmal response (PPR during routine EEG were studied. The PPR showed prevalence in women (75.4%. Seizures were found in 66.1% of cases. The rest recordings were abnormal in 41.8% with prevalence of generalized paroxysm. Eight patterns of PPR were observed, being polyspike mixed to slow wave the most frequent (53%. The epileptic group showed a bimodal distribution in the several bands of photic stimulation, near 8 and 20-24 Hz. A sustained paroxysmal abnormality persisting after the photic stimulation was present in 6 epileptic patients.

  14. Emotional Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Christensen, Sverre Riis; Lundsteen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    Recent neurological research has pointed to the importance of fundamental emotional processes for most kinds of human behaviour. Measures of emotional response tendencies towards brands seem to reveal intangible aspects of brand equity, particularly in a marketing context. In this paper a procedure...... for estimating such emotional brand equity is presented and findings from two successive studies of more than 100 brands are reported. It demonstrates how changes that occur between two years are explainable in terms of factors identifiable in the markets, and that the measures otherwise are stable over time...

  15. Extraction of an hyperglycaemic principle from the annatto (Bixa orellana), a medicinal plant in the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E Y; Thompson, H; Pascoe, K; West, M; Fletcher, C

    1991-01-01

    The red powdery extract from the seeds of the annatto, Bixa orellana, is a well known food colouring. In an oil suspension it is used as a folk remedy (bush tea) in the West Indies, for diabetes mellitus. Detailed investigations on this extract, yielded a methyl ester, trans-bixin, molecular weight 394 and molecular formula C24H30O4. This purified substance was demonstrated, in anaesthetised mongrel dogs, to cause hyperglycaemia. Concomitant electron microscopy of tissue biopsies, revealed damage to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum mainly in liver and pancreas. When dogs were fed on a diet fortified with riboflavin, there was neither demonstrable tissue damage nor associated hyperglycaemia. These findings point to: (i) the potential dangers of informal medications such as 'bush teas'; (ii) the possible role of plant extracts/food additives in the development of diabetes mellitus especially in the undernourished state.

  16. Responsible innovation

    CERN Document Server

    De Woot, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Economic development is rooted in disruption, not in equilibrium. And a powerful engine of economic development is innovation; but is this innovation always for the common good? The dark side of the extraordinary dynamism of innovation lies precisely in its destructive power. If simply left to market forces, it could lead to social chaos and great human suffering. To face the challenges of our time, we must create the proper climate and culture to develop strong entrepreneurial drive. But, more than ever, we must give this entrepreneurial drive its ethical and societal dimensions. Responsible innovation means a more voluntary orientation towards the great problems of the 21st century, e.g. depletion of the planet's resources, rising inequality, and new scientific developments potentially threatening freedom, democracy and human integrity. We need to transform our ceaseless creativity into real progress for humankind. In this respect, the rapid development of social innovation opens the door for new methods an...

  17. Normal chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum cells with a depolarized plasma membrane potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Bert van; Vogelzang, Sake A.; Ypey, Dirk L.; Molen, Loek G. van der; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1990-01-01

    We examined a possible role for the plasma membrane potential in signal transduction during cyclic AMP-induced chemotaxis in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Chemotaxis, cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP responses in cells with a depolarized membrane potential were measured. Cells can be

  18. The role of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors in cortisol - induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUGBEMI OLANIYAN

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... 1979; Renaud and Moon, 1980; Khani and Tayek, 2001). The hyperglycaemic response to cortisol involves metabolic actions such as glucose release from the liver as a product of glycogenolysis, increase in gluconeo- genesis and decrease in peripheral glucose utilisation. The relative contribution of each ...

  19. Twelve weeks treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, prevents degradation of peptide YY and improves glucose and non-glucose induced insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, K; Knop, F K; Vilsbøll, T

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, on gastrointestinal hormone responses to a standardized mixed meal and beta cell secretory capacity, measured as glucose and non-glucose induced insulin secretion during a hyperglycaemic clamp, in patients...

  20. Technology and responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerli, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Philosophical reflections on the concepts of responsibility and type of responsibility are presented and discussed with regard to the developments of technology. The author states that neither the relationship between liability and responsibility has changed, nor the structure of responsibility. Any individual still is responsible for his actions and their consequences. What has changed, however, is the former restriction to the concept of internal responsibility and the overlapping of acting subject and responsible subject. (DG) [de

  1. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...

  2. Playful Hyper Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    . We point to a dislocation in the way parents are assigned responsibility, because the definition of responsibility is not only a question of formulating rules or providing advice. We argue that what emerges is a kind of playful hyper responsibility that identifies responsibility as the participation...

  3. Responsive web design workflow

    OpenAIRE

    LAAK, TIMO

    2013-01-01

    Responsive Web Design Workflow is a literature review about Responsive Web Design, a web standards based modern web design paradigm. The goals of this research were to define what responsive web design is, determine its importance in building modern websites and describe a workflow for responsive web design projects. Responsive web design is a paradigm to create adaptive websites, which respond to the properties of the media that is used to render them. The three key elements of responsi...

  4. The response of the pituitary-adrenal and pituitary-thyroidal axes to the plasma glucose perturbations in Babesia canis rossi babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Schoeman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This prospective, cross-sectional, interventional study was designed to determine the association between the hormones of the pituitary-adrenal and pituitary-thyroid axes and other clinical parameters with the blood glucose perturbations in dogs with naturally occurring Babesia canis rossi babesiosis. Thirty-six dogs with canine babesiosis were studied. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein in each dog prior to treatment at admission to hospital and serum endogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone(ACTH, pre-ACTH cortisol, thyroxine, free thyroxine and TSH concentrations were measured. Immediately thereafter each dog was injected intravenously with 5 µg/kg of ACTH (tetracosactrin. A 2nd blood sample was taken 1 hour later for serumpost-ACTHcortisol measurement. Three patient groups were recruited: hypoglycaemic dogs (glucose < 3.3 mmol/ℓ, n = 12; normoglycaemic dogs (glucose 3.3–5.5 mmol/ℓ, n = 12; hyperglycaemic dogs (glucose > 5.5 mmol/ℓ, n = 12. Basal and post-ACTH serum cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in hypoglycaemic dogs, whereas body temperature, serum thyroxine and free thyroxine were significantly lower in hypoglycaemic dogs. Haematocrit was significantly lower in both hypo-and hyperglycaemic dogs compared with normoglycaemic dogs. Low blood glucose concentrations were significantly associated with high basal and post-ACTH cortisol concentrations and with low serum thyroxine and free thyroxine concentrations in dogs suffering from B. canis rossi babesiosis.

  5. Biological Responses to Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James M.

    2001-08-01

    All materials intended for application in humans as biomaterials, medical devices, or prostheses undergo tissue responses when implanted into living tissue. This review first describes fundamental aspects of tissue responses to materials, which are commonly described as the tissue response continuum. These actions involve fundamental aspects of tissue responses including injury, inflammatory and wound healing responses, foreign body reactions, and fibrous encapsulation of the biomaterial, medical device, or prosthesis. The second part of this review describes the in vivo evaluation of tissue responses to biomaterials, medical devices, and prostheses to determine intended performance characteristics and safety or biocompatibility considerations. While fundamental aspects of tissue responses to materials are important from research and development perspectives, the in vivo evaluation of tissue responses to these materials is important for performance, safety, and regulatory reasons.

  6. ADDH And Methylphenidate Response

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The dose-response, clinical effectiveness, and response prediction in 76 children with ADDH treated with methylphenidate (MPH) were evaluated by a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study at the Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

  7. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  8. Playful Hyper Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10–15 years, state-funded schools have begun to require parents to assume an undefined and infinite personal responsibility. In this article, we investigate how schools organize responsibility games to respond to this challenge and how these games affect the concept of responsibility...

  9. Instant responsive web design

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Cory

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial approach which will teach the readers what responsive web design is and how it is used in designing a responsive web page.If you are a web-designer looking to expand your skill set by learning the quickly growing industry standard of responsive web design, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of CSS is assumed.

  10. Aligning Responsible Business Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weller, Angeli E.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an in-depth case study of a global high tech manufacturer that aligned its ethics and compliance, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability practices. Few large companies organize their responsible business practices this way, despite conceptual relevance and calls...... and managers interested in understanding how responsible business practices may be collectively organized....

  11. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible...... investment model identified. Implications of the altered investment problem are investigated when the dynamics between portfolio risk, expected return and responsibility is considered. Relying on the definition of a responsible investor, it is shown how superior investment opportunities can emerge when...

  12. Decoupling Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    Business schools increasingly aim to embed corporate responsibility, sustainability, and ethics into their curricular and extracurricular activities. This paper examines under what conditions business schools may decouple the structural effects of their engagement in responsible management educat...... education is progressing, it is also possible that an inconsistency between talk and action can help schools to articulate ambitions for responsible management education, which, over time, inspire recoupling effects....

  13. Responsibility and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Jamieson, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Ibegin by providing some background to conceptions of responsibility. I note the extent of disagreement in this area, the diverse and cross-cutting distinctions that are deployed, and the relative neglect of some important problems. These facts make it difficult to attribute responsibility for climate change, but so do some features of climate change itself which I go on to illuminate. Attributions of responsibility are often contested sites because such attributions are fundamentally pragmat...

  14. Man - engineering - responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenckhoff, E.

    2000-01-01

    The mankind is growing and growing, but some live poor and some live rich on earth. Responsibility for the future when energy is consumed and fairly distributed is an intention of this article. So responsibility for availability of energy,for resource sustainability, for environment and last not least responsibility for high energy densities will be a difficult global challenge. This is clearly discussed and impressive graphically demonstrated.(GL)

  15. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  16. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  17. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  18. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  19. On being responsible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Responsible development’ has risen to become a key normative framework for nanotechnology. The technology’s governance landscape is fundamentally structured through a discourse of responsibility, in which political tools such as public engagement, voluntary reporting and soft law are mobilized so...... as to enable innovation. To call for responsibility has, indeed, become somewhat trite. In this essay we take not the normative demand for responsibility, but its operationalisation, as our analytical focus, arguing that it is important not to underestimate the term’s practical flexibility and discursive...

  20. Responsible geographies and geographies of response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    and responsibilities concerning academic fights over representing global environmental change. A major part concerns the theoretical basis and draws inspiration from a series of critical geographical work on the marketization of universities, and relates this tincture to the wider education for sustainability...... in higher education literature. The methodological framework is based on the social nature approach that tangles these quite distinct epistemological communities by consulting the socio-natures produced. It is concluded that though geographers find sustainability themes important to geography...

  1. Collective Responsibility for Oppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, Titus

    2017-01-01

    Many contemporary forms of oppression are not primarily the result of formally organized collective action nor are they an unintended outcome of a combination of individual actions. This raises the question of collective responsibility. I argue that we can only determine who is responsible for

  2. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  3. Neuroimaging and Responsibility Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Could neuroimaging evidence help us to assess the degree of a person’s responsibility for a crime which we know that they committed? This essay defends an affirmative answer to this question. A range of standard objections to this high-tech approach to assessing people’s responsibility is considered

  4. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  5. Electrodermal Response in Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopher Westland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady improvements in technologies that measure human emotional response offer new possibilities for making computer games more immersive. This paper reviews the history of designs a particular branch of affective technologies that acquire electrodermal response readings from human subjects. Electrodermal response meters have gone through continual improvements to better measure these nervous responses, but still fall short of the capabilities of today's technology. Electrodermal response traditionally have been labor intensive. Protocols and transcription of subject responses were recorded on separate documents, forcing constant shifts of attention between scripts, electrodermal measuring devices and of observations and subject responses. These problems can be resolved by collecting more information and integrating it in a computer interface that is, by adding relevant sensors in addition to the basic electrodermal resistance reading to untangle (1 body resistance; (2 skin resistance; (3 grip movements; other (4 factors affecting the neural processing for regulation of the body. A device that solves these problems is presented and discussed. It is argued that the electrodermal response datastreams can be enriched through the use of added sensors and a digital acquisition and processing of information, which should further experimentation and use of the technology.

  6. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  7. Response Surface Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter first summarizes Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which started with Box and Wilson’s article in 1951 on RSM for real, non-simulated systems. RSM is a stepwise heuristic that uses first-order polynomials to approximate the response surface locally. An estimated polynomial

  8. Response surface methodolgy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Fu, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter first summarizes Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which started with Box and Wilson’s 1951 article on RSM for real, non-simulated systems. RSM is a stepwise heuristic that uses first-order polynomials to approximate the response surface locally. An estimated polynomial metamodel

  9. UN assesses tsunami response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Couldrey

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A report to the UN’s Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC identifies lessons learned from the humanitarian response. Recommendations stress the need for national ownership and leadership of disaster response and recovery, improved coordination, transparent use of resources, civil society engagement and greater emphasis on risk reduction.

  10. [Social responsibility of surgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Surgeon is sacred career. To cure patients by surgery is the surgeon's work, while the social responsibility is the surgeon's soul. To strengthen and promote the social responsibility is a demand of our age; thus, every surgeon should adhere to the supremacy of the patients' interests in clinical practice.

  11. Indicators of responsible investing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert

    Responsible investment has witnessed significant changes in the past decade. It is estimated that about one fifth of assets under management in the US and about half of all assets under management in the EU are done on the basis of one of the seven responsible investment strategies. This paper

  12. Predictors of maternal responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Emily E; Humenick, Sharron S; Amankwaa, Linda; Younger, Janet; Roux, Gayle

    2007-01-01

    To explore maternal responsiveness in the first 2 to 4 months after delivery and to evaluate potential predictors of maternal responsiveness, including infant feeding, maternal characteristics, and demographic factors such as age, socioeconomic status, and educational level. A cross-sectional survey design was used to assess the variables of maternal responsiveness, feeding patterns, and maternal characteristics in a convenience sample of 177 mothers in the first 2 to 4 months after delivery. The 60-item self-report instrument included scales to measure maternal responsiveness, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life as well as infant feeding questions and sociodemographic items. An online data-collection strategy was used, resulting in participants from 41 U.S. states. Multiple regression analysis showed that satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and number of children, but not breastfeeding, explained a significant portion of the variance in self-reported maternal responsiveness scores. In this analysis, sociodemographic variables such as age, education, income, and work status showed little or no relationship to maternal responsiveness scores. This study provides additional information about patterns of maternal behavior in the transition to motherhood and some of the variables that influence that transition. Satisfaction with life was a new predictor of maternal responsiveness. However, with only 15% of the variance explained by the predictors in this study, a large portion of the variance in maternal responsiveness remains unexplained. Further research in this area is needed.

  13. UN assesses tsunami response

    OpenAIRE

    Marion Couldrey; Tim Morris

    2005-01-01

    A report to the UN’s Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) identifies lessons learned from the humanitarian response. Recommendations stress the need for national ownership and leadership of disaster response and recovery, improved coordination, transparent use of resources, civil society engagement and greater emphasis on risk reduction.

  14. Response model parameter linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, M.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of equating observed scores on different test forms. This thesis argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require

  15. Responsive Space Program Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dors, Eric E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-11

    The goal of the Responsive Space program is to make significant, integrated science and technology contributions to the end-to-end missions of the U.S. Government that protect against global emerging and nuclear threats, from the earliest adversary planning through resilient event response report describes the LANL space program, mission, and other activities. The report describes some of their activities.

  16. The price of responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gamborg, Christian; Röcklinsberg, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges that climate change raises for animal agriculture and discusses the contributions that may come from a virtue ethics based approach. Two scenarios of the future role of animals in farming are set forth and discussed in terms of their ethical implications. The pa...... such as attentiveness, responsibility, competence, and responsiveness as central elements in any mitigation or adaptation program....

  17. Oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The plan outlined in this document specifies the actions that the Canadian Wildlife Service Atlantic Region is mandated to take in the event of an oil spill, or on discovering oiled migratory birds in terrestrial, fresh water, marine and inter-tidal habitats. In addition to describing the role and responsibilities of the Canadian Wildlife Service, the document also describes response plans of other agencies for dealing with all wildlife species affected by oil spills. Reporting paths, the lead agency concept, shared responsibilities with other Canadian Wildlife Service regional offices, provincial agencies, Heritage Canada, non-government wildlife response agencies, oil spill response organizations, and international organizations are outlined. An overview of the reporting and communications process is also provided

  18. Science's social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    like Science in the City in which the science institutions communicate and discuss science with interested citizens. It can be done in relation to strategic plans: solving medical, environmental, socio-political problems for which the state or commercial actors provide funding. But it can also be what......What is science’s social responsibility? Is it like corporate responsibility an add-on to the main product: we produce knowledge and scientific solutions, but we also care for the environment, for sustainability, for fair-trade and so on? Or doesn’t social responsibility add to science at all...... solving problems and thus creating a base for science in its strategic mode, in its interplay-with-society mode. So science’s social responsibility may utter itself in various ways but I think it is fair to say that it is all about responsibility for taking part in making society move forward...

  19. Progressive Response Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, V. J.; Swiler, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Response surface functions are often used as simple and inexpensive replacements for computationally expensive computer models that simulate the behavior of a complex system over some parameter space. Progressive response surfaces are ones that are built up progressively as global information is added from new sample points in the parameter space. As the response surfaces are globally upgraded based on new information, heuristic indications of the convergence of the response surface approximation to the exact (fitted) function can be inferred. Sampling points can be incrementally added in a structured fashion, or in an unstructured fashion. Whatever the approach, at least in early stages of sampling it is usually desirable to sample the entire parameter space uniformly. At later stages of sampling, depending on the nature of the quantity being resolved, it may be desirable to continue sampling uniformly over the entire parameter space (Progressive response surfaces), or to switch to a focusing/economizing strategy of preferentially sampling certain regions of the parameter space based on information gained in early stages of sampling (Adaptive response surfaces). Here we consider Progressive response surfaces where a balanced indication of global response over the parameter space is desired.We use a variant of Moving Least Squares to fit and interpolate structured and unstructured point sets over the parameter space. On a 2-D test problem we compare response surface accuracy for three incremental sampling methods: Progressive Lattice Sampling; Simple-Random Monte Carlo; and Halton Quasi-Monte-Carlo sequences. We are ultimately after a system for constructing efficiently upgradable response surface approximations with reliable error estimates.

  20. Geospatial Information Response Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme emergency events of national significance that include manmade and natural disasters seem to have become more frequent during the past two decades. The Nation is becoming more resilient to these emergencies through better preparedness, reduced duplication, and establishing better communications so every response and recovery effort saves lives and mitigates the long-term social and economic impacts on the Nation. The National Response Framework (NRF) (http://www.fema.gov/NRF) was developed to provide the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. The NRF provides five key principles for better preparation, coordination, and response: 1) engaged partnerships, 2) a tiered response, 3) scalable, flexible, and adaptable operations, 4) unity of effort, and 5) readiness to act. The NRF also describes how communities, tribes, States, Federal Government, privatesector, and non-governmental partners apply these principles for a coordinated, effective national response. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the NRF doctrine by establishing several earth-sciences, discipline-level teams to ensure that USGS science, data, and individual expertise are readily available during emergencies. The Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) is one of these teams. The USGS established the GIRT to facilitate the effective collection, storage, and dissemination of geospatial data information and products during an emergency. The GIRT ensures that timely geospatial data are available for use by emergency responders, land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. In an emergency and response capacity, the GIRT is responsible for establishing procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing coordinated products and services utilizing the USGS' exceptional pool of

  1. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etingov, Pavel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kosterev, Dmitry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dai, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  2. Emergency response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrilo, D.; Dias de la Cruz, F.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study is estimated, on the basis of a release category (PWR4) and several accident scenarios previously set up, the emergency response efficacy obtained in the application of different response strategies on each of the above mentioned scenarios. The studied strategies contemplate the following protective measures: evacuation, shelter and relocation. The radiological response has been obtained by means of CRAC2 (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) code, and calculated in terms of absorbed dose equivalent (Whole body and thyroid), as well as early and latent biological effects. (author)

  3. Assessment of the Anti-Hyperglycaemic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanol Extract of Moringa Oleifera in Diabetes-Induced Nephrotoxic Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I; Aboua, Yapo G; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2017-03-23

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease of multiple aetiologies in insulin secretion. A deficiency in insulin results in hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances of biomolecules. Moringa oleifera (MO) is endemic in the tropics with a variety of ethnomedicinal importance. The leaf of this plant has been reported to possess antioxidant and medicinal properties that may be helpful in the treatment and management of diabetes and its associated complications. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally in rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and treated with methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (250 mg/kg b.wt) for six weeks. Forty-eight (48) adult male Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), Moringa oleifera treated control rats (NC + MO), diabetic rats (DM) and Moringa oleifera treated diabetic rats (DM + MO). Estimation of antioxidant capacity, total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content of Moringa oleifera extract was performed and serum biochemical markers were evaluated. Antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, glutathione (GSH) and inflammatory biomarkers were determined in the kidney. Results showed high antioxidant capacities of MO extract and improved serum biochemical markers, whilst lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels were reduced in non-diabetic and diabetic rats after MO treatment when compared to normal control. Subsequent administration of MO led to an increased concentration of serum albumin, globulin and total protein with a decrease in the level of MDA, and improvements in CAT, SOD, GSH, GPx, (tumour necrosis factor-alpha)TNF-α and (interleukin-6)IL-6. MO contains potent phytochemical constituents that offer protective action against diabetic-induced renal damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation and could therefore play a role in reducing diabetic complications, particularly in developing countries such as in Africa where the majority cannot afford orthodox medicine.

  4. Assessment of In Vivo Antidiabetic Properties of Umbelliferone and Lupeol Constituents of Banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Flower in Hyperglycaemic Rodent Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Ramith; S Shirahatti, Prithvi; S, Nanjunda Swamy; Zameer, Farhan; Lakkappa Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura; M N, Nagendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana flower is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. This study is based on an investigation of the in vivo antihyperglycaemic activity of Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) isolated from the ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) in alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EF (100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt.) for 4 weeks showed deterioration in fasting hyperglycaemia and reversal of abnormalities in serum/urine protein, urea and creatinine, when compared to the diabetic control group of rats. The diabetic group of rats fed with EF, C1 and C2 (100 mg/kg b. wt.) once daily, for a period of 28 days resulted in a significant reduction of diabetic symptoms viz., polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria and urine sugar together with an improved body weight. HbA1c extent was reduced whereas levels of insulin and Hb were increased. Both the extract and compounds wielded positive impacts in diabetic rats by reversal of altered activities of hepatic marker enzymes viz., aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP); glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase); shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase); gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase) and pyruvate kinase. The characteristic diabetic complications such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia also significantly reverted to normal in the serum/liver of diabetic rats. Besides these, the treatment increased the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the serum and liver. The histological observations revealed a marked regeneration of the β-cells in the drug treated diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study illustrates that EF, C1 and C2 enhances the glycolytic activities, besides increasing the hepatic glucose utilization in diabetic rats by stimulating insulin secretion from the remnant β-cells along with potential enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities.

  5. Common Variants in the Type 2 Diabetes KCNQ1 Gene Are Associated with Impairments in Insulin Secretion During Hyperglycaemic Glucose Clamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; van Haeften, T.W.; Landman, G.W.D.; Reiling, E.; Kleefstra, N.; Bilo, H.J.G.; Klungel, O.H.; de Boer, A.; van Diemen, C.C.; Wijmenga, C.; Boezen, H.M.; Dekker, J.M.; van 't Riet, E.; Nijpels, G.; Welschen, L.M.C.; Zavrelová, H.; Bruin, E.J.; Elbers, C.C.; Bauer, F.; Onland-Moret, N.C.; van der Schouw, Y.T.; Grobbee, D.E.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; van der Aa, D.L.; Bik-Simonis, A.M.C.; Eekhoff, E.M.W.; Diamant, M.; Kramer, M.H.H.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Slagboom, P.E.; Hofker, M.H.; Hart, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide association studies in Japanese populations recently identified common variants in the KCNQ1 gene to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We examined the association of these variants within KCNQ1 with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, investigated their effects on

  6. Common variants in the type 2 diabetes KCNQ1 gene are associated with impairments in insulin secretion during hyperglycaemic glucose clamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; van Haeften, Timon W; Landman, Gijs W D; Reiling, Erwin; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bilo, Henk J G; Klungel, Olaf H; de Boer, Anthonius; van Diemen, Cleo C; Wijmenga, Cisca; Boezen, Hendrika; Dekker, Jacqueline M; van 't Riet, Esther; Nijpels, Giel; Welschen, Laura M C; Zavrelova, Hata; Bruin, Elinda J; Elbers, Clara C; Bauer, Florianne; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Grobbee, Diederick E; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; van der A, Daphne L; Simonis-Bik, Annemarie M; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M W; Diamant, Michaela; Kramer, Mark H H; Boomsma, Dorret I; de Geus, Eco J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Slagboom, P Eline; Hofker, Marten H; 't Hart, Leen M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies in Japanese populations recently identified common variants in the KCNQ1 gene to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We examined the association of these variants within KCNQ1 with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, investigated their effects on

  7. The Antioxidant Activity of Pistachios Reduces Cardiac Tissue Injury of Acute Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) in Diabetic Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Hyperglycaemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Fusco, Roberta; Gugliandolo, Enrico; D'Amico, Ramona; Campolo, Michela; Latteri, Saverio; Carughi, Arianna; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for the development of heart pathology. Myocardial infarction is the cause of death occurring after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restoration of blood flow is the first intervention against heart attack, although the process of restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium could cause additional injury. This phenomenon, termed myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI-R) injury, is characterized by the formation of oxygen radicals. Pistachios have significant glucose- and insulin-lowering effects and can improve the inflammatory contest by downregulating both the expression and the circulating levels of several metabolic risk markers. The monocyte/macrophage cell line J774 was used to assess the extent of protection by natural raw (NP) and roasted salted (RP) pistachios against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Moreover, antioxidant activity of NP and RP was assessed in an in vivo model of paw edema in rats induced by carrageenan (CAR) injection in the paw. This study evaluates the antioxidant properties of pistachios on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) in diabetic rats. Rats were pre-treated with either NP or RP pistachios (30 mg/kg) 18 h prior to the experimental procedure. Results: Here, we demonstrated that treatment with NP reduced myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, NF-κB expression and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2) activation. This data clearly showes modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with MI-R injury, following administration of pistachios.

  8. The Antioxidant Activity of Pistachios Reduces Cardiac Tissue Injury of Acute Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R in Diabetic Streptozotocin (STZ-Induced Hyperglycaemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Di Paola

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for the development of heart pathology. Myocardial infarction is the cause of death occurring after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restoration of blood flow is the first intervention against heart attack, although the process of restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium could cause additional injury. This phenomenon, termed myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI-R injury, is characterized by the formation of oxygen radicals. Pistachios have significant glucose- and insulin-lowering effects and can improve the inflammatory contest by downregulating both the expression and the circulating levels of several metabolic risk markers. The monocyte/macrophage cell line J774 was used to assess the extent of protection by natural raw (NP and roasted salted (RP pistachios against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation. Moreover, antioxidant activity of NP and RP was assessed in an in vivo model of paw edema in rats induced by carrageenan (CAR injection in the paw. This study evaluates the antioxidant properties of pistachios on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R in diabetic rats. Rats were pre-treated with either NP or RP pistachios (30 mg/kg 18 h prior to the experimental procedure.Results: Here, we demonstrated that treatment with NP reduced myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, NF-κB expression and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2 activation. This data clearly showes modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with MI-R injury, following administration of pistachios.

  9. Responses to the contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Barden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A set of responses to the papers on Garrett Barden's and Tim Murphy's book Law and Justice in Community (Oxford: OUP, 2010 published in this special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum.

  10. Canada's Response to Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanphier, C. Michael

    1981-01-01

    Traces the types and numbers of refugees to Canada since World War II. Reviews key developments in Canadian refugee policy and practices before discussing the nation's response to the current refugee situation. (Author/MK)

  11. Human response to vibration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mansfield, Neil J

    2005-01-01

    .... Vibration measurements and standards are also addressed. This book meets the needs of those requiring knowledge of human response to vibration in order to make practical improvements to physical working environments...

  12. Responsive design high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Els, Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  13. The EEG Photoparoxysmal Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Types of photosensitivity, prevalence and other characteristics of the photoparoxysmal response (PPR, associated seizures, effect of video games, and drug therapy are reviewed by the director of electroencephalography at the University of Illinois, Chicago.

  14. Deltamethrin Petition and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    FIFRA exclusive use provisions for minor use registrations provide incentives to pesticide companies to register minor uses of pesticides. View petitions for exclusive use periods or extensions and EPA responses.

  15. Socially responsible investment engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessling, T.; Buijter, Bas; Freeman, R.E.; Kujala, J.; Sachs, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores engagement in socially responsible investment (SRI) processes. More specifically, it researches the impact of shareholder salience on the success of engagement activities. The research question asks: What is the relationship between shareholder salience and engagement effort

  16. Decoupling Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    stringency, (2) face overt or covert resistance against change processes, (3) are confronted with competing institutional pressures, and (4) perceive institutional demands as ambiguous. The discussion points to two implications. While decoupling may give rise to the illusion that responsible management...... education from organizational practices. We argue that schools may be unable to match rising institutional pressures to publicly commit to responsible management education with their internal capacity for change. Our analysis proposes that decoupling is likely if schools (1) are exposed to resource......Business schools increasingly aim to embed corporate responsibility, sustainability, and ethics into their curricular and extracurricular activities. This paper examines under what conditions business schools may decouple the structural effects of their engagement in responsible management...

  17. Environmental Response Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website will serve as a resource directory of the Environmental Response Team's roles and capabilities as well as list contacts for each discipline to provide information to EPA personnel and the public.

  18. Regional Response Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are thirteen in the U.S., each representing a geographic region (including the Caribbean and the Pacific Basin). Composed of representatives from field offices of the agencies that make up the National Response Team, and state representatives.

  19. OEM Emergency Response Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management retains records of all incident responses in which it participates. This data asset includes three major sources of information:...

  20. Scientific Social Responsibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja

    for the development of competitive knowledge economies. In the present paper, these developments are all understood as moves to increase the social responsibility of science, i.e. efforts to hold science accountable to wider social, economic and ethical values. Despite the widespread political and theoretical plea...... formed organizations to make science responsible for its social effects. More recently, ideals of increasing the social acceptability of science through engagement, reflexivity and dialogue seems to have found their way into the heart of policy-making, not least as a way of making science a prime motor...... for scientific social responsibility (SSR), however, there is a striking lack of knowledge about how it should be (or indeed is) performed in practice. This paper makes a first step in this direction by mapping different interpretations of what scientific social responsibility might entail. It also charts...

  1. NOAA Emergency Response Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is in response to natural disasters. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The majority...

  2. Immune responses to metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herberman, R.B.; Wiltrout, R.H.; Gorelik, E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the changes in the immune system in tumor-bearing hosts that may influence the development of progression of metastases. Included are mononuclear cell infiltration of metastases; alterations in natural resistance mediated by natural killer cells and macrophages; development of specific immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes or antibodies; modulation of tumor-associated antigen expression; and the down-regulation of the immune response to the tumor by several suppressor mechanisms; the augmentation of the immune response and its potential for therapeutic application; includes the prophylaxis of metastases formation by NK cells; the therapy of metastases by augmentation NK-, macrophage-, or T-lymphocyte-mediated responses by biological response modifiers; and the transfer of anticancer activity by cytoxic T-lymphocytes or immunoconjugates of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for tumors

  3. Social Responsibility of Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    JINNAI, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Historical and theoretical inquiries into the function of accounting have provided fruitful insights into social responsibility of accounting, which is, and should be, based on accounts kept through everyday accounting activities. However, at the current stage of capitalist accounting, keeping accounts is often regarded as merely a preparatory process for creating financial statements at the end of an accounting period. Thus, discussions on the social responsibility of accounting tend to conc...

  4. Advances in Crash Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of CDC's Division of Injury Response, provides an overview on the benefits of using an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification system, or AACN, to help with emergency triage of people injured in vehicle crashes.  Created: 6/29/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 6/29/2009.

  5. Responsability of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadiz Deleito, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Since the beginning of nuclear industry, civil responsibility with damages to the public health and properties was a critical problem, because the special conditions of this industry (nuclear accident, damages could be very high but probability of these events is very low). Legal precepts, universally accepted, in the first 60 years for all countries interested in nuclear energy are being revised, then 20 years of experience. The civil responsibility limited is being questioned and indemnities updated. (author)

  6. Social responsibility of corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue at stake in the article is corporate social responsibility. There are two rival theories regarding this issue. According to the classical theory managers are responsible to owners (stockholders and their obligation is to pursue the goal of maximizing the profit. According to the other, stakeholder theory, the interests of all corporate stakeholders, all those affected by business, not only stockholders, must be taken in consideration. In the paper these two theories are subject of thorough ethical analysis.

  7. Discord of response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roga, W.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2014-09-01

    The presence of quantum correlations in a quantum state is related to the state's response to local unitary perturbations. Such a response is quantified by the distance between the unperturbed and perturbed states, minimized with respect to suitably identified sets of local unitary operations. In order to be a bona fide measure of quantum correlations, the distance function must be chosen among those that are contractive under completely positive and trace preserving (CPTP) maps. The most relevant instances of such physically well-behaved metrics include the trace, the Bures, and the Hellinger distance. To each of these metrics one can associate the corresponding discord of response, namely the trace, or Hellinger, or Bures minimum distance from the set of unitarily perturbed states. All these three discords of response satisfy the basic axioms for a proper measure of quantum correlations. In the present work we focus in particular on the Bures distance, which enjoys the unique property of being both Riemannian and contractive under CPTP maps, and admits important operational interpretations in terms of state distinguishability. We compute analytically the Bures discord of response for two-qubit states with maximally mixed marginals and we compare it with the corresponding Bures geometric discord, namely the geometric measure of quantum correlations defined as the Bures distance from the set of classical-quantum states. Finally, we investigate and identify the maximally quantum correlated two-qubit states according to the Bures discord of response. These states exhibit a remarkable nonlinear dependence on the global state purity.

  8. Enviromental responsability and corporate social responsability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Marí Farinós

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental management of companies and organizations in general is going to be internalized in the operation and management structures, linking conceptual and chronologically to improve corporate reputation, management excellence, knowledge and innovation. Embracing, undoubtedly too, with the assumption of an ethical commitment of the company to society: environmental sustainability and generational solidarity in the transmission of culture and values of that nature. The existing need to know the potential impact of business operations on society and the environment results in the appearance of a document, which may well be called a Sustainability Report or Social Balance, which is compiled from a series social indicators, which are the instruments responsible to reflect the value of the shares held by the company in social and environmental fields.

  9. The responsibility to protect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Matt

    2005-01-01

    The decision whether, if ever, to intervene in the affairs of a sovereign state with military force has become a critical issue of the post Cold War era. In 2000 the Canadian government launched the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), which in 2001 published its findings in The Responsibility to Protect. The Commission found broad support for the notion of sovereignty not only as a right, but also a responsibility, the responsibility of a state to provide protection for its people. The primary responsibility for protecting citizens rests with states. But when states are unable or unwilling to provide this protection, or are themselves the perpetrators of atrocities, the Commission argues that the international community has a responsibility temporarily to step in, forcefully if necessary. The Commission resisted the temptation to identify human rights violations falling short of outright killing or ethnic cleansing. This eliminates the possibility of intervening on the basis of systematic oppression of human rights or intervening to remove a military dictatorship. The intention of the report was to provoke debate; to strengthen the role of the United Nations and ensure that such interventions were multilateral and meeting the wider needs of a region and not the interests of major powers. There is an ongoing need to ensure that the Security Council is effective and that resources match the political will. These debates must continue within a UN framework.

  10. Structural building response review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations

  11. Drones and Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How does the use of military drones affect the legal, political, and moral responsibility of different actors involved in their deployment and design? This volume offers a fresh contribution to the ethics of drone warfare by providing, for the first time, a systematic interdisciplinary discussion...... our conception of agency and responsibility. The book will be of interest to scholars and students in (military) ethics and to those in law, politics and the military involved in the design, deployment and evaluation of military drones.......How does the use of military drones affect the legal, political, and moral responsibility of different actors involved in their deployment and design? This volume offers a fresh contribution to the ethics of drone warfare by providing, for the first time, a systematic interdisciplinary discussion...... of different responsibility issues raised by military drones. The book discusses four main sets of questions: First, from a legal point of view, we analyse the ways in which the use of drones makes the attribution of criminal responsibility to individuals for war crimes more complicated and what adjustments...

  12. Corporate responses to stakeholder activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; Krause Hansen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Corporations are increasingly expected to act responsibly. The purpose of this paper is to examine two types of corporate responses to these expectations: overt and covert responses. Specifically, it examines oil companies’ involvement in multi-stakeholder initiatives and sponsorships (overt...... responses) and their monitoring of critics, including non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and activist organisations (covert responses)....

  13. When Immediate Responses Fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dothan, Shai

    2018-01-01

    Tit-for-tat is a strategy of immediate and proportional responses. Game theorists showed that this strategy often leads to fruitful cooperation. Indeed, many legal regimes resemble a tit-for-tat strategy and benefit from its ability to avoid unnecessary conflicts. But in situations of uncertainty...... a disproportionately forceful response. The laws of war, criminal law, and international sales law all face some situations of uncertainty. This paper argues that each of these legal fields adopts a strategy of many-tits-for-many-tats to address conditions of acute uncertainty.......-strikes. When uncertainty prevails, a strategy of many-tits-for-many-tats is optimal. Actors applying this strategy study the actions of their adversary over multiple rounds without issuing an immediate response. Only when the actor is convinced that the adversary intentionally defects, the actor will issue...

  14. Responsibility and evil imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, R

    1995-09-01

    In this Niebuhrian perspective on hostile and violent discourse the author utilizes H. R. Niebuhr's fourfold notion of responsibility and his concept of evil imagination to examine relations marred by protracted hostility toward hated "other" or "others." The author argues that violent and hostile discourse manifests a particular form of responsibility whereby persons expressing hostility toward hated "others" construct, by way of negative representations, maligned histories and identities for the "other" and at the same time construct an idealized or glorified history and identity for themselves. These positive and negative representations and histories, then, are utilized to answer questions regarding interpretation, accountability, and solidarity. Niebuhr's concept of evil imagination is employed to hypothesize about the intransigence of this form of responsibility and to suggest reasons why elevated and maligned representations, identities, and histories are, more often than not, inextricably and tragically linked.

  15. Disaster mitigation: initial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, George; Richards, Michael; Chicarelli, Michael; Ernst, Amy; Harrell, Andrew; Stites, Danniel

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to stimulate the reader's considerations for developing community disaster mitigation. Disaster mitigation begins long before impact and is defined as the actions taken by a community to eliminate or minimize the impact of a disaster. The assessment of vulnerabilities, the development of infrastructure, memoranda of understanding, and planning for a sustainable response and recovery are parts of the process. Empowering leadership and citizens with knowledge of available resources through the planning and development of a disaster response can strengthen a community's resilience, which can only add to the viability and quality of life enjoyed by the entire community.

  16. Radiation response of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter knowledge regarding cellular radiation response and the factors which modify it is related to the volume changes and probability of control of irradiated solid tumors. After a discussion of the different cell populations present within solid tumors the cell population kinetics of the neoplastic cells are considered in more detail. The influence of factors related to the three-dimensional geometry of the tumor, particularly hypoxia, are considered, and also the role of the tumor vasculature in radiation response. Repair of sublethal damage (SLD) and potentially lethal damage (PLD) is dealt with and finally the relationship between the various end-points of tumor radioresponsiveness is discussed

  17. Whistleblowing & Professional Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the moral dilemmas encountered daily by professionals and how the teaching of ethics may help resolve the conflicts individuals face with respect to whistleblowing. Included are consideration of responsibilities, role of ethics codes, and courses on professional ethics. (CS)

  18. Response to Mackenzie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Chris Peers begins his response to Jim Mackenzie's article, "Peers on Socrates and Plato" by asking "What is the 'masculine imaginary?'" Peers defines the term "imaginary" as it is applied in his article, "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning" (2012) and draws…

  19. Reader Response Makes History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary unit that brought the Civil War to life for 11th-grade students in a team-taught unit that highlighted student-driven response to reading. Describes use of a 19th-century essay supporting slavery, Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle,""Huckleberry Finn," Civil War poetry and other writings, and student projects based on the…

  20. Response to Tom Cobb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this article Paul Nation responds to Thomas Cobb's "Numbers or Numerology? A Response to Nation (2014) and McQuillan (2016)" (EJ1117024). Nation begins by clarifying his own position on vocabulary learning and goes on to highlight points made in Cobb's article with which he is in agreement, while drawing from his 2014 article,…

  1. Developing Responsible Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautum, Satyen; Jangam, Sachin; Loh, Kai Chee

    2018-01-01

    Developing responsible learners is one of the key education challenges of our time. Education literature suggests that for students to see themselves as active and necessary participants in their own learning, it is important that they view themselves as stakeholders in education. This research aims at exploring the effectiveness of instructional…

  2. Energy-responsive timekeeping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... regulators of metabolism, and are directly responsive to cellular energy supply. This close interaction is likely to be critical for normal circadian regulation of metabolism, and may also underlie the disruption of proper metabolic rhythms observed in metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type-II diabetes.

  3. Individual heat stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.

    1997-01-01

    In 5 experiments, heterogeneous subject groups (large variations in _VO2 max, regular daily activity level, mass, body surface area (AD), % body fat, and AD/mass ratio) were tested for their physiological response while exercising on a cycle ergometer at a relative (45% _VO2 max; REL) or an absolute

  4. Response to Hoover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burket, George R.

    1984-01-01

    The developer of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills scaling responds to Hoover's attacks on Thurstone and item response theory scales (TM 510 173). While agreeing that grade equivalent (GE) scores are presently the most appropriate developmental score for reporting elementary grade achievement tests, limitations and inconsistencies in the GE…

  5. Aesthetic responses to music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istok, Eva; Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We explored the content and structure of the cognitive, knowledge-based concept underlying aesthetic responses to music. To this aim, we asked 290 Finnish students to verbally associate the aesthetic value of music and to write down a list of appropriate adjectives within a given time limit. No m...

  6. Corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. Definition emphasizes three basic characteristics of CSR. CSR is voluntary concept, it covers environmental issues and interaction with stakeholders, not only shareholders, is taken into account.

  7. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  8. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  9. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became painfully obvious to the international community that there was an urgent need to establish a system for the coordination of international disaster assistance. It became the task of the United Nations Office for Disaster Relief (UNDRO) to develop such a system. The former UNDRO was subsumed into the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA), established in January 1992 on the basis of UN General Assembly Resolution 46/182 adopted in December 1991, and the disaster relief system presently found in DHA is a further evolution of the system established by UNDRO. One particular importance in relation to nuclear accidents is the fact that UNDRO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding defining their respective responsibilities and the need for cooperation in case of accidents involving the unintentional release of nuclear radiation. In essence, the MOU makes it clear that the responsibilities of the IAEA, in connection with accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, related to the technical and radiological aspects, in particular to accident prevention, to the on-site preparedness, and to remedial measures within the 30-km zone outside the NPP. DHA's responsibilities, on the other hand, relate to the general preparedness and the rescue efforts outside the 30 km zone. In this respect, the preparedness and emergency response system is no different from the system employed in any other type of sudden-onset emergency

  10. Socially responsible firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrell, A.; Liang, Hao; Renneboog, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In the corporate finance tradition, starting with Berle and Means (1932), corporations should generally be run to maximize shareholder value. The agency view of corporate social responsibility (CSR) considers CSR an agency problem and a waste of corporate resources. Given our identification strategy

  11. Decoupling Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This article examines under what conditions business schools may decouple the structural effects of their engagement in responsible management education from actual organizational practices. We argue that schools may be unable to match rising institutional pressures to publicly commit to responsi......This article examines under what conditions business schools may decouple the structural effects of their engagement in responsible management education from actual organizational practices. We argue that schools may be unable to match rising institutional pressures to publicly commit...... to responsible management education with their limited internal capacity for change. Our analysis proposes that decoupling is likely if schools (a) are exposed to resource stringency, (b) face overt or covert resistance against change processes, (c) are confronted with competing institutional pressures, and (d......) perceive institutional demands as ambiguous. We discuss two implications of this proposition. On one hand, decoupling can cause dissonant legitimacy perceptions, leading to cynicism around responsible management education within business schools. On the other hand, a temporary inconsistency between talk...

  12. [Responsibility, compassion and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of responsibility and compassion are fundamental in ethics. These notions help to safeguard humaneness, especially in the field of health care and notably in palliative care. These concepts can be put into practice by caregivers and applied to daily practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Rethinking Moral Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, A.H.; Johnson, D.; Moor, J.; Tavani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Questions regarding the moral responsibility of Internet access and service providers relating to possible negative aspects of information on the Internet call for a reassessment of the ways in which we think about attributing blame, guilt, and duties of reparation and compensation. They invite us

  14. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  15. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, T.

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive response to radiation stress was found as a suppressed induction of chromosomal damage including micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells pre-exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiations. The mechanism underlying this novel chromosomal response, called 'radio-adaptive response (RAR)' has been studied progressively. The following results were obtained in recent experiments. 1. Low doses of β-rays from tritiated water (HTO) as well as tritium-thymidine can cause RAR. 2. Thermal neutrons, a high LET radiation, can not act as tritium β-rays or γ-rays. 3. The RAR expression is suppressed not only by the treatment with an inhibitor of protein synthesis but also by RNA synthesis inhibition. 4. Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the RAR expression after the adapting doses, viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. These results suggests that the RAR might be a cellular stress response to a signal produced preferentially by very low doses of low LET radiation under restricted conditions, accompany the inducible specific gene expression. (author)

  16. Socially Responsible Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Liang, H.; Ferrell, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the corporate finance tradition starting with Berle & Means (1923), corporations should generally be run so as to maximize shareholder value. The agency view of corporate social responsibility (CSR) generally considers CSR as a managerial agency problem and a waste of corporate resources, since

  17. Multimodal responsive action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    in haircutting sessions involve people’s subjective perspectives, adding another layer of delicacy. In this context, the participants not only orient to the general preference for agreement/alignment, but also to the client’s autonomous evaluation (as opposed to response produced out of mere social courtesy...

  18. Luxury organizations and responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesa, Farah; Rohrbeck, René

    2014-01-01

    In this article, findings from previous research, almost forty examples of responsible practices in luxury firms, were clustered and eight generic tools were revealed to advance sustainability. These tools are posed as questions to assess the luxury firm’s level of sustainability and to plan...

  19. Definitions of social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    The role of Corporate Social Responsibility in the business world has developed from a fig leaf marketing front into an important aspect of corporate behavior over the past several years. Sustainable strategies are valued, desired and deployed more and more by relevant players in many industries all

  20. Institutional Autonomy and Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, Fred

    1981-01-01

    The diversity in college admissions policies is described and the relationship between these policies and admissions testing is explained. The consequences of government regulation of testing is discussed. Colleges are urged to defend their autonomy in admissions and to act responsibly in that respect. (Author/AL)

  1. High energy photon response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, F.M.; Yoder, R.C.; Endres, G.W.R.; Kathren, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the response of the Hanford 4-chip and 5-chip dosimeter to high energy photons. The dose response of the Hanford Multipurpose Personnel Diometer (HMPD) to photons with energies greater than 0.65 MeV has been evaluated relative to the dose produced by photons from a 60 Co. source. The penetrating dose determined with the HMPD is compared to the 1 cm depth dose in tissue measured with an extrapolation chamber. The results of the study indicate that the HMPD can be used to estimate the 1 cm depth dose in tissue from photons with energies between 0.65 MeV and 3.0 MeV to within an accuracy of 15%. However, the 1 cm depth dose is underestimated by 38% when the dosimeter is irradiated in a beam of very high energy photons produced by bombarding a tungsten target with 25 MeV electrons

  2. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache R , IIS R , TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape R , Microsoft Internet Explorer R , Mozilla Firefox R , Opera R , and others. (authors)

  3. Responsible conduct of research

    CERN Document Server

    Shamoo, Adil E

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, the field of Responsible Conduct of Research has become widely recognized as essential to scientific education, investigation, and training. At present, research institutions with public funding are expected to have some minimal training and education in RCR for their graduate students, fellows and trainees. These institutions also are expected to have a system in place for investigating and reporting misconduct in research or violations of regulations in research with human subjects, or in their applications to federal agencies for funding. Public scrutiny of the conduct of scientific researchers remains high. Media reports of misconduct scandals, biased research, violations of human research ethics rules, and moral controversies in research occur on a weekly basis. Since the 2009 publication of the 2nd edition of Shamoo and Resnik's Responsible Conduct of Research, there has been a vast expansion in the information, knowledge, methods, and diagnosis of problems related to RCR and the ...

  4. Responsive Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Lund; Andersen, Torben Juul

    developments and feeding that information into strategic decisions will enable higher quality outcomes and better adaptive responses for persistent performance. Thus we review relevant parts of the strategic decision making literature to conceptualize the responsive decision making model and propose a study......Strategic decision making remains a focal point in the strategy field, but despite decades of rich conceptual and empirical research we still seem distant from a level of understanding that can guide corporate practices effectively under turbulent and unpredictable environmental conditions. Hence......, the aim of this study is to gain deeper insights into the complex and multifaceted decision processes that take place in large complex organizations operating in dynamic high-velocity markets. It is proposed that the ability to obtain faster, more accurate and updated insights about ongoing environmental...

  5. Aesthetic responses to music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istok, Eva; Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We explored the content and structure of the cognitive, knowledge-based concept underlying aesthetic responses to music. To this aim, we asked 290 Finnish students to verbally associate the aesthetic value of music and to write down a list of appropriate adjectives within a given time limit....... No music was presented during the task. In addition, information about participants' musical background was collected. A variety of analysis techniques was used to determine the key results of our study. The adjective "beautiful" proved to be the core item of the concept under question. Interestingly......, the adjective "touching" was often listed together with "beautiful". In addition, we found music-specific vocabulary as well as adjectives related to emotions and mood states indicating that affective processes are an essential part of aesthetic responses to music. Differences between music experts and laymen...

  6. Probing human response times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders

    2004-07-01

    In a recent preprint (Dialog in e-mail traffic, preprint cond-mat/0304433), the temporal dynamics of an e-mail network has been investigated by Eckmann, Moses and Sergi. Specifically, the time period between an e-mail message and its reply were recorded. It will be shown here that their data agrees quantitatively with the frame work proposed to explain a recent experiment on the response of “internauts” to a news publication (Physica A 296(3-4) (2001) 539) despite differences in communication channels, topics, time-scale and socio-economic characteristics of the two population. This suggest a generalized response time distribution ∼ t-1 for human populations in the absence of deadlines with important implications for psychological and social studies as well the study of dynamical networks.

  7. Hematologic Response to Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernando Bonilla Briceño

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Moderate to intensive physical exercisegenerates different types of response in an individual.These responses depend upon the typeof exercise and the duration of it, and they canbe acute or chronic. Exercise affects differentcorporal system, among those is the hematologicalsystem. Literature describes changes inthe blood volume, changes in the activity andpopulation of white blood cells, as well asmodifications in the humoral and cellularimmunity, and in the count and shape of bloodplatelets. Also and as a result of those changes, ithas been determined too, that exercise modifiesin a negative way the life time of red blood cells,generating an apparent anemia, that has beenwidely discuss and that might be, among manyfactors, associated to hemolysis. This hemolysismight be associated with osmotic mechanismsor oxidative stress. The true is that all thoseevents are strongly related and may cause a lowperformance in the practice of any physicalactivity, including that of sportsmen.

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liempd, Dennis van; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Abild-Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Målet med denne artikel er at klargøre, at der findes forskellige teoretiske tilgange til ansvarlig leverandørstyring og Corporate Social Responsibility (i det følgende kaldt CSR). Endvidere er det målet at belyse, at området er i kraftig udvikling og forventes at få øget betydning for revisor i...... ansvarlig leverandørstyring og CSR. I artiklen konkluderes følgende: - at udviklingen i Corporate Social Responsibility indikerer, at etik er den mest betydende faktor (driver); (jf. afsnit 1)- at etik som primær driver vil betyde, at virksomheden vil gå ud over lovens minimumkrav, og stræbe efter de...

  9. Structural response synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozisik, H.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    The open loop control technique of predicting a conditioned input signal based on a specified output response for a second order system has been analyzed both analytically and numerically to gain a firm understanding of the method. Differences between this method of control and digital closed loop control using pole cancellation were investigated as a follow up to previous experimental work. Application of the technique to diamond turning using a fast tool is also discussed.

  10. Cell response to surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the profound alterations in host immunity that are produced by major surgery as demonstrated by experimental and clinical studies, and to evaluate the benefits of therapeutic strategies aimed at attenuating perioperative immune dysfunction. DATA SOURCES: A review of the English-language literature was conducted, incorporating searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane collaboration databases to identify laboratory and clinical studies investigating the cellular response to surgery. STUDY SELECTION: Original articles and case reports describing immune dysfunction secondary to surgical trauma were included. DATA EXTRACTION: The results were compiled to show outcomes of different studies and were compared. DATA SYNTHESIS: Current evidence indicates that the early systemic inflammatory response syndrome observed after major surgery that is characterized by proinflammatory cytokine release, microcirculatory disturbance, and cell-mediated immune dysfunction is followed by a compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome, which predisposes the patient to opportunistic infection, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and death. Because there are currently no effective treatment options for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, measures to prevent its onset should be initiated at an early stage. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that targeted therapeutic strategies involving immunomodulatory agents such as interferon gamma, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, the prostaglandin E(2) antagonist, indomethacin, and pentoxifylline may be used for the treatment of systemic inflammatory response syndrome to prevent the onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical trauma produces profound immunological dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies directed at restoring immune homeostasis should aim to redress the physiological proinflammatory-anti-inflammatory cell imbalance associated with major surgery.

  11. Quantal Response: Nonparametric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    determines the response via y =   0, x < L 1, x > L . (1) If L is known and constant, then y is a step function of x with jump at x = L...therein as “Results of 69 Ballistic Shots on Phase II Al2O3/Kevlar Armor Plates”, although there are only 68 data points in the report. Chang and Bodt

  12. Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Planer-Friedrich, Lisa; Sahm, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We examine the strategic use of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in imperfectly competitive markets. The level of CSR determines the weight a firm puts on consumer surplus in its objective function before it decides upon supply. First, we consider symmetric Cournot competition and show that the endogenous level of CSR is positive for any given number of firms. However, positive CSR levels imply smaller equilibrium profits. Second, we find that an incumbent monopolist can use CSR as an en...

  13. Conceptualising environmental responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Murray, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Downstream responsibility is rarely addressed in the academic literature and in corporate sustainability reporting. We conceptualise downstream responsibility for the example of carbon emissions, by establishing a terminology as well as a framework for quantifying downstream carbon footprints. By extracting emissions-intensive sales chains for a number of Australian industry sectors, and comparing these to emissions-intensive supply chains, we demonstrated the ability of input-output analysis to quantify emissions responsibility in both directions. We extend the definition of downstream responsibility beyond the product use and disposal phases, to include what we call 'enabled' emissions. This term implies that whatever is sold downstream enables our customers to operate and emit, irrespective of whether it is our product that is combusted, or that directly combusts fuels, or not. Our structural path analyses and threshold-capture relationships reveal stark differences between industries with regard to the data collection efforts necessary to achieve a reasonably complete footprint assessment. Industries appear to have their own specific carbon footprint profiles, and one cannot design generic relevance tests that tell which data to collect. Moreover we conclude that current completeness standards in carbon reporting cannot be satisfied using relevance thresholds. Input-output analysis and structural path analysis are excellent tools that can help companies undertake screening exercises, which in turn help prioritising and streamlining the collection of data needed to establish a corporate downstream carbon footprint. Compared to conventional manual approaches, hybrid life-cycle assessments assisted by input-output analysis and structural path analysis achieve more complete results, with substantially less staff, money and time. (author)

  14. RELIGIOUS RESPONSES TO GLOBALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatib A. Kadir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sociological discussion of globalisation is preoccupied with the political, economic, and military dimension of it, with little attention to its religious aspect. This paper attempts to trace the impacts of globalisation on religion and religious responses, the argument of which derives mainly from the so-called “Bridge-Building Program” organised by CRCS & ICRS-UGM in 2008. It argues that though they share a common concern, people of different faiths are at risk of deepening the problems rather than offering solutions in view of their different responses for which we categorise them into different but overlapping categories -ideological, ambivalent, integrative, exclusive, and imitative. It then leads to a more fundamental question of whether interfaith cooperation is possible given those different and sometime opposing responses. [Dalam kajian sosiologi, diskusi mengenai globalisasi kerap kali semata-mata ditinjau dari sisi politik, enonomi dan militer, sementara dimensi agama sering kali dikesampingkan. Artikel ini membahas dampak globalisasi terhadap agama dan respon komunitas agama terhadap globalisasi. Data yang muncul dalam artikel ini diambil dari sebuah workshop berjudul“Bridge- Building Program.” Melalui artikel ini, saya berpendapat bahwa, meskikomunitas agama-agama memiliki keprihatinan yang sama terhadap dampak globalisasi, namun respon mereka cenderung mempertajam persoalan yang diakibatkan globalisasi, ketimbang memberikan solusi. Respon tersebut dalam dikategorikan –meski tidak kaku- dalam: respon ideologis, ambivalen, integratif, ekslusif dan imitatif. Selanjutnya, artikel juga mengulas pada pertanyaan mendasar mengenai apakah kerjasama antar agama mungkin dilakukan menyimak ragam respon yang saling bertentangan tersebut.

  15. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  16. Twelve weeks treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, prevents degradation of peptide YY and improves glucose- and non-glucose-induced insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Kasper; Knop, Filip Krag; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2010-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. METHOD: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over 12 weeks in which 24 patients with T2DM were randomized to receive either sitagliptin (Januvia) 100 mg qd or placebo as an add-on therapy to metformin. In week 0, 1 and 12 patients underwent a meal test and a 90-min 20 m......AIM: To examine the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, on gastrointestinal hormone responses to a standardized mixed meal and beta cell secretory capacity, measured as glucose and non-glucose induced insulin secretion during a hyperglycaemic clamp, in patients......M hyperglycaemic clamp with 5 g of l-arginine infusion. Main outcome measure was postprandial total glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentration. Additional measures were insulin and C-peptide, glycaemic control, intact and total peptide YY (PYY) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and intact...

  17. Ontario demand response scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-09-01

    Strategies for demand management in Ontario were examined via 2 scenarios for a commercial/institutional building with a normal summertime peak load of 300 kW between 14:00 and 18:00 during a period of high electricity demand and high electricity prices. The first scenario involved the deployment of a 150 kW on-site generator fuelled by either diesel or natural gas. The second scenario involved curtailing load by 60 kW during the same periods. Costs and benefits of both scenarios were evaluated for 3 groups: consumers, system operators and society. Benefits included electricity cost savings, deferred transmission capacity development, lower system prices for electricity, as well as environmental changes, economic development, and a greater sense of corporate social responsibility. It was noted that while significant benefits were observed for all 3 groups, they were not substantial enough to encourage action, as the savings arising from deferred generation capacity development do not accrue to individual players. The largest potential benefit was identified as lower prices, spread across all users of electricity in Ontario. It was recommended that representative bodies cooperate so that the system-wide benefits can be reaped. It was noted that if 10 municipal utilities were able to have 250 commercial or institutional customers engaged in distributed response, then a total peak demand reduction of 375 MW could be achieved, representing more than 25 per cent of Ontario's target for energy conservation. It was concluded that demand response often involves the investment of capital and new on-site procedures, which may affect reactions to various incentives. 78 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Community response to noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activities from 2008 to 2011 by ICBEN community response to noise team were summarized. That is, individual community-based indexes such as community tolerance Level, Zuricher Fluglarm Index (ZFI and Frankfurter Fluglarm Index (FFI/FNI were newly proposed, differences in railway bonus between Europe and Asia were discussed by a Swedish survey, socio-acoustic surveys were reported from developing countries, and annoyance equivalents and dominant source models were proposed as the adequate combined noise model. Furthermore, not only negative, but also positive aspects of sound were discussed as soundscape studies. Finally, seven items were listed as future team activities.

  19. Realizing Corporate Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girschik, Verena

    pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk, a company known for its remarkable investments in integrating societal objectives into its business model and promoting new ways of thinking about and doing business. The case inspired the overarching theoretical question how actors construct and legitimize new ideas...... and practices at the nascent stages of institutional change. To address this question, the dissertation develops a micro-sociological approach to institutional change that brings to light how actors struggle over meaning in power relations by focusing on processes of positioning and framing. The three articles...... in this dissertation unfold distinct yet interdependent processes of positioning and framing that constitute new ways of performing and understanding corporate responsibility....

  20. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    and responsibilising the unemployed individual? The paper finds that the individualisation that is taking place occurs as an individualisation of responsibility, more than as an individualisation of interventions. A related finding is that the social rights perspective is becoming performance......The paper focuses on the unemployed individual and her position in local activation practice. The overall aim is to analyse the role of individualisation of local activation policy in the construction of social citizenship in Sweden. More specifically, we ask: To what extent do clients have...... at local level in one Swedish municipality....

  1. Disaster Response: Improving Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Canter . 26 July 2006. 1. 10 Thomas A Garrett and Russell S. Sobel. “The political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments.” The Federal Bank of St. Louis...and, Brownie, you’re doing a heck of a job. The FEMA Director is working 24…they’re working 24 hours a day.”19 David McEntire highlights the...releases/2005/09/20050902-2.html. Last accessed 9 November 2007. 20 David A. McEntire. Disaster Response and Recovery: Strategies and Tactics for

  2. Affect and criminal responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakić Dragiša S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author deals with an issue of relationship between the affect and criminal responsibility. In order to provide a multi-angle approach to analysis of this issue the author resorted to multidisciplinary - criminal law and psychiatric-psychological approach. Although the topic covered by this article is significant and complex, it appears to be of virtually no interest in the literature. For that reason the author's endeavor to research this topic should not go unmentioned. In the first part of the article the author tried to provide answers to some preliminary questions without which it would be impossible to understand the relationship between the affect and criminal responsibility. Those are the following questions: what are affects, what is their nature and intensity, how long they last and how they influence psychological functions of a person acting in affect? Central part of the article is dedicated to examining the importance of the affect as a phenomenon in criminal law dogma and in judicial rulings, as well as its effect on criminal responsibility. The author finds that acting in affect may be considered as a mitigating circumstance in the sentencing, but can also be a basis for mitigation of the sentence or even suspension of the sentence, as part of some general criminal law norms. Also, for certain offenses it may be considered as a favorable condition that renders that offence to be less grave. Finally, the affect may be considered as a psychological basis diminished, or even lack of, mental capacity. The last above mentioned issue receives special attention of the author, and claims that only the affect that is 'of extreme proportions' may lead to mental incapacity. Such affect is the one that 'demolishes restrains and removes reasonable and target-oriented actions'. In further analysis the author proposes criteria and methodology for assessment of person's sanity in criminal law and criminal procedure. Further

  3. The Chronic Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already......This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean’s concepts...

  4. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test......-site, where 15 LED RGB Park lamps, controlled driven by a wind sensor, mobile phone applications or by thermal camera tracking. According to the specialists are the social and aesthetical dimensions more interesting than the energy use cases and efficiency. This motivates an interdisciplinary discussion...

  5. State responses to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  6. Seizmic response spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Leššo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A computation of 1D and 3D seismic motion parameters was made and the influence of input parameters on these parameters were analysed. A modelling was realised on the examples of sedimentary structures geotechnical models. This comparison provides different spectral and frequencial values and spectral accelerations. The differences in seismic response spectra are influenced not only by properties of geological structures but also by the methodics of the soil structure interaction modeling and input time history spectral composition. However, the influence of geotechnical properties of geological structures on the output results are apparent. The modelling results of different input time history spectral composition, the Ricker impuls and the Gabor function were compared. In the area of cement factory in Rohožník, the new rotary kiln furnance is planned to be build. In the sense of STN 73 0036 the expert seismic judgment has been claimed. The standard and local seismic response spectra is computed for the place where the rotary kiln will be situated. The application of the local spectral acceleration in seismic load computations enables to save costs in comparing with the standard acceleration.

  7. Skeletal responses to spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1991-01-01

    The role of gravity in the determination of bone structure is elucidated by observations in adult humans and juvenile animals during spaceflight. The primary response of bone tissue to microgravity is at the interface of the mineral and matrix in the process of biomineralization. This response is manifested by demineralization or retarded growth in some regions of the skeleton and hypermineralization in others. The most pronounced effects are seen in the heelbone and skull, the most distally located bones relative to the heart. Ground based flight simulation models that focus on changes in bone structure at the molecular, organ, and whole body levels are described and compared to flight results. On Earth, the morphologic and compositional changes in the unloaded bones are very similar to changes during flight; however, the ground based changes appear to be more transient. In addition, a redistribution of bone mineral in gravity-dependent bones occurs both in space and during head down positioning on Earth. Longitudinal data provided considerable information on the influence of endocrine and muscular changes on bone structure after unloading.

  8. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  9. Emotional response to advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Anastasiei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotions can transcend cultural, linguistic, demographic, and social boundaries. Emotions affect information processing and create a positive attitude toward the ad, which becomes associated with the brand. Objectives. This study investigates the role of pleasure (P, arousal (A and domination (D emotions in mobile’s photo camera advertisement and how each of them is influencing consumer attitude towards the advertisement and brand. Prior Work. Holbrook and Batra (1987 developed their own emotional scale based on these three dimensions (PAD, showing that these emotions mediate consumer responses to advertising. Approach. A 1*4 factorial experiment design method was adopted in order to measure the impact of independent variables (emotion type on dependent variables (attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand. Results. The results revealed that emotions like Pleasure (loving, friendly, grateful and Arousal (active, interested, excited, entertained influence consumers' attitudes towards brand and advertising. Value. Marketers need to understand the role of pleasure and arousal emotions when making advertising campaign; an effective promotion leads to persuading consumers. The results indicate that marketing practitioners should measure affective responses when testing an advertisement, as long as this action would predict brand attitude.

  10. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Playful Hyper Responsibility: Toward a Dislocation of Parents' Responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Andersen, Niels Åkerstrøm

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10-15?years, state-funded schools have begun to require parents to assume an undefined and infinite personal responsibility. In this article, we investigate how schools organize responsibility games to respond to this challenge and how these games affect the concept of responsibility. We point to a dislocation in the way parents are…

  12. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures

  13. Responsible technology acceptance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Schuitema, Geertje; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    on private consumers’ acceptance of having Smart Grid technology installed in their home. We analyse acceptance in a combined framework of the Technology Acceptance Model and the Norm Activation Model. We propose that individuals are only likely to accept Smart Grid technology if they assess usefulness......As a response to climate change and the desire to gain independence from imported fossil fuels, there is a pressure to increase the proportion of electricity from renewable sources which is one of the reasons why electricity grids are currently being turned into Smart Grids. In this paper, we focus...... in terms of a positive impact for society and the environment. Therefore, we expect that Smart Grid technology acceptance can be better explained when the well-known technology acceptance parameters included in the Technology Acceptance Model are supplemented by moral norms as suggested by the Norm...

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as having explicit policies and implicit norms situated in cultural systems highlights the connections between institutional and cultural structures of nation states and business' commitment to CSR as reflected in the strategies used...... to communicate CSR to public audiences via the Internet.  To frame CSR from a situated perspective (Matten & Moon 2005) implies a shift in understanding relations between corporations and their stakeholders from a corporate-centered model to a cultural systems perspective.  This paper describes an approach...... to cultural systems in which can be used to frame our understanding of implicit norms with respect to CSR, and demonstrates how these norms result in different practices of communicating CSR in the WalMart and Maersk corporate websites....

  15. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design...... for the acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design...... was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  16. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (-20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties.

  17. Data Rights and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndham, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    A human-rights-based analysis can be a useful tool for the scientific community and policy makers as they develop codes of conduct, harmonized standards, and national policies for data sharing. The human rights framework provides a shared set of values and norms across borders, defines rights and responsibilities of various actors involved in data sharing, addresses the potential harms as well as the benefits of data sharing, and offers a framework for balancing competing values. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications offers a particularly helpful lens through which to view data as both a tool of scientific inquiry to which access is vital and as a product of science from which everyone should benefit. PMID:26297755

  18. Responses to natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

  19. Thermal Responsive Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an architectural computational method and model, which, through additive and subtractive processes, create composite elements with bending behaviour based on thermal variations in the surrounding climatic environment. The present effort is focused on the manipulation of assembly...... composite layers and their relative layer lengths thereby embedding the merged material effect to create a responsive behavioural architectural envelope. Copper and polypropylene are used as base materials for the composite structure due to their high differences in thermal expansion, surface emissivity...... alterations, their respective durability and copper’s architectural (visual and transformative) aesthetic qualities. Through the use of an evolutionary solver, the composite structure of the elements are organised to find the bending behaviour specified by and for the thermal environments. The entire model...

  20. Inflammatory response after nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Anthony, Christopher; Papasotiriou, Antonios; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2017-06-01

    Intramedullary nailing, as the gold standard stabilisation method of most long bones, has been tailed by its extensive use as the basic tool of investigating the immune response to trauma in many large and small animal models, as well as at the clinical setting. Over the last few decades a complex map of interactions between pro and anti-inflammatory pathways has been the result of these significant global research efforts. Parallel to the evolution of modern nailing and reaming techniques, significant developments at the fields of other disciplines relevant to trauma care, has improved the contemporary management of injured patients, challenging previous concepts and altering clinical barriers. The current article aims to summarise the current understanding of the effect of instrumenting the medullary canal after trauma, and hint on potential future directions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  2. Gut Bacteria Affect Immunotherapy Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new studies have identified intestinal bacteria that appear to influence the response to checkpoint inhibitors. This Cancer Currents blog post explains how the researchers think their findings could be used to improve patients’ responses to these immunotherapy drugs.

  3. Successful oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tost, J.

    2000-01-01

    A freighter in the process of loading rock for the Quebec Iron and Titanium Mining Company near Havre-St. Pierre on the extreme north shore of the St. Lawrence River, was suddenly tossed against the dock by rough waters on the night of March 23, 1999, and spilled 49 tonnes of bunker fuel oil into the river. This article describes how the crew of the ship, trained by Environmental Accident Protection Inc., based in Petrolia, Ontario, averted disaster by responding to the accident quickly and effectively. Their first action was to notify the appropriate environmental and regulatory authorities and to put in place containment booms which corralled about 17 tonnes of oil. The oil contained by the booms were removed by trained personnel under the guidance of Eastern Canada Response Corporation of Corunna, Ontario, and Response Systems Inc. of Neshanic, New Jersey, in approximately three hours with only minimum disruption to the environment. Further cleanup of the area, often hindered by bad weather, freezing rain, ice, and 100 km/hr winds, was done by the cooperative efforts of governments, industry and the local fishermen's association. The work included scrubbing the shore with wire brushes and scrapers and handbathing some 1000 migratory birds. The cleanup job was completed in about three weeks and the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve and other nearby habitats for migrating birds were saved the devastation that would have occurred, except for the quick and knowledgeable intervention of a trained crew and an outstanding example of public-private sector and community cooperation. 2 photos

  4. Affective responses to dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychophysiological Responses to Salsa Dance

    OpenAIRE

    Guidetti, Laura; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Saavedra, Francisco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Speculation exists whether dance provides physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits. Unfortunately, research to date has not addressed the affective and exertional responses to dance. These responses are of interest as positive affective and exertional responses experienced during physical activity may play an important role in predicting adherence. The present study aims to examine the psychophysiological responses of different Salsa dance styles. Ten pairs of dan...

  6. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles M; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2006-04-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is the body's response to an infectious or noninfectious insult. Although the definition of SIRS refers to it as an "inflammatory" response, it actually has pro- and anti-inflammatory components. This review outlines the pathophysiology of SIRS and highlights potential targets for future therapeutic intervention in patients with this complex entity.

  7. Social Facilitation of Aiding Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Patricia; And Others

    Research on individual's response to emergency situations in the presence of others has produced conflicting results. The bystander effect is the label applied to inaction or the unlikelihood of assistance with others present. The social facilitation effect occurs when the presence of others energizes response; strong habit responses are…

  8. Corporate social responsibility in Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Elasrag, Hussein

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the Islamic principles of CSR, and the definition of a structured social corporate responsibility (CSR), and based on this responsibility. And provide a practical through the international financial institutions that can implement CSR policies framework. This study provides the basis of social responsibilities that apply to those derived from divine sources of international financial institutions.

  9. Corporate social responsibility in hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Gagić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Responsible management of global hospitality companies increasingly recognizes how important are concerns about the society, the environment as well as all stakeholders in maintaining a good market position. In Serbia, the concept of corporate social responsibility is relatively unknown and insufficiently researched in all business areas, especially in the hospitality industry where small businesses are dominated. The papers task is to present particular activities that demonstrate social responsibility to employees, customers-guests, local communities as well as the environment. The paper aims to highlight the benefits of adopting the principles of corporate social responsibility and innovation applied in catering enterprises as an example of good corporate social responsibility practices.

  10. Spill response exercises and lessons learned : a response organization's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Green, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the past five years, Burrard Clean Operations (BCO) has demonstrated its' oil spill response capabilities through different types of exercises. Such exercises are necessary for certification of Response Organizations in Canada. The exercises can be performed through actual response to spills or through simulated situations. Both can provide an opportunity to practice different levels of response to a range of conditions in various settings. They also provide the opportunity to focus on specific themes that can be part of a response and to identify areas for improvement in response actions. They also make it possible to interface with government agencies, industry and others that participate in spill responses. The exercise program for BCO is aimed at maintaining certification and to assist the Canadian Coast Guard. The exercises broaden the lessons learned and set a course for future enhancement to spill readiness should a real incident occur. The goals of the exercise program are to provide real time drills that show the operational capability of a representative sample of BCO equipment, management and trained spill responders. The response functions of the BCO exercise program are: notification, response organization activation, contractor activation, situation analysis, strategy development for marine oil spill response, site safety, equipment deployment, containment, recovery, shoreline assessment, cleanup, communications, decontamination, logistics, and financial management. The BCO experience has led to the basic conclusions that there is a need to vary the exercise design and format and that there is a need to implement follow-up actions provided during exercise evaluations. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  12. Why Pandemic Response is Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækkeskov, Erik; Rubin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    attention and coverage in two deviant cases, the USA and Denmark. Findings – Theories linking political survival to disaster responses find little empirical support in the substantial cross-country variations of vaccination responses during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Rather than following a political logic......, the case studies of media coverage in the USA and Denmark demonstrate that the response was bureaucratized in the public health agencies (CDC and DMHA, respectively). Hence, while natural disaster responses appear to follow a political logic, the response to pandemics appears to be more strongly instituted...... in the hands of bureaucratic experts. Research limitations/implications – There is an added value of encompassing bureaucratic dynamics in political theories of disaster response; bureaucratized expertise proved to constitute a strong plausible explanation of the 2009 pandemic vaccination response. Practical...

  13. Social Economy and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of entrepreneurial activities as an engine of economic growth and poverty alleviation, the issue of business development and entrepreneurial activities, has received increasing attention from a number of interested parties worldwide and also in the Czech Republic. The focus of this paper is on a social economy, a social responsibility and social enterprises. The development of the social economy framework will be introduced in the European context and specifically in the Czech Republic. A case study of a Czech social entrepreneur will be introduced based on qualitative research, namely the biographical narrative method.Social enterprises can support activities of various target groups, such as economic activities of mentally and physically handicapped people, which often operate in economically and socially marginalized situations, including stereotyped images. They give them a chance to become active members of society. In this way they can help to reduce the poverty on a local level. The aim of this paper is to introduce a social entrepreneurship as important part of social economy development in the Czech Republic.

  14. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction

  16. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  17. Joined and Responsible Parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmani-Bakiu Arta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary family law, parents are obliged to arrange the joined implementation of the parenting rights either by their own will or through the help of their lawyers and/or mediators. This institute of mutual agreement is known as joined custody or joined implementation of the parenting right after the divorce of the marriage. This institute makes it possible for parents who live separately to arrange their custody rights in the most convenient way for the child. With a joined custody agreement, the parents accept the obligation to implement all the rights and duties that constitute the parenting right even in case of their separation. Through not dividing their rights from their obligations and with the aim of being closer to the needs of the child, the institute of joined custody helps avoid the feelings of hostility and disagreement in regard to the judicial decision which gives permanent custody to one of the parents. This institute is incorporated in the family law of many countries (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, UK, France, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Hungary, Czech Republic, USA and Australia. This article aims to emphasize the need to introduce in the family law of RM an explicit provision for joined and responsible custody after the divorce in order to achieve the best interest of the child. There is a joined initiative of parents who live separately from their children who request the amendment of the Family Law of RM in this direction.

  18. Response to Glenn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Arons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Arons responds to what he considers to be Glenn's misrepresentations of the tone and content of Short Route To Chaos. He writes that Glenn "appears to be attempting to construct the book's message into just one more salvo fired in the endless school wars. It is anything but....Reading Glenn's review, one is left with the impression that the book is a Christian-bashing, left-leaning, work of communitarian fuzziness in which a legal scholar unaccountably refuses to confine himself to ... technical explication of existing constitutional doctrine." In his response, Arons affirmatively sets out some of the book's main themes of political /cultural conflict over standardized schooling, corrects some of what he sees as Glenn's misunderstandings, and notes that the book itself invites readers to eschew partisanship and recognize that there are deep structural problems in American public education. In closing, Arons uses an example of Glenn's partisan misunderstanding that leads Arons to recommend to the reader that it would be better to read Short Route to Chaos for oneself.

  19. Technical risk - individual responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, R.

    1984-01-01

    The author, vice-president of the Federal Constitutional Court, delivered this opening address at the international symposium on nuclear liability held in Munich in September 1984 by OECD/NEA and IAEA. He starts by asking: Where does danger begin, where does risk end. It is the true and original task of the state to keep damage away from its citizens: this entails the obligation for additional garantees - not withstanding an almost greatest possible degree of safety - to at least helpfully compensate damage incurred, should such damage arise. In case of really severe accidents the essential thing is not the operator's liability but the entry of the state into that obligation, and this fact remains unchanged even if the maximum limits of liability were raised or in case of their removal. Therefore it is not necessary to be cautious about the question of unlimited liability, i.e. the unlimited entry of the state into such obligations, especially as all those responsible are convinced that there is practically no risk of that contingency occurring. (HSCH) [de

  20. Consumer Responses to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lili, Chang; Jiaqi, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    With the development of multinational companies (MNCs), corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a very important component of corporate activities. However, the commitment to CSR in China has been very low. Chinese consumers are becoming less willing to accept different treatment from MNCs, but there has been a little study of CSR problems in the Chinese market or the response of Chinese consumer. This study provides preliminary evidence that consumer response about the CSR behavior ...

  1. Pushing the Margins of Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoni de Sio, Filippo; Di Nucci, Ezio

    2018-01-01

    ’ marginal responsibility in three steps: we first deny that Parks acts involuntarily as traditionally claimed in the legal literature; we then propose to extend Shoemaker’s analysis of marginal responsibility based on quality of will so as to include two other dimensions: the moral status of the agent......David Shoemaker has claimed that a binary approach to moral responsibility leaves out something important, namely instances of marginal agency, cases where agents seem to be eligible for some responsibility responses but not others. In this paper we endorse and extend Shoemaker’s approach...... by presenting and discussing one more case of marginal agency not yet covered by Shoemaker or in the other literature on moral responsibility. Our case is that of Kenneth Parks, a Canadian man who drove a long way to his mother-in-law’s and killed her in a state of somnambulism. We support our claim about Parks...

  2. Improving tumour response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation oncology is in the middle of the most exciting developments in its 100-year history. Progress in treatment planning and delivery, in medical imaging and in basic cancer and normal tissue biology is likely to change the indication for radiotherapy as well as the way it is prescribed and delivered. Technological and conceptual advances, in particular the development of the multi-leaf collimator and the concept of inverse treatment planning, have led to the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with its capability to plan and deliver non-uniform dose distributions in the clinic. This has forced us to re-think radiation oncology: refining the indication for radiotherapy, optimizing the prescription of dose distributions and considering how, based on clinical evidence, radiation can best be combined with other treatment modalities, surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and biologically targeted therapies. The attraction of radiation therapy as an element of multi-modality cancer therapy is that it induces DNA damage that can be modulated in space and time. Progress in basic cancer biology, genomics and proteomics, as well as biological imaging provides novel avenues for individualization of cancer therapy and for biological optimization of radiotherapy. In improving cancer care, it is the therapeutic ratio, rather than tumour control per se, that must be optimised. Interestingly, the two main avenues for improving the effectiveness of radiotherapy currently being actively pursued in the clinic generally aim at different sides of the therapeutic ratio: 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT predominantly aim to reduce normal-tissue side effects - and by doing this, open the way for dose escalation that may lead to increased tumour control rates - whereas combined radio-chemotherapy aims to improve tumour response - while keeping the fingers crossed that this will not increase normal-tissue complications to the same extent. In parallel with these

  3. Increasing paternal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, P

    1985-01-01

    Increasing numbers of fathers of children born out of wedlock are not contributing to these children's economic support. In 1981, a tiny minority (14%) of the 1.7 million never-married mothers living with a child with an absent father had a child-support award, and of these, just 112,000 actually received some payment in 1981. The high rates of noncompliance, and the low level of legal efforts to enforce child support, are the result of attempts to collect payments through inefficient traditional methods, not the inability of fathers to pay, a Wisconsin study has shown. A basic problem with collecting child support under the present system is that it relies on fathers to control their expenditures and voluntarily to send the payment on a weekly, biweekly or monthly basis, year after year. As a Wisconsin study shows, full compliance with court-ordered payments dropped from 38% in the 1st year to below 20% by the 5th year among 163 ex-husbands tracked. A proposal by researchers at the University of Wisconsin's Institute for Research on Poverty calls for an "absent-parent tax." The Wisconsin Plan, as it is known, is simply a withholding tax based on the father's gross income and the number of his absent children. If his income falls below a certain level, payments will stop automatically, but will resume if and when it rises above the cutoff point. The Wisconsin plan removes all judicial discretion and lawyer's skill as factors in child-support awards, thus eliminating erratic awards. It also insures that support payments will be maintained during periods of conflict between the father and mother. However, before the Wisconsin Plan can effectively protect children both out of wedlock, a feature needs to be added that will establish paternity at birth. Imposing a real child-support obligation on fathers of children born outside of marriage will introduce a potentially powerful economic incentive for responsible male reproductive and parental behavior.

  4. Responsible nanotechnology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forloni, Gianluigi, E-mail: forloni@marionegri.it [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ' Mario Negri' , Department of Neuroscience (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    approach to the nanotoxicology. The establishment of an effective strategy cannot ignore the distinction between different nanoparticles on their use and the type of exposure to which we are subjected. Categorization is essential to orchestrate toxicological rules realistic and effective. The responsible development of nanotechnology means a common effort, by scientists, producers, stakeholders, and public institutions to develop appropriate programs to systematically approach the complex issue of the nanotoxicology.

  5. Responsible nanotechnology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-01-01

    to the nanotoxicology. The establishment of an effective strategy cannot ignore the distinction between different nanoparticles on their use and the type of exposure to which we are subjected. Categorization is essential to orchestrate toxicological rules realistic and effective. The responsible development of nanotechnology means a common effort, by scientists, producers, stakeholders, and public institutions to develop appropriate programs to systematically approach the complex issue of the nanotoxicology.

  6. Responsible nanotechnology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    the nanotoxicology. The establishment of an effective strategy cannot ignore the distinction between different nanoparticles on their use and the type of exposure to which we are subjected. Categorization is essential to orchestrate toxicological rules realistic and effective. The responsible development of nanotechnology means a common effort, by scientists, producers, stakeholders, and public institutions to develop appropriate programs to systematically approach the complex issue of the nanotoxicology.

  7. Psychobiology of the placebo response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Enck, Paul

    2006-04-30

    The nature and determinants of the placebo response are widely unknown and are discussed controversially. This review presents a unifying concept for the understanding of the placebo response in clinical trials and practice based on three components: "Regression to the mean", "Pavlovian conditioning", and "Signal detection theory", and discusses the respective literature in light of experimental and clinical findings from psychology, psychiatry, neurology, and gastroenterology, with specific emphasis on "brain imaging" of the placebo response.

  8. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally......Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...

  9. Network Culture, Performance & Corporate Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio M. Brondoni

    2003-01-01

    The growth and sustainability of free market economies highlights the need to define rules more suited to the current condition of market globalisation and also encourages firms to adopt more transparent and accountable corporate responsibility (and corporate social responsibility, namely the relationship between the company, environment and social setting). From a managerial perspective, corporate responsibility is linked to ensure the lasting pursuit of the company mission, seeking increasi...

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanenko, Ievgeniia

    2012-01-01

    In the article are considered essence of corporate social responsibility and terms necessary for realization of social activity management subjects. Hikes over are brought to realization of corporate social responsibility, meaningfulness of large and middle business is certain in becoming of social responsibility of enterprises. It is set that exactly midsize business must come forward as a main motor of economic development of Ukraine. Becoming features and modern state of corporate social r...

  11. Rights and responsibilities in Darfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Reyes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A combined UN-military-police-humanitarian initiative hasbeen promoting civic rights and responsibilities among IDPsin order to increase security throughout Kalma camp and itssurroundings.

  12. Leadership Development: A Supervisory Responsibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, David

    2000-01-01

    .... This is a recurring theme found throughout leadership literature and speeches. The US Air Force clearly establishes subordinate development as a supervisory responsibility in top-level doctrine...

  13. Personal Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2016-01-01

    What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them......, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences—such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances—diminish, or undermine personal...

  14. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  15. Item Response Data Analysis Using Stata Item Response Theory Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Zheng, Xiaying

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and review the capability and performance of the Stata item response theory (IRT) package that is available from Stata v.14, 2015. Using a simulated data set and a publicly available item response data set extracted from Programme of International Student Assessment, we review the IRT package from…

  16. PENGARUH PENGUNGKAPAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TERHADAP EARNING RESPONSE COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Mitha Dwi Restuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh negatif pengungkapan Corporate Sosial Responsibility (CSR disclosure terhadap Earning Response Coefficient (ERC. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis regresi berganda.Sampel yang digunakan adalah sebanyak 150 perusahaan yang terdaftar pada Bursa Efek Indonesia pada tahun 2010. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility tidak berpengaruh terhadap Earning Response Coefficient (ERC. Hal ini dapat dikatakan bahwa investor belum memperhatikan informasi-informasi sosial yang diungkapkan dalam laporan tahunan perusahaan sebagai informasi yang dapat mempengaruhi investor dalam melakukan keputusan investasi. Investor masih mengganggap informasi laba lebih bermanfaat dalam menilai perusahaan dan dianggap lebih mampu memberikan informasi untuk mendapatkan return saham yang diharapkan oleh investor dibandingkan dengan informasi sosial yang diungkapkan oleh perusahaan.The purpose of this study is to determine the negative effect of Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure (CSR disclosure of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The samples were 150 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010. Based on the research, the result was the disclosures of Corporate Social Responsibility did not influence Earning Response Coefficient (ECR. It can be said that investors did not pay attention to social information that was disclosed in the company’s annual report as information that could affect investors in making investment decisions. Investor did not consider sosial information; they only consider profit information to assess the company value and their investment return

  17. Response Strategies and Response Styles in Cross-Cultural Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the following research questions: Do respondents participating in cross-cultural surveys differ in their response style when responding to attitude statements? If so, are characteristics of the response process associated with their ethnicity and generation of immigration? To

  18. Cardiovascular Responses to Electromagnetic Radiation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    It has been reported that significant responses take place in brain glucose metabolism (Volkow et al 2011). Iron containing mitochondrial respiratory enzymes can also be directly involved in this response. Also blood-brain barrier problems exist at least in experimental animals (Nittby et al 2009). An increase of brain tumors ...

  19. Responsiveness of Clinical Outcome Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    the MCID (MCIDpost). Results The responsiveness in subgroups study. The ODI measurement error ranged between -11.5 and +13 points. Responsiveness was comparable to the external measures. A floor effect was seen in the PrS patients. The MCID was nine points in PrS and LBP only patients and eight points...

  20. [On-scene medical response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinot, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    In cases of exceptional medical emergencies, the setting up and organisation of a response to the increased need for medical aid are complex. Command of the operations and responsibilities are assured by specific people depending on the seriousness of the situation. Each role is identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Systemic inflammatory responses in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, W. ten

    2007-01-01

    In asthma, inflammatory cells undergo a process referred to as priming. During priming responses, cells are not directly activated by inflammatory stimuli, but acquire increased responsiveness towards heterologous stimuli. The focus of the studies presented in the thesis of Willem ten Hove was

  2. Strategic War Game - Arctic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Arctic Game Theory Strategic Analysis War Game ... Strategic War Game – Arctic Response A. P. Billyard I. A. Collin H. A. Hrychuk Canadian Forces Aerospace Warfare Center Operational...Operational Research Strategic War Game – Arctic Response A. P. Billyard I. A. Collin H. A. Hrychuk Canadian Forces Aerospace

  3. Psychophysiological responses to Salsa dance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guidetti

    Full Text Available Speculation exists whether dance provides physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits. Unfortunately, research to date has not addressed the affective and exertional responses to dance. These responses are of interest as positive affective and exertional responses experienced during physical activity may play an important role in predicting adherence. The present study aims to examine the psychophysiological responses of different Salsa dance styles. Ten pairs of dancers performed two different structured lessons of Salsa dance, including Typical Salsa and Rueda de Casino lessons, and a non-structured Salsa dance at a night club. Physiological responses (i.e., percent of heart rate reserve; %HRR were continuously assessed and perceived exertion and affective valence were rated every 15 min throughout the trials. %HRR responses differed between the Salsa dance styles (%HRR from 41.3 to 51.9%, and participants were dancing at intensities near their ventilatory threshold. Specifically, Typical Salsa lesson elicited lower %HRR responses than Rueda de Casino lesson (p 0.05. Surprisingly, exertional (from 8 to 11 and affective (from +3 to +5 responses were unaffected by Salsa dance styles (p > 0.05. These data support that different Salsa dance styles provide physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits, and perhaps more importantly, produce pleasurable experiences, which in turn might lead to an increase in adherence to Salsa dancing which likely provides exercise-like health benefits.

  4. Gender and international crisis response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Lisa; Tellier, Siri

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade the humanitarian community has been mandated to mainstream gender in its response to crises. One element of this mandate is a repeated call for sex-disaggregated data to help guide the response. This study examines available analyses, assessments and academic literature...

  5. Psychophysiological responses to Salsa dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Laura; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Saavedra, Francisco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Speculation exists whether dance provides physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits. Unfortunately, research to date has not addressed the affective and exertional responses to dance. These responses are of interest as positive affective and exertional responses experienced during physical activity may play an important role in predicting adherence. The present study aims to examine the psychophysiological responses of different Salsa dance styles. Ten pairs of dancers performed two different structured lessons of Salsa dance, including Typical Salsa and Rueda de Casino lessons, and a non-structured Salsa dance at a night club. Physiological responses (i.e., percent of heart rate reserve; %HRR) were continuously assessed and perceived exertion and affective valence were rated every 15 min throughout the trials. %HRR responses differed between the Salsa dance styles (%HRR from 41.3 to 51.9%), and participants were dancing at intensities near their ventilatory threshold. Specifically, Typical Salsa lesson elicited lower %HRR responses than Rueda de Casino lesson (p dance at a night club condition (p > 0.05). Surprisingly, exertional (from 8 to 11) and affective (from +3 to +5) responses were unaffected by Salsa dance styles (p > 0.05). These data support that different Salsa dance styles provide physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits, and perhaps more importantly, produce pleasurable experiences, which in turn might lead to an increase in adherence to Salsa dancing which likely provides exercise-like health benefits.

  6. What is personal health responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Shalonda Estelle-Brazzell

    2014-01-01

    This case study examined the meaning of personal health responsibility from the perspective of the individual. A single Black female, 20 years of age, was interviewed for the study. Content analysis was used for data evaluation. The meaning of personal health responsibility grouped into four categories: listing of tasks, obligating to tasks, following through with tasks, and maintaining resources. Tasks are behaviors performed to care for oneself. Obligating to tasks is the attitude towards carrying out behaviors. Following through is the actual completion of a task. Maintaining resources is the support needed to care for oneself. The individual's definition of personal health responsibility should be considered when making healthcare decisions and designing treatment plans. Future research should examine the meaning of personal health responsibility among diverse populations and explore factors that serve as facilitators and barriers to personal health responsibility.

  7. Mapping 'Social Responsibility' in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja

    2014-01-01

    aims to exclude the social from the scientific production in order to make it objective and thereby responsible; the Reflexivity rationality, which sees it as science's responsibility to let itself be guided by problems in society in choice of research focus and methods; the Contribution rationality......, which insists that responsible science should live up to public demands for innovation and democracy; and the Integration rationality, which advocates that science should be co-constructed with societal actors in order to be socially responsible. While each rationality is distinct, the article argues......This article employs the Foucauldian notion of ‘political rationality’ to map discussions and ideals about the responsibility of science toward society. By constructing and analyzing an archive of 263 journal papers, four political rationalities were identified: the Demarcation rationality, which...

  8. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone.......) and typefaces (simple vs. ornate). A sample of 120 participants was exposed to mock package design concepts of chocolate blocks. The results suggest that images generate an emotional response that can be measured by both self-report and physiological measures, whereas colours and typefaces generate emotional...

  9. National Response Team (NRT) Member Roles and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA personnel chair the NRT and cochair all Regional Response Teams (RRTs). They provide On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs), scientific support coordinators for inland spills, and Remedial Project Managers for hazardous waste remedial actions under Superfund.

  10. Eliminating mirror responses by instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Bundt, Carsten; Notebaert, Wim; Brass, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    The observation of an action leads to the activation of the corresponding motor plan in the observer. This phenomenon of motor resonance has an important role in social interaction, promoting imitation, learning and action understanding. However, mirror responses not always have a positive impact on our behavior. An automatic tendency to imitate others can introduce interference in action execution and non-imitative or opposite responses have an advantage in some contexts. Previous studies suggest that mirror tendencies can be suppressed after extensive practice or in complementary joint action situations revealing that mirror responses are more flexible than previously thought. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the mechanisms that allow response flexibility of motor mirroring. Here we show that the mere instruction of a counter-imitative mapping changes mirror responses as indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) enhancement induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Importantly, mirror activation was measured while participants were passively watching finger movements, without having the opportunity to execute the task. This result suggests that the implementation of task instructions activates stimulus-response association that can overwrite the mirror representations. Our outcome reveals one of the crucial mechanisms that might allow flexible adjustments of mirror responses in different contexts. The implications of this outcome are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ventilatory Responses to Exercise While Eliciting the Relaxation Response,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    been observed with the elicitation of the relaxation response at rest differ from those that occur during sleep or hypnosis (14). The relaxation response...alterations which were observed in our experimental group during the intervention period were not similar to those found with combined hypnosis and...the work of respiratory effort was observed in this group. This was implied by the finding of a relatively stable V02 in the face of a decreased VE and

  12. Responses of elderly spouse caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, B; Stommel, M; Collins, C; King, S; Given, C W

    1990-04-01

    In this paper three categories of variables were identified to predict spouses' reactions to caregiving roles: patient characteristics, the caregiving environment, and characteristics of the caregiver. Measures of these variables were administered to 159 spouse caregivers. Four domains of caregivers' responses were identified: negative emotional reactions, feelings of responsibility for the patient, feelings of abandonment by family, and impact of caregiving on daily schedules. These domains were influenced most by patient negative behaviors, physical health, and age, and by caregiver age, employment, and emotional status. Amount of assistance, affective support, and hours of care also were predictive of spouse responses.

  13. Corporate Responsibility and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Ricotti

    2003-01-01

    Corporate responsibility marks a historical turnaround in corporate culture because it attributes to it a role in which many costs externalised by the company to society and to the planet, but in fact produced directly or indirectly by it. A correct cultural approach and greater familiarity, particularly with the issues of manufacturing processes and products that have no impact on the environment, can make companies truly responsible and conscious of their role. Corporate Responsibility diff...

  14. Reader response research in stylistics

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteley, S.; Canning, P.

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces the special issue. In it, we argue that research into reader response\\ud should be recognised as a vital aspect of contemporary stylistics, and we establish our focus\\ud on work which explicitly investigates such responses through the collection and analysis of\\ud extra-textual datasets. Reader response research in stylistics is characterised by a commitment\\ud to rigorous and evidence-based approaches to the study of readers’ interactions with and\\ud around texts, and...

  15. The 2010 Haiti earthquake response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviola, Giuseppe; Severe, Jennifer; Therosme, Tatiana; Oswald, Cate; Belkin, Gary; Eustache, Eddy

    2013-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the mental health response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Discussion includes consideration of complexities that relate to emergency response, mental health and psychosocial response in disasters, long-term planning of systems of care, and the development of safe, effective, and culturally sound mental health services in the Haitian context. This information will be of value to mental health professionals and policy specialists interested in mental health in Haiti, and in the delivery of mental health services in particularly resource-limited contexts in the setting of disasters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Water Soluble Responsive Polymer Brushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Parnell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Responsive polymer brushes possess many interesting properties that enable them to control a range of important interfacial behaviours, including adhesion, wettability, surface adsorption, friction, flow and motility. The ability to design a macromolecular response to a wide variety of external stimuli makes polymer brushes an exciting class of functional materials, and has been made possible by advances in modern controlled polymerization techniques. In this review we discuss the physics of polymer brush response along with a summary of the techniques used in their synthesis. We then review the various stimuli that can be used to switch brush conformation; temperature, solvent quality, pH and ionic strength as well as the relatively new area of electric field actuation We discuss examples of devices that utilise brush conformational change, before highlighting other potential applications of responsive brushes in real world devices.

  17. EPA’s Response Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done through 10 regional office and in close cooperation with a network of federal, state, and local governments. First they investigate the site, then determine response alternatives and safety measures, considering hazards and exposure pathways.

  18. GBM Response Matrix FITS Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Time-dependent detector response matrices for each GBM detector covering the duration of every GBM flare. Needed in the spectral analysis software to relate observed...

  19. Response to marine oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This book reviews the problems posed by marine oil spills and the practical response measures which can be implemented. Aspects discussed include containment and recovery, the use of dispersants, shoreline clean-up and planning and operations. (UK)

  20. Dapsone responsive juvenile pemphigus foliaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam R

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old girl of Pemphigus foliaceus is reported because of the rarity of the condition in childhood. The disease was resistant to steroids and showed a dramatic response to dapsone.

  1. Mapping "Social Responsibility" in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Maja; Glerup, Cecilie

    The paper investigates the discourse on social responsibility in science as it appears in academic journals. Through database searches a collection of more than 300 papers have been analysed in order to map their answers to the following three questions: - What is the central problem that threatens...... of social responsibility of science imply different forms of governance of and within science. The paper employs a Foucaldian discourse analysis to understand how a particular conceptualisation of responsibility implies a political rationality, i.e. a particular form of governance of science. The analysis...... responsibility in science? - What are the central aspects of science or its relation to society that need to be regulated or changed? - What kinds of solutions are imagined and how are these solutions supposed to be put into place? On this basis the paper explores how different interpretations of the notion...

  2. Identification of noisy response latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr

    2012-08-01

    In many physical systems there is a time delay before an applied input (stimulation) has an impact on the output (response), and the quantification of this delay is of paramount interest. If the response can only be observed on top of an indistinguishable background signal, the estimation can be highly unreliable, unless the background signal is accounted for in the analysis. In fact, if the background signal is ignored, however small it is compared to the response and however large the delay is, the estimate of the time delay will go to zero for any reasonable estimator when increasing the number of observations. Here we propose a unified concept of response latency identification in event data corrupted by a background signal. It is done in the context of information transfer within a neural system, more specifically on spike trains from single neurons. The estimators are compared on simulated data and the most suitable for specific situations are recommended.

  3. Identification of noisy response latency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr

    2012-01-01

    the number of observations. Here we propose a unified concept of response latency identification in event data corrupted by a background signal. It is done in the context of information transfer within a neural system, more specifically on spike trains from single neurons. The estimators are compared......In many physical systems there is a time delay before an applied input (stimulation) has an impact on the output (response), and the quantification of this delay is of paramount interest. If the response can only be observed on top of an indistinguishable background signal, the estimation can...... be highly unreliable, unless the background signal is accounted for in the analysis. In fact, if the background signal is ignored, however small it is compared to the response and however large the delay is, the estimate of the time delay will go to zero for any reasonable estimator when increasing...

  4. The Diffraction Response Interpolation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Pedersen, Peder C.

    1998-01-01

    Computer modeling of the output voltage in a pulse-echo system is computationally very demanding, particularly whenconsidering reflector surfaces of arbitrary geometry. A new, efficient computational tool, the diffraction response interpolationmethod (DRIM), for modeling of reflectors in a fluid ...

  5. The Phage Shock Protein Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2016-09-08

    The phage shock protein (Psp) system was identified as a response to phage infection in Escherichia coli, but rather than being a specific response to a phage, it detects and mitigates various problems that could increase inner-membrane (IM) permeability. Interest in the Psp system has increased significantly in recent years due to appreciation that Psp-like proteins are found in all three domains of life and because the bacterial Psp response has been linked to virulence and other important phenotypes. In this article, we summarize our current understanding of what the Psp system detects and how it detects it, how four core Psp proteins form a signal transduction cascade between the IM and the cytoplasm, and current ideas that explain how the Psp response keeps bacterial cells alive. Although recent studies have significantly improved our understanding of this system, it is an understanding that is still far from complete.

  6. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure.

  7. Linking Item Response Model Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J; Barrett, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of test equating scores on different test forms. This paper argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require any test score equating. Instead, it involves the necessity of parameter linking due to a fundamental problem inherent in the formal nature of these models-their general lack of identifiability. More specifically, item response model parameters need to be linked to adjust for the different effects of the identifiability restrictions used in separate item calibrations. Our main theorems characterize the formal nature of these linking functions for monotone, continuous response models, derive their specific shapes for different parameterizations of the 3PL model, and show how to identify them from the parameter values of the common items or persons in different linking designs.

  8. Procedure for determining the SSE response from the OBE response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curreri, J.

    1985-01-01

    Regulatory Guide 1.61 specifies the damping that should be used for all modes that are considered in an elastic spectral or time history dynamic seismic analysis of Seismic Category I components. Table 1 of R.G 1.61 specifies damping values for dynamic analysis for two different earthquakes, the Safe Shutdown Earthquake and the Operating Basis Earthquake. The guide specifies that ''...if the maximum stresses due to static, seismic and other dynamic loading are significantly lower than the yield stresses and 1/2 yield stress for SSE and 1/2 SSE respectively, in any structure a component damping values lower than those specified in Table 1 ....should be used .... to avoid underestimating the amplitude of vibration of dynamic stress.'' The guide requires that the appropiate damping values be used which reflect the state of stress that will be experienced by the equipment. In applying these values to the response of equipment, to an OBE and to an SSE, the selected damping should result in a dynamic response for the SSE that is greater than the response due to the OBE, all other factors being equal. The purpose of the statement in the guide is to note that at higher stress levels, the higher damping values could be used, but at lower stress levels, the lower values of damping should be used. Current procedures that are used in implementing R.G. 1.61 frequently result in an OBE response that is greater than the SSE response. This is because the higher damping under the SSE is used at all stress levels, low as well as high. This is obviously not the intent of the Regulatory Guide. A procedure has been developed which derives an expression relating the SSE response to the OBE response. Two factors are involved in the equation. The first involves the damping ratios for the SSE and OBE events and the second is the ratio between the levels of the OBE and SSE

  9. The Diffraction Response Interpolation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Pedersen, Peder C.

    1998-01-01

    Computer modeling of the output voltage in a pulse-echo system is computationally very demanding, particularly whenconsidering reflector surfaces of arbitrary geometry. A new, efficient computational tool, the diffraction response interpolationmethod (DRIM), for modeling of reflectors in a fluid...... medium, is presented. The DRIM is based on the velocity potential impulseresponse method, adapted to pulse-echo applications by the use of acoustical reciprocity. Specifically, the DRIM operates bydividing the reflector surface into planar elements, finding the diffraction response at the corners...

  10. Haiti Earthquake: Crisis and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    years ago, in 1860. Haitian ministries are addressing issues such as long-term housing for those left homeless by the earthquake as they operate out...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Haiti Earthquake: Crisis and Response Rhoda Margesson... Crisis and Response 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  11. Transcompartmental Inflammatory Responses in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plovsing, Ronni R; Berg, Ronan M G; Evans, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Transcompartmental signaling during early inflammation may lead to propagation of disease to other organs. The time course and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We aimed at comparing acute transcompartmental inflammatory responses in humans following lipopolysacchar......OBJECTIVES: Transcompartmental signaling during early inflammation may lead to propagation of disease to other organs. The time course and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We aimed at comparing acute transcompartmental inflammatory responses in humans following...

  12. Chernobyl: A policy response study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segerstahl, B.

    1991-01-01

    Chernobyl consists of a series of papers concerned with societal responses to the accident at Chernobyl. The book is composed of a series of segments that focus of aspects of the post-accident policy: monitoring and assessment, health effects, agriculture and trade, international responses, and the media and credibility crisis. Seven European countries were investigated for information on how they dealt with the accident

  13. Sustainable Materialisation of Responsive Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Holstov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural organisms which employ inherent material properties to enable a passive dynamic response offer inspiration for adaptive bioclimatic architecture. This approach allows a move away from the technological intensity of conventional “smart” building systems towards a more autonomous and robust materially embedded sensitivity and climatic responsiveness. The actuation mechanisms of natural responsive systems can be replicated to produce artificial moisture-sensitive (hygromorphic composites with the response driven by hygroexpansion of wood. The work presented here builds on previous research on lab-scale material development, to investigate in detail the applicability of wood-based hygromorphic materials for large-scale external applications. The suitability of different material production techniques and viability of potential applications is established through a detailed programme of experimentation and the first one-year-long durability study of hygromorphic wood composites in full weathering conditions. These results provide the basis for the design of an optimised responsive cladding system. The opportunities and challenges presented by building integration and architectural functionalisation of responsive wood composites are discussed based on a hierarchy of application typologies including functional devices and components, performance-oriented adaptive systems, the value of aesthetic and spatial experience and place-specific contextual integration. The design of the first full-scale building application of hygromorphic wood composites is presented.

  14. West syndrome: response to valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Surabhi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Kumar, Chandrakanta; Kumar, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Management of West syndrome is unsatisfactory. In our clinic we observed that a significant proportion of patients respond to usual dose of valproate. To prospectively assess the efficacy of valproate in controlling infantile spasms in West syndrome. Consecutive patients presenting with West syndrome to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic or general outpatient department (OPD) were enrolled for study. Those who were not on any treatment were given valproate in a dose of 30 mg/kg/day while awaiting investigations. Patients were followed up every 2 weeks. Predefined criteria for definition of West syndrome and response were used. Those showing partial/poor response or relapse on valproate were given hormonal therapy. One hundred children with West syndrome were enrolled. Ninety one children were started on valproate. Of these 36 (39.5%) showed a good response, but seven later relapsed while on same dose of valproate and three were lost to follow up. Later age at onset and typical hypsarrhythmia on EEG were associated with good sustained response to valproate while a history of delayed cry at birth was associated with partial or poor response. Sixty two patients who responded poorly to or relapsed on valproate were put on hormonal treatment in addition. Of these 36 (58.1%) had a good response but 11 later relapsed after stopping treatment and two were lost to follow up. Valproate may have a role in treatment of West syndrome in a selected group of patients.

  15. West Syndrome: Response to valproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi eChandra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Management of West syndrome is unsatisfactory. In our clinic we observed that a significant proportion of patients respond to usual dose of valproate. Objective: To prospectively assess the efficacy of valproate in controlling infantile spasms in West syndromeMethods: Consecutive patients presenting with West syndrome to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic or general OPD were enrolled for study. Those who were not on any treatment were given valproate in a dose of 30 mg/kg/day while awaiting investigations. Patients were followed up every 2 weeks. Predefined criteria for definition of West syndrome and response were used. Those showing partial/poor response or relapse on valproate were given hormonal therapy.Results: One hundred children with West syndrome were enrolled. Ninety one children were started on valproate. Of these 36 (39.5% showed a good response, but 7 later relapsed while on same dose of valproate and 3 were lost to follow up. Later age at onset and typical hypsarrythmia on EEG were associated with good sustained response to valproate while a history of delayed cry at birth was associated with partial or poor response. Sixty two patients who responded poorly to or relapsed on valproate were put on hormonal treatment in addition. Of these 36 (58.1% had a good response but 11 later relapsed after stopping treatment and 2 were lost to follow up. Conclusions: Valproate may have a role in treatment of West syndrome in a selected group of patients.

  16. Complex responses to alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip analysis, we previously found that, upon exposure to the simple alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate, the transcript levels for about one third of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome (∼2,000 transcripts) are induced or repressed during the first hour or two after exposure. In order to determine whether the responsiveness of these genes has any relevance to the protection of cells against alkylating agents we have undertaken several follow-up studies. First, we explored the specificity of this global transcriptional response to MMS by measuring the global response of S. cerevisiae to a broad range of agents that are known to induce DNA damage. We found that each agent produced a very different mRNA transcript profile, even though the exposure doses produced similar levels of toxicity. We also found that the selection of genes that respond to MMS is highly dependent upon what cell cycle phase the cells are in at the time of exposure. Computational clustering analysis of the dataset derived from a large number of exposures identified several promoter motifs that are likely to control some of the regulons that comprise this large set of genes that are responsive to DNA damaging agents. However, it should be noted that these agents damage cellular components other than DNA, and that the responsiveness of each gene need not be in response to DNA damage per se. We have also begun to study the response of other organisms to alkylating agents, and these include E. coli, cultured mouse and human cells, and mice. Finally, we have developed a high throughput phenotypic screening method to interrogate the role of all non-essential S. cerevisiae genes (about 4,800) in protecting S. cerevisiae against the deleterious effects of alkylating agents; we have termed this analysis 'genomic phenotyping'. This study has uncovered a plethora of new pathways that play a role in the recovery of eukaryotic cells after exposure to toxic

  17. responsibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activities of the Zimbabwean theatre are overseen by the Ministry of Sports, Recre- ation and Culture. ..... This fund is meant for Zimbabwean students who are interested in pursuing arts and culture related studies ..... Institute (ITI) and a Korean theatre Director who had declared in his international mes- sage for the day that.

  18. Response

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of Heavy Ion collisions. In particular, the detector features low momentum tracking and vertexing, and comprehensive particle identification capabilities. In a single central heavy ion collision at the LHC, thousands of particles per unit rapidity are produced, making the data volume, track reconstruction and search of rare signals particularly challenging. Data science and machine learning techniques could help to tackle some of the challenges outlined above. In this talk, we will discuss some early attempts to use these techniques for the processing of detector signals and for the physics analysis. We will also highlight the most promising areas for the application of these methods.

  19. Response

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic optimization, among which bio-inspired algorithms, is gaining momentum in areas where more classical optimization algorithms fail to deliver satisfactory results, or simply cannot be directly applied. This presentation will introduce baseline stochastic optimization algorithms, and illustrate their efficiency in different domains, from continuous non-convex problems to combinatorial optimization problem, to problems for which a non-parametric formulation can help exploring unforeseen possible solution spaces.

  20. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Nancy C.

    1974-01-01

    Suggests more stringent use of task analysis in identifying and teaching reading subskills and the use of reinforcement contingencies which make it worthwhile for the child to tolerate frustration when teaching remedial reading to children with low frustration tolerance levels. (TO)

  1. Response

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Starting from a brief historical perspective on scientific discovery, this talk will review some of the theory and open problems of deep learning and describe how to design efficient feedforward and recursive deep learning architectures for applications in the natural sciences. In particular, the focus will be on multiple particle problems at different scales: in biology (e.g. prediction of protein structures), chemistry (e.g. prediction of molecular properties and reactions), and high-energy physics (e.g. detection of exotic particles, jet substructure and tagging, "dark matter and dark knowledge")

  2. Response

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic silicon chips have been developed over the last 30 years, inspired by the design of biological nervous systems and offering an alternative paradigm for computation, with real-time massively parallel operation and potentially large power savings with respect to conventional computing architectures. I will present the general principles with a brief investigation of the design choices that have been explored, and I'll discuss how such hardware has been applied to problems such as classification.

  3. Response spectra in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, A.R.; Paul, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v 2 . Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v 2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)

  4. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  5. Response problems in a vacation panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine A. Vogt; Susan I. Stewart

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates response problems encountered in a panel study of travel behavior. Though the overall response rate to the three-wave panel study was acceptable (over 60%), three types of response problems were encountered: refusal, non-response, and attrition. In a follow-up phone survey, a sample of individuals from each problem response group was questioned...

  6. Towards accurate emergency response behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail

  7. Distributed Dynamic Condition Response Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    We present distributed dynamic condition response structures as a declarative process model inspired by the workflow language employed by our industrial partner and conservatively generalizing labelled event structures. The model adds to event structures the possibility to 1) finitely specify...... repeated, possibly infinite behavior, 2) finitely specify fine-grained acceptance conditions for (possibly infinite) runs based on the notion of responses and 3) distribute events via roles. We give a graphical notation inspired by related work by van der Aalst et al and formalize the execution semantics...... as a labelled transition system. Exploration of the relationship between dynamic condition response structures and traditional models for concurrency, application to more complex scenarios, and further extensions of the model is left to future work....

  8. Delayed response in ipilimumab therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ahmed; Faulhaber, Peter; Phillips, Tycel; Koon, Henry

    2014-03-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a deadly disease with a 5-year survival rate lower than 20%. In 2011, ipilimumab, a fully humanized antibody that binds to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration based on improved survival in a pivotal trial. CTLA4 is a molecule on cytotoxic T-lymphocytes that plays a critical role in attenuating immune responses. Ipilimumab blocks the binding of B7, the ligand of CTLA4, thereby blocking the activation of CTLA4 and sustaining antitumor immune responses. The time course to response can be variable with immunotherapeutics. We report on a patient who experienced a considerable delay before responding to ipilimumab.

  9. Risk, responsibility and political action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov Jensen, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    . It is argued that an application of the Toulmin model is useful for eliciting systematic overall repre-sentations of responsibility and agency in environmental crises such as the mad cow crisis as well as for revealing relationships between social domains such as moral, politics, economics and science......ABSTRACT. This paper presents an argumentative case study of the discursive representation of risk, responsibility and political action in the Spanish media. The study uses a critical discourse analytical approach combined with theories on risk, agency and political communication in the media...... action was transformed into a moral respon-sibility on the part of the national and European politicians, constrained by economic and technical-scientific reality and represented as taking place only in the public sphere. KEY WORDS: CDA, World Risk Society, argumentation, media discourse, argumentation...

  10. Risk, responsibility and political action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov Jensen, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This paper presents an argumentative case study of the discursive representation of risk, responsibility and political action in the Spanish media. The study uses a critical discourse analytical approach combined with theories on risk, agency and political communication in the media....... It is argued that an application of the Toulmin model is useful for eliciting systematic overall repre-sentations of responsibility and agency in environmental crises such as the mad cow crisis as well as for revealing relationships between social domains such as moral, politics, economics and science...... in discourse. Discourse analysis shows that in the Spanish newspaper sample the focus was on the construal of high risk and on the construal of the national Spanish politicians, the EU and the Brit-ish nation as scapegoats. No responsibility was associated with consumers or other individual players. Political...

  11. Nonlocal Response in Plasmonic Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    After a brief overview of nanoplasmonics experiments that defy explanation with classical electrodynamics, we introduce nonlocal response as a main reason for non-classical effects. This concept is first introduced phenomenologically, and afterwards based on the semi-classical hydrodynamic Drude...... model (HDM) that indeed exhibits nonlocal response. In particular, we discuss recent generalizations and extensions of the HDM, to include both convection and diffusion dynamics of the induced charges. This generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model allows for the first time unified semi-classical...... explanations of known experimental phenomena for both monomers and dimers that previously seemed to require microscopic theory. Finally, we turn to Landau damping and discuss the microscopic origin of the size-dependent damping captured by the classical diffusion mechanism in the GNOR model....

  12. Small Business Social Responsibility Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Spence, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Corporate social responsibility communication by small and medium sized enterprises is theorized to form the concept of Small Business Social Responsibility (SBSR) Communication. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that draws on Foucault’s theory of governmentality...... to conceptualization of SBSR communication as we develop a framework which suggests a spectrum of disciplining effects of social responsibility in relation to implicit and explicit CSR. We analyse these from the perspectives of surveillance, examination and normalization. Research limitations...... of conduct and CSR reporting (i.e. CSR as a “regime of truth”, Foucault) and an internally prescribed ethos of a personal philosophy of ethics and norms such as family identity and employee values, concern for local community and legacy of the company (i.e. CSR as personally held values). We contribute...

  13. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental......Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...

  14. Assessing Gravitropic Responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Richard; Cox, Benjamin; Silber, Logan; Sangari, Arash; Assadi, Amir; Masson, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was the first higher organism to have its genome sequenced and is now widely regarded as the model dicot. Like all plants, Arabidopsis develops distinct growth patterns in response to different environmental stimuli. This can be seen in the gravitropic response of roots. Methods to investigate this particular tropism are presented here. First, we describe a high-throughput time-lapse photographic analysis of root growth and curvature response to gravistimulation allowing the quantification of gravitropic kinetics and growth rate at high temporal resolution. Second, we present a protocol that allows a quantitative evaluation of gravitropic sensitivity using a homemade 2D clinostat. Together, these approaches allow an initial comparative analysis of the key phenomena associated with root gravitropism between different genotypes and/or accessions.

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  16. Conditional autonomy and responsible Action: A response to Yusef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    way of making sense of some of the conceptual and pragmatic links between academic freedom and institutional autonomy. Nevertheless Waghid critiques Hall's uncritical treatment of prominent theoretical positions for his claims, which Waghid thinks leaves some of Hall's arguments truncated. This response finds Hall's ...

  17. Response shift en retrospectie. / Response shift in retrospect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; de Meijer, E.; Sprangers, M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between response shift and the concept of "artifact" with reference to W. K. Hofstee's (1986) arguments. The use of retrospective posttests instead of retrospective pretests is rejected, and some empirical approaches for assessing the impact of social desirability and

  18. Regulation of plant stress response by dehydration responsive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by environmental stresses such as dehydration, high salinity, low temperature and biotic pathogen infection. Plant adaptation to these environmental stresses is controlled by cascades of molecular networks. The dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) transcription ...

  19. Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Rachael A; Rose, Noah; Barrett, Rowan; Bernatchez, Louis; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Lasky, Jesse R; Brem, Rachel B; Palumbi, Stephen R; Ralph, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Rapid environmental change currently presents a major threat to global biodiversity and ecosystem functions, and understanding impacts on individual populations is critical to creating reliable predictions and mitigation plans. One emerging tool for this goal is high-throughput sequencing technology, which can now be used to scan the genome for signs of environmental selection in any species and any system. This explosion of data provides a powerful new window into the molecular mechanisms of adaptation, and although there has been some success in using genomic data to predict responses to selection in fields such as agriculture, thus far genomic data are rarely integrated into predictive frameworks of future adaptation in natural populations. Here, we review both theoretical and empirical studies of adaptation to rapid environmental change, focusing on areas where genomic data are poised to contribute to our ability to estimate species and population persistence and adaptation. We advocate for the need to study and model evolutionary response architectures, which integrate spatial information, fitness estimates, and plasticity with genetic architecture. Understanding how these factors contribute to adaptive responses is essential in efforts to predict the responses of species and ecosystems to future environmental change.

  20. Counterconditioned Fear Responses Exhibit Greater Renewal than Extinguished Fear Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…

  1. Response: Critical Realism--Response to Longhofer and Floersch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses key challenges posed by critical realism, proposed by Longhofer and Floersch, as a philosophical underpinning for a science of social work. As a response to Longhofer and Floersch, it is argued that critical realism may be instructive in debates about structural conditions that dictate more inclusive interventions and…

  2. "Responsibility in Mobility": International Students and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ly Thi; Vu, Thao Thi Phuong

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing the educational experience and social connectedness for international students is the responsibility of different involved parties among whom international students themselves and host institutions play a key role. However, the question of how the condition of cross-border mobility has shaped and re-shaped international students'…

  3. The path to corporate responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadek, Simon

    2004-12-01

    Nike's tagline,"Just do it," is an inspirational call to action for the millions who wear the company's athletic gear. But in terms of corporate responsibility, Nike didn't always follow its own advice. In the 1990s, protesters railed against sweatshop conditions at some of its overseas suppliers and made Nike the global poster child for corporate ethical fecklessness. The intense pressure that activists exerted on the athletic apparel giant forced it to take a long, hard look at corporate responsibility--sooner than it might have otherwise. In this article, Simon Zadek, CEO of the UK-based institute AccountAbility, describes the bumpy route Nike has traveled to get to a better ethical place, one that cultivates and champions responsible business practices. Organizations learn in unique ways, Zadek contends, but they inevitably pass through five stages of corporate responsibility, from defensive ("It's not our fault") to compliance ("We'll do only what we have to") to managerial ("It's the business") to strategic ("It gives us a competitive edge") and, finally, to civil ("We need to make sure everybody does it"). He details Nike's arduous trek through these stages-from the company's initial defensive stance, when accusations about working conditions arose, all the way to its engagement today in the international debate about business's role in society and in public policy. As he outlines this evolution, Zadek offers valuable insights to executives grappling with the challenge of managing responsible business practices. Beyond just getting their own houses in order, the author argues, companies need to stay abreast of the public's evolving ideas about corporate roles and responsibilities. Organizations that do both will engage in what he calls"civil learning".

  4. IPCC SRES revisited: a response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Gruebler, A.; Gaffin, S.

    2003-01-01

    This article gives details of the response to the criticism of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) and of some aspects of IPCC assessments. The criticism claims that market exchange rates (MER) were used instead of purchasing power parities (PPP) and that scenarios using Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth in developing regions were flawed. Points raised in the response included that scenarios of GDP growth are typically expressed as MER, that the IPCC scenarios did include PPP-based scenarios, and that long-term emissions are based on more than just economic growth

  5. Electromagnetic responses of relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, C. A. A.; Reis, D. M.

    2018-02-01

    We compute the real and imaginary parts of the electric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities of relativistic electrons from quantum electrodynamics at finite temperatures and densities, for weak fields, neglecting electron-electron interactions. For non-zero temperatures, electromagnetic responses are reduced to one-dimensional integrals computed numerically. For zero temperature, we find analytic expressions for both their real/dispersive and imaginary/absorptive parts. As an application of our results, we obtain the dispersion relation for longitudinal electric plasmons. Present calculations support our recent claim that, at low frequencies and long wavelengths, the system will exhibit simultaneously negative electric and magnetic responses.

  6. Transcompartmental Inflammatory Responses in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plovsing, Ronni R; Berg, Ronan M G; Evans, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Transcompartmental signaling during early inflammation may lead to propagation of disease to other organs. The time course and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We aimed at comparing acute transcompartmental inflammatory responses in humans following...... lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. SETTING ICU SUBJECTS: Healthy male volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Fifteen volunteers (mean age, 23; SD, 2 yr) received Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, 4 ng/kg) IV...... measured. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: IV endotoxin elicited a systemic inflammatory response with a time-dependent increase and peak in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and leukocyte counts (all p

  7. Designing a responsive web site

    OpenAIRE

    Fejzić , Diana

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of smartphones and tablet computers design became a crucial part of web design. For a user, responsive web design enables the best user experience, regardless of whether a user is visiting the site via a mobile phone, a tablet or a computer. This thesis covers the process of planning, designing and responsive web site development, for a fictitious company named “Creative Design d.o.o.”, with the help of web technologies. In the initial part of the thesis, w...

  8. IPCC SRES revisited: a response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Gruebler, A.; Gaffin, S. (and others)

    2003-07-01

    This article gives details of the response to the criticism of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) and of some aspects of IPCC assessments. The criticism claims that market exchange rates (MER) were used instead of purchasing power parities (PPP) and that scenarios using Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth in developing regions were flawed. Points raised in the response included that scenarios of GDP growth are typically expressed as MER, that the IPCC scenarios did include PPP-based scenarios, and that long-term emissions are based on more than just economic growth.

  9. Response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Schiffer, Angélique A; Widdershoven, Jos W

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a promising treatment for a subgroup of patients with advanced congestive heart failure and a prolonged QRS interval. Despite the majority of patients benefiting from CRT, 10-40% of patients do not respond to this treatment and are labeled as nonresponders....... Given that there is a lack of consensus on how to define response to CRT, the purpose of this viewpoint is to discuss currently used definitions and their shortcomings, and to provide recommendations as to how an expansion of the criteria for CRT response may be useful to clinicians....

  10. Predicting response to epigenetic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treppendahl, Marianne B; Kristensen, Lasse S; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Drugs targeting the epigenome are new promising cancer treatment modalities; however, not all patients receive the same benefit from these drugs. In contrast to conventional chemotherapy, responses may take several months after the initiation of treatment to occur. Accordingly, identification...... of good pretreatment predictors of response is of great value. Many clinical parameters and molecular targets have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies with varying results, leaving room for optimization. Here we provide an overview of markers that may predict the efficacy of FDA- and EMA...

  11. The Social Responsibility of Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosdahl, Anders

    One of the main themes in the research program concerns the social responsibility of enterprises. The present working paper discusses this concept from a number of different angles. The working paper is part of process aimed at clarifying what may be meant by social responsibility of enterprises....... In the paper both common sense conceptions, sociological and economic perspectives are indicated. The conclusion is that the research program must take a social and labour market oriented conception as its point of departure and that both rational choice and cultural perspectives should be considered...

  12. Partiality of Responsibility: Ethics in Sustainability Consulting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Earhart, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability, Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) are both highly normative fields of professional practice, framed by various narratives: capitalist versus environmentalist, waste versus respect for the planet, consumerism versus responsibility;

  13. Responses of plants to air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mudd, J. Brian; Kozlowski, T. T

    1975-01-01

    .... KOZLOWSKI Pollution, 1975 ELROY L. RICE. Allelopathy, (Eds.). Fire and Ecosystems, 1974 (Eds.). Responses of Plants to Air Responses of Plants to Air PollutionRESPONSES OF PLANTS TO AIR POLLUTION E...

  14. Tensions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    I engaged with the top management team (TMT) and employees of American Cafes Corporation as an action/intervention researcher in the 20 months immediately following the TMT’s decision to formalize the company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. This led to the establishment...

  15. Causation and International State Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Jankiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work studies causation in the law of international State responsibility. It is submitted that the absence of causation as an element of the internationally wrongful act owes more to the structure of international law, than to the inadequateness of causation as a conceptual and legal construct

  16. Being a potentially responsible party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on CERCLA II- ability for the unlucky potentially responsible parties (PRPs) which is a Draconian form of strict, joint and several liability with limited statutory defenses that in most cases are impossible to establish. CERCLA vigorously employs these legal concepts, stretching a PRP's financial exposure to the limits necessary to meet the enormous financial costs of remediation

  17. A Responsive Cyber Risk Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-19

    Functional Mission Analysis (FMA) is a disciplined way to tease out these linkages and integrate that metadata into our reporting systems and...UNCLASSIFIED - Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited AIR FORCE CYBERWORX REPORT 16-003: A RESPONSIVE CYBER RISK...facilitated design thinking sessions that bring stakeholders , industry and academic experts together to develop solutions to hard problems. These

  18. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballet, Jerome [C3ED Centre of Economics and Ethics for Environment and Development, UVSQ, University of Versailles, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Bazin, Damien [EMAFI Macroeconomics and International Finance Research Centre at University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, 28, avenue Valrose, BP 2135, 06103 Nice (France); Lioui, Abraham [Department of Economics, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Touahri, David [LEST Institute of Labor Econmics and Industrial Sociology and Mediterranean University Aix-Marseille II, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-15

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Przychodzeń

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to is to provide insights on implementing corporate social responsibility for sustainability (CSRS concept and show how it differs from basic corporate social responsibility (CSR. Methodology: The paper discusses major issues with references to existing literature and real business cases from S&P500 consumer discretionary sector. Findings: The main fi nding of this paper is that CSRS could provide the company with a competitive advantage as a growing number of consumers become more sustainable conscious. It could also help to overcome the increasing consumers’ skepticism towards corporate social responsibility practices. Finally, it can also be seen as a step forward in defi ning what types of corporate activities are associated with desirable social and environmental gains. Research limitations: Our sample was restricted to the U.S. fi rms from the consumer discretionary sector. Therefore, conclusions should not be generalized to other markets. Our study is based on the analysis of environmental and social responsibility statements and assumes that they accurately represent corporate commitment in majority of the cases. Practical implications: CSRS offers corporations the opportunity to use their unique skills, culture, values, resources, and management capabilities to lead social progress by making sustainability part of its internal corporate logic. Originality: The paper raises the importance of the different conditions necessary for making sustainable development concept an important part of corporate strategy.

  20. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  2. SICOEM: emergency response data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Villota, C.; Francia, L.

    1993-01-01

    The main characteristics of the SICOEM emergency response system are: -direct electronic redundant transmission of certain operational parameters and plant status informations from the plant process computer to a computer at the Regulatory Body site, - the system will be used in emergency situations, -SICOEM is not considered as a safety class system. 1 fig

  3. SICOEM: emergency response data system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Villota, C.; Francia, L. (UNESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The main characteristics of the SICOEM emergency response system are: -direct electronic redundant transmission of certain operational parameters and plant status informations from the plant process computer to a computer at the Regulatory Body site, - the system will be used in emergency situations, -SICOEM is not considered as a safety class system. 1 fig.

  4. Responsibilities in Studying Postmodern Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Sees traditional modernist family sociology as oppressive and reactionary. To examine responsibilities of those who study postmodern family life, explores recent material with regard to theoretical, methodological, and policy-related issues. Links sociological practice, everyday practice, and policy formation. Argues that family professionals must…

  5. Vibration response of misaligned rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tejas H.; Darpe, Ashish K.

    2009-08-01

    Misalignment is one of the common faults observed in rotors. Effect of misalignment on vibration response of coupled rotors is investigated in the present study. The coupled rotor system is modelled using Timoshenko beam elements with all six dof. An experimental approach is proposed for the first time for determination of magnitude and harmonic nature of the misalignment excitation. Misalignment effect at coupling location of rotor FE model is simulated using nodal force vector. The force vector is found using misalignment coupling stiffness matrix, derived from experimental data and applied misalignment between the two rotors. Steady-state vibration response is studied for sub-critical speeds. Effect of the types of misalignment (parallel and angular) on the vibration behaviour of the coupled rotor is examined. Along with lateral vibrations, axial and torsional vibrations are also investigated and nature of the vibration response is also examined. It has been found that the misalignment couples vibrations in bending, longitudinal and torsional modes. Some diagnostic features in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of torsional and longitudinal response related to parallel and angular misalignment have been revealed. Full spectra and orbit plots are effectively used to reveal the unique nature of misalignment fault leading to reliable misalignment diagnostic information, not clearly brought out by earlier studies.

  6. Response to David Temperley's Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Thomson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The author responds to points raised in David Temperley’s commentary, which appeared in Vol. 1, No. 2 of Empirical Musicology Review. The response includes a discussion of strengths and limitations of atemporal models of musical perception, with particular attention to presentations such as those of Carol Krumhansl and Fred Lerdahl.

  7. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Case, Eldon D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  8. Speaking of Corporate Social Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, H.; Marquis, C.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Li Sun, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the language spoken by corporate decision makers influences their firms’ social responsibility and sustainability practices. Linguists suggest that obligatory future-time-reference (FTR) in a language reduces the psychological importance of the future. Prior research has shown that

  9. Parenting: Responsibilities, Risks and Respect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Professor Carol Vincent gets the 2012 Professorial Lecture series underway with a thought provoking talk drawing on research projects conducted over the last twelve years. The lecture will explore factors identified in current policy, media, and other social and political forums as the risks and responsibilities of contemporary parenting, with a…

  10. Plant responses to multiple herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yehua

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores whether aphid-infestation interferes with the plant response to chewing herbivores and whether this impacts performance and behaviour of individual chewing insect herbivores and their natural enemies, as well as the entire insect community. I investigated this using three wild

  11. Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, James F.; Maynard, William S.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the possible implications of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for employee expectations and satisfactions. Specifically, interest centered on the question of how perceptions of an organization's involvement in the resolution of current societal problems might relate to members' expectations of equitable job rewards and…

  12. Information Science and Responsive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive evaluation builds upon the methods of informal evaluation in disciplined ways: getting personally acquainted with the evaluand, observation of activities, interviewing people who are in different ways familiar with the evaluand, searching documents that reveal what happened in the past or somewhere else. It calls for sustained effort to…

  13. Moral Responsibility and Computer Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Batya

    Noting a recent increase in the number of cases of computer crime and computer piracy, this paper takes up the question, "How can understanding the social context of computing help us--as parents, educators, and members of government and industry--to educate young people to become morally responsible members of an electronic information…

  14. Author's Response to Peer Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to peer commentary on his article entitled "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology." The author is pleased that most of them share some of his concerns about the lack of progress in the teaching of psychology over the last 50 years, and he welcomes the fact that they then go on to raise…

  15. Rights & Responsibilities. Personnel Management Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gale; And Others

    This module on rights and responsibilities is intended to introduce the hospitality manager or supervisor to sound personnel management practices that comply with the law. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  16. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, Jerome; Bazin, Damien; Lioui, Abraham; Touahri, David

    2007-01-01

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  17. Globalisation, Responsibility and Virtual Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    The intersection of globalisation and information technology influences ethical positions and notions of responsibility within businesses and in distance education for school students. As the spatial and temporal distance between student and teacher increases, and is mediated by computers, there have been changes to the ways in which individuals…

  18. Outplacement and corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a response to the following papers: "Ethical Marketing," by P.E. Murphy, G.R. Laczniak, N.E. Bowie, and T.A. Klein, "Marketing Ethics: Cases and Readings," edited by P.E. Murphy and G.R. Laczniak, "Advertising Ethics" by E.H. Spence and B. van Heekeren, and "Corporate Social

  19. Multinationals and corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to shed some more light on the current debate related to corporate social responsibility (CSR), specifically considering multinational enterprises (MNEs) and the complexities they face when dealing with international issues and a range of stakeholders. It discusses notions of CSR in

  20. Motives for corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Mazereeuw V/d Duijn Schouten, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we analyze the motives of executives to take responsibility for the labor, environmental and social aspects of their business. We distinguish three motives: one extrinsic (financial) and two intrinsic (ethical and altruistic) motives and empirically investigate the influences of

  1. The Future of Humanitarian Response

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    tionally, disaster affected communities are increasingly turning to new technologies to articulate their own needs ... 5 E- transfers refer to means of cash transfer that rely on digital payment systems. 6 See the Better than Cash ..... Also, beneficiaries may be customers before and after a humanitarian response, if transfers are ...

  2. Electric response in superfluid helium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chagovets, Tymofiy

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 488, May (2016), s. 62-66 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-03806P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : superfluid helium * electric response * second sound * ions in He II Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2016

  3. Making Responsible Academic Ethical Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles H.

    1996-01-01

    Sound ethical decisions depend on clear problem definition, careful review of alternatives, consideration of consequences, and thoughtful application of relevant principles of responsibility. Often they also require a willingness to receive corrective insight and to check judgments with moral intuitions. Higher education has a special…

  4. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility.

  5. The Glocalization of Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gond, Jean-Pascal; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the institutional work that underlies the diffusion of responsible investment (RI) and enhances its adaptation to local settings. Building on institutional theory and actor–network theory, we advance the concept of contextualization work to describe the institutional work...... of contextualization work can account for local forms of a global concept and the uneven pattern of its diffusion....

  6. DRIVING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    henk

    legislation, the notion of having a social and ethics committee – or a CSR committee, as they are generally referred to – is ... financial year; and (d) one point for every individual who at the end of the financial year is known by the .... necessary for the performance of the committee's responsibilities.17 The committee is further ...

  7. Partnerships for corporate social responsability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de T.J.N.M. (Theo)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise the extent to which partnerships with non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are a necessity for successful efforts of businesses in the area of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The main findings are based on an analysis of existing literature on

  8. Dose response relationship and Alara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1986-09-01

    In this paper, it will be shown how dose-response relationships allow to give quantitative figures for the detriment of irradiation. At this stage, the detriment is expressed directly as a certain number of health effects, whose valuation is not dealt with here. The present tools for quantifying, their weaknesses and their strenghts, and their scientific basis will be developed

  9. Plant response to butterfly eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griese, Eddie; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika; Fatouros, Nina E.

    2017-01-01

    Plants employ various defences killing the insect attacker in an early stage. Oviposition by cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.) on brassicaceous plants, including Brassica nigra, induces a hypersensitive response (HR) - like leaf necrosis promoting desiccation of eggs. To gain a deeper insight

  10. Masculinities in Dialogue: A Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This response to the articles by Diana Wallace and Samantha Pinto seeks to locate the negotiation of gendered identities in the classroom within the larger study of the dialogic relations between texts, teachers, and students. Teaching, it proposes, is not a second-order derivative of scholarship, but a cultural form in its own right. The article…

  11. Responsible investing in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.

    2009-01-01

    Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature

  12. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  13. The Social Responsibility of Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosdahl, Anders

    More than 20 per cent of the Danish working age population is provided for by some form of public income transfer. The goal of the present government is that enterprises should employ more of these persons: Enterprises should become more socially responsible. The paper analyses enterprises...

  14. Responsive media in HTML5

    CERN Document Server

    Libby, Alex

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web designer with a good understanding of CSS, jQuery, and HTML, but new to creating responsive sites, then this book is for you. The prerequisite is a good understanding of CSS and HTML; the demos will suit those who have some prior knowledge of Less CSS, WordPress, or Bootstrap.

  15. Responsibility in EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Modern food governance is increasingly hybrid, involving not only government, but also industry and civil society actors. This book analyzes the unfolding interplay between public and private actors in global and local food governance. How are responsibilities and risks allocated in hybrid

  16. Astrocyte immune responses in epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, Eleonora; Ravizza, Teresa; Zurolo, Emanuele; Vezzani, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes, the major glial cell type of the central nervous system (CNS), are known to play a major role in the regulation of the immune/inflammatory response in several human CNS diseases. In epilepsy-associated pathologies, the presence of astrogliosis has stimulated extensive research focused on

  17. Responsibility is More than Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the notion of responsibility and argues that by adopting a broader understanding as going beyond accountability will shift our focus from regulatory to negotiated governance. Negotiated governance emphasizes the origin of rules and regulations and their contestation...

  18. Explanation of earthquake response spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a set of five slides explaining how earthquake response spectra are derived from strong-motion records and simple models of structures and their purpose within seismic design and assessment. It dates from about 2002 and I have used it in various introductory lectures on engineering seismology.

  19. Fast response liquid crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yung-Hsun

    Liquid crystal (LC) has been widely used for displays, spatial light modulators, variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and other tunable photonic devices. The response time of these devices is mainly determined by the employed liquid crystal material. The response time of a LC device depends on the visco-elastic coefficient (gamma1/K11), LC cell gap (d), and applied voltage. Hence, low visco-elastic coefficient LC materials and thinner cell gap are favorable for reducing the response time. However, low visco-elastic coefficient LCs are usually associated with a low birefringence because of shorter molecular conjugation. For display applications, such as LCD TVs, low birefringence (Deltancommunications at 1550 nm, low birefringence requires to a thick cell gap which, in turn, increases the response time. How to obtain fast response for the LC devices is a fundamentally important and technically challenging task. In this dissertation, we investigate several methods to improve liquid crystal response time, for examples, using dual-frequency liquid crystals, polymer stabilized liquid crystals, and sheared polymer network liquid crystals. We discover a new class of material, denoted as sheared polymer network liquid crystal (SPNLC) which exhibits a submillisecond response time. Moreover, this response time is insensitive to the LC cell gap. This is the first LC device exhibiting such an interesting property. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the motivation and background of this dissertation. From chapter 3 to chapter 6, dual-frequency liquid crystals and polymer network methods are demonstrated as examples for the variable optical attenuators. Variable optical attenuator (VOA) is a key component in optical communications. Especially, the sheared PNLC VOA shows the best result; its dynamic range reaches 43 dB while the response time is in the submillisecond range at 1550 nm wavelength, which is 50 times faster than the commercial LC-based VOA. In Chapter 7, we report a new device

  20. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  1. 7 CFR 621.24 - NRCS responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management Assistance § 621.24 NRCS responsibility. NRCS is responsible for providing leadership for scheduling and implementing the...

  2. Radiological terrorism and Australia's response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, D.

    2003-01-01

    A terrorist attack in Australia involving dispersal of radioactive material is different from conventional terrorist attacks involving explosives. The trauma experienced by victims during an explosive incident includes cuts, broken limbs, burns and shock. When an explosive device involving radioactive materials is involved, there are a number of additional characteristics including the contamination of victims and the surrounding area and the potential requirement for ongoing monitoring and decontamination. Response actions may require additional complex emergency response measures including immediate protective actions to protect those potentially exposed to contamination, mass casualty care, and public and mental health. There are concerns that terrorist organizations are showing increasing interest in acquiring radiological material that could be used with explosive. A dirty bomb or technically known as a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a device designed to spread radioactive contamination over a wide area and pose a health and safety threat to those within the contaminated area. The radioactive material could be in the form of a large chunk of material, fine powder, a liquid mist, or a gas. The material may also be spread in other ways, such as by simply emptying a container over the desired area. As RDD's do not require large amounts of explosives, there is unlikely to be a large numbers of casualties, however the areas contaminated by the radiological material may cause immediate and long term health risks to those exposed. An RDD is a weapon of Mass Disruption rather than destruction. While the likelihood of RDD's being employed by terrorist in Australia is still considered remote, Australia's emergency response organizations are developing plans to ensure a rapid and comprehensive response occurs should such an event occur in this country, The presentation will outline Australia's response arrangements at the local/state level and the type of federal

  3. Copepod Response Behavior in Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizan, Daniel

    The objective of this thesis is to determine copepod response to turbulence generated by obstacles in cross flow. Mainly, flow and copepod response downstream a square fractal grid is examined but experiments downstream a cylinder provides comparison. This is done by simultaneously measuring the copepods position and velocity using 3D-PTV in a measurement volume and measuring the two dimensional three component velocity vectors of the flow using stereo PIV. These measurements are done in a way that does not elicit copepod response. Tomographic PIV is done downstream the square fractal grid without copepods to gain volumetric velocity knowledge of the flow in the measurement volume. Copepods are known to execute sudden high speed jumps (or escapes) in response to sensed hydrodynamic signals. The fractal grid was shown to elicit copepod escape, specifically directly downstream with escape frequency decreasing further downstream where turbulence levels were much lower. It was found that at a slower freestream speed copepods exhibited jumps not in reaction to flow disturbances but to reorient themselves (cruise swimming). There was almost no copepod response in the wake of a cylinder, but copepods again exhibited cruise swimming behavior at a slower freestream speed. In regions with high maximum principal strain rate (MPSR) downstream of the fractal grid, copepods were observed to exhibit multiple escapes. Moreover, copepods were observed to jump towards regions of lower turbulence and against the freestream direction. From stereo PIV, instantaneous 2D MPSR values of less than 3s -1 were shown to create escape in 60% of copepod escapes analyzed. Finally, it was found that on average larger MPSR resulted in larger jumps from copepods.

  4. Coordinating International Response to Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic disease, natural disasters and terrorism can affect thousands of people in a relatively short period of time anywhere in the world. Our recent international experience with hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis and infectious diseases (AIDS, TB and highly pathogenic avian influenza) show us that we must respond with a coordinated approach or we will fail the very people we intend to help. Nations from around the world are often eager to send assistance to the site of a disaster, but coordinating the incoming aid is more often flawed and imprecise than it must be in order to save lives and mitigate suffering. How can any one country, suffering from a horrendous calamity coordinate the incoming aid from around the world? Can any one agency hope to coordinate the myriad nation's response let alone that of the hundreds of non-governmental organizations? Currently, the answer is sadly, no. The purpose of this presentation is not to recommend one over the many international bodies which claim to oversee humanitarian assistance; the purpose of this presentation is to discuss the elements of only one aspect of the overall response effort: public health and medical response coordination. Public health response is of course different than a purely medical response. Traditionally, in a natural disaster, immediate public health concerns center around water, sewerage/waste disposal, potential for disease outbreaks, etc, whereas medical response concentrates on triage, saving those who can be saved, patching up the injured, and to a lesser extent, primary care to the survivors. In order to avoid political controversy, this presentation will use the example of Hurricane Iniki in Hawaii, September 1992, to illustrate key concepts. The State of Hawaii is no stranger to natural disasters. Their emergency response mechanisms are well honed, exercised and quite capable. However, the local community leaders on Kauai Island went thru each of the following phases before they

  5. A More Rapid, Rapid Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Justin; Slamon, Nicholas B

    2016-09-01

    Critical care physicians' standard for arrival to a rapid response team activation is 10 minutes or less at this institution. This study proposes that a FaceTime (Apple, Cupertino, CA) video call between the staff at the bedside and the critical care physician will allow the implementation of potentially life-saving therapies earlier than the current average response (4.5 min). Prospective cohort study. Freestanding, tertiary-care children's hospital. Pediatric patients ages 0-17. Six units were chosen as matched pairs. In the telemedicine units, after notification of an rapid response team, the critical care intensivist established a FaceTime video call with the nurse at the bedside and gathered history, visually assessed the patient, and suggested interventions. Simultaneously, the rapid response nurse, respiratory therapist, and fellow were dispatched to respond to the bedside. After the video call, the intensivist also reported to the bedside. The control units followed the standard rapid response team protocol: the intensivist physically responded to the bedside. Differences in response time, number of interventions, Pediatric Early Warning System scores, and disposition were measured, and the PICU course of those transferred was evaluated. The telemedicine group's average time to establish FaceTime interface was 2.6 minutes and arrival at bedside was 3.7 minutes. The control group average arrival time was 3.6 minutes. The difference between FaceTime interface and physical arrival in the control group was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Physical arrival times between the telemedicine and control groups remained consistent. Fifty-eight percent of the telemedicine patients and 73% of the control patients were admitted to the PICU (p = 0.13). Of patients transferred to the PICU, there was no difference in rate of intubation, initiation of bilevel positive airway pressure, central line placement, or vasopressors. The study group averaged 1.4 interventions

  6. Excessive Response-Repetition Costs under Task Switching: How Response Inhibition Amplifies Response Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyb, Kai Robin; Hubner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The size of response-repetition (RR) costs, which are usually observed on task-switch trials, strongly varies between conditions with univalent and bivalent stimuli. To test whether top-down or bottom-up processes can account for this effect, we assessed in Experiment 1 baselines for univalent and bivalent stimulus conditions (i.e., for stimuli…

  7. Responsible Investment: Taxes and Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutinen Reijo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxes have become an issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR, but the role of taxation is to some extent an ambiguous and controversial issue in the CSR framework. Similarly, another unclear question is what role investors who are committed to sustainable and responsible investment (SRI see taxes as having on their environmental, social, and governance (ESG agenda. Corporate taxes have an inverse relationship with the return of the investors: taxes paid directly affect what is left on the bottom line, reducing the return of investors. However, investors are now more aware of tax-related risks, which can include different forms of reputation risk. Corporate tax planning may increase the returns, but those increased returns are riskier. This study focuses particularly on the relationship between SRI and taxation. We find that tax matters are considered to be on the ESG agenda, but their role and significance in the ESG analysis is unclear.

  8. Responsibility without Blame for Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Drug use and drug addiction are severely stigmatised around the world. Marc Lewis does not frame his learning model of addiction as a choice model out of concern that to do so further encourages stigma and blame. Yet the evidence in support of a choice model is increasingly strong as well as consonant with core elements of his learning model. I offer a responsibility without blame framework that derives from reflection on forms of clinical practice that support change and recovery in patients who cause harm to themselves and others. This framework can be used to interrogate our own attitudes and responses, so that we can better see how to acknowledge the truth about choice and agency in addiction, while avoiding stigma and blame, and instead maintaining care and compassion alongside a commitment to working for social justice and good.

  9. Local Responsiveness in Distant Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Multinational corporations face the challenge of balancing global integration and local responsiveness. Localization strategies have been much debated in the literature, and scholars have suggested the 1980s as a watershed moment leading to the development of distinctly transnational companies...... sensitive to both global and local demands. The gramophone industry before WWI is one of the earliest examples of a trade balancing global integration and local responsiveness, already facing many of the challenges typically attributed to the global business of the late twentieth century. In focusing...... on the Indian market before WWI, this article traces the competition between different Western gramophone companies and their business strategies for this economically attractive market with institutional voids and rising Indian nationalism. It addresses the specificity of the gramophone and music industry...

  10. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  12. Radiogenomics and radiotherapy response modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Naqa, Issam; Kerns, Sarah L.; Coates, James; Luo, Yi; Speers, Corey; West, Catharine M. L.; Rosenstein, Barry S.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2017-08-01

    Advances in patient-specific information and biotechnology have contributed to a new era of computational medicine. Radiogenomics has emerged as a new field that investigates the role of genetics in treatment response to radiation therapy. Radiation oncology is currently attempting to embrace these recent advances and add to its rich history by maintaining its prominent role as a quantitative leader in oncologic response modeling. Here, we provide an overview of radiogenomics starting with genotyping, data aggregation, and application of different modeling approaches based on modifying traditional radiobiological methods or application of advanced machine learning techniques. We highlight the current status and potential for this new field to reshape the landscape of outcome modeling in radiotherapy and drive future advances in computational oncology.

  13. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  14. Organizational responses to institutional contradictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Jonasson, Charlotte

    This paper examines the role of intraorganizational group and political processes in shaping the institutional forms that emerge in heterogeneous fields. We argue that while the specific institutional oppositions of heterogeneous fields compel organizational changes, the institutional forms...... that emerge in such fields cannot easily be predicted. They are effects of indeterminate social processes of regularizations and breakings of co-existing logics. We illuminate the under-explored role of group strategies in moderating organizational response to conflicts in institutional prescriptions....... Moreover, we argue that the boundary between practices in which organizational institutions change and are maintained are blurred. Hence, recruitment practices, which often are understood as carrying an institutional logic into an organization by being adopted in response to a new demand, may lead...

  15. Managing an oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, W.F.; Gorell, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    In the oil spill response business everything starts with a plan. When planning is set at only middle and top management levels before being chiseled into corporate marble, the result is all too often a plan for failure. For any chance at success, the plan must make sense to, and solve the problems of, the people at the ''business'' end of the business. In the case of Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), that means highly trained responders are put at sea or along coastlines to remove oil from the water, or to deflect oil away from environmentally sensitive areas. They are fortunate in MSRC, and especially in the Gulf Coast Region, to have on their staff, some of the most knowledgeable and experienced oil spill responders in the world. The company relies on them to help build their plans, and to poke holes wherever their plans are inconsistent with getting the job done right

  16. Inflammatory Response During Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joaquim B; Soares, Alexandre A S M; Sposito, Andrei C

    2018-01-01

    The occlusion of a coronary artery by a thrombus generated on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque has been pursued in the last decades as a determining event for the clinical outcome after myocardial infarction (MI). Yet, MI causes a cell death wave front, which triggers an inflammatory response to clear cellular debris, and which in excess can double the myocardial lesion and influence the clinical prognosis in the short and long term. Accordingly, proper, timely regulated inflammatory response has now been considered a second pivotal player in cardiac recovery after MI justifying the search for pharmacological strategies to modulate inflammatory effectors. This chapter reviews the key events and the main effectors of inflammation after myocardial ischemic insult, as well as the contribution of this phenomenon to the progression of atherosclerosis. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thiamine– Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Motavaselian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiamine Responsive megaloblastic anemia in DIDMOA (Wolfram syndrome has an autosomal- recessive mode of inheritance . Megaloblastic anemia and sideroblastic anemia is accompanied by diabetes insipidus (DI, diabetes mellitus (DM ,optic atrophy (OA and deafness (D. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia are also present. We report a 7 month old girl with congenital macrocytic anemia; a rare clinical feature of Wolfram,s syndrome with increased plasma levels of blood glucose, both of which dramatically responded to administration of thiamine in large doses . The patient also had neurosensorial deafness, but no improvement was observed in the deafness. We presented the case because thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia is a rare clinical presentation of Wolfram syndrome and after institution of treatment with thiamine, the anemia and hyperglycemia returned to normal.

  18. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Future power system is expected to be characterized by increased penetration of intermittent sources. Random and rapid fluctuations in demands together with intermittency in generation impose new challenges for power balancing in the existing system. Conventional techniques of balancing by large...... central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  19. Irrepressible, truncated Auxin Response Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Krogan, Naden T.; Marcos, Danielle; Caragea, Adriana E.; Berleth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The molecularly well-characterized auxin signal transduction pathway involves two evolutionarily conserved families interacting through their C-terminal domains III and IV: the Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) and their repressors the Aux/IAAs, to control auxin-responsive genes, among them genes involved in auxin transport.1,2 We have developed a new genetic tool to study ARF function. Using MONOPTEROS (MP)/ARF5, we have generated a truncated version of MP (MPΔ),3 which has lost the target domains for repression by Aux/IAA proteins. Besides exploring genetic interactions between MP and Aux/IAAs, we used this construct to trace MP’s role in vascular patterning, a previously characterized auxin dependent process.4,5 Here we summarize examples of naturally occurring truncated ARFs and summarize potential applications of truncated ARFs as analytical tools. PMID:22827953

  20. Responsibility without Blame for Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Drug use and drug addiction are severely stigmatised around the world. Marc Lewis does not frame his learning model of addiction as a choice model out of concern that to do so further encourages stigma and blame. Yet the evidence in support of a choice model is increasingly strong as well as consonant with core elements of his learning model. I offer a responsibility without blame framework that derives from reflection on forms of clinical practice that support change and recovery in patients...

  1. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinical trial, atopy

  2. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh,Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  3. Bronchial thermoplasty: activations predict response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, David; Sha, Joy; Ing, Alvin; Fielding, David; Thien, Francis; Plummer, Virginia

    2017-07-04

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an emerging bronchoscopic intervention for the treatment of severe asthma. The predictive factors for clinical response to BT are unknown. We examined the relationship between the number of radiofrequency activations applied and the treatment response observed. Data were collected from 24 consecutive cases treated at three Australian centres from June 2014 to March 2016. The baseline characteristics were collated along with the activations delivered. The primary response measure was change in the Asthma Control Questionnaire-5 (ACQ-5) score measured at 6 months post BT. The relationship between change in outcome parameters and the number of activations delivered was explored. All patients met the ERS/ATS definition for severe asthma. At 6 months post treatment, mean ACQ-5 improved from 3.3 ± 1.1 to 1.5 ± 1.1, p < 0.001. The minimal clinically significant improvement in ACQ-5 of ≥0.5 was observed in 21 out of 24 patients. The only significant variable that differed between the 21 responders and the three non-responders was the number of activations delivered, with 139 ± 11 activations in the non-responders, compared to 221 ± 45 activations in the responders (p < 0.01). A significant inverse correlation was found between change in ACQ-5 score and the number of activations, r = -0.43 (p < 0.05). The number of activations delivered during BT has a role in determining clinical response to treatment.

  4. Quick response codes in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moidin Shakil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick response (QR code codes are two-dimensional barcodes, which encodes for a large amount of information. QR codes in Orthodontics are an innovative approach in which patient details, radiographic interpretation, and treatment plan can be encoded. Implementing QR code in Orthodontics will save time, reduces paperwork, and minimizes manual efforts in storage and retrieval of patient information during subsequent stages of treatment.

  5. Coordinating Military Response to Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    transportation and communications to logistics management and public safety and security. But effective disaster preparedness requires more than FEMA alone...intended to galvanize action by the federal government; it is also the center of facilitating an all-of-nation approach to emergency preparedness ...encompasses the Caribbean Islands outside of the U.S. territories. I will examine SOUTHCOM’s response to the earthquake in Haiti 2010 to show the lack of

  6. Making Corporate Social Responsibility Operable

    OpenAIRE

    Frere, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This research project investigates the nature of making CSR operable within the financial services industry. It reviews the external context in which firms engage in CSR, their response and how these factors influence internal CSR management and operations. Drawing from a multi-perspective discipline, the research incorporates CSR concepts and theoretical implications from market and non-market motivations and strategic management perspectives of network and institutional theories. Concept...

  7. Immune Response After Measles Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj A.K

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles immunization of 192 under 5 years of age children was undertaken and the overall seroconversion was 76.0%. Seroconversion rate in the age group of 9-12 months was 70.9% and it was 100% after one year. Immune response in malnourished children was more as compared to normal children. There were negligible side reactions after measles vaccination, and this vaccine passed normal potency tests under field conditions.

  8. Extended producer responsibility in oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Ino

    2007-01-01

    I investigate the optimal environmental tax under a policy based on extended producer responsibility (EPR) in oligopoly markets. I introduce the recycling market and explicitly consider how these policies affect the incentive for recycling. I derive the optimal tax rule, which depends on the weighted sum of the markup in the product market and the markdown in the recycling market. In contrast to the existing works that emphasize that the optimal tax rate is lower than the marginal external da...

  9. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  10. ACCOUNTING RESPONSIBILITY FOR BUSINESS EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world today the need for improvement the business management quality assumes significant change in organization and mode of business management. Establishing of appropriate level, structure and authority of business management depends in most cases on the size, number of employees, complexness of technological and business process, market position and other factors. Development of a business requires decentralization of operative functions. The decentralization of a business means the increase of operative activities control of greater number of managers in such a business. An important segment that so far was neither sufficiently applied in the romanian practice, not sufficiently treated is a system of responsibility. One of the aims of this research is also stimulation of more intensive activities on initiating the process of accounting modernisation. First of all, on the improvement and more rational legal accounting regulation and motivation of professional accountants organization for quicker development of contemporary accounting principles and standards in compliance with tendencies of the european environment. The known experiences just point to the necessity of more complex perception of place and role of the management accounting and within it of the system of accounting responsibility in preparing of business plans and buget, in creation of development and investment policy. Therefore, the system of accounting responsibility should eneble monitoring and control of actual operational activities of each part of decentralized business. The process of performance evaluation and accounting responsibility in a descentralized business organization represents a significant element of an internal control system and in that sense the emphasis was put on that fact in this paper.

  11. Socially Responsible investment in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Shkura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years the phenomenon of socially responsible investment (SRI has grown considerably in popularity and there has been in particular a sharp increase in research into its environmental, social and governance (ESG aspects. The process of SRI itself and research into this diverse phenomenon have become widespread particularly in developed countries and essentially supported by international organizations, specialized financial consulting companies, and institutional investors. The issues of theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of SRI in the Ukrainian market have considerable potential for research. The aim of the article is to study theoretical and methodological aspects of SRI as well as define the current state and prospects of socially responsible investment in Ukraine. The article covers the existing differences in the approaches to defining socially responsible investment and social investment, describes their features and proposes a method of classification, as well as clarifying the role of SRI under conditions of sustainable development. The current problems and prospects of SRI development in Ukraine are discussed.

  12. Phenomenology between Pathos and Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Waldenfels

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The author calls phenomenological intentionality, into question while taking it, nevertheless, as a starting point. From the analysis of the meaning of phenomena he goes back to a pathic dimension which precedes them. What happens to us or affects us and to what we respond in different ways cannot be reduced to previous horizons. Between pathos and response, there is an irreducible cleft which constitutes a special sort of time-lag. What happens to us comes is always too early; our responses always come too late. Our experience is never completely up to date. In order to explore this pre-semantic and pre-pragmatic depth of experience we need a sort of responsive reduction, which guides all meaning toward something we respond to. In conclusion, the author evokes some areas in which such a revision of phenomenology shows its effects, namely the genesis of life in bioethics, the historical elaboration of memory and the experience of the Other.  

  13. The Science of Climate Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Sparrow, S.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme events linked with human induced climate change have now been reported around the globe. Among the most troublesome impacts are increased wild fires, failed crop yields, extreme flooding and increase human mortality (Hansen and Cramer, 2015). Many of these impacts are predicted to increase into the future. Non-industrialised communities around the world will be the least capable of adapting, while the industrial communities, who are often responsible for historical carbon emissions, will find adaptation easier. Such a situation lends itself to the issue of responsibility. In order to assess responsibility, it must first be established where the major carbon and methane emissions are originating. It must then be estimated how these emissions project onto localised climate, which is often the primary indicator behind impacts on society. In this study, we address this question using a 25 km regional climate model capable of simulating climate thousands of times under the Weather@home citizen science project. The use of this framework allows us to generate huge data sample sizes, which can be put in the context of very low sample sizes of observational data. We concentrate on the 2003 heat wave over Europe, but show how this method could be applied to less data rich regions, including the Middle East and the Horn of Africa.

  14. [Immune response to influenza vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, I; Corral, J; Arranz, A; Foruria, A; Landa, V; Lejarza, J R; Marijuán, L; Martínez, J M

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigated the level of immunity of the population against three strains of the influenza virus (A Chile/1/83 -A Philippines/2/82 and B URSS/100/83) before and three months after vaccination, and the immune response to whole virus vaccine as compared with fragmented virus vaccine. A high percentage of the population had titers greater than or equal to 1/10 before vaccination for the Chile (54%) and Philippines (65.7%) strains, while titers against the URSS strain were lower (25.4%). There was a definitive increase in antibody titer in the vaccinated population, although it was lower than expected. The overall response to both vaccines, with protecting titers greater than or equal to 1/40 after vaccination was 65.2% for the Chile strain, 74.6% for the Philippines strain, and 15% for the URSS strain. No differences in the overall immune response were found between the groups vaccinated with whole and fragmented virus.

  15. Responsibilities of Companies towards Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monray Marsellus Botha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Central to company law is the promotion of corporate governance. An important question in company law still today is in whose interest the company should be managed. Corporate governance needs to address the entire span of responsibilities to stakeholders of the company such as customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers and the community at large. The promotion of human rights in the application of company law must also take place. This is extremely important given the significant role of enterprises within the social and economic life of the nation. The interests of various stakeholder groups in the context of the corporation as a "social institution" should be enhanced and protected. Because corporations are part of society and the community, like all of us, it is required of them to be socially responsible and have greater accountability to all stakeholders of the company. Although directors must act in the best interests of shareholders collectively they must also consider the interests of other stakeholders. Sustainable relationships with all the relevant stakeholders are thus important. The advancement of social justice is thus important to corporations in that they should take note of the Constitution, labour legislation and company law legislation when social justice issues are dealt with. Employees have become very important stakeholders of companies and their needs should be taken into account in the bigger corporate governance and social responsibility framework.

  16. University crisis and social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Camilo dos Santos Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the repercussion of the recent crisis of the university on its mission and responsibility and, from this reflection, to propose ways for the consolidation of this responsibility. The three main crisis faced by the university  from the middle of the XXth century identified by Boaventura Souza Santos as crisis of hegemony, of legitimacy and institutional, constituted the framework of discussion of the problem of social responsibility of the university. Although true for the universities of the advanced countries, the loss of hegemony in the area of research still does not occur in Brazilian university. To overcome the crisis of legitimacy, the creation of advanced academic and professional training institutions for the cultivation of the intellectual and professional elite of the country, as well as of non university institutions of mass higher education for the cultural and technological formation of the youth is justified. To make possible the access to these institutions by discriminated socioeconomic segments of society, the adoption of the policy of affirmative action in the form of quotas is justified.  The overcoming of the institutional crisis will be achieved when the State respect the specificity of the universities and when the evaluation criteria of her functions be adequate to her specific nature and the titularity of the evaluation belong to the institutions themselves assuring the external evaluation by effective pairs and not by pairs coopted by the State.

  17. Dilational Response of Voided Polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Daniel J.; Cazacu, Oana; Knezevic, Marko

    2017-05-01

    Finite-element (FE) cell model computations have been used to gain insights into the ductile response of porous polycrystals. Generally, the behavior of the matrix is described by a J 2-plasticity model. In this article, we present a new computational approach to FE cell models for porous polycrystals deforming by slip based on crystal plasticity. The cell provides the homogenized dilational response, where the constitutive response of every integration point is based on a single-crystal visco-plasticity law. The calculations are performed for a body-centered cubic polycrystal with random texture. Axisymmetric tensile and compressive loadings are imposed corresponding to the fixed values of the stress triaxiality and to two possible values of the Lode parameter. The resulting numerical yield points are compared with those obtained using a J 2-FE cell and an analytical model. The predictions confirm the combined effects of the mean stress and third-invariant on yielding recently revealed by the analytical model.

  18. NRPB emergency response information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, N.A.; Casey, K.

    1993-01-01

    To enhance emergency response management NRPB has introduced an advanced information handling and map display facility. The NRPB Emergency Response Information System (NERIS) provides a central resource which holds, displays and analyses the available information on an accidental release of radioactivity. The bringing together of the commercial tools of computerised map display and database technology, capable of storing geographically referenced information, provided the initial building blocks for the development of NERIS. The rapid manipulation of the large amounts of data used by NERIS is achieved by the use of complex software on powerful computers and a substantial investment of both staff time and resources. The synthesis of these products with the analysis tools under development by NRPB staff will provide a system which will greatly enhance the organisation's emergency response capability. The need to assess the consequences of an accident and give advice on countermeasure strategies and actions will inevitably place high demands on NRPB staff. NERIS will enable a more complete understanding of the situation to be gained and give staff the time and tools to cope effectively with all exigencies. (Author)

  19. The photodiodes response in beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Helen; Amaral, Ademir; Hazin, Clovis; Melo, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    The response of the photodiodes BPY-12, BPW-34 and SFH-206 is tested for use as beta dosimeters. The results obtained show a dose-response relationships as well as less than 1% of coefficient of variation for the reproducibility of their responses. The photodiode BPY-12 has presented a better response in comparison with the others

  20. Using module analysis for multiple choice responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewe, Eric; Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian

    2016-01-01

    We describe a methodology for carrying out a network analysis of Force Concept Inventory (FCI) responses that aims to identify communities of incorrect responses. This method first treats FCI responses as a bipartite, student X response, network. We then use Locally Adaptive Network Sparsificatio...

  1. STAKEHOLDER PERCEPTION OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Petra F.A. Dilling

    2011-01-01

    As corporate social responsibility receives increased attention by company stakeholders, researchers are also increasingly exploring corporate social responsibility, its causes and implications. However little is known about the perception of corporate social responsibility. This study explores the link between stakeholder perception of corporate social responsibility and its relationship with underlying factors. The findings suggest that age of the corporation, community involvement, and cul...

  2. Universities and Corporate Social Responsibility Performance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    used as the research method while personal interview was used to .... organisations have moral, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities in addition to their ... responsibilities. Explicit corporate social responsibility is about corporate policies with the objective of being responsible for what the society is interested in. Explicit ...

  3. Creating responsible partnerships in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Spitzer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Organisations do not provide sufficient time and effort to seek out companies for partners that would, with the assistance of responsible cooperation, contribute to better quality offers and consequently to increased income and the good reputation of both companies. Responsibilities and ethics is where organizations on bothsides would take on and accept their own norms, tasks, obligations and be aware that in a relationship there is a need to give explanations and justify one’s actions, such partnerships will be long and prosperous. This requires a great deal of knowledge and maturity together with a very important personal characteristic that is care. This study examines whether the creation of long term partnerships through responsible and more personal (friendlyrelations brings the organization to greater success.Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine how important it is for organizations in the tourism industry to build long term relationships, what it should be based on and whether companies are willing to change the current methods of operations.Method: The method of research was an interview with individuals that had a certain position within a tourism company and had contacts with partners and were obligated to see out new ones. A paradigm model was built and the responses analysed.Results: The survey results are encouraging. The interviews showed that respondents were aware that it is necessary to have long term and responsible partnerships. They recognized that in today’s world there is a lack of collaboration that is based on understanding andthat there should be more relations on a personal level. It isrequired that this changes in the future. The participants specifically highlight financial irresponsibility in many companies that destroys collaboration.Organization: With the help of this study, the author attempts to contribute ideas to organizations on how to create solid collaboration with partners, as

  4. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ozan Büyükyılmaz; Yahya Fidan

    2016-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility includes the activities performed by enterprises that going beyond the legitimate expectations and carried out on a voluntary basis to improve the social and environmental well-being. In this study, the concept of corporate social responsibility is examined within the frame of definition and content, social responsibility theories, causes that enterprises are moving to social responsibility activities and the scope of social responsibility. It is intended to...

  5. Radiosensitivity of antibody responses and radioresistant secondary tetanus antitoxin responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, R.; Terres, G.; Cottier, H.; Hess, M.

    1976-01-01

    Primary tetanus antitoxin responses were increasingly repressed in mice when gamma radiation doses of 100 to 400 rads were delivered by whole-body exposure prior to immunization with fluid tetanus toxoid (FTT). Nearly normal secondary antitoxin responses were obtained in mice exposed to 600 rads of gamma radiation 4 days after secondary antigenic stimulation with FTT. A rapid transition from radiosensitivity of the antibody-forming system on days 1 to 3 was followed by relative radioresistance on day 4 after the booster injection of toxoid. Studies on lymphoid cellular kinetics in popliteal lymph nodes after injection of 3 H--thymidine ( 3 H--TdR) and incorporation of 3 H--L-histidine into circulating antitoxin were carried out. Analysis of tritium radioactivity in antigen--antibody precipitates of serums 2 hr after injection of the labeled amino acid revealed maximum incorporation into antibody around day 7 after the booster in nonirradiated controls and about day 12, i.e., 8 days after irradiation, in experimental mice. The shift from radiosensitivity to relative radioresistance was attributed to a marked peak of plasma-cell proliferation in the medulla of lymph nodes on day 3. Many medullary plasma cells survived and continued to proliferate after exposure to radiation. Germinal centers were destroyed by radiation within 1 day. Since antibody formation continued after exposure to radiation and after the loss of germinal centers, this supports the view that germinal-center cells were involved more in the generation of memory cells than in antibody synthesis

  6. Response Predicting LTCC Firing Shrinkage: A Response Surface Analysis Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, Michael; Barner, Gregg; Lopez, Cristie; Duncan, Brent; Zawicki, Larry

    2009-02-25

    The Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is used in a variety of applications including military/space electronics, wireless communication, MEMS, medical and automotive electronics. The use of LTCC is growing due to the low cost of investment, short development time, good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, and flexibility in design integration (3 dimensional (3D) microstructures with cavities are possible)). The dimensional accuracy of the resulting x/y shrinkage of LTCC substrates is responsible for component assembly problems with the tolerance effect that increases in relation to the substrate size. Response Surface Analysis was used to predict product shrinkage based on specific process inputs (metal loading, layer count, lamination pressure, and tape thickness) with the ultimate goal to optimize manufacturing outputs (NC files, stencils, and screens) in achieving the final product design the first time. Three (3) regression models were developed for the DuPont 951 tape system with DuPont 5734 gold metallization based on green tape thickness.

  7. Beta contamination monitor energy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjork, C.W.; Olsher, R.H.

    1998-12-31

    Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration.

  8. Host response in aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Cyelee; Kinane, Denis F

    2014-06-01

    It is critical to understand the underlying host responses in aggressive periodontitis to provide a better appreciation of the risk and susceptibility to this disease. Such knowledge may elucidate the etiology and susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis and directly influence treatment decisions and aid diagnosis. This review is timely in that several widely held tenets are now considered unsupportable, namely the concept that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans is the key pathogen and that chemotactic defects in polymorphonuclear leukocytes are part of the etiopathology. This review also serves to put into context key elements of the host response that may be implicated in the genetic background of aggressive periodontitis. Furthermore, key molecules unique to the host response in aggressive periodontitis may have diagnostic utility and be used in chairside clinical activity tests or as population screening markers. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that the microbial etiology of aggressive periodontitis and the histopathology of this disease are more similar to than different from that of chronic periodontitis. An important therapeutic consideration from the lack of support for A. actinomycetemycomitans as a critical pathogen here is that the widely held belief that tetracycline had a role in aggressive periodontitis therapy is now not supported and that antibiotics such as those used effectively in chronic periodontitis (metronidazole and amoxicillin) are not contraindicated. Furthermore, A. actinomycetemycomitans-related molecules, such as cytolethal distending toxin and leukotoxin, are less likely to have utility as diagnosis agents or as therapeutic targets. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Theory of orbital magnetoelectric response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malashevich, Andrei; Souza, Ivo; Coh, Sinisa; Vanderbilt, David

    2010-01-01

    We extend the recently developed theory of bulk orbital magnetization to finite electric fields, and use it to calculate the orbital magnetoelectric (ME) response of periodic insulators. Working in the independent-particle framework, we find that the finite-field orbital magnetization can be written as a sum of three gauge-invariant contributions, one of which has no counterpart at zero field. The extra contribution is collinear with and explicitly dependent on the electric field. The expression for the orbital magnetization is suitable for first-principles implementations, allowing one to calculate the ME response coefficients by numerical differentiation. Alternatively, perturbation-theory techniques may be used, and for that purpose we derive an expression directly for the linear ME tensor by taking the first field-derivative analytically. Two types of terms are obtained. One, the 'Chern-Simons' term, depends only on the unperturbed occupied orbitals and is purely isotropic. The other, 'Kubo' terms, involve the first-order change in the orbitals and give isotropic as well as anisotropic contributions to the response. In ordinary ME insulators all terms are generally present, while in strong Z 2 topological insulators only the Chern-Simons term is allowed, and is quantized. In order to validate the theory, we have calculated under periodic boundary conditions the linear ME susceptibility for a 3D tight-binding model of an ordinary ME insulator, using both the finite-field and perturbation-theory expressions. The results are in excellent agreement with calculations on bounded samples.

  10. Open forum: Question and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program? Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation)

  11. RESPONSIBILITY FOR ETHICS IN ITC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARES MARIUS DANIEL

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors aim to create a presentation of the triangle morals-ethics-responsibility with an accent on the current globalized society. Business ethics has to disseminate in all the corners of a company, and first of all it has to be understood. Understanding the moral criteria of behaviour in business is important because the new Organizational structures create new complications, related to information flow and information administration inside various workgroups and in the entire organization, for which there are no traditional precedents.

  12. Hexagonal response matrix using symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A response matrix for use in core calculations for nuclear reactors with hexagonal fuel assemblies is presented. It is based on the incoming currents averaged over the half-surface of a hexagonal node by applying symmetry theory. The boundary conditions of the incoming currents on the half-surface of the node are expressed by a complete set of orthogonal vectors which are constructed from symmetrized functions. The expansion coefficients of the functions are determined by the boundary conditions of incoming currents. (author)

  13. Nested Dynamic Condition Response Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    We present an extension of the recently introduced declarative process model Dynamic Condition Response Graphs ( DCR Graphs) to allow nested subgraphs and a new milestone relation between events. The extension was developed during a case study carried out jointly with our industrial partner...... Exformatics, a danish provider of case and workflow management systems. We formalize the semantics by giving first a map from Nested to (flat) DCR Graphs with milestones, and then extending the previously given mapping from DCR Graphs to Buchi-automata to include the milestone relation....

  14. Combating plagiarism: a shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Sujit D

    2010-01-01

    Scientific progress depends on the free dissemination of original thinking and research. With the evidence base formed by publication, investigators develop and implement additional studies, and policy makers propose new laws and regulations. The ramifications of this evidence can affect millions of lives and reallocate considerable resources for programmes or research. As such, it is incumbent on investigators to conduct rigorous research, which precludes engaging in scientific misconduct such as falsification, fabrication and plagiarism. This article addresses the causes and consequences of plagiarism and the processes by which plagiarism is discovered. It concludes by considering the responsibilities of members of the research community in preventing and addressing plagiarism.

  15. Environmental philosophy: response to critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    The following piece is a response to the critiques from Frank, Garson, and Odenbaugh. The issues at stake are: the definition of biodiversity and its normativity, historical fidelity in ecological restoration, naturalism in environmental ethics, and the role of decision theory. The normativity of the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology is defended. Historical fidelity is criticized as an operative goal for ecological restoration. It is pointed out that the analysis requires only minimal assumptions about ethics. Decision theory is presented as a tool, not a domain-limiting necessary requirement for environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First Response to Medical Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manisah Saedon; Sarimah Mahat; Muhamad Nurfalah Karoji; Hasnul Nizam Osman

    2015-01-01

    Accident or medical emergencies, both minor and critical, occurs each day and can happen in any workplace. In any medical emergencies, time is a critical factor because the first person to arrive at the scene of an accident has a key role in the rescue of a victim. With the knowledge of some common medical procedures and emergency actions, this first responder can make a positive contribution to the welfare of the accident victim. In some cases, this contribution can make difference between life and death. Improper response to medical emergencies by an untrained person can result in worsen injuries or death. Therefore, first aids training are necessary to provide the information. (author)

  17. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  18. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  19. Coastal hypoxia responses to remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, W. M.; Testa, J. M.; Conley, D. J.; Gilbert, D.; Hagy, J. D.

    2009-07-01

    The incidence and intensity of hypoxic waters in coastal aquatic ecosystems has been expanding in recent decades coincident with eutrophication of the coastal zone. Because of the negative effects hypoxia has on many organisms, extensive efforts have been made to reduce the size and duration of hypoxia in many coastal waters. Although it has been broadly assumed that reductions in nutrient loading rates would reverse eutrophication and consequently, hypoxia, recent analyses of historical data from European and North American coastal systems suggest little evidence for simple linear response trajectories. We review existing data, analyses, and models that relate variations in the extent and intensity of hypoxia to changes in loading rates for inorganic nutrients and labile organic matter. We also assess existing knowledge of physical and ecological factors regulating oxygen in coastal marine waters and examine a broad range of examples where hypoxia responses to reductions in nutrient (or organic matter) inputs have been documented. Of the 22 systems identified where concurrent time series of loading and O2 were available, half displayed relatively clear and direct recoveries following remediation. We explored in detail 5 well-studied systems that have exhibited complex, non-linear responses to loading, including apparent "regime shifts." A summary of these analyses suggests that O2 conditions improved rapidly and linearly in systems where remediation focused on organic inputs from sewage plants, which were the primary drivers of hypoxia. In larger more open systems where diffuse nutrient loads are more important in fueling O2 depletion and where climatic influences are pronounced, responses to remediation tend to follow non-linear trends that may include hysteresis and time-lags. Improved understanding of hypoxia remediation requires that future studies use comparative approaches and consider multiple regulating factors including: (1) the dominant temporal scales

  20. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand...... in a flexible manner. This paper presents a survey of various aspects of DR including the different types of participants, as well as the underlying challenges and the overall potential of DR when it comes to large-scale implementations. Benefits of DR as reported in the literature for performance metrics...

  1. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  2. Communication, Marketing and Corporate Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Andrade Gabrich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Advertising, which stems from the strategic planning of the company's marketing , integrates the proposal and the corresponding consumer contract to the product or service offered to the market. As part of the contract, advertising and communication strategies and business marketing also undergo fully the principle of information and the principle of good faith in its objective meaning. Therefore, communication strategies, marketing planning and advertising actions of truly citizen and responsible company should be structured legally in order to consider all related duties in good faith.

  3. Radiological emergencies the first response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This national training course about radiological emergencies first answer include: Targets and preparation for emergency response in case of a nuclear or radiological accident. Operations center, action guide for fire fighting, medical coverage, forensic test, first aid, basic instrumentation for radiation, safety equipment, monitoring radiation, gamma rays, personnel exposed protection , radiation exposure rate, injury and illness for radiation, cancer risk, contamination, decontamination and treatment, markers, personnel dosimetry, training, medical and equipment transportation, shielded and tools. Psychological, physical (health and illness), economical (agriculture and industry) and environment impacts. Terrorist attacks, security belts. Support and international agreements (IAEA)

  4. Extreme Response for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic load on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and type and settings of the control system. The characteristic load during operation is normally estimated by statistical extrapolation of a limited number...... of simulated 10min time series of the response according to the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. However, this method assumes that the individual 10min time series and the extracted peaks from the time series are independent. In the present paper is this assumption investigated based on field measurements...

  5. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues.

  6. Otto Hahn achievement and responsibility

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Otto Hahn (1879-1968) was awarded the 1944 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on atomic fission: his work in Berlin in the 1930s and 1940s with Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann led to the discovery that uranium nuclei bombarded by neutrons undergo spontaneous fission, releasing enormous energies. This work, conveyed to England and the US by scientific refugees from Nazi Germany, led to the instigation of the Manhattan Project and the development of the Atomic Bomb. Reviled by many after the war as one of the people responsible for the carnage at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Hahn had already begun to reflect on the social responsibility of scientists for their fundamental discoveries and the subsequent applications of the knowledge they create. Already during the war, Hahn had protested Nazi restrictions on Universities and researchers, and after the War, he became actively involved in efforts to restrict the spread of nuclear weapons. In this volume Klaus Hoffmann discusses Hahn's contributions to science and...

  7. Towards a more responsible press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimur ul Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses Pakistan’s newspapers’ performance with regard to civil society in2003 by using content analysis approach. There is no gainsaying that a strong civil society guaranteesa strong democracy. In Pakistan, spells of military rule have stunted the growth of democracy,adversely affecting civil society. Media too has suffered as a result. Normative theories of media callfor laying down norms and conventions for media. In democracy, all sections of society should berepresented in media. In Pakistan’s case, due to military regimes and quasi democratic governments,combined with the demands of market economy, the media have largely not been able to fulfill thisresponsibility towards society. Social Responsibility demands that the media must fulfill itsresponsibility towards society, while giving a free space to all voices of society. In Pakistan, whethernewspapers played that role in 2003 when civil society had accelerated its campaign to end honorkillings and crimes against women is investigated. The findings show that newspapers did supportcivil society, showing a gradual movement towards a more responsible press.

  8. Responsible marketing for sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Vaso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge associated with the concept of sustainable tourism is its operationalisation and perception as a process to be applied through development plans, projects and ongoing activities of tour operators. The traditional approach to marketing, focused on a limited idea of maximising profit businesses, was not able to respond to a number of social and environmental requirements imposed by the concept of sustainable development. This paper discusses the ways in which marketing could play a more important role in the sustainable development of tourism. This refers to the determination of consumer needs and preferences, the formation of certain products and pricing, product information and advertising to consumers of their benefits in a sustainable manner, as well as adequate distribution channels used by businesses to deliver products to consumers. Environmental and social marketing are now being confirmed as important elements of a much broader marketing perspective. In order to develop tourism with sustainable outcomes, responsible marketing can be crucial. The concept of marketing mix for sustainable tourism was used as a starting point to explore the specific role of responsible marketing in tourism.

  9. Improving Federal Response to Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, Donald A.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Glantz, Michael H.

    1986-03-01

    Severe and widespread drought occurred over a large portion of the United States between 1974 and 1977. Impacts on agriculture and other industries, as well as local water supplies, were substantial. The federal government responded with forty assistance programs administered by sixteen federal agencies. Assistance was provided primarily in the form of loans and grants to people, businesses and governments experiencing hardship caused by drought. The total cost of the program is estimated at $7-8 billion.Federal response to the mid-1970s drought was largely untimely, ineffective and poorly coordinated. Four recommendations are offered that, if implemented, would improve future drought assessment and response efforts: 1) reliable and timely informational products and dissemination plans; 2) improved impact assessment techniques, especially in the agricultural sector, for use by government to identify periods of enhanced risk and to trigger assistance measures; 3) administratively centralized drought declaration procedures that are well publicized and consistently applied; and 4) standby assistance measures that encourage appropriate levels of risk management by producers and that are equitable, consistent and predictable. The development of a national drought plan that incorporates these four items is recommended. Atmospheric scientists have an important role to play in the collection and interpretation of near-real time weather data for use by government decision makers.

  10. ES-2 Dummy Biomechanical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Katie; Abramczyk, Joseph; Berliner, Jeff; Irwin, Annette; Jensen, Jack; Kowsika, Murthy; Mertz, Harold J; Rouhana, Stephen W; Scherer, Risa; Shi, Yibing; Sutterfield, Aleta; Xu, Lan; Tylko, Suzanne; Dalmotas, Dainius

    2002-11-01

    This technical paper presents the results of biomechanical testing conducted on the ES-2 dummy by the Occupant Safety Research Partnership and Transport Canada. The ES-2 is a production dummy, based on the EuroSID-1 dummy, that was modified to further improve testing capabilities as recommended by users of the EuroSID-1 dummy. Biomechanical response data were obtained by completing a series of drop, pendulum, and sled tests that are outlined in the International Organization of Standardization Technical Report 9790 that describes biofidelity requirements for the midsize adult male side impact dummy. A few of the biofidelity tests were conducted on both sides of the dummy to evaluate the symmetry of its responses. Full vehicle crash tests were conducted to verify if the changes in the EuroSID-1, resulting in the ES-2 design, did improve the dummy's testing capability. In addition to the biofidelity testing, the ES-2 dummy repeatability, reproducibility and durability are discussed. Finally, this technical paper will compare the biofidelity ratings of the current adult side impact dummies with the ES-2 dummy, which received an overall dummy biofidelity rating of 4.6.

  11. Oil spills - effects and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicks, B.M.; White, I.C.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of oil spills from offshore industry operates on the United Kingdom continental shelf is reported for the period 1979 to 1988. The properties of North Sea crude oils which determine their fate and effects when spilled onto the surface of the sea are summarized. Examples of oil impacts on specific North Sea habitats and communities are used to illustrate the effect of oil spills and the economic impact on human activities such as recreation, industry and fishing are considered. Since most oil spills will dissipate through natural processes if they remain at sea long enough, the most appropriate response to a spill from a platform in the middle of the sea is often aerial surveillance to monitor the movement and dissipation of the oil. However, if an active response is required, containment and collection of the oil or chemical dispersion are the two main options. In coastal waters, it will be necessary to focus protection efforts on selected sensitive areas of coastline. Once the oil is ashore there are still occasions when the best course of actions is to do nothing as clean-up operations may do more harm than good. If oil removal is feasible and necessary, the methods which are most effective are usually straightforward and require no sophisticated technology. Contingency planning is an essential preparation for all operations to deal with oil spills. (UK)

  12. In vivo shear stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, Stuart

    2011-12-01

    EC (endothelial cell) responses to shear stress generated by vascular perfusion play an important role in circulatory homoeostasis, whereas abnormal responses are implicated in vascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. ECs subjected to high shear stress in vitro alter their morphology, function and gene expression. The molecular basis for mechanotransduction of a shear stress signal, and the identity of the sensing mechanisms, remain unclear with many candidates under investigation. Translating these findings in vivo has proved difficult. The role of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) flow-dependent nitric oxide release in remodelling skeletal muscle microcirculation is established for elevated (activity, dilatation) and reduced (overload, ischaemia) shear stress, although their temporal relationship to angiogenesis varies. It is clear that growth factor levels may offer only a permissive environment, and alteration of receptor levels may be a viable therapeutic target. Angiogenesis in vivo appears to be a graded phenomenon, and capillary regression on withdrawal of stimulus may be rapid. Combinations of physiological angiogenic stimuli appear not to be additive.

  13. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  14. Autophagy in DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Czarny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage response (DDR involves DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, but autophagy is also suggested to play a role in DDR. Autophagy can be activated in response to DNA-damaging agents, but the exact mechanism underlying this activation is not fully understood, although it is suggested that it involves the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1. mTORC1 represses autophagy via phosphorylation of the ULK1/2–Atg13–FIP200 complex thus preventing maturation of pre-autophagosomal structures. When DNA damage occurs, it is recognized by some proteins or their complexes, such as poly(ADPribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1, Mre11–Rad50–Nbs1 (MRN complex or FOXO3, which activate repressors of mTORC1. SQSTM1/p62 is one of the proteins whose levels are regulated via autophagic degradation. Inhibition of autophagy by knockout of FIP200 results in upregulation of SQSTM1/p62, enhanced DNA damage and less efficient damage repair. Mitophagy, one form of autophagy involved in the selective degradation of mitochondria, may also play role in DDR. It degrades abnormal mitochondria and can either repress or activate apoptosis, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. There is a need to clarify the role of autophagy in DDR, as this process may possess several important biomedical applications, involving also cancer therapy.

  15. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  16. Return to joint parental responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierotti, D

    1993-10-01

    Along the frontiers of the former Soviet Union young women die every day because of the serious medical conditions preventing childbearing; they die because they are culturally obligated to reproduce. Such cultural codes led to the death of a 15-year-old girl who was killed by her immigrant father and other relatives because she wanted to live like her peers in the French city of Colmar. A 1992 visit of the author to Catalonia to discuss male reproductive roles made him reevaluate earlier views. Traditional sexist attitudes resulted in the expulsion of pregnant students from a nursing school by a male doctor who blamed them, while male partners were acquitted. Preparation for the conference in Barcelona by reviewing 20 years of work on male sexuality and family planning yielded only a few studies on male responsibility and the changing role of males. The advent of modern contraceptives has weakened male supremacy in Europe except among some immigrant families and religious extremists. Divorce and child custody laws, favoring the mother further, eroded male dominance. Even organizations have been formed to defend male rights. In vitro fertilization was endorsed by American lesbians in an article in 1993 reducing males to sperm donor status. Modern reproductive medical technology seems to have broken all limits; even elderly women can be made to conceive. These extreme examples indicate that the male-female relationships and joint responsibility for raising children in a family should be resuscitated based on equal terms for emotional stability and benefit of parents and progeny.

  17. Responsibilities of NARM Licensing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapert, Allan C.; Bailey, Edgar D.

    1978-01-01

    There are 30 Licensing States of Naturally Occurring and Accelerator-Produced Radioactive Materials (NARM) in the U.S. In these States NARM is licensed in a similar manner as is by-product material in the Agreement States. Each Licensing State has the responsibility to identify and evaluate NARM products including informing other State and Federal radiation control agencies of potential problems encountered during the lifetime of the product. Licensing States have authority to perform on-site inspections of manufacturers, enforce radiation regulations, require compliance with all conditions of the license, and amend or terminate the license for possession and use of NARM. A Licensing State also has the responsibility to accept the recommendation on NARM products evaluated by other Licensing States. To assist States in the evaluation of NARM products the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors developed a report entitled 'Guides for Naturally Occurring and Accelerator-Produced Radioactive Materials (NARM).' The NARM Guides report (HEW Publication (FDA) 77-8025) was published by the Bureau of Radiological Health/FDA in July 1977. The NARM Guides establish uniform criteria for evaluating the manufacture, assembly and distribution of NARM products in the U.S. The Radioactive Materials Reference Manual which is coordinated by BRH/FDA is the medium for communicating NARM information with the radiation control agencies of the 50 States, certain Federal and local agencies. (author)

  18. Responsive Polymers for Crop Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban F. Peteu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines the responsive polymer methods currently in use with their potential application to plant protection and puts forward plant-specific mechanisms as stimuli in newly devised methods for smart release of crop protection agents (CPAs. CPAs include chemicals (fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, biochemicals (antibiotics, RNA-based vaccines for plant viruses, semiochemicals (pheromones, repellents, allomones, microbial pesticides, growth regulators (insect and plant or micronutrients, all with crop protection effects. This appraisal focuses on emerging uses of polymer nano-encapsulated CPAs. Firstly, the most interesting advances in controlled release methods are critically discussed with their advantages and drawbacks. Secondly, several plant-specific stimuli-based smart methods are anticipated for use alongside the polymer nano- or micro-capsules. These new CPA release methods are designed to (i protect plants against infection produced by fungi or bacteria, and (ii apply micro-nutrients when the plants need it the most. Thus, we foresee (i the responsive release of nano- encapsulated bio-insecticides regulated by plant stress enzymes, and (ii the delivery of micro-nutrients synchronized by the nature or intensity of plant root exudates. Such continued advances of nano-scale smart polymer-based CPAs for the protection of crops herald a “small revolution” for the benefit of sustainable agriculture.

  19. Ombuds’ corner: responsibility and reporting

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2011-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Jack* is a new staff member. He joined CERN after having worked successfully in industry, where he had been given considerable responsibility in projects as well as in human resources, despite the fact that he was still young. After a few months, given his expertise, he found himself in charge of part of a project, technically, and also responsible for a few collaborators. That did not present any difficulty for him given his past experience where he was used to handling business in quite an independent way. Also, a high level of respect and ethics had been encouraged by his past employer, which helped him in the interaction with his colleagues. For some tim...

  20. Earthquake response of inelastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulekar, Y.M.; Vaity, K.N.; Reddy, .R.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    The most commonly used method in the seismic analysis of structures is the response spectrum method. For seismic re-evaluation of existing facilities elastic response spectrum method cannot be used directly as large deformation above yield may be observed under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). The plastic deformation, i.e. hysteretic characteristics of various elements of the structure cause dissipation of energy. Hence the values of damping given by the code, which does not account hysteretic energy dissipation cannot be directly used. In this paper, appropriate damping values are evaluated for 5-storey, 10-storey and 15-storey shear beam structures, which deform beyond their yield limit. Linear elastic analysis is performed for the same structures using these damping values and the storey forces are compared with those obtained using inelastic time history analysis. A damping model, which relates ductility of the structure and damping, is developed. Using his damping model, a practical structure is analysed and results are compared with inelastic time history analysis and the comparison is found to be good

  1. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  2. Inflammatory Response in Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar A. Kanak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement therapy for patients with brittle type 1 diabetes as well as refractory chronic pancreatitis. Despite the vast advancements made in this field, challenges still remain in achieving high frequency and long-term successful transplant outcomes. Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of inflammation in islet transplantation and development of strategies to prevent damage to islets from inflammation. The inflammatory response associated with islets has been recognized as the primary cause of early damage to islets and graft loss after transplantation. Details on cell signaling pathways in islets triggered by cytokines and harmful inflammatory events during pancreas procurement, pancreas preservation, islet isolation, and islet infusion are presented. Robust control of pre- and peritransplant islet inflammation could improve posttransplant islet survival and in turn enhance the benefits of islet cell transplantation for patients who are insulin dependent. We discuss several potent anti-inflammatory strategies that show promise for improving islet engraftment. Further understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response will provide the basis for developing potent therapeutic strategies for enhancing the quality and success of islet transplantation.

  3. Glucagon and glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2010-01-01

    The glucagon gene is expressed not only in the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets but also in the endocrine cells of the intestinal epithelium (so-called L-cells), and in certain neurons of the brain stem. Whereas in the pancreas, glucagon, the hyperglycaemic hormone, is cleaved out of the 160......-107amide, a potent incretin homone, regulating insulin secretion, glucagon secretion, gastrointestinal motility and appetite) and 2 (PG 126-158, a regulator of gut mucosal growth and integrity). The two prohormone convertases PC2 and PC1/3, respectively, are responsible for the differential processing...

  4. Comparing bee species responses to chemical mixtures: Common response patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Robinson

    Full Text Available Pollinators in agricultural landscapes can be exposed to mixtures of pesticides and environmental pollutants. Existing mixture toxicity modelling approaches, such as the models of concentration addition and independent action and the mechanistic DEBtox framework have been previously shown as valuable tools for understanding and ultimately predicting joint toxicity. Here we apply these mixture models to investigate the potential to interpret the effects of semi-chronic binary mixture exposure for three bee species: Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis within potentiation and mixture toxicity experiments. In the potentiation studies, the effect of the insecticide dimethoate with added propiconazole fungicide and neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin with added tau-fluvalinate pyrethroid acaricide showed no difference in toxicity compared to the single chemical alone. Clothianidin toxicity showed a small scale, but temporally conserved increase in exposure conducted in the presence of propiconazole, particularly for B. terrestris and O. bicornis, the latter showing a near three-fold increase in clothianidin toxicity in the presence of propiconazole. In the mixture toxicity studies, the dominant response patterns were of additivity, however, binary mixtures of clothianidin and dimethoate in A. mellifera, B. terrestris and male O. bicornis there was evidence of a predominant antagonistic interaction. Given the ubiquitous nature of exposures to multiple chemicals, there is an urgent need to consider mixture effects in pollinator risk assessments. Our analyses suggest that current models, particularly those that utilise time-series data, such as DEBtox, can be used to identify additivity as the dominant response pattern and also those examples of interactions, even when small-scale, that may need to be taken into account during risk assessment.

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility: Why? ethical justification of corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Caballero Jara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucho se ha discutido en el Perú sobre qué es la responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE ycómo se implementa. La pregunta de por qué, en cambio, no ha recibido similar interés. Esta esprecisamente la interrogante que el presente artículo busca responder: ¿Qué justifica la RSE?¿Por qué las empresas deben ser socialmente responsables?Tomando como punto de partida la clasificación en cuatro grandes teorías de responsabilidadsocial empresarial o corporativa propuesta por Garriga y Melé (2004, a saber, las teoríasinstrumentales, políticas, integradoras y éticas, se identifican rastros de las mismas en la literaturaperuana. De esta forma, se logra un panorama de las distintas justificaciones brindadas porlos autores peruanos. Posteriormente, se toma partido a favor de las teorías éticas de RSE, enparticular del subgrupo «teoría normativa de los grupos de interés» (stakeholder normativetheory, que ve a la RSE como ética aplicada a los negocios, exponiendo sus versiones utilitaristay deontológica, exposición que deja a esta última mejor posicionada. De esta manera, sepropone ir más allá de las justificaciones exclusivamente rentistas, según la cual el empresariodebe ser socialmente responsable porque le conviene, y considerar la deontología como lajustificación del por qué hacer RSE.

  6. Response Mixture Modeling of Intraindividual Differences in Responses and Response Times to the Hungarian WISC-IV Block Design Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, D.; Bolsinova, M.; Rozsa, S.; De Boeck, P.

    2016-01-01

    Response times may constitute an important additional source of information about cognitive ability as it enables to distinguishing between different intraindividual response processes. In this paper, we present a method to disentangle interindividual variation from intraindividual variation in the

  7. Is Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Enough? Toward Culturally "Real"-evant Curriculum. A Response to "Democratic Foundations for Spiritually Responsive Pedagogy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, James A.

    2017-01-01

    In this response to Lingley's (2016) article "Democratic Foundations of Spiritually Responsive Pedagogy," the author invites the framework of (a)spiritually responsive curriculum to include a more direct engagement with a culturally relevant curriculum as well. The author agrees with Lingley's postulation that (a)spirituality is deeply…

  8. PUBLIC GOVERNANCE AND STRATEGIC RESPONSIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Luminiţa Gabriela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the actual context, where globalization is moreover dynamic, the concept of solid state, well defined and territorialised is becoming diffuse while the traditional social connections (labour relations, community solidarity are becoming weaker and more fragile. The economic individualisation, migration and cultural fragmentation hold a devastating impact upon the living environment, namely significant growth of anonymity, distrust and discontent. As effect of those realities, the governments are searching responses to these processes of “social liquefaction”. Taking into consideration the fact that that the governance tools based on authority, hierarchy and bureaucracy are becoming useless due to the lack of effectiveness and legitimacy, we witness the emergence of new modes of public governance, in light to reconfigure solid ground, adequate for interventions. The design of a new type of governance should take into consideration its dual character. One component aims accountable community, as the traditional society has demonstrated that it is not able to generate spontaneously neither trust nor social capital. The second component is focused on identifying those strategies providing that accountability should be taken jointly by the public authorities and the other actors such as companies, third sector organisations and citizens. The accomplishment of such a model means to overcome several challenges. On the one hand, are the members of the community aware of the importance of their commitment? Are they truly motivated to participate in such a structure? On the other hand, how prepared are the political representatives and public authorities to accept cooperation with various categories of actors at community level? The space of strategic responsiveness introduced by the current research provides a possible scenario for responding to the above questions. Additionally, the research attempts to provide an answer to a special question

  9. Tensions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    I engaged with the top management team (TMT) and employees of American Cafes Corporation as an action/intervention researcher in the 20 months immediately following the TMT’s decision to formalize the company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. This led to the establishment...... CSR agenda is considered, which brings with it a multiplicity of substantively rational ends for which the corporation could pursue. I show the CSR bureaucracy can create a space for reflection in which the multiplicity of substantively rational ends can be considered, negotiated, and selected...... for reflection within the corporation. But I also show tensions can arise from the establishment of the CSR bureaucracy itself. This suggests the CSR bureaucracy itself resides in a tension....

  10. Responsive Social Psychologies to Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.

  11. Division of responsibilities, contractual arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulito, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper referenced some of the functions and responsibilities that the owners, the engineer-constructors and the vendors must share in order to achieve project related objectives. Throughout the paper, it is recognized that the owner is taking the burden of risk. Further, for a particular project, he is being asked, in many areas, to avoid the temptation to advance the state of the art with perhaps its elusive increased efficiencies. Research and development are essential and the industry needs the cooperation of all to improve the end product. However, one cannot afford to make an R and D job of a project that is programmed to generate firm kilowatts by a specific date. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  13. Electricity rationing and public response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha Souza, Leonardo [United Nations Statistics Division, New York (United States); Jorge Soares, Lacir [CCH/LESCE - Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energy crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza [Soares, L.J. and Souza, L.R. (2006), ''Forecasting electricity demand using generalized long memory'', International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 17-28.], making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The structural break, as well as the forecast errors from this model, also permits verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis. (author)

  14. Electricity rationing and public response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Leonardo Rocha [United Nations, Statistics Div., New York, NY (United States); Soares, Lacir Jorge [CCH/LESCE - Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energy crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza [Soares, L.J. and Souza, L.R. (2006), 'Forecasting electricity demand using generalized long memory', International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 17-28.], making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The structural break, as well as the forecast errors from this model, also permits verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis. (Author)

  15. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  16. Chromosomal instability determines taxane response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanton, C.; Nicke, B.; Schuett, M.

    2009-01-01

    Microtubule-stabilizing (MTS) agents, such as taxanes, are important chemotherapeutics with a poorly understood mechanism of action. We identified a set of genes repressed in multiple cell lines in response to MTS agents and observed that these genes are overexpressed in tumors exhibiting...... chromosomal instability (CIN). Silencing 22/50 of these genes, many of which are involved in DNA repair, caused cancer cell death, suggesting that these genes are involved in the survival of aneuploid cells. Overexpression of these "CIN-survival'' genes is associated with poor outcome in estrogen receptor......-positive breast cancer and occurs frequently in basal-like and Her2-positive cases. In diploid cells, but not in chromosomally unstable cells, paclitaxel causes repression of CIN-survival genes, followed by cell death. In the OV01 ovarian cancer clinical trial, a high level of CIN was associated with taxane...

  17. Crop responses to climatic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, John R.; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2005-01-01

    The yield and quality of food crops is central to the well being of humans and is directly affected by climate and weather. Initial studies of climate change on crops focussed on effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) level and/or global mean temperature and/or rainfall and nutrition on crop...... production. However, crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions, exhibit threshold responses and are subject to combinations of stress factors that affect their growth, development and yield. Thus, climate variability and changes in the frequency of extreme events are important...... for yield, its stability and quality. In this context, threshold temperatures for crop processes are found not to differ greatly for different crops and are important to define for the major food crops, to assist climate modellers predict the occurrence of crop critical temperatures and their temporal...

  18. The Dynamic Responsiveness of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    Organizational studies should address contemporary challenges of dealing effectively with the increasingly complex and dynamic business conditions. In this context we argue that structural features are linked to the corporate strategy process and affect the organization’s ability to respond...... to ongoing environmental changes. Sustainable performance arguably derives from integrative strategy-making where business opportunities are pursued as they emerge while being directed and coordinated through forward-looking analytics. This combination of decentralized responsiveness and central reasoning...... identifies a dynamic system of interacting fast and slow processes. The fast system observes and reacts to environmental stimuli and the slow system interprets events and reasons about future actions. When the fast and slow processes interact they form a dynamic adaptive system that allows the organization...

  19. Archetypes of famine and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Famines have long been characterised by rapidly shifting dynamics: sudden price spirals, sharp increases in mortality, the media frenzy that often accompanies such spikes, the swift scaling up of aid flows, and a subsequent decline in interest. In arguing that these aspects of famine have been largely ignored in recent years due to attention to the famine process', this paper attempts to make these dynamics more explicit by applying systems thinking. It uses standard archetypes of systems thinking to explain six situations--watch, price spiral, aid magnet, media frenzy, overshoot, and peaks--that are present in many famine contexts. It illustrates their application with examples from crises in Ethiopia, Malawi, Niger, and Sudan. The paper contends that the systems approach offers a tool for analysing the larger patterns in famines and for pinpointing the most appropriate responses to them, based on an awareness of the dynamics of the crises.

  20. Macroecology of Environmental Change Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard

    for human society can be minimized. It comprises eight chapters and two appendices. Chapter I presents an integrated framework and synthesis for how the study of species’ responses to changing environments can be improved through a combination of existing methods and by explicitly accounting...... genetics in improving our understanding of strong population declines due to human impact dating back to before any reliable observation accounts existed. Two of the most comprehensive wildlife monitoring programs that have been running since the middle of the 20th century is The North American......Human induced changes in the earth system, such as anthropogenic climate change, cause loss of biodiversity that feed back as food, health and environmental challenges for human society. Climate change is one of the main threats to biodiversity and human society due to its global manifestation...

  1. Authoritarian versus responsive communitarian bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzioni, Amitai

    2011-01-01

    A communitarian approach to bioethics adds a core value to a field that is often more concerned with considerations of individual autonomy. Some interpretations of liberalism put the needs of the patient over those of the community; authoritarian communitarianism privileges the needs of society over those of the patient. Responsive communitarianism's main starting point is that we face two conflicting core values, autonomy and the common good, and that neither should be a priori privileged and that we have principles and procedure that can be used to work out this conflict but not to eliminate it. Additionally, it favours changing behaviour mainly through the creation of norms and by drawing on informal social control rather than by coercion.

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Sameer

    This doctoral dissertation examines the business-development relations in Afghanistan by focusing on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and other related practices from corporations in the Afghan mobile telecommunications industry. More concretely, the study aims to explore the characteristics...... and drivers of the various CSR practices in the Afghan mobile telecommunications industry in order to critically assess the relationship between CSR and development in such context. The thesis highlights that the national context of Afghanistan in combination with the global mobile telecommunications industry...... provides a relevant empirical focus that can enrich the theoretical debates about CSR in developing countries. The study thereby stresses on the importance of context, and integrates both the societal and corporate dimensions to study CSR by corporations in the Afghan mobile telecommunications industry...

  3. Student Responses to Don Gallo's "Sixteen."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Discusses students' responses to SIXTEEN: SHORT STORIES BY OUTSTANDING WRITERS FOR YOUNG ADULTS (edited by Donald R. Gallo), a collection of stories thematically grouped in a format based on a response-centered approach to literature. (MM)

  4. Consumer Social Responsibility: Example of Cycling Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesevičiūtė-Ufartienė Laima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on consumer social responsibility based on the example of cycling service. The author analyses the tourism sector determining a relation between socially responsible behaviour of an organization and consumer behaviour.

  5. Managing the Responsible Service of Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2007-01-01

    Bars benefit when staff know how to serve alcohol responsibly, management and employees have a better understanding of the product they sell, their job skills are improved and customers are also encouraged to drink responsibly.

  6. From vulnerability to resilience: improving humanitarian response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pearce

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lessons from responses to the Syrian displacement crisis can inform broader discussions on how to build responses that better address vulnerability, support resilience and include displaced women, children and young people in all their diversity.

  7. Morality, Moral Luck and Responsibility. Fortune's Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)......Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)...

  8. Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Underutilize Immune Response Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Connell, Claire M.; Raby, Sophie E.M.; Beh, Ian; Flint, Thomas R.; Williams, Edward H.; Fearon, Douglas T.; Jodrell, Duncan I.; Janowitz, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This brief communication presents a quantitative assessment of the inclusion of immune‐related response criteria and immunological biomarker response monitoring in the registration details of T‐cell checkpoint‐targeted cancer immunotherapy trials in solid malignancies.

  9. 32 CFR 700.311 - Sole responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Acquisition; (2) Auditing; (3) Comptroller (including financial management); (4) Information management; (5... technology transfer. (2) The Auditor General is responsible for the internal auditing function within the... Executive and Senior Department of the Navy Information Resource Management Official. Responsibilities...

  10. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  11. Responsibilities of companies towards employees | Botha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employees have become very important stakeholders of companies and their needs should be taken into account in the bigger corporate governance and social responsibility framework. KEYWORDS: Corporate governance, corporate law, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, corporate citizenship, employee ...

  12. Multinational Oil Companies and Corporate Social Responsibilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Niger Delta Region, Nigeria), the concept of corporate social responsibility must be fully imbibed by the multinational oil companies. Therefore, this study examines multinational oil companies and corporate social responsibilities with particular ...

  13. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  14. Cardiovascular response to thermoregulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuiqing; Yavar, Zubin; Sun, Qinghua

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of extreme climate events are occurring in the setting of ongoing climate change, with an increase in both the intensity and frequency. It has been shown that ambient temperature challenges have a direct and highly varied impact on cardiovascular health. With a rapidly growing amount of literature on this issue, we aim to review the recent publications regarding the impact of cold and heat on human populations with regard to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality/morbidity while also examining lag effects, vulnerable subgroups, and relevant mechanisms. Although the relative risk of morbidity/mortality associated with extreme temperature varied greatly across different studies, both cold and hot temperatures were associated with a positive mean excess of cardiovascular deaths or hospital admissions. Cause-specific study of CVD morbidity/mortality indicated that the sensitivity to temperature was disease-specific, with different patterns for acute and chronic ischemic heart disease. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality was associated with some characteristics of the populations, including sex, age, location, socioeconomic condition, and comorbidities such as cardiac diseases, kidney diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Temperature-induced damage is thought to be related to enhanced sympathetic reactivity followed by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin system, as well as dehydration and a systemic inflammatory response. Future research should focus on multidisciplinary adaptation strategies that incorporate epidemiology, climatology, indoor/building environments, energy usage, labor legislative perfection, and human thermal comfort models. Studies on the underlying mechanism by which temperature challenge induces pathophysiological response and CVD await profound and lasting investigation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Transcriptomic response to differentiation induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov DS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays used for gene expression studies yield large amounts of data. The processing of such data typically leads to lists of differentially-regulated genes. A common terminal data analysis step is to map pathways of potentially interrelated genes. Methods We applied a transcriptomics analysis tool to elucidate the underlying pathways of leukocyte maturation at the genomic level in an established cellular model of leukemia by examining time-course data in two subclones of U-937 cells. Leukemias such as Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL are characterized by a block in the hematopoietic stem cell maturation program at a point when expansion of clones which should be destined to mature into terminally-differentiated effector cells get locked into endless proliferation with few cells reaching maturation. Treatment with retinoic acid, depending on the precise genomic abnormality, often releases the responsible promyelocytes from this blockade but clinically can yield adverse sequellae in terms of potentially lethal side effects, referred to as retinoic acid syndrome. Results Briefly, the list of genes for temporal patterns of expression was pasted into the ABCC GRID Promoter TFSite Comparison Page website tool and the outputs for each pattern were examined for possible coordinated regulation by shared regelems (regulatory elements. We found it informative to use this novel web tool for identifying, on a genomic scale, genes regulated by drug treatment. Conclusion Improvement is needed in understanding the nature of the mutations responsible for controlling the maturation process and how these genes regulate downstream effects if there is to be better targeting of chemical interventions. Expanded implementation of the techniques and results reported here may better direct future efforts to improve treatment for diseases not restricted to APL.

  16. Social responsibility of nursing: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Barry, Donna M; Hoyt, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Davis, Sheila M

    2009-05-01

    This study addresses social responsibility in the discipline of nursing and implications for global health. The concept of social responsibility is explicated and its relevance for nursing is examined, grounded in the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics and the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics. Social justice, human rights, nurse migration, and approaches to nursing education are discussed within the framework of nursing's social responsibility. Strategies for addressing nursing workforce issues and education within a framework of social responsibility are explored.

  17. Autoimmune Responses to Brain Following Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Kyra

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the work done by our laboratory that demonstrates the presence of cellular immune responses directed towards brain antigens in animals following experimental stroke as well as in patients following ischemic stroke. These responses include both antigenspecific Th1(+) responses, which are associated with worse stroke outcome, and antigen-specific Treg responses, which are associated with better stroke outcome. The likelihood of developing a detrimental Th1(+)...

  18. 5 CFR 410.303 - Employee responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Establishing and Implementing Training Programs § 410.303 Employee responsibilities. Employees are responsible... training needed to improve individual and organizational performance and identify methods to meet those... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee responsibilities. 410.303...

  19. Trait level estimation for nonfitting response vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    Item responses that do not fit an item response theory model may cause the latent trait value, 0, to be inaccurately estimated. Although in many studies the proportion of nonmodel-fitting response vectors (NRvs) identified (i.e., the detection rate) has been investigated, less is known about the

  20. Measuring student responsibility in Physical Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire (CSRQ) and Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire (PSRQ) were developed to meausre student responsibility within the field of physical education. In the present study, the factor structure of the CSRQ and PSRQ was examined. Unlike previous structure ...