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Sample records for amp prolongs graft

  1. Chitosan and lactic acid-grafted chitosan nanoparticles as carriers for prolonged drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattarai, Narayan; Ramay, Hassna R; Chou, Shinn-Huey; Zhang, Miqin

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles of ~10 nm in diameter made with chitosan or lactic acid-grafted chitosan were developed for high drug loading and prolonged drug release. A drug encapsulation efficiency of 92% and a release rate of 28% from chitosan nanoparticles over a 4-week period were demonstrated with bovine serum protein. To further increase drug encapsulation, prolong drug release, and increase chitosan solubility in solution of neutral pH, chitosan was modified with lactic acid by grafting D,L-lactic ac...

  2. Graft-infiltrating cells expressing a CD200 transgene prolong allogeneic skin graft survival in association with local increases in Foxp3(+)Treg and mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczynski, Reginald M; Chen, Zhiqi; Khatri, Ismat; Yu, Kai

    2011-12-01

    Expression of the molecule CD200 has been reported to increase allograft survival by suppression of inflammation and acquired immunity. In previous studies we have shown that increased skin and cardiac allograft survival in transgenic mice over-expressing CD200 (CD200(tg)) occurs in association with increased intra-graft expression of mRNAs for genes associated with altered T cell subset differentiation. We investigated changes in graft-infiltrating cells, Treg and mast cells in skin grafts post transplantation into control or CD200(tg) mice, using focused gene array and real-time PCR to assess altered gene expression, and FACS, immunohistology and MLC to determine numbers/function of those cells. Graft-infiltrating cells isolated from CD200(tg) recipients suppressed induction of CTL from control lymph node cells in vitro, and contained increased numbers of infiltrating, non-degranulating, mast cells and Foxp3(+)Treg. Mast cells were also evident in graft tissue of control animals, but there these cells showed evidence for degranulation, and fewer Foxp3(+)Treg were present than was the case of CD200(tg) mice. The infusion of a competitive inhibitor of CD200:CD200R interactions, CD200(tr), at high concentrations (50μg/mouse iv) caused rapid rejection of grafts in CD200(tg) mice, mast cell degranulation within graft tissue, and a decrease in Treg infiltrates. These effects were attenuated by simultaneous infusion of the mast cell stabilizer, sodium cromoglycate. We conclude that CD200 expression contributes to graft prolongation through local suppression of mast cell degranulation, attraction/expansion of Treg, and attenuation of T cell effector activation. PMID:21801836

  3. Overexpression of thioredoxin in islets transduced by a lentiviral vector prolongs graft survival in autoimmune diabetic NOD mice

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    Sytwu Huey-Kang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic islet transplantation is considered an appropriate treatment to achieve insulin independence in type I diabetic patients. However, islet isolation and transplantation-induced oxidative stress and autoimmune-mediated destruction are still the major obstacles to the long-term survival of graft islets in this potential therapy. To protect islet grafts from inflammatory damage and prolong their survival, we transduced islets with an antioxidative gene thioredoxin (TRX using a lentiviral vector before transplantation. We hypothesized that the overexpression of TRX in islets would prolong islet graft survival when transplanted into diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Methods Islets were isolated from NOD mice and transduced with lentivirus carrying TRX (Lt-TRX or enhanced green fluorescence protein (Lt-eGFP, respectively. Transduced islets were transplanted under the left kidney capsule of female diabetic NOD mice, and blood glucose concentration was monitored daily after transplantation. The histology of the islet graft was assessed at the end of the study. The protective effect of TRX on islets was investigated. Results The lentiviral vector effectively transduced islets without altering the glucose-stimulating insulin-secretory function of islets. Overexpression of TRX in islets reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. After transplantation into diabetic NOD mice, euglycemia was maintained for significantly longer in Lt-TRX-transduced islets than in Lt-eGFP-transduced islets; the mean graft survival was 18 vs. 6.5 days (n = 9 and 10, respectively, p Conclusion We successfully transduced the TRX gene into islets and demonstrated that these genetically modified grafts are resistant to inflammatory insult and survived longer in diabetic recipients. Our results further support the concept that the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger and antiapoptotic functions of TRX are critical to islet survival after

  4. Perioperative risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass

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    Zahra S Faritous

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged mechanical ventilation is an important recognized complication occurring during cardiovascular surgery procedures. This study was done to assess the perioperative risk factors related to postoperative pulmonary complications and tracheostomy in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: It was a retrospective study on 5,497 patients, including 31 patients with prolonged ventilatory support and 5,466 patients without it; from the latter group, 350 patients with normal condition (extubated in 6-8 hours without any complication were selected randomly. Possible perioperative risk factors were compared between the two groups using a binary logistic regression model. Results: Among the 5,497 women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, 31 women needed prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV, and 15 underwent tracheostomy. After logistic regression, 7 factors were determined as being independent perioperative risk factors for PMV. Discussion: Age ≥70 years old, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤30%, preexisting respiratory or renal disease, emergency or re-do operation and use of preoperative inotropic agents are the main risk factors determined in this study on women undergoing CABG.

  5. Cyclic AMP-elevating Agents Promote Cumulus Cell Survival and Hyaluronan Matrix Stability, Thereby Prolonging the Time of Mouse Oocyte Fertilizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Monica; Camaioni, Antonella; Klinger, Francesca G; Bonfiglio, Rita; Salustri, Antonietta

    2016-02-19

    Cumulus cells sustain the development and fertilization of the mammalian oocyte. These cells are retained around the oocyte by a hyaluronan-rich extracellular matrix synthesized before ovulation, a process called cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC) expansion. Hyaluronan release and dispersion of the cumulus cells progressively occur after ovulation, paralleling the decline of oocyte fertilization. We show here that, in mice, postovulatory changes of matrix are temporally correlated to cumulus cell death. Cumulus cell apoptosis and matrix disassembly also occurred in ovulated COCs cultured in vitro. COCs expanded in vitro with FSH or EGF underwent the same changes, whereas those expanded with 8-bromo-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) maintained integrity for a longer time. It is noteworthy that 8-Br-cAMP treatment was also effective on ovulated COCs cultured in vitro, prolonging the vitality of the cumulus cells and the stability of the matrix from a few hours to >2 days. Stimulation of endogenous adenylate cyclase with forskolin or inhibition of phosphodiesterase with rolipram produced similar effects. The treatment with selective cAMP analogues suggests that the effects of cAMP elevation are exerted through an EPAC-independent, PKA type II-dependent signaling pathway, probably acting at the post-transcriptional level. Finally, overnight culture of ovulated COCs with 8-Br-cAMP significantly counteracted the decrease of fertilization rate, doubling the number of fertilized oocytes compared with control conditions. In conclusion, these studies suggest that cAMP-elevating agents prevent cumulus cell senescence and allow them to continue to exert beneficial effects on oocyte and sperm, thereby extending in vitro the time frame of oocyte fertilizability. PMID:26694612

  6. Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique value of ionizing radiation for the initiation of grafting to backbone polymers is discussed. The principles of the technique are briefly reviewed. The conditions under which free radicals and ions participate in these reactions are examined. Examples of representative grafting processes are considered to illustrate where the technique can be of potential commercial value to a wide range of industries. The general principles of these grafting reactions are shown to be applicable to radiation induced rapid cure technology such as is provided by electron beam processing facilities. Grafting reactions initiated by UV are also treated and shown to be of importance because of the many similarities in properties of the ionizing radiation and UV systems, also the rapid industrial exploitation of EB and sensitized UV processing technology. Possible future trends in radiation grafting are outlined. (author)

  7. Recombinant IL-33 prolongs leflunomide-mediated graft survival by reducing IFN-γ and expanding CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells in concordant heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chen; Lu, Fang-Na; Jin, Ning; Yang, Bo; Gao, Chang; Zhao, Bin; Fu, Jia-Zhao; Hong, Shi-Fu; Liang, Han-Ting; Chen, Li-Hong; Chen, Zhi-Shui; Chen, Jie; Qi, Zhong-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a novel IL-1 family member, and its administration has been associated with promotion of T helper type-2 (Th2) cell activity and cytokines, particularly IL-4 and IL-5 in vivo. Recently, IL-33 was shown to increase CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and to suppress levels of the Th1-type cytokine IFN-γ in allogeneic heart transplantation in mice. Therefore, we hypothesized that IL-33 and leflunomide (Lef) could prolong graft survival in the concordant mouse-to-rat heart transplantation model. In this model, xenografts undergo acute humoral xenograft rejection (AHXR) typically on day 3 or cell-mediated rejection approximately on day 7 if AHXR is inhibited by Lef treatment. Recipients were treated with Lef (n=6), IL-33 (n=6), IL-33 combined with Lef (n=6), or left untreated (n=6) for survival studies. Heart grafts were monitored until they stopped beating. Mouse heterotopic grafts were performed, and recipients were sacrificed on days 2 and 7 for histological and flow cytometric analyses. The combination of IL-33 and Lef significantly prolonged the grafts from 17.3±2.3 to 2.8±0.4 days, compared to untreated controls. IL-33 administration with Lef, while facilitating Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4 on day 2 but not day 7), also decreased IFN-γ on day 2 and day 7, compared with Lef treatment only. Furthermore, IL-33 with Lef administration caused an expansion of suppressive CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in rats. The IL-33 and Lef combination therapy resulted in significantly prolonged graft survival, associated with markedly decreased Th1 cells and increased IL-10 levels. In addition, the combination therapy significantly decreased the percentage of CD-45(+) B cells on days 2 and 7, compared with monotherapy. These findings reveal a new immunoregulatory property of IL-33. Specifically, it facilitates regulatory cells, particularly functional CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs that underlie IL-33-mediated cardiac xenograft survival. Moreover, it can decrease Th

  8. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency

  9. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency.

  10. Does interventional therapy prolong the patency of hemodialysis fistulas and grafts?; Verlaengert die radiologisch-interventionelle Therapie die Shuntnutzungsdauer bei haemodialysepflichtigen Patienten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, P.J.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, S.; Schaefer, F.K.; Soehne, J.; Charalambous, N.; Heller, M.; Jahnke, T. [Abt. Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate procedural success and patency after endovascular treatment of acute dysfunctional hemodialysis fistulas and grafts in a non-preselected patient cohort. Materials and Methods: 185 angiographies of hemodialysis fistulas and grafts on the upper extremities were analyzed for 120 patients (53 male, 67 female; mean-age 63.1{+-}11.4, range 24-91). 70% (n=130) were native arteriovenous fistulas, 17% (n=31) were prosthetic grafts, and 13% (n=24) were non-specific. In total, 278 lesions requiring endovascular treatment were detected. 13% (n=35) of the lesions were located in the arterial inflow, 18% (n=49) in native arteriovenous anastomoses, 7% (n=19) in prosthetic grafts and 62% (n=171) in the venous outflow. The primary, secondary and cumulative patency after endovascular treatment was calculated. Results: In 51% (n=94) of the cases endovascular treatment could be performed, in 8% (n=14) no lesion requiring treatment was detected, and in 42% (n=77) intervention was not considered possible. In 45% (n=124) of the detected lesions endovascular treatment was successful, in 18% (n=51) the intervention failed, and in 37% (n=103) intervention was not considered possible. The complication rate was 5% (n=10). The primary, secondary, and cumulative patency rates for 50% of the hemodialysis fistulas and grafts after endovascular treatment were 65, 191, and 370 days, respectively. The results differed significantly from each other with p<0.05 in the logrank test and logrank trend test. (orig.)

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells promote liver regeneration and prolong survival in small-for-size liver grafts: involvement of C-Jun N-terminal kinase, cyclin D1, and NF-κB.

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    Weijie Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has been highlighted recently for treatment of acute or chronic liver injury, by possibly differentiating into hepatocyte-like cells, reducing inflammation, and enhancing tissue repair. Despite recent progress, exact mechanisms of action are not clearly elucidated. In this study, we attempted to explore whether and how MSCs protected hepatocytes and stimulated allograft regeneration in small-for-size liver transplantation (SFSLT. METHODS: SFSLT model was established with a 30% partial liver transplantation (30PLT in rats. The differentiation potential and characteristics of bone marrow derived MSCs were explored in vitro. MSCs were infused transvenously immediately after graft implantation in therapy group. Expressions of apoptosis-, inflammatory-, anti-inflammatory-, and growth factor-related genes were measured by RT-PCR, activities of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB were analyzed by EMSA, and proliferative responses of the hepatic graft were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. RESULTS: MSCs were successfully induced into hepatocyte-like cells, osteoblasts and adipocytes in vitro. MSCs therapy could not only alleviate ischemia reperfusion injury and acute inflammation to promote liver regeneration, but also profoundly improve one week survival rate. It markedly up-regulated the mRNA expressions of HGF, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, IL-6, IL-10, IP-10, and CXCR2, however, down-regulated TNF-α. Increased activities of AP-1 and NF-κB, as well as elevated expressions of p-c-Jun, cyclin D1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, were also found in MSCs therapy group. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that MSCs therapy promotes hepatocyte proliferation and prolongs survival in SFSLT by reducing ischemia reperfusion injury and acute inflammation, and sustaining early increased expressions of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, Cyclin D1, and NF-κB.

  12. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  13. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

  14. Skin Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Ruka Shimizu; Kazuo Kishi

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Graft Copolymer of Dextran and 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane Sulphonic Acid

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    Venkanna Azmeera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel biodegradable graft copolymer of dextran (Dx and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS was synthesized by grafting poly-AMPS chains onto dextran backbone by free radical polymerization using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN as an initiator. Different amounts of AMPS were used to synthesize four different grades of graft copolymers with different side chain lengths. These grafted polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1HNMR, rheological technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. They exhibited efficient flocculation performance in kaolin suspension.

  16. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  17. Implementation of a graft surveillance programme for infrainuginal vascular bypass surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Cassar, Noel; Dunjic, Branko; Cassar, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Patients undergoing bypass graft placement in the lower limb are often entered into a graft surveillance programme using duplex scanning. The aim of this programme is to identify stenoses in vein grafts before they become symptomatic and treat these by angioplasty or surgery, thus prolonging the patency of the graft. This paper aims at reporting on the progress and viability of this programme at Mater Dei Hospital, Malta. Method: Infrainguinal bypass grafts carried out between July 2007 ...

  18. Preparation and Characteristics of Corn Straw-Co-AMPS-Co-AA Superabsorbent Hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Min Cheng; Xiang-Ming Hu; De-Ming Wang; Guo-Hua Liu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the corn straw after removing the lignin was grafted with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) to prepare sulfonated cellulose. The grafting copolymerization between the sulfonated cellulose and acrylic acid (AA) was performed using potassium persulfate and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as the initiator and crosslinking agent, respectively, to prepare corn straw-co-AMPS-co-AA hydrogels. The structure and properties of the resulting hydrogels were characterized by Four...

  19. [Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M

    2008-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids. PMID:18378104

  20. Improvement of polymer stability by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losses of the stabilizer due to extractability or volatility immediately affect ultimate performance of polymer product. A new approach to increase the persistence of the stabilizer in the final product is to chemically bind it to the polymer backbone. Radiation grafting or crosslinking could be an efficient method for this, when the stabilizer is polymerizable. By a mutual gamma irradiation method, photoprotector 2-hydroxy-4-(3-methacryloxy-2- hydroxy-propoxy) benzophenone (HMB) has been readily grafted to low density polyethylene (LDPE) in benzene, tetrahydrofuran and methanol solution, respectively. Surface grafting occurs in a methanol solution of stabilizer, while in benzene and tetrahydrofuran solutions of stabilizer, grafting proceeds more or less in the inner parts of the polymeric film as well. The grafted LDPE film in methanol and tetrahydrofuran (containing 1 w/w % of grafted HMB), 1 w/w % blended HMB with LDPE and nongrafted LDPE film, were all exposed to accelerated aging and natural weathering and their spectral changes, expressed by the carbonyl index, were then compared. The change of elongation at break and tensile strength were measured in the course of aging. UV stability tests on aged films and change in mechanical properties indicate a pronounced protective effect achieved by grafted stabilizer. Grafting in methanol solution appears to be an efficient photostabilization treatment and the most economical with respect to the consumption of monomer, the grafting yield being less than 0.5%. Surface grafting is an efficient photostabilization method since grafted stabilizer is chemically bound to a polymeric surface and in this way the problem of evaporation of blended stabilizers during the prolonged use of polymeric materials is eliminated. (author)

  1. Use of Aspirin Associates with Longer Primary Patency of Hemodialysis Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Bradley S.; Beck, Gerald J.; Dember, Laura M; Vazquez, Miguel A.; Greenberg,Arthur; Delmez, James A.; Allon, Michael; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Hu, Bo; Greene, Tom; Radeva, Milena K.; Davidson, Ingemar J.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Braden, Gregory L.; Lawson, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Extended-release dipyridamole plus low-dose aspirin (ERDP/ASA) prolongs primary unassisted graft patency of newly created hemodialysis arteriovenous grafts, but the individual contributions of each component are unknown. Here, we analyzed whether use of aspirin at baseline associated with primary unassisted graft patency among participants in a randomized trial that compared ERDP/ASA and placebo in newly created grafts. We used Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for prespecified b...

  2. The isolated prolonged PTT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherniantchouk, Oxana; Laposata, Michael; Marques, Marisa B

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly difficult to choose the proper tests to investigate an abnormal laboratory result, delaying the time to reach the correct diagnosis and increasing the cost of care. A wrong choice may also lead to clinically significant errors, which can be life threatening. To show how errors in test selection occur in routine medical practice, the authors describe an algorithm to evaluate patients with a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and a normal prothrombin time. This exercise challenges the commonly held belief that errors in laboratory utilization occur primarily with esoteric and/or genetic testing, rather than in patients with common abnormalities such as a prolonged PTT. PMID:22811044

  3. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities.Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion.Recently, three patients were seen at theDepartment ofEmergencyMedicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities.The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  4. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs

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    Mehrzad Sadredinamin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensive group of molecules that produced by variety tissues of invertebrate, plants, and animal species which play an important role in their immunity response. AMPs have different classifications such as; biosynthetic machines, biological sources, biological functions, molecular properties, covalent bonding patterns, three dimensional structures, and molecular targets.These molecules have multidimensional properties including antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, antifungal activity, anti-parasite activity, biofilm control, antitumor activity, mitogens activity and linking innate to adaptive immunity that making them promising agents for therapeutic drugs. In spite of this advantage of AMPs, their clinical developments have some limitation for commercial development. But some of AMPs are under clinical trials for the therapeutic purpose such as diabetic foot ulcers, different bacterial infections and tissue damage. In this review, we emphasized on the source, structure, multidimensional properties, limitation and therapeutic applications of various antimicrobial peptides.

  5. Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

  6. AMP language reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a program for symbolic calculations named AMP (Algebraic Manipulation Program) is described. Its main features are: high speed heart for usual algebraic calculations; conversational capability; derivation, substitutions, matricial calculus, expansions, non commutative algebrae...; possibility to define new symbols and associated rules; possibility to create and use external libraries; written for IBM/370 like computers

  7. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  8. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  9. Cartilage grafting in facial reconstruction with special consideration of irradiated grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald, P.J.

    1986-07-01

    The search for the perfect facial implant for reconstruction of the face continues. Cartilage, once thought to be an undesirable graft material because of its propensity for absorption, has regained popularity in the past decade. Various preparation techniques have been employed to ensure graft sterility and diminished absorption. An improved understanding of cartilage structure and physiology has shed considerable light on the host-graft relationship. Gamma irradiation is a time-honored method of preservation. An experiment was undertaken to investigate the physiology of irradiated cartilage grafts following prolonged implantation on the facial skeleton of sheep and dog. Merthiolate preserved grafts were used as controls. Direct observation, histochemical techniques, autoradiography, and transmission electron micrography were used to determine chondrocyte viability and matrix composition. It was surprising to note that following implantation of 16 to 72 months, complete resorption was seen in 87.7% of the irradiated grafts and in 43.8% of the Merthiolate stored controls. Many of the grafts acquired chondrocytes from the host and produced new proteoglycan matrix as well as undergoing some degree of ossification. A comparison to the clinical situation in humans is made. 98 references.

  10. Cartilage grafting in facial reconstruction with special consideration of irradiated grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for the perfect facial implant for reconstruction of the face continues. Cartilage, once thought to be an undesirable graft material because of its propensity for absorption, has regained popularity in the past decade. Various preparation techniques have been employed to ensure graft sterility and diminished absorption. An improved understanding of cartilage structure and physiology has shed considerable light on the host-graft relationship. Gamma irradiation is a time-honored method of preservation. An experiment was undertaken to investigate the physiology of irradiated cartilage grafts following prolonged implantation on the facial skeleton of sheep and dog. Merthiolate preserved grafts were used as controls. Direct observation, histochemical techniques, autoradiography, and transmission electron micrography were used to determine chondrocyte viability and matrix composition. It was surprising to note that following implantation of 16 to 72 months, complete resorption was seen in 87.7% of the irradiated grafts and in 43.8% of the Merthiolate stored controls. Many of the grafts acquired chondrocytes from the host and produced new proteoglycan matrix as well as undergoing some degree of ossification. A comparison to the clinical situation in humans is made. 98 references

  11. The use of radionuclide angiography to study blood flow through endothelial cell seeded extrathoracic bypass grafts in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endothelial seeding of vascular grafts has been shown to decrease graft thrombogenicity and prolong longevity when implanted in vivo. Previous studies have utilized anatomic grafts to study endothelialization and healing, Anatomic thoracoabdominal grafts do not allow for sequential biopsy for evaluation of individual grafts nor do they approximate the environment for long bypass grafts used in limb salvage, This study evaluated the use of an extra-anatomic aortic bypass graft to assess the healing of endothelial cell seeded expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), Radionuclide angiography was used to evaluate graft patency and quantify blood flow through the graft, Dogs underwent placement of an extra-anatomic 60 cm long, 8 mm internal diameter, graft seeded with autologous endothelium. Grafts were biopsied from 2 weeks up to 1 year, Radionuclide studies were performed postimplantation and following each graft biopsy, Graft placement and biopsies were well tolerated in all dogs, Biopsied segments of graft allowed for sequential studies of the healing of implanted grafts by scanning electron and light microscopy, Flow through the implanted graft was close to 50% of the total caudal abdominal aortic flow, No significant difference in graft flow was noted either between animals or over time

  12. Free Auricular Composite Graft for Acquired Nasal Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Charles A.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Gray, Mingyang Liu; Graham, H. Devon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acquired nasal stenosis poses a reconstructive challenge for the facial plastic surgeon. Many surgical options are available, ranging from primary closure to skin grafts to free flap reconstruction for complex defects. The free auricular composite graft is a single-stage procedure that can be used to repair nasal vestibular stenosis causing nasal obstruction. Case Report: We present the case of a patient with acquired nasal stenosis as a result of prolonged nasal tampon placement secondary to severe epistaxis and subsequent nasal vestibular infection. Repair via auricular composite graft was successful, and we provide a thorough explanation of graft design and operative technique. Conclusion: Free auricular composite grafts can produce desirable functional and aesthetic outcomes and should be considered in patients presenting with acquired nasal stenosis. PMID:27303225

  13. Grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations

  14. Butterfly cartilage graft versus fat graft myringoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonika Kanotra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the graft take up rates of two minimally invasive techniques of butterfly cartilage graft (BCG and fat graft myringoplasty (FGM. Materials and Methods: Two groups of 30 patients each with small dry central perforations of the tympanic membrane (T.M. were randomly subjected to either of the two techniques of myringoplasty. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were compared using the Chi-square test. A value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The graft take up rate was 93.3% with BCG and 83.3% with fat graft. Conclusions: The BCG scores over FGM in small perforations of the T.M.

  15. Bone grafts in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar; Belliappa Vinitha; Ghousia Fathima

    2013-01-01

    Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  16. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  17. Study on biotribological properties of UHMWPE grafted with MPDSAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yaling; Xiong, Dangsheng, E-mail: xiongds@163.com; Shao, Silong

    2013-04-01

    In order to prolong the service life of artificial joints, a zwitterion monomer of MPDSAH ((3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide) was grafted onto ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powders to construct a brush-like structure by UV irradiation, and then the grafted UHMWPE powders were hot pressed as the bulk materials. The wettability of bulk materials surface with different monomer concentrations was analyzed. The tribological properties of modified UHMWPE bulk materials were investigated under distilled water and saline by sliding against stainless steel ball. The measurement of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that MPDSAH is successfully grafted onto the surface of UHMWPE powders by UV irradiation. The contact angles of modified UHMWPE are decreased and the surface wettability is effectively improved. The friction coefficient of the modified sample is lower than that of untreated UHMWPE in aqueous lubricants during a long-term friction. With the increase of monomer concentration, the wear rate of grafted UHMWPE decreases gradually in distilled water. The grafting hydrophilic macromolecule polymer is helpful to form a lubricating film of water, which leads to the improvement of the lubricity of UHMWPE. - Highlights: ► PMPDSAH brushes were grafted onto UHMWPE powders by UV radiation. ► Wettability of PMPDSAH-grafted UHMWPE bulk material is improved. ► UHMWPE grafted with PMPDSAH brushes shows lower friction coefficient and wear rate.

  18. Study on biotribological properties of UHMWPE grafted with MPDSAH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to prolong the service life of artificial joints, a zwitterion monomer of MPDSAH ((3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide) was grafted onto ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powders to construct a brush-like structure by UV irradiation, and then the grafted UHMWPE powders were hot pressed as the bulk materials. The wettability of bulk materials surface with different monomer concentrations was analyzed. The tribological properties of modified UHMWPE bulk materials were investigated under distilled water and saline by sliding against stainless steel ball. The measurement of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that MPDSAH is successfully grafted onto the surface of UHMWPE powders by UV irradiation. The contact angles of modified UHMWPE are decreased and the surface wettability is effectively improved. The friction coefficient of the modified sample is lower than that of untreated UHMWPE in aqueous lubricants during a long-term friction. With the increase of monomer concentration, the wear rate of grafted UHMWPE decreases gradually in distilled water. The grafting hydrophilic macromolecule polymer is helpful to form a lubricating film of water, which leads to the improvement of the lubricity of UHMWPE. - Highlights: ► PMPDSAH brushes were grafted onto UHMWPE powders by UV radiation. ► Wettability of PMPDSAH-grafted UHMWPE bulk material is improved. ► UHMWPE grafted with PMPDSAH brushes shows lower friction coefficient and wear rate

  19. Administration of an anti-interleukin 2 receptor monoclonal antibody prolongs cardiac allograft survival in mice

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Administration of the monoclonal antibody M7/20, which binds to the murine interleukin-2 (IL) receptor, significantly prolongs cardiac allograft survival in two H-2-incompatible strain combinations of inbred mice. The results support the important role of the IL-2 receptor in the mechanism of graft rejection, and suggest its suitability as a target for immunosuppressive therapy.

  20. Development of Novel Absorbents and Membranes by Radiation-Induced Grafting for Selective Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct radiation grafting technique was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer containing epoxy ring, onto polypropylene fibres. The ring opening of the epoxy ring in GMA by different amino groups was studied to introduce various chelating agents. Some properties of grafted fibres were studied and the possibility of its practical use for water treatment from iron and manganese metals was investigated. The radiation initiated grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) or acrylamide (AAm) monomers onto poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), a 2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) polymer was studied. Cationic/anionic membranes were also prepared by radiation-induced grafting of styrene/methacrylic acid (Sty/MAA) binary monomers onto LDPE films. To impart reactive cationic/anionic characters in the grafted membranes, sulfonation and alkaline treatments for styrene and carboxylic acid groups, respectively, were carried out. The possibility of their applications in the selective removal of some heavy metals was studied. The prepared grafted materials had a great ability to recover the metal ions such as: Ni2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Cr3+ from their solutions. It was found that AMPS content in the grafted copolymers is the main parameter for the selectivity of the copolymer towards metal ions. The higher the AMPS content the higher the selectivity towards Co and Ni ions. In case of LDPE-g-P(STY/MAA), the sulfonation and alkaline treatments are the most effective methods to influence metal absorption and swelling behaviour of the prepared membranes. Graft composition, dose and pH have also a great influence on the membrane characteristics and applicability in wastewater treatments from heavy and toxic metals. Results revealed that the prepared grafted materials with different functionalized groups are promising as ion selective membranes and could be used for wastewater treatment. (author)

  1. Sleutelmag en amp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Rossouw

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available As die Heidelbergse Kategismus (Sondag 31 handel oor die sleutels van die Koninkryk, dan word die betrokkenheid van die ampte slegs per implikasie veronderstel. Meer eksplisiet word die amp en sleutelmag in die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis gekoppel; “ons glo dat hierdie ware kerk ooreenkomstig die geestelike bestuurswyse wat ons Here ons in sy Woord geleer het, geregeer moet word... hulle (moet sorg dra dat die ware godsdiens onderhou (word, die ware leer orals versprei, die oortreders op geestelike wyse vermaan en in toom gehou (word... (N.G.B. art. 30 en: “Ons glo verder dat die regeerders van die kerk, al is dit nuttig en goed om onder mekaar ’n bepaalde orde tot instandhouding van die liggaam van die kerk in te stel en te handhaaf, tog noukeurig moet oppas om nie af te wyk van wat Christus, ons enigste Meester, vir ons ingestel het nie... Ons aanvaar derhalwe slegs wat kan dien om eendrag en eenheid te bewaar en te bevorder, en om alles in gehoorsaamheid van God te onderhou. Daarvoor is nodig die ban en alles wat daarmee saamhang, toegepas ooreenkomstig die Woord van God” (N.G.B. art. 32.

  2. Percutaneous treatment of complications occurring during hemodialysis graft recanalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction/objective: To describe and evaluate percutaneous treatment methods of complications occurring during recanalization of thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of 579 thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts revealed 48 complications occurring during urokinase thrombolysis (512) or mechanical thrombectomy (67). These include 12 venous or venous anastomotic ruptures not controlled by balloon tamponade, eight arterial emboli, 12 graft extravasations, seven small hematomas, four intragraft pseudointimal 'dissections', two incidents of pulmonary edema, one episode of intestinal angina, one procedural death, and one distant hematoma. Results: Twelve cases of post angioplasty ruptures were treated with uncovered stents of which 10 resulted in graft salvage allowing successful hemodialysis. All arterial emboli were retrieved by Fogarty or embolectomy balloons. The 10/12 graft extravasations were successfully treated by digital compression while the procedure was completed and the graft flow was restored. Dissections were treated with prolonged Percutaneous Trasluminal Angioplasty (PTA) balloon inflation. Overall technical success was 39/48 (81%). Kaplan-Meier Primary and secondary patency rates were 72 and 78% at 30, 62 and 73% at 90 and 36 and 67% at 180 days, respectively. Secondary patency rates remained over 50% at 1 year. There were no additional complications caused by these maneuvers. Discussions and conclusion: The majority of complications occurring during percutaneous thrombolysis/thrombectomy of thrombosed access grafts, can be treated at the same sitting allowing completion of the recanalization procedure and usage of the same access for hemodialysis

  3. Predictable risk factors and clinical courses for prolonged transient tachypnea of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Chang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN is usually benign and improves within 72 hours. However, it can also progress to prolonged tachypnea over 72 hours, profound hypoxemia, respiratory failure, and even death. The aim of this study is to find predictable risk factors and describe the clinical courses and outcomes of prolonged TTN (PTTN. Methods : The medical records of 107 newborns, &amp;gt;35+0 weeks of gestational age with TTN, who were admitted to the NICU at Seoul Asan Medical Center from January 2001 to September 2007 were reviewed. They were divided into 2 groups based on duration of tachypnea. PTTN was defined as tachypnea ?#247;2 hours of age, and simple TTN (STTN as tachypnea &amp;lt;72 hours of age. We randomly selected 126 healthy-term newborns as controls. We evaluated neonatal and maternal demographic findings, and various clinical factors. Results : Fifty-five infants (51% with total TTN were PTTN. PTTN infants had grunting, tachypnea &amp;gt;90/min, FiO2 &amp;gt;0.4, and required ventilator care more frequently than STTN infants. PTTN had lower level of serum total protein and albumin than STTN. The independent predictable risk factors for PTTN were grunting, maximal respiration rate &amp;gt;90/min, and FiO2 &amp;gt;0.4 within 6 hours of life. Conclusion : When a newborn has grunting, respiration rate &amp;gt;90/min, and oxygen requirement &amp;gt;0.4 of FiO2 within 6 hours of life, the infant is at high risk of having persistent tachypnea ?#247;2 hours. We need further study to find the way to reduce PTTN.

  4. Assisted Medical Procedures (AMP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Documentation and Development: The AMP was initially being developed as part the Advanced Integrated Clinical System (AICS)-Guided Medical Procedure System for the...

  5. Prolonged abulia following putaminal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaratnam, N; Fanella, S; Gopinath, S; Goodwin, A

    2001-01-01

    Abulia, akinetic mutism, and other conditions causing reduced activity and slowness are a continuum of severity of behavior. Unilateral lesions usually cause transient symptoms. This article describes a patient with prolonged abulia lasting 12 weeks after aspontaneous left putaminal hemorrhage. He developed seizures that could be a contributing factor. The pathophysiologic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:17903806

  6. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  7. Prolongations of Geometric Overdetermined Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Branson, Thomas; Cap, Andreas; Eastwood, Michael; Gover, Rod

    2004-01-01

    We show that a wide class of geometrically defined overdetermined semilinear partial differential equations may be explicitly prolonged to obtain closed systems. As a consequence, in the case of linear equations we extract sharp bounds on the dimension of the solution space.

  8. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind;

    2004-01-01

    twin pairs, which indicates genetic effects. Biometric modeling suggested that genetic factors account for 23% to 30% of the liability to prolonged gestation. The difference in concordance rate between monozygotic and dizygotic male twin pairs was small, and the best fitting model indicated no genetic...

  9. Analysis of cartilage-polydioxanone foil composite grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, James H; Wong, Brian

    2013-12-01

    This study presents an analytical investigation into the mechanical behavior of a cartilage-polydioxanone (PDS) plate composite grafts. Numerical methods are used to provide a first-order, numerical model of the flexural stiffness of a cartilage-PDS graft. Flexural stiffness is a measure of resistance to bending and is inversely related to the amount of deformation a structure may experience when subjected to bending forces. The cartilage-PDS graft was modeled as a single composite beam. Using Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, a closed form equation for the theoretical flexural stiffness of the composite graft was developed. A parametric analysis was performed to see how the flexural properties of the composite model changed with varying thicknesses of PDS foil. The stiffness of the cartilage-PDS composite using 0.15-mm-thick PDS was four times higher than cartilage alone. The composite with a 0.5-mm-thick PDS graft was only 1.7 times stiffer than the composite with the 0.15-mm-thick PDS graft. Although a thicker graft material will yield higher flexural stiffness for the composite, the relationship between composite stiffness and PDS thickness is nonlinear. After a critical point, increments in graft thickness produce gradually smaller improvements in flexural stiffness. The small increase in stiffness when using the thicker PDS foils versus the 0.15 mm PDS foil may not be worth the potential complications (prolonged foreign body reaction, reduction in nutrient diffusion to cartilage) of using thicker artificial grafts. PMID:24327249

  10. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered. PMID:24823337

  11. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  12. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Potential problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related to the procedure. Frequently Asked Questions If proximal tibial bone graft is taken from my knee, will this prevent me from being able to ...

  13. Epidermal skin grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia B; Macquhae, Flor; Rakosi, Adele; Kirsner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Autologous skin grafts, such as full- and split-thickness, have long been part of the reconstructive ladder as an option to close skin defects. Although they are effective in providing coverage, they require the need for a trained surgeon, use of anaesthesia and operating room and creation of a wound at the donor site. These drawbacks can be overcome with the use of epidermal skin grafts (ESGs), which can be harvested without the use of anaesthesia in an office setting and with minimal to no scarring at the donor site. ESGs consist only of the epidermal layer and have emerged as an appealing alternative to other autologous grafts for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. In this article, we provide an overview of epidermal grafting and its role in wound management. PMID:27547964

  14. [Zaidemberg's vascularized radial graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cast, Y

    2010-12-01

    In 1991, Carlos Zaidemberg described a new technique to repair scaphoid non-unions with a vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process. An anatomic study based on 30 dissections after colorized latex injection established the constancy of the radial styloid process's artery, while showing that its origin, course and length were subject to variations. In a retrospective series of 38 cases over a period of 10 years, the vascularized bone graft was indicated for: (1) scaphoid non-union with the presence of avascular changes of the proximal fragment (23 cases); (2) failed prior reconstruction with bone graft and internal fixation (nine cases); (3) degenerative styloid-scaphoid arthritis (three cases); (4) fracture on Preiser dystrophy (three cases). The five steps of the simplified operative technique without dissection of the vascular pedicle include: (1) longitudinal dorso-radial approach, identification of the periosteal portion of the radial styloid process artery; (2) incision of the first and second compartments, longitudinal arthrotomy under the second compartment; (3) styloidectomy and transversal resection of the scaphoid non-union and sclerotic bone; (4) elevation of the vascularized bone graft; (5) transversal and radial insertion of the vascularized bone graft, osteosynthesis by two or three K-wire touching the scaphoid's radial edge. Scaphoid union was obtained in 33 cases out of 38. The only postoperative complications were two transient radial paresthesia. The standardized surgical procedure using vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process provides an efficient scaphoid reconstruction. PMID:21087882

  15. Prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Katz; Michael; Frank

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacologic management for ulcerative colitis (UC) has recently been expanded to include antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for severe disease. Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed again TNF α was first tested in patients with Crohn’s disease. In addition to serious infections, malignancy, drug induced lupus and other autoimmune diseases, serum sickness-like reactions, neurological disease, and infusion reactions further complicate the use of Infliximab. We report a case of prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion to treat steroid refractory UC.

  16. Dialysis fistula or graft: the role for randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, Michael; Lok, Charmaine E

    2010-12-01

    The Fistula First Initiative has strongly encouraged nephrologists, vascular access surgeons, and dialysis units in the United States to make valiant efforts to increase fistula use in the hemodialysis population. Unfortunately, the rigid "fistula first" recommendations are not based on solid, current, evidence-based data and may be harmful to some hemodialysis patients by subjecting them to prolonged catheter dependence with its attendant risks of bacteremia and central vein stenosis. Once they are successfully cannulated for dialysis, fistulas last longer than grafts and require fewer interventions to maintain long-term patency for dialysis. However, fistulas have a much higher primary failure rate than grafts, require more interventions to achieve maturation, and entail longer catheter dependence, thereby leading to more catheter-related complications. Given the tradeoffs between fistulas and grafts, there is equipoise about their relative merits in patients with moderate to high risk of fistula nonmaturation. The time is right for definitive, large, multicenter randomized clinical trials to compare fistulas and grafts in various subsets of chronic kidney disease patients. Until the results of such clinical trials are known, the optimal vascular access for a given patients should be determined by the nephrologist and access surgeon by taking into account (1) whether dialysis has been initiated, (2) the patient's life expectancy, (3) whether the patient has had a previous failed vascular access, and (4) the likelihood of fistula nonmaturation. Careful clinical judgment should optimize vascular access outcomes and minimize prolonged catheter dependence among hemodialysis patients. PMID:21030576

  17. Axillobifemoral bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Lazar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Axillo-femoral bypass (AxF means connecting the axillar and femoral artery with the graft that is placed subcutaneously [1]. Usually, this graft is connected with contralateral femoral artery via one accessory subcutaneous graft, and this connection is known as axillobifemoral bypass (AxFF. This extra-anatomic procedure is an alternative method to the standard reconstruction of aortoiliac region when there are contraindications for general or local reasons. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to show early and late results of AxFF bypass grafting as well as to show the indications for AxFF bypass. METHODS The sample consisted of 37 patients. The procedure was performed in 28 patients who suffered from aortoiliac occlusive disease and who were at high risk due to the comorbidity- in one patient with the rupture of juxtarenal aneurysm of abdominal aorta; in five patients with aortoenteric fistula, in two patients with iatrogenic lesion of abdominal aorta and in one female patient with anus preternaturalis definitivus who was treated for rectovaginal fistula. Donor's right axillary artery was used in 26 cases (70.3%, and donor's left axillary artery was used in 9 cases (29.7%. Dacron graft was used in 34 patients and Polytetrafluo-roethlylene graft was used in three patients. Simultaneously, profundo-plastic was done in four patients and femoro-popliteal bypass was performed in three patients. In five patients who suffered from aortoenteric fistula, simultaneous intervention of gastrointerstinal system has been done, x2 test was used for statistical evaluation and life table method was used for verification of late graft patency. RESULTS The rate of early postoperative mortality was 13.5%. The causes of death were: sepsis -1, MOFS - 3, and infarct myocardium -1. The mean follow up period was 40.1 months, ranging from six months to 17 years. During the follow up period, an early graft thrombosis was identified in two and late graft

  18. Prolongation of murine skin allograft survival by immunologic manipulation with anti-interleukin 2 receptor antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of a rat monoclonal antibody (M7/20) directed against the murine interleukin 2 (IL 2) receptor in combination with sublethal x-irradiation of the recipient significantly enhanced the survival of skin allografts, both when the grafts were MHC disparate from the hosts and when only minor histocompatibility differences were present compared with untreated controls. No prolongation in graft survival was seen with either treatment alone at the dose employed. M7/20 and x-ray-treated allograft recipients also displayed significantly decreased alloantigen-specific reactivity against donor-strain spleen cells in both delayed-type hypersensitivity and cytotoxicity assays. Thus, such combination treatment reduces expression of host immune reactivity against graft determinants by several criteria. This work provides additional evidence that monoclonal antibodies directed against the IL 2 receptor may be useful in clinical transplantation

  19. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevostyanova, V. V.; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2015-10-01

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  20. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevostyanova, V. V., E-mail: sevostyanova.victoria@gmail.com; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  1. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts

  2. Arteriovenous shunt graft ulceration with sinus and graft epithelialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Singhal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous fistula and grafts are used as access sites for patients with chronic kidney disease and are prone for complications. Stent grafts are used to treat access site complications. We report a rare and unusual finding of epithelialization of the sinus tract and the lumen of a polytetrafluoroethylene graft, following ulceration of the overlying skin.

  3. Detection of imminent vein graft occlusion: what is the optimal surveillance program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinder, Chelsey N; Bandyk, Dennis F

    2009-12-01

    The prediction of infrainguinal vein bypass failure remains an inexact judgment. Patient demographics, technical factors, and vascular laboratory graft surveillance testing are helpful in identifying a high-risk graft cohort. The optimal surveillance program to detect the bypass at risk for imminent occlusion continues to be developed, but required elements are known and include clinical assessment for new or changes in limb ischemia symptoms, measurement of ankle and/or toe systolic pressure, and duplex ultrasound imaging of the bypass graft. Duplex ultrasound assessment of bypass hemodynamics may be the most accurate method to detect imminent vein graft occlusion. The finding of low graft flow during intraoperative assessment or at a scheduled surveillance study predicts failure; and if associated with an occlusive lesion, a graft revision can prolong patency. The most common abnormality producing graft failure is conduit stenosis caused by myointimal hyperplasia; and the majority can be repaired by an endovascular intervention. Frequency of testing to detect the failing bypass should be individualized to the patient, the type of arterial bypass, and prior duplex ultrasound scan findings. The focus of surveillance is on identification of the low-flow arterial bypass and timely repair of detected critical stenosis defined by duplex velocity spectra criteria of a peak systolic velocity 300 cm/s and peak systolic velocity ratio across the stenosis >3.5-correlating with >70% diameter-reducing stenosis. When conducted appropriately, a graft surveillance program should result in an unexpected graft failure rate of <3% per year. PMID:20006806

  4. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  5. Slicing, skinning, and grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, David; Kent IV, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    We prove that a Bers slice is never algebraic, meaning that its Zariski closure in the character variety has strictly larger dimension. A corollary is that skinning maps are never constant. The proof uses grafting and the theory of complex projective structures.

  6. Acrylonitrile grafted to PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2015-03-31

    PVDF-g-PAN has been synthesized by grafting polyacrylonitrile onto polyvinylidene fluoride using an ATRP/AGET method. The novel polymer is ionically conducive and has much more flexibility than PVDF alone, making it especially useful either as a binder in battery cell electrodes or as a polymer electrolyte in a battery cell.

  7. Agile manufacturing prototyping system (AMPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, P.

    1998-05-09

    The Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System (AMPS) is being integrated at Sandia National Laboratories. AMPS consists of state of the industry flexible manufacturing hardware and software enhanced with Sandia advancements in sensor and model based control; automated programming, assembly and task planning; flexible fixturing; and automated reconfiguration technology. AMPS is focused on the agile production of complex electromechanical parts. It currently includes 7 robots (4 Adept One, 2 Adept 505, 1 Staubli RX90), conveyance equipment, and a collection of process equipment to form a flexible production line capable of assembling a wide range of electromechanical products. This system became operational in September 1995. Additional smart manufacturing processes will be integrated in the future. An automated spray cleaning workcell capable of handling alcohol and similar solvents was added in 1996 as well as parts cleaning and encapsulation equipment, automated deburring, and automated vision inspection stations. Plans for 1997 and out years include adding manufacturing processes for the rapid prototyping of electronic components such as soldering, paste dispensing and pick-and-place hardware.

  8. Thalidomide prolongs experimental autoimmune neuritis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J; Deng, G M; Diab, A; Zwingenberger, K; Bakhiet, M; Link, H

    1998-10-01

    Thalidomide is reported to have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects, which have led to its use in the treatment of a number of immune-mediated disorders, including leprosy, discoid lupus and Behcet's disease, and to prevent immunological rejection phenomena following skin and bone marrow grafts. Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a CD4+ T-cell-mediated demyelinating autoimmune disease, which represents an animal model for the study of the immunopathogenesis and immunotherapy of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in humans. We examined the effect of thalidomide in Lewis rats with EAN, which was induced by immunization with bovine peripheral nerve myelin (BPM) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Thalidomide prolonged clinical EAN when given at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day by gavage. This clinical effect was associated with increased numbers of inflammatory cells in sciatic nerve sections and elevated numbers of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA-expressing cells among lymph node mononuclear cells from thalidomide-treated EAN rats on day 17 postimmunization, i.e. at the peak of clinical EAN. The finding that thalidomide prolongs clinical EAN is in agreement with the clinical polyneuropathy reported in patients receiving treatment with thalidomide and limits its clinical usefulness. PMID:9790310

  9. Prolonged QT interval in Rett syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    ELLAWAY, C; Sholler, G; Leonard, H; Christodoulou, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology. A prolonged QT interval has been described previously in patients with Rett syndrome. To investigate QT prolongation and the presence of cardiac tachyarrhythmias in Rett syndrome electrocardiography and 24 hour Holter monitoring were performed prospectively in a cohort of 34 girls with Rett syndrome. The corrected QT value was prolonged in nine patients. Compared with a group of healthy controls of a...

  10. Preparation and Characteristics of Corn Straw-Co-AMPS-Co-AA Superabsorbent Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Min Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the corn straw after removing the lignin was grafted with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS to prepare sulfonated cellulose. The grafting copolymerization between the sulfonated cellulose and acrylic acid (AA was performed using potassium persulfate and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as the initiator and crosslinking agent, respectively, to prepare corn straw-co-AMPS-co-AA hydrogels. The structure and properties of the resulting hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and dynamic rheometry. The effects of initiator, crosslinker, monomer neutralization degree, and temperature on the swelling ratio of the hydrogels were studied. The water retention, salt resistance, and recyclability of the corn straw-co-AMPS-co-AA hydrogels were also investigated. The optimum water absorptivity of the corn straw hydrogels was obtained at a polymerization temperature of 50 °C with 1.2% crosslinker, 1:7 ratio of the pretreated corn straw and AA, 2% initiator, and 50% neutralized AA.

  11. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J;

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis that...... the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  12. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of cellulosic fabric waste and its application in the removal of cyanide and dichromate from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graft polymerization and crosslinking in radiation processing are attractive techniques for modification of the chemical and physical properties of the conventional polymers. The graft polymerization and subsequent chemical treatment can introduce a chelate agent function into a conventional polymer such as cellulosic fabric. Cellulosic graft copolymers were prepared by the reaction of the fiber with acrylonitrile (AN) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) in DMF initiated by gamma-radiation 60Co. The grafted fabric was chemically treated with hydroxyl amine to obtain amidoxime form. Factors affecting on the grafting such as radiation dose, monomer concentration and solvent concentration as well as monomer composition was investigated. The chemically modified graft fabric was applied for recovery of cyanide and dichromate from aqueous solution. The CN show removal percent 89%, whereas dichromate has 65% removal percent

  13. Environmental application of radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorbent having high selectivity against a certain metal ion was synthesized by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization for the purpose of environmental application. The resulting adsorbents were utilized for the removal of toxic metal from scallop waste and the collection of uranium from seawater. As a novel application of grafting, the biodegradability of poly-hydroxybutylate was controlled by grafting. The biodegradability could be depressed by the graft chain and then recovered by external stimuli such as thermal and chemical treatments. (author)

  14. Axonal regeneration through arterial grafts.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, P. N.; Turmaine, M.

    1986-01-01

    The left common peroneal nerves of adult inbred mice were severed and allowed to regenerate through the lumina of Y-shaped tubes comprising grafts of abdominal aorta and its bifurcation. Very little regeneration took place within the grafts unless the distal nerve stump was inserted into one limb of the Y-tube. Using syngeneic grafts virtually all the axons regenerating through the lumen grew down the limb of the Y-tube containing the distal nerve. Using non-syngeneic grafts, however, a subst...

  15. Zwitterionic monomer graft copolymerization onto polyurethane surface through a PEG spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new zwitterionic surface was obtained by a novel three-step grafting procedure. The zwitterionic monomer was introduced by cerium-induced graft copolymerization in the presence of N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) as cross-linking agent. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the MBAA could stimulate zwitterionic monomer grafting onto the membrane surface. Surface properties were also determined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and water contact angle. The hemocompatibility of the modified PU membranes was evaluated by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT). The TT and APTT of PU were significantly prolonged by the zwitterion of sulfobetaine monomer grafting copolymerization. The new polyurethane membrane could have a great potential in biomedical applications.

  16. Intercellular redistribution of cAMP underlies selective suppression of cancer cell growth by connexin26.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Chandrasekhar

    Full Text Available Connexins (Cx, which constitute gap junction intercellular channels in vertebrates, have been shown to suppress transformed cell growth and tumorigenesis, but the mechanism(s still remain largely speculative. Here, we define the molecular basis by which Cx26, but less frequently Cx43 or Cx32, selectively confer growth suppression on cancer cells. Functional intercellular coupling is shown to be required, producing partial blocks of the cell cycle due to prolonged activation of several mitogenic kinases. PKA is both necessary and sufficient for the Cx26 induced growth inhibition in low serum and the absence of anchorage. Activation of PKA was not associated with elevated cAMP levels, but appeared to result from a redistribution of cAMP throughout the cell population, eliminating the cell cycle oscillations in cAMP required for efficient cell cycle progression. Cx43 and Cx32 fail to mediate this redistribution as, unlike Cx26, these channels are closed during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle when cAMP levels peak. Comparisons of tumor cell lines indicate that this is a general pattern, with growth suppression by connexins occurring whenever cAMP oscillates with the cell cycle, and the gap junction remain open throughout the cell cycle. Thus, gap junctional coupling, in the absence of any external signals, provides a general means to limit the mitotic rate of cell populations.

  17. Antimicrobial Graft Copolymer Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Amanda C; Madsen, Jeppe; Douglas, C W Ian; MacNeil, Sheila; Armes, Steven P

    2016-08-01

    In view of the growing worldwide rise in microbial resistance, there is considerable interest in designing new antimicrobial copolymers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial activity and copolymer composition/architecture to gain a better understanding of their mechanism of action. Specifically, the antibacterial activity of several copolymers based on 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine [MPC] and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) toward Staphylococcus aureus was examined. Both block and graft copolymers were synthesized using either atom transfer radical polymerization or reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and characterized via (1)H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, rheology, and surface tensiometry. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using a range of well-known assays, including direct contact, live/dead staining, and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), while transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the bacteria before and after the addition of various copolymers. As expected, PMPC homopolymer was biocompatible but possessed no discernible antimicrobial activity. PMPC-based graft copolymers comprising PHPMA side chains (i.e. PMPC-g-PHPMA) significantly reduced both bacterial growth and viability. In contrast, a PMPC-PHPMA diblock copolymer comprising a PMPC stabilizer block and a hydrophobic core-forming PHPMA block did not exhibit any antimicrobial activity, although it did form a biocompatible worm gel. Surface tensiometry studies and LDH release assays suggest that the PMPC-g-PHPMA graft copolymer exhibits surfactant-like activity. Thus, the observed antimicrobial activity is likely to be the result of the weakly hydrophobic PHPMA chains penetrating (and hence rupturing) the bacterial membrane. PMID:27409712

  18. Suction blister grafting - Modifications for easy harvesting and grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suction blister grafting is a simple modality of treatment of patients with resistant and stable vitiligo. But raising the blisters may be time consuming and transferring to the recipient site may be difficult as the graft is ultrathin. By doing some modifications we can make the technique simpler and easier. We can decrease the blister induction time by intradermal injection of saline, exposure to Wood′s lamp, intrablister injection of saline. By these methods we can decrease the blister induction time from 2-3 hrs to 45-90 minutes. After harvesting the graft, it can be transferred to the recipient area by taking the graft on a sterile glass slide, on the gloved finger, rolling the graft over a sterile syringe and then spreading on the recipient area, or taking on the sterile wrapper of paraffin dressing and then placing over the recipient area.

  19. Design of a Sapling Branch Grafting Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Qun Sun; Dongjie Zhao; Chong Wang; Ying Zhao

    2014-01-01

    The automatic sapling grafting methods and grafting robot technologies are not comprehensively studied despite the fact that they are urgently required in practice. For this reason, a sapling grafting robot is developed to implement automatic grafting for saplings. The developed grafting robot includes clipping mechanism, moving mechanism, cutting mechanism, binding mechanism, and Arduino MCU based control system, which is capable of clipping, moving, positioning, cutting, grafting, and bindi...

  20. A cAMP Biosensor-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay for Identification of Gs-Coupled GPCR Ligands and Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Line; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is an important second messenger, and quantification of intracellular cAMP levels is essential in studies of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The intracellular cAMP levels are regulated by the adenylate cyclase (AC) upon activation of either Gs- or Gi......-coupled GPCRs, which leads to increased or decreased cAMP levels, respectively. Here we describe a real-time Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for identification and characterization of Gs-coupled GPCR ligands and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors...... resulted in prolonged signaling and enabled detection of weak partial agonists and/or ligands with low potency, which is highly advantageous in large HTS settings and hit identification. In addition, the assay enabled detection of β2AR inverse agonists and PDE inhibitors. High signal-to-noise ratios were...

  1. The AzTEC Mathematics Project (AMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gae R.

    The AzTEC Mathematics Project (AMP) is a statewide partnership among Arizona's Regents universities and state community colleges, partner school districts, and economic communities. AzTec is committed to preparing highly qualified K-12 mathematics and science teachers. AMP targeted Native American teachers and teachers of Native American students…

  2. Temporary Placement of Stent Grafts in Postsurgical Benign Biliary Strictures: a Single Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of temporary stent graft placement in the treatment of benign anastomotic biliary strictures. Nine patients, five women and four men, 22-64 years old (mean, 47.5 years), with chronic benign biliary anastomotic strictures, refractory to repeated balloon dilations, were treated by prolonged, temporary placement of stent-grafts. Four patients had strictures following a liver transplantation; three of them in bilio-enteric anastomoses and one in a choledocho-choledochostomy. Four of the other five patients had strictures at bilio-enteric anastomoses, which developed after complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomies and in one after a Whipple procedure for duodenal carcinoma. In eight patients, balloon-expandable stent-grafts were placed and one patient was treated by insertion of a self-expanding stent-graft. In the transplant group, treatment of patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses was unsuccessful (mean stent duration, 30 days). The patient treated for stenosis in the choledocho-choledochostomy responded well to consecutive self-expanding stent-graft placement (total placement duration, 112 days). All patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses in the non-transplant group were treated successfully with stent-grafts (mean placement duration, 37 days). Treatment of benign biliary strictures with temporary placement of stent-grafts has a positive effect, but is less successful in patients with strictures developed following a liver transplant.

  3. Temporary Placement of Stent Grafts in Postsurgical Benign Biliary Strictures: a Single Center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellody, Ranjith; Willatt, Jnonathon M.; Arabi, Mohammad; Cwikiel, Wojciech B [Division of Interventional Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)

    2011-11-15

    To evaluate the effect of temporary stent graft placement in the treatment of benign anastomotic biliary strictures. Nine patients, five women and four men, 22-64 years old (mean, 47.5 years), with chronic benign biliary anastomotic strictures, refractory to repeated balloon dilations, were treated by prolonged, temporary placement of stent-grafts. Four patients had strictures following a liver transplantation; three of them in bilio-enteric anastomoses and one in a choledocho-choledochostomy. Four of the other five patients had strictures at bilio-enteric anastomoses, which developed after complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomies and in one after a Whipple procedure for duodenal carcinoma. In eight patients, balloon-expandable stent-grafts were placed and one patient was treated by insertion of a self-expanding stent-graft. In the transplant group, treatment of patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses was unsuccessful (mean stent duration, 30 days). The patient treated for stenosis in the choledocho-choledochostomy responded well to consecutive self-expanding stent-graft placement (total placement duration, 112 days). All patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses in the non-transplant group were treated successfully with stent-grafts (mean placement duration, 37 days). Treatment of benign biliary strictures with temporary placement of stent-grafts has a positive effect, but is less successful in patients with strictures developed following a liver transplant.

  4. Bone Grafting the Cleft Maxilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... systemic disease such as diabetes, or has poor oral hygiene, the risk that the graft may fail increases even more. Once the bone graft has been placed, there are three options that ... replacement (dental bridge); or 3) dental metallic bone implants. The ...

  5. Polyether/Polyester Graft Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L., Jr.; Wakelyn, N.; Stoakley, D. M.; Proctor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Higher solvent resistance achieved along with lower melting temperature. New technique provides method of preparing copolymers with polypivalolactone segments grafted onto poly (2,6-dimethyl-phenylene oxide) backbone. Process makes strong materials with improved solvent resistance and crystalline, thermally-reversible crosslinks. Resulting graft copolymers easier to fabricate into useful articles, including thin films, sheets, fibers, foams, laminates, and moldings.

  6. Collapse of grafted polyelectrolyte layer

    OpenAIRE

    Borisov, O.; Birshtein, T.; Zhulina, E.

    1991-01-01

    The theory describing chain conformation in a planar layer of grafted polyelectrolyte (polyampholyte) molecules and the conformational transition related to the collapse of this layer caused by the decrease in solvent strenght is developed. Depending on the values of the layer parameters (grafting and charge densities) this transition may occur as a continuous (cooperative) or as a first order phase transition.

  7. Grafting techniques for Peyronie's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzichristodoulou, Georgios

    2016-06-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a benign fibrotic condition of the penile tunica albuginea. PD can be associated with penile pain, curvature, shortening, and erectile dysfunction (ED). The predominant and most bothersome symptom in affected patients is penile curvature, which can lead to inability to have sexual intercourse. In such cases, surgical correction of the curvature may be required. Plication techniques to correct curvature can cause penile shortening and therefore are generally reserved for curvatures 60°, short penis, or hourglass deformity. Patients scheduled for grafting surgery are required to have satisfactory erectile rigidity preoperatively. There are various grafting materials that can be used for closure of the tunica albuginea defect following plaque incision/excision. Both autologous and non-autologous grafts have been used for PD reconstructive surgery, and each graft has its advantages and disadvantages. Novel grafting materials are presented and discussed in this review. A major advantage of the available "off-the-shelf" grafts is that there is no harvesting from a donor site and, thus, morbidity is reduced, and operative times are minimized. Further investigations in regard to tissue-engineered grafts to improve surgical handling and postoperative outcomes are ongoing. Surgeon experience, careful patient selection, patient preference and type of penile deformity affect the choice of graft. This review summarizes the literature within the past 5 years regarding grafting techniques in PD. Surgical outcomes and limitations of grafting techniques are reported. A major objective of this review is dedicated to preoperative considerations and indications for grafting procedures, with the aim to improve surgical outcomes and increase patient satisfaction. Proper postoperative management of patients after incision/excision and grafting is important to avoid early and long-term complications and unwanted outcomes. This review provides an overview of

  8. Electron beam grafting of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam (EB) grafting has been a well known technique for modifying the surfaces of materials for many years. Commercial implementation has been quite successful in a few, narrow niche markets. Irradiation grafting is being used to control ion flow through battery separator membranes, to modify the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of semi-permeable membranes and non-woven fabrics, to enhance the bio-compatibility of materials used in the medical device area, and to impart release properties to films and papers. The use of grafting to modify the bulk properties of materials has not as yet emerged as a widely accepted commercial practice. The development of lower voltage, more cost-effective self-shielded electron beam equipment presents opportunities for enhanced commercial development. The technology used in grafting is very specific to the selection of the base polymer and to the choice of the graft monomers. Different combinations can yield vastly different performance properties

  9. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  10. Radiation grafting on natural films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

  11. Unexplained Graft Dysfunction after Heart Transplantation—Role of Novel Molecular Expression Test Score and QTc-Interval: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Shahzad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current era of immunosuppressive medications there is increased observed incidence of graft dysfunction in the absence of known histological criteria of rejection after heart transplantation. A noninvasive molecular expression diagnostic test was developed and validated to rule out histological acute cellular rejection. In this paper we present for the first time, longitudinal pattern of changes in this novel diagnostic test score along with QTc-interval in a patient who was admitted with unexplained graft dysfunction. Patient presented with graft failure with negative findings on all known criteria of rejection including acute cellular rejection, antibody mediated rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. The molecular expression test score showed gradual increase and QTc-interval showed gradual prolongation with the gradual decline in graft function. This paper exemplifies that in patients presenting with unexplained graft dysfunction, GEP test score and QTc-interval correlate with the changes in the graft function.

  12. Quality of drug label information on QT interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H;

    2014-01-01

    -prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16...

  13. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    . Statistical analyses were done using logistic regression. RESULTS: Women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or more had a high risk of prolonged pregnancy. If the pre-pregnancy body mass index was 35 kg/m2 or more the odds ratio was 1.52 (95% CI 1.28-1.82). Nulliparity also increased the risk of......BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from the...... prolonged pregnancy (OR (95% CI) = 1.35 (1.27-1.44)). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of post-term delivery was high in women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or more, and in nulliparous women....

  14. High-dose stabilized chlorite matrix WF10 prolongs cardiac xenograft survival in the hamster-to-rat model without inducing ultrastructural or biochemical signs of cardiotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A; Kemp, K; Kemp, E;

    2001-01-01

    WF10 is a stabilized chlorite matrix with immunosuppressive effects. In vitro studies have demonstrated its ability to suppress T cells and delay or abolish antigen presentation. Hence, WF10 may prove useful to prolong graft survival after transplantation. In this study, we evaluated the use of...... high dose WF10 as a single drug regimen in the hamster-to-rat xenotransplantation model and searched for possible cardiotoxic side effects. WF10 prolonged cardiac xenograft survival, but did not induce tolerence or inhibit pathological signs of acute rejection. Hamsters from the donor population......, receiving high dose WF10 for 5 days, were compared with a matched control group. Ultrastructural examination of cardiac tissue as well as biochemical analysis of the cardiac enzymes troponin I, myoglobin and MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase showed no signs of damage. Thus, while prolonging graft survival...

  15. Saphenous Vein Graft Perforation During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention - A Nightmare to be Avoided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Deora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs of saphenous vein grafts (SVGs is challenging and is associated with adverse short- and long-term clinical outcome as compared to native coronary arteries. SVG perforation is rare but catastrophic and needs immediate attention. Various factors predisposing for SVG perforation are old degenerated graft, ulcerated plaque, severe fibrotic, or calcified lesion necessitating high pressure balloon or stent inflation, use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS or other atheroablative devices. Management includes prolonged balloon occlusion, reversal of anticoagulation, use of covered stent, and emergency pericadiocentesis if required.

  16. Warmer amps for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    CERN is working together with an Italian company to develop superconducting cables that can function at temperatures of up to 25 K (-248°C). This will make it possible to move LHC magnet power supplies out of the tunnel, protecting them from exposure to the showers of very high-energy particles produced by the accelerator.   Figure 1: devices of this type, which measure approximately 10 metres in length, are inserted between the accelerating magnets at different points along the LHC. When it comes to consuming electricity, the magnets that steer particles through large accelerators can be characterised with just one word: greedy. For the LHC, the total current can reach 1.5 million amps. At the present time, this current is brought in via copper cables of up to 10 cm in diameter. In the tunnel, these cables connect the current leads - which provide the transition between the ambient-temperature cables and the magnets in their bath of superfluid helium - to the power supply. In the a...

  17. Evaluation of a cesium adsorbent grafted with ammonium 12-molybdophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takuya; Seko, Noriaki; Amada, Haruyo; Kasai, Noboru; Saiki, Seiichi; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Ueki, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A fibrous cesium (Cs) adsorbent was developed using radiation-induced graft polymerization with a cross-linked structure containing a highly stable adsorption ligand. The ligand, ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP), was successfully introduced onto the fibrous polyethylene trunk material. The resulting Cs adsorbent contained 36% nonwoven fabric polyethylene (NFPE), 1% AMP, 2% triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) and 61% glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The adsorbent's Cs adsorption capacity was evaluated using batch and column tests. It was determined that the adsorbent could be used in a wide pH range. The amount of desorbed molybdenum, which can be used as an estimate for AMP stability on the Cs adsorbent, was minimized at the standard drinking water pH range of 5.8-8.6. Based from the inspection on the adherence of these results to the requirements set forth by the Food Sanitation Act by a third party organization, it can be concluded that the developed Cs adsorbent can be safely utilized for drinking water.

  18. Percutaneous Intervention of Sequential Coronary Venous Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki DOGAN; Karabulut, Ahmet; Uzunlar, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    We present a case with coronary bypass grafts in which venous graft was anastomosed to obtuse marginal (OM) 1 and OM2 branches sequentially. We performed percutaneous intervention to the proximal circumflex (CX), OM1, and bridging segment of the venous graft. Finally, bridging segment of the venous graft began to function as a CX body extending between the OM1 and OM2.

  19. Are Aortic Stent Grafts Safe in Pregnancy?

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Khandanpour; Mehta, Tapan A.; Adiseshiah, M; Meyer, Felicity J.

    2015-01-01

    Aortic stent grafts are increasingly used to treat aortic aneurysms and also other aortic pathologies. The safety of aortic stent grafts in pregnancy has never been studied or reported. We report on two cases of aortic stent grafts in pregnant women and discuss the effect of pregnancy on these aortic stent grafts.

  20. Radiation grafting of synthetic fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose-response relationships were studied in radiation-induced grafting copolymerization. Polyester textile fabric samples were irradiated with electrons from a Van de Graaff type accelerator under nitrogen atmosphere. Radiation doses ranged within 10 and 150 kGy. An 80% acrylic acid solution was used as the monomer while a 0.1% Mohr's salt solution was used as the inhibitor of acrylic acid homopolymerization. Grafting proceeded at 95 degC in a time interval of 10 mins. It was found that at constant time and temperature conditions the initially grafting grade rapidly increased while at values exceeding 20% only relatively small changes were recorded. The grafting grade was also found to favourably alter some properties of the modified materials, such as moisture content and tensile strength. (Z.M.)

  1. C++ Coding Standards for the AMP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL

    2009-09-01

    This document provides an initial starting point to define the C++ coding standards used by the AMP nuclear fuel performance integrated code project and a part of AMP's software development process. This document draws from the experiences, and documentation [1], of the developers of the Marmot Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Much of the software in AMP will be written in C++. The power of C++ can be abused easily, resulting in code that is difficult to understand and maintain. This document gives the practices that should be followed on the AMP project for all new code that is written. The intent is not to be onerous but to ensure that the code can be readily understood by the entire code team and serve as a basis for collectively defining a set of coding standards for use in future development efforts. At the end of the AMP development in fiscal year (FY) 2010, all developers will have experience with the benefits, restrictions, and limitations of the standards described and will collectively define a set of standards for future software development. External libraries that AMP uses do not have to meet these requirements, although we encourage external developers to follow these practices. For any code of which AMP takes ownership, the project will decide on any changes on a case-by-case basis. The practices that we are using in the AMP project have been in use in the Denovo project [2] for several years. The practices build on those given in References [3-5]; the practices given in these references should also be followed. Some of the practices given in this document can also be found in [6].

  2. AmpC β-Lactamases

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: AmpC β-lactamases are clinically important cephalosporinases encoded on the chromosomes of many of the Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms, where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, most penicillins, and β-lactamase inhibitor-β-lactam combinations. In many bacteria, AmpC enzymes are inducible and can be expressed at high levels by mutation. Overexpression confers resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins including cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and ceft...

  3. Interventions in Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interventional radiologist plays an important role in the detection and prevention of infrainguinal bypass failure. Early detection and evaluation of flow-limiting lesions effectively preserve graft (venous bypass and polyester or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass) patency by identifying stenoses before occlusion occurs. Delay in treatment of the at-risk graft may result in graft failure and a reduced chance of successful revascularization. For this reason, surveillance protocols form an important part of follow-up after infrainguinal bypass surgery. As well as having an understanding of the application of imaging techniques including ultrasound, MR angiography, CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography, the interventional radiologist should have detailed knowledge of the minimally invasive therapeutic options. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), or alternatively cutting balloon angioplasty, is the interventional treatment of choice in prevention of graft failure and occlusion. Further alternatives include metallic stent placement, fibrinolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy. Primary assisted patency rates following PTA can be up to 65% at 5 years. When the endovascular approach is unsuccessful, these therapeutic options are complemented by surgical procedures including vein patch revision, jump grafting, or placement of a new graft

  4. FAS grafted superhydrophobic ceramic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrophobic properties of γ-Al2O3 membrane have been obtained by grafting fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the surface of the membrane. The following grafting parameters were studied: the eroding time of the original membrane, the grafting time, the concentration of FAS solution and the multiplicity of grafting. Hydrophobicity of the membranes was characterized by contact angle (CA) measurement. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the weight loss process (25-800 deg. C) of the fluoroalkylsilane grafted on Al2O3 powders under different grafting conditions. The morphologies of the membranes modified under different parameters were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the surface roughness (Ra) was measured using white light interferometers. A needle-like structure was observed on the membrane surface after modification, which causes the change of Ra. On the results above, we speculated a model to describe the reaction between FAS and γ-Al2O3 membrane surface as well as the formed surface morphology.

  5. Radiation grafting on natural films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37–40 N mm−1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5–9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282–296 N mm−1 and PD of 5.0–5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films. - Highlights: • Irradiation of zein

  6. Early mobilization and exercise in elderly patients after coronary artery bypass grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Klebson; Novo, André; Carneiro, Saul Rassy; Preto, Leonel; Mendes, Eugénia

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. During the postoperative period, the prolonged bed rest increases the possible occurrence of systemic complications, resulting from immobilization. Aim: This quasi-experimental study aims to analyze the hemodynamic variables and the peak expiratory flow (peak flow) during the application of two different exercise protocols (with and without passive exercise peddler) compared with the traditional ...

  7. Utility of Covered Stents for Revision of Aging Failing Synthetic Hemodialysis Grafts: A Report of Three Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three aging failing hemodialysis polytetrafluoroethylene bypass shunts, average age 44 months, previously percutaneously revised with balloon angioplasty, presented with pseudoaneurysms and recurrent thrombosis. All were treated with percutaneous covered stent placement within their affected limbs. One graft was ligated 1 month after treatment for infected overlying skin ulcer, though this graft was subsequently surgically revised with interposition graft and the covered stent portion remains functional at 19 month follow-up. The 18- and 13- month follow- up of the remaining 2 patients shows that the covered stents remained patent and they are functional and being successfully and routinely punctured for dialysis. In this elderly population, the use of covered stents may prolong the functional life of failing hemodialysis bypass grafts, reducing the number of percutaneous and surgical interventions and further sparing other vascular access sites

  8. Differential immune response of congenic mice to ultraviolet-treated major histocompatibility complex class II-incompatible skin grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ultraviolet (UVB) irradiation on the survival of H-2 class II-disparate skin grafts was studied in congenic mouse strains. Isolated skin was UVB irradiated in vitro at a dose of 40 mJ/cm2 from both sides to remove Ia immunogenicity. Immediately after irradiation the skin was transplanted onto the flank of allogeneic mice. When B10.AQR grafts were transplanted onto B10.T(6R) recipients, a significant prolongation of the survival time was observed, while 50% of the UVB-treated grafts were not rejected at all. However, in the opposite direction--i.e., B10.T(6R) grafts onto B10.AQR recipients, no significant prolongation of the survival was observed. To test whether this effect was due to a difference in susceptibility of the donor skin to UVB irradiation or to a different immune response in the recipients, (B10.T(6R) x B10.AQR) grafts were transplanted onto the parent strains. Similar results were obtained, in that UVB-treated grafts did not show a prolonged survival in B10.AQR recipients, whereas a significant prolongation (50% of the grafts survived more than 100 days) was observed in B10.T(6R) recipients. UVB-treated (B10.T(6R) x B10.AQR)F1 grafts were also transplanted onto (B10.T(6R) x C57B1/10)F1, (B10.AQR x C57B1/10)F1, (B10.T(6R) x Balb/c)F1 and (B10.AQR x Balb/c)F1 recipients--but in none of these combinations was a prolonged survival time observed. These data suggest that, in contrast to all in vitro experiments, the abrogation of the immune response by UVB treatment of the stimulator cells is, in vivo, not a general phenomenon. The genetic constitution of the responder mice seems to play an important role in determining whether or not an immune response takes place

  9. Underlying Etiologies of Prolonged Icterus in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mortazavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine underlying causes of prolonged neonatal icterus. Icterus or jaundice is an important common problem in neonatology. When this condition persists beyond 14 days, it is called prolonged or protracted neonatal icterus. Determining underlying causes of this problem is a pivotal step for management, because a delay in treatment may lead to serious complications or even death. In a prospective study, newborns with diagnosis of prolonged icterus were evaluated during a six-month period in Tabriz Children Teaching Hospital. Data regarding the past medical history, physical examination and appropriate laboratory and paraclinical investigations were gathered and accordingly, the underlying cause of jaundice was documented. One hundred newborns, 67 males and 33 females with a mean age of 21.5±4.5 days were enrolled. Breastfeeding, urinary tract infection, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and hypothyroidism were found as the main underlying causes in 75, 7, 7 and 4% of the cases. The exact etiology was unknown in 4% of newborns. ABO incompatibility, sepsis and Down syndrome were underlying etiologies in remaining three patients. Present study showed that the underlying causes of prolonged neonatal jaundice could be determined in majority of cases and breastfeeding is the most common one in this regard.

  10. Plant grafting: new mechanisms, evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Eliezer E

    2014-01-01

    Grafting, an old plant propagation practice, is still widely used with fruit trees and in recent decades also with vegetables. Taxonomic proximity is a general prerequisite for successful graft-take and long-term survival of the grafted, composite plant. However, the mechanisms underlying interspecific graft incompatibility are as yet insufficiently understood. Hormonal signals, auxin in particular, are believed to play an important role in the wound healing and vascular regeneration within the graft union zone. Incomplete and convoluted vascular connections impede the vital upward and downward whole plant transfer routes. Long-distance protein, mRNA and small RNA graft-transmissible signals currently emerge as novel mechanisms which regulate nutritional and developmental root/top relations and may play a pivotal role in grafting physiology. Grafting also has significant pathogenic projections. On one hand, stock to scion mechanical contact enables the spread of diseases, even without a complete graft union. But, on the other hand, grafting onto resistant rootstocks serves as a principal tool in the management of fruit tree plagues and vegetable soil-borne diseases. The 'graft hybrid' historic controversy has not yet been resolved. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic modification of DNA-methylation patterns may account for certain graft-transformation phenomena. Root grafting is a wide spread natural phenomenon; both intraspecific and interspecific root grafts have been recorded. Root grafts have an evolutionary role in the survival of storm-hit forest stands as well as in the spread of devastating diseases. A more fundamental evolutionary role is hinted by recent findings that demonstrate plastid and nuclear genome transfer between distinct Nicotiana species in the graft union zone, within a tissue culture system. This has led to the formation of alloploid cells that, under laboratory conditions, gave rise to a novel, alloploid Nicotiana species, indicating

  11. Plant grafting: new mechanisms, evolutionary implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer E Goldschmidt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grafting, an old plant propagation practice, is still widely used with fruit trees and in recent decades also with vegetables. Taxonomic proximity is a general prerequisite for successful graft-take and long-term survival of the grafted, composite plant. However, the mechanisms underlying interspecific graft incompatibility are as yet insufficiently understood. Hormonal signals, auxin in particular, are believed to play an important role in the wound healing and vascular regeneration within the graft union zone. Long-distance protein, mRNA and small RNA graft-transmissible signals currently emerge as novel mechanisms which regulate nutritional and developmental root/top relations and may play a pivotal role in grafting physiology. Grafting also has significant pathogenic projections. On one hand, stock to scion mechanical contact enables the spread of diseases, even without a complete graft union. But, on the other hand, grafting onto resistant rootstocks serves as a principal tool in the management of fruit tree plagues and vegetable soil-borne diseases. The ‘graft hybrid’ historic controversy has not yet been resolved. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic modification of DNA-methylation patterns may account for certain graft-transformation phenomena. Root grafting is a wide spread natural phenomenon; both intraspecific and interspecific root grafts have been recorded. Root grafts have an evolutionary role in the survival of storm-hit forest stands as well as in the spread of devastating diseases. A more fundamental evolutionary role is hinted by recent findings that demonstrate plastid and nuclear genome transfer between distinct Nicotiana species in the graft union zone, within a tissue culture system. This has led to the formation of alloploid cells that, under laboratory conditions, gave rise to a novel, alloploid Nicotiana species, indicating that natural grafts may play a role in plant speciation. under certain circumstances.

  12. Silicon tetrachloride plasma induced grafting for starch-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yonghui C.

    Non-modified virgin starch is seldom used directly in industrial applications. Instead, it is often physically and/or chemically modified to achieve certain enhanced properties. For many of the non-food applications, these modifications involve changing its hydrophilicity to create hydrophobic starch. In this study, the hydrophobic starch was produced through silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) plasma induced graft polymerization, so that it could be used as a renewable and biodegradable component of, or substitute for, the petrochemical-based plastics. It was suggested that this starch graft-copolymer might be used as reinforcing components in silicone-rubber materials for starch-based composites. To make this starch graft-copolymer, the ethyl ether-extracted starch powders were surface functionalized by SiCl4 plasma using a 13.56 MHz radio frequency rotating plasma reactor and subsequently stabilized by either ethylene diamine or dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS). The functionalized starch was then graft-polymerized with DCDMS to form polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers around the starch granules. The presence of this PDMS layer was demonstrated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA/XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), thermo gravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and other analyses. It was shown that the surface morphology, thermal properties, swelling characteristic, and hydrophilicity of starch were all changed due to the existence of this protective hydrophobic PDMS layer. Several different procedures to carry out the functionalization and graft polymerization steps were evaluated to improve the effectiveness of the reactions and to prevent the samples from being hydrolyzed by the grafting byproduct HCl. Actinometry, GC-MS, and residual gas analyzer (RGA) were used to investigate the mechanisms of the SiCl4 discharge and to optimize the plasma

  13. Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-mediated stimulation of adipocyte differentiation requires the synergistic action of Epac- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase-dependent processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone Møller;

    2008-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent processes are pivotal during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. We show that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), which functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras-like GTPases Rap1 and Rap2, was required for c...

  14. Vascularized osseous graft for scaphoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used technique for treatment of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid is osteo-synthesis with Kirschnet wires and cortical sponge grafts. Results reported by different teams using this procedure show no more than 90% osseous consolidation, especially in cases where vascularisation of the proximal fragment of the scaphoid is compromised. Here we present a series of ten cases of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid, treated using a new surgical technique involving a vascularized osseous graft of the distal radius. Using this procedure we obtained 100% consolidation, with no complications either during the procedure or immediately post-operatively. Patients returned to work in week 15 on average. In 4 cases we observed discomfort in the area of the scar, which was successfully treated using local cortisone injection. The results obtained are very similar to those seen in the literature on the different techniques for vascularized osseous grafts for pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid

  15. Depression of the radioprotective effect of isoproterenol on mammalian cells in vitro after desensitization of the cAMP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short (5 min) incubation of cultured Chinese hamster fibroblasts with the specific β-agonist isoproterenol (1 μM) leads to an increase in the intracellular content of cAMP and a decrease in radiosensitivity of the cells. Prolonged (up to 1 h) incubation induces a desensitization of the cAMP system to isoproterenol and causes a decrease both in the cAMP-stimulating and radioprotective effect of isoproterenol. There were no detectable changes in the β-adrenoreceptor number or binding affinity of β-receptors to the radiolabelled β-antagonist dihydroalprenolol in desensitized cells; cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity was also the same as in intact cells. It is proposed that a 1 h incubation of the cells with isoproterenol induces the first step of desensitization, i.e. the functional 'uncoupling' of β-receptors from adenylate cyclase. Thus, the presence of β-receptors in cells is not enough for the realization of the radioprotective potency of isoproterenol; an intact, non-desensitized, state of the cAMP system is obligatory. (author)

  16. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best option for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at least one major ... Grafting This type of CABG is similar to traditional CABG because the chest bone is opened to ...

  17. Prevention of primary vascular graft infection with silver-coated polyester graft in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, H; Sandermann, J; Prag, J; Lund, L; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model.......To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model....

  18. Maintenance of skeletal muscle energy homeostasis during prolonged wintertime fasting in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Sanni; Mänttäri, Satu; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Saarela, Seppo

    2015-05-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid species with autumnal fattening and prolonged wintertime fasting. Nonpathological body weight cycling and the ability to tolerate food deficiency make this species a unique subject for studying physiological mechanisms in energy metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor regulating energy homeostasis. During acute fasting, AMPK promotes fatty acid oxidation and enhances glucose uptake. We evaluated the effects of prolonged fasting on muscle energy metabolism in farm-bred raccoon dogs. Total and phosphorylated AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4), insulin receptor and protein kinase B (Akt) protein expressions of hind limb muscles were determined by Western blot after 10 weeks of fasting. Plasma insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucose and free fatty acid levels were measured, and muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition analyzed. Fasting had no effects on AMPK phosphorylation, but total AMPK expression decreased in m. rectus femoris, m. tibialis anterior and m. extensor digitorum longus resulting in a higher phosphorylation ratio. Decreased total expression was also observed for ACC. Fasting did not influence GLUT 4, insulin receptor or Akt expression, but Akt phosphorylation was lower in m. flexor digitorum superficialis and m. extensor digitorum longus. Three MHC isoforms (I, IIa and IIx) were detected without differences in composition between the fasted and control animals. The studied muscles were resistant to prolonged fasting indicating that raccoon dogs have an effective molecular regulatory system for preserving skeletal muscle function during wintertime immobility and fasting. PMID:25652584

  19. Plant grafting: new mechanisms, evolutionary implications

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.

    2014-01-01

    Grafting, an old plant propagation practice, is still widely used with fruit trees and in recent decades also with vegetables. Taxonomic proximity is a general prerequisite for successful graft-take and long-term survival of the grafted, composite plant. However, the mechanisms underlying interspecific graft incompatibility are as yet insufficiently understood. Hormonal signals, auxin in particular, are believed to play an important role in the wound healing and vascular regeneration within t...

  20. Distribution of the degrees of grafting in graft polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš; Janata, Miroslav; Kratochvíl, Pavel

    Gargnano : EPF , 2010. s. 58. [EUPOC 2010 - Europolymer Conference, Hierarchically Structured Polymers. 30.05.2010-04.06.2010, Gargnano] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : grafting * molecular weight distribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  1. Use of porous high-density polyethylene grafts in open rhinoplasty: no infectious complication seen in spreader and dorsal grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Shabahang; Mohseni, Mohammad; Eslami, Masoumeh; Arabzadeh, Hessein; Eslami, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to use porous high-density polyethylene grafts (Medpor) in open rhinoplasty and then assess complication rate and aesthetic outcomes. Methods In a prospective cohort study, we performed open rhinoplasty and employed Medpor as rhinoplasty grafts. Then we compared their complication rate. Results In a total of 64 patients, 84 Medpor grafts -38 dorsal grafts, 23 strut grafts, 8 rim grafts, 5 button grafts and 10 spreader grafts – were utilized. Moreover, 5septa...

  2. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed. PMID:23665698

  3. Multimodality imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Salm, Liesbeth Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes multiple imaging modalities to examine coronary artery bypass grafts, and the research which was performed to further develop noninvasive imaging techniques to detect stenoses in native coronary arteries and bypass grafts in patients who experienced recurrent chest pain after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

  4. Prolonged grief: setting the research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rosner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged grief disorder is proposed for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11, though it was rejected as a diagnosis for DSM-5. Objective: This review outlines findings and defines important areas for future research viewed from a lifespan perspective. Results: The development and psychometric evaluation of measures for the new diagnosis is paramount, specifically for children and adolescents. Treatments need to be adapted for specific subgroups and research findings have to be disseminated into various professional settings.

  5. Prolonged Exposure: a Rapid Treatment for Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. P.; Gaind, R.; Marks, I. M.

    1971-01-01

    Ten adult patients with long-standing specific phobias were treated by prolonged continuous exposure to their phobic objects in fantasy and reality without avoidance. All patients were greatly helped by four to five hours' treatment in two or three sessions, and all improved more after practice than after imaginal sessions. The treatment method is more economical and efficient than other methods described so far. PMID:5539135

  6. Gradient-prolongation commutativity and graph theory

    OpenAIRE

    Musy, François; Nicolas, Laurent; Perrussel, Ronan

    2007-01-01

    6 pages International audience This Note gives conditions that must be imposed to algebraic multilevel discretizations involving at the same time nodal and edge elements so that a gradient-prolongation commutativity condition will be satisfied; this condition is very important, since it characterizes the gradients of coarse nodal functions in the coarse edge function space. They will be expressed using graph theory and they provide techniques to compute approximation bases at each level.

  7. Brain glycogen decreases during prolonged exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Soya, Shingo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Brain glycogen could be a critical energy source for brain activity when the glucose supply from the blood is inadequate (hypoglycaemia). Although untested, it is hypothesized that during prolonged exhaustive exercise that induces hypoglycaemia and muscular glycogen depletion, the resultant hypoglycaemia may cause a decrease in brain glycogen. Here, we tested this hypothesis and also investigated the possible involvement of brain monoamines with the reduced levels of brain glycogen. For this purpose, we exercised male Wistar rats on a treadmill for different durations (30–120 min) at moderate intensity (20 m min−1) and measured their brain glycogen levels using high-power microwave irradiation (10 kW). At the end of 30 and 60 min of running, the brain glycogen levels remained unchanged from resting levels, but liver and muscle glycogen decreased. After 120 min of running, the glycogen levels decreased significantly by ∼37–60% in five discrete brain loci (the cerebellum 60%, cortex 48%, hippocampus 43%, brainstem 37% and hypothalamus 34%) compared to those of the sedentary control. The brain glycogen levels in all five regions after running were positively correlated with the respective blood and brain glucose levels. Further, in the cortex, the levels of methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), potential involved in degradation of the brain glycogen, increased during prolonged exercise and negatively correlated with the glycogen levels. These results support the hypothesis that brain glycogen could decrease with prolonged exhaustive exercise. Increased monoamines together with hypoglycaemia should be associated with the development of decreased brain glycogen, suggesting a new clue towards the understanding of central fatigue during prolonged exercise. PMID:21521757

  8. Risk Modifiers for Concussion and Prolonged Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Scopaz, Kristen A.; Hatzenbuehler, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Currently, no consensus exists for grading the severity of concussions. Identification of risk factors that may affect concussion risk and the likelihood of prolonged recovery can be of value to providers who manage concussion. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were identified through MEDLINE (1996-2011) using the keywords concussion, postconcussive syndrome, and risk or risk factor. Targeted searches for specific risk factors were conducted with additional keywords, such as gen...

  9. STUDY OF GRAFT SITES IN EPOXY GRAFT COPOLYMERS BY QUANTUM CHEMISTRY CALCULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Chen; Xiao-yu Li

    2009-01-01

    Exploration and characterization of grafting productions by experimental methods are often cumbersome or sometimes impossible. Therefore, quantum chemistry calculations were performed to characterize the graft sites of epoxy resin. According to the Gibbs free energy criterion of the second law of thermodynamic, the reported graft sites were confirmed, and more important, some unreported graft sites were found. In addition, method of increasing the number of graft sites was studied in this article.

  10. The Right Gastroepiploic Artery Graft for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A 30-Year Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its 30-year history, the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) has been useful for in situ grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The early graft patency rate is high, and the late patency rate has improved by using the skeletonized GEA graft and proper target selection, which involves having a target coronary artery with a tight >90% stenosis. Total arterial revascularization with the internal thoracic artery and GEA grafts is an option for achieving better outcomes from CABG procedures. PMID:27525230

  11. Morphological and cellular changes within embryonic striatal grafts associated with enriched environment and involuntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döbrössy, Máté D; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2006-12-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) and exercise have been implicated in influencing behaviour and altering neuronal processes associated with cellular morphology in both 'normal' and injured states of the CNS. Using a rodent model of Huntington's disease, we investigated whether prolonged EE or involuntary exercise can induce morphological and cellular changes within embryonic striatal transplants. Adult rats were trained on the Staircase test--requiring fine motor control to reach and collect reward pellets--prior to being lesioned unilaterally in the dorsal neostriatum with quinolinic acid. The lesioned animals received E15 whole ganglionic eminence cell suspension grafts followed by housing in EE or standard cages. Half of the animals in standard cages received daily forced exercise on a treadmill. The grafted animals showed significant functional recovery on both the Staircase test and in drug-induced rotation. Neither the housing conditions nor the training had an impact on the behaviour, with the exception of the treadmill reducing the ipsilateral drug-induced rotation observed amongst the lesioned animals. However, the animals housed in the EE had significantly increased striatal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and graft neurons in these animals exhibited both greater spine densities and larger cell volumes. Animals on forced exercise regime had reduced BDNF levels and grafted cells with sparser spines. The study suggests that the context of the animal can affect the plasticity of transplanted cells. Appropriately exploiting the underlying, and yet unknown, mechanisms could lead the way to improved anatomical and potentially functional integration of the graft. PMID:17156383

  12. Isolation and characterization of cAMP-free and cAMP-bound forms of bovine heart type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine heart type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme (cAMP-PK) was purified to homogeneity as determined by denaturing SDS-PAGE. An HPLC-DEAE purification step resolved two distinct peaks of cAMP-dependent kinase activity, which were designated Peak 1 and Peak 2 based on their order of elution. They had the same Stoke's radii and had very similar sedimentation coefficients. As determined by densitometric scanning of SDS-PAGE brands, by their mobility on denaturing PAGE, and by the ratios of equilibrium [3H] cAMP binding to maximal kinase activity, the subunit stoichiometry of the two peaks was the same. In a cAMP assay it was found that Peak 1 holoenzyme was cAMP-free, but half of the Peak 2 holoenzyme cAMP binding sites contained cAMP. Dissociation assays indicated that the cAMP was equally distributed in binding Site 1 and Site 2 of Peak 2. Although SDS-PAGE analysis ruled out conversions by proteolysis or autophosphorylation-dephosphorylation, Peak 1 could be partially converted to Peak 2 by the addition of subsaturating amounts of cAMP, and Peak 2 could be partially converted to Peak 1 by aging. The interconvertibility of the two holoenzyme peaks strongly suggested that the difference between the two peaks was caused by the presence of cAMP in Peak 2

  13. Markers of primary graft dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for diagnosing transplant rejection, or a condition associated with transplant rejection, such as, primary graft dysfunction in a subject, to antigen probe arrays for performing such a diagnosis, and to antigen probe sets for generating such arrays....

  14. Polyether-polyester graft copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Described is a polyether graft polymer having improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The copolymer is prepared by a novel process of anionic copolymerization. These polymers exhibit good solvent resistance and are well suited for aircraft parts. Previous aromatic polyethers, also known as polyphenylene oxides, have certain deficiencies which detract from their usefulness. These commercial polymers are often soluble in common solvents including the halocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon types of paint thinners and removers. This limitation prevents the use of these polyethers in structural articles requiring frequent painting. In addition, the most popular commercially available polyether is a very high melting plastic. This makes it considerably more difficult to fabricate finished parts from this material. These problems are solved by providing an aromatic polyether graft copolymer with improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The graft copolymer is formed by converting the carboxyl groups of a carboxylated polyphenylene oxide polymer to ionic carbonyl groups in a suitable solvent, reacting pivalolactone with the dissolved polymer, and adding acid to the solution to produce the graft copolymer.

  15. Vascular grafting strategies in coronary intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Darryl; Gillies, Elizabeth; Mequanint, Kibret

    2014-06-01

    With the growing need for coronary revascularizations globally, several strategies to restore blood flow to the heart have been explored. Bypassing the atherosclerotic coronary arteries with autologous grafts, synthetic prostheses and tissue-engineered vascular grafts continue to be evaluated in search of a readily available vascular graft with clinically acceptable outcomes. The development of such a vascular graft including tissue engineering approaches both in situ and in vitro is herein reviewed, facilitating a detailed comparison on the role of seeded cells in vascular graft patency.

  16. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernard Taylor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA. The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127 who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71 of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078. Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively. There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  17. Evaluation of the graft flow reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting by stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT. Comparison between arterial grafts and venous grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Akihiro; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kawasuji, Michio; Tonami, Norihisa [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-01-01

    We performed stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT to evaluate ischemia and perfusion reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A total of 103 patients was performed stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT one month after CABG. Each patient`s myocardium was divided into 9 segments and visually evaluated using five grade scoring system (0=defect, 1=severe decrease, 2=moderate decrease, 3=mild decrease, 4=normal uptake). Eleven of 133 (8.27%) segments covered by patent venous grafts showed reversible {sup 201}Tl defect, however, 36 of 117 (30.8%) segments which covered by patent arterial grafts showed reversible {sup 201}Tl defect. This finding was observed more significantly in arterial grafts than in venous grafts (p<0.001). These finding suggests that arterial grafts have lower flow capacity than venous grafts at peak exercise. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the graft flow reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting by stress 201Tl myocardial SPECT. Comparison between arterial grafts and venous grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed stress 201Tl myocardial SPECT to evaluate ischemia and perfusion reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A total of 103 patients was performed stress 201Tl myocardial SPECT one month after CABG. Each patient's myocardium was divided into 9 segments and visually evaluated using five grade scoring system (0=defect, 1=severe decrease, 2=moderate decrease, 3=mild decrease, 4=normal uptake). Eleven of 133 (8.27%) segments covered by patent venous grafts showed reversible 201Tl defect, however, 36 of 117 (30.8%) segments which covered by patent arterial grafts showed reversible 201Tl defect. This finding was observed more significantly in arterial grafts than in venous grafts (p<0.001). These finding suggests that arterial grafts have lower flow capacity than venous grafts at peak exercise. (author)

  19. Starch Modification by Graft Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞贤; 李莉; 茹宗玲; 张黎明; 高建平; 田汝川

    2003-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto starch under the initiation of potassium permanganate was investigated. The effect of various reaction conditions on the graft copolymerization was studied. The relationships between the grafting rate and the initiator concentration of potassium permanganate, monomer acrylonitrile and backbone starch, as well as reaction temperature were established. The oxidation reaction of starch with manganic ions and valence changes of manganic ions during the graft copolymerization were discussed. The results show that manganic ion Mn7+ underwent a series of valence changes during the graft copolymerization: Mn(Ⅶ) → Mn(Ⅳ) → Mn(Ⅲ) → Mn(Ⅱ). The grafting rate of the graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto starch is also given.

  20. Hydrophilic Silicone Resins Obtained by Radiation Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-vinylpyrrolidone was grafted radiochemically on a silicone resin by pre-irradiation in the presence of oxygen. Under these conditions, peroxide groups capable of initiating radical copolymerization are formed. The trapped radicals do not seem to make any contribution. An RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanization) type silicone resin was used, i. e. a poly(dimethylsiloxane) crosslinked by vinyl-silane bonds. The unsaturated product was transparent. The silicones containing phenyl groups as well as saturated resins were also studied. Irradiation with 60Co gamma rays was performed in the 10-kCi irradiator of the Radiation Applications Group (GAR) at Saclay. Brief pre-irradiation tests with an electron accelerator were also performed. The amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) grafted depends on the pre-irradiation dose and dose-rate as well as on the temperature and duration of the grafting proper. These different parameters were analysed. The grafting efficiency of PVP can be as much as 60%. The grafted copolymers are more or less opaque and coloured sections show that grafting remains peripheral. The transparency can be restored by immersion in water. The swelling in water is such that the ratio of absorbed water to grafted PVP varies between 0.8 and 1.5. When the grafting efficiency is higher than 50%, it is observed that the grafted PVP redissolves after swelling. The redissolving is due to the breaking of the grafted chains. For grafting rates below 30%, the grafted PVP silicones have notably high thermal stability. Examination of some properties of the grafted PVP silicones shows the additive nature of the properties of the grafted copolymers. Reference is made to the possible applications of these products, especially in biology and medicine. (author)

  1. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) Receptor Protein-cAMP Complex Regulates Heparosan Production in Escherichia coli Strain Nissle 1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huihui; Bao, Feifei; Zhao, Liping; Yu, Yanying; Tang, Jiaqin; Zhou, Xianxuan

    2015-11-01

    Heparosan serves as the starting carbon backbone for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin, a widely used clinical anticoagulant drug. The availability of heparosan is a significant concern for the cost-effective synthesis of bioengineered heparin. The carbon source is known as the pivotal factor affecting heparosan production. However, the mechanism by which carbon sources control the biosynthesis of heparosan is unclear. In this study, we found that the biosynthesis of heparosan was influenced by different carbon sources. Glucose inhibits the biosynthesis of heparosan, while the addition of either fructose or mannose increases the yield of heparosan. Further study demonstrated that the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex binds to the upstream region of the region 3 promoter and stimulates the transcription of the gene cluster for heparosan biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CRP binding site abolished its capability of binding CRP and eliminated the stimulative effect on transcription. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was further performed to determine the Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) heparosan structure and quantify extracellular heparosan production. Our results add to the understanding of the regulation of heparosan biosynthesis and may contribute to the study of other exopolysaccharide-producing strains. PMID:26319872

  2. Biocelulose grafts: the future in artificial vascular grafts? preliminar results

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ivone; Loureiro, Luís; Araújo, Anabela; Alexandre F. Leitão; Faria, Miguel; Gama, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vascular grafts, autogenous or artificial, are used to replace, bypass or maintain function of occluded, damaged, or diseased blood vessels of small, medium and large diameter. Vascular prostheses may be manufactured from synthetic, biological or biosynthetic materials. To our knowledge this is the first study to look at the hemocompatibility of bacterial cellulose membrane reinforced by the presence of polyvinyl alcohol. Materials/ methods The first aim of ...

  3. Laryngotracheal Injury following Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mehdizadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is a growing method for supporting ventilation in patients who require intensive care. Despite considerable advancement in endotracheal intubation, this method still has some complications; the most important is laryngo-tracheal injuries. Methods: Over a 2-year period, this retrospective study was conducted on 57 patients with history of prolonged intubation who were referred to the ENT Department of Amir Alam Hospital. For each patient, a complete evaluation including history, physical examination, and direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy was done under general anesthesia. Results: Fifty-seven patients (44 male; mean age, 23.014.7 years were studied. Mean intubation period was 15.88 days. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (62%. Head trauma was responsible for most cases of intubation (72.4%. The most common types of tracheal and laryngeal lesions were tracheal (56.9% and subglottic (55.2% stenosis, respectively. Mean length of tracheal stenosis was 0.810.83 cm. There was a statistically significant relationship between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period (P=0.0001 but no relation was observed between tracheal stenosis and age, sex, and etiology of intubation (All P=NS. Among the glottic lesions, inter- arytenoids adhesion was the most common lesion (25.9%. No statistically significant relation was found between glottic and subglottic lesions and age, sex and intubation period (all P=NS. Length of stenosis and intubation period was significantly greater in tracheal/ subglottic lesions than those in glottic/ supraglottic lesions (all P=NS. Conclusion: After prolonged endotracheal intubation, laryngo-tracheal lesions had no relation with patient’s age, sex, and cause of intubation.There was direct relation between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period. Glottic lesions were more commonly observed in head trauma patients. Lesion length and intubation

  4. Prolonged midazolam elimination half-life.

    OpenAIRE

    Dundee, J W; Collier, P S; Carlisle, R J; Harper, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a fixed dose of midazolam (0.3 mg kg-1 i.v.) were studied in detail in 115 healthy patients or volunteers and nine were found with a prolonged elimination half-life. A further 102 patients had an abbreviated pharmacokinetic study, of whom five showed a similar abnormality. Defective hepatic metabolism of midazolam may be a factor in the aetiology of what appears to be a true phenomenon, occurring in 6% of over 200 fit subjects given a standard dose of the drug.

  5. Radiation sterilization of tissue grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tissue Bank at the Tata Memorial Hospital was started in 1989 in collaboration with the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, as part of an IAEA project to promote the use of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. The Bank produces freeze dried, gamma irradiated allografts such as skin, amniotic membrane, dura mater, fascia lata, bone blocks/chips/dust, iliac crest, femoral heads and ribs. Tissues are harvested from cadavers or obtained secondary to surgical procedures. After processing, the grafts are exposed to 25 kGy of gamma radiation. The grafts have found use in a variety of clinical conditions like burns, non-union fractures, periodontal osseous defects and surgical reconstructions. (author)

  6. Lifetime Prolonging Algorithms for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhong-wen; LI Zhi-wei; YU Lei

    2006-01-01

    Underwater acoustic modem technology has attained a level of maturity to support underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) which are generally formed by acoustically connected sensor nodes and a surface station providing a link to an on-shore control center. While many applications require long-term monitoring of the deployment area, the battery-powered network nodes limit the lifetime of UASNs. Therefore, designing a UASN that minimizes the power consumption while maximizing lifetime becomes a very difficult task. In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the optimum number of clusters through combining an application-specific protocol architecture and underwater acoustic communication model so as to reduce the energy dissipation of UASNs. Deploying more sensor nodes which work alternately is another way to prolong the lifetime of UASNs. An algorithm is presented for selecting sensor nodes and putting them into operation in each round, ensuring the monitoring to the whole given area. The present results show that the algorithm can help prolong system lifetime remarkably when it is applied to other conventional approaches for sensor networks under the condition that the sensor node density is high.

  7. Training and muscle ammonia and amino acid metabolism in humans during prolonged exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, T E; Turcotte, L P; Kiens, Bente;

    1995-01-01

    24.4 +/- 6.8 mmol/kg wet wt in Tr and Utr, respectively. Tr had greater (P < 0.05) muscle Tau, Phe, Ala, and Glu. Both groups had a large Glu uptake and effluxes of NH3, Gln, and Ala as well as essential AA. The latter implies that there was a net protein catabolism. The efflux of NH3 and Gln was...... much greater than that expected from AMP deamination, suggesting that deamination of AA was occurring. Many of the AA responses use Glu, and Tr maintained the intramuscular Glu pool at a higher concentration (P < 0.05), implying that they derived more Glu from protein catabolism and/or AA...... transaminations. Under these conditions, prolonged dynamic knee extensor exercise is associated with a large release of alpha-amino moieties both as NH3 and as Gln as well as a net protein catabolism; these responses are similar in Tr and Utr....

  8. The Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24

    Increased deployment of new technologies, e.g., renewable generation and electric vehicles, is rapidly transforming electrical power networks by crossing previously distinct spatiotemporal scales and invalidating many traditional approaches for designing, analyzing, and operating power grids. This trend is expected to accelerate over the coming years, bringing the disruptive challenge of complexity, but also opportunities to deliver unprecedented efficiency and reliability. Our Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS) Center will discover, enable, and solve emerging mathematics challenges arising in power systems and, more generally, in complex engineered networks. We will develop foundational applied mathematics resulting in rigorous algorithms and simulation toolboxes for modern and future engineered networks. The AMPS Center deconstruction/reconstruction approach 'deconstructs' complex networks into sub-problems within non-separable spatiotemporal scales, a missing step in 20th century modeling of engineered networks. These sub-problems are addressed within the appropriate AMPS foundational pillar - complex systems, control theory, and optimization theory - and merged or 'reconstructed' at their boundaries into more general mathematical descriptions of complex engineered networks where important new questions are formulated and attacked. These two steps, iterated multiple times, will bridge the growing chasm between the legacy power grid and its future as a complex engineered network.

  9. S-AMP: Approximate Message Passing for General Matrix Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Winther, Ole; Fleury, Bernard H.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel iterative estimation algorithm for linear observation models called S-AMP. The fixed points of S-AMP are the stationary points of the exact Gibbs free energy under a set of (first- and second-) moment consistency constraints in the large system limit. S-AMP extends the...... approximate message-passing (AMP) algorithm to general matrix ensembles with a well-defined large system size limit. The generalization is based on the S-transform (in free probability) of the spectrum of the measurement matrix. Furthermore, we show that the optimality of S-AMP follows directly from its...

  10. Evaluation of early coronary graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using multislice computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissi Kamal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts. Methods A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT angiography in the first week after surgery. Results There were a total of 366 grafts, comprised of 250 venous grafts and 116 arterial grafts. Multi-slice CT detected acute graft occlusions in 32 (8.7% of all the grafts, including 26 (10% of the 250 venous grafts and 6 (5% of the 116 arterial grafts. The patency rates obtained were 97.3% for the left internal mammary (IMA grafts, 50% for the radial artery grafts, and 50% for the right IMA grafts. Additionally, 107 (96.4% grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD were classified as patent, whereas 1 (30% of the 3 grafts in the left circumflex (LCX region and 1 (50% of the 2 grafts in the right coronary artery (RCA territory were found to be occluded. In the venous category, 8 (13.7% of the 58 grafts to LAD were found to be occluded. In the LCX region, 9 (8.5% of the 106 grafts were classified as occluded, while the remaining 97 (91.5% grafts were patent. The venous grafts to RCA were occluded in 9 (10.4% of the 86 grafts. Amongst the multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, pump time was significantly longer in the patients with occluded grafts than in those with patent grafts (P = 0.04. Conclusion The IMA grafts had the highest early patency rate amongst the coronary bypass grafts. However, the other arterial grafts were associated with a high rate of acute occlusions.

  11. Regulatory T cell expressed MyD88 is critical for prolongation of allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Christopher M; Reichenbach, Dawn K; Kim, Beom Seok; Misra, Aditya; Blazar, Bruce R; Turka, Laurence A

    2016-08-01

    MyD88 signaling directly promotes T-cell survival and is required for optimal T-cell responses to pathogens. To examine the role of T-cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals in transplantation, we studied mice with targeted T-cell-specific MyD88 deletion. Contrary to expectations, we found that these mice were relatively resistant to prolongation of graft survival with anti-CD154 plus rapamycin in a class II-mismatched system. To specifically examine the role of MyD88 in Tregs, we created a Treg-specific MyD88-deficient mouse. Transplant studies in these animals replicated the findings observed with a global T-cell MyD88 knockout. Surprisingly, given the role of MyD88 in conventional T-cell survival, we found no defect in the survival of MyD88-deficient Tregs in vitro or in the transplant recipients and also observed intact cell homing and expression of Treg effector molecules. MyD88-deficient Tregs also fail to protect allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients from chronic graft-versus-host disease, confirming the observations of defective regulation seen in a solid organ transplant system. Together, our data define MyD88 as having a divergent requirement for cell survival in non-Tregs and Tregs, and a yet-to-be defined survival-independent requirement for Treg function during the response to alloantigen. PMID:27112509

  12. Grafting rays fellow travel Teichmuller geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Young-Eun; Rafi, Kasra

    2010-01-01

    Given a measured geodesic lamination on a hyperbolic surface, grafting the surface along multiples of the lamination defines a path in Teichmuller space, called the grafting ray. We show that every grafting ray, after reparametrization, is a Teichmuller quasi-geodesic and stays in a bounded neighborhood of a Teichmuller geodesic. As part of our approach, we show that grafting rays have controlled dependence on the starting point. That is, for any measured geodesic lamination Lambda, the map of Teichmuller space which is defined by grafting along Lambda is L-Lipschitz with respect to the Teichmuller metric, where L is a universal constant. This Lipschitz property follows from an extension of grafting to an open neighborhood of Teichmuller space in the space of quasi-Fuchsian groups.

  13. Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ong, J C Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects.

  14. Role of tacrolimus prolonged release in the prevention of allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Abrams

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Peter Abrams, Abhinav Humar, Henkie P TanDepartment of Surgery, Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Successful management of the solid-organ transplant recipient begins with prevention of rejection and achieving a balance between insufficient and excessive immunosuppression. Standard tacrolimus therapy for prevention of solid-organ transplant rejection consists of 2 divided doses per day. In an effort to simplify tacrolimus dosing to once daily, a new formulation (tacrolimus prolonged release [PR] was chosen for its combination of a similar extent of bioavailability and a substantially reduced rate of clearance. Several clinical conversion studies have now been completed using PR to clarify its pharmacokinetics, efficacy at prevention of allograft rejection, and safety profiles in solid-organ transplant patients. A cohort of 67 stable kidney transplant recipients was converted from standard tacrolimus to PR in an open-label, multicenter study in the United States and Canada. A second open-label, multicenter study was performed in liver transplant recipients with stable graft function on standard tacrolimus therapy converted to PR. A third conversion study was performed as an open-label study at 5 centers in the United States in stable pediatric liver transplant recipients. As medication noncompliance can significantly contribute to the incidence of graft rejection and graft loss in transplant recipients, a potentially significant advance in the transplant community’s ongoing mission to optimize prevention of rejection occurred with the development of a once-daily tacrolimus PR. The results of these preliminary studies suggest that select solid-organ transplant recipients converted to PR can be safely maintained using the same monitoring and patient care techniques historically used for standard tacrolimus therapy.Keywords: immunosuppression, tacrolimus allograft

  15. Novel expansion techniques for skin grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    The quest for skin expansion is not restricted to cover a large area alone, but to produce acceptable uniform surfaces, robust engraftment to withstand mechanical shear and infection, with a minimal donor morbidity. Ease of the technique, shorter healing period and reproducible results are essential parameters to adopt novel techniques. Significant advances seen in four fronts of autologous grafting are: (1) Dermal–epidermal graft expansion techniques, (2) epidermal graft harvests technique, (3) melanocyte-rich basal cell therapy for vitiligo and (4) robust and faster autologous cell cultures. Meek's original concept that the sum of perimeter of smaller grafts is larger than the harvested graft, and smaller the graft size, the greater is the potential for regeneration is witnessed in newer modification. Further, as graft size becomes smaller or minced, these micrografts can survive on the wound bed exudate irrespective of their dermal orientation. Expansion produced by 4 mm × 4 mm sized Meek micrografts is 10-folds, similarly 0.8 mm × 0.8 mm size micrografts produce 100-fold expansion, which becomes 700-fold with pixel grafts of 0.3 mm × 0.3 mm size. Fractional skin harvest is another new technique with 700 μ size full thickness graft. These provide instant autologous non-cultured graft to cover extensive areas with similar quality of engraftment surface as split skin grafts. Newer tools for epidermal blister graft harvest quickly, with uniform size to produce 7-fold expansions with reproducible results. In addition, donor area heals faster with minimal scar. Melanocyte-rich cell suspension is utilised in vitiligo surgery tapping the potential of hair root melanocytes. Further advances in the cell culture to reduce the cultivation time and provide stronger epidermal sheets with dermal carrier are seen in trials. PMID:27274117

  16. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeThe study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5 %), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8 %).ResultsA high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5 %). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7 %). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5 % at 6 month, 31.3 % at 12 month and 19.2 % at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1 %), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5 %) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5 %).ConclusionRe-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction

  17. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelter, Christopher, E-mail: christopher.schmelter@klinikum-ingolstadt.de; Raab, Udo, E-mail: udo.raab@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lazarus, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.lazarus@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Nephrology (Germany); Ruppert, Volker, E-mail: volker.ruppert@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany); Vorwerk, Dierk, E-mail: dierk.vorwerk@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5 %), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8 %).ResultsA high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5 %). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7 %). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5 % at 6 month, 31.3 % at 12 month and 19.2 % at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1 %), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5 %) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5 %).ConclusionRe-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  18. Multifactorial QT Interval Prolongation and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gysel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.

  19. [Is prolonging life the ultimate goal?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzig, G

    1994-01-01

    If values are projections of human interests, prolongation of life cannot always be the highest value. Since the criterion of treatment decisions such cases must be the value of life for the individual concerned, besides "passive" euthanasia--which is widely accepted--also (indirectly and--in extreme cases--also directly) "active" euthanasia may be considered. The radical difference between this position and "euthanasia" in the "Third Reich" consists in the fact that, in our case, only the wishes and interests of the patient can be relevant, and not the decisions of authorities or considerations of expenses. Concerning the problem of just distribution of scarce medical resources, which will become more of on issue in the near future, simple solutions (e.g., a general age-limit for expensive therapy) are not helpful. More promising are considerations which start from the idea of a hypothetical health insurance, on the lines of J. Rawls' "Theory of justice". PMID:7863685

  20. Bilateral Scapulohumeral Ankylosis after Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lotten, Manon L; Schreinemakers, J Rieneke; van Noort, Arthur; Rademakers, Maarten V

    2016-09-01

    This case demonstrates a rarely reported bilateral scapulohumeral bony ankylosis. A young woman developed extensive heterotopic ossifications (HOs) in both shoulder joints after being mechanically ventilated for several months at the intensive care unit in a comatose status. She presented with a severe movement restriction of both shoulder joints. Surgical resection of the bony bridges was performed in 2 separate sessions with a significant improvement of shoulder function afterwards. No postoperative complications, pain, or recurrence of HOs were noted at 1-year follow-up. Mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blockage, and prolonged sedation are known risk factors for the development of HOs in the shoulder joints. Relatively early surgical resection of the HOs can be performed safely in contrary to earlier belief. Afterwards, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or radiation therapy can be possible treatment modalities to prevent recurrence of HOs. PMID:27583120

  1. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western......INTRODUCTION: Long-term treatment with parenteral nutrition (PN) may be essential for survival in infants after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery. It seemed well indicated in a population-based study to estimate the need for long-term PN and to characterize the infants that received TPN with regard...... part of Denmark over a period of 11 1/2 years. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients with need for PN for 55 days or more due to gastrointestinal disease were registered with a cumulative hospital stay of 4462 days. The study showed a low incidence of long-term PN due to gastro-intestinal surgical illness...

  2. Neurohumoral responses during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Blomstrand, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    This study examined neurohumoral alterations during prolonged exercise with and without hyperthermia. The cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate uptake ratio (O2/CHO = arteriovenous oxygen difference divided by arteriovenous glucose difference plus one-half lactate), the cerebral balances of dopamine, and...... the metabolic precursor of serotonin, tryptophan, were evaluated in eight endurance-trained subjects during exercise randomized to be with or without hyperthermia. The core temperature stabilized at 37.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) in the control trial, whereas it increased to 39.7 +/- 0.2 degrees...... has an increased need for carbohydrates during recovery from strenuous exercise, whereas enhanced perception of effort as observed during exercise with hyperthermia was not related to alterations in the cerebral balances of dopamine or tryptophan....

  3. PROLONGED MASSIVE POLYURIA AFTER RENAL TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernyavskiy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical case of prolonged massive polyuria in patient after renal transplantation is represented in this article. Polyuria lasted for a forty days after kidney transplantation, the larges amount of urine output was 55 litres per day. Analysis of transplant biopsy revealed acute tubular necrosis, initial arteriolosclerosis and suspected acute rejection. Doppler ultrasound study and perfusion scintigraphy detected no pathology. At first we tried to decrease the volume of infusion and fluid intake. Also we performed pulse therapy with methylprednisolone. However, these efforts were not effective. Using of a large doses of «Minerin» (posterior pituitary antidiuretic factor allowed to decrease and stabilize the volume of urine output. The patient was discharge from clinic on day 42 after transplantation. 

  4. Optimal Design for Reactivity Ratio Estimation: A Comparison of Techniques for AMPS/Acrylamide and AMPS/Acrylic Acid Copolymerizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble polymers of acrylamide (AAm and acrylic acid (AAc have significant potential in enhanced oil recovery, as well as in other specialty applications. To improve the shear strength of the polymer, a third comonomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS, can be added to the pre-polymerization mixture. Copolymerization kinetics of AAm/AAc are well studied, but little is known about the other comonomer pairs (AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc. Hence, reactivity ratios for AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc copolymerization must be established first. A key aspect in the estimation of reliable reactivity ratios is design of experiments, which minimizes the number of experiments and provides increased information content (resulting in more precise parameter estimates. However, design of experiments is hardly ever used during copolymerization parameter estimation schemes. In the current work, copolymerization experiments for both AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc are designed using two optimal techniques (Tidwell-Mortimer and the error-in-variables-model (EVM. From these optimally designed experiments, accurate reactivity ratio estimates are determined for AMPS/AAm (rAMPS = 0.18, rAAm = 0.85 and AMPS/AAc (rAMPS = 0.19, rAAc = 0.86.

  5. Cancer of endometrium and prolonged estrogen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremont-smith, M; Meigs, J V; Graham, R M; Gilbert, H H

    1946-07-01

    A causal link between prolonged estrogen (E) therapy and endometrial cancer is argued for in this report of a case who was treated with large amounts of estrogenic substances almost continuously for an 8-year period. In 1919 a 25-year-old woman was admitted with asthma of 1-year duration. Asthma onset had been very severe, requiring administration of epinephrine hydrochloride every few hours and frequent hospital observation. In 1928, the patient was amenorrheic for 8 months; in 1936, she experienced amenorrhea for 4 months. In 1937 (patient now 45 years old), the relationship between amenorrhea and increased severity of asthma was suspected. At this time, the patient also complained of hot flashes and sweats. Treatment with estrogenic substances was begun in 1937 and continued through 1945. 3 unusual features were noted during therapy: 1) persistence of hot flashes; 2) persistence of high urine titers of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) despite adequate E doses; and 3) absence of bleeding when E was temporarily withdrawn. By 1945, endometrial cancer had been identified by vaginal smear and verified by biopsy. Because of the previous absence of respose of FSH to prolonged E therapy, Es were omitted for 4 weeks, and after this period the vaginal smear showed complete absence of intrinsic estrogenic stimulation, and the urine titer of FSH was high. E given for 10 days caused moderate pituitary inhibition. Determination of 17-keto-steroids made before and after therapy was abnormally low. Except for the state of chronic illness and the continuous administration of asthma medication (chronic alarm reaction?), there is no explanation of carcinoma grade 2. PMID:12334535

  6. Effects of Prolonged Centrifugation on Orthostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Malcolm M..; Hargens, A. R.; Yates, B. J.; Bowley, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A feasibility study conducted on the Ames 20-G Human Centrifuge examined how well humans can maintain orthostatic tolerance during and after prolonged exposures to hypergravity. Three adult males lived for periods of 22 hours in the centrifuge while it was at rest (1.00 G), and while it rotated at 9.38 RPM to provide 1.25 G-total at the mean radius of 7.62 m. Two participants also experienced 22-hour habitation sessions at 11.46 RPM, which provided 1.50 G-total. Both before and after each habitation session, the participants were given gradual onset rate (GOR) acceleration profiles at 0.067 G/sec to determine their Gz tolerance. In addition, cardiovascular responses were compared while subjects were supine, siting, and standing at various times during the habitation (stand test), and cardiovascular responsiveness was determined using a lower body negative pressure tilt table (LBNPTT) at the beginning of the experiment and after each session. Post-Pre changes in G tolerance were -0.33 (mean) +/- 0.11 (std. error) Gz for habitation at 1.00 G, -0.02 +/- 0.12 Gz for habitation at 1.25 G, and +0.41 +/- 0.13 Gz for habitation at 1.50 G. Performance on the stand test generally improved with duration of habitation in hypergravity. Our results suggest that habitation in a confined chamber at 1.00 G reduces G tolerance and leads to lowered LBNPTT tolerance. Exposure to increased G in the centrifuge leads to enhanced performance on the stand test, and to increased GOR acceleration tolerance, but only when fluid balance is maintained; when motion sickness and negative fluid balance were observed, G tolerance was reduced. The data indicate that enhanced G tolerance can result from prolonged exposure to hypergravity, but that these changes are complex and depend on multiple underlying physiological processes.

  7. The autologus graft of epithelial tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minaee B

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of research about culture and autologus graft of epithelial tissue we used 4 french Albino Rabbits with an average age of 2 months. After reproduction on the support in EMEM (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium we used this for graft after 4 weeks. This region which grafted total replaced. After fixation of this sample and passing them through various process, histological sections were prepared. These sections were stained with H & E and masson's trichrome and studied by light microscope. We succeeded in graft. We hope in the near future by using the method of epithelium tissue culture improving to treat burned patients.

  8. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 agonist SEW2871 prolongs heterotopic heart allograft survival in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qian; Yuan, Baohong; Liu, Tao; Lan, Fang; Luo, Xiaochun; Lu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Ping; Dai, Liangcheng; Jin, Xiaobao; Yin, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active metabolite of plasma-membrane sphingolipids that is essential for immune cell trafficking. Recent studies have revealed immunomodulatory functions of S1P and its receptors (S1PR1-S1PR5) in many inflammatory conditions, such as asthma and autoimmunity. Here, we explore the efficacy of SEW2871, a selective S1PR1 agonist, in the prevention of acute allograft rejection in a murine cardiac transplantation model. Treatment of recipient mice with SEW2871 significantly prolongs cardiac allograft survival as compared to those recipients treated with control vehicle. The enhanced graft survival is associated with reduced circulating lymphocytes and allograft inflammatory cell infiltration. The cytokine analysis showed decreased allograft expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 in the SEW2871-treated mice. Moreover, administration of SEW2871 increases the percentage of CD4(+) T regulatory cells and FoxP3 expression in spleen of allograft recipients. Therefore, SEW2871 plays a critical role in regulation of lymphocyte trafficking and development, which directly contributes to prolongation of the allograft survival. PMID:25776899

  9. Low-dose ultraviolet-B irradiation of donor corneal endothelium and graft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donor rabbit corneal endothelium was pretreated with different doses of ultraviolet (UV-B) irradiation (302 nm) before grafting to test whether allograft survival could be favorably affected in comparison with untreated corneas grafted into the same recipients. Endothelial rejection was observed in 19 of 32 (59%) eyes that received no treatment compared with five of 32 (16%) eyes that received UV-B (P less than 0.001), and increasing doses of UV-B were associated with lower rejection rates (P less than 0.05). Although exposure of donor endothelium significantly reduced endothelial rejection at all doses tested, it resulted in primary graft failure in a substantial proportion of corneas treated at high doses. Class II (Ia) antigen staining of corneal tissue was present in conjunction with clinical evidence of rejection, and the magnitude of staining correlated with the histologic extent of inflammation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed various endothelial cell surface irregularities and membrane defects in high-dose UV-treated corneas. Endothelial cell cultures exposed in vitro to UV-B light showed a dose-dependent loss in cell viability. These data suggest that UV-B pretreatment of donor corneal endothelium prolongs graft survival but that toxic side effects must be carefully controlled

  10. Paclitaxel modulates TGFbeta signaling in scleroderma skin grafts in immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is characterized by excessive fibrosis and obliterative vascular lesions. Abnormal TGFbeta activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of SSc. Aberrant TGFbeta/Smad signaling can be controlled by stabilization of microtubules with paclitaxel. METHODS AND FINDINGS: SSc and healthy human skin biopsies were incubated in the presence or absence of paclitaxel followed by transplantation into severe combined immunodeficient mice. TGFbeta signaling, fibrosis, and neovessel formation were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Paclitaxel markedly suppressed Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation and collagen deposition in SSc grafts. As a result, the autonomous maintenance/reconstitution of the SSc phenotype was prevented. Remarkably, SSc grafts showed a 2-fold increase in neovessel formation relative to normal grafts, regardless of paclitaxel treatment. Angiogenesis in SSc grafts was associated with a substantial increase in mouse PECAM-1 expression, indicating the mouse origin of the neovascular cells. CONCLUSION: Low-dose paclitaxel can significantly suppress TGFbeta/Smad activity and lessen fibrosis in SCID mice. Transplantation of SSc skin into SCID mice elicits a strong angiogenesis-an effect not affected by paclitaxel. Although prolonged chemotherapy with paclitaxel at higher doses is associated with pro-fibrotic and anti-angiogenic changes, the findings described here indicate that low-dose paclitaxel may have therapeutic benefits for SSc via modulating TGFbeta signaling.

  11. Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in Salmonella typhimurium: characteristics and physiological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsford, J L

    1984-11-01

    The physiological function of cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase in Salmonella typhimurium was investigated with strains which were isogenic except for the cpd locus. In crude broken-cell extracts the properties of the enzyme were found to be similar to those reported for Escherichia coli. The specific activity in the mutant was less than 1% that in the wild type. Rates of cAMP production in the mutant were as much as twice those observed in the wild type. The amount of cAMP accumulated when cells grew overnight with limiting glucose was 4.5-fold greater in the mutant than in the wild type. The intracellular concentration of cAMP in the two strains was measured directly, using four different techniques to wash the cells to remove extracellular cAMP. The cAMP level in the cpd strain was only 25% greater than in the wild type. The functional concentration of the cAMP receptor protein-cAMP complex was estimated indirectly from the specific activity of beta-galactosidase in the two strains after introducing F'lac. When cells were grown with carbon sources permitting synthesis of different levels of cAMP, the specific activity of the enzyme was at most 25% greater in the cpd strain. The cpd strain was more sensitive to the effects of exogenous cAMP. Exogenous cAMP relieved both permanent and transient catabolite repression of the lac operon at lower concentrations in the cpd strain than in the wild type. When cells grew with glucose, glycerol, or ribose, exogenous cAMP inhibited growth of the mutant strain more than the wild type. PMID:6094495

  12. Effect of bidispersity in grafted chain length on grafted chain conformations and potential of mean force between polymer grafted nanoparticles in a homopolymer matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nitish; Wentzel, Nathaniel; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2011-05-21

    In efforts to produce polymeric materials with tailored physical properties, significant interest has grown around the ability to control the spatial organization of nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites. One way to achieve controlled particle arrangement is by grafting the nanoparticle surface with polymers that are compatible with the matrix, thus manipulating the interfacial interactions between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix. Previous work has shown that the molecular weight of the grafted polymer, both at high grafting density and low grafting density, plays a key role in dictating the effective inter-particle interactions in a polymer matrix. At high grafting density nanoparticles disperse (aggregate) if the graft molecular weight is higher (lower) than the matrix molecular weight. At low grafting density the longer grafts can better shield the nanoparticle surface from direct particle-particle contacts than the shorter grafts and lead to the dispersion of the grafted particles in the matrix. Despite the importance of graft molecular weight, and evidence of non-trivial effects of polydispersity of chains grafted on flat surfaces, most theoretical work on polymer grafted nanoparticles has only focused on monodisperse grafted chains. In this paper, we focus on how bidispersity in grafted chain lengths affects the grafted chain conformations and inter-particle interactions in an implicit solvent and in a dense homopolymer polymer matrix. We first present the effects of bidispersity on grafted chain conformations in a single polymer grafted particle using purely Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. This is followed by calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF) between two grafted particles in a polymer matrix using a self-consistent Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model theory-Monte Carlo simulation approach. Monte Carlo simulations of a single polymer grafted particle in an implicit solvent show that in the bidisperse polymer grafted particles

  13. Intracranial arteriovenous fistula caused by endovascular stent-grafting and dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellers, M.O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitaetsklinik Saarland, 66421, Homburg (Germany); Reith, W. [Department of Neuroradiology, Saarland University, 66421, Homburg (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    A 58-year-old man developed a self-occluding arteriovenous fistula following stent-grafting of the right internal carotid artery (ICA). Due to prolonged ischaemic neurological deficits carotid angiography had been performed 3 weeks previously. It revealed marked atherosclerotic lesions predominantly narrowing the distal right carotid siphon. MRI confirmed ischaemic lesions and massive deficits of perfusion in the right ICA cerebral territory. Stent-grafting was performed successfully, but subsequent angiography revealed a new arteriovenous fistula adjacent to the stent, between the right carotid siphon and the cavernous sinus. On angiography 10 days later, the fistula no longer was present, and flow MRI were normal; the patient was by then asymptomatic. Arteriovenous fistula can thus complicate following endovascular stenting. (orig.)

  14. Intracranial arteriovenous fistula caused by endovascular stent-grafting and dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 58-year-old man developed a self-occluding arteriovenous fistula following stent-grafting of the right internal carotid artery (ICA). Due to prolonged ischaemic neurological deficits carotid angiography had been performed 3 weeks previously. It revealed marked atherosclerotic lesions predominantly narrowing the distal right carotid siphon. MRI confirmed ischaemic lesions and massive deficits of perfusion in the right ICA cerebral territory. Stent-grafting was performed successfully, but subsequent angiography revealed a new arteriovenous fistula adjacent to the stent, between the right carotid siphon and the cavernous sinus. On angiography 10 days later, the fistula no longer was present, and flow MRI were normal; the patient was by then asymptomatic. Arteriovenous fistula can thus complicate following endovascular stenting. (orig.)

  15. Graft-versus-host disease versus graft-versus-leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrin, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a significant clinical problem after allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) associated with substantial morbidity and mortality that limits the potential utility of transplantation. Associated with GVHD is the well-recognized phenomenon of the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect that results in reduced risk of disease relapse. GVL effects have been observed after treatment for a broad range of hematological malignancies. Both GVHD and GVL are the results of T cell-effector functions that frames a major question in the field of how linked are these two phenomena. A major goal of basic science and translational research has been to develop strategies to reduce the risk of GVHD while maintaining or enhancing GVL. In this review, a number of different strategies developed from preclinical animal models will be explored with a focus on those approaches that have been extended to the clinic in an attempt to achieve this goal. Needless to say, there is no proven strategy; however, with the use of modern technology and clinical translation, there has been substantial progress toward this goal of reducing the risks of GVHD while promoting and enhancing GVL responses. PMID:26637726

  16. Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture

  17. [Tracheal replacement grafts: current options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulguerov, Pavel; Soccal, Paola M; Bouayed, Salim; Huber, Olivier; Pittet, Brigitte

    2011-10-01

    A critical review of publications on tracheal reconstruction is presented. The extent of the resection defect in terms of horizontal circumference or longitudinal extension determines the difficulty of the reconstruction. To allow a valid comparison, a classification of tracheal defects is proposed. The reconstruction materials can be subdivided into synthetic grafts, autografts, allografts, and bioengineering constructs. Reconstruction of tracheal defects greater than half of the tracheal length was not possible until recently. Numerous publications on animal experimental techniques, and rare human case reports show few successful outcomes. During the last five years, new reconstructive options have emerged: autograft of composite flaps mimicking tracheal architecture and bioengineered tracheal constructs. PMID:22046681

  18. A review of 155 extra-anatomic bypass grafts.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, M.C.; Mikulin, T; Hopkinson, B R; Makin, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    Extra-anatomic bypass grafting has been used as treatment for patients with aorto-iliac disease who were considered unfit for aortic surgery. Eighty five percent of the patients had ischaemic pain at rest or skin necrosis. One hundred and three femorofemoral (FF) grafts, 40 axillounifemoral and 12 axillobifemoral grafts were performed. Femoropopliteal extension grafts were performed in 39 cases. The three year cumulative graft patency rate was 69% for FF grafts and 48% for both types of axill...

  19. PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF DIMER ACID/LIGNIN GRAFT COPOLYMER

    OpenAIRE

    Run Fang; Xiansu Cheng; Wu-shi Lin

    2011-01-01

    Dimer acid (DA) was grafted onto lignin (EHL) to form a graft copolymer DA-g-EHL. The selection of the reaction type and the optimization of the reaction conditions for the grafting reaction were conducted through orthogonal and single factor experiments. FT-IR and thermal analysis were used to characterize the graft product. It was found that, compared with free radical grafting, DA can be grafted onto EHL more effectively by ester condensation with strongly acidic cation exchange resin as a...

  20. Influence of ischemia before vein grafting on early hyperplasia of the graft and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou RongJiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate both the influence of ischemia before grafting on early hyperplasia of the vein grafts, and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting in a rabbit model of vein graft disease. Methods We performed paired vein graft experiments under different ischemic conditions (15 vs. 60 min; 15 vs. 90 min in the neck of the rabbits and compared the differences between the grafts. Clopidogrel, an anti-platelet agent, was administered before and after surgery. Twenty-eight days after the grafting procedure, the veins were evaluated microscopically. The dynamic changes of the intima after grafting were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy over time. Results The vein grafts subjected to 60- or 90-min ischemia exhibited no differences compared to those subjected to 15-min ischemia in terms of the mean thickness of the intimal, medial, and adventitial layers of the graft. Similarly, there was no difference in the Ki-67 labeling index (proliferation marker between the vein grafts. Vein grafts with 15-min ischemia lost endothelial cells (ECs but healed by 3 days post graft, whereas vein grafts with 90-min ischemia suffered serious EC loss, which was restored with new ECs during days 2 to 14 post graft. Conclusions Ninety-minute ischemia before vein grafting can cause serious EC loss, but does not increase early intimal hyperplasia when clopidogrel is administered. Protecting the vein from ischemia and reperfusion injury preserves ECs.

  1. Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time

  2. Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuki; Seko, Noriaki; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Tamada, Masao; Kasuya, Ken-ichi; Mitomo, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time.

  3. Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Yuki [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)]. E-mail: wada.yuki@jaea.go.jp; Seko, Noriaki [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Tamada, Masao [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kasuya, Ken-ichi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Mitomo, Hiroshi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time.

  4. Graft modification strategies to improve patency of prosthetic arteriovenous grafts for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufarrej, Andrew; Tordoir, Jan; Mees, Barend

    2016-03-01

    Prosthetic arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are indicated for vascular access for long-term hemodialysis in patients in whom creation or maintenance of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has failed or is contraindicated. AVGs have an inferior long-term patency as compared to AVFs. To ameliorate patency rates of prosthetic AVGs, different strategies have emerged to improve graft materials. This review aims to describe current strategies and future perspectives on graft modification, by graft geometry, drug coatings and graft surface technology, to improve AVG patency. PMID:26951913

  5. Severe QT interval prolongation associated with moxifloxacin: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Koide, Tetsuro; Shiba, Masato; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Muramatsu, Masatoshi; Ishida, Satoshi; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Keiko

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The QT interval prolongation is an adverse effect associated with moxifloxacin. This adverse effect can lead to potentially life-threatening arrhythmias such as Torsades de pointes. We describe a case of severe QT interval prolongation associated with moxifloxacin which may cause the development of Torsades de pointes. There have been no reported case of severe corrected QT interval prolongation caused by moxifloxacin in the patient of normal heart rate. Case presentation In an 8...

  6. A geometric interpretation of prolongation by means of connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Paul

    2010-11-01

    A geometric interpretation of prolongation can be formulated by using the theory of connections. A fiber bundle can be established which is composed of a base manifold and variables which span a prolongation space. A particular connection is introduced in terms of these coordinates. This provides a very different way of viewing the technique and for introducing prolongation algebras as well as generating integrable equations in a novel way.

  7. Grace's story: prolonged incestuous abuse from childhood into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Some sexually abused women in mental health settings are reporting prolonged incest and yet little is known about the circumstances that enable fathers to sexually abuse their daughters over a period of decades. This article draws from the life history of Grace, a woman who survived prolonged incest, in order to document and analyze the interplay of familial, social, and political factors that entrap girls and women within prolonged incestuous abuse. PMID:23420835

  8. Internal gastargets in AmPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaan, A. P.; Postma, O.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van Leeuwen, E.; Doets, M.; Kraan, M.

    1997-05-01

    Internal gas targets in AmPS A.P. Kaan, O. Postma, J.F.J. van den Brand, E. van Leeuwen, M. Doets, M. Kra= an National Institute for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics; Kruislaan 409; 1098 SJ Amsterdam; Holland In the Amsterdam Puls Stretcher/storage ring AmPS(1 GeV electrons), we designed a set-up in order to accommodate a gas target with a density of 1016 mol/cm2. The storage cell needed for this purpose is a aluminium tube with a length of 40 cm, a diameter of 15 mm and a wall thickness of 25 =B5m. Three sets of conductance limiters on both sides of the target, combined with dry turbopumps are designed to be used as differential pumping stations. These limiters cause discontinuities in the beam path and must therefor be retractable and radio frequency compatible in both positions. Low =B5 materials must be used because of the depolarisation effects of changing magnetic fields. The calculations show that the flow resistance's are sufficient to reduce the load of the getter pumps to a level with which the lifetime of the pump elements remain acceptable. The design of the mechanics and the vacuum system will be explained. Recent results from the measurements after installation in combination with the influence on the lifetime on the beam will be presented

  9. Radiation graft modification of EPDM rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katbab, A. A.; Burford, R. P.; Garnett, J. L.

    N-Vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm) have been grafted to the surface of rubber vulcanizates based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer (EPDM) using the simultaneous radiation method to alter surface properties such as wettability and therefore biocompatibility. The effect of monomer concentration, solvent and EPDM structural factors on the grafting behavior have been investigated. The inhibitory effect upon homopolymerization of various salts has also been evaluated for the three monomers. NVP and HEMA could be grafted onto EPDM rubber in the presence of aqueous solutions of cupric nitrate at 0.005 M and 1.0 M concentrations respectively. Aqueous solutions of Mohr's salt (ammonium ferrous sulphate) at 0.05 M not only suppressed the homopolymerization of AAm but also increased grafting yield. The percentage grafting also increased with increasing AAm concentration. A mechanism has been proposed to explain the behaviour of these monomers. The inclusion of multifunctional acrylates in additive amounts (1.0 vol%) enhanced the graft degree. Modified samples were able to be efficiently stained, allowing the depth of the graft copolymerization to be determined by light microscopy. Water was found to have an accelerating effect on the polymerization of these monomers, but methanol prevented their polymerization completely. The effect of EPDM structural factors upon degree of grafting was found to vary, depending upon the monomer type.

  10. Small parietal thrombi in artificial bypass grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last five years, 51 femoro-popliteal polytrafluoroethylene grafts were implanted in patients in the Second Surgical University Clinic, Vienna. In four of these patients an angiogram performed shortly after operation showed numerous small parietal thrombi on the artificial graft, a review of the literature has not shown any similar reports. The clinical importance and consequences of this observation are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Economics of grafted vs conventional watermelon plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafting of watermelons has been used in many countries to provide control of, or resistance to, certain soil borne diseases such as Fusarium wilt. The impact of grafting on postharvest quality has not been thoroughly examined. This report deals with the comparison of the costs of production betwe...

  12. Graft copolymers obtained by radiation grafting of methacrylic acid onto polypropylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct radiation grafting of methacrylic acid (MAA) onto polypropylene films (PP) was studied. The effect of different solvents such as benzene, distilled water, dimethyl formamide, isopropanol, isopropanol/water-mixture, on the swelling and the grafting process of MAA onto (PP) films was investigated. It was found that the grafting process was enhanced under vacuum irradiation in benzene as a diluent for MAA as compared with other solvents examined. The dependence of the grafting rate on such monomer concentrations was found to be 1.2 order. The relationship between the grafting rate and film thickness gave a negative first order dependence. This grafting system proceeded by a diffusion controlled process. Some selected properties of the grafted films such as mechanical and electrical properties, swelling behaviour, and gel determination, were also investigated. (author)

  13. Rehabilitation after coronary artery by-pass grafting and improved quality of life.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoad, N A; Crawford, I C

    1990-01-01

    Long waiting lists for coronary artery by-pass grafting often mean that patients have to endure a prolonged period of pre-operative disability, a known poor prognostic factor for their future quality of life and employment prospects. A survey of 60 patients who attended a post-operative rehabilitation course designed to restore their fitness and self-esteem, and hence their quality of life, has shown encouraging results. When questioned a mean 16 months later, 85 per cent are working and sign...

  14. Ex vivo lung graft perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briot, Raphaël; Gennai, Stéphane; Maignan, Maxime; Souilamas, Redha; Pison, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    This review proposes an update of the state of the art and the ongoing clinical trials of ex vivo lung perfusion for lung transplantation in patients. Ex vivo lung perfusion techniques (EVLP) can be used to evaluate a lung graft outside of the body. The goal of EVLP is to study the functional status of lung grafts that were first rejected for transplantation because they did not match all criteria for a conventional transplantation. After an EVLP evaluation, some of these lungs may be requalified for a possible transplantation in patients. This article proposes an overview of the developments of EVLP techniques. During EVLP, the perfusion and ventilation of the isolated lung preparation are very progressive in order to avoid oedema due to ischaemia-reperfusion injuries. Lung evaluation is mainly based on gasometric (PaO2/FiO2) and rheological criteria (low pulmonary arterial resistance). Several series of patients transplanted with EVLP evaluated lungs have been recently published with promising results. EVLP preparations also allow a better understanding of the physiopathology and treatments of ischaemia-reperfusion injuries. Organ procurements from "non-heart-beating" donors will probably require a wider application of these ex vivo techniques. The development of semi-automated systems might facilitate the clinical use of EVLP techniques. PMID:26746565

  15. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    OpenAIRE

    Cédric eBOULARAN; Céline eGALES

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP) modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors’ signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefl...

  16. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    OpenAIRE

    Boularan, Cédric; Gales, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors' signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefl...

  17. Oscillations of cAMP with the cardiac cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman-Coffelt, J; Sievers, R; Coffelt, R J; Parmley, W W

    1983-03-16

    Oscillations of cAMP with the cardiac cycle were demonstrated in the rat heart using a stimulator-triggered rapid freeze-clamp to decrease the temperature of the heart from 37 degrees C to -80 degrees C in 5 msec (20,000 degrees/sec) at a predetermined phase of the cardiac cycle. The nucleotide, cAMP, oscillated 60% with the cardiac cycle during normal working conditions, the higher cAMP value occurring during systole. PMID:6301471

  18. Didactical formulation of the Ampère law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ampère law is useful to calculate the magnetostatic field in the cases of distributions of current with high degree of symmetry. Nevertheless the magnetic field produced by a thin straight wire carrying a current I requires the Biot–Savart law and the use of the Ampère law leads to a mistake. A didactical formulation of the Ampère law is proposed to prevent misinterpretations. (letters and comments)

  19. Didactical formulation of the Ampère law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiesi, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The Ampère law is useful to calculate the magnetostatic field in the cases of distributions of current with high degree of symmetry. Nevertheless the magnetic field produced by a thin straight wire carrying a current I requires the Biot-Savart law and the use of the Ampère law leads to a mistake. A didactical formulation of the Ampère law is proposed to prevent misinterpretations.

  20. Prolonging sensor networks lifetime using convex clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Salehi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the energy consumption of nodes in sensor networks and prolonging the network life time has been proposed as one of the most important challenges facing researchers in the field of sensor networks. Therefore, designing an energy-aware protocol to gather data from network level and transmitting it to sink is placed on the agenda at this paper. After presenting an analysis of the processes of clustering in sensory networks and investigating the effect of sending interval on the amount of energy consumption, We have shown that if the use of convex static casters be done such as all the communications within the cluster with the sending distance less than the optimal threshold, it Will help to increase the lifetime of nodes. also have shown that if we create a virtual backbone between cluster heads to transfer far cluster heads data from sink to sink , will has a significant impact on increasing the network lifetime. For this reason, a detailed discussion on how to determine the size of clusters and partitioning of the network environment to them is presented in Chapter 4.Simulation results show considerable improvement of the proposed algorithm.

  1. [A case of prolonged paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiko; Ide, Shuhei; Iwasaki, Yuji; Kaga, Makiko; Arima, Masataka

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH), after developing severe hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy because of cardiopulmonary arrest. She showed dramatic paroxysmal sympathetic activity with dystonia. She was treated with wide variety of medications against PSH, which were found to be effective in previous studies. Among them, morphine, bromocriptine, propranolol, and clonidine were effective in reducing the frequency of her attacks while gabapentin, baclofen, dantrolene, and benzodiazepine were ineffective. Though the paroxysms decreased markedly after the treatment, they could not be completely controlled beyond 500 days. Following the treatment, levels of plasma catecholamines and their urinary metabolites decreased to normal during inter- paroxysms. However, once a paroxysm had recurred, these levels were again very high. This case study is considered significant for two rea- sons. One is that PSH among children have been rarely reported, and the other is that this case of prolonged PSH delineated the transition of plasma catecholamines during the treatment. The excitatory: inhibitory ratio (EIR) model proposed by Baguley was considered while dis- cussing drug sensitivity in this case. Accumulation of similar case studies will help establish more effective treatment strategies and elucidate the pathophysiology of PSH. PMID:27149743

  2. Graft Take-Rates After Tympanoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Aabenhus, Kristine; Glad, Henrik; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a prospective ear surgery database and investigate the graft take-rate and prognostic factors for graft take-rate in tympanoplasty using the database. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective database study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: A total of 1606 cases undergoing...... tympanoplasty types I to IV were registered in the database in the period from February 2004 to November 2013. INTERVENTION: A total of 837 cases underwent myringoplasty/tympanoplasty type I. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Graft take-rate and prognostic factors (age, discharge at time of surgery, tuba function......, technique, graft material, and revision surgery) for tympanoplasty type I were studied. A comparison with the graft take-rates for tympanoplasty types II to IV and/or cholesteatoma was made. RESULTS: A user-friendly ear surgery database with fast data entry and direct import of audiometric data was...

  3. Gamma-radiation-induced grafting onto wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting studies have been carried out on loose wool fibres. Different vinyl monomers were used and they were grafted in different solvents which were selected on the basis of their swelling efficiency and solubility parameters. The treatments were performed once with and once without the addition of water. The presence of water caused the polymer uptake to increase considerably. Formic acid/methanol and methanol accelerate the grafting process best, since they have the highest hydrogen-bond interaction efficiency. The moisture uptake of grafted wool decreases. X-ray and differential scanning calorimetry tests show unambiguously that grafting occurs in different morphological areas, depending on the type of polymer. The single fibre studies served as basis for analogous tests on wool fabrics (Part II). (author)

  4. Polyethylene oxide hydration in grafted layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormidontova, Elena; Wang, Zilu

    Hydration of water soluble polymers is one of the key-factors defining their conformation and properties, similar to biopolymers. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) is one of the most important biomedical-applications polymers and is known for its reverse temperature solubility due to hydrogen bonding with water. As in many practical applications PEO chains are grafted to surfaces, e.g. of nanoparticles or planar surfaces, it is important to understand PEO hydration in such grafted layers. Using atomistic molecular dynamic simulations we investigate the details of molecular conformation and hydration of PEO end-grafted to gold surfaces. We analyze polymer and water density distribution as a function of distance from the surface for different grafting densities. Based on a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding between polymer and water in grafted PEO layers, we will discuss the extent of PEO hydration and its implication for polymer conformation, mobility and layer properties. This research is supported by NSF (DMR-1410928).

  5. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boularan, Cédric; Gales, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors' signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefly discuss the complexity of cAMP synthesis and degradation in the cardiac context, describe the way to detect it and review the main pharmacological arsenal to modulate its availability. PMID:26483685

  6. Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in Salmonella typhimurium: characteristics and physiological function.

    OpenAIRE

    Botsford, J L

    1984-01-01

    The physiological function of cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase in Salmonella typhimurium was investigated with strains which were isogenic except for the cpd locus. In crude broken-cell extracts the properties of the enzyme were found to be similar to those reported for Escherichia coli. The specific activity in the mutant was less than 1% that in the wild type. Rates of cAMP production in the mutant were as much as twice those observed in the wild type. The amount of cAMP accumulated when...

  7. S-AMP for non-linear observation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Winther, Ole; Fleury, Bernard H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently we presented the S-AMP approach, an extension of approximate message passing (AMP), to be able to handle general invariant matrix ensembles. In this contribution we extend S-AMP to non-linear observation models. We obtain generalized AMP (GAMP) as the special case when the measurement...... matrix has zero-mean iid Gaussian entries. Our derivation is based upon 1) deriving expectation-propagation-(EP)-like equations from the stationary-points equations of the Gibbs free energy under first- and second-moment constraints and 2) applying additive free convolution in free probability theory to...

  8. Caffeine, cyclic AMP and postreplication repair of mammalian DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methylxanthines, caffeine and theophylline, inhibit postreplication repair of DNA in mammalian cells. Because they also inhibit cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, it was thought that there might be some connection between concentrations of cyclic AMP and postreplication repair. This possibility was tested by performing DNA sedimentation experiments with a cyclic AMP-resistant mouse lymphoma cell mutant and its wild-type counterpart. The results show that there is no connection between cellular cyclic AMP concentrations and the rate of postreplication repair. Therefore, it is more likely that caffeine and theophylline inhibit postreplication repair by some other means, such as by binding to DNA

  9. Iron oxide nanoparticles grafted with sulfonated copolymers are stable in concentrated brine at elevated temperatures and weakly adsorb on silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaria, Hitesh G; Xue, Zheng; Neilson, Bethany M; Worthen, Andrew J; Yoon, Ki Youl; Nayak, Susheela; Cheng, Victoria; Lee, Jae Ho; Bielawski, Christopher W; Johnston, Keith P

    2013-04-24

    Magnetic nanoparticles that can be transported in subsurface reservoirs at high salinities and temperatures are expected to have a major impact on enhanced oil recovery, carbon dioxide sequestration, and electromagnetic imaging. Herein we report a rare example of steric stabilization of iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (NPs) grafted with poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate-co-acrylic acid) (poly(AMPS-co-AA)) that not only display colloidal stability in standard American Petroleum Institute (API) brine (8% NaCl + 2% CaCl2 by weight) at 90 °C for 1 month but also resist undesirable adsorption on silica surfaces (0.4% monolayer NPs). Because the AMPS groups interacted weakly with Ca(2+), they were sufficiently well solvated to provide steric stabilization. The PAA groups, in contrast, enabled covalent grafting of the poly(AMPS-co-AA) chains to amine-functionalized IO NPs via formation of amide bonds and prevented polymer desorption even after a 40,000-fold dilution. The aforementioned methodology may be readily adapted to stabilize a variety of other functional inorganic and organic NPs at high salinities and temperatures. PMID:23527819

  10. Music exposure induced prolongation of cardiac allograft survival and generated regulatory CD4⁺ cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, M; Jin, X; Zhang, Q; Amano, A; Watanabe, T; Niimi, M

    2012-05-01

    In clinical practice, music has been used to decrease stress, heart rate, and blood pressure and to provide a distraction from disease symptoms. We investigated sound effects on alloimmune responses in murine heart transplantation. Naïve and eardrum-ruptured CBA/N (CBA, H2(K)) underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 (B6, H2(b)) heart and were exposed to 1 of 3 types of music-opera (La Traviata), classical (Mozart), and New Age (Enya)-or 1 of 6 different single sound frequencies for 7 days. An adoptive transfer study was performed to determine whether regulatory cells were generated in allograft recipients. Cell-proliferation, cytokine, and flow cytometry assessments were also performed. CBA recipients of a B6 graft exposed to opera and classical music had significantly prolonged allograft survival (median survival times [MSTs], 26.5 and 20 days, respectively), whereas those exposed to 6 single sound frequencies and New Age did not (MSTs, 7, 8, 9, 8, 8, 8, and 11 days, respectively). Untreated and eardrum-ruptured CBA rejected B6 grafts acutely (MSTs, 7 and 8.5 days, respectively). Adoptive transfer of whole splenocytes, CD4(+) cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+) cells from opera-exposed primary recipients resulted in significantly prolonged allograft survival in naive secondary recipients (MSTs, 36, 68, and >50 days, respectively). Cell-proliferation, interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon-γ were suppressed in opera-exposed mice, whereas IL-4 and IL-10 from opera-exposed recipients were up-regulated. Flow cytometry studies showed an increased CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cell population in splenocytes from opera-exposed mice. In conclusion, exposure to some types of music may induce prolonged survival of fully allogeneic cardiac allografts and generate CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory cells. PMID:22564629

  11. Historical and modern genetics of plant graft hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongsheng

    2006-01-01

    Graft hybridization is a type of asexual hybridization in which heritable changes may be induced by grafting. Darwin was the first to put forward the conception of graft hybridization. The existence of graft hybrids has been extensively documented, although there has been a refusal to accept its reality, other than perceiving the phenomenon as involving "simple" chimeras. Graft hybrids can be divided into two categories--chimera graft hybrid (so-called graft chimera) and nonchimera graft hybrid (so-called vegetative hybrid). These differ with respect to grafting methods, characteristics, and mechanisms proposed to underlie the two categories. Graft hybridization is not only a simple and powerful means of plant breeding but also provides striking evidence in favor of Darwin's notions about Pangenesis--a developmental theory of heredity, on the one hand, and a phenomenon that plays a crucial role in revealing the mystery of non-Mendelian inheritance in grafted fruit trees. PMID:16735156

  12. Acute Effects of Liver Vein Occlusion by Stent-Graft Placed in Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Channel: An Experimental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hepatic vein occlusion by stent-graft used in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). The experiments were performed in six healthy pigs under general anesthesia. Following percutaneous transhepatic implantation of a port-a-cath in the right hepatic vein, TIPS was created with a stent-graft (Viatorr; W L Gore, Flagstaff, AZ, USA). The outflow from the hepatic vein, blocked by the stent-graft was documented by injection of contrast medium and repeated injections of 99Tcm-labeled human serum albumin through the port-a-cath. After 2 weeks, the outflow was re-evaluated, the pigs were sacrificed, and histopathologic examination of the liver was performed. Occlusion of the hepatic vein by a stent-graft had a short and temporary effect on the outflow. Histopathological examination from the affected liver segment showed no divergent pattern. Stent-grafts used in TIPS block the outflow from the liver vein, but do not have a prolonged circulatory effect and do not affect the liver parenchyma

  13. Oocyte developmental competence after in vitro maturation depends on the persistence of cumulus-oocyte comunications which are linked to the intracellular concentration of cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modina, S; Luciano, A M; Vassena, R; Baraldi-Scesi, L; Lauria, A; Gandolfi, F

    2001-01-01

    Oocyte and cumulus cells are interconnected by an extensive network of gap junctions (GJ) formed by connexin 43. In the present study the functional and morphological status of GJ was investigated during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes using media known to induce different rates of maturation and developmental competence as well as different levels of cumulus expansion and intracellular concentrations of cAMP. GJ functional condition was studied by microinjection of the fluorescent dye Lucyfer Yellow in cumulus-enclosed oocytes and the intracellular distribution of connexin 43 was examined by immunofluorescence immunocytochemistry. Both functional and morphological analysis of GJ between oocytes and cumulus cells indicated that high maturation and development rates are accompanied by the prolonged persistence of permeable communications, which, however, are independent from cumulus expansion. On the contrary, the premature interruption of such communications was linked to low maturation and development. When these results were correlated to the measurements of intracellular levels of cAMP it was observed that cumulus expansion, GJ permeability and good quality maturation require the highest levels of cAMP. Intermediate cAMP levels determine GJ permeability and good quality maturation in the absence of cumulus expansion while below a threshold level of cAMP, oocyte maturation is defective with a premature interruption of communications through GJ and lack of cumulus expansion which lead to poor development. PMID:11732583

  14. Inflorescence stem grafting made easy in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Nazia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant grafting techniques have deepened our understanding of the signals facilitating communication between the root and shoot, as well as between shoot and reproductive organs. Transmissible signalling molecules can include hormones, peptides, proteins and metabolites: some of which travel long distances to communicate stress, nutrient status, disease and developmental events. While hypocotyl micrografting techniques have been successfully established for Arabidopsis to explore root to shoot communications, inflorescence grafting in Arabidopsis has not been exploited to the same extent. Two different strategies (horizontal and wedge-style inflorescence grafting have been developed to explore long distance signalling between the shoot and reproductive organs. We developed a robust wedge-cleft grafting method, with success rates greater than 87%, by developing better tissue contact between the stems from the inflorescence scion and rootstock. We describe how to perform a successful inflorescence stem graft that allows for reproducible translocation experiments into the physiological, developmental and molecular aspects of long distance signalling events that promote reproduction. Results Wedge grafts of the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem were supported with silicone tubing and further sealed with parafilm to maintain the vascular flow of nutrients to the shoot and reproductive tissues. Nearly all (87% grafted plants formed a strong union between the scion and rootstock. The success of grafting was scored using an inflorescence growth assay based upon the growth of primary stem. Repeated pruning produced new cauline tissues, healthy flowers and reproductive siliques, which indicates a healthy flow of nutrients from the rootstock. Removal of the silicone tubing showed a tightly fused wedge graft junction with callus proliferation. Histological staining of sections through the graft junction demonstrated the differentiation of

  15. Cloning, Sequence Analyses, Expression, and Distribution of ampC-ampR from Morganella morganii Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Poirel, Laurent; Guibert, Michele; Girlich, Delphine; Naas, Thierry; Nordmann, Patrice

    1999-01-01

    Shotgun cloning experiments with restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA from Morganella morganii 1, which expresses high levels of cephalosporinase, into the pBKCMV cloning vector gave a recombinant plasmid, pPON-1, which encoded four entire genes: ampC, ampR, an hybF family gene, and orf-1 of unknown function. The deduced AmpC β-lactamase of pI 7.6 shared structural and functional homologies with AmpC from Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Enterobacter cloacae...

  16. Encephalitis with Prolonged but Reversible Splenial Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Meleková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The splenium of the corpus callosum has a specific structure of blood supply with a tendency towards blood-brain barrier breakdown, intramyelinic edema, and damage due to hypoxia or toxins. Signs and symptoms of reversible syndrome of the splenium of the corpus callosum typically include disorientation, confusion, impaired consciousness, and epileptic seizures. Case report: A previously healthy 32-year-old man suffered from weakness, headache, and fever. Subsequently, he developed apathy, ataxia, and inability to walk, and therefore was admitted to the hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid showed protein elevation (0.9 g/l and pleocytosis (232/1 ul. A brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the middle of the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and subsequently, in combination with steroids. Two months later, the hyperintense lesions in the splenium and the basal ganglia had disappeared. Almost seven months since his hospitalization in the Department of Neurology, the patient has returned to his previous employment. He now does not exhibit any mental changes, an optic edema and urological problems have improved. In addition, he is now actively engaged in sports. Conclusion: We have described a case of a 32-year-old man with confusion, ataxia, and inability to stand and walk. The man developed a febrile meningeal syndrome and a hyperintense lesion of the splenium, which lasted for two months. Neurological changes, optic nerve edema, and urinary retention have resolved over the course of seven months. We think that the prolonged but transient lesion of the splenium may have been caused by encephalitis of viral origin.

  17. Epidemiology of prolonged testicular infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Walz, Paul H; Gard, Julie A; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2009-10-20

    Previously, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) had been found in prolonged testicular infections following acute infection of immunocompetent bulls. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate the production and maintenance of prolonged testicular infections after exposure to BVDV of seronegative bulls in varying circumstances. The secondary objective was to initiate assessment of the potential for transmission of BVDV via semen of bulls exhibiting a prolonged testicular infection. In total, 10 research trials were conducted. The first trial examined the duration of detectable virus in semen after intranasal inoculation of peri-pubertal bulls. The second to fifth trials examined the potential for prolonged testicular infections resulting from natural exposure of seronegative bulls to persistently infected heifers. In the last five trials, the potential for viral transmission from bulls exhibiting prolonged testicular infections to a small number of exposed animals (n=28) was evaluated. Results of this research demonstrated that prolonged testicular infections could result in detection of viral RNA in semen for 2.75 years with infectious virus grown from testicular tissue 12.5 months after viral exposure. A type 1b strain of BVDV caused prolonged testicular infection after natural exposure of seronegative bulls to a persistently infected heifer. However, transmission of BVDV to susceptible animals was not detected in the final five trials of this research. In conclusion, BVDV can persist in testicular tissue after acute infection for several years, but the potential for viral transmission from these prolonged testicular infections appears to be low. PMID:19473788

  18. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben K. Becker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer patients are at an increased risk for QT interval prolongation and subsequent potentially fatal Torsade de pointes tachycardia due to the multiple drugs used for treatment of malignancies and the associated symptoms and complications. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this article analyzes the risk for prolongation of the QT interval with antineoplastic agents and commonly used concomitant drugs. This includes anthracyclines, fluorouracil, alkylating agents, and new molecularly targeted therapeutics, such as vascular disruption agents. Medications used in the supportive care can also prolong QT intervals, such as methadone, 5-HT3-antagonists and antihistamines, some antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirals. We describe the presumed mechanism of QT interval prolongation, drug-specific considerations, as well as important clinical interactions. Multiple risk factors and drug–drug interactions increase this risk for dangerous arrhythmias. We propose a systematic approach to evaluate cancer patients for the risk of QT interval prolongation and how to prevent adverse effects.

  19. Increased Expression of ampC in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mutants Selected with Ciprofloxacin▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Daniel J.; Schmidtke, Amber J.; Hanson, Nancy D.; Lister, Philip D.

    2007-01-01

    Two Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants exhibiting increased expression of ampC were selected during exposure to ciprofloxacin. These mutants also exhibited significant increases in mexCD-oprJ expression, but further studies failed to show a link between the increased expression of mexCD-oprJ and ampC. Increased ampC expression was not related to mutations within ampR, the ampC-ampR intergenic region, ampD, ampDh2, or ampDh3 or to changes in the levels of expression of these amidase genes. However...

  20. Prediction of Prolonged Hemodynamic Instability During Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong Kook; Park, Jeong Jin; Choi, Hyuk Jai; Cho, Young Dae; Sheen, Seung Hun; Jang, Kyung-Sool

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors of prolonged hemodynamic instability (HDI) after carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). Herein, a simplified predictive scoring system for prolonged HDI is proposed. Materials and Methods Sixty-six patients who had CAS from 2011 to 2016 at a single institution were evaluated. Prolonged HDI was defined as systolic blood pressure >160 mm Hg or <90 mm Hg or heart rate <50 beats/min, lasting over 30 minutes despite medical treatments. For the study, clinical data and radiologic data, including plaque morphology and stenosis were analyzed. Results Prolonged HDI was observed in 21 patients (31.8%). Multivariable analysis revealed that calcification (OR, 6.726; p=0.006), eccentric stenosis (OR, 3.645; p=0.047) and extensive plaque distribution (OR, 7.169; p=0.006) were related to prolonged HDI. According to these results, a simplified scoring scale was proposed based on the summation of points: 2 points for calcified plaque, 2 points for extensive plaque distribution, and 1 point for eccentric stenosis. The percentages of prolonged HDI according to the total score were as follows: score 0, 8.7%; score 1, 20.0%; score 2, 38.5%; score 3, 72.7%; score 4, 66.7%; score 5, 100%. From the analysis, the total score in patients with prolonged HDI was significantly higher than those without prolonged HDI (p<0.001). Conclusion Prolonged HDI can be associated with calcification of plaque, eccentric stenosis and extensive plaque distribution, and a simplified scoring system enables prediction of prolonged HDI according to our cohort.

  1. Counteracting roles of AMP deaminase and AMP kinase in the development of fatty liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Lanaspa

    Full Text Available Fatty liver (hepatic steatosis is associated with nucleotide turnover, loss of ATP and generation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP. It is well known that in fatty liver, activity of the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK is reduced and that its stimulation can prevent hepatic steatosis by both enhancing fat oxidation and reducing lipogenesis. Here we show that another AMP dependent enzyme, AMPD2, has opposing effects on fatty acid oxidation when compared to AMPK. In human hepatocytres, AMPD2 activation -either by overexpression or by lowering intracellular phosphate levels with fructose- is associated with a significant reduction in AMPK activity. Likewise, silencing of AMPK spontaneously increases AMPD activity, demonstrating that these enzymes counter-regulate each other. Furthermore, we show that a downstream product of AMP metabolism through AMPD2, uric acid, can inhibit AMPK activity in human hepatocytes. Finally, we show that fructose-induced fat accumulation in hepatocytes is due to a dominant stimulation of AMPD2 despite stimulating AMPK. In this regard, AMPD2-deficient hepatocytes demonstrate a further activation of AMPK after fructose exposure in association with increased fatty acid oxidation, and conversely silencing AMPK enhances AMPD-dependent fat accumulation. In vivo, we show that sucrose fed rats also develop fatty liver that is blocked by metformin in association with both a reduction in AMPD activity and an increase in AMPK activity. In summary, AMPD and AMPK are both important in hepatic fat accumulation and counter-regulate each other. We present the novel finding that uric acid inhibits AMPK kinase activity in fructose-fed hepatocytes thus providing new insights into the pathogenesis of fatty liver.

  2. Complex solutions of Monge-Amp\\`ere equations

    OpenAIRE

    Banos, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to reduce partial differential equations of Monge-Amp\\`ere type in 4 variables to complex partial differential equations in 2 variables. To illustrate this method, we construct explicit holomorphic solutions of the special lagrangian equation, the real Monge-Amp\\`ere equations and the Plebanski equations.

  3. Hemodynamics Simulation of Stenosed Coronary Bypass Graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU You-jun; QIAO Aike; DU Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    By means of FEM, the physiological blood flow in coronary bypass graft is simulated. The stenosis in coronary artery is involved in the graft model,and the deformation of graft end to allow the surgical suture with a smaller diameter coronary is taken into consideration. The flow pattern, secondary flow and wall shear stress in the vicinity of anastomosis are analyzed. It is shown that a zone of low wall stress and high wall stress gradient exists downstream the toe. The floor opposed to the anastomosis is an area of high wall stress and high wall stress gradient. Both the toe downstream and the anastomosis bottom floor are prone to intimal hyperplasia.

  4. Flow characteristics in narrowed coronary bypass graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad, S. I.; Bosioc, A.; Bernad, E. S.; Petre, I.; Totorean, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    Tortuous saphenous vein graft (SVG) hemodynamics was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Computed tomography (CT) technology is used for non-invasive bypass graft assessment 7 days after surgery. CT investigation shown two regions with severe shape remodelling first is an elbow type contortion and second is a severe curvature with tortuous area reduction. In conclusion, the helical flow induced by vessel torsion may stabilize the blood flow in the distal part of the SVG, reducing the flow disturbance and suppressing the flow separation, but in the distal end of the graft, promote the inflammatory processes in the vessels.

  5. Acrylique acid grafted polyolefines. Thermoadhesive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical grafting of polyolefines by peroxidation has been industrialized in France for about 10 years by irradiation of these polymers with an electron accelerator and then treated by acrylic acid. Products obtained show a high adhesivity on metallic surfaces above their melting point. The main application of acrylic acid grafted high density polyethylene is composite film with aluminum foil for thermosealing of plastic bottle caps of sterilized milk. Acrylic acid grafted polypropylene is used in suspension in a volatile liquid for aluminum foil coating satisfying food packaging regulations

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of IAA in graft union of explanted internode grafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic changes of IAA in graft union of explanted internode autografting of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) have been investigated using the immunohistochemical localization technique.It is shown that the efficiency of IAA fixation using lyophilization-gas fixation is higher than that using liquid chemical fixation.In contrast to few silver particles and no significant changes during the development of graft union cultured in hormone-free medium,more silver particles in graft union and significant changes of IAA related to graft union development have been found when graft union was cultured in medium supplemented with appropriate hormones.The fixation procedure of plant hormones and the roles of IAA in graft union are discussed.

  7. The effect of pH on grafting yield in polyethylene radiation grafting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylic acid (AA) and sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) were grafted onto high-density polyethylene film by preirradiation, and the authors prepared an ion exchange membrane including strong acid and weak acid groups. The effect of pH on grafting yield was studied. In simultaneous radiation method Gt and Gs decrease with pH either HDPE grafted AA and SSS or AA-g-HDPE membrane grafted SSS. In preirradiation method Gt and Gs respectively increase with pH, and the highest grafting yield was observed at pH=2.80 then Gt and Gs decrease with pH. Viscidity of grafting system was changed due to adjusting of pH, so that diffuse rate of monomers into matrix was affected

  8. AmpC Disk Test for Detection of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae Lacking Chromosomal AmpC β-Lactamases

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Jennifer A.; Moland, Ellen Smith; Thomson, Kenneth S.

    2005-01-01

    Although plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases were first reported in the late 1980s, many infectious disease personnel remain unaware of their clinical importance. These enzymes are typically produced by isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella spp. and are associated with multiple antibiotic resistance that leaves few therapeutic options. Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases have been associated with false in vitro susceptibility to cephalosporins. Many la...

  9. MEK Inhibitors Reverse cAMP-Mediated Anxiety in Zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Pia R.; Anastasaki, Corina; Grant, Nicola J.;

    2015-01-01

    adult zebrafish, while causing no anxiolytic behavioral effects on their own. The mechanism underlying cAMP-induced anxiety is via crosstalk to activation of the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. We propose that targeting crosstalk signaling pathways can be an effective strategy for mental health disorders......Altered phosphodiesterase (PDE)-cyclic AMP (cAMP) activity is frequently associated with anxiety disorders, but current therapies act by reducing neuronal excitability rather than targeting PDE-cAMP-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we report the novel repositioning of anti-cancer MEK inhibitors...... as anxiolytics in a zebrafish model of anxiety-like behaviors. PDE inhibitors or activators of adenylate cyclase cause behaviors consistent with anxiety in larvae and adult zebrafish. Small-molecule screening identifies MEK inhibitors as potent suppressors of cAMP anxiety behaviors in both larvae and...

  10. The CytR repressor antagonizes cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein activation of the deoCp2 promoter of Escherichia coli K-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Martinussen, J; Møllegaard, N E; Douthwaite, S R; Valentin-Hansen, P

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of the Escherichia coli deoCp2 promoter by the CytR repressor and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) complexed to cAMP. Promoter regions controlled by these two proteins characteristically contain tandem cAMP-CRP binding sites. Here we show that (i) Cyt...

  11. Kinetic and mechanism of radiation-induced graft copolymerization for two grafting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) onto nylon fiber was investigated by the pre-irradiation method using electron beam. The effects of grafting parameters, such as monomer concentration, absorbed dose and reaction temperature were investigated. The empirical kinetic rate equations: dG0/ dt = k(Mg0)1.14(Ag)0.52 and dG0/dt = k(Mv0)0.86(Av)1.06, were used to describe grafting of GMA and VBC, respectively. The overall activation energy for graft copolymerization of GMA and VBC were found to be 5.4 and 22.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The results revealed that the grafting kinetics in the two grafting systems were both controlled by the amounts of trapped radicals and monomer molecules. The grafting of GMA onto nylon-6 fibers was found to exhibit higher dependency on the quantity of monomer molecules available, whereas the VBC grafting system was found to exhibit higher dependency on the quantity of trapped radicals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to provide evidence for the formation of graft copolymers. (author)

  12. Perioperative indocyanine green clearance is predictive for prolonged intensive care unit stay after coronary artery bypass grafting - an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Michael; Spies, Claudia D.; Berger, Katharina; Schröder, Torsten; Grubitzsch, Herko; Wernecke, Klaus D; von Heymann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction During cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) haemodilution occurs. Hepatic dysfunction after CPB is a rare, but serious, complication. Clinical data have validated the plasma-disappearance rate of indocyanine green (PDR ICG) as a marker of hepatic function and perfusion. Primary objective of this analysis was to investigate the impact of haemodilutional anaemia on hepatic function and perfusion by the time course of PDR ICG and liver enzymes in elective CABG surgery. ...

  13. Radiation-induced grafting onto wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting tests were done on single wool fibres. Different vinyl monomers were used for this purpose and they were grafted in twenty different solvents which were selected for their swelling effiency and solvent parameters. The tests were done once with and once without the addition of water. The presence of water causes the polymer uptake to increase considerably. Formic acid/methanol and methanol were found to be the most suitable solvent systems, as they have the highest hydrogen-bond interaction effiency. The moisture uptake of wool depends on the hydrophily and hydrophoby of the grafted polymers. The single-fibre tests serve as a basis for analogous grafting tests on wool fabrics. The permanent- press was improved by graftng with hydrophoric polymers and polymers with a high glass-transition temperature

  14. Photochemical grafting of diazonium salts on metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busson, Mathilde; Berisha, Avni; Combellas, Catherine; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Pinson, Jean

    2011-12-21

    4-Nitrobenzenediazonium may be photochemically grafted onto gold, copper and iron under visible and UV light. Thin nanometre layers are obtained and characterized by IRRAS, electrochemistry and ellipsometry. PMID:22031299

  15. Technique in Cleft Rhinoplasty: The Foundation Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, Holger G; Schwan, Franziska; Haubner, Frank; Suárez, Gustavo A; Vielsmeier, Veronika

    2016-04-01

    Secondary cleft rhinoplasty represents a particular surgical challenge. The authors have identified the deficit in skeletal projection of the cleft-sided piriform rim as an important contributor to the pathology. A graft is described to augment the piriform crest on the cleft side. This foundation graft is suture fixated to the piriform crest after complete release of all soft tissue attachments to the alar base. The foundation graft is articulated with a long alar strut graft, which allows for powerful projection of the cleft-sided nasal tip. An advancement flap of vestibular skin is described to correct the vestibular stenosis. A transplant of diced cartilage in fascia is added to augment maxillary soft tissue volume. Subjective and objective measures of form and function are presented in a retrospective series of five cases, illustrating the efficacy of the techniques described. PMID:27097143

  16. CT diagnosis of aortic graft infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of aortic graft infections diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) are presented. CT scans demonstrated a zone of low attenuation in the perigraft area, in one case with a rim enhancement. The diagnoses were verfied by operation. (orig.)

  17. Mechanisms of Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases in Modulating T Cell Responses in Murine Graft-versus-Host Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Michael; Lupp, Corinna; Stein, Pamela; Kreft, Andreas; Bopp, Tobias; WEHLER, THOMAS C.; Schmitt, Edgar; Schild, Hansjörg; Radsak, Markus P.

    2013-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a key contributor to the morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Regulatory Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells (Treg) suppress conventional T cell activation and can control GvHD. In our previous work, we demonstrate that a basic mechanism of Treg mediated suppression occurs by the transfer of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to responder cells. Whether this mechanism is relevant for Treg mediated suppression of GvHD is...

  18. Conduits for Coronary Bypass: Vein Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Barner, Hendrick B.; Farkas, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    The saphenous vein has been the principal conduit for coronary bypass grafting from the beginning, circa 1970. This report briefly traces this history and concomitantly presents one surgeons experience and personal views on use of the vein graft. As such it is not exhaustive but meant to be practical with a modest number of references. The focus is that of providing guidance and perspective which may be at variance with that of others and recognizing that there may be many ways to accomplish ...

  19. Biomaterials in Maxillofacial Surgery: Membranes and Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodella, Luigi F.; Favero, Gaia; Labanca, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Today, significant differences in the use of biomaterials (membranes and grafts) of animal or synthetic origin have yet to be reported. Nevertheless, some evidences suggest that synthetic materials have a lower risk of disease transmission. This review aims to assess the available informations on regenerative bone technique using reasorbable membranes and bone grafts. In particular, biocompatibility, immunological response, tissue reaction, reabsorption time and histological features of mater...

  20. Guillain-Barré syndrome in child with prolong intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is an acute demyelinating disorder of the peripheral nervous system that results from an aberrant immune response directed at peripheral nerves. A typical GBS patient presents with rapidly ascending symmetrical weakness, which may progress to respiratory failure in 30% of patients. There are no definite criteria exists in GBS in children regarding prolonged ventilation. Here we report a child of GBS requiring prolonged intubation and ventilation for 60 days who afterward had a complete recovery. We present this case to highlight the importance that even in children prolonged intubation and ventilation of GBS case prognosis can be good.

  1. Geometric Approaches for Generating Prolongations for Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bracken, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The prolongation structure of a two-by-two problem is formulated very generally in terms of exterior differential forms on a standard representation of Pauli matrices. The differential system is general without making reference to any specific equation. An integrability condition is provided which gives by construction the equation to be investigated and whose components involve the structure constants of an SU(2) Lie algebra. Along side this, a related, different kind of prolongation, a type of Wahlquist-Estabrook prolongation, over a closed differential ideal is discussed and some applications are given.

  2. Differences in brachial and femoral artery responses to prolonged sitting

    OpenAIRE

    Thosar, Saurabh S.; Bielko, Sylvanna L.; Wiggins, Chad C.; Wallace, Janet P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction It is unknown if there are limb differences in vascular function during prolonged sitting. Purpose This study was designed to test whether the effects of prolonged sitting on brachial artery (BA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are similar. Methods Twelve men (24.2 ± 4 yrs.) participated in a 3 hr prolonged sitting trial (SIT). SFA and BA flow mediated dilation (FMD) and respective flow patterns were measured at baseline, 1 hr, 2 hr and 3 hr. Results By a one-way ANOVA t...

  3. Polypeptide Grafted Hyaluronan: Synthesis and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Poly(L-leucine) grafted hyaluronan (HA-g-PLeu) has been synthesized via a Michael addition reaction between primary amine terminated poly(L-leucine) and acrylate-functionalized HA (TBAHA-acrylate). The precursor hyaluronan was first functionalized with acrylate groups by reaction with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in N,N-dimethylformamide. 1H NMR analysis of the resulting product indicated that an increase in the concentration of acryloylchoride with respect to hydroxyl groups on HA has only a moderate effect on functionalization efficiency, f. A precise control of stoichiometry was not achieved, which could be attributed to partial solubility of intermolecular aggregates and the hygroscopic nature of HA. Michael addition at high [PLeu- NH2]/[acrylate]TBAHA ratios gave a molar grafting ratio of only 0.20 with respect to the repeat unit of HA, indicating grafting limitation due to insolubility of the grafted HA-g-PLeu. Soluble HA-g-PLeu graft copolymers were obtained for low grafting ratios (<0.039) with <8.6% by mass of PLeu and were characterized thoroughly using light scattering, 1H NMR, FT-IR, and AFM techniques. Light scattering experiments showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between PLeu chains, resulting in aggregates with segregated nongrafted HA segments. This yields local networks of aggregates, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed a -sheet conformation for aggregates of poly(L-leucine).

  4. Local graft irradiation in renal transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1977 to 1988, of 142 renal transplantations, seven recipients (4.9%) received local graft irradiation following rejective reaction refractory to antirejection medical managements. Concurrent with the administration of pulsed high dose methylprednisolone and other antirejection medical managements, the graft was irradiated with a total dose of 6.0 Gy-150 cGy per fraction every other day at the midplane of the graft using two opposing portals of 4MX Linac. The fields were defined by palpation and echography. All patients had improvements in serum creatinine on the 10th day after beginning the irradiation. Four patients with peripheral lymphocytosis during the irradiation combined with pulsed high dose methylprednisolone improved in renal functions. On the other hand, out of 3 patients with lymphcytopenic changes, in two the transplanted graft was removed due to deteriorations, and the other patient is currently suffering from chronic rejection. Local graft irradiation can be useful in maintaining a rejective graft and reversing its functions in some patients whose rejective reaction failed to respond to the antirejection medical managements. (author)

  5. Local graft irradiation in renal transplant rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Itoh, Hisao (Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-04-01

    From 1977 to 1988, of 142 renal transplantations, seven recipients (4.9%) received local graft irradiation following rejective reaction refractory to antirejection medical managements. Concurrent with the administration of pulsed high dose methylprednisolone and other antirejection medical managements, the graft was irradiated with a total dose of 6.0 Gy-150 cGy per fraction every other day at the midplane of the graft using two opposing portals of 4MX Linac. The fields were defined by palpation and echography. All patients had improvements in serum creatinine on the 10th day after beginning the irradiation. Four patients with peripheral lymphocytosis during the irradiation combined with pulsed high dose methylprednisolone improved in renal functions. On the other hand, out of 3 patients with lymphcytopenic changes, in two the transplanted graft was removed due to deteriorations, and the other patient is currently suffering from chronic rejection. Local graft irradiation can be useful in maintaining a rejective graft and reversing its functions in some patients whose rejective reaction failed to respond to the antirejection medical managements. (author).

  6. Graft-copolymerization onto carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl monomer onto carbon black was performed. During the γ-ray- and electron beam-induced polymerization (In-source), or the electron beam post-polymerization, the graft-copolymerization behavior was affected by the kinds of both carbon blacks and monomers, i.e. the smaller the size of carbon black particles, the higher the apparent grafted fraction. Homopolymer in the grafted carbon black samples was washed out by the solvent of the polymer, and the extracted polymer seemed to be dimer or trimer of the used monomer. In the case of the post-polymerization with the pre-irradiation doses of 50 Mrad, homopolymer was hardly observed. The polymer sheets of plastics or rubbers with grafted carbon black had an electrical conductivity unalterable considerably by the heating cycles. The particles of grafted carbon black in the sheet might be kept much more at the surface layer within 100 nm depth than at the inner layer. (author)

  7. Adipose-derived regenerative cell (ADRC)-enriched fat grafting: optimal cell concentration and effects on grafted fat characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Kushida, Satoshi; Hara, Tomoya; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Background To overcome the absorption of traditional fat grafting, techniques for adipose-derived regenerative cell (ADRC)-enriched fat grafting are currently being adapted for practical application. The Celution®800/CRS (Cytori Therapeutics, San Diego, CA) has enabled rapid grafting of the patient’s own freshly harvested ADRCs without requiring a culturing step. However, the optimal cell concentration and the effects of ADRCs on the characteristics of grafted fat after free fat grafting rema...

  8. Isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic explorations of kidney transplants were performed on sixty-six patients. Three scintigraphic techniques were used: labelled ferrous ascorbate scintigraphy, sequential 99m technetium DTPA scintigraphy and the 131I hippuran nephrogram. The aim of this study is to analyse the results obtained under different pathological circumstances affecting the transplant, to discuss the advantages of the techniques and to propose a working procedure. The most reliable and accurate technique is the 131I hippuran nephrogram combined with sequential 99mTc DTPA, by which renal vascularisation may be judged labelled ferrous ascorbate on the other hand is too insensitive. Although the information supplied is mostly contained in the scintigraphic images, the nephrographic curves and the blood radioactivity decay time and rad V/rad R ratio measurements are very helpful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of complications affecting the transplant. The proper use of isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting should provide optimum conditions for better survival of the transplant at minimum risk to the patient

  9. Chemo May Prolong Lives of Some Brain Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158167.html Chemo May Prolong Lives of Some Brain Cancer Patients: Study Those with slow-growing gliomas lived ... States, nearly 23,000 adults were diagnosed with brain cancer in 2015, according to the U.S. National Cancer ...

  10. Imaging alterations of cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eFroese

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is an important second messenger which regulates heart function by acting in distinct subcellular microdomains. Recent years have provided deeper mechanistic insights into compartmentalized cAMP signaling and its link to cardiac disease. In this mini review, we summarize newest developments in this field achieved by cutting-edge biochemical and biophysical techniques. We further compile the data from different studies into a bigger picture of so far uncovered alterations in cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains which occur in compensated cardiac hypertrophy and chronic heart failure. Finally, future research directions and translational perspectives are briefly discussed.

  11. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM AND PROLONGED FEVER ASSOCIATED TO SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    OpenAIRE

    Galimberti R; Kowalczuk A; Luque K,; Musso C; Enz P; Algranati L

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARYSecondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the main deragements caused by chronic renal failure, and parathyroid hormone is considered one of the toxins of the uremic syndrome. Prolonged fever due to primary hyperparathyroidism have already been described in the literature but not yet as induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this case report a patient suffering from an erythema nodosum and prolonged fever associated to secondary hyperparathyroidism that disappeared through subtotal...

  12. Geometric Approaches for Generating Prolongations for Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The prolongation structure of a two-by-two problem is formulated very generally in terms of exterior differential forms on a standard representation of Pauli matrices. The differential system is general without making reference to any specific equation. An integrability condition is provided which gives by construction the equation to be investigated and whose components involve the structure constants of an SU(2) Lie algebra. Along side this, a related, different kind of prolongation, a type...

  13. Prolonged QTc Interval and Torsades de Pointes Induced by Citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Anand; Ulveling, Kyle; Alla, Venkata; Abuissa, Hussam; Airey, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with a favorable cardiac-safety profile. Corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias have not been previously reported in association with citalopram use except in the presence of overdose, abnormal electrolyte values, or renal or liver failure. Herein, we report the case of a 40-year-old woman with mental depression who presented with a prolonged QTc interval and torsades de pointes after the initiation of citalopram...

  14. Factors predicting prolonged empirical antifungal treatment in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zein, Mohamed; Parmentier-Decrucq, Erika; Kalaoun, Amer; Bouton, Olivier; Wallyn, Frédéric; Baranzelli, Anne; Elmanser, Dia; Sendid, Boualem; Nseir, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, risk factors, and impact on outcome of prolonged empirical antifungal treatment in ICU patients. Methods Retrospective observational study performed during a one-year period. Patients who stayed in the ICU >48 h, and received empirical antifungal treatment were included. Patients with confirmed invasive fungal disease were excluded. Prolonged antifungal treatment was defined as percentage of days in the ICU with antifungals > median percentage in the whol...

  15. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2013-11-01

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm-1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  16. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup −1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  17. Radiation grafting of styrene and acrylonitrile to cellulose and polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, S.

    1999-06-01

    Radiation induced graft polymerization is one of the best methods for obtaining material with new properties. In this work, radiation grafting of styrene, mixture of styrene and acrylonitrile to cellulose and polyethylene in the presence of methanol as a solvent by mutual method is discussed. At a low dose rate, high grafting yields were obtained from the two systems used, due to lesser termination of free radicals with the polymer growing radicals and recombination of primary radicals, resulting in a longer chain length of the grafted copolymer. In the system of styrene and acrylonitrile, comonomer technique was used and the styrene controlled the homopolymer formation during graft polymerization. Water uptake of cellulose decreased by increasing the grafting yields. Grafted cellulose can be molded to some extent and in a high percent of grafting, a new transparent material was obtained. By radiation grafting of styrene-acrylonitrile to low density polyethylene a high degree of crosslinking was observed.

  18. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm−1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one

  19. Study on polyethylene films grafted with vinyl acetate and ethyl methacrylate by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films were grafted with a vinyl acetate (VAc) and ethyl methacrylate (EMA) commoner mixture by radiation using a 60Co gamma source. IR spectra and x-ray diffraction (XRD) for the original PE matrix and for the graft copolymers were studied. Electrical conductivity and thermal properties of the prepared grafted materials were also measured. XRD results showed that poly(vinyl acetate/ethyl methacrylate) P(VAc/EMA) graft chains cause a decrease in the crystallinity of the PE polymer substrate. The changes in thermal parameters such as melting (Tm) and crystallization (Tc) temperatures and heats of melting (ΔHm) and crystallization (ΔHc) of the graft copolymers were followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and for thermal stability by TGA. These thermal parameters of PE were influenced by grafting, with VAc and EMA and depended on the percent grafting, which reflected the change in crystallinity due to formation of branches via the grafted chains. (author)

  20. Grafting Seedless Watermelons, How and Why? Will Grafting Help With Disease Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae genera has gained importance in the United States. Grafting vegetable crops, especially cucurbit’s, is very common in Europe and Asia. In these regions, the practice of crop ...

  1. FRET measurements of intracellular cAMP concentrations and cAMP analog permeability in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Sebastian; Schwede, Frank; Schlipp, Angela; Berisha, Filip; Calebiro, Davide; Lohse, Martin J; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O

    2011-04-01

    Real-time measurements of second messengers in living cells, such as cAMP, are usually performed by ratiometric fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. However, correct calibration of FRET ratios, accurate calculations of absolute cAMP levels and actual permeabilities of different cAMP analogs have been challenging. Here we present a protocol that allows precise measurements of cAMP concentrations and kinetics by expressing FRET-based cAMP sensors in cells and modulating them with an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase activity and a cell-permeable cAMP analog that fully inhibits and activates the sensors, respectively. Using this protocol, we observed different basal cAMP levels in primary mouse cardiomyocytes, thyroid cells and in 293A cells. The protocol can be generally applied for calibration of second messenger or metabolite concentrations measured by FRET, and for studying kinetics and pharmacological properties of their membrane-permeable analogs. The complete procedure, including cell preparation and FRET measurements, takes 3-6 d. PMID:21412271

  2. The Distribution of Etiology in Newborns with Prolonged Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih Çetinkaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the etiology in neonates admitted with prolonged jaundice.Materials and Method: Neonates with prolonged jaundice were included to this prospective study designed between January 2007 and December 2007. Prolonged jaundice was defined as total bilirubin level >5 mg/dL in newborns older than 14 days of age. After detailed history and physical examination, blood tests including blood groups of baby and mother, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, complete blood count (CBC, blood smear, reticulocyte count, Coombs test, serum aspartat transaminase (AST level, serum alanin transaminase (ALT level, viral markers, thyroid function tests, and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6 PD level and routine urine analysis with urine culture were performed in all newborns. Results: A total of 154 neonates were enrolled to the study. The most frequent cause of prolonged jaundice was breast milk jaundice (53%. It was followed by urinary tract infections and clinical sepsis (29%, hemolytic causes due to blood group incompetency (10% and congenital hypothyroidism (8%. However,there were no significant differences between etiology and mean bilirubin levels.Conclusion: It is important to determine the etiology and to plan therapy according to etiology is important in newborns with prolonged jaundice. Breast milk jaundice, urinary tract infection and sepsis, hypothyroidism and hemolytic causes must be considered as the main etiology in newborns with prolonged jaundice. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 99-103

  3. Multiple Facets of cAMP Signalling and Physiological Impact: cAMP Compartmentalization in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schmidt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Therapies involving elevation of the endogenous suppressor cyclic AMP (cAMP are currently used in the treatment of several chronic inflammatory disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Characteristics of COPD are airway obstruction, airway inflammation and airway remodelling, processes encompassed by increased airway smooth muscle mass, epithelial changes, goblet cell and submucosal gland hyperplasia. In addition to inflammatory cells, airway smooth muscle cells and (myofibroblasts, epithelial cells underpin a variety of key responses in the airways such as inflammatory cytokine release, airway remodelling, mucus hypersecretion and airway barrier function. Cigarette smoke, being next to environmental pollution the main cause of COPD, is believed to cause epithelial hyperpermeability by disrupting the barrier function. Here we will focus on the most recent progress on compartmentalized signalling by cAMP. In addition to G protein-coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, cAMP-specific phospho-diesterases (PDEs maintain compartmentalized cAMP signalling. Intriguingly, spatially discrete cAMP-sensing signalling complexes seem also to involve distinct members of the A-kinase anchoring (AKAP superfamily and IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein (IQGAPs. In this review, we will highlight the interaction between cAMP and the epithelial barrier to retain proper lung function and to alleviate COPD symptoms and focus on the possible molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Future studies should include the development of cAMP-sensing multiprotein complex specific disruptors and/or stabilizers to orchestrate cellular functions. Compartmentalized cAMP signalling regulates important cellular processes in the lung and may serve as a therapeutic target.

  4. Isolation of an inactive bovine heart cAMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme containing bound cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine heart Type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK) was purified to homogeneity as determined by SDS-PAGE. The purification steps were DEAE-cellulose, ammonium sulfate precipitation, phenyl-Sepharose, alumina C-γ, and HPLC-DEAE. The last step resolved two distinct peaks of cAMP dependent kinase activity (activity ratios = 0.05 - 0.10) eluting at approximately 250 (Peak 1) and 275 (Peak 2) mM NaCl. When subjected to HPLC-gel permeation they had the same Stoke's radii. Linear sucrose gradients gave S/sub 20,w/ values of 7.73 S and 7.25 S for Peaks 1 and 2, respectively. It was determined by integrating the areas of scanned SDS-PAGE bands that regulatory and catalytic subunits were present in equimolar amounts in both Peaks 1 and 2. The ratios of equilibrium [3H] cAMP binding to kinase activity for the two peaks were the same. cAMP was present in trace amounts in Peak 1 but in stoichiometric amounts in Peak 2 (between 25 and 75 % saturation of cAMP binding sites). Although SDS-PAGE analysis ruled out conversions by proteolysis or autophosphorylation-dephosphorylation, Peak 1 could be partially converted to Peak 2 by the addition of subsaturating amounts of cAMP, 3H] cAMP binding and in kinase activation (as indicated by a larger Hill coefficient) of Peak 2 relative to Peak 1 also supported the presence of cAMP in Peak 2. In conclusion, two forms of inactive PK have been isolated, one of which is a ternary complex of PK holoenzyme and cAMP. This complex could represent a cellular form of the enzyme which is primed for activation

  5. Role of 99mTc-labeled disida scan in the assessment of marginal liver grafts after orthotopic transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate prognostic indicators are lacking for livers with early marginal graft function, making the decision to re-transplant a difficult one. Therefore, we studied 99mTc-labeled DISIDA scanning as a predictor of recovery of marginal grafts. Records of 28 liver transplant recipients with prolonged periods of marginal graft function after liver transplantation were analyzed. Twelve of 28 (Group I) had delayed PNF and were re-transplanted within 3-8 days (mean 5.3) of surgery. The remaining 16 (Group II) recovered slowly, with normal graft function at 1 month. All patients received DISIDA scans 2 to 5 d after surgery. Clearance of tracer from the blood pool was slower in Group I patients (77S ± 241 sec) than in Group II (260 ± 38 sec; p<0.01). Qualitative differences in the pattern of parenchymal uptake were also noted. Homogenous uptake, consistent with cholestasis, was seen in 15/16 (94%) Group II patients, with improved uptake after 7-35 d. In contrast, 11/12 Group I patients had nonhomogenous uptake, consistent with multiple liver infarctions. This pattern correlated with higher peak SGOT in Group I (4358 ± 658 U/dl vs. 1636 ± 127 U/dl p<0.01), and PT (20 ± 0.7 sec vs. 16.5 ± 0.36 sec; p<0.01). In summary, delays in DISIDA tracer clearance from blood, and non-homogenous hepatic uptake correlate with elevated liver function tests and with delayed PNF. Homogenous uptake correlates with graft recovery. DISIDA scans may, therefore, be useful in predicting recovery of marginal grafted livers. (au) (17 refs.)

  6. Appropriate density of PCL nano-fiber sheath promoted muscular remodeling of PGS/PCL grafts in arterial circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Wei, Jianhua; Lei, Delin; Liu, Yanpu; Wu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Cell-free approach represents a philosophical shift from the prevailing focus on cells in vascular tissue engineering. Porous elastomeric grafts made of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) enforced with polycaprolactone (PCL) nano-fibers degrade rapidly and yield neoarteries nearly free of foreign materials in rat abdominal aorta. However, considering the larger variation of blood pressure and slower host remodeling in human body than in rat, it is important to investigate the in vivo performance of PGS-PCL graft with enhanced mechanical properties, so that optimized arterial grafts could be developed for clinical translation. We acquired increasingly compacted sheath by prolonging the electrospinning period of PCL appropriately, which significantly enforced whole grafts. The rational design of sheath density significantly decreased the risk of dilation, rupture as well as enabling the long-term muscular remodeling. Since 3-12 months after implantation, the PGS grafts with rationally strengthened sheath were remodeled into neoarteries resembled native arteries in the following aspects: high patency rate and even vessel wall thickness; a confluent endothelium and contractile smooth muscle layers; expression of elastin, collagen and glycosaminoglycan; tough and compliant mechanical properties. Although loose sheath may result in rupture of vessel wall, adequate porosity was proved to be essential for sheath structure and directly determined muscular remodeling through M2 macrophage involved constructive remodeling. Therefore, this study confirmed that adequate density of PCL sheath in PGS grafts could initiate stable and high-quality muscular remodeling, which contributes to long-term success in arterial circulation before clinical translation. PMID:26943048

  7. Design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite as a potential bone graft substitute material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florschutz, Anthony Vatroslav

    Utilization of bone grafts for the treatment of skeletal pathology is a common practice in orthopaedic, craniomaxillofacial, dental, and plastic surgery. Autogenous bone graft is the established archetype but has disadvantages including donor site morbidity, limited supply, and prolonging operative time. In order to avoid these and other issues, bone graft substitute materials are becoming increasingly prevalent among surgeons for reconstructing skeletal defects and arthrodesis applications. Bone graft substitutes are biomaterials, biologics, and guided tissue/bone regenerative devices that can be used alone or in combinations as supplements or alternatives to autogenous bone graft. There is a growing interest and trend to specialize graft substitutes for specific indications and although there is good rationale for this indication-specific approach, the development and utility of a more universal bone graft substitute may provide a better answer for patients and surgeons. The aim of the present research focuses on the design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite composites for potential use as a bone graft substitutes. After initial establishment of rational material design, gelatinhydroxyapatite scaffolds were fabricated with different gelatin:hydroxyapatite ratios and crosslinking concentrations. The synthesized scaffolds were subsequently evaluated on the basis of their swelling behavior, porosity, density, percent composition, mechanical properties, and morphology and further assessed with respect to cell-biomaterial interaction and biomineralization in vitro. Although none of the materials achieved mechanical properties suitable for structural graft applications, a reproducible material design and synthesis was achieved with properties recognized to facilitate bone formation. Select scaffold formulations as well as a subset of scaffolds loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 were

  8. Complications in skin grafts when continuing antithrombotic therapy prior to cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarjis, Reem Dina; Jørgensen, Lone; Finnerup, Kenneth;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The risk of postoperative bleeding and wound healing complications in skin grafts among anticoagulated patients undergoing cutaneous surgery has not been firmly established. The objective was to examine the literature and assess the risk of postoperative bleeding or wound healing...... complications in skin grafts among anticoagulated patients, compared with patients who discontinue or patients who are not receiving antithrombotic therapy prior to cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting. A systematic review examining the effect of antithrombotic therapy on cutaneous surgery was performed...... terms of hemostasis by the surgeon and good pressure dressings. Care should be taken when operating on anticoagulated patients undergoing cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting. However, graft failure is rare and, given the risk of thrombotic events, the reviewed studies recommend continuing all...

  9. Development of Highly Efficient Grafting Technique and Synthesis of Natural Polymer-Based Graft Adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the CRP, Japan has focused on the development of fibrous adsorbents for removal of toxic metal ions and recovery of significant metal ions from industrial wastewater and streaming water. Graft polymerization was carried out by using gamma irradiation facility and electron beam accelerator. Emulsion grafting is a novel topic for synthesis of metal ion adsorbents which are prepared from fibrous trunk polymers such as polyethylene fibre and biodegradable nonwoven fabrics. The emulsion grafting, where monomer micelles are dispersed in water in the presence of surfactant, is a highly efficient and economic grafting technique as compared to general organic solvent system. The resultant cotton-based adsorbent has high adsorption efficiency and high adsorption capacity for Hg, besides, it is biodegradable. Polylactic acid can also be used as a trunk material for the grafting. (author)

  10. Effect of acid additives on grafting efficiency and water absorption of hydrolyzed cassava starch grafted polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelatinized cassava starch was radiation graft copolymerized with acrylamide, acrylic acid or their mixture in the presence of sulphuric acid or maleic acid. Various acid concentrations were used from 0.001 to 0.1 M of sulphuric acid while the maleic acid concentrations were varied from 1 to 3% (by weight). The optimum total dose and dose rate were investigated. The saponification temperature and time had the marked effects on grafting characteristics and water absorption capacity. We found that the effect of maleic acid addition gave a profound effect on water absorption. The CHNS/O analyses indicated significant changes in the nitrogen content in the hydrolyzed starch grafted polyacrylamide with 2% maleic acid. The article explains the possible causes for the enhancement influence of mineral acid and maleic acid on grafting behavior and water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted polyacrylamide super absorbent polymer. (author)

  11. Conditions that alter intracellular cAMP levels affect expression of the cAMP phosphodiesterase gene in Dictyostelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, B B; Barclay, S L

    1990-01-01

    We examined expression of the Dictyostelium cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) gene under conditions that alter intracellular cAMP levels during in vitro differentiation of wild-type strain V12M2 and a sporogenous derivative, HB200. In control cultures, cellular PDE activity peaked at 6 hr and declined by 8 hr, while secreted PDE activity continued to increase through 8 hr. Lowering intracellular cAMP levels with caffeine or progesterone increased cellular and secreted PDE activities 2-fold, increa...

  12. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric eBOULARAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors’ signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefly discuss the complexity of cAMP synthesis and degradation in the cardiac context, describe the way to detect it and review the main pharmacological arsenal to modulate its availability.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Cyclic AMP measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, including... and treatment of Graves' disease (a disorder of the thyroid) and in the differentiation of causes...

  14. Amped Up! - Volume 1, No. 3, May/June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    Welcome to the latest issue of our bimonthly newsletter, Amped Up!, highlighting the initiatives, events and technologies in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy that influence change.

  15. Adolescent External Iliac Artery Trauma: Recurrent Aneurysmal Dilatation of an Iliofemoral Saphenous Vein Graft Treated by Stent-Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adolescent male sustained a severe penetrating injury to the external iliac artery. Emergency surgical revascularization was with a reversed long saphenous vein interposition graft. The primary graft and the subsequent revision graft both became aneurysmal. The second graft aneurysm was successfully excluded by endovascular stent-grafts with medium-term primary patency. A venous graft was used initially rather than a synthetic graft to reduce the risk of infection and the potential problems from future growth. Aneurysmal dilatation of venous grafts in children and adolescents is a rare but recognized complication. To the best of our knowledge, exclusion of these aneurysms with stent-grafts has not been previously reported in the adolescent population.

  16. Grafting polymerization of styrene onto preirradiated polypropylene fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafting copolymerization of styrene onto polypropylene fabric has been studied by using a gamma ray preirradiation technique. The polypropylene fabric samples were irradiated in an environment of air and nitrogen gas. The effects of the absorbed dose, styrene concentration in methanol, reaction temperature and reaction time on the degree of grafting were determined. The effects of a polyfunctional monomer and sulphuric acid on the grafting yield were also examined. The samples irradiated in nitrogen gas gave a much higher degree of grafting than those in air. The addition of sulfuric acid and polyfunctional monomer in the grafting solution enhanced greatly the grafting yield

  17. Grafting copolymerization of acrylamides onto preirradiated PP films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Nho, Young Chang; Kwon, Oh Hyun; Hoffman, Allan S.

    1999-06-01

    Acrylamide (AAm), N,N-Dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm) and N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl) methacrylamide (DMAPMAAm) were grafted onto polypropylene (PP) films by preirradiation grafting respectively. The effect of irradiation dose, solvent systems and reaction time on the degree of grafting were determined. The grafted sample films were verified by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR) and the determination of water contact angle. The blood compatibility of the grafted PP films were evaluated by the determination of platelet adsorption and thrombus. The blood compatibility of grafted PP films seems better than that of original PP films.

  18. The interplay between cyclic AMP and insulin during obesity development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Kamil

    Insulin and cAMP signalling are related to two opposite metabolic responses. Insulin secretion is elicited in response to food availability and trigger catabolic processes like lipogenesis and glycogen synthesis with a purpose of energy storage. On the other hand cAMP signalling is associated wit...... insulin signalling. Moreover, I am investigating how increased insulin secretion caused by sucrose consumption, affects insulin signaling in peripheral tissues....

  19. Properties of polyphosphate: AMP phosphotransferase of Acinetobacter strain 210A.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonting, C F; Kortstee, G J; Zehnder, A J

    1991-01-01

    Polyphosphate:AMP phosphotransferase, an enzyme which catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP at the expense of polyphosphate, was purified more than 1,500-fold from Acinetobacter strain 210A by streptomycin sulfate precipitation and by Mono-Q, Phenyl Superose, and Superose column chromatography. Streptomycin sulfate precipitation appeared to be an effective step in the purification procedure. During the following chromatographic steps, there was a 29-fold increase in specific activity bu...

  20. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  1. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  2. Prolonged in vivo circulation time by zwitterionic modification of magnetite nanoparticles for blood pool contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wangchuan; Lin, Jiang; Li, Mingli; Ma, Yongjie; Chen, Yuxin; Zhang, Chunfu; Li, Dan; Gu, Hongchen

    2012-01-01

    Long circulation time is critical for blood pool contrast agents used in high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. For iron oxide particle contrast agents, size and surface properties significantly influence their in vivo performance. We developed a novel long-circulating blood pool contrast agent by introducing zwitterionic structure onto the particle surface. Zwitterionic structure was fabricated by 3-(diethylamino)propylamine (DEAPA) grafted onto the surface of ployacrylic acid coated magnetite nanoparticles via EDC/NHS [N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbo-diimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide] coupling chemistry. Zwitterionic particles demonstrated five times lower macrophage cell uptake than the original particles and low cell toxicity. Magnetic resonance angiography indicated that zwitterionic nanoparticles had much longer in vivo circulation time than the original particles and were an ideal candidate for blood pool contrast agent. We suppose that zwitterionic modification by DEAPA and EDC/NHS can be used generally for coating nanoparticles with carboxyl surface and to prolong their circulating time. PMID:22539402

  3. Prolongation of Cardiac Allograft Survival in Rats by Treatment with Anti-Interleukin 2 Antiserum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaki,Toshihide

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL2 is the obligatory signal for both T cell mitogenesis and in vitro generation of alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL. An investigation was made to determine whether an antibody directed against IL2 would suppress the rejection reaction of rat cardiac allografts. Rabbit anti-interleukin 2 (anti-IL2 antiserum was obtained by immunizing at 2 week intervals over a period of 8 weeks with 10(6 U of recombinant human IL2 along with complete Freund's adjuvant. The bioassay for inhibition of IL2 activity by anti-IL2 antiserum was carried out in conjunction with the IL2-dependent cytotoxic T cell (CTLL cell assay. Cardiac allografts of F344 rats were heterotopically transplanted into ACI rats. Seven daily doses of 1 ml of anti-IL2 antiserum were administered intravenously following transplantation. IL2-driven [3H]thymidine incorporation in CTLL cells was significantly inhibited by rabbit anti-IL2 antiserum. Graft survival in the anti-IL2 serum-treated group was significantly prolonged in a dose-dependent fashion compared to control groups. In conclusion, these results indicate that rabbit anti-IL2 antiserum may prove to be of significant value as an immunosuppressive agent in clinical organ transplantation.

  4. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP reduces the radiosensitivity of cultured endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dibutyryl cyclic AMP modifies the radiosensitivity of confluent monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Three indices of BAEC function were monitored from 4-24 hrs after exposure to 1-10 Gy of 60Co gamma rays: the release of 51Cr from prelabeled cells, and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and plasminogen activator (PLA) into the culture medium. There was a time- and radiation dose-dependent increase in 51Cr, LDH and PLA release from the BAEC, detectable within 12 hrs after 5 Gy or higher, and by 24 hrs after 1 Gy or higher. This increased release was accompanied by a radiation dose-dependent decrease in 51Cr and LDH, and an increase in PLA activity in the lysate of cells adherent to the monolayer at 24 hrs. The continuous presence of cAMP from 1 hr before to 24 hrs after irradiation reduced all of these radiation reactions, although mM concentrations of cAMP were required for significant sparing. The presence of cAMP from 1 hr before to 10 min after irradiation had no effect on BAEC sensitivity, whereas cAMP added 10 min after irradiation was fully as effective as continuously administered drug. Thus, cultured BAEC exhibit membrane dysfunction within 24 hrs after clinically relevant radiation doses, and this dysfunction is ameliorated by cAMP present after irradiation

  5. Allostery and conformational dynamics in cAMP-binding acyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Marjetka; Siddiqui, Nida; Rebolj, Katja; Nambi, Subhalaxmi; Merzel, Franci; Visweswariah, Sandhya S

    2014-06-01

    Mycobacteria harbor unique proteins that regulate protein lysine acylation in a cAMP-regulated manner. These lysine acyltransferases from Mycobacterium smegmatis (KATms) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (KATmt) show distinctive biochemical properties in terms of cAMP binding affinity to the N-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding domain and allosteric activation of the C-terminal acyltransferase domain. Here we provide evidence for structural features in KATms that account for high affinity cAMP binding and elevated acyltransferase activity in the absence of cAMP. Structure-guided mutational analysis converted KATms from a cAMP-regulated to a cAMP-dependent acyltransferase and identified a unique asparagine residue in the acyltransferase domain of KATms that assists in the enzymatic reaction in the absence of a highly conserved glutamate residue seen in Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase-like acyltransferases. Thus, we have identified mechanisms by which properties of similar proteins have diverged in two species of mycobacteria by modifications in amino acid sequence, which can dramatically alter the abundance of conformational states adopted by a protein. PMID:24748621

  6. Use of a free bladder mucosal graft for simple repair of vesicovaginal fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostad, M; Uzzo, R G; Coleman, J; Young, G P

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a simple, fast, and effective method for repair of difficult vesicovaginal fistulae by means of a free bladder mucosal graft. Six patients with high, large, multiple, or recurrent vesicovaginal fistulae were treated using a free bladder mucosal graft. Three patients underwent "early" repair (less than 3 months from time of injury) and 3 "late" repair (more than 6 months from time of injury). Via a suprapubic cystotomy, the mucosa of the fistulous tract was debrided without any attempt to excise the tract or close the bladder or vaginal defects. A free bladder mucosal graft was harvested from an unaffected portion of the bladder and placed over the fistulous tract, and mucosal approximation was made using interrupted 5-0 chromic stay sutures. The donor urothelial defect was allowed to re-epithelialize. A Foley catheter, suprapubic tube, and vaginal packing were left in place. Five patients noted an immediate result, with no evidence of leakage, and the suprapubic tube was removed by week 3. One patient required prolonged catheter drainage, and the tube was successfully removed by week 6. This patient had undergone irradiation. All patients remain dry at follow-up, which ranges from 2 to 6 years. We describe a simple and effective method for transabdominal vesicovaginal fistula repair, involving minimal mobilization, decreased dissection, and no need for rotational or interposition flaps, obviating the need to open the peritoneum. A free bladder mucosal graft can be used regardless of the individual anatomy or proximity to the ureteral orifices, because it can easily be tailored. This technique represents an important repair of difficult, recurrent, or multiple vesicovaginal fistulae. PMID:9671883

  7. The spv virulence operon of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 is regulated negatively by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein system.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Byrne, C P; Dorman, C J

    1994-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) was found to play a role in the growth phase regulation of the spv operon on the high-molecular-weight virulence plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. By using a lacZ reporter transcriptional fusion to the spvB structural gene on the single-copy virulence plasmid, it was found that while spvB transcription was induced in stationary-phase cultures, the induced level of expression was lower than that reported for the spv system in other serovars of ...

  8. Treatment of large skeletal defects in the lower extremities using double-strut, free vascularized fibular bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M C; Lo, W H; Chen, C M; Chen, T H

    1999-08-01

    This article reports on the use of double-strut, free vascularized fibular grafts to treat six patients with infected nonunion or traumatic bone loss in the femur or tibia after prolonged treatment and multiple operations. The defects were 6-13 cm long. Five patients achieved solid union within 6 months, and one patient required additional cancellous grafting to achieve union at the distal end of the fibula. One patient experienced a stress fracture due to strenuous exercise, and union was achieved 3 months after reapplying an external fixator. Although three patients had some restricted knee motion, all patients had a satisfactory outcome in regard to walking, and no limb-length discrepancies were noted in any patient. PMID:10465486

  9. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study. Volume 3: Interface control documents. Part 2: AMPS payload to spacelab ICD

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The AMPS to Spacelab Interface Control Document which is to be used as a guide for format and information content in generating specific AMPS Mission ICDs is presented. This document is meant to supplement the Spacelab Payload Accommodations Handbook in that it only defines interfaces which are not discussed in the handbook to the level required for design purposes. The AMPS Top Level Requirements Tree, illustrates this ICD by a shaded area and its relationship to the other AMPS technical documents. Other interface documents shown are the Level II, AMPS to Space Shuttle Vehicle ICD and the Level III, AMPS to Instruments ICD.

  10. Proteomics analysis of compatibility and incompatibility in grafted cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Guo, Shi-Rong; Li, Lin; An, Ya-Hong; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Graft compatibility between rootstock and scion is the most important factor influencing the survival of grafted plants. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to investigate differences in leaf proteomes of graft-compatible and graft-incompatible cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)/pumpkin (Cucurbita L.) combinations. Cucumber seedlings were used as the scions and two pumpkin cultivars with strongly contrasting grafting compatibilities were used as the rootstocks. Non-grafted and self-grafted cucumber seedlings served as control groups. An average of approximately 500 detectable spots were observed on each 2-DE gel. A total of 50 proteins were differentially expressed in response to self-grafting, compatible-rootstock grafting, and incompatible-rootstock grafting and were all successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The regulation of Calvin cycle, photosynthetic apparatus, glycolytic pathway, energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis and degradation, and reactive oxygen metabolism will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in graft-compatible combinations. The improved physiological and growth characteristics of compatible-rootstock grafting plants are the result of the higher expressions of proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and protein metabolism. At the same time, the compatible-rootstock grafting regulation of stress defense, amino acid metabolism, and other metabolic functions also plays important roles in improvement of plant growth. PMID:27070289

  11. Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thim Troels

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. Methods An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. Results One minipig died during follow up (patent vein graft at autopsy, and one vein graft thrombosed early. In the remaining eight patent vein grafts, the mean (standard deviation intima-media thickness was 712 μm (276 μm versus 204 μm (74 μm in the contralateral control internal jugular veins (P diameter of artery. No plaques were found in four non-oversized vein grafts (P Conclusions Our model of jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic minipigs displayed the components of human vein graft disease, i.e. thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis. Advanced atherosclerosis, the main cause of late failure of human aortocoronary vein grafts was only seen in oversized grafts. This finding suggests that oversized vein grafts may have detrimental effects on patient outcome.

  12. From prolonging life to prolonging working life: Tackling unemployment among liver-transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, Fredrik

    2016-04-14

    Return to active and productive life is a key goal of modern liver transplantation (LT). Despite marked improvements in quality of life and functional status, a substantial proportion of LT recipients are unable to resume gainful employment. Unemployment forms a threat to physical and psychosocial health, and impairs LT cost-utility through lost productivity. In studies published after year 2000, the average post-LT employment rate is 37%, ranging from 22% to 55% by study. Significant heterogeneity exists among studies. Nonetheless, these employment rates are lower than in the general population and kidney-transplant population. Most consistent employment predictors include pre-LT employment status, male gender, functional/health status, and subjective work ability. Work ability is impaired by physical fatigue and depression, but affected also by working conditions and society. Promotion of post-LT employment is hampered by a lack of interventional studies. Prevention of pre-LT disability by effective treatment of (minimal) hepatic encephalopathy, maintaining mobility, and planning work adjustments early in the course of chronic liver disease, as well as timely post-LT physical rehabilitation, continuous encouragement, self-efficacy improvements, and depression management are key elements of successful employment-promoting strategies. Prolonging LT recipients' working life would further strengthen the success of transplantation, and this is likely best achieved through multidisciplinary efforts ideally starting even before LT candidacy. PMID:27076755

  13. Surface reconstruction by a "grafting through" approach: polyacrylamide grafted onto chitosan film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Grafted polymers and polymer brushes in particular have attracted significant attention in the last 2 decades as a way to alter and control interfacial properties. In the case of polymer brushes on solid substrates, a high grafting density of polymer chains results in stretching of the polymer coils normal to the substrate surface due to the effect of excluded volume. In this study, polyacrylamide is grafted to the surface of relatively soft thin films of chitosan. The "grafting through" approach is used by introducing double C═C bonds to amino groups of chitosan. The acquired kinetic data of grafting along with AFM and ellipsometry characterization suggest that the chitosan substrate undergoes surface reconstruction during the grafting of PAAm and simultaneously induces PAAm growth inside the soft substrate. As a result, much higher amounts of grafted polymer are achieved in comparison to traditional hard substrates like silicon or glass. Additionally, selective plasma etching of PAAm reveals filament-like structures oriented normal to the surface. PMID:24024703

  14. A method for radiation grafting of polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure of radiation grafting of polyolefins in the swelled state with graft monomers from the class of methacrylic and acrylic acids and their reactive derivatives, was modified so as to obtain copolymers with ample short (often single-membered) side chains of the acids. To achieve this, the grafting was conducted in the presence of efficient radical polymerization inhibitors from the class of polyvalent phenols such as hydroquinone or tert-butylpyrocatechol, and of efficient chain carriers from the class of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons and mercapto compounds such as CCl4, CHCl3, CHBr3, thioacetic acid or ethyl bromide. The polymers so obtained are well suited to the manufacture of dialysis and electrodialysis membranes and hollow fibres. (P.A.)

  15. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  16. Is Favorable Outcome Possible After Prolonged Refractory Status Epilepticus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vincent; Drislane, Frank W

    2016-02-01

    When status epilepticus (SE) remains refractory to appropriate therapy, it is associated with high mortality and with substantial morbidity in survivors. Many outcome predictors such as age, seizure type, level of consciousness before treatment, and mostly, etiology, are well-established. A longer duration of SE is often associated with worse outcome, but duration may lose its prognostic value after several hours. Several terms and definitions have been used to describe prolonged, refractory SE, including "malignant SE," "prolonged" SE, and more recently, "super refractory" SE, defined as "SE that has continued or recurred despite 24 hours of general anesthesia (or coma-inducing anticonvulsants)." There are few data available regarding the outcome of prolonged refractory SE, and even fewer for SE remaining refractory to anesthetic drugs. This article reviews reports of outcome after prolonged, refractory, and "super refractory" SE. Most information detailing the clinical outcome of patients surviving these severe illnesses, in which seizures can persist for days or weeks (and especially those concerning "super-refractory" SE) come from case reports and retrospective cohort studies. In many series, prolonged, refractory SE has a mortality of 30% to 50%, and several studies indicate that most survivors have a substantial decline in functional status. Nevertheless, several reports demonstrate that good functional outcome is possible even after several days of SE and coma induction. Treatment of refractory SE should not be withdrawn from younger patients without structural brain damage at presentation solely because of the duration of SE. PMID:26840875

  17. Insulin alters cAMP-activated lipolysis but not cAMP-inhibited glycogen synthase in permeabilized adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipolysis and, to a lesser extent, glycogen synthase activity are regulated in adipocytes by cellular cAMP and counter-regulated by insulin. These activities were measured in situ in digitonin (20 μg/ml) permeabilized rat adipocytes. Incorporation of 3H UDP-glucose into endogenous glycogen in the presence of KF, EDTA and 10mM glucose-6-phosphate was the basis of the G.S. assay. Cellular GS activity determined by this technique was 1.4 +/- 0.2 fold greater than that of matched homogenates. Insulin treatment of intact cells prior to permeabilization increased GS activity ratio (-/+ G-6-P) 2.5 fold when subsequently measured by the in situ assay. Following digitonin permeabilization, addition of cAMP to the suspension medium increased lipolysis 7 fold and decreased GS activity ratio to 0.38 +/- 0.01 from a basal value of 0.44 +/- 0.06. ATP had a negligible effect on lipolysis but decreased GS to 0.16 +/- 0.04. ATP plus cAMP was only slightly more effective on GS than ATP alone. Insulin at 10-9M inhibited cAMP-dependent lipolysis by 27% but had no effect on the cAMP- or ATP-dependent decrease in GS. These results suggest that insulin's counter-regulatory mechanisms on these two cAMP-dependent processes may be different

  18. Insulin alters cAMP-activated lipolysis but not cAMP-inhibited glycogen synthase in permeabilized adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, R.A.; Wisniewski, J.L.

    1986-05-01

    Lipolysis and, to a lesser extent, glycogen synthase activity are regulated in adipocytes by cellular cAMP and counter-regulated by insulin. These activities were measured in situ in digitonin (20 ..mu..g/ml) permeabilized rat adipocytes. Incorporation of /sup 3/H UDP-glucose into endogenous glycogen in the presence of KF, EDTA and 10mM glucose-6-phosphate was the basis of the G.S. assay. Cellular GS activity determined by this technique was 1.4 +/- 0.2 fold greater than that of matched homogenates. Insulin treatment of intact cells prior to permeabilization increased GS activity ratio (-/+ G-6-P) 2.5 fold when subsequently measured by the in situ assay. Following digitonin permeabilization, addition of cAMP to the suspension medium increased lipolysis 7 fold and decreased GS activity ratio to 0.38 +/- 0.01 from a basal value of 0.44 +/- 0.06. ATP had a negligible effect on lipolysis but decreased GS to 0.16 +/- 0.04. ATP plus cAMP was only slightly more effective on GS than ATP alone. Insulin at 10/sup -9/M inhibited cAMP-dependent lipolysis by 27% but had no effect on the cAMP- or ATP-dependent decrease in GS. These results suggest that insulin's counter-regulatory mechanisms on these two cAMP-dependent processes may be different.

  19. Glucose Enhances Basal or Melanocortin-Induced cAMP-Response Element Activity in Hypothalamic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Andreas; Wicht, Kristina; Boekhoff, Ingrid; Glas, Evi; Lauffer, Lisa; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)-induced activation of the cAMP-response element (CRE) via the CRE-binding protein in hypothalamic cells promotes expression of TRH and thereby restricts food intake and increases energy expenditure. Glucose also induces central anorexigenic effects by acting on hypothalamic neurons, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. It has been proposed that glucose activates the CRE-binding protein-regulated transcriptional coactivator 2 (CRTC-2) in hypothalamic neurons by inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPKs), but whether glucose directly affects hypothalamic CRE activity has not yet been shown. Hence, we dissected effects of glucose on basal and MSH-induced CRE activation in terms of kinetics, affinity, and desensitization in murine, hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10-CRE cells that stably express a CRE-dependent reporter gene construct. Physiologically relevant increases in extracellular glucose enhanced basal or MSH-induced CRE-dependent gene transcription, whereas prolonged elevated glucose concentrations reduced the sensitivity of mHypoA-2/10-CRE cells towards glucose. Glucose also induced CRCT-2 translocation into the nucleus and the AMPK activator metformin decreased basal and glucose-induced CRE activity, suggesting a role for AMPK/CRTC-2 in glucose-induced CRE activation. Accordingly, small interfering RNA-induced down-regulation of CRTC-2 expression decreased glucose-induced CRE-dependent reporter activation. Of note, glucose also induced expression of TRH, suggesting that glucose might affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis via the regulation of hypothalamic CRE activity. These findings significantly advance our knowledge about the impact of glucose on hypothalamic signaling and suggest that TRH release might account for the central anorexigenic effects of glucose and could represent a new molecular link between hyperglycaemia and thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27144291

  20. Autologous Fat Grafting for Whole Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. L. Howes, MBBS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This is the first reported case of a patient who had a single-stage large-volume breast reconstruction with autologous fat grafting, following rotation flap approach (RoFA mastectomy. The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the viability of reconstruction of the breast by autologous fat grafting alone, in the context of RoFA mastectomy. The hypothesis was that there would be minimal interval loss of autologous fat on the whole breast reconstruction side. Right RoFA mastectomy was used for resection of an invasive primary breast cancer and resulted in the right breast skin envelope. Eleven months later, the patient underwent grafting of 400 ml of autologous fat into the skin envelope and underlying pectoralis major muscle. Outcome was assessed by using a validated 3D laser scan technique for quantitative breast volume measurement. Other outcome measures included the BREAST-Q questionnaire and 2D clinical photography. At 12-month follow-up, the patient was observed to have maintenance of volume of the reconstructed breast. Her BREAST-Q scores were markedly improved compared with before fat grafting, and there was observable improvement in shape, contour, and symmetry on 2D clinical photography. The 2 new techniques, RoFA mastectomy and large-volume single-stage autologous fat grafting, were used in combination to achieve a satisfactory postmastectomy breast reconstruction. Novel tools for measurement of outcome were the 3D whole-body laser scanner and BREAST-Q questionnaire. This case demonstrates the potential for the use of fat grafting for reconstruction. Outcomes in a larger patient populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Frequency of plasmid-mediated AmpC in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in a Brazilian Teaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Eloiza H. Campana; Barbosa, Paula P.; Fehlberg, Lorena C. C.; Ana C. Gales

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the presence of plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC)-producing isolates has been sporadically reported. We evaluated the frequency of pAmpC among 133 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates. The bla CMY-2-like gene was detected in a single Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. In our study, the pAmpC frequency was very low as previously reported.

  2. Modification of microcystalline cellulose by gamma radiation-induced grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modified crystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared through gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). Simultaneous grafting was employed wherein MCC with GMA in methanol was irradiated with gamma radiation in nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of different experimental factors such as monomer concentration, type of solvent and absorbed dose on the degree of grafting, Dg, were studied. The amount of grafted GMA, expressed as Dg, was determined gravimetrically. Information from grafted samples subjected to Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode showed peaks corresponding to GMA which indicates successful grafting. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystalline region of MCC was not adversely affected after grafting with GMA. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data showed that the decomposition of grafted MCC occurred at higher temperature compared to the base MCC polymer. (author)

  3. Graft-copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers onto irradiated polypropylene fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of graft-copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers such as 1-vinyl-2 pyrolidone, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid and acrylamide onto irradiated polypropylene fibers has been studied. Gamma ray as well as electron beam were employed for the irradiation processes. Graft copolymerization kinetics and the properties of grafted fibers have been investigated. Moisture regain, dyes absorption and the melting point of the grafted fibers increased with the increase of the degree of grafting. Polypropilen 1-vinyl-2 pyrrolidone grafted fibers showed excellent dyes absorption of almost all kinds of dyes such as direct, basic, acid, reactive, dispers, and naphtol. However for polypropylene acrylic acid grafted fibers, the colour fastness to washing was found to be unsatisfactory. The colourfastness to washing for polypropylene grafted fibers was found to be fairly good for certain dyes such as v and naphtol dyes

  4. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for people with coronary heart disease is called "percutaneous coronary intervention" (PCI), or "stenting." This involves using a flexible ... artery disease: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery versus percutaneous coronary intervention Coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with cerebrovascular ...

  5. Graft patency in off-pump and conventional coronary artery bypass grafting for treatment of triple vessel coronary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡盛寿; 王小启; 宋云虎; 吕锋

    2003-01-01

    Objective To compare graft patency in off-pump and conventional coronary artery bypass grafting by using the transit time flow meter in the treatment of triple vessel coronary artery disease. Methods Between June 2000 and April 2001, 60 patients with triple vessel coronary artery disease underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. They were divided into two groups: off-pump and conventional coronary artery bypass. All completed grafts were tested intraoperatively using Transit Time Flow Measurement (TTFM). Preoperative and postoperative variables of the two groups were also compared. Results There were no significant differences in sex, age, weight, acute or remote myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes and type of bypass grafts between the two groups. The number of bypass grafts and the assisted respiratory time of the off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) group were significantly less than those of the conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CCABG) group. The flow and pulsatile index (PI) of the left anterior descending artery bypass grafts and the right coronary artery bypass grafts were not significantly different between the OPCAB and CCABG groups. The flow of OM in the CCABG group with the multiple anastomosis site of sequential grafts was higher than that in the OPCAB group. Diffused narrow coronary artery bypass grafts in both groups had less flow.Conclusion No signficant differences in graft patency were observed in patients with triple vessel coronary artery disease who had undergone OPCAB or CCABG.

  6. Radiation-induced grafting of sensitive polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Films of PP and PTFE were modified by gamma-radiation grafting of pH and thermo sensitive monomers (two step method) by using both the preirradiation and the direct methods. The effects of the absorbed dose, monomer concentration and reaction time were investigated. The surface chemistry of grafted samples was analyzed by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, while their thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. The stimuli-responsive behavior was studied by swelling and contact angle in water, as well as by DSC. Sensitive films presented a critical pH and LCST. (author)

  7. Ecto- and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidases in normal and AMP deaminase-deficient human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanisch, Frank; Hellsten, Ylva; Zierz, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is mainly deaminated by AMP deaminase. However, the C34T mutation in the AMPD1 gene severely reduces AMP deaminase activity. Alternatively, intracellular AMP is dephosphorylated to adenosine via cytosolic AMP 5'-nucleotidase (cN-I). In individuals...... with a homozygous C34T mutation, cN-I might be a more important pathway for AMP removal. We determined activities of AMP deaminase, cN-I, total cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase (total cN), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ectoN) and whole homogenate 5'-nucleotidase activity in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with...

  8. Plasma Induced Grafting of PMMA onto Titanium Dioxide Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Shaofeng; Meng Yuedong; Ou Qiongrong; Xu Xu

    2005-01-01

    Grafting of polymer of methyl methacrylate (PMMA) onto titanium dioxide powder is investigated in this paper. The graft polymerization reaction is induced by dielectric-barrierdischarge produced N2 plasma treatment of titanium dioxide surfaces. IR, XPS and TGA results show that PMMA is grafted onto the surfaces of titanium dioxide powder. And crystal structure of the titanium dioxide powder observed with XRD spectra is unchanged after plasma graft polymerization.

  9. Palatal mucoperiosteal free graft: another reconstruction option for oral defects

    OpenAIRE

    Dulguerov, Pavel; Kerner, M M; Marchal, Francis; Lehmann, Willy

    1998-01-01

    Traditional methods of repair for medium-size (3-5 cm) oral defects include allowing granulation, primary closure, skin grafts, and buccal mucosal grafts. Each of these methods has several disadvantages, and all tend to result in significant scar contracture and often lack sufficient bulk. In 10 patients, the defect left by resection of cancer lesions was reconstructed with a free palatal mucoperiosteal graft. In all patients, the grafts survived with little contracture, allowing for adequate...

  10. History of free skin grafting. Knowledge of empiricism?

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Hendrik Jan

    1981-01-01

    In the course of more than a hundred years, skin grafting has become a standard procedure in surgery. The indications for the several types of grafting have become rather uniform.The technical aids at the operations only differ in details. Especially the vast experience gained in World War II provided the opportunity to develop the technique of skin grafting and so the evolution of present day plastics surgery. However, virtually every step in the field of indications, selection of grafts, te...

  11. Railroading technique of dermal grafting for linear atrophic scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Nirmal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal grafting is a valuable technique in the field of dermatosurgery for the treatment of atrophic scars where the source of filler material is the patient′s own dermis. However, it is underused for the reasons being difficulties in placing the graft in the tunnel, keratin cysts and complications due to biofilms. Railroading technique used in urology for rupture urethra has been described for dermal grafts to overcome the technical difficulties of graft placement.

  12. Synthetic biodegradable vascular grafts for the regeneration of arteries

    OpenAIRE

    De Valence De Minardiere, Sarra

    2012-01-01

    There is an important clinical need for suitable vascular grafts, especially for small diameter vessel replacements in adult patients and for pediatric reconstructions. The objective of this thesis was to develop a synthetic biodegradable vascular graft to guide the regeneration of a natural artery. The developed graft was made of micro and nano fibers of polycaprolactone, forming a porous, but mechanically strong structure. The long term in vivo performance of the graft was evaluated in an a...

  13. Severe postpartum sepsis with prolonged myocardial dysfunction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Katherine T

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe sepsis during pregnancy or in the postpartum period is a rare clinical event. In non obstetric surviving patients, the cardiovascular changes seen in sepsis and septic shock are fully reversible five to ten days after their onset. We report a case of septic myocardial dysfunction lasting longer than ten days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of prolonged septic myocardial dysfunction in a parturient. Case presentation A 24 year old Hispanic woman with no previous medical history developed pyelonephritis and severe sepsis with prolonged myocardial dysfunction after a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. Conclusions Septic myocardial dysfunction may be prolonged in parturients requiring longer term follow up and pharmacologic treatment.

  14. Nucleic acid therapy for lifespan prolongation: Present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wing-Fu Lai

    2011-09-01

    Lifespan prolongation is a common desire of the human race. With advances in biotechnology, the mechanism of aging has been gradually unraveled, laying the theoretical basis of nucleic acid therapy for lifespan prolongation. Regretfully, clinically applicable interventions do not exist without the efforts of converting theory into action, and it is the latter that has been far from adequately addressed at the moment. This was demonstrated by a database search on PubMed and Web of Science, from which only seven studies published between 2000 and 2010 were found to directly touch on the development of nucleic acid therapy for anti-aging and/or longevity enhancing purposes. In light of this, the objective of this article is to overview the current understanding of the intimate association between genes and longevity, and to bring the prospect of nucleic acid therapy for lifespan prolongation to light.

  15. Prevalence and molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli expressing an AmpC phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Lind; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Friis-Møller, Alice;

    2010-01-01

    . Hyperproduction of AmpC beta-lactamase was confirmed by isoelectric focusing (IEF). The presence of a plasmid-mediated ampC gene (pAmpC) was detected by multiplex PCR. The promoter and the entire reading frame of the chromosomal ampC gene were sequenced to identify promoter mutations associated...... by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The remaining isolates all had mutations or insertions in the promoter region, which could explain increased expression of the chromosomal AmpC enzyme. Mutations in the ampC gene associated with extended activity were rare and did not cause resistance to cefepime....... Sequencing of ampC showed that most isolates were not clonally related. CONCLUSIONS: E. coli expressing an AmpC phenotype occur sporadically and cause significant resistance to cephalosporins. The majority of these are hyperproducing chromosomal ampC although some isolates have acquired pAmpC....

  16. Novel method of drying temporalis fascia graft for tympanomastoid surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Vikram Bhardwaj; Rohit Verma; Sanjeev Puri

    2013-01-01

    Drying the temporalis fascia graft is often an understated step in tympanomastoid surgery. Different surgeons use different methods to dry the graft. We report a novel method of drying temporalis fascia graft for tympanomastoid surgery using hot boiling water. The method is quick, easy, and safe.

  17. Revascularisation of fresh compared with demineralised bone grafts in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Talsnes, O;

    2001-01-01

    Revascularisation of bone grafts is influenced by both the anatomical origin and the pre-implantation processing of the graft. We investigated the revascularisation by entrapment of 141Ce (cerium)-labelled microspheres in large, fresh and demineralised syngeneic grafts of predominantly cancellous...

  18. Polymers grafted by ionizing radiations. Regulated desorption of fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study and development of copolymers for progressive liberation of fertilizers in the soil through a membrane. These copolymers are obtained by grafting a hydrophilic acrylic monomer on a hydrophobic polymer (polyolefine). Desorption of a fertilizer through a membrane of graft polymer as a function of time and grafting ratio was tested both in the laboratory and by plant growing

  19. QTc-prolonging drugs and hospitalizations for cardiac arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Hoes, Arno W; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia as an adverse effect of noncardiac drugs has been an issue of growing importance during the past few years. In this population-based study, we evaluated the risk for serious cardiac arrhythmias during the use of several noncardiac QTc-prolonging drugs in day-to-day practice, and...... use of QTc-prolonging drugs. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate conditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Data were obtained from the PHARMO record linkage system. We identified 501 cases, 39 of whom used QTc...

  20. Assessing QT interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Graff, Claus; Kanters, Jørgen K.;

    2011-01-01

    heart, illustrated as a prolongation of the QT interval on a surface ECG. SCD in individuals receiving antipsychotics has an incidence of approximately 15 cases per 10,000 years of drug exposure but the exact association with TdP remains unknown because the diagnosis of TdP is uncertain. Most patients...... other surrogate markers for TdP have been developed but none of them is clinically implemented yet and QT interval prolongation is still considered the most valid surrogate marker. Although automated QT interval determination may offer some assistance, QT interval determination is best performed by a...

  1. Evaluation of early coronary graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using multislice computed tomography angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Raissi Kamal; Givtaj Nader; Abdi Seifollah; Motevali Marzieh; Noohi Fereidoun; Salari Farzad; Bassri Hosseinali; Haghjoo Majid

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts. Methods A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT) angiography in the first week aft...

  2. Endothelialized ePTFE Graft by Nanobiotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    The Apparatus for Processing the Tubular Graft Modification Will be Designed and Evaluated.; The On-site Capturing of the Endothelial (Progenitor) Cells by Peptide-mediated Selective Adhesion in Vitro and in Vivo Will Also be Elucidated.; The Patency Rate of ITRI-made Artificial Blood Vessels Will be Evaluated by the Porcine Animal Model.

  3. Polyethylene glycol-grafted polystyrene particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Fenghua; Engbers, Gerard H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Densely pegylated particles that can serve as a model system for artificial cells were prepared by covalently grafting amino polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 3400 or 5000) onto carboxyl polystyrene particles (PS-COOH) using carbodiimide chemistry. PEG-modified particles (PS-PEG) were chara

  4. Experimental vascular graft for liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobori, L; Nemeth, T; Nemes, B; Dallos, G; Sotonyi, P; Fehervari, [No Value; Patonai, A; Slooff, MJH; Jaray, J; De Jong, KP

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic artery thrombosis is a major cause of graft failure in liver transplantation. Use of donor interponates are common, but results are controversial because of necrosis or thrombosis after rejection. Reperfusion injury, hypoxia and free radical production determinate the survival. The aim of th

  5. Dynamics of solvent-free grafted nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Chremos, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    The diffusivity and structural relaxation characteristics of oligomer-grafted nanoparticles have been investigated with simulations of a previously proposed coarse-grained model at atmospheric pressure. Solvent-free, polymer-grafted nanoparticles as well as grafted nanoparticles in a melt were compared to a reference system of bare (ungrafted) particles in a melt. Whereas longer chains lead to a larger hydrodynamic radius and lower relative diffusivity for grafted particles in a melt, bulk solvent-free nanoparticles with longer chains have higher relative diffusivities than their short chain counterparts. Solvent-free nanoparticles with short chains undergo a glass transition as indicated by a vanishing diffusivity, diverging structural relaxation time and the formation of body-centered-cubic-like order. Nanoparticles with longer chains exhibit a more gradual increase in the structural relaxation time with decreasing temperature and concomitantly increasing particle volume fraction. The diffusivity of the long chain nanoparticles exhibits a minimum at an intermediate temperature and volume fraction where the polymer brushes of neighboring particles overlap, but must stretch to fill the interparticle space. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Grafting increases lycopene in seedless watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although watermelon grafting has been done for years in Asia and Europe, this production method is still novel to the U.S. Fruit from four rootstocks with scions of the seedless watermelons Palomar, TriX313, Matrix, and Petite Perfection were compared for soluble solids content, pH, and carotenoids...

  7. Cellular grafts in management of leucoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular grafting methods constitute important advances in the surgical management of leucoderma. Different methods such as noncultured epidermal suspensions, melanocyte cultures, and melanocyte-keratinocyte cultures have all been shown to be effective. This article reviews these methods.

  8. Cultured keratinocyte grafting on various biologic matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To make attempts to use cell constructs from subconfluent keratinocyte cultures, which contain a much glue (TissucollR) and directly applied onto full thickness wounds in athymic mice or combined with allogenic split thickness overgrafts and compared with cultured sheet grafts. This keratinocyte fibrin glue suspension (KFGS) has also been used in burns up to 88% burned TBSA as well as in chronic wounds. Keratinocytes were also seeded onto various biomaterials (BiobraneR, HYAFF LaserskinR, IntegraTM, TissuFascieR) as carriers. Results: Human suspended keratinocytes were effective to reorganize to skin in vivo both in nude mice and in patients and superior if compared to sheet grafts. 3~ 5 d after seeding onto various biomaterials, cell reached subconfluence and were ready for grafting. These cell-membrane constructs were always tured on microspheres in spinner cultures could increase the cell yield, and the subconfluently covered microspheres were directly grafted onto" the wound. Conclusion: These experiments demonstrated that keratinocytes can grow on a variety of carrier materials in vitro and these cell constructs were able to spontaneously reform a multilayer neoepithelium in vivo. The current screening looks for the ideal carrier for keratinocytes that also would serve as a temporary wound cover and induce dermis formation by tissue conduction which further may be enhanced by gene therapy.

  9. Grafting functional antioxidants on highly crosslinked polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malaika, S.; Riasat, S.; Lewucha, C.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of interference of antioxidants, such as hindered phenols, with peroxide-initiated crosslinking of polyethylene was addressed through the use of functional (reactive) graftable antioxidants (g-AO). Reactive derivatives of hindered phenol and hindered amine antioxidants were synthesised, characterised and used to investigate their grafting reactions in high density polyethylene; both non-crosslinked (PE) and highly peroxide-crosslinked (PEXa). Assessment of the extent of in-situ grafting of the antioxidants, their retention after exhaustive solvent extraction in PE and PEXa, and the stabilising performance of the grafted antioxidants (g-AO) in the polymer were examined and benchmarked against conventionally stabilised crosslinked & non-crosslinked polyethylene. It was shown that the functional antioxidants graft to a high extent in PEXa, and that the level of interference of the g-AOs with the polymer crosslinking process was minimal compared to that of conventional antioxidants which bear the same antioxidant function. The much higher level of retention of the g-AOs in PEXa after exhaustive solvent extraction, compared to that of the corresponding conventional antioxidants, accounts for their superior long-term thermal stabilising performance under severe extractive conditions.

  10. Anterior cervical allograft arthrodesis and instrumentation: Multilevel interbody grafting or strut graft reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Swank, M. L.; Lowery, G. L.; Bhat, A. L.; McDonough, R. F.

    1997-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated a single surgeon's series of patients treated by multilevel cervical disc excision (two or three levels), allograft tricortical iliac crest arthrodesis, and anterior instrumentation. The objective of this retrospective study was to compare fusion success and clinical outcome between multilevel Smith-Robinson interbody grafting and tricortical iliac strut graft reconstruction, both supplemented with anterior instrumentation in the cervical spine. The incidenc...

  11. ‘Minipatch’ penile skin graft urethroplasty in the era of buccal mucosal grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Hudak, Steven J.; Hudson, Tillman C.; Allen F. Morey

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe our experience with ‘minipatch’ penile skin graft (PSG) urethroplasty, as at our institution we prefer excision and primary anastomosis (EPA) urethroplasty whenever feasible, as it gives better outcomes than substitution urethroplasty. However, despite careful preoperative planning, the unanticipated need for a small graft is occasionally recognised intra-operatively, and in such cases we have found that harvesting a minipatch is an efficient alternative to harvesting a...

  12. Synthesis of Polymer Grafted Magnetite Nanoparticle with the Highest Grafting Density via Controlled Radical Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Babu Kothandapani; Dhamodharan Raghavachari

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The surface-initiated ATRP of benzyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, and styrene from magnetite nanoparticle is investigated, without the use of sacrificial (free) initiator in solution. It is observed that the grafting density obtained is related to the polymerization kinetics, being higher for faster polymerizing monomer. The grafting density was found to be nearly 2 chains/nm2for the rapidly polymerizing benzyl methacrylate. In contrast, for the less rapidly polymerizing styren...

  13. β2 integrins separate graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukemia effects

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yaming; Liu, Chen; Djeu, Julie Y.; Zhong, Bin; Peters, Thorsten; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Anasetti, Claudio; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Migration of donor-derived T cells into GVHD target organs plays an essential role in the development of GVHD. β2 integrins are critically important for leukocyte extravasation through vascular endothelia and for T-cell activation. We asked whether CD18-deficient T cells would induce less GVHD while sparing the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. In murine a...

  14. Targeting minor histocompatibility antigens in graft versus tumor or graft versus leukemia responses

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xin; Hui, Kwok Min; Younes, Hashem M.; Brickner, Anthony G.

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) represents the only curative therapy for several hematologic malignancies, and shows promise as a nascent treatment modality for select solid tumors. Although the original goal of alloHCT was hematopoietic reconstitution after sub-lethal chemoradiotherapy, recognition of a profound donor lymphocyte-mediated graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) or graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect has shifted the paradigm from pre-transplant cytoreduction to tumor c...

  15. Numerical Simulation of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft with an Assistant Graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Feng

    2014-01-01

    The conventional bypass design is to implant a graft on the stenosed host artery allowing blood to flow bypass the stenotic artery. However, restenosis is a challenging problem which finally results in reoperation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new bypass graft design of coronary artery with an assistant graft for the treatment of coronary artery stenosis. An additional assistant graft was employed in the new design compared with the conventional ETS anastomosis. Numerical simulations were performed by means of finite volume method using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. Results demonstrated that the new anastomoses model provided a more smooth flow at the distal ETS anastomosis without any stagnation point on anastomotic bed and vortex formation in the heel region. Oscillatory shear index (OSI) and time-averaged wall shear stress gradient (TAWSSG) at the artery bed of the distal ETS anastomosis were reduced. The coronary artery bypass graft with an assistant graft is feasible to improve the local hemodynamics and diminish the probability of restenosis in the treatment of coronary artery stenosis.

  16. Synthesis of Polymer Grafted Magnetite Nanoparticle with the Highest Grafting Density via Controlled Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Kothandapani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The surface-initiated ATRP of benzyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, and styrene from magnetite nanoparticle is investigated, without the use of sacrificial (free initiator in solution. It is observed that the grafting density obtained is related to the polymerization kinetics, being higher for faster polymerizing monomer. The grafting density was found to be nearly 2 chains/nm2for the rapidly polymerizing benzyl methacrylate. In contrast, for the less rapidly polymerizing styrene, the grafting density was found to be nearly 0.7 chain/nm2. It is hypothesized that this could be due to the relative rates of surface-initiated polymerization versus conformational mobility of polymer chains anchored by one end to the surface. An amphiphilic diblock polymer based on 2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate is synthesized from the polystyrene monolayer. The homopolymer and block copolymer grafted MNs form stable dispersions in various solvents. In order to evaluate molecular weight of the polymer that was grafted on to the surface of the nanoparticles, it was degrafted suitably and subjected to gel permeation chromatography analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to confirm the grafting reaction.

  17. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawia M Kassab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Moawia M KassabDivision of Periodontics, Marquette University, School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures.Keywords: case report, connective tissue, dental implants, allograft, coronally positioned flap

  18. Humidity Sensing Properties of Pre-irradiation Grafted HDPE Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jiao; Qun Fu; Xiang Geng; Zhen Li; Haijian Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Grafted high density polyethylene (HDPE) films have been prepared by grafting sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) and acrylic acid (AA) onto HDPE using preirradiation method. The structure and surface morphology of both grafted and ungrafted HDPE films were observed by FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The humidity sensing properties of grafted HDPE films were investigated. The results show that the impedance of the film decreases with increasing of relative humidity (RH). The films display high sensitivity with nearly three orders of magnitude change in the resistance during the relative humidity variation from 5% to 98%. Grafted HDPE films exhibit excellent properties as humidity sensors.

  19. Preparation and physical properties of grafted bagasse pulp metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of grafting on the electrical properties of bleached bagasse pulp has been investigated over a frequency range 1-200 Khz. The conductivity increases upon grafting with acrylic acid or acrylonitrile. Grafted bleached bagasse pulp with acrylic acid showed an increase in the dielectric constant ε and dielectric loss ε. The bagasse/acrylic acid copolymer metal complexes have shown further increase in the conductivity. The conductivity decreases as the degree of grafting increased from 25% to 215%, indicating slower rate of complexation at higher grafting percentage

  20. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. PMID:26386901

  1. The impact of obesity on physiological responses during prolonged exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Veltmeijer, M.T.; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Poelkens, F.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise training is routinely prescribed to subjects with obesity. In the general population, this type of exercise can lead to fluid and sodium imbalance. However, little is known whether obesity alters the risk of fluid and sodium imbalances.Objective:This

  2. Prolongation Structure of Semi-discrete Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on noncommutative differential calculus, we present a theory of prolongation structure for semi-discrete nonlinear evolution equations. As an illustrative example, a semi-discrete model of the nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation is discussed in terms of this theory and the corresponding Lax pairs are also given.

  3. Cognitions in prolonged exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Minnen, A. van; Rooij, M.J. de

    2010-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigates the impact of prolonged exposure treatment on cognitive changes in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-seven PTSD patients with mixed traumas went through 8 to 12 sessions of imaginal exposure and exposure in vivo without any cogniti

  4. The carotid baroreflex is reset following prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, E. C.; Rasmussen, P.; Secher, N. H.; George, K. P.; Cable, N. T.; Volianitis, Stefanos; Shave, R.

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in the carotid baroreflex (CBR) control of arterial pressure may explain the reduction in arterial pressure and left ventricular (LV) function after prolonged exercise. We examined the CBR control of heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), in addition to changes in LV function...

  5. Diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation for prolonged fasting arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen acquisition for cellular metabolism during diapause is a primary concern for herbivorous arthropods. Analyses of naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen help elucidate the mechanism. Relevant articles have cited (58 times up to mid-June 2011) anomalously elevated δ(15)N (per mil deviation of (15)N/(14)N, relative to atmospheric nitrogen=0 ‰) values (diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation; up to 12 ‰) for a prolonged fasting raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus Degeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae)), which feeds on red raspberries (Rubus idaeus: δ(15)N= ~ +2 ‰). Biologists have hypothesised that extensive recycling of amino acid nitrogen is responsible for the prolonged fasting. Since this hypothesis was proposed in 1995, scientists have integrated biochemical and molecular knowledge to support the mechanism of prolonged diapausing of animals. To test the validity of the recycling hypothesis, we analysed tissue nitrogen isotope ratios for four Japanese arthropods: the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), the burrower bug Canthophorus niveimarginatus Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the Japanese oak silkworm Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), all of which fast for more than 6 months as part of their life-history strategy. Resulting diet-consumer nitrogen isotope discrimination during fasting ranged from 0 to 7‰, as in many commonly known terrestrial arthropods. We conclude that prolonged fasting of arthropods does not always result in anomalous diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation, since the recycling process is closed or nearly closed with respect to nitrogen isotopes. PMID:22166153

  6. The basis of NPP with WWER operation prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monograph presents the generalization and analysis of normative-technical and methodical base on aging control and power unit operation prolongation of NPPs with WWER. The examples of technical status estimation and residual life of basis and auxiliary NPP equipment are given.

  7. Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 4...

  8. Hamiltonian structure of real Monge-Ampère equations

    CERN Document Server

    Nutku, Y

    1998-01-01

    The real homogeneous Monge-Ampère equation in one space and one time dimensions admits infinitely many Hamiltonian operators and is completely integrable by Magri's theorem. This remarkable property holds in arbitrary number of dimensions as well, so that among all integrable nonlinear evolution equations the real homogeneous Monge-Ampère equation is distinguished as one that retains its character as an integrable system in multi-dimensions. This property can be traced back to the appearance of arbitrary functions in the Lagrangian formulation of the real homogeneous Monge-Ampère equation which is degenerate and requires use of Dirac's theory of constraints for its Hamiltonian formulation. As in the case of most completely integrable systems the constraints are second class and Dirac brackets directly yield the Hamiltonian operators. The simplest Hamiltonian operator results in the Kac-Moody algebra of vector fields and functions on the unit circle.

  9. Prolonged organ culture reduces the incidence of endothelial immune reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, P; Heinzelmann, S; Böhringer, D; Reinhard, T

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The number of antigen-presenting cells decreases during organ culture of corneoscleral discs. This might result in a decrease of immune reactions with increasing duration of organ culture. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed a retrospective analysis of all penetrating keratoplasties that were consecutively performed over the last 5 years.PATIENTS AND METHODS All cases of penetrating keratoplasties (n=1006) were divided into two groups, with the division made at the median of the storage time (21 days). These two groups were compared by a Cox proportional hazards survival model regarding the incidence of endothelial immune reactions, clear graft survival, and chronic endothelial cell loss following penetrating keratoplasty considering patient's age, donor's age, and risk situation as co-variates.RESULTS We observed statistically significantly fewer endothelial immune reactions (20.1% (95% confidence interval 15.5-24.5%) after 2 years) in the group with a storage time of more than 21 days compared with the group with a storage time of culture did not have a statistically significant effect on clear graft survival or chronic endothelial cell loss.CONCLUSION Our results demonstrate that an increased duration of organ culture leads to a lower incidence of endothelial immune reactions following penetrating keratoplasty. However, we do not recommend increased storage times in general as overall graft survival did not improve. The reason for this apparent paradox may be that the endothelial cell count decreases during storage time. PMID:26493031

  10. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft copolymer poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)-g- polyacrylamide [P (HB-g-AAm)] was synthesized by radiation induced graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto poly (3-hydroxybutyrate). The study was conducted by the simultaneous irradiation method. The structure of [P (HB-g-AAm)] was identified by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of the graft copolymer was also studied by Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). From the results it was found that FTIR studies showed new signals (stretching -N-H) as strong evidence of grafting. The grafting degree was found to be 10 % and the thermodynamic parameter obtained from the DSC thermogram of plain PHB and the graft copolymer varied showing decrease in the material crystallinity and increase in the glass transition temperature. These results demonstrate that the radiation induced graft copolymerization reaction of acrylamide onto PHB was successively achieved. (Author)

  11. Free and microvascular bone grafting in the irradiated dog mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microvascular and free rib grafts were placed in 4.5 cm defects in an edentate mandibular body defect 18 to 28 days after completion of 50 Gy of irradiation from a 60Co source. The animals were sacrificed from two to forty weeks postoperatively and evaluated clinically, radiographically, and histologically. There was a marked difference in the alveolar mucosal viability with the two grafts. Mucosal dehiscence was not observed over any of the microvascular grafts, but was present in seven-eighths of the free grafts. Union of the microvascular bone graft to the host bone occurred within six weeks. In contrast, after six weeks the free graft was sequestered in all the animals. An unexpected finding with both types of graft was the marked subperiosteal bone formation. This bone appeared to be derived from the host bed, stabilizing and bridging the defects bilaterally. The results suggest that radiated periosteum may play an important role in osteogenesis

  12. Combined bone grafting: an alternative method for bone healing stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most provocative problem in bone grafting is the effectiveness of healing of the graft. When you use the heterogenous bone graft, it may take one or more than two years for consolidation and union depends on the graft quality and the situation of surrounding blood supply. In our preliminary report seven cases of freeze-dried heterogenous bone graft from the Bangkok Biomaterial Center were mixed with autogenous iliac bone graft from the patient in the ratio of 3:1. After that the healing was checked by clinical examination and X-ray in the periodic follow up. The causes of bone lost are post evacuation of benign bone tumor and post infection of bone after trauma. The result of bony union could be tested by clinical examination and showed in the X-ray films as early as 3 months post grafting

  13. ESR spectroscopic investigations of the radiation-grafting of fluoropolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, G.; Roduner, E. [University of Stuttgart (Germany); Brack, H.P.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    ESR spectroscopic investigations have clarified the influence of several preparative parameters on the reaction rates and yields obtained in the radiation-grafting method used at PSI to prepare proton-conducting polymer membranes. At a given irradiation dose, a higher concentration of reactive radical sites was detected in ETFE films than in FEP films. This higher concentration explains the higher grafting levels and rates of the ETFE films found in our previous grafting experiments. Taken together, the in-situ ESR experiments and grafting experiments show that the rates of disappearance of radical species and grafting rates and final grafting levels depend strongly on the reaction temperature and the oxygen content of the system. Average grafted chain lengths were calculated to contain about 1,000 monomer units. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Successful treatment of an infected thoracic endovascular stent graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Taijiro; Takahashi, Shinya; Katayama, Keijiro; Imai, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    A 70-year-old man with a chronic type B aortic dissection was treated with two stent grafts deployed in the descending thoracic aorta. The patient was re-admitted to the hospital at 16 months after thoracic endovascular stent grafting because of a high fever. A blood culture showed sepsis due to a Staphylococcus species. A CT scan showed an increase in the size of the thrombosed false lumen. Complete excision of the infected descending aortic wall and infected stent graft were performed. The descending thoracic aorta was reconstructed using a rifampicin-bonded Dacron graft and omental wrapping. The combination of in situ graft replacement using a rifampicin-bonded graft and omental wrapping is considered an effective treatment for thoracic stent graft infection. PMID:24990657

  15. Modeling of CO2 absorber using an AMP solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jostein; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: An explicit model for carbon dioxide (CO2) solubility in an aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) has been proposed and an expression for the heat of absorption of CO2 has been developed as a function of loading and temperature. A rate-based steady-state model for CO2 ab...... absorption of CO2 into an AMP solution in a packed tower and validated against pilot-plant data from the literature. (c) 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers....

  16. Gamma and neutron irradiation tests on commercial IC op amps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results of gamma and neutron irradiation tests on 30 types of integrated-circuit operational amplifiers from 11 manufacturers are presented. All units were low-cost, commercial-grade devices. Op amps were evaluated for changes in offset voltage, input bias current, power supply current, open-loop gain, gain-bandwidth product, slew rate, power-supply and common-mode rejection ratios. Bipolar transistor op amps with resistive collector load resistors for the input stage indicated the best radiation hardness

  17. Characterization of the binding of cAMP and cGMP to the CRP*598 mutant of the E. coli cAMP receptor protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Y. L.; Garges, S; Adhya, S; Krakow, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    Wild type cAMP receptor protein (CRP) activates in vitro lac transcription only in the presence of cAMP. In contrast the mutant CRP*598 (Arg-142 to His, Ala-144 to Thr) can activate lac transcription in the absence of cyclic nucleotide or at concentrations of cAMP below that required by CRP. To further characterize the properties of CRP*598, the binding of cAMP and cGMP to CRP and CRP*598 has been determined. The intrinsic binding constant (K) values obtained for cAMP binding are: CRP, 1.9 x ...

  18. Radiation grafting of acrylonitrile on ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer rubber. Optimization of grafting parameters and oil resistance properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced grafting of acrylonitrile (ACN) on ethylene-propene diene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber film was investigated by mutual radiation grafting technique. Effect of experimental variables viz. radiation dose, dose rate, type of solvent and monomer content on extent of grafting was studied. From the kinetic studies a mathematical relation Rgα[M]0.7D0.68 showing non-linear relationship for rate of grafting with monomer concentration and dose was deduced. The grafted samples showed increased hardness and oil resistance. (author)

  19. Cognitive Changes During Prolonged Exposure versus Prolonged Exposure Plus Cognitive Restructuring in Female Assault Survivors with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Edna B.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors report on changes in cognitions related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 54 female survivors of sexual and nonsexual assault with chronic PTSD who completed either prolonged exposure alone or in combination with cognitive restructuring. Treatment included 9-12 weekly sessions, and assessment was conducted at pretreatment,…

  20. Comparison of mesencephalic free-floating tissue culture grafts and cell suspension grafts in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Morten; Widmer, H R; Wagner, B;

    1998-01-01

    Ventral mesencephalon (VM) of fetal rat and human origin grown as free-floating roller-tube (FFRT) cultures can survive subsequent grafting to the adult rat striatum. To further explore the functional efficacy of such grafts, embryonic day 13 ventral mesencephalic tissue was grafted either after 7......-term survival of grafted dopaminergic neurons and to correlate that with the behavioral effects. Additional cultures and acutely prepared explants were also fixed and stored for histological investigation in order to estimate the loss of dopaminergic neurons in culture and after transplantation. Similar...... similar numbers of TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in grafts of cultured tissue (775 +/- 98, mean +/- SEM) and grafts of fresh, dissociated cell suspension (806 +/- 105, mean +/- SEM). Cell counts in fresh explants, 7-day-old cultures, and grafted cultures revealed a 68.2% loss of TH-ir cells 7 days...

  1. Graft copolymers of polypropylene films. 1. radiation induced grafting of mixed monomers. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation graft copolymerization of co monomer mixtures of acrylic acid (AAC), and styrene (S) onto polypropylene (PP) film by mutual method has been investigated. The effects of different factors that may affect the grafting yield such as inhibitor concentration (Mohr's salt), solvent composition (MeOH and H2 O), radiation dose and dose rate were considered. It was found that the role of Mohr's salt is very effective when the ratio of AAC in the co monomer mixtures was at lower values. However, the addition of 1.25 Wt% of Mohr's salt reduced the homo polymer formation and enhances the grafting process. Graft copolymerization in presence of solvent mixture composed of methanol and water was found to afford higher grafting than in pure methanol regardless of the composition of the co monomer mixture used. However, the highest degree of grafting was obtained at a solvent composition of 20% H2 O:80%MeOH and a co monomer mixture of 20%AAC:80%sty. An attempt was made to determine each PAAC and PS fractions in the total graft yield obtained. Two methods of analysis based on using the reactivity ratios reported in literature, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The determination of poly (acrylic acid) and polystyrene fractions by elemental analysis is believed more accurate than these by reactivity ratio. The precise results obtained by elemental analysis with respect to the chemical structure of known polymer prepared under identical conditions. The results obtained by IR measurements go well with that obtained with the reactivity ratio methods. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Growth and conversion of solar energy of grafted tomato plants under protected cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Pedó; Tiago Zanatta Aumonde; Nei Fernandes Lopes; Carlos Rogério Mauch

    2015-01-01

    The grafting technique favors cultivation tomato under conditions environment adverse, being the effects on the physiology of scarce plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the growth and solar energy conversion efficiency in grafted tomato and not grafted in greenhouse. The grafting was performed by grafting of cleft and the treatments consisted of tomato plants grafted on hybrid Kaguemusha® and not grafted. The samples for growth analysis were performed at intervals of fourteen days afte...

  3. Aircast Award for Basic Science - The Effect of Dynamic Changes in ACL Graft Force on Soft Tissue ACL Graft-Tunnel Incorporation

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Richard; Schaer, Michael; Chen, Tina; Sisto, Marco; Voigt, Clifford; Nguyen, Joseph; Ying, Lilly; Deng, Xiang-hua; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Anterior cruciate ligament grafts that are placed for reconstruction are subject to complex forces with joint motion. Current “anatomic” ACL reconstructions result in greater in situ graft forces. The biologic effect of changing magnitudes of ACL graft force on graft-tunnel osseointegration is not completely understood. The objective of the present study is to determine the effects of dynamic mechanical ACL graft tension or load on graft-tunnel incorporation. Methods: One hundred ...

  4. Five-year outcomes following a randomized trial of femorofemoral and femoropopliteal bypass grafting with heparin-bonded or standard polytetrafluoroethylene grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J S; Houlind, K; Gottschalksen, B;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cohort studies suggest superior long-term patency of luminal heparin-bonded polytetrafluoroethylene (Hb-PTFE) bypass grafts compared with standard PTFE grafts. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of Hb-PTFE grafts with those of standard PTFE grafts 5 years after a random...... likely to have a patent graft at 5 years than those with standard PTFE grafts....

  5. Analysis of AmpC β-lactamase Gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Ming; ZHANG Dongshen; QI Junying

    2005-01-01

    The gene and the amino acid sequence of the structural and regulatory region of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa with different resistance patterns were analyzed. Six strains with different resistance patterns were selected and the AmpC β-lactamase was identified. The objective gene fragment was amplified by colonies PCR. The sequences of the PCR-products were analyzed. The DNA sequence of the structural gene ampC and the regulatory genes ampR, ampD and ampE was detected. The 6 strains and the wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa are highly homogeneous in structural and regulatory region. Some new mutant points were found.

  6. Direct Light-up of cAMP Derivatives in Living Cells by Click Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 8-Azidoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-azido cAMP was directly detected in living cells, by applying Cu-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition to probe cAMP derivatives by fluorescence light-up. Fluorescence emission was generated by two non-fluorescent molecules, 8-azido cAMP as a model target and difluorinated cyclooctyne (DIFO reagent as a probe. The azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction between 8-azido cAMP and DIFO induces fluorescence in 8-azido cAMP. The fluorescence emission serves as a way to probe 8-azido cAMP in cells.

  7. A study on the morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method was investigated using DMA, DSC, XRD, and SAXS instruments. The DMA study indicates that the ETFE amorphous phase and PS amorphous phase are mixed well in the PS-grafted ETFE films while the ETFE crystalline phase and the PS amorphous phase are separated, suggesting that the PS chains are grafted mainly on the ETFE amorphous regions. The DSC and XRD data showed that the natural crystalline structures of ETFE in the grafted ETFE films are not affected by the degree of grafting. The SAXS profiles displayed that the inter-crystalline distance of the ETFE films increases with an increasing degree of grafting, which further implies that the PS graft chains formed by the simultaneous irradiation has a significant impact on the amorphous morphology of the resulting grafted ETFE film. Thus, these results indicate that the styrene monomers are mainly grafted on the ETFE amorphous regions during the simultaneous radiation grafting process. - Highlights: • PS-grafted ETFE films were prepared by a simultaneous radiation grafting method was investigated. • The natural crystalline structures of grafted ETFE films are not affect by the degree of grafting. • The inter-crystalline distance of the ETFE films increase with increasing degree of grafting. • The styrene monomers are mainly grafted on the ETFE amorphous regions during a simultaneous radiation grafting using gamma-ray

  8. cAMP signaling in cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calebiro, Davide; Di Dalmazi, Guido; Bathon, Kerstin; Ronchi, Cristina L; Beuschlein, Felix

    2015-10-01

    The cAMP signaling pathway is one of the major players in the regulation of growth and hormonal secretion in adrenocortical cells. Although its role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical hyperplasia associated with Cushing's syndrome has been clarified, a clear involvement of the cAMP signaling pathway and of one of its major downstream effectors, the protein kinase A (PKA), in sporadic adrenocortical adenomas remained elusive until recently. During the last year, a report by our group and three additional independent groups showed that somatic mutations of PRKACA, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit α of PKA, are a common genetic alteration in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenomas, occurring in 35-65% of the patients. In vitro studies revealed that those mutations are able to disrupt the association between catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA, leading to a cAMP-independent activity of the enzyme. Despite somatic PRKACA mutations being a common finding in patients with clinically manifest Cushing's syndrome, the pathogenesis of adrenocortical adenomas associated with subclinical hypercortisolism seems to rely on a different molecular background. In this review, the role of cAMP/PKA signaling in the regulation of adrenocortical cell function and its alterations in cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas will be summarized, with particular focus on recent developments. PMID:26139209

  9. Pico amp measurement circuit with high system isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase in sensitivity of 2000 can be achieved by modifying a Tektronics P6042 Hall Effect probe to accept 2000 turns as opposed to the standard single turn current input line. This increase in sensitivity coupled with a special self-zeroing amplifier allows the measurement of Pico-amps while maintaining high system isolation

  10. A graphical representation of equivalence classes of AMP chain graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roverato, A.; Studený, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2006), s. 1045-1078. ISSN 1532-4435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/04/0393 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : chain graph * AMP Markov equivalence * strong equivalence * largest deflagged graph Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.255, year: 2006

  11. Metabolic benefits of inhibiting cAMP-PDEs with resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jay H

    2012-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan in species ranging from yeast to mammals. There is evidence that CR also protects against aging-related diseases in non-human primates. This has led to an intense interest in the development of CR-mimetics to harness the beneficial effects of CR to treat aging-related diseases. One CR-mimetic that has received a great deal of attention is resveratrol. Resveratrol extends the lifespan of obese mice and protects against obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The specific mechanism of resveratrol action has been difficult to elucidate because resveratrol has a promiscuous target profile. A recent finding indicates that the metabolic effects of resveratrol may result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which increases cAMP levels. The cAMP-dependent pathways activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is essential for the metabolic effects of resveratrol. Inhibiting PDE4 with rolipram reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, including protection against diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina and glucose tolerance in mice. This discovery suggests that PDE inhibitors may be useful for treating metabolic diseases associated with aging. PMID:23700542

  12. Simulation of Organic Solar Cells Using AMPS-1D Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah G. Babiker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of microelectronic and photonic structure in one dimension program [AMPS-1D] program has been successfully used to study inorganic solar cells. In this work the program has been used to optimize the performance of the organic solar cells. The cells considered consist of poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7- dimethyloctyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene [MDMO-PPV

  13. Novel anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation device reduces slippage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez MJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mandi J Lopez,1 Allen Borne,2 W Todd Monroe,3 Prakash Bommala,1 Laura Kelly,1 Nan Zhang11Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 2Louisiana State University, New Orleans Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USAAbstract: Clinically significant laxity occurs in 10%–30% of knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Graft slippage and tension loss at the hamstring graft tibial fixation site during and after reconstruction surgery contribute to postoperative joint laxity and are detrimental to long-term knee stability and graft properties. Limiting graft slippage will reduce associated complications. We sought to compare the in vitro mechanical properties and in vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use, and graft incorporation of the novel GraftGrab™ (GG device designed to reduce hamstring graft tibial fixation slippage with the commercially available bioabsorbable Bio-Post™ and spiked washer (BP. Mechanical testing was performed on canine tibia-hamstring graft constructs to quantify initial fixation properties. In vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use and graft incorporation of hamstring graft reconstructions were determined in a canine model. Outcomes included tibial translation and ground reaction forces preoperatively and 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, three-dimensional graft and bone tunnel dimensions at the latter two time points, and graft-bone microstructure, as well as mechanical properties 8 weeks after implantation. Immediately after fixation, all grafts slipped from the BP constructs versus about 30% of GG constructs. In vivo limb use remained low, and tibial translation increased with time in the BP cohort. These results together

  14. Inhibition of apoptosis reduces immunogeneic potential of adenoviral-treated syngeneic liver grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puellmann, Kerstin; Beham, Alexander; Kienle, Klaus; Vogel, Mandy; Schlitt, Hans Juergen; Jauch, Karl Walter; Rentsch, Markus

    2006-11-27

    Effects of adenoviral therapy and reduced apoptosis on immune response were investigated in a rat liver transplantation model after prolonged ischemia-reperfusion. Liver donors were treated i.v. either with an adenoviral construct, expressing bcl-2, green-fluorescent-protein, or doxycyclin. Intrahepatic apoptosis was assessed by terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. The intrahepatic presence of CD4, CD8a, CD163, immunoglobulin (Ig)beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was quantified by realtime polymerase chain reaction at 24 hours and seven days after transplantation. Bcl-2 expression abrogated the TNF-alpha elevation and reduced apoptosis of hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells as compared to advCMV green fluorescent protein. No effects on CD4, CD8a, CD163 and MPO expression were noticed in bcl-2 pretreated livers, whereas Igbeta was slightly enhanced compared to controls. Adenoviral infected liver grafts trigger an immune response but reduced apoptosis resulted in down-regulation of TNF-alpha. Thus, bcl-2 transfer might simultaneously reduce graft ischemia reperfusion injury and immunogenicity. PMID:17130789

  15. Modification of polyetherurethane for biomedical application by radiation-induced grafting. I. Grafting procedure, determination of mechanical properties, and chemical modification of grafted films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation grafting of monomers onto suitable trunk polymers is a useful tool for tailoring new polymers for special purposes. This technique has been used in the past for the development of biocompatible materials, e.g., by grafting hydrogels onto mechanically stable polymers. In this first part of our work, the radiation grafting of hydrophilic or reactive monomers onto a polyetherurethane film using the pre-swelling technique is described. Following this technique the trunk polymer was swollen in the monomer before irradiation. As monomers 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (GMA), 2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate (GOMA), and acrylamide (AAm) were used. The kinetics of the grafting reactions were examined, and the distribution of the graft component inside the trunk polymer was investigated by means of infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Surface-grafted as well as bulk- and surface-grafted products could be obtained. The mechanical behavior of the grafted films--especially in the water-swollen state--was examined and compared with that of the pure trunk polymer. In nearly all cases it was found that the tensile strength sigma B and the elongation at break epsilon R decreases as the grafting yield increases. Modification of GMA- and AAm-grafted films via chemical reactions was performed to create new functional groups of biomedical interest. In this manner a diol structure, a carboxylic acid structure, and a sulfonic acid group could be introduced in the grafted polymer. The water uptake of such modified films is increased markedly when compared with that of the unmodified samples

  16. Subepithelial connective tissue graft: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alcarás Saraiva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Marginal tissue recession represents a common condition in Periodontology. Miller’s Classes I and II recessions, in which the etiological factors are well diagnosed and eliminated, show great predictability of total coverage when the technique of subepithelial connective tissue graft is used. This technique success has been mainly attributed to the double blood supply for graft’s nutrition, originating from the connective tissue of both the periosteum and flap. Case report and conclusion: The authors reported a clinical case in which a Miller’s Class I recession was treated by the surgical technique of subepithelial connective tissue graft, obtaining total coverage, eliminating the aesthetic deficiency and the dentin hypersensitivity complained by patient.

  17. Surface analysis of plasma grafted carbon fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wetting measurements. The surface of carbon fiber was modified by means of plasma graft silsesquioxane. The oxygen/carbon and silicon/carbon ratio increased rapidly after treatments. Fitting the C 1s, O 1s, and Si 2p spectra demonstrated that new photopeaks were emerged, which were indicated C-Si, Si-O groups, respectively. The degree of surface roughness and the wettability of carbon fiber surface were both increased by plasma graft silsesquioxane. The results may shed some light on the design of the appropriate surface structure, which could react with resin, and the manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced composites

  18. Radiation-induced grafting of TMPM onto polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma radiation-induced graft copolymerization of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl-methacrylate (TMPM), a very effective hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), onto polypropylene was investigated by simultaneous- irradiation technique. The various synthesis conditions on the graft content was studied. It was found that benzene, CCl4 and petroleum ether are more effective than other solvents, the percent grafting reached 7.1% for benzene. The percent grafting is higher when graft copolymerization is carried out in argon atmosphere than those in air. For all the grafting copolymerization carried out in benzene and CCl4, percent grafting increase linearly from 1 to 5 Mrad and beyond 5 Mrad, a tendency to level off appeared. At a constant dose, the percent grafting was found to be higher at high dose rate until 228 rad/s. Percent grafting also increased continuously with increasing monomer concentration up to 2.85 mol/L, but significant increase in grafting was observed only up to 1.14 mol/L

  19. Radiation initiated grafting onto fluoro polymers for membrane preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Assy, N. B.; Dessouki, A. M.

    The radiation initiating grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene/ hexafluoropropylene/vinylidene fluoride), TFB, films using the post-radiation grafting technique has been investigated. The factors affecting the grafting process such as radiation dose, dose rate, monomer concentration and temperature on the grafting yield were studied. It was found that the grafting yield is strongly dependent on the dose but independent on the dose rate. The dependence of the grafting rate on monomer concentration was found to be of 1.44 order. The results showed a steady increase of the initial grafting rate with temperature, whereas the final grafting yield passes a maximum around 45°C. The Arrhenius plot reveals two straight lines with different slope intersecting around 35°C. The overall activation energy for this grafting system was calculated and found to be 16.5 and 32.4 kcal/mol above and below 35°C, respectively. This behaviour is presumably correlated to a glass transition of the trunk polymer arising from amorphous material under restraint by crystallites. Some properties of the grafted films such a specific electric resistance, water uptake, mechanical properties and chemical and thermal stability were investigated. An improvement in these properties was observed which makes possible the use of these membranes in some practical applications.

  20. Insolubilisation of biologically active materials with novel radiation graft copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation grafting to immobilise a typical enzyme, trypsin, is reported. The technique involves radiation grafting to a backbone polymer a monomer containing an appropriate functional group to which the enzyme is bonded. In the present work, p-nitrostyrene has been grafted to representative trunk polymers, polypropylene and PVC, the nitro group in the resulting copolymer converted to the isothiocyanato derivative to which trypsin is attached. Of importance to this insolubilisation process, especially for radiation sensitive backbone polymers, is the inclusion of additives which enhance grafting. A new class of additives which increase the grafting yields is reported using as representative backbone polymers, naturally occurring cellulose and synthetic low density polyethylene. The new additives are specific metal salts such as LiClO4. The reactivity of these salts in grafting enhancement has been compared with that of mineral acid which has previously been used as an additive to increase grafting yields in both preirradiation and simultaneous techniques. A new model for grafting enhancement in the presence of the metal salts as well as acids is proposed whereby increased grafting yields are attributed to increased partitioning of monomer into the graft region in the presence of ionic solutes. The value of these additives in preparing copolymers suitable for general reagent insolubilisation reactions is discussed

  1. Insolubilisation of biologically active materials with novel radiation graft copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, J. L.; Jankiewicz, S. V.; Levot, R.; Sangster, D. F.

    The use of radiation grafting to immobilise a typical enzyme, trypsin, is reported. The technique involves radiation grafting to a backbone polymer a monomer containing an appropriate functional group to which the enzyme is bonded. In the present work, p-nitrostyrene has been grafted to representative trunk polymers, polypropylene and PVC, the nitro group in the resulting copolymer converted to the isothiocyanato derivative to which trypsin is attached. Of importance to this insolubilisation process, especially for radiation sensitive backbone polymers, is the inclusion of additives which enhance grafting. A new class of additives which increase the grafting yields is reported using as representative backbone polymers, naturally occurring cellulose and synthetic low density polyethylene. The new additives are specific metal salts such as LiClO 4. The reactivity of these salts in grafting enhancement has been compared with that of mineral acid which has previously been used as an additive to increase grafting yields in both preirradiation and simultaneous techniques. A new model for grafting enhancement in the presence of the metal salts as well as acids is proposed whereby increased grafting yields are attributed to increased partitioning of monomer into the graft region in the presence of ionic solutes. The value of these additives in preparing copolymers suitable for general reagent insolubilisation reactions is discussed.

  2. Outcome of diaphyseal forearm fracture-nonunions treated by autologous bone grafting and compression plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertoni Walter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of forearm fracture-nonunions continues to represent a therapeutic challenge, and reported outcomes are moderate at best. Limiting aspects of this particular anatomic location include the relation between restoration of shaft length with the anatomy and long-term functional outcome of adjacent joints, as well as the risk of elbow and wrist stiffness related to prolonged immobilization. The present study was designed to assess the outcome of autologous bone grafting with compression plating and early functional rehabilitation in patients with forearm fracture non-unions. Methods Prospective follow-up study in 31 consecutive patients presenting with non-unions of the forearm diaphysis (radius, n = 11; ulna, n = 9; both bones, n = 11. Surgical revision was performed by restoring anatomic forearm length by autologous bone grafting of the resected non-union from the iliac crest and compression plating using a 3.5 mm dynamic compression plate (DCP or limited-contact DCP (LC-DCP. The main outcome parameters consisted of radiographic bony union and functional outcome, as determined by the criteria defined by Harald Tscherne in 1978. Patients were routinely followed on a short term between 6 weeks to 6 months, with an average long-term follow-up of 3.6 years (range 2 to 6 years. Results Radiographically, a bony union was achieved in 30/31 patients within a mean time of 3.5 months of revision surgery (range 2 to 5 months. Clinically, 29/31 patients showed a good functional outcome, according to the Tscherne criteria, and 26/31 patients were able to resume their previous work. Two postoperative infections occurred, and one patient developed a persistent infected nonunion. No case of postoperative failure of fixation was seen in the entire cohort. Conclusion Revision osteosynthesis of forearm nonunions by autologous iliac crest bone grafting and compression plating represents a safe and efficacious modality for the

  3. Super water absorbent by radiation graft polymerization of acrylic monomers onto cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water superabsorbent gel has been applying in personal care, agriculture, medical supplies and water purification. In agricultural application, the gel will help to control soil erosion, limit loss of nutrients and slit for plants, decrease irrigation frequency, improve infiltration, and increase water retention in prolonged arid soil and droughts. The gel absorbs many times its weight in available water. The gel from poly(acrylamide) was developed in the 60's to grow plants in the deserts. The other gel from poly(acrylic acid) was used to absorb rapidly in baby diapers, sanitary napkins. These polymers are commonly produced from natural gas, which have recently been introduced as a soil conditioner with great success. Prior to these polymers, peat moss, agro-waste (sugar-cane waste, coffee-shell, etc.), activated kaolin were the alternative soil additives to hold water (20 times its weight), but poly(acrylamide) absorbs 400 times its weight and polyacrylate is capable of absorbing greater amounts of liquid than poly(acrylamide). In addition, starch and cellulose are biodegradable naturally occurring polymers, which are not capable of holding a great amount of water, but their modification by graft polymerization or crosslinking through radiation or chemical initiation techniques, they become the potential superabsorbent polymers. Radiation initiation of chemical reactions has been widely known for making novel materials because the degree of polymerization, grafting and crosslinking process can easily be controlled. Recently, it was shown that the starch and cellulose derivatives such as carboxymethyl starch, carboxymethyl starch can be synthesized by radiation-induced crosslinking at high concentrations. Their utilization in agriculture seems to be appropriately evaluated. In this article, the graft polymerization and crosslinking of acrylic acid onto cassava starch and field trial of its product (GAM-Sorb S) are reported. (author)

  4. Dynamic, nondestructive imaging of a bioengineered vascular graft endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce M Whited

    Full Text Available Bioengineering of vascular grafts holds great potential to address the shortcomings associated with autologous and conventional synthetic vascular grafts used for small diameter grafting procedures. Lumen endothelialization of bioengineered vascular grafts is essential to provide an antithrombogenic graft surface to ensure long-term patency after implantation. Conventional methods used to assess endothelialization in vitro typically involve periodic harvesting of the graft for histological sectioning and staining of the lumen. Endpoint testing methods such as these are effective but do not provide real-time information of endothelial cells in their intact microenvironment, rather only a single time point measurement of endothelium development. Therefore, nondestructive methods are needed to provide dynamic information of graft endothelialization and endothelium maturation in vitro. To address this need, we have developed a nondestructive fiber optic based (FOB imaging method that is capable of dynamic assessment of graft endothelialization without disturbing the graft housed in a bioreactor. In this study we demonstrate the capability of the FOB imaging method to quantify electrospun vascular graft endothelialization, EC detachment, and apoptosis in a nondestructive manner. The electrospun scaffold fiber diameter of the graft lumen was systematically varied and the FOB imaging system was used to noninvasively quantify the affect of topography on graft endothelialization over a 7-day period. Additionally, results demonstrated that the FOB imaging method had a greater imaging penetration depth than that of two-photon microscopy. This imaging method is a powerful tool to optimize vascular grafts and bioreactor conditions in vitro, and can be further adapted to monitor endothelium maturation and response to fluid flow bioreactor preconditioning.

  5. Surgical complications after renal transplantation in grafts with multiple arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mazzucchi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal transplantation with multiple arteries appears, in literature, associated to a major index of surgical complications. This study compared the surgical complications and short-term outcome renal transplants with multiple arteries and single artery grafts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of 64 renal transplants with multiple arteries performed between January 1995 and December 1999 were compared to the ones of 292 transplants with single renal artery. The aspects analyzed were number of arteries of the graft, donor type, vascular reconstruction technique, the occurrence of surgical complications, the incidence of delayed graft function, graft function 1 month after transplantation, graft loss and the patients' deaths. RESULTS: The incidence of surgical complications in grafts with multiple arteries and single renal artery was respectively: vascular - 3.1% and 3.1%; urological - 6.3% and 2.7% and other surgical complications - 15.6% and 10.6%, respectively. The incidence of lymphoceles was 3.1% in grafts with a single artery and 12.5% in grafts with more than 1 artery (p = 0.0015. The incidence of delayed graft function in grafts with multiple arteries and with a single renal artery was respectively 35.1 and 29.1% (p = 0.295. Mean serum creatinine at the 30th postoperative day was 2.46 and 1.81 in grafts with multiple and with 1 artery, respectively (p=0.271. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney transplantation using grafts with single and multiple arteries present similar indexes of surgical complications and short-term outcome; lymphoceles were more frequent among grafts with multiple arteries.

  6. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  7. Hydrogen, a potential safeguard for graft-versus-host disease and graft ischemia-reperfusion injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lijuan; Shen, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant complications such as graft-versus-host disease and graft ischemia-reperfusion injury are crucial challenges in transplantation. Hydrogen can act as a potential antioxidant, playing a preventive role against post-transplant complications in animal models of multiple organ transplantation. Herein, the authors review the current literature regarding the effects of hydrogen on graft ischemia-reperfusion injury and graft-versus-host disease. Existing data on the effects of hydrogen on ischemia-reperfusion injury related to organ transplantation are specifically reviewed and coupled with further suggestions for future work. The reviewed studies showed that hydrogen (inhaled or dissolved in saline) improved the outcomes of organ transplantation by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation at both the transplanted organ and the systemic levels. In conclusion, a substantial body of experimental evidence suggests that hydrogen can significantly alleviate transplantation-related ischemia-reperfusion injury and have a therapeutic effect on graft-versus-host disease, mainly via inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion and reduction of oxidative stress through several underlying mechanisms. Further animal experiments and preliminary human clinical trials will lay the foundation for hydrogen use as a drug in the clinic.

  8. Surface modification of cellulose by PCL grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, Olivier; Krouit, Mohammed; Bras, Julien [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes Papetiers (UMR 5518 CNRS-CTP-INPG), Grenoble INP-Pagora, 461 Rue de la papeterie, F-38402 St Martin d' Heres (France); Thielemans, Wim [Driving Innovation in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (DICE), School of Chemistry and Process and Environmental Research Division - Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur, E-mail: Naceur.Belgacem@efpg.inpg.fr [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes Papetiers (UMR 5518 CNRS-CTP-INPG), Grenoble INP-Pagora, 461 Rue de la papeterie, F-38402 St Martin d' Heres (France)

    2010-02-15

    Two cellulosic substrates (microcrystalline cellulose, MCC, and bleached kraft softwood pulps, BSK) were grafted by polycaprolactone (PCL) chains with different molecular weights, following a three-step procedure using non-swelling conditions in order to limit the reaction to their surface. First, one of the two OH PCL ends was blocked by phenyl isocyanate and the reaction product (adduct 1) was subsequently reacted with 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (adduct 2) to provide it with an NCO function, capable of reacting with cellulose. The ensuing PCL-grafted cellulosic materials were characterized by weight gain, elemental analysis, contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflexion-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and biodegradation tests. The modification was proven to occur by the presence of nitrogen atoms in the elemental analysis tests and XPS spectra of modified and soxhlet-extracted cellulose. The contact angle measurements have also shown that the surface became as hydrophobic as PCL itself. The polar component of the surface energy of cellulosic substrates before treatment was found to be about 32 and 10 mJ m{sup -2}, for MCC and BSK, respectively. This value vanished to practically zero after grafting with different PCLs. The strategy proposed in the present work is original since, to the best of our knowledge, this paper reports for the first time the chemical 'grafting onto' of the cellulose surface by PCL macromolecular structures, with the aim of obtaining fibre-matrix co-continuous fully sustainable and biodegradable composite materials.

  9. Mechanics of laser cut stent grafts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Major, Štěpán; Kocour, Vladimír; Hubálovský, Š.

    Prague: Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 2015 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.), s. 186-187 ISBN 978-80-86246-42-0. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering mechanics 2015 /21./. Svratka (CZ), 11.05.2015-14.05.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : stent-grafts * nitinol * finite element analysis * fatigue * fracture Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  10. LATE RENAL GRAFT REJECTION: PATHOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d− was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection. 

  11. Tissue Engineering: Creating Living Cardiovascular Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Muylaert, D.E.P.

    2016-01-01

    When heart valves or coronary arteries fail, the surgical implantation of a replacement structure can be a life-saving operation. Right now, replacement vessels for bypass grafting are harvested from the leg or chest of the patient, which is an additional and invasive procedure. Similarly, heart valve prostheses are currently made out of non-living materials that do not grow along with patients, which is a particular disadvantage for pediatric patients. Immediately following implantation, the...

  12. Deep, prolonged torpor by pregnant, free-ranging bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K. R.; Brigham, R. Mark; Geiser, Fritz

    2006-02-01

    Many mammals save energy during food shortage or harsh weather using controlled reductions in body temperature and metabolism called torpor. However, torpor slows offspring growth, and reproductive individuals are thought to avoid using it because of reduced fitness resulting from delayed offspring development. We tested this hypothesis by investigating torpor during reproduction in hoary bats ( Lasiurus cinereus, Vespertilionidae) in southern Canada. We recorded deep, prolonged torpor bouts, which meet the definition for hibernation, by pregnant females. Prolonged torpor occurred during spring storms. When conditions improved females aroused and gave birth within several days. Our observations imply a fitness advantage of torpor in addition to energy conservation because reduced foetal growth rate could delay parturition until conditions are more favourable for lactation and neonatal survival.

  13. Prolonged multifocal electroretinographic implicit times in the ocular ischemic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Sander, Birgit;

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To examine retinal function in chronic ocular ischemia using multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Methods. Thirteen patients with unilateral ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) underwent assessment of ophthalmic systolic blood pressure by ocular pneumoplethysmography, carotid artery patency.......4 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, respectively. Summed mfERG implicit times (N1, P1, N2) were prolonged in eyes with OIS, by 7.6%, 6.2%, and 7.5%, respectively, compared with fellow eyes (P ... the central retina was limited by high variance. Second-order kernel (first slice) summed implicit times (N1, P1, N2) were also prolonged in OIS, by 6.6%, 7.3%, and 6.8%, respectively (P

  14. Prolonged apnea following modified electroconvulsive therapy with suxamethonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Omprakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old male from an urban middleclass family with strained relationship among family members was referred from a corporate hospital for further management of psychological problem. As he was attempting suicide repeatedly, Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT was planned. After preoperative assessment and preparation, modified ECT was done with thiopentone and 0.5 mg/kg of suxamethonium. Apnea following suxamethonium was prolonged for 2 hours. Subsequent enquiry revealed that patient was treated for organophosphate poisoning and was on ventilator support for 15 days. This was concealed by the relatives. On searching patient previous records, Butyrylcholinesterase levels were very low, i.e., 350 u/l (normal reference range is 5 500 - 12 500 u/l. Prolonged suxamethonium apnea should be anticipated in patients with recent history of organophosphate poisoning; it is advisable to estimate the levels of butyrylcholinesterase and avoid suxamethonium in patients with low enzyme levels.

  15. Prolonged labour as indication for emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, N; Sørensen, Bjarke Lund; Onesmo, R;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour. DESIGN: A quality assurance analysis of a retrospective criterion-based audit supplemented by in-depth interviews with hospital staff. SETTING: Two Tanzanian rural mission hospitals....... Amongst the hospital staff interviewed, the awareness of evidence-based guidelines was poor. Word of mouth, personal experience, and fear, especially of HIV transmission, influenced management decisions. CONCLUSION: The lack of use and awareness of evidence-based guidelines led to misinterpretation of....... POPULATION: Audit of 144 cases of women undergoing caesarean sections for prolonged labour; in addition, eight staff members were interviewed. METHODS: Criteria of realistic best practice were established, and the case files were audited and compared with these. Hospital staff were interviewed about what...

  16. Smoking prolongs the infectivity of patients with tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siddiqui, U A

    2010-10-01

    We sought to establish if smokers on anti-tuberculosis treatment are more likely to have a prolonged period of infectivity, compared to non-smoking tuberculosis patients, in a low tuberculosis prevalence country. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study in Ireland that recruited 53 microbiologically confirmed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The age-sex adjusted odds ratios (AOR) suggest that the infectivity status of PTB on treatment was four times more likely to be prolonged beyond 6-8 weeks, if the cases had a smoking history (AOR: 4.42; 95% CI: 1.23; 15.9). Smoking was associated with delayed sputum smear conversion in PTB patients on treatment.

  17. Effect of prolonged chemical challenges on selected properties of silorane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Natan Luiz; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa;

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged chemical challenges on water sorption, solubility, and roughness of a silorane-based material when compared to methacrylate-based composites. Methods: Initial roughness and mass were registered for specimens (n=24...... phosphoric acid, 75% ethanol or distilled water for 7, 14, 21, and 180 days, when new measurements were performed. Subsequently, specimens were dehydrated until a constant mass was obtained. Water sorption and solubility were calculated after 180 days of immersion in the different solutions. Data were...... differences in water sorption and solubility were detected amongst the investigated composites (p<0.001). The silorane-based composite demonstrated low water sorption (with similar values to Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT) and low solubility (with similar values to Filtek Z250) after prolonged immersion in the...

  18. Effect of cAMP analogues on glomerular inulin space of isolated rats renal glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmelen, M X P; Szczepańska-Konkel, M; Jastorff, B; Jankowski, M; Angielski, S

    2005-03-01

    Cyclic AMP has been generally recognised as activator of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. However, there is little evidence about role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), in particular izoenzymes PKA-I and PKA-II, in glomeruli contractility. We measured changes of glomerular inulin space (GIS) as a marker of its contractility in the presence of phosphodiesterase resistance cAMP analogues; activators and inhibitors of PKA. Activator of PKA i.e. (Sp) 8-Cl-cAMPS (0.1-100 microM) decreased GIS. (Rp) 8-Cl-cAMPS (0.1-100 microM), inhibitor of PKA, was ineffective but shifted concentration-response curve of (Sp) 8-Cl-cAMPS to right at 50 microM. Specific A site activation by N6-benzoyl-cAMP decreased GIS with maximum at 0.1 microM. Activation of B site by 8-aminobutyloamino-cAMP (0.1-100 microM) had no effect. However, specific activation of both sites on PKA-I or PKA-II by site-selective analogue pairs e.g. 8-aminobutyloamino-cAMP plus 8-piperidino-cAMP or N6-benzoyl-cAMP plus 8-piperidino-cAMP respectively, significantly increased sensitivity of glomeruli to analogues. Our data suggest that activation of PKA-I or PKA-II might have an important role in the regulation of glomerular contractility. PMID:15795479

  19. "cAMP sponge": a buffer for cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Lefkimmiatis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While intracellular buffers are widely used to study calcium signaling, no such tool exists for the other major second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a genetically encoded buffer for cAMP based on the high-affinity cAMP-binding carboxy-terminus of the regulatory subunit RIbeta of protein kinase A (PKA. Addition of targeting sequences permitted localization of this fragment to the extra-nuclear compartment, while tagging with mCherry allowed quantification of its expression at the single cell level. This construct (named "cAMP sponge" was shown to selectively bind cAMP in vitro. Its expression significantly suppressed agonist-induced cAMP signals and the downstream activation of PKA within the cytosol as measured by FRET-based sensors in single living cells. Point mutations in the cAMP-binding domains of the construct rendered the chimera unable to bind cAMP in vitro or in situ. Cyclic AMP sponge was fruitfully applied to examine feedback regulation of gap junction-mediated transfer of cAMP in epithelial cell couplets. CONCLUSIONS: This newest member of the cAMP toolbox has the potential to reveal unique biological functions of cAMP, including insight into the functional significance of compartmentalized signaling events.

  20. The difficult coughing child: prolonged acute cough in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Michael D.; Thavagnanam, Surendran

    2013-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms that patients bring to the attention of primary care clinicians. Cough can be designated as acute ( 8 weeks in duration). The use of the term ‘prolonged acute cough’ in a cough guideline allows a period of natural resolution to occur before further investigations are warranted. The common causes are in children with post viral or pertussis like illnesses causing the cough. Persistent bacterial bronchitis typically occurs when an initial dry acute cough...

  1. Prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes Salmonella invasion.

    OpenAIRE

    MacBeth, K J; Lee, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have found that prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes the ability of Salmonella typhimurium to enter HEp-2 cells. Our results suggest that an essential invasion factor has a functional half-life that is seen as a gradual loss of invasiveness in the absence of protein synthesis. Therefore, Salmonella invasiveness appears to be a transient phenotype that is lost unless protein synthesis is maintained. This finding may explain why salmonellae grown to stationary phase ...

  2. Single prolonged stress disrupts retention of extinguished fear in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, Dayan; George, Sophie A.; Christopher J Fitzpatrick; Rabinak, Christine A.; Maren, Stephen; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress (SPS) animal model of PTSD and fear conditioning procedures to examine the effects of prior traumatic stress on the acquisition, retention, and con...

  3. Elderly age: healthy life style and life activity prolongation

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyshkova Elena Vyacheslavovna; Rodionova Tatyana Vyacheslavovna; Mukhina Marina Yurievna; Veretelnikova Yulia Yakovlevna; Chernyshkov Danila Vsevolodovich

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of the results of elderly people’s (aged 55–65) questionnaires concerning the basic precepts of healthy life style for activity prolongation (N = 180). It has been established that the basic principles of healthy life style include regular moderate physical loads, a rational diet, giving up bad habits. Healthy life style popularization may become a promising measure to increase activity motivation of elderly people.

  4. Centralized Routing for Prolonged Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis centralized routing methods for wireless sensor networks have been studied. The aim has been to prolong network lifetime by reducing the energy consumed by sensor-node communication. Wireless sensor networks are rapidly becoming common in application areas where information from many sensors is to be collected and acted upon. The use of wireless sensor networks adds flexibility to the network, and the cost of cabling can be avoided. Wireless sensor networks may consist of sever...

  5. Effects of a single prolonged milking interval in cows

    OpenAIRE

    Lakic, Branislav

    2011-01-01

    A single prolonged milking interval (PMI), such as might be associated with technical failures in automatic milking systems, leads to a subsequent somatic cell count (SCC) peak in bulk tank milk. Increased SCC indicates mastitis in cows. It is generally correlated with reduced milk yield and quality, and is often used as a criterion for milk payment. Whether the transient SCC peak after a single PMI affects yield and quality is not known. The short duration of the inflammatory ...

  6. Diagnostic and clinical considerations in prolonged grief disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maercker, Andreas; Lalor, John

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the similarities and differences between prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It highlights how a PTSD-related understanding aids the investigation and clinical management of PGD. Grief has long been understood as a natural response to bereavement, as serious psychological and physiological stress has been regarded as a potential outcome of extreme or traumatic stress. PTSD was first included in DSM-III in 1980. In the mid-1980s, the...

  7. Enhanced cytotoxicity of antineoplastic agents following prolonged exposure to misonidazole.

    OpenAIRE

    Roizin-Towle, L. A.; Hall, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Chinese hamster V79 cells cultured in vitro were used to investigated the cytotoxicity of various anti-cancer drugs subsequent to a prolonged treatment of the cells with Misonidazole (MISO). The sensitivity of the cells to Bleomycin (BLM), Melphalan or cis-Platinum (cis-DDP) was significantly increased by prior incubation with MISO under hypoxic conditions. When cysteamine, a radical scavenger, was present during the pretreatment with MISO, this enhancement of cytotoxicity was greatly reduced...

  8. Prolonged QT interval in a man with anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Macías-Robles, María Dolores; Perez-Clemente, Ana María; Maciá-Bobes, Carmen; Alvarez-Rueda, María Asunción; Pozo-Nuevo, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by the avoidance of food intake, which usually leads to a weight loss. Cardiac co-morbility is common and we can find sometimes a mass loss from the left ventricle, which can be seen by echocardiography. But the commonest complications are rhythm variations, typically bradycardia with a prolonged QT interval in up to a 40% of the cases, which altogether elevates ventricular tachycardia and sudden death risk. We present the case of a male wh...

  9. Course of Weaning from Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation after Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Herlihy, James P.; Koch, Stephen M.; Jackson, Robert; Nora, Hope

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the temporal pattern of weaning from mechanical ventilation for patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery, we performed a retrospective review of 21 patients' weaning courses at our long-term acute care hospital. Using multiple regression analysis of an estimate of individual patients' percentage of mechanical ventilator support per day (%MVSD), we determined that 14 of 21 patients (67%) showed a statistically significant quadratic or cub...

  10. Prolonged Ventricular Asystole: A Rare Adverse Effect of Hydrocodone Use

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhakaran, Sivakumar; Surani, Saherish S.; Salim R. Surani

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 56 Final Diagnosis: Ventricular asystole Symptoms: Dizziness, headache, near-syncope, weakness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Prolonged ventricular asystole is a rare vagal reaction caused by hydrocodone use. Sinus bradycardia is a characteristic presentation of the vasovagal response; examples of other presentations include arrest or atrioventricular block. Physicians need to be aware of ventricular as...

  11. Prolonged Soil Frost Affects Hydraulics and Phenology of Apple Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mittmann, Claudia; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of an adequate water supply in spring is a prerequisite for survival of angiosperm trees in temperate regions. Trees must re-establish access to soil water and recover xylem functionality. We thus hypothesized that prolonged soil frost impairs recovery and affects hydraulics and phenology of Malus domestica var. 'Golden Delicious.' To test this hypothesis, over two consecutive winters the soil around some trees was insulated to prolong soil frosting, From mid-winter to early summer, the level of native embolism, the water and starch contents of wood, bark and buds were quantified at regular intervals and findings correlated with various phenological parameters, xylogenesis and fine root growth. The findings confirm that prolonged soil frost affects tree hydraulics and phenology but the severity of the effect depends on the climatic conditions. In both study years, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) decreased from about 70% at the end of winter to about 10% in May. Thereby, xylem refilling strongly coincided with a decrease of starch in wood and bark. Also treated trees were able to restore their hydraulic system by May but, in the warm spring of 2012, xylem refilling, the increases in water content and starch depolymerization were delayed. In contrast, in the cold spring of 2013 only small differences between control and treated trees were observed. Prolongation of soil frost also led to a delay in phenology, xylogenesis, and fine root growth. We conclude that reduced water uptake from frozen or cold soils impairs refilling and thus negatively impacts tree hydraulics and growth of apple trees in spring. Under unfavorable circumstances, this may cause severe winter damage or even dieback. PMID:27379146

  12. [Karyological analysis of hybridoma cells after prolonged cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhil'tsova, M A; Trofimova, M N; Novikov, V V

    1989-06-01

    The karyological properties, the level of monoclonal antibody production and the proliferative properties of hybridoma strains after their prolonged passage in vivo and in vitro have been studied. Hybridoma EKO-G-2 having the supertetraploid set of chromosomes has proved to be a more stable antibody producer and to possess better proliferative properties. The suggestion has been made that the stability of antibody production is linked with the surplus number of chromosomal copies. PMID:2800799

  13. Tetrodotoxin-Bupivacaine-Epinephrine Combinations for Prolonged Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bognet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently available local anesthetics have analgesic durations in humans generally less than 12 hours. Prolonged-duration local anesthetics will be useful for postoperative analgesia. Previous studies showed that in rats, combinations of tetrodotoxin (TTX with bupivacaine had supra-additive effects on sciatic block durations. In those studies, epinephrine combined with TTX prolonged blocks more than 10-fold, while reducing systemic toxicity. TTX, formulated as Tectin, is in phase III clinical trials as an injectable systemic analgesic for chronic cancer pain. Here, we examine dose-duration relationships and sciatic nerve histology following local nerve blocks with combinations of Tectin with bupivacaine 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL solutions, with or without epinephrine 5 µg/mL (1:200,000 in rats. Percutaneous sciatic blockade was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats, and intensity and duration of sensory blockade was tested blindly with different Tectin-bupivacaine-epinephrine combinations. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc Sidak tests. Nerves were examined blindly for signs of injury. Blocks containing bupivacaine 0.25% with Tectin 10 µM and epinephrine 5 µg/mL were prolonged by roughly 3-fold compared to blocks with bupivacaine 0.25% plain (P < 0.001 or bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL (P < 0.001. Nerve histology was benign for all groups. Combinations of Tectin in bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL appear promising for prolonged duration of local anesthesia.

  14. Risk Factors of Prolonged Hospitalization in Patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Onur Topcu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Number of vomiting per day and maternal serum TSH levels could help physicians to estimate the risk of prolonged hospitalization; however further investigations are needed in large population studies. Identifying the high risk patients is important both for prevention of HEG and beginning appropriate antiemetic treatment to avoid complications to reduce the economic costs. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 113-118

  15. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum disease with prolonged pulmonary involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsche, Cecilie Blenstrup; Svensson, Erik; Wejse, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium celatum is a rare cause of human infection, causing disseminated disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Infections localized to the lungs and the lymph nodes have also been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The existing literature on the subject is limited as are experience...... treatment. The treatment regimen was changed to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and pyrazinamide and the treatment duration was prolonged to a total of 24 months, with good effect....

  16. Block and Graft Copolymers of Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchessault, Robert H.; Ravenelle, François; Kawada, Jumpei

    2004-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) were modified for diblock copolymer and graft polymer by catalyzed transesterification in the melt and by chemical synthesis to extend the side chains of the PHAs, and the polymers were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Catalyzed transesterification in the melt is used to produce diblock copolymers of poly[3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) and monomethoxy poly[ethylene glycol] (mPEG) in a one-step process. The resulting diblock copolymers are amphiphilic and self-assemble into sterically stabilized colloidal suspensions of PHB crystalline lamellae. Graft polymer was synthesized in a two-step chemical synthesis from biosynthesized poly[3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyundecenoate] (PHOU) containing ca. 25 mol chains. 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid reacts with the side chain alkenes of PHOU by the radical addition creating thioether linkage with terminal carboxyl functionalities. The latter groups were subsequently transformed into the amide or ester linkage by tridecylamine or octadecanol, respectively, producing new graft polymers. The polymers have different physical properties than poly[3-hydroxyoctanoate] (PHO) which is the main component of the PHOU, such as non-stickiness and higher thermal stability. The combination of biosynthesis and chemical synthesis produces a hybrid thermoplastic elastomer with partial biodegradability.

  17. Electron beam induced modification of grafted polyamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that irradiation, when applied on its own or in combination with other physical and chemical treatments, can manifest in radiation damage to materials. Radiation processing technology focuses upon producing favourable modification of materials through use of relatively high dose and dose rates. Current interest is in modifying the thermal and electrical properties of textured polymers in an effort to improve safety and wear comfort of clothing. No less important is the production of textiles which are safe to use, both in homes and offices. Present investigations provide additional data in support of findings which show that polyamides, a particular class of textured polymer, are amenable to radiation processing. Accelerated electron beam irradiation of sheets of polyamide fibre results in induced grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acids. The degree of grafting is critically dependent upon irradiation dose and the extent of monomers dilution. Of particular importance is the high correlation which is found between degree of grafting and a decrease in the softening rate of the modified polyamide. A systematic modification of electrical conductivity is also observed. (author)

  18. A Patient with Recurrent Arteriovenous Graft Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are prone to frequent thrombosis that is superimposed on underlying hemodynamically significant stenosis, most commonly at the graft-vein anastomosis. There has been great interest in detecting AVG stenosis in a timely fashion and performing preemptive angioplasty, in the belief that this will prevent AVG thrombosis. Three surveillance methods (static dialysis venous pressure, flow monitoring, and duplex ultrasound) can detect AVG stenosis. Whereas observational studies have reported that surveillance with preemptive angioplasty substantially reduces AVG thrombosis, randomized clinical trials have failed to confirm such a benefit. There is a high frequency of early AVG restenosis after angioplasty caused by aggressive neointimal hyperplasia resulting from vascular injury. Stent grafts prevent AVG restenosis better than balloon angioplasty, but they do not prevent AVG thrombosis. Several pharmacologic interventions to prevent AVG failure have been evaluated in randomized clinical trials. Anticoagulation or aspirin plus clopidogrel do not prevent AVG thrombosis, but increase hemorrhagic events. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia does not prevent AVG thrombosis. Dipyridamole plus aspirin modestly decreases AVG stenosis or thrombosis. Fish oil substantially decreases the frequency of AVG stenosis and thrombosis. In patients who have exhausted all options for vascular access in the upper extremities, thigh AVGs are a superior option to tunneled internal jugular vein central vein catheters (CVCs). An immediate-use AVG is a reasonable option in patients with recurrent CVC dysfunction or infection. Tunneled femoral CVCs have much worse survival than internal jugular CVCs. PMID:25883073

  19. Grafting of protein-protein binding sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A strategy for grafting protein-protein binding sites is described. Firstly, key interaction residues at the interface of ligand protein to be grafted are identified and suitable positions in scaffold protein for grafting these key residues are sought. Secondly, the scaffold proteins are superposed onto the ligand protein based on the corresponding Ca and Cb atoms. The complementarity between the scaffold protein and the receptor protein is evaluated and only matches with high score are accepted. The relative position between scaffold and receptor proteins is adjusted so that the interface has a reasonable packing density. Then the scaffold protein is mutated to corresponding residues in ligand protein at each candidate position. And the residues having bad steric contacts with the receptor proteins, or buried charged residues not involved in the formation of any salt bridge are mutated. Finally, the mutated scaffold protein in complex with receptor protein is co-minimized by Charmm. In addition, we deduce a scoring function to evaluate the affinity between mutated scaffold protein and receptor protein by statistical analysis of rigid binding data sets.

  20. Patient's Perception About Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelminda Maria Bulhões Mendonça

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of coronary artery disease referred for heart surgery has an important psychological component. The purpose of this study was to access the difficulties experienced by individuals awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting and to determine strategies that facilitate adaptation to a new lifestyle, modified by the disease. METHODS: A qualitative, exploratory study involving patients admitted to a university teaching hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting. Semi-structured interviews were performed in accordance with a previously defined script based on the study objective. Each transcription was read in its entirety to verify the representativeness, homogeneity and pertinence of the data obtained (pre-analysis, followed by separation of categories of analysis. RESULTS: The descriptions of this study show that patients admitted to the completion of coronary artery bypass grafting experience a wide range of psychological difficulties, considering that surgery acquires interpretations that vary according to individuals' subjectivity. The patients recognized the benefit of being able to discuss their feelings as a means of diminishing their fear and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Helping patients find resources to confront more positively the daily hospitalization is an important aspect for the health care professionals who assist them. This goal can be achieved through modification of the biomedical model of care for a biopsychosocial view. The investment of time and attention is of fundamental importance and aims to overcome existing deficiencies that interfere with the outcome of patients after cardiac surgery.

  1. [Tissue grafts: an activity concerning many patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loty, B

    1997-11-15

    Tissue allografts mainly include corneas, bone (and cartilage, tendon, ligament, aponevrosis), skin, vessels and cardiac valves. All these grafts have been widely used for many years and were the subject of a large number of experimental and clinical studies. The different steps allowing the obtention of different tissue allografts have in fact a common organization through tissue procurement and banking activities. Tissue banks have a central situation ensuring security, safety, traceability and distribution of tissues. Appropriate organization of the banks, and respect of high level standards are thus mandatory. Tissue transplantation activity in France has been studied through national surveys: they concern more than 600 hospitals and clinics, and grafts procured in France (excluding imported allografts) are around 15,000 a year. Precise regulation implied by the bioethical law published in 1994 and homogeneous organization of the activity allow the use of stringent and regularly updated standards, allowing the distribution to the patients of safe grafts procured in ethical conditions. The actual shortage of tissue allografts in France implies increasing procurement through a better organization of retrieval in hospitals and clinics and donation promotion. PMID:9501596

  2. Peripheral prostaglandin E2 prolongs the sensitization of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons possibly by facilitating the synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking of EP4 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jacques, Bruno; Ma, Weiya

    2014-11-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a well-known pain mediator enriched in inflamed tissues, plays a pivotal role in the genesis of chronic pain conditions such as inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PGE2-prolonged sensitization of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) may contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that facilitating synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking of EP receptors contribute to PGE2-prolonged nociceptor sensitization. Intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of a stabilized PGE2 analog, 16,16 dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2), in a dose- and time-dependent manner, not only elicited primary tactile allodynia which lasted for 1d, but also prolonged tactile allodynia evoked by a subsequent i.pl. injection of dmPGE2 from 1d to 4d. Moreover, the duration of tactile allodynia was progressively prolonged following multiple sequential i.pl. injections of dmPGE2. Co-injection of the selective EP1 or EP4 receptor antagonist, the inhibitors of cAMP, PKA, PKC, PKCε or PLC as well as an interleukin-6 (IL-6) neutralizing antiserum differentially blocked primary tactile allodynia elicited by the 1st dmPGE2 and the prolonged tactile allodynia evoked by the 2nd dmPGE2, suggesting the involvement of these signaling events in dmPGE2-induced nociceptor activation and sensitization. Co-injection of a selective COX2 inhibitor or two EP4 antagonists prevented or shortened inflammagen-prolonged nociceptor sensitization. I.pl. injection of dmPGE2 or carrageenan time-dependently increased EP4 levels in L4-6 DRG neurons and peripheral nerves. EP4 was expressed in almost half of IB4-binding nociceptors of L4-6 DRG. Taken together, our data suggest that stimulating the synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking to increase EP4 availability at the axonal terminals of nociceptors is likely a novel mechanism underlying PGE2-prolonged nociceptor

  3. Is prolonged grief distinct from bereavement-related posttraumatic stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Ann-Marie J; Dalgleish, Tim

    2010-07-30

    Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) (previously called complicated grief (CG)) is proposed as a distinct post loss syndrome, with its own core symptoms. A key issue concerning the diagnostic validity of PGD is whether it can reliably be distinguished from related psychiatric outcomes following bereavement. This study therefore sought to determine whether the core symptoms of PGD could be distinguished from those of bereavement-related anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were derived from a community sample of 223 bereaved adults in Croatia. PGD symptomatology was measured using the Revised Inventory of Complicated Grief. Depression and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, respectively. The intrusion and avoidance symptoms of PTSD were assessed using the Revised Impact of Event Scale. The distinctiveness of the five symptom clusters was examined using principal component analysis (PCA). Symptoms of prolonged grief, depression, anxiety, PTSD-intrusion, and PTSD-avoidance clustered together into five distinct factors. These results support the phenomenological distinctiveness of prolonged grief symptoms, from those of bereavement-related anxiety, depression and, for the first time, PTSD. PMID:20493535

  4. [Circulating immune complexes in acute and prolonged hepatitis A infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautović-Krkić, Sajma; Gribajcević, Mehmed

    2002-01-01

    Level and dynamics activity of circulating immune complexes (CiC) and persistence CiC in the sera in the acute and prolonged HAV-infection was examined. In the same time we explored the relation of level and dynamics CiC compared with level, dynamics and persistence length ALT and IgM anti-HAV in sera, longitude excretion HAV Ag in stool and intensity patohistological damage in liver. Research have been undertaken in the prospected study on two groups with 90 patients in total: 60 patients with prolonged form of the hepatitis A, and 30 patients with HAV-infection with normal development. CiC was prescribe with fotometer in sediment of poliethilenglicol, and IgM anti HAV with ELISA technique. Ag-HAV in stool was prescribe with methodImmuno/electro/osmophoresis. Results of examination showed that high level values of CiC had present in all patients with HAV-infection, bat yet middle values of CiC had significantly higher in prolonged forms (p CiC persistence almost three times longer than in HAV infection with normal development. The highest value of CiC have been found from one to two weeks after e peak ALT in HAV and in PTHA 4-6 weeks later. Persistence of elevated values CiC responded to the middle length persistence of Igm anti HAV-in the sera. PMID:12378858

  5. Combined strategy of endothelial cells coating, Sertoli cells coculture and infusion improves vascularization and rejection protection of islet graft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available Improving islet graft revascularization and inhibiting rejection become crucial tasks for prolonging islet graft survival. Endothelial cells (ECs are the basis of islet vascularization and Sertoli cells (SCs have the talent to provide nutritional support and exert immunosuppressive effects. We construct a combined strategy of ECs coating in the presence of nutritious and immune factors supplied by SCs in a co-culture system to investigate the effect of vascularization and rejection inhibition for islet graft. In vivo, the combined strategy improved the survival and vascularization as well as inhibited lymphocytes and inflammatory cytokines. In vitro, we found the combinatorial strategy improved the function of islets and the effect of ECs-coating on islets. Combined strategy treated islets revealed higher levels of anti-apoptotic signal molecules (Bcl-2 and HSP-32, survival and function related molecules (PDX-1, Ki-67, ERK1/2 and Akt and demonstrated increased vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR and angiogenesis signal molecules (FAk and PLC-γ. SCs effectively inhibited the activation of lymphocyte stimulated by islets and ECs. Predominantly immunosuppressive cytokines could be detected in culture supernatants of the SCs coculture group. These results suggest that ECs-coating and Sertoli cells co-culture or infusion synergistically enhance islet survival and function after transplantation.

  6. The Palatal Bone Block Graft for Onlay Grafting Combined with Maxillary Implant Placement: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Howard; Du Toit, Jonathan; Salama, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce an intraoral bone block harvesting technique--the palatal bone block graft (PBBG)--as an alternative harvest site for autogenous bone blocks. The PBBG technique was used to onlay graft esthetic zone defects simultaneous to implant placement in five patients. Measurable objectives were used to evaluate outcomes, and treatment was reassessed at up to 6 years. Defects of the maxilla were successfully grafted with PBBG in all five cases, and tissues remained stable at 1- and 6-year follow-ups. Harvesting an autogenous bone block from the palate is an advantageous, predictable, and reproducible method for augmenting buccofacial defects at implant placement, and may be considered as an alternative to conventional intraoral bone block donor sites when treating the maxilla. PMID:27333009

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy for assessment of liver transplantation grafts concerning graft viability and patient survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollet Filho, José D.; da Silveira, Marina R.; Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Evaluating transplantation grafts at harvest is essential for its success. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) can help monitoring changes in metabolic/structural conditions of tissue during transplantation. The aim of the present study is to correlate LIFSobtained spectra of human hepatic grafts during liver transplantation with post-operative patients' mortality rate and biochemical parameters, establishing a method to exclude nonviable grafts before implantation. Orthotopic liver transplantation, piggyback technique was performed in 15 patients. LIFS was performed under 408nm excitation. Collection was performed immediately after opening donor's abdominal cavity, after cold perfusion, end of back-table period, and 5 min and 1 h after warm perfusion at recipient. Fluorescence information was compared to lactate, creatinine, bilirubin and INR levels and to survival status. LIFS was sensitive to liver changes during transplantation stages. Study-in-progress; initial results indicate correlation between fluorescence and life/death status of patients.

  8. Impact of solvent selection on graft polymerization of acrylamide onto starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact on polymer properties [molecular weight, monomer conversion, graft content, graft efficiency and anhydroglucose units between grafts (AGU/graft)] that result from changing the solvent for the graft co-polymerization of acrylamide onto starch from water to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was eval...

  9. Radiation grafting of monomers on plastics and fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various methods for grafting monomers to a variety of backbone polymers utilizing ionizing radiation are briefly reviewed with emphasis on the most commonly used technique, namely, simultaneous grafting. The variables influencing the optimization of grafting are discussed. These include role of solvent, effects of temperature, radiation dose and dose rate, and homopolymer formation. Recent developments involving the use of novel additives in these reactions are also summarized. Additive effects discussed include the role of mineral acids, polyfunctional monomers, multifunctional acrylates, and inorganic salts. Mechanisms to explain effects of these additives are proposed. Applications of radiation grafting including potential commercial utilization are summarized. The significance of concurrent grafting in curing reactions, particularly with electron beam irradiation, is discussed, including the possible role of ionic intermediates in these reactions. Future trends in grafting are delineated. (orig.)

  10. Radiation grafting of styrene on starch with high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, N.; Akhavan, A.; Ataeivarjovi, E.

    2013-04-01

    Wheat starch grafted with polystyrene (PS-g-starch) was synthesized via polymerization grafting of styrene on starch by gamma-ray. The effects of starch/styrene weight ratio, and amount of applied doses (5-40 kGy) on the percentage of grafting, G (%), were investigated. The results showed that G (%) increased with increasing starch content. The optimum condition, starch/styrene weight ratio 1/3 and the applied dose 10 kGy, led to 252.9% of grafting. The obtained graft copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy as well as the XRD analysis exhibited the changes in chemical and crystalline structure of starch after grafting reaction. TGA demonstrated the changes in thermal stability of PS-g-starch copolymer. SEM micrographs indicated porous patches of PS adhering on the starch.

  11. Characterization of Grafted Polypropylene-Acrylamide Films for Dye Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft copolymerization of Acrylamide onto polypropylene film using the direct gamma irradiation technique was studied. The factors affecting the grafting process such as type of solvent, inhibitor, radiation dose, and monomer concentration on the grafting yield were studied. It was found that the additions of 0.5 wt % , Mohr's salt reduced effectively the homo polymerization of acrylamide. The change in chemical structural of the pp-films due to grafting was investigated using IR, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimeterical analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). PP-g-p(AAm) films were allowed to react with two ionic dyes; organic reactive blue dye (Remazol Brilliant Bright Blue) and organic reactive red dye (Drimarene Scarlet K-2 G). The sshas been analyzed with visible spectrophotometry at 460 nm for dyed grafted film by red dye and at 490 nm for dyed grafted film by blue dye

  12. Graft-Derived Cell-Free DNA as a Marker of Transplant Graft Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellerich, Michael; Walson, Philip D; Beck, Julia; Schmitz, Jessica; Kollmar, Otto; Schütz, Ekkehard

    2016-04-01

    Although short-term success after solid organ transplantation is good, long-term graft and recipient survival are both not satisfactory. Despite therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs), both excessive and insufficient immunosuppression still do occur. There is a need for new biomarkers that, when combined with TDM, can be used to provide more effective and less toxic, personalized immunosuppression to improve long-term survival. Currently used methods are insufficient to rapidly, cost-effectively, and directly interrogate graft integrity after solid organ transplantation. However, because organ transplants are also genome transplants, measurement of graft-derived circulating cell-free DNA (GcfDNA) has shown promise as a way to improve both graft and recipient outcomes after solid organ transplantation through the early detection of severe graft injury, enabling an early intervention. A newly developed droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) method has advantages over expensive high-throughput sequencing methods to rapidly quantify GcfDNA percentages and absolute amounts. This procedure does not require donor DNA and therefore can be applied to any organ donor/recipient pair. The droplet digital polymerase chain reaction method allows for the early, sensitive, specific, and cost-effective direct assessment of graft integrity and can be used to define individual responses to ISDs including the minimal ISD exposures necessary to prevent rejection. This is especially important in patients undergoing ISD switches due to ISD toxicity, infections, or malignancies. Although prospective, multicenter clinical trials in liver, heart, and kidney transplantation have not been completed, early results suggest that GcfDNA can be combined with TDM to guide changes in immunosuppression to provide more effective, and less toxic treatment. Personalized immunosuppression will shift emphasis in transplantation from reaction to prevention and could

  13. Primary Graft Function, Metabolic Control, and Graft Survival After Islet Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Arnalsteen, Laurent; Sergent, Geraldine; Defrance, Frederique; Gmyr, Valery; Declerck, Nicole; Raverdy, Violeta; Vandewalle, Brigitte; Pigny, Pascal; Noel, Christian; Pattou, Francois

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the influence of primary graft function (PGF) on graft survival and metabolic control after islet transplantation with the Edmonton protocol. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 14 consecutive patients with brittle type 1 diabetes were enrolled in this phase 2 study and received median 12,479 islet equivalents per kilogram of body weight (interquartile range 11,072–15,755) in two or three sequential infusions within 67 days (44–95). PGF was estimated 1 month after ...

  14. Genotypic Identification of AmpC β-Lactamases Production in Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Wassef, Mona; Behiry, Iman; Younan, Mariam; El Guindy, Nancy; Mostafa, Sally; Abada, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Background: AmpC type β-lactamases are commonly isolated from extended-spectrum Cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Also, resistance appeared in bacterial species not naturally producing AmpC enzymes. Therefore, a standard test for the detection of the plasmid-mediated AmpC enzyme and new breakpoints for extended spectrum Cephalosporins are urgently necessary. Objectives: To detect plasmid and chromosomal mediated AmpC-β-lactamases in Gram negative bacteria in community and hospit...

  15. A practical approach for reliable detection of AmpC Beta-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Polsfuss, S; Bloemberg, G V; Giger, J; Meyer, V.; Böttger, E.C.; Hombach, M

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study all Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n=2129) recovered in the clinical microbiology laboratory during October 2009 to April 2010 were analyzed for AmpC production. CLSI cefoxitin and cefotetan susceptibility breakpoints and CLSI critical ESBL diameters were used to screen for potential AmpC producers. In total, 305 isolates (211 potential AmpC producers, 94 AmpC screen negative isolates as control group) were further analyzed by multiplex PCR for the detection of plasmid...

  16. Practical Approach for Reliable Detection of AmpC Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Polsfuss, Silke; Bloemberg, Guido V.; Giger, Jacqueline; Meyer, Vera; Böttger, Erik C.; Hombach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study all Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n = 2,129) recovered in the clinical microbiology laboratory during October 2009 to April 2010 were analyzed for AmpC production. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) cefoxitin and cefotetan susceptibility breakpoints and CLSI critical ESBL diameters were used to screen for potential AmpC producers. In total, 305 isolates (211 potential AmpC producers and 94 AmpC screen-negative isolates as a control group) were further ...

  17. Plasma Induced Grafting of PSt onto Titanium Dioxide Powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of grafting of polymer of styrene (PSt) onto titanium dioxide powder is reported in this paper. The graft polymerization reaction was induced by N2 plasma treatment on the surface of titanium dioxide. Infrared (IR) spectra and X-ray photospectrum (XPS) results showed that PSt was grafted onto the titanium dioxide powder. An observation by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated that the crystal structure of the titanium dioxide powder was unchanged after the plasma treatment

  18. Immunocytochemical features of obstructed saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts.

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, J I; Pickering, N J; Fink, G B

    1989-01-01

    The peroxidase-immunoperoxidase immunocytochemical method was used on 27 saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts, which had been resected because of recurrent angina, to identify in situ cellular and humoral elements possibly associated with graft occlusion. Immunostaining was performed on paraffin wax embedded control saphenous vein and graft sections incubated directly with primary antibodies against von Willebrand antigen (vWFAg), fibronectin, fibrinogen, leucocyte common antigen (LCA...

  19. Bone graft substitutes for spine fusion: A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ashim; Kukkar, Nitin; Sharif, Kevin; Main, Benjamin J; Albers, Christine E; El-Amin III, Saadiq F

    2015-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes are widely used in the field of orthopedics and are extensively used to promote vertebral fusion. Fusion is the most common technique in spine surgery and is used to treat morbidities and relieve discomfort. Allograft and autograft bone substitutes are currently the most commonly used bone grafts to promote fusion. These approaches pose limitations and present complications to the patient. Numerous alternative bone graft substitutes are on the market or have been develo...

  20. Can We Add Auricular Composite Graft to Our Rhinoplasty Armamentarium?

    OpenAIRE

    Manafi, Ali; Eslami Shahr Babaki, Amir; Mehrabani, Golnoush; Shahlaee, Abtine; Manafi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ala of the nose, with its particular texture and characteristics, poses both aesthetically and functionally intriguing challenges and is rather problematic regarding choices for reconstructive methods. Both flaps and grafts have been used to restore natural structure of nasal ala. The present study summarizes a ten-year experience of reconstructive surgery using small composite grafts from non-cartilage bearing tissues, and large composite grafts, containing cartilaginous tissu...

  1. The oriented graph of graftings in the Fuchsian case

    CERN Document Server

    Calsamiglia, Gabriel; Francaviglia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    We prove the connectedness and calculate the diameter of the oriented graph of graftings associated to exotic complex projective structures on a compact surface S with a given holonomy representation of Fuchsian type. The oriented graph of graftings is the graph whose vertices are the equivalence classes of marked CP^1-structures on S with a given fixed holonomy, and there is an oriented edge between two structures if the second is obtained from the first by grafting.

  2. Direct regulation of the natural competence regulator gene tfoX by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in Vibrios

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Wu; Meng Zhao; Jing Li; He Gao; Biao Kan; Weili Liang

    2015-01-01

    TfoX (Sxy) and CRP are two important competence activators. The link between tfoX and CRP has been shown in H. influenza but lacking evidence of direct interaction. Recently a Sxy-dependent CRP (CRP-S) site autoregulating Sxy was reported in E. coli. Here, we show that the cAMP-CRP complex transcriptionally regulates tfoX expression through multiple canonical CRP (CRP-N) sites in Vibrios. This conclusion is supported by an analysis of the tfoX mRNA levels and tfoX transcriptional reporter fus...

  3. The modulation of cell surface cAMP receptors from Dictyostelium disscoideum by ammonium sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum cells contain a heterogeneous population of cell surface cAMP receptors with components possessing different affinities (Kd between 15 and 450 nM) and different off-rates of the cAMP-receptor complex (t½ between 0.7 and 150 s). The association of cAMP to the receptor and the

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis have different beta-lactamase expression phenotypes but are homogeneous in the ampC-ampR genetic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, J I; Ciofu, O; Høiby, N

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from 1 of 17 cystic fibrosis patients produced secondary beta-lactamase in addition to the ampC beta-lactamase. Isolates were grouped into three beta-lactamase expression phenotypes: (i) beta-lactam sensitive, low basal levels and inducible beta-lactamase production......; (ii) beta-lactam resistant, moderate basal levels and hyperinducible beta-lactamase production; (iii) beta-lactam resistant, high basal levels and constitutive beta-lactamase production. Apart from a base substitution in the ampR-ampC intergenic region of an isolate with moderate-basal-level and...... hyperinducible beta-lactamase production, sensitive and resistant strains were identical in their ampC-ampR genetic regions. Thus, enhanced beta-lactamase expression is due to mutations in regulatory proteins other than AmpR....

  5. Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made for the preparation of membranes by the direct radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) onto polypropylene (PP) films. The appropriate reaction conditions were selected under which the graft polymerization was carried out successfully. The effect of different solvents such as benzene, methanol/water mixture, isopropanol/water mixture, dimethyl formamide and distilled water on the swelling and grafting process of AAc onto PP films was investigated. In this grafting system ammonium ferrous sulphate (Mohr's salt) and ferric chloride were used as inhibitors to minimize the homopolymerisation of AAc and the suitable concentration of the inhibitor was found to be 1.0 and 1.5 wt% for Mohr's salt and ferric chloride, respectively. Also, the effect of monomer concentration on the rate of grafting was investigated. The dependence of the grafting rate on monomer concentration was found to be 1.1 order. This grafting system proceeded by diffusion controlled process. Some selected properties of the grafted films such as swelling behaviour, gel determination, mechanical and electrical properties were also investigated. It was found that the grafted membranes possess good hydrophilic properties which may make them promising in some practical applications. (author)

  6. Grafting polymerization of styrene onto preirradiated polypropylene fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting copolymerization of styrene onto polypropylene (PP) fabric has been studied by the preirradiation of gamma rays and electron beam, respectively. The PP fabric samples wee irradiated in the air and nitrogen gas individually. The effects of absorbed dose, styrene concentration in methanol, reaction temperature and reaction time on the degree of grafting were studied. Effects of storage time and temperature on the grafting rate were also observed. And a comparison of γ-ray and EB irradiation has been made. The results were reasonably interpreted by assuming that the grafting reaction was predominately initiated by trapped radicals

  7. Do Stem Cells Have an Effect When We Fat Graft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Brian D; Vyas, Krishna S

    2016-06-01

    Fat grafting has become a widely accepted modality of soft tissue restoration and has found applications in many areas of aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery. Numerous claims have been made regarding the regenerative effects of fat grafting on the recipient bed. The purpose of this paper is to survey the available literature to answer the question of whether fat grafting has a positive effect on the surrounding tissues. It has been convincingly demonstrated that fat grafts contain viable adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). The fate of these cells is determined by the microenvironment of the recipient bed, but animal studies have shown that a large fraction of ASCs survive engraftment. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated the positive effects of fat grafting on recipient tissues. Improvement in validated scar scores as well as scar stiffness measurements have been documented after fat grafting of burn scars. Fat grafting has also been convincingly demonstrated to improve the quality of irradiated tissues, as measured by validated clinical scales and staged histology. It is ultimately unclear whether ASCs are responsible for these effects, but the circumstantial evidence is weighty. Fat grafting is effective for volumizing and improving skin quality in the setting of radiation, burns, and other scars. The observed effects are likely due to ASCs, but the evidence does not support the routine use of ASC-enriched fat grafts. PMID:26545225

  8. Evaluation of different graft material in type 1 tympanoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Kshitij Patil; Nitish Baisakhiya; Deshmukh, P. T.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The present study was undertaken to compare the results of various autogeneous tissues temporalis fascia, tragal perichondrium, and fascia lata as graft materials for the type 1 tympanoplasty. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 cases with large, subtotal and total perforation were considered in the study. Of the 120 cases, temporalis fascia graft was used in 60 cases (Group-I), tragal perichondrium graft in 40 cases (Group-II), and fascia lata graft in 20 cases (Group-I...

  9. The Radiation Induced Graft Copolymerization of Methacrylic Acid to Nylon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting of methacrylic acid to nylon by the preirradiation technique has been studied. The rate of grafting is appreciably larger than that of homopolymerization. No simple relation exists between reaction rate and total dose. The temperature dependence of the rate of grafting to the fibre, preirradiated in air, indicates that initiation of grafting is likely to take place by decomposition of peroxide groups formed on irradiation. Electrical resistance measurements on the irradiated fibre indicate that this has been reduced by a factor of 10. (author)

  10. Target-like pigmentation after minipunch grafting in stable vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelee Bisen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment for vitiligo has been ever evolving. Each surgical modality has its own benefits and limitations. Miniature punch grafting is the most extensively performed surgery, which gives good results in stable vitiligo. Herein we report an unusual type of repigmentation observed after minipunch grafting in a patient of stable vitiligo, which resembled target-like lesions with a "perigraft halo" surrounding individual grafts. Such pigment spread occurred despite the use of 0.5 mm larger graft from the donor site.

  11. pH responsive graft copolymers of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Elvan; Yalinca, Zulal; Yahya, Kovan; Sirotina, Uliana

    2016-09-01

    Grafting suitable polymers onto chitosan can produce cationic or polyampholyte polymers or hydrogels that are potential smart biomedical materials. Chitosan-graft-[poly(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] has been prepared in three different physical forms as linear free chains in solution, chemical gels crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, and poly(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] grafted onto chitosan tripolyphosphate gel beads. In addition to chemical structure, the graft copolymers were characterized with respect to their dissolution and swelling behavior in aqueous solution. It has been established that solubility of the products is controlled by the grafting yield. While pH sensitive polymers, which collapse at a given pH value are obtained at lower grafting yields, hydrogels form at higher grafting yields with pH responsive swelling behavior. Glutaraldehyde crosslinked chitosan-graft-[poly(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] gels and chitosan tripolyphosphate gel beads grafted with poly[(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] exhibit pH sensitive swelling with highest equilibrium swelling capacity at pH=1.2. PMID:26500176

  12. Biofabrication and testing of a fully cellular nerve graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupture of a nerve is a debilitating injury with devastating consequences for the individual's quality of life. The gold standard of repair is the use of an autologous graft to bridge the severed nerve ends. Such repair however involves risks due to secondary surgery at the donor site and may result in morbidity and infection. Thus the clinical approach to repair often involves non-cellular solutions, grafts composed of synthetic or natural materials. Here we report on a novel approach to biofabricate fully biological grafts composed exclusively of cells and cell secreted material. To reproducibly and reliably build such grafts of composite geometry we use bioprinting. We test our grafts in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for both motor and sensory function. In particular we compare the regenerative capacity of the biofabricated grafts with that of autologous grafts and grafts made of hollow collagen tubes by measuring the compound action potential (for motor function) and the change in mean arterial blood pressure as consequence of electrically eliciting the somatic pressor reflex. Our results provide evidence that bioprinting is a promising approach to nerve graft fabrication and as a consequence to nerve regeneration. (paper)

  13. PDMS content affects in vitro hemocompatibility of synthetic vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Dario; Losi, Paola; Briganti, Enrica; Sbrana, Silverio; Kull, Silvia; Martinelli, Ilaria; Soldani, Giorgio

    2007-06-01

    An unsolved problem when employing small-diameter vascular grafts for aorto-coronary by-pass and peripheral reconstruction is the early thrombotic occlusion. The PEtU-PDMS is a new elastomeric material, composed of poly(ether)urethane and polydimethylsiloxane, synthesized to realize grafts with improved hemocompatibility characteristics. In order to investigate the effect of PDMS content on hemocompatibility, three different percentages of PDMS containing grafts (10, 25 and 40) were evaluated. Grafts realized with Estane 5714-F1 and silicone medical grade tubes were used as references. The hemocompatibility was investigated by an in vitro circuit in which human anticoagulated blood was circulated into grafts by a peristaltic pump modified to obtain a passive flow. For each experiment, 40 cm length graft was closed into a circular loop and put in rotation for 2 h at 37 degrees C. At the end of the experiments different parameters regarding platelet adhesion and activation were evaluated: circulating platelets count, beta-thromboglobulin release, platelet CD62P expression and amount of monocyte-platelet conjugates. PEtU-PDMS grafts with 25 and 40% of PDMS induced the lowest platelet adhesion, plasma level of beta-TG and amount of monocyte-platelet conjugates. No significative variations were observed in CD62P expression. In conclusion, PDMS content significatively affects blood-graft surface interaction, in fact higher PDMS percentage containing grafts showed the best in vitro hemocompatibility. PMID:17268875

  14. Crystallization of calcium carbonate on radiation-grafted polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In biomineralization processes, nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals can be regulated by organic template molecules. This has inspired great interest in studying mimic biomineralization. In our study, growing CaCO3 crystals on PE films functionalized through radiation-induced grafting was attempted. PE films grafted with different functional groups of different distributions and densities were used as substrates for CaCO3 nucleation and crystal growth from Ca(HCO3)2 supersaturated solution under different environmental conditions (e.g. additives and temperature) to study the effects and mechanisms. The grafted PE films were analyzed by ATR-FTIR and AFM, and the evolution of CaCO3 crystal formation on the grafted PE film was characterized by SEM, FTIR, and XRD. The results indicated that heterogeneous nucleation of CaCO3 crystals was significantly facilitated by the functional groups grafted on the surface of PE films, that the morphology of CaCO3 crystals could be controlled by distribution and density of the grafted functional groups, and that polymorphism of CaCO3 crystal could be regulated by selection of grafting functional groups. We believe that studying the effects of chemical structures on inorganic crystallization is of great importance since radiation-induced grafting is an effective method to graft desirable functional groups onto different polymers by selected monomers, in the endeavor of developing advanced organic/inorganic composites with high performance, with a wide availability of polymers, monomers and inorganic solutions. (authors)

  15. An interesting grafting reactivity of EB preirradiated polypropylene film[Radiation grafting; Polypropylene; Free radical; peroxide; Acrylic acid; Acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jie E-mail: chenjjd@online.sh.cn; Yang Liming; Chen Liqin; Wu Minhong; Nho, Y.C.; Kaetsua, Isao

    2004-02-01

    An interesting grafting reactivity of electron beam preirradiated polypropylene (PP) film was found by grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) and acrylamide (AAm) repeatedly or intermittently. The preirradiated PP film could be grafted several times intermittently and the free radicals or peroxides on the samples could be determined after several times grafting reaction. The effects of storage time, reaction time and repeated reaction times on the degree of grafting were investigated. The trapped radicals, peroxy-radicals and peroxides on the preirradiated and reacted PP films were determined by using electron spin resonance (ESR) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), respectively. An interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) with both temperature and pH sensitive properties was obtained by two times grafting of AAm and AAc onto preirradiated PP film.

  16. Molecular characterisation of acquired and overproduced chromosomal blaAmpC in Escherichia coli clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Noemí; Miró, Elisenda; Pascual, Vanesa; Rivera, Alba; Simó, Maria; Garcia, Maria Consol; Xercavins, Mariona; Morera, Maria Antonia; Espejo, Elena; Gurguí, Mercè; Pérez, Josefa; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Mònica; Garau, Javier; Calbo, Esther; Navarro, Ferran; Mirelis, Beatriz; Coll, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli recovered from three hospitals in Barcelona (Spain) were studied to determine the prevalence of isolates with acquired AmpC (ac-AmpC) and/or overproduced chromosomal AmpC (c-AmpC). Mechanisms involved in blac-AmpC overexpression, blaac-AmpC and the plasmids associated with their distribution as well as the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) in AmpC-producing isolates were also determined. Isolates were selected according to their resistance phenotype. blaac-AmpC, alterations in the blac-AmpC promoter/attenuator, and PMQR genes [qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qepA] were characterised by PCR and sequencing. blac-AmpC expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Population structure analysis was performed using PFGE, MLST and phylogenetic group PCR. Plasmids carrying blaac-AmpC were characterised by PCR-based replicon typing and S1-PFGE. IncI1 and IncF plasmids were also analysed by plasmid MLST and replicon sequence typing, respectively. Among 21563 E. coli isolates, 240 (1.1%) overproduced AmpC β-lactamases, including 180 (75.0%) harbouring ac-AmpC (132 CMY-2 variants and 48 DHA-1) and 60 (25.0%) c-AmpC enzymes. Three mutation profiles in the blac-AmpC promoter/attenuator were associated with a 72.5-, 19.9- and 5.8-fold increased expression, respectively. Moreover, 63.3% of ac-AmpC and 43.3% of c-AmpC isolates belonged to B2, D, E or F phylogenetic groups. PMQR was found in 31% of ac-AmpC isolates [38 qnrB4, 8 aac(6')-Ib-cr, 6 qnrS1 and 3 qnrB19] and in 10% of c-AmpC isolates [5 aac(6')-Ib-cr and 1 qnrS1]. IncI1-ST12 and IncF were associated with blaCMY-2 and blaDHA-1, respectively. These results suggest that ac-AmpC β-lactamases were the main mechanism of AmpC production. Isolates and plasmids both showed high genetic diversity. PMID:26607336

  17. MRI of double-bundle ACL reconstruction: evaluation of graft findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction grafts. Sixty-six patients with DB ACL reconstruction were evaluated with MRI 2 years postoperatively. Graft thickness was measured separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The MRI findings of graft disruption, signal intensity (SI) changes, cystic degeneration, arthrofibrosis, and impingement were analyzed. The statistical significance of the association between MRI findings was calculated. The mean anteromedial (AM) graft thickness was reduced 9% and the mean posterolateral (PL) graft thickness was reduced 18% from the original graft thickness. Disruption was seen in 3% of AM grafts and 6% of PL grafts and a partial tear in 8 and 23%, respectively. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Increased SI was seen in 14% of intact AM grafts and in 60% of partially torn AM grafts (p = 0.032). In PL grafts the increased SI was seen in 51% of the intact grafts and in 93% of the partially torn grafts (p = 0.005). Cystic degeneration was seen in 8% of AM grafts and in 5% of PL grafts. Diffuse arthrofibrosis was seen in 5% of patients and a localized cyclops lesion in 3% of patients. Impingement of the AM graft was seen in 8% of patients. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Also, the frequencies of other complications were low. The use of orthogonal sequences in the evaluation of the PL graft SI seems to cause volume-averaging artefacts. (orig.)

  18. MRI of double-bundle ACL reconstruction: evaluation of graft findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiekara, Tommi; Paakkala, Antti [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere (Finland); Jaervelae, Timo [Sports Clinic and Hospital Mehilaeinen, Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, Heini [University of Tampere, School of Health Sciences, Tampere (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    To demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction grafts. Sixty-six patients with DB ACL reconstruction were evaluated with MRI 2 years postoperatively. Graft thickness was measured separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The MRI findings of graft disruption, signal intensity (SI) changes, cystic degeneration, arthrofibrosis, and impingement were analyzed. The statistical significance of the association between MRI findings was calculated. The mean anteromedial (AM) graft thickness was reduced 9% and the mean posterolateral (PL) graft thickness was reduced 18% from the original graft thickness. Disruption was seen in 3% of AM grafts and 6% of PL grafts and a partial tear in 8 and 23%, respectively. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Increased SI was seen in 14% of intact AM grafts and in 60% of partially torn AM grafts (p = 0.032). In PL grafts the increased SI was seen in 51% of the intact grafts and in 93% of the partially torn grafts (p = 0.005). Cystic degeneration was seen in 8% of AM grafts and in 5% of PL grafts. Diffuse arthrofibrosis was seen in 5% of patients and a localized cyclops lesion in 3% of patients. Impingement of the AM graft was seen in 8% of patients. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Also, the frequencies of other complications were low. The use of orthogonal sequences in the evaluation of the PL graft SI seems to cause volume-averaging artefacts. (orig.)

  19. The mechanism of ion exchange on ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews some published and unpublished data on the ion-exchange properties of AMP. The three NH4+ ions are only partially exchanged for large monovalent ions. In the case of NH4+/K+ exchange, the energy lost by the breaking of H bonds between the NH4+ ions and anionic cage oxygen atoms beyond the point of maximum exchange is no longer compensated for by bond strengthening in the anion due to contraction of the cage. With Rb+, Cs+ and T1+, limited convertibility results from the lattice expansion required to accommodate these larger ions. During exchange, part of the cations pass through the anionic cages, thereby causing considerable lattice disorder. The maximum exchange capacity of AMP for the alkali metal ions is not a simple function of cation radius. (author)

  20. The reality of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation: a multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Loss, Sérgio Henrique; de Oliveira, Roselaine Pinheiro; Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Savi, Augusto; Boniatti, Marcio Manozzo; Hetzel, Márcio Pereira; Dallegrave, Daniele Munaretto; Balzano, Patrícia de Campos; Oliveira, Eubrando Silvestre; Höher, Jorge Amilton; Torelly, André Peretti; Teixeira, Cassiano

    2015-01-01

    Objective The number of patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation increased during the last decade, which generated a large population of chronically ill patients. This study established the incidence of prolonged mechanical ventilation in four intensive care units and reported different characteristics, hospital outcomes, and the impact of costs and services of prolonged mechanical ventilation patients (mechanical ventilation dependency ≥ 21 days) compared with non-prolonged mech...

  1. Redox Regulation of the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Yingying Han; Qilong Wang; Ping Song; Yi Zhu; Ming-Hui Zou

    2010-01-01

    Redox state is a critical determinant of cell function, and any major imbalances can cause severe damage or death. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine if AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor, is activated by oxidants generated by Berberine in endothelial cells (EC). Methods Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were exposed to Berberine. AMPK activity and reactive oxygen species were monitored after the incubation. Results In BAEC, Berberine caused a dos...

  2. Genetic association of cyclic AMP signaling genes with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, M-L; MacMullen, C.; Liu, D. J.; Leal, S M; Davis, R L

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis for bipolar disorder (BPD) is complex with the involvement of multiple genes. As it is well established that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling regulates behavior, we tested variants in 29 genes that encode components of this signaling pathway for associations with BPD type I (BPD I) and BPD type II (BPD II). A total of 1172 individuals with BPD I, 516 individuals with BPD II and 1728 controls were analyzed. Single SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism), haplotype...

  3. AmpC- ja ESBL-testin evaluaatio

    OpenAIRE

    Karttunen, Iina

    2013-01-01

    ESBL ja AmpC ovat bakteerien tuottamia entsyymejä, jotka antavat bakteerille vastustuskyvyn tiettyjä antibiootteja kohtaan. Tällaisten bakteerien aiheuttamien infektioiden hoitaminen on sopivien lääkkeiden puuttuessa haasteellista. ESBL tarkoittaa laajakirjoista beetalaktamaasientsyymiä, joka tekee bakteerin resistentiksi kefalosporiineille, penisilliineille ja monobaktaameille. ESBL-geenit liikkuvat bakteerien välillä plasmidien välityksellä. ESBL-geenejä esiintyy yleisimmin Escherichia coli...

  4. Osseous scintigraphy and auxiliary graft. Scintigraphie osseuse et greffe d'appoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifa, F.; Siles, S. (Hopital de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)); Puech, B.

    1992-12-01

    The scintigraphy could be a good way to survey the osseous graft: three cases are studied in which were recognized the presence of a graft, surinfection, graft lysis, pseudo-arthrosis, algodystrophy. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  5. PVDF multifilament yarns grafted with polystyrene induced by γ-irradition: Influence of the grafting parameters on the mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmey, P.; Porté, M. C.; Baquey, Ch.

    2003-08-01

    The development of alternative prosthetic materials for cardiovascular applications has found growing interest due to the failure to date to be able to implement functional patent small diameter vascular grafts (∅Biomed. Eng. 7 (1979) 429]. A four step method is necessary to achieve this "heparin-like" surface transformation [J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52 (2000) 119]. The first step consists in grafting polystyrene onto the PVDF surface by γ irradiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of grafting parameters on the mechanical properties: (i) γ-ray irradiation time and (ii) grafting time of styrene monomers, which polymerize and form polystyrene bound to the PVDF surface.

  6. Angiographic Evaluation of Carotid Artery Grafting with Prefabricated Small-Diameter, Small-Intestinal Submucosa Grafts in Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to report the longitudinal angiographic evaluation of prefabricated lyophilized small-intestinal submucosa (SIS) grafts placed in ovine carotid arteries and to demonstrate a variety of complications that developed. A total of 24 grafts, 10 cm long and 6 mm in diameter, were placed surgically as interposition grafts. Graft patency at 1 week was evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, and angiography was used for follow-up at 1 month and at 3 to 4 months. A 90% patency rate was found at 1 week, 65% at 1 month, and 30% at 3 to 4 months. On the patent grafts, angiography demonstrated a variety of changes, such as anastomotic stenoses, graft diffuse dilations and dissections, and aneurysm formation. These findings have not been previously demonstrated angiographically by other investigators reporting results with small-diameter vessel grafts made from fresh small-intestinal submucosa (SIS). The complications found were partially related to the graft construction from four SIS layers. Detailed longitudinal angiographic study should become an essential part of any future evaluation of small-vessel SIS grafting.

  7. Dilatation of Stent-Grafts by Luminal Pressures: Experimental Evaluation of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Woven Polyester Grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect on dilatation of three types of covering materials used for endovascular stent-grafts.Methods: Stent-grafts with three types of covering material [0.1-mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 0.2-mm PTFE, and 0.15-mm woven polyester] were placed in a fluid circuit. For the pulsatile pressure test, the luminal pressure of 190/130 mmHg was loaded up to 300,000 pulses. For the static pressure test, the luminal pressure was increased from 50 to 300 mmHg at 50-mmHg increments. The percent of dilatation of each stent-graft was compared.Results: The 0.1-mm PTFE stent-graft was significantly more dilated than the 0.2-mm PTFE and the 0.15-mm woven polyester stent-graft (p < 0.005) in both examinations. There was no significant difference between the 0.2-mm PTFE and the 0.15-mm woven polyester stent-grafts. The dilatation of the 0.1-mm PTFE stent-graft was irreversible.Conclusion: The 0.15-mm woven polyester and the 0.2-mm PTFE stent-grafts may be preferable to the 0.1-mm PTFE stent-graft with regard to dilatation and deformity

  8. Impact of bone graft harvesting techniques on bone formation and graft resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saulacic, Nikola; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harvesting techniques can affect cellular parameters of autogenous bone grafts in vitro. Whether these differences translate to in vivo bone formation, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of different harvesting techniques on bone fo...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinylimidazole-grafted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Si-PVIm-grafted SPION)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinylimidazole (PVIm)-grafted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (Si-PVIm-grafted Fe3O4 NPs) were prepared by grafting of telomere of PVIm on the SPION. The product identified as magnetite, which has an average crystallite size of 9 ± 2 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size was estimated as 10.0 ± 0.5 nm from TEM micrographs. Mean particle size is found as 8.4 ± 1.0 nm which agrees well with the values calculated from XRD patterns (9 ± 2 nm). Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) analysis explained the superparamagnetic nature of the nanocomposite. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the Si-Imi is 25 % of the Si-PVIm-grafted SPION, which means an inorganic content is about 75 %. Detailed electrical and dielectric properties of the properties of the product are also presented. The conductivity of the sample increases significantly with temperature and has the value in the range of 1.14 × 10−7–1.78 × 10−4 S cm−1. Analysis of the real and imaginary parts of the permittivities indicated temperature and frequency dependency representing interfacial polarization and temperature-assisted reorganization effects.

  10. Study of the conformational behavior of graft copolymers by chromatography with solvents selective for grafts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš; Janata, Miroslav; Svitáková, Romana; Trhlíková, Olga; Berek, D.; Macova, E.; Limpouchová, Z.; Procházka, K.

    Prague: Organic, Bioorganic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Branch of the Czech Chemical Society, 2015. s. 147. [Advances in Organic, Bioorganic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry /50./ - "Liblice 2015". 06.11.2015-08.11.2015, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : graft copolymer * SEC * light scattering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  11. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinylimidazole-grafted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Si-PVIm-grafted SPION)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemi, H. [Yalova University, Department of Polymer Engineering (Turkey); Soezeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute (Turkey); Senel, M.; Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [Fatih University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    Polyvinylimidazole (PVIm)-grafted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (Si-PVIm-grafted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs) were prepared by grafting of telomere of PVIm on the SPION. The product identified as magnetite, which has an average crystallite size of 9 {+-} 2 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size was estimated as 10.0 {+-} 0.5 nm from TEM micrographs. Mean particle size is found as 8.4 {+-} 1.0 nm which agrees well with the values calculated from XRD patterns (9 {+-} 2 nm). Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) analysis explained the superparamagnetic nature of the nanocomposite. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the Si-Imi is 25 % of the Si-PVIm-grafted SPION, which means an inorganic content is about 75 %. Detailed electrical and dielectric properties of the properties of the product are also presented. The conductivity of the sample increases significantly with temperature and has the value in the range of 1.14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-1.78 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1}. Analysis of the real and imaginary parts of the permittivities indicated temperature and frequency dependency representing interfacial polarization and temperature-assisted reorganization effects.

  12. Radioprotection of mouse intestine by inhibitors of cyclic amp phosphodiesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival of colony-forming units of the jejunal crypt was used to assay the radioprotective capacity of various inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. DL-152, RO-20-1724 and the methyl xanthines, caffeine, theophylline, and methyl isbutyl xanthine (MIX) were all found to have some radioprotective effect. The degree of radioprotecton depended on the route of administration of the drug and on the timing of administration with respect to irradiation. Optimum survival of crypt stem cells was found following intraperitoneal administration of DL-152 (60 min before irradiation) or MIX (30 min before irradiaton), and following intravenous administration of caffeine (60 to 120 min before irradiaton) or theophylline (60 min before irradiation). When these protocols were used, crypt stem cell survival could be enhanced by a factor of from 6 to 7. All the compounds investigated produced some elevation of cyclic AMP content of the whole jejunum; this was found to be simultaneous with or to precede the period of maximum radioprotection. Cyclic AMP was localized with immunofluorescent staining; following injection of DL-152 it was found to be elevated in all parts of the jejunum but to the greatest extent in the lower part of the crypt. Survival curves for crypt stem cells from MIX and DL-152 treated mice were found to have almost the same exponential slope as the saline-injected control, suggesting that the mechanism of protection does not depend on induction of hypoxia

  13. Software Design Document for the AMP Nuclear Fuel Performance Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Cochran, Bill [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the design of the AMP nuclear fuel performance code. It provides an overview of the decomposition into separable components, an overview of what those components will do, and the strategic basis for the design. The primary components of a computational physics code include a user interface, physics packages, material properties, mathematics solvers, and computational infrastructure. Some capability from established off-the-shelf (OTS) packages will be leveraged in the development of AMP, but the primary physics components will be entirely new. The material properties required by these physics operators include many highly non-linear properties, which will be replicated from FRAPCON and LIFE where applicable, as well as some computationally-intensive operations, such as gap conductance, which depends upon the plenum pressure. Because there is extensive capability in off-the-shelf leadership class computational solvers, AMP will leverage the Trilinos, PETSc, and SUNDIALS packages. The computational infrastructure includes a build system, mesh database, and other building blocks of a computational physics package. The user interface will be developed through a collaborative effort with the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Capability Transfer program element as much as possible and will be discussed in detail in a future document.

  14. Insitu grafting silica nanoparticles reinforced nanocomposite hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Han, Chun-Rui; Duan, Jiu-Fang; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-10-01

    Highly flexible nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by using silica nanoparticles (SNPs) as fillers and multi-functional cross-links to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) by free radical polymerization from an aqueous solution. The SNPs were collected by neighboring polymer chains and dispersed uniformly within a PAA matrix. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite hydrogels were tailored by the concentration of SNPs according to the percolation model. It was proposed that covalent bonds of adsorbed chains on the filler surface resulted in the formation of a shell of an immobilized glassy layer and trapped entanglements, where the glassy polymer layer greatly enhanced the elastic modulus and the release of trapped entanglements at deformation contributed to the viscoelastic properties.Highly flexible nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by using silica nanoparticles (SNPs) as fillers and multi-functional cross-links to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) by free radical polymerization from an aqueous solution. The SNPs were collected by neighboring polymer chains and dispersed uniformly within a PAA matrix. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite hydrogels were tailored by the concentration of SNPs according to the percolation model. It was proposed that covalent bonds of adsorbed chains on the filler surface resulted in the formation of a shell of an immobilized glassy layer and trapped entanglements, where the glassy polymer layer greatly enhanced the elastic modulus and the release of trapped entanglements at deformation contributed to the viscoelastic properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: FTIR spectra of SNP after silane treatment, dynamic oscillatory shear measurements as a function of frequency, constrained polymer chain analysis by a change in the peak height in loss factor spectra, molecular weight of grafted chains at different stages of gelation, prediction of the SNP reinforcing mechanism in the

  15. Perfluorinated polymer grafting: influence of preirradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological interest of perfluorinated polymers is related to its specific properties like low chemical reactivity and high mechanical and temperature resistance. The development of polymeric membranes for PEM fuel cell dispositives requires beyond these characteristics, a long-life time performance and low cost compared to Nafion membranes. By these material have high crystallinity, the radiation grafting indeed occurs but this process generate a low mechanical resistance aggregate. In this way, it is necessary to render the polymer with a low crystallinity or even amorphous. Generally, irradiation under polymer melt temperatures makes the crystallinity breaking and polymer crosslinking. The main objective of this work was promoting the crosslinking process into perfluorinated polymers by pre-irradiation method and to precede styrene grafting by electron beam irradiation in a second step. The experimental methodology consists in pre-irradiate perfluorinated polymers films like PTFE and PFA under high temperature (> 300 deg C) and vacuum conditions by electron beam irradiation at 5 kGy to 30 kGy doses and 2,85 kGy/s to 22,4 kGy/s dose rates. To obtain temperatures above 300 deg C, it was necessary construct a vacuum chamber with a heating system where temperature process could be follow up in real time. Some molecular alterations in polymeric matrix were analyzed by Mid-ATR-FTIR spectroscopy; macroscopic changes are verified by gravimetry. The styrene grafting onto these samples is realized by electron beam irradiation at doses between 30 and 100 kGy. These results are discussed. (author)

  16. Prolonged grief in children and adolescents: Assessment, correlates, and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Spuij, M.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 6400 children and adolescents lose a parent in the Netherlands and even more children are confronted with other types of loss such as the death of a close friend or grandparent. The death of a loved one is one of the most devastating events that can occur in children’s and adolescents’ lives. There is growing recognition of a syndrome that children can develop post loss, referred to as Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD). This dissertation project had three aims: (I) to increase our ...

  17. Adaptive prolonged postreproductive life span in killer whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma A; Franks, Daniel W; Mazzi, Sonia; Darden, Safi K; Balcomb, Ken C; Ford, John K B; Croft, Darren P

    2012-09-14

    Prolonged life after reproduction is difficult to explain evolutionarily unless it arises as a physiological side effect of increased longevity or it benefits related individuals (i.e., increases inclusive fitness). There is little evidence that postreproductive life spans are adaptive in nonhuman animals. By using multigenerational records for two killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations in which females can live for decades after their final parturition, we show that postreproductive mothers increase the survival of offspring, particularly their older male offspring. This finding may explain why female killer whales have evolved the longest postreproductive life span of all nonhuman animals. PMID:22984064

  18. How long would SDH/SONET be prolonged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiyong; Mao, Qian

    2004-04-01

    As we all know, the increasing speed of data traffic is exceeding gradually from voice in today"s communication network. The main reason is the explosive of Internet. The controversy with IP over ATM/SDH/Optical becomes hotter and hotter, Many people in the telecommunication field are doubt: HOW LONG WOULD SDH/SONET BE PROLONGED? WHAT KIND OF SDH EQUIPMENTS COULD BE USED IN THE NETWORK? With the analysis from several aspects: services in the network, new development with SDH technology, market in transport equipment, This paper is considered that the SDH with some new features would be predominant transport technology in the recent years.

  19. Hypoglycaemia and QT interval prolongation in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Folke; Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Tarnow, L.;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We propose a study design with controlled hypoglycaemia induced by subcutaneous injection of insulin and matched control episodes to bridge the gap between clamp studies and studies of spontaneous hypoglycaemia. The observed prolongation of the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) during...... hypoglycaemia varies greatly between studies. METHODS: We studied ten adults with type 1 diabetes (age 41±15years) without cardiovascular disease or neuropathy. Single-blinded hypoglycaemia was induced by a subcutaneous insulin bolus followed by a control episode on two occasions separated by 4weeks. QT...

  20. Prolongation Structure Analysis of a Coupled Dispersionless System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We address the problem of integrability of a coupled dispersionless system recently introduced by Zhaqilao, Zhao and Li [Chin. Phys. B 18 (2009) 1780] which physically describes the propagation of electromagnetic fields within an optical nonlinear medium, but also arrives in the physical description of a charged object dynamics in an external magnetic field. Following the prolongation structure analysis developed by Wahlquist and Estabrook, we derive a more general form of Lax pairs of the previous coupled dispersionless system and its concrete non-Abelian Lie algebra resorting to a hidden symmetry. Also, we construct the Bäcklund transformation of the system using the Riccati form of the linear eigenvalue problem. (general)

  1. Dynamical characterization of the last prolonged solar minima

    OpenAIRE

    Cionco, Rodolfo Gustavo; Compagnucci, Rosa Hilda

    2012-01-01

    The planetary hypothesis of the solar cycle is an old idea in which the gravitational influence of the planets has a non-negligible effect on the causes of the solar magnetic cycle. In this work we looked for a possible causal link in relation with solar barycentric dynamics and prolonged minima events. We searched for particular changes in the Sun's acceleration and concentrated on long-term variations of the solar cycle. We show how the orbital angular momentum of the Sun evolves and how th...

  2. Response of grassland ecosystems to prolonged soil moisture deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Morgan A.; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Barnes, Mallory L.; Hottenstein, John D.; Moran, M. Susan

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is commonly used for predictions of plant response and productivity. Climate change is predicted to cause an increase in the frequency and duration of droughts over the next century, which will result in prolonged periods of below-normal soil moisture. This, in turn, is expected to impact regional plant production, erosion and air quality. In fact, the number of consecutive months of soil moisture content below the drought-period mean has recently been linked to regional tree and shrub mortality in the southwest United States. This study investigated the effects of extended periods of below average soil moisture on the response of grassland ANPP to precipitation. Grassland ecosystems were selected for this study because of their ecological sensitivity to precipitation patterns. It has been postulated that the quick ecological response of grasslands to droughts can provide insight to large scale functional responses of regions to predicted climate change. The study sites included 21 grassland biomes throughout arid-to-humid climates in the United States with continuous surface soil moisture records for 2-13 years during the drought period from 2000-2013. Annual net primary production (ANPP) was estimated from the 13-year record of NASA MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index extracted for each site. Prolonged soil moisture deficit was defined as a period of at least 10 consecutive months during which soil moisture was below the drought-period mean. ANPP was monitored before, during and after prolonged soil moisture deficit to quantify shifts in the functional response of grasslands to precipitation, and in some cases, new species assemblages that included invasive species. Preliminary results indicated that when altered climatic conditions on grasslands led to an increase in the duration of soil water deficit, then the precipitation-to-ANPP relation became non-linear. Non-linearity was associated with extreme grassland dieback and changes in the historic

  3. Transient impairments in single muscle fibre contractile function after prolonged cycling in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L G; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Bech, R D;

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged muscle activity impairs whole-muscle performance and function. However, little is known about the effects of prolonged muscle activity on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise and subsequent...... recovery on the contractile function of single muscle fibres obtained from elite athletes....

  4. Formation of cytogenetic anomalies at the condition of prolonged exposure with low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of chromosomal aberration formation on condition of prolonged exposure had been investigated. It is demonstrated that risk of cytogenetic anomalies on condition of prolonged exposure may be in 1 - 2 order higher then one for the condition of acute exposure. Possible consequences of prolonged exposure for realization of cancer and genetic risks had been discussed

  5. Reshaping Human Antibodies: Grafting an Antilysozyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeyen, Martine; Milstein, Cesar; Winter, Greg

    1988-03-01

    The production of therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology has proved difficult, and this has prompted the ``humanizing'' of mouse monoclonal antibodies by recombinant DNA techniques. It was shown previously that the binding site for a small hapten could be grafted from the heavy-chain variable domain of a mouse antibody to that of a human myeloma protein by transplanting the hypervariable loops. It is now shown that a large binding site for a protein antigen (lysozyme) can also be transplanted from mouse to human heavy chain. The success of such constructions may be facilitated by an induced-fit mechanism.

  6. Grafting of Porous Polymers for Biological Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on application of radiation processing to polymers is mainly focused by the National Atomic Commission (CNEA). The Agricultural and Industrial Applications Laboratory Unit operates at the Ezeiza Atomic Center since the end of 1980s. Since 1997 a new research group headed by Dr. O. Cascone and Dr. M. Grasselli, devoted to downstream processing of proteins from the University of Buenos Aires, was involved in the implementation of grafting techniques in collaboration with Dr. E. Smolko from CNEA. In 1999 Dr. M. Grasselli moved to the Universidad Nacional de Quilmes where he continued working on application of gamma radiation to materials for biotechnological process. (author)

  7. Identification of a specific assembly of the G protein Golf as a critical and regulated module of dopamine and adenosine-activated cAMP pathways in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eHervé

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the principal neurons of striatum (medium spiny neurons, MSNs, cAMP pathway is primarily activated through the stimulation of dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors, these receptors being mainly expressed in striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, respectively. Since cAMP signaling pathway could be altered in various physiological and pathological situations, including drug addiction and Parkinson’s disease, it is of crucial importance to identify the molecular components involved in the activation of this pathway. In MSNs, cAMP pathway activation is not dependent on the classical Gs GTP-binding protein but requires a specific G protein subunit heterotrimer containing Galpha-olf/beta2/gamma7 in particular association with adenylate cyclase type 5. This assembly forms an authentic functional signaling unit since loss of one of its members leads to defects of cAMP pathway activation in response to D1 or A2A receptor stimulation, inducing dramatic impairments of behavioral responses dependent on these receptors. Interestingly, D1 receptor-dependent cAMP signaling is modulated by the neuronal levels of Galpha-olf, indicating that Galpha-olf represents the rate-limiting step in this signaling cascade and could constitute a critical element for regulation of D1 receptor responses. In both Parkinsonian patients and several animal models of Parkinson’s disease, the lesion of dopamine neurons produces a prolonged elevation of Galpha-olf levels. This observation gives an explanation for the cAMP pathway hypersensitivity to D1 stimulation, occurring despite an unaltered D1 receptor density. In conclusion, alterations in the highly specialized assembly of Galpha-olf/beta2/gamma7 subunits can happen in pathological conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease, and it could have important functional consequences in relation to changes in D1 receptor signaling in the striatum.

  8. Biological Cost of AmpC Production for Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Morosini, M. I.; Ayala, J. A.; Baquero, F.; J. L. Martínez; Blázquez, J.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosomally mediated AmpC-type β-lactamases are frequently found among Enterobacteriaceae. Hyperproduction of AmpC β-lactamase results in high-level resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. One striking feature of Salmonella is the absence of the structural ampC gene, encoding AmpC β-lactamase, in contrast with other members in the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Escherichia, Citrobacter, or Enterobacter. The horizontal acquisition of ampC genes is one of the causes of the increased resistanc...

  9. Regulatory components in Citrobacter freundii ampC beta-lactamase induction.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, F; Westman, L; Normark, S

    1985-01-01

    Citrobacter freundii encodes an inducible chromosomal beta-lactamase similar to the constitutively expressed ampC beta-lactamase of Escherichia coli. In the latter species the ampC gene is located next to the fumarate reductase (frd) operon, whereas in C. freundii the ampC gene is known to be separated from frd by 1100 base pairs. This intervening DNA segment carries a gene, ampR, coding for a 31-kilodalton polypeptide. The cloned C. freundii OS60 ampC gene is inducible by beta-lactam antibio...

  10. Correlation between Density and Resorption of Fresh-Frozen and Autogenous Bone Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Trial Design. This analysis compared the outcome of fresh-frozen versus autologous bone block grafts for horizontal ridge augmentation in patients with Cawood and Howell class IV atrophies. Methods. Seventeen patients received autologous grafts and 21 patients received fresh-frozen bone grafts. Patients underwent CT scans 1 week and 6 months after surgery for graft volume and density analysis. Results. Two autologous and 3 fresh-frozen grafts failed. Autologous and fresh-frozen grafts lost, r...

  11. Epoxy and Silicone Optical Nanocomposites Filled with Grafted Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng

    Polymer nanocomposites, as a technologically important class of materials, exhibit diverse functional properties, and are used for applications ranging from structural and biomedical to electronic and optical. The properties of polymer nanocomposites are determined, in part, by the chemical composition of the polymer matrix and the nanofillers. Their properties are also sensitive to the geometry and size of the nanofillers, and to spatial distribution of the fillers. Control of the nanoparticle size and dispersion within a given polymer provides opportunities to tailor and optimize the properties of nanocomposites for specific application. For optical applications such as encapsulation of light emitting diodes (LEDs), polymer nanocomposites filled with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles would endow the polymer encapsulant with new functionality without sacrificing optical transparency. To this end, this thesis focuses on developing a simple and versatile approach towards the fabrication of epoxy and silicone transparent nanocomposites using matrix compatible chain-grafted nanoparticles as fillers, and studying the optical properties of the nanocomposites. The surface chemistry and grafted polymer chain design have been shown to play an important role in determining the dispersion state of the grafted nanoparticles and hence the final optical properties of the nanocomposites. To prepare transparent epoxy nanocomposites, poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains were grafted onto the optical nanoparticle surfaces via a combined phosphate ligand exchange process and azide-alkyne "click" chemistry. The dispersion behavior of PGMA-grafted nanoparticles within the epoxy matrix was investigated by systematically varying the grafting density and grafted chain length. It was found that within the small molecular weight epoxy resins, the dispersion states are more sensitive to the grafting density than the molecular weight of grafted chains. With high grafting densities

  12. Expression profiles of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their regulation by Relish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Wen, Rong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), as key immune effectors, play important roles in the innate immune system of invertebrates. Different types of AMPs, including Penaeidin, Crustin, ALF (antilipopolysaccharide factor) have been identified in different penaeid shrimp; however, systematic analyses on the function of different AMPs in shrimp responsive to different types of bacteria are very limited. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiles of AMPs in the Chinese shrimps, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, simultaneously by real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) when shrimp were challenged with Micrococcus lysodeikticus (Gram-positive, G+) or Vibrio anguillarium (Gram-negative, G-). Different AMPs showed different expression profiles when shrimp were injected with one type of bacterium, and one AMP also showed different expression profiles when shrimp were challenged with different bacteria. Furthermore, the expression of these AMPs showed temporal expression profiles, suggesting that different AMPs function coordinately in bacteria-infected shrimp. An RNA interference approach was used to study the function of the Relish transcription factor in regulating the transcription of different AMPs. The current study showed that Relish could regulate the transcription of different AMPs in shrimp. Differential expression profiles of AMPs in shrimp injected with different types of bacteria indicated that a complicated antimicrobial response network existed in shrimp. These data contribute to our understanding of immunity in shrimp and may provide a strategy for the control of disease in shrimp.

  13. Opposing activity changes in AMP deaminase and AMP-activated protein kinase in the hibernating ground squirrel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Lanaspa

    Full Text Available Hibernating animals develop fatty liver when active in summertime and undergo a switch to a fat oxidation state in the winter. We hypothesized that this switch might be determined by AMP and the dominance of opposing effects: metabolism through AMP deaminase (AMPD2 (summer and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK (winter. Liver samples were obtained from 13-lined ground squirrels at different times during the year, including summer and multiples stages of winter hibernation, and fat synthesis and β-fatty acid oxidation were evaluated. Changes in fat metabolism were correlated with changes in AMPD2 activity and intrahepatic uric acid (downstream product of AMPD2, as well as changes in AMPK and intrahepatic β-hydroxybutyrate (a marker of fat oxidation. Hepatic fat accumulation occurred during the summer with relatively increased enzymes associated with fat synthesis (FAS, ACL and ACC and decreased enoyl CoA hydratase (ECH1 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A, rate limiting enzymes of fat oxidation. In summer, AMPD2 activity and intrahepatic uric acid levels were high and hepatic AMPK activity was low. In contrast, the active phosphorylated form of AMPK and β-hydroxybutyrate both increased during winter hibernation. Therefore, changes in AMPD2 and AMPK activity were paralleled with changes in fat synthesis and fat oxidation rates during the summer-winter cycle. These data illuminate the opposing forces of metabolism of AMP by AMPD2 and its availability to activate AMPK as a switch that governs fat metabolism in the liver of hibernating ground squirrel.

  14. Prevalence and molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli expressing an AmpC phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Lind; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Friis-Møller, Alice; Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Schønning, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of the AmpC beta-lactamase phenotype in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and characterize the genetic resistance mechanisms causing the observed phenotype. METHODS: Clinical E. coli (n = 74) with reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins...... and resistance to cefoxitin were collected from the Department of Clinical Microbiology at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, in 2006. The AmpC disc test was used to confirm expression of AmpC, and test-positive strains were selected for further antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular...... characterization. Hyperproduction of AmpC beta-lactamase was confirmed by isoelectric focusing (IEF). The presence of a plasmid-mediated ampC gene (pAmpC) was detected by multiplex PCR. The promoter and the entire reading frame of the chromosomal ampC gene were sequenced to identify promoter mutations associated...

  15. Radiation grafting polymerization of N,N-dimethyl acrylamide on polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation grafting of N,N-dimethlacrylamide (DMAA) on polypropylene (PP) films was investigated by the following three methods. In the mutual grafting, the effect of solvents on the grafting was notable. The grafting did not occur in the aqueous solution of DMAA due to the formation of insoluble homopolymers. The suitable solvent for the grafting was benzene. The maximum grafting occurred in 45 - 65% monomer concentration. In the grafting on peroxidized PP, the effect of solvents on the grafting was notable. The grafting did not occur in the aqueous solution of DMAA due to the formation of insoluble homopolymers. The suitable solvent for the grafting was benzene. The extent of grafting increased with increasing DMAA content. The graft polymerization was induced above 50 deg C, and increased with the rist of reaction temperature. In the grafting by trapped radicals, the graft polymerization was induced even at 0 deg C. The conversion of DMAA homopolymer was very small, and the extent of grafting was larger than that obtained by two methods mentioned above. The PP films on which more than 500 % of DMAA was grafted were easily obtained. It is important for the grafting to suppress the formation of DMAA homopolymer outside PP films, and to diffuse monomer into PP films. The graft polymerization was induced only in the amorphous region of PP films. (Kako, I.)

  16. Prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Shaseb, Elnaz; Ghaffary, Saba; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-07-01

    Potential protective effects of prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with honey (1%, 2% and 4%) for 45 days then their hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution during 30 min regional ischemia fallowed by 120 min reperfusion. Two important indexes of ischemia-induced damage (infarction size and arrhythmias) were determined by computerized planimetry and ECG analysis, respectively. Honey (1% and 2%) reduced infarct size from 23±3.1% (control) to 9.7±2.4 and 9.5±2.3%, respectively (Phoney (1%) significantly reduced (PHoney (1% and 2%) also significantly decreased number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). In addition, incidence and duration of reversible ventricular fibrillation (Rev VF) were lowered by honey 2% (Phoney produced significant reduction in the incidences of VT, total and Rev VF, duration and number of VT. The results showed cardioprotective effects of prolonged pre-treatment of rats with honey following myocardial infarction. Maybe, the existence of antioxidants and energy sources (glucose and fructose) in honey composition and improvement of hemodynamic functions may involve in those protective effects. PMID:23811442

  17. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM AND PROLONGED FEVER ASSOCIATED TO SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimberti R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYSecondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the main deragements caused by chronic renal failure, and parathyroid hormone is considered one of the toxins of the uremic syndrome. Prolonged fever due to primary hyperparathyroidism have already been described in the literature but not yet as induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this case report a patient suffering from an erythema nodosum and prolonged fever associated to secondary hyperparathyroidism that disappeared through subtotal parathyroidectomy is presented.RESUMENEl hiperparatiroidismo secundario es uno de los principales disturbios causados por la insuficiencia renal crónica, y la paratohormona es considerada una de las toxinas del sindrome urémico. El sindrome febril prolongado secundario a hiperparatiroidismo primario ya ha sido descripto en la literatura, aunque no lo ha sido aun el inducido por hiperparatiroidismo secundario. En el presente reporte se presenta un caso de eritema nodoso y sindrome febril prolongado asociado a hiperparatiroidismo secundario y que resolvió luego de efectuada una paratiroidectomía subtotal.

  18. Obesity-related changes in prolonged repetitive lifting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesmaty Sangachin, Mahboobeh; Cavuoto, Lora A

    2016-09-01

    Despite the rising prevalence of obesity, little is known about its moderating effects on injury risk factors, such as fatigue, in occupational settings. This study investigated the effect of obesity, prolonged repetitive lifting and their interaction on lifting performance of 14 participants, 7 obese (mean body mass index (BMI): 33.2 kg m(-2)) and 7 non-obese (mean BMI: 22.2 kg m(-2)) subjects. To present a physically challenging task, subjects performed repetitive lifting for 1 h at 120% of their maximum acceptable weight of lift. Generalized linear mixed models were fit to posture and acceleration data. The obese group bent to a ∼10° lower peak trunk sagittal flexion angle, had 17% lower root mean square (RMS) jerk and took 0.8 s longer per lift. Over time, the obese group increased their trunk transverse and sagittal posterior accelerations while the non-obese maintained theirs. Although the majority of lifting variables were unaffected by BMI or its interaction with prolonged lifting duration, the observed differences, combined with a greater upper body mass, necessitate a more cautious use of existing psychophysical lifting limits for individuals who are obese, particularly when fatigued. PMID:27184307

  19. [Prolonged grief disorder: towards a new diagnostic category].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiambretto, P

    2008-01-01

    The grief in response to loss of a significant is a normal, inevitable, experience of life. Nevertheless some people, even after a couple of months, do not succeed in integrating this experience in their daily life and remain stuck in a state of suffering condition that seriously extended in the time is functionally impairing. For long time psychology has focused on bereavement subsequent to the loss and the complications that can derive from the missing elaboration. The condition of prolonged grief has been object of a large debate in the past years, up to the individualization of a specific set of symptoms identified in a new diagnostic category: the Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD). The PGD is featured as a condition of emotional distress and physical distress by the loss, not for the death, of a significant only, with daily involvement in all function areas. Our work given a short and non exhaustive overview of the cultural and scientific run that has brought to the collection of the evidences to insert the PGD as new diagnostic category in the DSM V and a comparison between the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) for better underlining similes, but above all differences among categories that subtend clinical conditions that can appear sometimes overlaps. PMID:19288776

  20. Interleukin 2 maintains biologic stability and sterility over prolonged time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, M; Junghans, R P

    2000-09-01

    The FDA approved interleukin 2 (IL2) for clinical use in 1992 in a high-dose bolus intravenous infusion schedule. IL2 administered by continuous low- and intermediate-dose infusion can result in a variety of immunologic effects including the expansion of the Natural Killer (NK) cell pool and immune reconstitution in immune-deficient hosts. These immune modifications are essential for augmentation of both currently available and evolving immunotherapies. The manufacturer's data indicate stability of the IL2 for a period of 6 days. This time frame is not practical for prolonged infusional schemes necessitating frequent changes of drug depots. We tested the biologic stability and sterility of the commercially available recombinant IL2 preparation (aldesleukin; Proleukin, Chiron) under clinical conditions for up to 30 days. Our results confirm that IL2 retains its biologic activity and sterility under these conditions for prolonged periods. This information will simplify IL2 outpatient regimens, allowing for convenient intervals for drug depot renewal, leading to improved patient compliance and conserved health care expenditures. PMID:10996039